Michele J. McIntosh
Full Text Available Although semi-structured interviews (SSIs are used extensively in research, scant attention is given to their diversity, underlying assumptions, construction, and broad applications to qualitative and mixed-method research. In this three-part article, we discuss the following: (a how the SSI is situated historically including its evolution and diversification, (b the principles of constructing SSIs, and (c how SSIs are utilized as a stand-alone research method, and as strategy within a mixed-method design.
Kallio, Hanna; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Johnson, Martin; Kangasniemi, Mari
To produce a framework for the development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous data collection procedures fundamentally influence the results of studies. The semi-structured interview is a common data collection method, but methodological research on the development of a semi-structured interview guide is sparse. Systematic methodological review. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science for methodological papers on semi-structured interview guides from October 2004-September 2014. Having examined 2,703 titles and abstracts and 21 full texts, we finally selected 10 papers. We analysed the data using the qualitative content analysis method. Our analysis resulted in new synthesized knowledge on the development of a semi-structured interview guide, including five phases: (1) identifying the prerequisites for using semi-structured interviews; (2) retrieving and using previous knowledge; (3) formulating the preliminary semi-structured interview guide; (4) pilot testing the guide; and (5) presenting the complete semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide contributes to the objectivity and trustworthiness of studies and makes the results more plausible. Researchers should consider using this five-step process to develop a semi-structured interview guide and justify the decisions made during it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozović, Nicholas; Sinha, Rajiv
For the development of sustainable and realistic water security, generating information on the behaviours, characteristics, and drivers of users, as well as on the resource itself, is essential. In this paper we present a methodology for collecting qualitative and quantitative data on water use practices through semi-structured interviews. This approach facilitates the collection of detailed information on actors' decisions in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Semi-structured interviews are organised around a topic guide, which helps lead the conversation in a standardised way while allowing sufficient opportunity for relevant issues to emerge. In addition, they can be used to obtain certain types of quantitative data. While not as accurate as direct measurements, they can provide useful information on local practices and users' insights. We present an application of the methodology on farmer water use in two districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. By means of 100 farmer interviews, information was collected on various aspects of irrigation practices, including irrigation water volumes, irrigation cost, water source, and their spatial variability. Statistical analyses of the information, along with data visualisation, are also presented, indicating a significant variation in irrigation practices both within and between districts. Our application shows that semi-structured interviews are an effective and efficient method of collecting both qualitative and quantitative information for the assessment of drivers, behaviours, and their outcomes in a data-scarce region. The collection of this type of data could significantly improve insights on water resources, leading to more realistic management options and increased water security in the future.
The interview is the tool for data collection the most used in the context of research conducted in health sciences, human sciences and social sciences. After completing some generalities about the different types of interviews, the focus is on semi-structured interview during its various stages including the processing and data analysis, this from the return of a lived experience of research in work on the border of the field of public health and that of anthropology. If this approach and contextualized the semistructured interview may a priori appear specific, the reader interested in the development of qualitative research in a humanistic perspective and the implementation of multidisciplinary strategies to ascertain its universal character.
Seyyed Salman Alavi
Full Text Available Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture.Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR was performed for all the cases, and another specialist re-evaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient and test-retest via SPSS18 software.Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM –IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa and test –retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (p<0. 01 respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that semi- structured diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR are valid and reliable for diagnosing mobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM-IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone" were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test-retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pphone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid
Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under “impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified”. This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM–IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including “SMS pathological use” and “High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test–retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pmobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder. PMID:27437008
Wood, Lisa; Burke, Eilish; Byrne, Rory; Enache, Gabriela; Morrison, Anthony P
Stigma is a significant difficulty for people who experience psychosis. To date, there have been no outcome measures developed to examine stigma exclusively in people with psychosis. The aim of this study was develop and validate a semi-structured interview measure of stigma (SIMS) in psychosis. The SIMS is an eleven item measure of stigma developed in consultation with service users who have experienced psychosis. 79 participants with experience of psychosis were recruited for the purposes of this study. They were administered the SIMS alongside a battery of other relevant outcome measures to examine reliability and validity. A one-factor solution was identified for the SIMS which encompassed all ten rateable items. The measure met all reliability and validity criteria and illustrated good internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, test retest reliability, criterion validity, construct validity, sensitivity to change and had no floor or ceiling effects. The SIMS is a reliable and valid measure of stigma in psychosis. It may be more engaging and acceptable than other stigma measures due to its semi-structured interview format. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Levis, Brooke; Benedetti, Andrea; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Levis, Alexander W; Azar, Marleine; Rice, Danielle B; Chiovitti, Matthew J; Sanchez, Tatiana A; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; Kloda, Lorie A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Akena, Dickens H; Arroll, Bruce; Ayalon, Liat; Baradaran, Hamid R; Baron, Murray; Beraldi, Anna; Bombardier, Charles H; Butterworth, Peter; Carter, Gregory; Chagas, Marcos H; Chan, Juliana C N; Cholera, Rushina; Chowdhary, Neerja; Clover, Kerrie; Conwell, Yeates; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Delgadillo, Jaime; Fann, Jesse R; Fischer, Felix H; Fischler, Benjamin; Fung, Daniel; Gelaye, Bizu; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Greeno, Catherine G; Hall, Brian J; Hambridge, John; Harrison, Patricia A; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hides, Leanne; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hudson, Marie; Hyphantis, Thomas; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ismail, Khalida; Jetté, Nathalie; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Kiely, Kim M; Lamers, Femke; Liu, Shen-Ing; Lotrakul, Manote; Loureiro, Sonia R; Löwe, Bernd; Marsh, Laura; McGuire, Anthony; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Munhoz, Tiago N; Muramatsu, Kumiko; Osório, Flávia L; Patel, Vikram; Pence, Brian W; Persoons, Philippe; Picardi, Angelo; Rooney, Alasdair G; Santos, Iná S; Shaaban, Juwita; Sidebottom, Abbey; Simning, Adam; Stafford, Lesley; Sung, Sharon; Tan, Pei Lin Lynnette; Turner, Alyna; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Weert, Henk C; Vöhringer, Paul A; White, Jennifer; Whooley, Mary A; Winkley, Kirsty; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Zhang, Yuying; Thombs, Brett D
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics. Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit. A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15-3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98-10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7-15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56-1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97). The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.Declaration of interestDrs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the
Isaksen, Jesper; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian
In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications...... with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility....
Dapeng, Liang; Weiwei, Wu
From March to July of 2008, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 experts from the Chinese government, scientific institutes and industrial sectors. This paper summarizes the experts' opinions and draws conclusions about four crucial aspects that influence CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment in China: technology research and experience accumulation, finance support, market development and policy and system. According to interviews result, technological improvement is necessary to cut down on CO 2 capture cost and decrease technological uncertainty. Then, to make some rational policies and systems, with elements such as a carbon tax and clean electricity pricing, to drive power plants to adopt CO 2 capture technology. Furthermore, financial incentive in both the long term and the short term, such as subsidies and CDM, will be important for CCS incentives, encouraging enterprises' enthusiasm for CCS and their capacity to enact it. Lastly, CCS deployment should be conducted under a market-oriented framework in the long term, so a business model and niche market deployment should be considered in advance. Among these aspects, policy and system is more complex than other three aspects, to resolve this obstacle, the innovation on electricity market and government decision model for climate change is crucial. (author)
Ilyushin, Leonid S.
Full Text Available This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.
Mazaheri, Monir; Eriksson, Lars E; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Sunvisson, Helena
To describe people's experiences of living with dementia in Iran. A knowledge gap exists regarding the experiences of living with dementia in nonWestern contexts. This gap may be especially apparent within the Iranian context, where dementia research is relatively new. Deeper understanding about context-related experiences of dementia is a prerequisite for nurses' ability to provide adequate and meaningful care. Qualitative, cross-sectional design. Qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with people living with dementia in urban Iran (six women and nine men; 60-87 years old). The participants experienced their condition as a state of forgetfulness that was accompanied by losses and dependency on others. They wanted to feel good about themselves and feel important, but they continually struggled with matters such as a loss of accountability, feelings of futility and the frustration of others. Economic dependency and a lack of economic resources were sources of feelings of futility. Experiences of living with dementia in Iran included a substantial struggle to stay connected to the social world and to deal with dramatic life changes, aspects of living with dementia that seem to be universal. However, the feelings of financial burden and the experience of being nagged for their shortfalls by family members have seldom been described in other studies and seem to represent a cultural aspect of their experience. The results of the study call for further nursing efforts in supporting people living with dementia in their struggle with their altered lives and in retaining their connections to everyday life. Furthermore, their family members might benefit from specific nursing interventions including information about dementia and advice on how to help the family members with dementia to interact with others while exercising their individual strengths. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rollman, A.; Gorter, R.C.; Visscher, C.M.; Naeije, M.
AIMS: To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. METHODS: A Aims: To assess possible differences between care seekers and non-care seekers with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints, by using semi-structured
Feemster Kristen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates were low with Methods Between March and June, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 20 adolescent-mother-clinician triads (60 individual interviews directly after a preventive visit with the initial HPV vaccine due. Interviews followed a guide based on published HPV literature, involved 9 practices, and continued until saturation of the primary themes was achieved. Purposive sampling balanced adolescent ages and practice type (urban resident teaching versus non-teaching. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we analyzed data with NVivo8 software both within and across triads to generate primary themes. Results The study population was comprised of 20 mothers (12 Black, 9 Conclusions Programs to improve HPV vaccine delivery in primary care should focus on promoting effective parent-clinician communication. Research is needed to evaluate strategies to help clinicians engage reluctant parents and passive teens in discussion and measure the impact of distinct clinician decision making approaches on HPV vaccine delivery.
Isaksen, Jesper Hesselbjerg; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian
In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative evaluation method. Ratings obtained by the applicants in two selection rounds were analysed for reliability and generalisability using the GENOVA programme. Applicants and assessors were randomly selected for individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. The qualitative data were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. Quantitative analysis yielded a high Cronbach's alpha of 0.97 for the first round and 0.90 for the second round, and a G coefficient of the first round of 0.74 and of the second round of 0.40. Qualitative analysis demonstrated high acceptability and fairness and it improved the assessors' judgment. Applicants reported concerns about loss of personality and some anxiety. The applicants' ability to reflect on their competences was important. The developed selection tool demonstrated an acceptable level of reliability, but only moderate generalisability. The users found that the tool provided a high degree of acceptability; it is a feasible and useful tool for -selection of doctors for specialist training if combined with work-based assessment. Studies on the benefits and drawbacks of this tool compared with other selection models are relevant. not relevant. not relevant.
Le Provost, A-S; Loddé, B; Pietri, J; De Parscau, L; Pougnet, L; Dewitte, J-D; Pougnet, R
Suffering at work among health professionals is a hot topic. Medical students, doctors of tomorrow, are far from being spared. Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders range from 20.3 to 69 % for the former and from 12 to 30 % for the latter. The purpose of this article is to determine these factors by qualitative research, according to medical students' points of view. It is a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The analysis is done according to the Grounded Theory. 12 medical students are interviewed. They expressed difficulties at work and positive factors. Three major themes are identified in selective coding: occupational factors, " study " factors and individual factors. All themes are both a source of well-being and ill-being according to the situations specified in the results. Studying medicine includes positive and negative aspects. Abandonment issues, lack of recognition and insufficient coaching emerge from our study. Screening of suffering at work should be systematic for medical students.
Pawa, Jasmine; Robson, John; Hull, Sally
Primary care practices are increasingly working in larger groups. In 2009, all 36 primary care practices in the London borough of Tower Hamlets were grouped geographically into eight managed practice networks to improve the quality of care they delivered. Quantitative evaluation has shown improved clinical outcomes. To provide insight into the process of network implementation, including the aims, facilitating factors, and barriers, from both the clinical and managerial perspectives. A qualitative study of network implementation in the London borough of Tower Hamlets, which serves a socially disadvantaged and ethnically diverse population. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors, nurses, and managers, and were informed by existing literature on integrated care and GP networks. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis used to analyse emerging themes. Interviewees agreed that networks improved clinical care and reduced variation in practice performance. Network implementation was facilitated by the balance struck between 'a given structure' and network autonomy to adopt local solutions. Improved use of data, including patient recall and peer performance indicators, were viewed as critical key factors. Targeted investment provided the necessary resources to achieve this. Barriers to implementing networks included differences in practice culture, a reluctance to share data, and increased workload. Commissioners and providers were positive about the implementation of GP networks as a way to improve the quality of clinical care in Tower Hamlets. The issues that arose may be of relevance to other areas implementing similar quality improvement programmes at scale. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan Jose; Kaufman, James S; Weiner, Daniel E; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen
Northwestern Nicaragua has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown cause among young adult men. In addition, frequent occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among men and a dysuria syndrome described by sugarcane workers as "chistata" are both reported. This study examines health professionals´ perceptions regarding etiology of these conditions and their treatment approaches, including use of potentially nephrotoxic medications. Nineteen in-person semi-structured interviews were conducted in November 2010 among ten physicians and nine pharmacists practicing in the region. Health professionals perceived CKD as a serious and increasing problem in the region, primarily affecting young men working as manual laborers. All interviewees regarded occupational and environmental exposure to sun and heat, and dehydration as critical factors associated with the occurrence of CKD. These factors were also considered to play a role in the occurrence of chistata in the region. Health professionals indicated that reluctance among workers to hydrate might be influenced by perceptions of water contamination. Symptoms often were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics and antibiotics. Physicians acknowledged that the diagnosis of UTI usually was not based on microbial culture and opined that the use of potentially nephrotoxic medications may be contributing to CKD. Interviews provided evidence suggesting that medications such as diuretics, antibiotics and NSAIDs are widely used and sold over the counter for symptoms that may be related to dehydration and volume depletion. These factors, alone or in combination, may be possible contributors to kidney damage. Acute kidney damage coupled with volume depletion and exposures including medications and infectious agents should be further evaluated as causal factors for CKD in this region.
Campbell, Denise J; Craig, Jonathan C; Mudge, David W; Brown, Fiona G; Wong, Germaine; Tong, Allison
♦ BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is recommended for adults with residual kidney function and without significant comorbidities. However, peritonitis is a serious and common complication that is associated with hospitalization, pain, catheter loss, and death. This study aims to describe the beliefs, needs, and experiences of PD patients about peritonitis, to inform the training, support, and care of these patients. ♦ METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 patients from 3 renal units in Australia who had previous or current experience of PD. The interviews were conducted between November 2014 and November 2015. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. ♦ RESULTS: We identified 4 themes: constant vigilance for prevention (conscious of vulnerability, sharing responsibility with family, demanding attention to detail, ambiguity of detecting infection, ineradicable inhabitation, jeopardizing PD success); invading harm (life-threatening, wreaking internal damage, debilitating pain, losing control and dignity); incapacitating lifestyle interference (financial strain, isolation and separation, exacerbating burden on family); and exasperation with hospitalization (dread of hospital admission, exposure to infection, gruelling follow-up schedule, exposure to harm). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Patients perceived that peritonitis could threaten their health, treatment modality, and lifestyle, which motivated vigilance and attention to hygiene. They felt a loss of control due to debilitating symptoms including pain and having to be hospitalized, and they were uncertain about how to monitor for signs of peritonitis. Providing patients with education about the causes and signs of peritonitis and addressing their concerns about lifestyle impact, financial impact, hospitalization, and peritonitis-related anxieties may improve treatment satisfaction and outcomes for patients requiring PD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozovic, Nicholas
To build an accurate, robust understanding of the environment, it is important to not only collect information describing its physical characteristics, but also the drivers which influence it. As environmental change, from increasing CO2 levels to decreasing water levels, is often heavily influenced by human activity, gathering information on anthropogenic as well as environmental variables is extremely important. This can mean collecting qualitative, as well as quantitative information. In reality studies are often bound by financial and time constraints, limiting the depth and detail of the research. It is up to the researcher to determine what the best methodology to answer the research questions is likely to be. Here we present a methodology of collecting qualitative and quantitative information in tandem for hydrological studies through the use of semi-structured interviews. This is applied to a case study in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, North India, one of the most intensely irrigated areas of the world. Here, decreasing water levels exacerbated by unchecked water abstraction, an expanding population and government subsidies, have put the long term resilience of the farming population in doubt. Through random selection of study locations, combined with convenience sampling of the participants therein, we show how the data collected can provide valuable insight into the drivers which have led to the current water scenario. We also show how reliable quantitative information can, using the same methodology, be effectively and efficiently extracted for modelling purposes, which along with developing an understanding of the characteristics of the environment is vital in coming up with realistic and sustainable solutions for water resource management in the future.
Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann; Johannessen, Helle
as rehabilitation after colorectal cancer, a sub-sample of 31 participants completed the MYCaW questionnaire and the priority list and were interviewed before, during and after the treatment period. Setting Treatments were provided in healers’ clinics in Denmark. Main outcome measures For each participant......Objectives To compare the capacity of the MYCaW questionnaire, a priority list of concerns covered by validated questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews to identify patients’ personalized concerns and related changes. Design In a pragmatic trial on the effectiveness of energy healing...... experience with the treatment, while concerns stated in interviews and the priority list remained stable throughout the study; (2) emotional concerns were reported more often in interviews than in MYCaW, physical concerns were predominant in MYCaW, and quality of life was marked as a primary concern most...
Kim, Hyojin; Park, Sun-Young; Bozeman, Ingrid
While the Internet is a popular source of health information, health seekers' inadequate skills to locate and discern quality information pose a potential threat to their healthcare decision-making. We aimed to examine health information search and appraisal behaviours among young, heavy users of the Internet. In study 1, we observed and interviewed 11 college students about their search strategies and evaluation of websites. In study 2, three health experts evaluated two websites selected as the best information sources in study 1. Familiarity with health websites and confidence in search strategies were major factors affecting search and evaluation behaviours. Website quality was mostly judged by aesthetics and peripheral cues of source credibility and message credibility. In contrast to users' favourable website evaluation, the experts judged the websites to be inappropriate and untrustworthy. Our results highlight a critical need to provide young health seekers with resources and training that are specifically geared toward health information search and appraisal. The role of health seekers' knowledge and involvement with the health issue in search effort and success warrants future research. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Mr. Hans Matthoefer, Federal Minister for Research and Technology, has commented on the problems occurring in connection with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in several interviews during the past months. The present pocketbook contains a summary of these talks and interviews classified into the following main subjects: dialogue with citizens on nuclear energy, energy sources and energy saving, environment and energy, energy and economic development. The answers given by Federal Minister Matthoefer make the aims of the research and technology policy of the Federal Republic clear: Promotion of the efficiency of economy in order to be able to participate in the international competition, but not at the expense of the environment and of the population. (orig./HP) [de
Hendrie, H. C.; Lane, K. A.; Ogunniyi, A.; Baiyewu, O.; Gureje, O.; Evans, R.; Smith-Gamble, V.; Pettaway, M.; Unverzagt, F. W.; Gao, S.; Hall, K. S.
Background Assessing function is a crucial element in the diagnosis of dementia. This information is usually obtained from key informants. However, reliable informants are not always available. Methods A 10-item semi-structured home interview (the CHIF, or Clinician Home-based Interview to assess Function) to assess function primarily by measuring instrumental activities of daily living directly was developed and tested for inter-rater reliability and validity as part of the Indianapolis–Ibadan dementia project. The primary validity measurements were correlations between scores on the CHIF and independently gathered scores on the Blessed Dementia Scale (from informants) and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Sensitivities and specificities of scores on the CHIF and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed with dementia as the dependent variable. Results Inter-rater reliability for the CHIF was high (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.99 in Indianapolis and 0.87 in Ibadan). Internal consistency, in both samples, was good (Cronbach’s α 0.95 in Indianapolis and 0.83 in Ibadan). Scores on the CHIF correlated well with the Blessed Dementia scores at both sites (−0.71, p < 0.0001 for Indianapolis and −0.56, p < 0.0001 for Ibadan) and with the MMSE (0.75, p < 0.0001 for Indianapolis and 0.44, p < 0.0001 for Ibadan). For all items at both sites, the subjects without dementia performed significantly better than those with dementia. The area under the ROC curve for dementia diagnosis was 0.965 for Indianapolis and 0.925 for Ibadan. Conclusion The CHIF is a useful instrument to assess function directly in elderly participants in international studies, particularly in the absence of reliable informants. PMID:16640794
Peterson, Kendra; Hahn, Howard; Lee, Amber J; Madison, Catherine A; Atri, Alireza
Most patients with dementia or cognitive impairment receive care from family members, often untrained for this challenging role. Caregivers may not access publicly available caregiving information, and caregiver education programs are not widely implemented clinically. Prior large surveys yielded broad quantitative understanding of caregiver information needs, but do not illuminate the in-depth, rich, and nuanced caregiver perspectives that can be gleaned using qualitative methodology. We aimed to understand perspectives about information sources, barriers and preferences, through semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers. Content analysis identified important themes. We interviewed 19 women, 8 men; mean age 58.5 years; most adult children (15) or spouses (8) of the care recipient. Dementia symptoms often developed insidiously, with delayed disease acknowledgement and caregiver self-identification. While memory loss was common, behavioral symptoms were most troublesome, often initially unrecognized as disease indicators. Emerging themes: 1.) Barriers to seeking information often result from knowledge gaps, rather than reluctance to assume the caregiver role; 2.) Most caregivers currently receive insufficient information. Caregivers are open to many information sources, settings, and technologies, including referrals to other healthcare professionals, print material, and community and internet resources, but expect the primary care provider (PCP) to recommend, endorse, and guide them to specific sources. These findings replicated and expanded on results from previous quantitative surveys and, importantly, revealed a previously unrecognized essential factor: despite receiving insufficient information, caregivers place critical value on their relationship with care recipient PCPs to receive recommendations, guidance and endorsement to sources of caregiving information. Implications include: 1.) Greater public education is needed to help caregivers identify and
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline
was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...... watched a videotaped interview. Results: Inter-rater reliability coefficients varied between domains and were not sufficient for clinical practice, but may support the use of the interview to assess the dimensions of personality functioning for research purposes. Conclusions: While designed to measure...
"Only your blood can tell the story"--a qualitative research study using semi-structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.
Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Davis, Joshua; Johnston, Vanessa
Hepatitis B is endemic in the Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory of Australia and significantly contributes to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is recognised that low health literacy levels, different worldviews and English as a second language all contribute to the difficulties health workers often have in explaining biomedical health concepts, relevant to hepatitis B infection, to patients. The aim of this research project was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous adults and their health care providers relating to hepatitis B infection with a view to using this as the evidence base to develop a culturally appropriate educational tool. The impetus for this project came from health clinic staff at a remote community in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, in partnership with a visiting specialist liver clinic from the Royal Darwin Hospital. Participants were clinic patients with hepatitis B (n = 12), community members (n = 9) and key informants (n = 13); 25 were Indigenous individuals.A participatory action research project design was used with purposive sampling to identify participants. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore: current understanding of hepatitis B, desire for knowledge, and perspectives on how people could acquire the information needed. All individuals were offered the use of an interpreter. The data were examined using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Low levels of biomedical knowledge about Hepatitis B, negative perceptions of Hepatitis B, communication (particularly language) and culture were the major themes that emerged from the data. Accurate concepts grounded in Indigenous culture such as "only your blood can tell the story" were present but accompanied by a feeling of disempowerment due to perceived lack of "medical" understanding, and informed partnerships between caregiver and patient. Culturally appropriate discussions in a
Just one day after China's Shenzhou-9 capsule, carrying three Chinese astronauts, docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab on 18 June, Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), said it is “a step in the right direction” that more people are in space. “Before they launched, there were six people in space,” he said, referring to those on ISS, “and there are 7 billion people on Earth.” The astronauts were “like one in a billion. Now there are nine people in space,” Pettit said during a 19 June interview that he and two other astronauts onboard ISS had with AGU. Pettit continued, “So the gradient of human beings going into space is moving in the right direction. We need to change these numbers so that more and more human beings can call space their home so we can expand off of planet Earth and move out into our solar system.”
Bahus, Marianne K; Førde, Reidun
With disagreement, doubts, or ambiguous grounds in end-of-life decisions, doctors are advised to involve a clinical ethics committee (CEC). However, little has been published on doctors' experiences with discussing an end-of-life decision in a CEC. As part of the quality assurance of this work, we wanted to find out if clinicians have benefited from discussing end-of-life decisions in CECs and why. We will disseminate some Norwegian doctors' experiences when discussing end-of-life decisions in CECs, based on semi-structured interviews with fifteen Norwegian physicians who had brought an end-of-life decision case to a CEC. Almost half of the cases involved conflicts with the patients' relatives. In a majority of the cases, there was uncertainty about what would be the ethically preferable solution. Reasons for referring the case to the CEC were to get broader illumination of the case, to get perspective from people outside the team, to get advice, or to get moral backing on a decision already made. A great majority of the clinicians reported an overall positive experience with the CECs' discussions. In cases where there was conflict, the clinicians reported less satisfaction with the CECs' discussions. The study shows that most doctors who have used a CEC in an end-of-life decision find it useful to have ethical and/or legal aspects illuminated, and to have the dilemma scrutinized from a new perspective. A systematic discussion seems to be significant to the clinicians.
Allmark, Peter; Boote, Jonathan; Chambers, E.; Clarke, Amanda; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, Andrew; Tod, Angela
This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes probe unexpe...
Allmark, P.; Boote, J.; Chambers, E.; Clarke, A.; McDonnell, A.; Thompson, A.R.; Tod, A.
This paper reports a literature review on the topic of ethical issues in in-depth interviews. The review returned three\\ud types of article: general discussion, issues in particular studies, and studies of interview-based research ethics. Whilst\\ud many of the issues discussed in these articles are generic to research ethics, such as confidentiality, they often had particular\\ud manifestations in this type of research. For example, privacy was a significant problem as interviews sometimes\\ud ...
Association du personnel
New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the âﾜpeople at CERNâ the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.
Gilbert Grosvenor, editor of "National Geographic," is interviewed about the importance of geography for Americans. He claims our lack of geographic knowledge impedes our ability to act and compete in the world market as a world power and points out that geographic ignorance extends to people employed at high levels of government. (MD)
Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend
Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....
CERN. Geneva; Posada, Jorge; Quartulli, Marco
Background Vicomtech is visiting CERN to expose their activities and explore possible lines of collaboration. As part of the programme they will be offering a presentation, staged in three parts: Presentation of Vicomtech – Seán Gaines Descriptions of technologies and specialities – Dr. Jorge Posada Details on projects related to the development of visually-based algorithms for intelligent storage, processing, visualization and interaction with Big Data, for massive sources of information. – Dr. Marco Quartulli. The full programme to the visit is here Abstract Mining semi-structured data is fundamental for archive monitoring, understanding and exploitation. Typical analysis systems are based on a three-tiered architecture, in which efficient databases feed highly parallelised application servers that in turn feed client user interfaces. Yet the sharing of analysis, content identification and semantic level summarization tasks among the two bot...
This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions
Much of the work of user-centered design practitioners involves some type of interviewing. While interviewing is an important skill, many colleagues have little or no formal training in interviewing methods and often learn on the job with limited feedback on the quality of their interviews. This book teaches readers about the three basic interview methods: structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews. The author discusses the various strengths, weaknesses, issues with each type of interview, and includes best practices and procedures for conducing effective
Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente
At the kick-off meeting in Vienna October 2005 it was agreed that partners would conduct a limited number of interviews to make an initial survey of issues that would be relevant for the production of the manual & guide. It was therefore the objective of the interviews to produce knowledge about...... technological skills specifically required for live online language teaching define need for qualification of the live online language teacher The Danish team conducted 4 semi-structured interviews with teachers. The interviews were made on the basis of an interview guide discussed by all partners in December...
Joshi, Anuradha Sujai; Ganjiwale, Jaishree Deepak; Varma, Jagdish; Singh, Praveen; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Singh, Tejinder
Globally, students with top academic performance and high intellectual capacity usually opt to study medicine. However, once students get enrolled, their academic performance varies widely. Such variations appear to be determined by various factors, one of them being types of learning strategies adopted by students. The learning strategies utilized by the students with better academic performance are likely to be more effective learning strategies. The objective is to identify effective learning strategies used by medical students. This study was carried out among the MBBS students of Final Professional Part I. Students were categorized into three groups namely: high, average, and low rankers based on overall academic performance in second Professional University examination. First, a questionnaire consisting of closed- and open-ended questions was administered to students, to find their learning strategies. Subsequently, focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were conducted for high- and low-rankers. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Key statements were highlighted, collated, and categorized into general themes and sub-themes. Evident themes which emerged as effective strategies were hard work in the form of regularity of studies, meticulous preparation of notes, constructive use of time, utilization of e-learning, learning styles and deep learning approach and regular ward visits. Intrinsic motivation, family support, balancing physical activities and studies, guidance by seniors, teachers, dealing with nonacademic issues such as language barriers and stress were also identified as important strategies. Disseminating effective learning strategies in a systematic manner may be helpful to students in achieving better academic outcomes. Furthermore, educationists need to modulate their teaching strategies based on students' feedback.
To discuss the use of Skype as a medium for undertaking semi-structured interviews. Internet-based research is becoming increasingly popular, as communication using the internet takes a bigger role in our working and personal lives. Technology such as Skype allows research encounters with people across geographical divides. The semi-structured interview is a social encounter with a set of norms and expectations for both parties ( Doody and Noonan 2012 ). Proceedings must take account of the social context of both semi-structured interviews per se, and that of internet mediated communication. The findings of the qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study are compared with other reports comparing the use of Skype with face-to-face and telephone interviews. This paper is a methodological discussion of the use of Skype as an online research methodology. Choosing Skype as a means of interviewing may affect the characteristics of participants and decisions about consent. Rapport, sensitivity and collaboration may be addressed differently in Skype interviews compared with face-to-face interviews. Skype offers researchers the opportunity to reach a geographical spread of participants more safely, cheaply and quickly than face-to-face meetings. Rapport, sensitivity and degrees of collaboration can be achieved using this medium. The use of Skype as a medium for semi-structured interview research is better understood. This paper contributes to the growing body of literature on the use of the internet as a medium for research by nurses.
Ong, Kian Win; Papakonstantinou, Yannis; Vernoux, Romain
NoSQL databases support semi-structured data, typically modeled as JSON. They also provide limited (but expanding) query languages. Their idiomatic, non-SQL language constructs, the many variations, and the lack of formal semantics inhibit deep understanding of the query languages, and also impede progress towards clean, powerful, declarative query languages. This paper specifies the syntax and semantics of SQL++, which is applicable to both JSON native stores and SQL databases. The SQL++ sem...
The paper discusses the results of a study which explored advanced learners of English engagement with their mobile devices to develop learning experiences that meet their needs and goals as foreign language learners. The data were collected from 20 students by means of a semi-structured interview. The gathered data were subjected to qualitative…
Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth
Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.
van Scheppingen, Corinne; Lettinga, Ant T.; Duipmans, Jose C.; Maathuis, Care G. B.; Jonkman, Marcel F.
The objective of this study was to identify and specify the problems of children with epidermolysis bullosa. The questions explored were: (i) What do children with epidermolysis bullosa experience as the most difficult problems; (it) What is the impact of these problems on their daily life; and
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård
healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed......Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... for life story research, it can also be used for ther types of studies where interviews are made....... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...
Stievenart, M.; Casonato, M.; Muntean, A.; Van de Schoot, R.
The Friends and Family Interview (FFI; Steele & Steele, 2005 Steele, H. and Steele, M. 2005. The construct of coherence as an indicator of attachment security in middle childhood: The Friends and Family Interview, New York, NY: Guilford Press. ), a semi-structured interview assessing attachment
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
Spanjer, Jerry; Mei, van der Sijrike; Cornelius, Bert; Brouwer, Sandra; Klink, van der Jac
PURPOSE: The Disability Assessment Structured Interview (DASI) is a semi-structured interview for assessing functional limitations of claimants in a work disability evaluation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a 3-day DASI training course on the quality of assessment interviews of
Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the
Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients’ experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative research interview is given as well as information about the form and content of qualitative interviews required for developing PRO measures. Particular attention is paid to the description of interviewing approaches (e.g., semi-structured and in-depth interviews, individual vs. focus group interviews). Information about how to get prepared for a qualitative interview is provided with the description of how to develop discussion guides for exploratory or cognitive interviews. Interviewing patients to obtain knowledge regarding their illness experience requires interpersonal and communication skills to facilitate patients’ expression. Those skills are described in details, as well as the skills needed to facilitate focus groups and to interview children, adolescents and the elderly. Special attention is also given to quality assurance and interview training. The paper ends on ethical considerations since interviewing for the development of PROs is performed in a context of illness and vulnerability. Therefore, it is all the more important that, in addition to soliciting informed consent, respectful interactions be ensured throughout the interview process. PMID:24499454
Friedman, Allison L; Oruko, Kelvin O; Habel, Melissa A; Ford, Jessie; Kinsey, Jennine; Odhiambo, Frank; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Wang, Susan A; Collins, Tabu; Laserson, Kayla F; Dunne, Eileen F
Cervical cancer claims the lives of 275,000 women each year; most of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries. In Kenya, cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women of reproductive age. Kenya's Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation has developed a comprehensive strategy to prevent cervical cancer, which includes plans for vaccinating preteen girls against human papillomavirus (HPV) by 2015. To identify HPV vaccine communication and mobilization needs, this research sought to understand HPV vaccine-related perceptions and concerns of male and female caregivers and community leaders in four rural communities of western Kenya. We conducted five focus groups with caregivers (n = 56) and 12 key-informant interviews with opinion leaders to explore cervical cancer-related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, as well as acceptability of HPV vaccination for 9-12 year-old girls. Four researchers independently reviewed the data and developed codes based on questions in interview guides and topics that emerged organically, before comparing and reconciling results through a group consensus process. Cervical cancer was not commonly recognized, though it was understood generally in terms of its symptoms. By association with cancer and genital/reproductive organs, cervical cancer was feared and stigmatized. Overall acceptability of a vaccine that prevents cervical cancer was high, so long as it was endorsed by trusted agencies and communities were sensitized first. Some concerns emerged related to vaccine safety (e.g., impact on fertility), program intent, and health equity. For successful vaccine introduction in Kenya, there is a need for communication and mobilization efforts to raise cervical cancer awareness; prompt demand for vaccination; address health equity concerns and stigma; and minimize potential resistance. Visible endorsement by government leaders and community influencers can provide reassurance of the vaccine's safety
While studio-based instrumental and vocal learning is widely regarded as both important and effective in higher education music, research to date has offered little concrete information about studio practices that students have regarded as ineffective. Two recent case studies investigated what appear to be exceptional instances in which students…
Maluf, David A.; Tran, Peter B.
Object-Relational database management system is an integrated hybrid cooperative approach to combine the best practices of both the relational model utilizing SQL queries and the object-oriented, semantic paradigm for supporting complex data creation. In this paper, a highly scalable, information on demand database framework, called NETMARK, is introduced. NETMARK takes advantages of the Oracle 8i object-relational database using physical addresses data types for very efficient keyword search of records spanning across both context and content. NETMARK was originally developed in early 2000 as a research and development prototype to solve the vast amounts of unstructured and semi-structured documents existing within NASA enterprises. Today, NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput open database framework for managing, storing, and searching unstructured or semi-structured arbitrary hierarchal models, such as XML and HTML.
André Minella; Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho
We develop and estimate a medium-size, semi-structural model for Brazil's economy during the inflation targeting period. The model captures key features of the economy, and allows us to investigate the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy. We decompose the monetary channels into household interest rate, firm interest rate, and exchange rate channels. We find that the household interest rate channel plays the most important role in explaining output dynamics after a monetary policy shock...
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate the conscious and unconscious psychological motivations of online game addicts, and to further discuss the relationship between surface and source motivations. Ten Taiwanese adolescents with online game addiction were selected for in-depth interviews. Through sentence completion test and semi-structured interviews, data were collected and analyzed from the following four realms: (1) surface motivations, (2) source motivations, (3) self-conception, and (4) interpersonal relationships in real life. After content analysis, five categories with distinct themes were formed: (1) addicts' psychological needs and motivations; (2) online games as the everyday focus of the addicts; (3) the interplay of real self and virtual self; (4) online games as the compensatory or extensive satisfaction for addicts' needs; and (5) addicts' self-reflections. The implications of the present study are discussed.
Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric
To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.
van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.
Objectives In addition to our target Muslim populations, we aim also to gather information on their community leaders, as well as the policy makers whose policies confront them. We aim through a series of semi-structured interviews to gain information on the position of a variety of community
This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Carol A. Puhl
Full Text Available South Africa has eleven official languages, but English is by far the most commonly used medium of instruction in schools. It is therefore essential that the English proficiency of preservice teachers be accurately assessed by means of a valid, reliable and feasible assessment instrument. As there are so many tertiary institutions responsible for teacher certification in the country, standards of oral assessment vary widely. This paper describes a semi-structured oral proficiency test, designed to meet these needs. Possibilities for further development of the test are explored Suid-Afrika erken elf amptelike tale, maar Engels is die medium wat verreweg die meeste in skole gebruik word Dit is dus noodsaaklik dat onderwysstudente se taalvaardigheid in Engels akkuraat gemeet moet kan word dm. v. 'n geldige, betroubare en toepaslike meetinstrument. Die feit dat so baie tersiere inrigtings in Suid-Afrika betrokke is by die sertifisering van onderwysers, lei onvermydelik tot groot skommelinge in standaarde. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n semigestruktureerde mondelinge taalvaardigheidstoets wat ontwikkel is om in die behoeftes te voorsien. Moontlikhede vir die verdere ontwikkeling van die toets word ondersoek.
Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.
Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.
Thiam, Mouhamadou; Bennacer, Nacéra; Pernelle, Nathalie; Lô, Moussa
SHIRIis an ontology-based system for integration of semi-structured documents related to a specific domain. The system’s purpose is to allow users to access to relevant parts of documents as answers to their queries. SHIRI uses RDF/OWL for representation of resources and SPARQL for their querying. It relies on an automatic, unsupervised and ontology-driven approach for extraction, alignment and semantic annotation of tagged elements of documents. In this paper, we focus on the Extract-Align algorithm which exploits a set of named entity and term patterns to extract term candidates to be aligned with the ontology. It proceeds in an incremental manner in order to populate the ontology with terms describing instances of the domain and to reduce the access to extern resources such as Web. We experiment it on a HTML corpus related to call for papers in computer science and the results that we obtain are very promising. These results show how the incremental behaviour of Extract-Align algorithm enriches the ontology and the number of terms (or named entities) aligned directly with the ontology increases.
Vos, Martina S.; Putter, Hein; Leurs, Amber; Rooijmans, Harry G. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Houwelingen, Hans C.
Based on Weissman and Hackett's comprehensive definition of denial, a semi-structured interview was developed to measure denial in cancer patients. The denial in cancer interview (DCI) covers both the patients' recount of their illness experience and the expert's impression of the level of denial in
Mesman, R.; Faber, M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Berden, H.
Objective: To contribute to a better understanding of volume-outcome relationships in surgery by exploring Dutch surgeons' views on the underlying mechanism. Design: A qualitative study based on face-to-face semi structured interviews and an inductive content analysis approach. Setting: Interviews
He, Jun; Guo, Yi Maggie
It is important for MIS educators to have a good understanding of what IT knowledge and skills are required in business. In this study, 103 open job positions in the Midwestern United States were investigated via semi-structured interviews with hiring companies. The interviews with key business recruiters suggest that IT knowledge and skills are…
Paradiso de Sayu, Rebecca; Chanmugam, Amy
Although the concept of empowerment is a key principle of community-based participatory research (CBPR), little is known about how academic and community partners perceive empowerment during a CBPR process. CBPR partners' perceptions of the process were explored using semi-structured interviews with both partners in 10 CBPR partnerships that had completed projects addressing social determinants of health. Dyadic interview analysis was employed to understand dynamics within and across partnerships. Five partnerships showed no differences in perceptions of empowerment. Four had minor discrepancies. Only one partnership varied considerably between partners, where the community partner perceived less empowerment regarding determining the study topic and overall control, influence, and respect throughout the process. This article discusses implications of findings for CBPR. Evaluating partners' perceived empowerment throughout a CBPR project might reveal areas to adjust, as not all projects with quantifiably successful outcomes involve processes that are successful in terms of empowerment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although mobile methods are becoming more common within the social sciences (e.g. Ricketts Hein et al., 2008 and Wiederhold, 2015, p. 607, they mostly take place outdoors. This paper examines the potential of walking interviews conducted in small domestic spaces to explore the ICT experiences of women aged 60+ and to discuss the challenges and advantages of this method. This case study of indoor walking interview material is a part of a larger research project on the ICT experiences of women 60+ in the Austrian province of Styria. The advantages and challenges of conducting walking interviews in the homes of interviewees are identified and explored. As this case study demonstrates, walking interviews in homes give the researcher a glimpse into the private areas of everyday life, let the interviewees lead the researcher through the space, allow the participants to conduct the conversation, and thus invite a reflection on the power dynamics inherent in the interview situation. This method also compares the statements provided by participants in semi-structured interviews with the information gathered through an encounter with media and ICTs in the home. These comparisons yield a variety of insights on prior statements through the addition of emphases, “contradictions,” or minimizing the importance of previous interview statements. Moreover, interactions with the objects in the home that are encountered during the walking interview also provide important “prompts” to stimulate a detailed and multifaceted discussion of everyday life experiences with ICTs and other media.
Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude......, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted...... and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...
Canel, Azize Nilgün
In this study, the Adlerian Interview Form has been used as a semi-structured, in-depth interview method to identify the experiences of six participants regarding Adler's concepts of early recollections and life style. Subsequent to transcribing the obtained information, recollections to be included in the analysis were subjected to the criterion…
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.
Le, Jette V; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Nexøe, Jørgen; Bro, Flemming; Søndergaard, Jens
Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood. To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective implementation activities and organized their everyday practice to support these activities. In other practices GPs discussed guidelines collectively but left the application up to the individual GP whilst others again saw no need for discussion or collective activities depending entirely on the individual GP's decision on whether and how to manage implementation. Approaches to implementation of clinical guidelines vary substantially between practices. Supporting activities should take this into account. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Tenney, Nienke H.; Schotte, Chris K. W.; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.
In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD population (n=65) with
Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.
The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual
Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren
: Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments...
Oleson, J. C.
As part of my Ph.D. research on criminal genius, I conducted 44 semi-structured interviews. One of the 44 subjects, in particular, stood out. This noteworthy individual claimed that he had killed 15 people. His story was particularly interesting because--unlike most social research involving serial killers--he claimed that he had never been…
Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs
To explore young women's decision-making about having an abortion, in particular, how they reached the decision and with whom they discussed it. Qualitative study comprising semi-structured one-to-one interviews with 24 women aged between 16 and 20 who were waiting for, or had recently had, a surgical abortion. Interviews were recorded with the consent of the interviewees, fully transcribed, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. All but one of the women had been offered counselling; one could not remember. Only two had accepted the offer of counselling, most feeling that it was unnecessary. The majority of these young women had decided that they wanted an abortion before accessing health services to request one. They had discussed their decision with someone close to them and did not feel the need to have further discussions with counsellors. Most young women have already made the decision to have an abortion before they approach their GP or a family planning clinic to request one. At present, counselling is voluntary in the UK. Requiring women to undergo couanselling would delay the process and for most women would be an unnecessary burden, whilst also diverting resources from those women who require counselling.
Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…
This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…
Vincent, Christopher James; Blandford, Ann
We present findings of a UK study into how those involved in purchasing interactive medical devices go about evaluating usability, the challenges that arise, and opportunities for improvement. The study focused on procurement of infusion devices because these are used by various professionals across healthcare. A semi-structured interview study was carried out involving a range of stakeholders (20 in total) involved in or impacted by medical device procurement. Data was analysed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method designed to support the identification, analysis and reporting of patterns. In principle, health service purchasing was found to accommodate consideration of equipment usability. In practice, the evaluation process was driven primarily by engineering standards; assessment of local needs did not accommodate substantive assessment of usability; and choice was limited by the availability of equipment on the marketplace. We discuss ways in which purchasing could be improved through techniques that account for social circumstances. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of a study which explored advanced learners of English engagement with their mobile devices to develop learning experiences that meet their needs and goals as foreign language learners. The data were collected from 20 students by means of a semi-structured interview. The gathered data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of the study demonstrated that, on the one hand, some subjects manifested heightened awareness relating to the advantageous role of mobile devices in their learning endeavors, their ability to reach for suitable tools and retrieve necessary information so as to achieve their goals, meet their needs and adjust their learning of English to their personal learning styles, and on the other, a rather intuitive and/or ad hoc use of their mobile devices in the classroom.
Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia
One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.
The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de
Mariana Cristina Lobato dos Santos Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available The 15-minute family interview is a condensed form of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM and CFIM that aims to contribute to the establishment of a therapeutic relationship between nurses and family and to implement interventions to promote health and suffering relief, even during brief interactions. This study investigated the experience of nurses from the Family Health Strategy (FHS who used the 15-minute interview on postpartum home. The qualitative research was conducted in three stages: participants' training program, utilization of the 15-minute family interview by participants, and interviews with nurses. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight nurses. The thematic analysis revealed two main themes: dealing with the challenge of a new practice and evaluating the assignment. This work shows that this tool can be used to deepen relationships between nurses and families in the Family Health Strategy.
Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...
Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael
, time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...
Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina
The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…
Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.; Braet, C.; Arntz, A.; Beelen, I.
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (Kid-SCID) is a semi-structured interview for the classification of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study presents a first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Kid-SCID in a Dutch sample of children
J. K. Poussin
Full Text Available Flood risk throughout Europe has increased in the last few decades, and is projected to increase further owing to continued development in flood-prone areas and climate change. In recent years, studies have shown that adequate undertaking of semi-structural and non-structural measures can considerably decrease the costs of floods for households. However, there is little insight into how such measures can decrease the risk beyond the local level, now and in the future. To gain such insights, a modelling framework using the Damagescanner model with land-use and inundation maps for 2000 and 2030 was developed and applied to the Meuse river basin, in the region of Limburg, in the southeast of the Netherlands. The research suggests that annual flood risk may increase by up to 185% by 2030 compared with 2000, as a result of combined land-use and climate changes. The independent contributions of climate change and land-use change to the simulated increase are 108% and 37%, respectively. The risk-reduction capacity of the implementation of spatial zoning measures, which are meant to limit and regulate developments in flood-prone areas, is between 25% and 45%. Mitigation factors applied to assess the potential impact of three mitigation strategies (dry-proofing, wet-proofing, and the combination of dry- and wet-proofing in residential areas show that these strategies have a risk-reduction capacity of between 21% and 40%, depending on their rate of implementation. Combining spatial zoning and mitigation measures could reduce the total increase in risk by up to 60%. Policy implications of these results are discussed. They focus on the undertaking of effective mitigation measures, and possible ways to increase their implementation by households.
Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism.
Hedin, Katarina; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Gröndal, Hedvig; Brorsson, Annika; Thulesius, Hans; André, Malin
To explore how a group of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with a sore throat in relation to current guidelines as expressed in interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse semi-structured interviews. Swedish primary care. A strategic sample of 25 GPs. Perceived management of sore throat patients. It was found that nine of the interviewed GPs were adherent to current guidelines for sore throat and 16 were non-adherent. The two groups differed in terms of guideline knowledge, which was shared within the team for adherent GPs while idiosyncratic knowledge dominated for the non-adherent GPs. Adherent GPs had no or low concerns for bacterial infections and differential diagnosis whilst non-adherent GPs believed that in patients with a sore throat any bacterial infection should be identified and treated with antibiotics. Patient history and examination was mainly targeted by adherent GPs whilst for non-adherent GPs it was often redundant. Non-adherent GPs reported problems getting patients to abstain from antibiotics, whilst no such problems were reported in adherent GPs. This interview study of sore throat management in a strategically sampled group of Swedish GPs showed that while two-thirds were non-adherent and had a liberal attitude to antibiotics one-third were guideline adherent with a restricted view on antibiotics. Non-adherent GPs revealed significant knowledge gaps. Adherent GPs had discussed guidelines within the primary care team while non-adherent GPs had not. Guideline implementation thus seemed to be promoted by knowledge shared in team discussions.
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...
中村, 優治; ナカムラ, ユウジ; Yuji, NAKAMURA
Farley, Roy C.; Rubin, Stanford E.
Part of a five-part package (see note) of training materials to teach interviewing skills to human services personnel, this typescript manual is intended for use as a visual reference to aid in understanding the taped dialogues of the packages tape/slide demonstrations of interview interaction, and for referral in class discussions. The typescript…
Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella
The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.
, an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences. With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods. Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology. Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...
Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Goldstein, Henri; Lamont, Ronald F; Joergensen, Jan Stener
to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11 obstetric healthcare professionals working in a perinatal setting. a thematic descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional's experiences were recorded verbatim during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed, and analysed using a descriptive analysis methodology. motivational interviewing was found to be a useful method when communicating with obese pregnant women. The method made the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style both when encountering pregnant women and in their interaction with colleagues. However, most of the healthcare professionals emphasised that time was crucial and they had to be dedicated to the motivational interviewing method. The healthcare professionals further stated that it enabled them to become more professional in their daily work and made some of them feel less 'burned out', 'powerless' and 'stressed' as they felt they had a communication method in handling difficult workloads. healthcare professionals experienced motivational interviewing to be a useful method when working perinatally. The motivational interviewing method permitted heightened awareness of the healthcare professionals communication method with the patients and increased their ability to handle a difficult workload. Overall, lack of time restricted the use of the motivational interviewing method on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Faz Chowdhury is the Chief Executive Officer of Nemaura Pharma (Loughborough, UK), a pharmaceutical drug-delivery company developing patented formulation technologies alongside transdermal systems. Having originally trained as a pharmaceutical scientist, Dr Chowdhury received his PhD in Nanomedicine from the University of Oxford (Oxford, UK). With recognized expertise in the pharmaceutical industry and the holder of more than 15 patents on drug-delivery systems, Dr Chowdhury discussed the challenges faced in microneedle-based drug delivery, an area widely expected to revolutionize the transdermal field over the coming years. Interview conducted by James Potticary, Commissioning Editor.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and impact of long term conditions continues to rise. Care planning for people with long term conditions has been a policy priority in England for chronic disease management. However, it is not clear how care planning is currently understood, translated and implemented in primary care. This study explores experience of care planning in patients with long term conditions in three areas in England. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 predominantly elderly patients with multiple long term conditions. The interviews were designed to explore variations in and emergent experiences of care planning. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts involved reflexively coding and re-coding data into categories and themes. Results No participants reported experiencing explicit care planning discussions or receiving written documentation setting out a negotiated care plan and they were unfamiliar with the term ‘care planning’. However, most described some components of care planning which occurred over a number of contacts with health care professionals which we term”reactive” care planning. Here, key elements of care planning including goal setting and action planning were rare. Additionally, poor continuity and coordination of care, lack of time in consultations, and patient concerns about what was legitimate to discuss with the doctor were described. Conclusions Amongst this population, elements of care planning were present in their accounts, but a structured, comprehensive process and consequent written record (as outlined in English Department of Health policy was not evident. Further research needs to explore the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to care planning for different patient groups.
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.
Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...
Farndon, Lisa; Robinson, Victoria; Nicholls, Emily; Vernon, Wesley
A previous study highlighted the importance of footwear to individuals' sense of their identity, demonstrating that shoes must 'fit' someone socially, as well as functionally. However, unhealthy shoes can have a detrimental effect on both foot health and mobility. This project utilises qualitative social science methods to enable podiatrists to understand the broader contribution of footwear to patients' sense of themselves and from this an online toolkit was developed to aid footwear education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six podiatrists/shoe-fitters and 13 people with foot pathologies, some of whom also completed shoe diaries. These were supplemented with some follow-up interviews and photographs of participants' own shoes were taken to allow in-depth discussions. Four areas related to 'fit' were identified; practicalities, personal, purpose and pressures, all of which need to be considered when discussing changes in footwear. These were incorporated into an online toolkit which was further validated by service users and practitioners in a focus group. This toolkit can support podiatrists in partnership with patients to identify and address possible barriers to changing footwear towards a more suitable shoe. Enabling patients to make healthier shoe choices will help contribute to improvements in their foot health and mobility.
Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler.......Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler....
The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These
Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier
The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.
For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...
Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid
As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.
O'Dor, Sarah L; Grasso, Damion J; Forbes, Danielle; Bates, John E; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Elucidating the complex mechanisms by which harsh parenting increases risk of child psychopathology is key to targeted prevention. This requires nuanced methods that capture the varied perceptions and experiences of diverse families. The Family Socialization Interview-Revised (FSI-R), adapted from an interview developed by Dodge et al. (Child Development, 65, 649-665, 1994), is a comprehensive, semi-structured interview for characterizing methods of parental discipline used with young children. The FSI-R coding system systematically rates parenting style, usual discipline techniques, and most intense physical and psychological discipline based on rater judgment across two eras: (1) birth to the previous year, and (2) the previous year to present. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the FSI-R in a diverse, high-risk community sample of 386 mothers and their children, ages 3 to 6 years. Interrater reliability was good to excellent for codes capturing physically and psychologically harsh parenting, and restrictive/punitive parenting styles. Findings supported the FSI-R's convergent and incremental validity. Importantly, the FSI-R demonstrated incremental utility, explaining unique variance in children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms beyond that explained by traditional surveys and observed parenting. The FSI-R appeared particularly promising for capturing risk associated with young children's depressive symptoms, as these were generally not significantly associated with other measures of harsh parenting. Overall, findings support the added value of the FSI-R within a multi-method assessment of disciplinary practices across early child development. Future implications for prevention are discussed.
Fonsino, Frank J.
Discusses the rationale for establishing criteria for evaluating oral history interviews. Presents seven evaluation categories relating to oral history tapes and three categories relating to typescripts. (CK)
McCrohon, Mark; Nyland, Berenice
This paper examined domestic educator and Chinese international student (CIS) perspectives on their experience of the commoditisation of international higher education in Australia. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with academic and student participants. A Trans-disciplinary Framework derived from grounded theory and the Auditable…
Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131
Norman, E J
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.
Wood, Fiona; Martin, Sean Michael; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Elwyn, Glyn; Precious, Elizabeth; Kinnersley, Paul
The need to involve patients more in decisions about their care, the ethical imperative and concerns about ligation and complaints has highlighted the issue of informed consent and how it is obtained. In order for a patient to make an informed decision about their treatment, they need appropriate discussion of the risks and benefits of the treatment. To explore doctors' perspectives of gaining informed consent for routine surgical procedures. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews selected by purposive sampling. Data were analysed thematically. Twenty doctors in two teaching hospitals in the UK. Doctors described that while consent could be taken over a series of consultations, it was common for consent to be taken immediately prior to surgery. Juniors were often taking consent when they were unfamiliar with the procedure. Doctors used a range of communication techniques to inform patients about the procedure and its risks including quantifying risks, personalizing risk, simplification of language and use of drawings. Barriers to effective consent taking were reported to be shortage of time, clinician inexperience and patients' reluctance to be involved. Current consent processes do not appear to be ideal for many doctors. In particular, junior doctors are often not confident taking consent for surgical procedures and require more support to undertake this task. This might include written information for junior staff, observation by senior colleagues when undertaking the task and ward-based communication skills teaching on consent taking. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kinsey, Katharine; Firth, Jill; Elwyn, Glyn; Edwards, Adrian; Brain, Katherine; Marrin, Katy; Nye, Alan; Wood, Fiona
Patient decision support tools have been developed as a means of providing accurate and accessible information in order for patients to make informed decisions about their care. Option Grids ™ are a type of decision support tool specifically designed to be used during clinical encounters. To explore patients' views of the Option Grid encounter tool used in clinical consultations with physiotherapists, in comparison with usual care, within a patient population who are likely to be disadvantaged by age and low health literacy. Semi-structured interviews with 72 patients (36 who had been given an Option Grid in their consultation and 36 who had not). Thematic analysis explored patients' understanding of treatment options, perceptions of involvement, and readability and utility of the Option Grid. Interviews suggested that the Option Grid facilitated more detailed discussion about the risks and benefits of a wider range of treatment options for osteoarthritis of the knee. Participants indicated that the Option Grid was clear and aided their understanding of a structured progression of the options as their condition advanced, although it was not clear whether the Option Grid facilitated greater engagement in shared decision making. The Option Grid for osteoarthritis of the knee was well received by patient participants who reported that it helped them to understand their options, and made the notion of choice explicit. Use of Option Grids should be considered within routine consultations. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kangasniemi, Mari; Blomberg, Katja; Korhonen, Anne
to describe mothers' perceptions of their health choices, related duties and responsibilities. descriptive exploratory study with qualitative research method. interviews conducted after the clients' regular health visits to one publicly provided maternity clinic in a southern city in Finland. 13 mothers aged between 21 and 40-years-old, who were pregnant or had given birth in the past four weeks. Six of participants were pregnant or had delivered for first time and it was the second to fourth pregnancy for the remainder. one-to-one semi-structured interviews using the inductive content analysis method. women reported increased responsibility for their health choices for themselves and their baby during pregnancy. However, their duties and responsibilities were seldom discussed at maternity clinics. The duty to reconsider their health choices was described as a predictor of commitment to their pregnancy and motherhood, but they recognised that it required sufficient knowledge to realise this. In addition, the mothers said their health choices changed from private to one of public interest during this period. health choices are connected to maternal duties and responsibilities, but they can sometimes lack clarity during this new phase of life. In future, more research should be conducted to study maternal duties and responsibilities in different contexts. findings highlight the skills of nurses and midwives at maternity clinics to discuss and support mothers' moral pondering during pregnancy. Although health choices in general are well recognised as a part of maternal counselling, these findings suggest a moral perspective should be incorporated into the advice that is provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larkings, Josephine S; Brown, Patricia M; Scholz, Brett
Causal beliefs are thought to influence consumers' perceptions of their mental illness and self-stigma, and may impact treatment and recovery. Understanding consumers' perspective on causes being addressed in treatment is vital to help guide future research and improve services. This study aimed to explore consumers' views on causes of mental illness being addressed in treatment, along with their subjective experiences of how causes were focused on in their treatment. Using a qualitative approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 consumers who self-identified as having a mental illness. A thematic analytic framework was used to identify and analyse themes that emerged within the data. Consumers believed that causes were important and should be addressed in treatment, and identified several associated benefits including increased insight/personal understanding of their illness, symptom management and relapse prevention and reduced self-blame. Negative consequences and considerations were also identified. Causes help consumers make sense of their illness, and consumers would like causes to be addressed in treatment. More research is needed on how mental health professionals can address causes effectively as consumers are currently dissatisfied with how causes were discussed in their treatment.
Beatriz Maria Boessio Atrib Zanchet
Full Text Available Current paper is the result of a research on twenty-eight starting university teachers in four universities in southern Brazil and seeks to understand their concern on pedagogical discussion spaces as a possible support for the development of their teaching practice. The research started from the point that starting teachers should insert themselves within higher education culture and find pedagogical support to develop their lectures. As a rule, they have recently obtained a doctoral degree, complying with the required academic title for their tenure, but with scanty or no pedagogical preparation. The subjects answered a semi-structured interview, with issues on the challenges, difficulties and possibilities of pedagogical support pointed out when they started their activities. The quantitative data form the corpus analyzed used in the analysis. The paper is based on studies by Garcia (1999, 2009b, Vaillant and Garcia (2012 and others. Results showed that pedagogical education and professional development of university professors, developed through pedagogical spaces, are essential for and welcomed by these teachers. An overall policy is required that valorizes the teaching tasks as fundamental for achieving teaching quality.
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270......Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270...
Outram, Sue; Harris, Gillian; Kelly, Brian; Cohen, Martin; Bylund, Carma L; Landa, Yulia; Levin, Tomer T; Sandhu, Harsimrat; Vamos, Marina; Loughland, Carmel
This research sought to gain insight into the processes used by clinicians to discuss a schizophrenia diagnosis with patients/families, with the aim of informing the development of a communications skills training program. A generic qualitative methodological approach was used. Sixteen mental health clinicians were recruited. Semi-structured individual interviews were used to explore their perceptions and experiences communicating a schizophrenia diagnosis. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and thematic analysis undertaken. There were five key themes relating to the process of communication about a diagnosis of schizophrenia: (1) orientation to patient care, (2) planning of communication, (3) the impact of team leadership and inter/intra-professional functioning on communication tasks, (4) the roles of different clinicians in communicating about diagnosis and treatment, and (5) time and resource deficiencies. Despite expressing care and concern for vulnerable patients and embracing the concept of multidisciplinary teams, communicating diagnostic information to patients and families was generally unplanned for, with little consistency regarding leadership approaches, or how the team communicated diagnostic information to the patient and family. This contributed to tensions between different team members. The findings demonstrated a number of issues compromising good communication around a schizophrenia diagnosis, both in terms of clinician skill and clinical context, and support the importance of education and training for all members of the multidisciplinary team about their role in the communication process.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...
Christiansen, Ask Vest
Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping.......Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping....
British painter Francis Bacon (1909-1992) was known for the eloquence with which he talked about his art. He was easy to talk to, and was interviewed countless times by numerous critics. However, when studying Bacon's paintings one soon comes across the published interviews with art critic and curator David Sylvester (1924-2001), who interviewed him as many as 18 times between 1962 and 1986. Art historian Sandra Kisters argues that Sylvester's interviews with Bacon are carefully constructed a...
Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard
relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....
Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.
Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
Williams, Janet B W; Kobak, Kenneth A
The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to improve reliability with other scales. To describe the development and test-retest reliability of a structured interview guide for the MADRS (SIGMA). A total of 162 test-retest interviews were conducted by 81 rater pairs. Each patient was interviewed twice, once by each rater conducting an independent interview. The intraclass correlation for total score between raters using the SIGMA was r=0.93, Preliability. Use of the SIGMA can result in high reliability of MADRS scores in evaluating patients with depression.
Osilla, Karen Chan; Kennedy, David P; Hunter, Sarah B; Maksabedian, Ervant
Social networks play positive and negative roles in the lives of homeless people influencing their alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) and HIV risk behaviors. We developed a four-session computer-assisted social network motivational interviewing intervention for homeless adults transitioning into housing. We examined the acceptability of the intervention among staff and residents at an organization that provides permanent supportive housing through iterative rounds of beta testing. Staff were 3 men and 3 women who were residential support staff (i.e., case managers and administrators). Residents were 8 men (7 African American, 1 Hispanic) and 3 women (2 African American, 1 Hispanic) who had histories of AOD and HIV risk behaviors. We conducted a focus group with staff who gave input on how to improve the delivery of the intervention to enhance understanding and receptivity among new residents. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews and collected self-report satisfaction data from residents. Three themes emerged over the course of the resident interviews. Residents reported that the intervention was helpful in discussing their social network, that seeing the visualizations was more impactful than just talking about their network, and that the intervention prompted thoughts about changing their AOD use and HIV risk networks. This study is the first of its kind that has developed, with input from Housing First staff and residents, a motivational interviewing intervention that targets both the structure and composition of one's social network. These results suggest that providing visual network feedback with a guided motivational interviewing discussion is a promising approach to supporting network change. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02140359.
Horsley, Helen L; Shepherd, Kate; Brown, Heather; Carey, Irene; Matthews, Beverley; O’Donoghue, Donal; Vinen, Katie; Murtagh, Felicity EM
Background: There is a need to improve end-of-life care for people with end-stage kidney disease, particularly due to the increasingly elderly, frail and co-morbid end-stage kidney disease population. Timely, sensitive and individualised Advance Care Planning discussions are acceptable and beneficial for people with end-stage kidney disease and can help foster realistic hopes and goals. Aim: To explore the experiences of people with end-stage kidney disease regarding starting haemodialysis, its impact on quality of life and their preferences for future care and to explore the Advance Care Planning needs of this population and the timing of this support. Study design: Semi-structured qualitative interview study of people receiving haemodialysis. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Recruitment ceased once data saturation was achieved. Setting/participants: A total of 20 patients at two UK National Health Service hospitals, purposively sampled by age, time on haemodialysis and symptom burden. Results: Themes emerged around: Looking Back, emotions of commencing haemodialysis; Current Experiences, illness and treatment burdens; and Looking Ahead, facing the realities. Challenges throughout the trajectory included getting information, communicating with staff and the ‘conveyor belt’ culture of haemodialysis units. Participants reported a lack of opportunity to discuss their future, particularly if their health deteriorated, and variable involvement in treatment decisions. However, discussion of these sensitive issues was more acceptable to some than others. Conclusion: Renal patients have considerable unmet Advance Care Planning needs. There is a need to normalise discussions about preferences and priorities in renal and haemodialysis units earlier in the disease trajectory. However, an individualised approach is essential – one size does not fit all. PMID:25527527
Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter. Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...
Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.
Lotz, Julia D; Jox, Ralf J; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Führer, Monika
Pediatric advance care planning differs from the adult setting in several aspects, including patients' diagnoses, minor age, and questionable capacity to consent. So far, research has largely neglected the professionals' perspective. We aimed to investigate the attitudes and needs of health care professionals with regard to pediatric advance care planning. This is a qualitative interview study with experts in pediatric end-of-life care. A qualitative content analysis was performed. We conducted 17 semi-structured interviews with health care professionals caring for severely ill children/adolescents, from different professions, care settings, and institutions. Perceived problems with pediatric advance care planning relate to professionals' discomfort and uncertainty regarding end-of-life decisions and advance directives. Conflicts may arise between physicians and non-medical care providers because both avoid taking responsibility for treatment limitations according to a minor's advance directive. Nevertheless, pediatric advance care planning is perceived as helpful by providing an action plan for everyone and ensuring that patient/parent wishes are respected. Important requirements for pediatric advance care planning were identified as follows: repeated discussions and shared decision-making with the family, a qualified facilitator who ensures continuity throughout the whole process, multi-professional conferences, as well as professional education on advance care planning. Despite a perceived need for pediatric advance care planning, several barriers to its implementation were identified. The results remain to be verified in a larger cohort of health care professionals. Future research should focus on developing and testing strategies for overcoming the existing barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wagemans, Annemieke M A; Van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J; Proot, Ireen M; Metsemakers, Job; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Curfs, Leopold M G
Not much is known about the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities. To clarify the process of end-of-life decision-making for people with intellectual disabilities from the perspective of patient representatives. A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews, recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory procedures. We interviewed 16 patient representatives after the deaths of 10 people with intellectual disabilities in the Netherlands. The core category 'Deciding for someone else' describes the context in which patient representatives took end-of-life decisions. The patient representatives felt highly responsible for the outcomes. They had not involved the patients in the end-of-life decision-making process, nor any professionals other than the doctor. The categories of 'Motives' and 'Support' were connected to the core category of 'Deciding for someone else'. 'Motives' refers to the patient representatives' ideas about quality of life, prevention from suffering, patients who cannot understand the burden of interventions and emotional reasons reported by patient representatives. 'Support' refers to the support that patient representatives wanted the doctors to give to them in the decision-making process. From the perspective of the patient representatives, the process of end-of-life decision-making can be improved by ensuring clear roles and an explicit description of the tasks and responsibilities of all participants. Regular discussion between everyone involved including people with intellectual disabilities themselves can improve knowledge about each other's motives for end-of-decisions and can clarify expectations towards each other.
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW), and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Blane, David N.; Macdonald, Sara; Morrison, David; O’Donnell, Catherine A.
Background Primary care has a key role to play in the prevention and management of obesity, but there remain barriers to engagement in weight management by primary care practitioners. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders in adult weight management services on the role of primary care in adult weight management. Methods Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with nine senior dietitians involved in NHS weight management from seven Scottish health bo...
Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja
Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three wom...
Byrd, Marquita L.; Robinson, Andrea
The interview is a special case of interpersonal communication. It is a communication event with a serious and predetermined purpose with the basic mode of communication being the asking and answering of questions. People are engaged in interviews throughout their lives from the employment setting to the counseling setting. This annotated…
Hass, Michael R.
Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…
Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe
the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration.......Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration....
Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron
Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)
Hunukumbure, Agra Dilshani; Smith, Susan F; Das, Saroj
High quality feedback is vital to learning in medical education but many students and teachers have expressed dissatisfaction on current feedback practices. Lack of teachers' insight into students' feedback requirements may be a key, which might be addressed by giving control to the students with student led feedback practices. The conceptual framework was built on three dimensions of learning theory by Illeris and Vygotsky's zone of proximal development and scaffolding. We introduced a feedback session with self-reflection and peer feedback in the form of open discussion on video-recorded student performances under teacher's guidance. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore students' perception on this holistic feedback approach and to investigate ways of maximising effective feedback and learning. Semi-structured interviews were used to gather data which were evaluated using a thematic analytical approach. The participants were third year medical students of Imperial College London on clinical placements at Hillingdon Hospital. Video based self-reflection helped some students to identify mistakes in communication and technical skills of which they were unaware prior to the session. Those who were new to video feedback found their expected self-image different to that of their actual image on video, leading to some distress. However many also identified that mistakes were not unique to themselves through peer videos and learnt from both model performances and from each other's mistakes. Balancing honest feedback with empathy was a challenge for many during peer discussion. The teacher played a vital role in making the session a success by providing guidance and a supportive environment. This study has demonstrated many potential benefits of this holistic feedback approach with video based self-reflection and peer discussion with students engaging at a deeper cognitive level than the standard descriptive feedback.
Conn, P Jeffrey
Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.
Petersen, Kit Stender
In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee.......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...
Memon, A; Wark, L; Holley, A; Bull, R; Koehnken, G
This paper addresses two methodological and theoretical questions relating to the Cognitive Interview (CI), which previous research has found to increase witness recall in interviews. (1) What are the effects of the CI mnemonic techniques when communication techniques are held constant? (2) How do trained interviewers compare with untrained interviewers? In this study, witnesses (college students) viewed a short film clip of a shooting and were questioned by interviewers (research assistants) trained in conducting the CI or a Structured Interview (SI)--similar to the CI except for the "cognitive" components--or by untrained interviewers (UI). The CI and SI groups recalled significantly more correct information compared to the UI group. However they also reported more errors and confabulated details. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed in terms of precisely identifying the CI facilitatory effects and consequent good practice in the forensic setting.
Hackett, Julia; Thorneloe, Rachael; Side, Lucy; Wolf, Michael; Horne, Rob; Cuzick, Jack; Smith, Samuel G
Uptake of preventive therapy for women at increased breast cancer risk in England is unknown following the introduction of UK clinical guidelines in 2013. Preventive therapy could create socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence if it is more readily accepted by particular socio-demographic groups. In this multicentre study, we investigated uptake of tamoxifen and evaluated socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with initiation. We explored women's experiences of treatment decision-making using qualitative interview data. Between September 2015 and December 2016, women (n = 732) attending an appointment at one of 20 centres in England to discuss breast cancer risk were approached to complete a survey containing socio-demographic details and nulliparity. Of the baseline survey respondents (n = 408/732, 55.7% response rate), self-reported uptake of tamoxifen at 3-month follow-up was reported in 258 (63.2%). Sixteen women participated in semi-structured interviews. One in seven (38/258 = 14.7%) women initiated tamoxifen. Women who had children were more likely to report use of tamoxifen than those without children (OR = 5.26; 95%CI: 1.13-24.49, p = 0.035). Interview data suggested that women weigh up risks and benefits of tamoxifen within the context of familial commitments, with exposure to significant other's beliefs and experiences of cancer and medication a basis for their decision. Uptake of tamoxifen is low in clinical practice. There were no socio-demographic differences in uptake, suggesting that the introduction of breast cancer preventive therapy is unlikely to create socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence. Women's decision-making was influenced by familial priorities, particularly having children.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Full Text Available This issue of Designs for Learning features an interview with professor Staffan Selander, who has contributed in important ways to the shaping of the field we talk about as “designs for learning”. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests, influences and experiences that have formed a background to the development of his theoretical approach to issues concerning education and learning.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
S. R. S. Varadhan is the recipient of the 2007 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. On May 21, 2007, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Varadhan was interviewed by Martin Raussen of Aalborg University and Christian Skau of the Norwegian University of Science...... and Technology. This interview originally appeared in the September 2007 issue of the European Mathematical Society Newsletter....
What do midwives need to know about approaches of women towards labour pain management? A qualitative interview study into expectations of management of labour pain for pregnant women receiving midwife-led care in the Netherlands
Klomp, T.; Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Hutton, E.K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objective: to investigate factors important to women receiving midwife-led care with regard to their expectations for management of labour pain. Design: semi-structured ante partum interviews and analyses using constant comparison method. Participants: fifteen pregnant women between 36 and 40 weeks
What do midwives need to know about approaches of women towards labour pain management? A qualitative interview study into expectations of management of labour pain for pregnant women receiving midwife-led care in the Netherlands
Klomp, T.; Mannien, J.; Jonge, A. de; Hutton, E.K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: to investigate factors important to women receiving midwife-led care with regard to their expectations for management of labour pain. DESIGN: semi-structured ante partum interviews and analyses using constant comparison method. PARTICIPANTS: fifteen pregnant women between 36 and 40 weeks
Describes how to psychologically evaluate and take advantage of the four basic personality types that are encountered in job interviews. Discusses each personality type and makes generalizations about their dress, office, thinking patterns, and preferences. Summarizes how each might react to a woman in an interview situation. (CW)
Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth
Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.
-anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...
The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott J. Kelly is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Kelly became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is an explanation of the why this required mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope must take place at such an early date, replacement of the gyroscopes, transistors, and computers. Also discussed are the Chandra X Ray Astrophysics Facility, and a brief touch on Kelly's responsibility during any of the given four space walks scheduled for this mission.
Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust
The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica
This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…
Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis
Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…
Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine
Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…
von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey
This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...
Jones, Karyn Dayle
In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…
van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.
This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of
This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…
Bristowe, Katherine; Hodson, Matthew; Wee, Bee; Almack, Kathryn; Johnson, Katherine; Daveson, Barbara A; Koffman, Jonathan; McEnhill, Linda; Harding, Richard
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans (LGBT) people have higher risk of certain life-limiting illnesses and unmet needs in advanced illness and bereavement. ACCESSCare is the first national study to examine in depth the experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness. To explore health-care experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness to elicit views regarding sharing identity (sexual orientation/gender history), accessing services, discrimination/exclusion and best-practice examples. Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. In total, 40 LGBT people from across the United Kingdom facing advanced illness: cancer ( n = 21), non-cancer ( n = 16) and both a cancer and a non-cancer conditions ( n = 3). In total, five main themes emerged: (1) person-centred care needs that may require additional/different consideration for LGBT people (including different social support structures and additional legal concerns), (2) service level or interactional (created in the consultation) barriers/stressors (including heteronormative assumptions and homophobic/transphobic behaviours), (3) invisible barriers/stressors (including the historical context of pathology/criminalisation, fears and experiences of discrimination) and (4) service level or interactional facilitators (including acknowledging and including partners in critical discussions). These all shape (5) individuals' preferences for disclosing identity. Prior experiences of discrimination or violence, in response to disclosure, were carried into future care interactions and heightened with the frailty of advanced illness. Despite recent legislative change, experiences of discrimination and exclusion in health care persist for LGBT people. Ten recommendations, for health-care professionals and services/institutions, are made from the data. These are simple, low cost and offer potential gains in access to, and outcomes of, care for LGBT people.
Bristowe, Katherine; Hodson, Matthew; Wee, Bee; Almack, Kathryn; Johnson, Katherine; Daveson, Barbara A; Koffman, Jonathan; McEnhill, Linda; Harding, Richard
Background: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and/or trans (LGBT) people have higher risk of certain life-limiting illnesses and unmet needs in advanced illness and bereavement. ACCESSCare is the first national study to examine in depth the experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness. Aim: To explore health-care experiences of LGBT people facing advanced illness to elicit views regarding sharing identity (sexual orientation/gender history), accessing services, discrimination/exclusion and best-practice examples. Design: Semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews analysed using thematic analysis. Setting/participants: In total, 40 LGBT people from across the United Kingdom facing advanced illness: cancer (n = 21), non-cancer (n = 16) and both a cancer and a non-cancer conditions (n = 3). Results: In total, five main themes emerged: (1) person-centred care needs that may require additional/different consideration for LGBT people (including different social support structures and additional legal concerns), (2) service level or interactional (created in the consultation) barriers/stressors (including heteronormative assumptions and homophobic/transphobic behaviours), (3) invisible barriers/stressors (including the historical context of pathology/criminalisation, fears and experiences of discrimination) and (4) service level or interactional facilitators (including acknowledging and including partners in critical discussions). These all shape (5) individuals’ preferences for disclosing identity. Prior experiences of discrimination or violence, in response to disclosure, were carried into future care interactions and heightened with the frailty of advanced illness. Conclusion: Despite recent legislative change, experiences of discrimination and exclusion in health care persist for LGBT people. Ten recommendations, for health-care professionals and services/institutions, are made from the data. These are simple, low cost and offer potential gains in access
Sysko, Robyn; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Hildebrandt, Tom; Klimek, Patrycja; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective Existing measures for DSM-IV eating disorder diagnoses have notable limitations, and there are important differences between DSM-IV and DSM-5 feeding and eating disorders. This study developed and validated a new semi-structured interview, the Eating Disorders Assessment for DSM-5 (EDA-5). Method Two studies evaluated the utility of the EDA-5. Study 1 compared the diagnostic validity of the EDA-5 to the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and evaluated the test-retest reliability of the new measure. Study 2 compared the diagnostic validity of an EDA-5 electronic application (“app”) to clinician interview and self-report assessments. Results In Study 1, the kappa for EDE and EDA-5 eating disorder diagnoses was 0.74 across all diagnoses (n= 64), with a range of κ=0.65 for Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED)/Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (USFED) to κ=0.90 for Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The EDA-5 test-retest kappa coefficient was 0.87 across diagnoses. For Study 2, clinical interview versus “app” conditions revealed a kappa of 0.83 for all eating disorder diagnoses (n=71). Across individual diagnostic categories, kappas ranged from 0.56 for OSFED/USFED to 0.94 for BN. Discussion High rates of agreement were found between diagnoses by EDA-5 and the EDE, and EDA-5 and clinical interviews. As this study supports the validity of the EDA-5 to generate DSM-5 eating disorders and the reliability of these diagnoses, the EDA-5 may be an option for the assessment of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and BED. Additional research is needed to evaluate the utility of the EDA-5 in assessing DSM-5 feeding disorders. PMID:25639562
Hutsebaut, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Feenstra, D.J.; Weekers, L.C.; De Saeger, H.
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes
Østergaard, Elisabeth Bomholt; Sritharan, Sophia Sajitha; Thomsen, Pernille Maja
Title Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study Authors Elisabeth Bomholt Østergaard, Sophia Sajitha Sritharan, Pernille Maja Thomsen, Anne Dal Kristiansen, Anders Løkke Background: Surprisingly few people in Denmark with Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) engage in physical activity even though it is evident that pulmonary rehabilitation has positive effects on activity level, dyspnea, anxiety, fatigue and quality of life. Aims: To explore why people with COPD do not engage in physical activity and their motivational...... factors for being physically active. Methods: Fieldwork among five people with COPD in Jutland, Denmark 2013-2016 using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Supplementary short semistructured interviews with three general practitioners, and participation in a closed Facebook-group for people with COPD...
Full Text Available The first part of the interview deals with the education of Herwig Wolfram in Wien and Los Angeles (one year and the relationship with the scholars who influenced him more (H. von Fichtenau, G.B. Ladner, the identification of the study of kingship and the choice of combining constantly the historical with the philological method. The interview then turns to the encounter with R. Wenskus and the theory of the ethnogenesis and the impact of this encounter on the studies of Wolfram and ultimately on the “Viennese” scholars. Another part is devoted to the book on the Goths and to the developments of the "Wien school" in relation to the study of early medieval peoples of Europe and to participation in international debate, very vibrant, on the subject. Also taken into consideration the themes of kingship, the local history, the "auxiliary disciplines" and historiographical communication and finally how research in organized and evaluated in Austria.
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....
Kathryn Roulston PhD
Full Text Available Recent methodological work that draws on a ‘constructionist’ approach to interviewing - conceptualizes the interview as a socially-situated encounter in which both interviewer and interviewee play active roles. This approach takes the construction of interview data as a topic of examination. This article adopts the view that close examination of how particular interactions are accomplished provides additional insights into not only the topics discussed, but also how research design and methods might be modified to meet the needs of projects. Focus is specifically given to investigation of sequences observed as puzzling or challenging during interviews, or via interview data that emerged as problematic in the analysis process. How might close analyses of these sorts of sequences be used to inform research design and interview methods? The article explores (1 how problematic interactions identified in the analysis of focus group data can lead to modifications in research design, (2 an approach to dealing with reported data in representations of findings, and (3 how data analysis can inform question formulation in successive rounds of data generation. Findings from these types of examinations of interview data generation and analysis are valuable for informing both interview practice as well as research design in further research.
Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena
To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.
Paa-Kerner, Greta; Cambridge Marketing College
Interview about e-commerce.\\ud \\ud The Cambridge Marketing College interviews Greta Paa-Kerner to learn about the dynamic world of e-commerce. She discusses online retail trends and shopping influencers.
Human Resources Division
The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...
Full Text Available RoundTable on Technology, Teaching and Tools. This is a roundtable audio interview conducted by James Farmer, founder of Edublogs, with Anne Bartlett-Bragg (University of Technology Sydney and Chris Bigum (Deakin University. Skype was used to make and record the audio conference and the resulting sound file was edited by Andrew McLauchlan.
Doll, Jessica L.
Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…
Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.
Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…
Discusses the value of communications skills in geographical education. Describes the use of realistic interviews that were a part of small-group project work. Explains that students wrote job specifications, a curriculum vitae, a cover letter, and conducted interview panels. (CMK)
In an interview, the manager of the IEA market and energy security Directorate comments the results of the Rio+20 summit, the possible evolutions of oil price in a context of world energy demand under tension and of geopolitical risks, the trends on the world gas market as they have been published by the IEA, how to solve the gas competition issue in Europe, the future of the oil refining activity in Europe as it looses competitiveness, and the indexing of gas price on oil price
Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.
Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott D. Altman is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Altman became a pilot, the events that led to his interest, his career path through the Navy, and then finally, his selection by NASA as an astronaut. Other interesting information discussed in this one-on-one interview was his work on the movie set of "Top Gun," the highlights of his Navy career, and possible shorter time frame turnarounds for missions. Altman also mentions the scheduled docking with the new International Space Station (ISS) after the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module.
Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .
Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”
Ж В Пузанова
Full Text Available The quality of sociological data is the problem that cannot lose relevance in the works of methodologists and practicing sociologists for decades. Procedures and techniques for the improvement of the quality of information for all type of survey methods are developing. The purpose of the article is to inform the interviewers conducting semi-structured or unstructured interviews of the recommendations developed on the basis of the theory of psychotypes (by V.V. Ponomarenko. This technology will allow to improve the quality of sociological data. Identification of the psychotype of the respondent and his emotional reactions to different sensitive topics during the interview are the basis of this technology. Emotional reactions can be traced by nonverbal cues (facial expressions, gestures and poses and interpreted by the technology of the analysis of nonverbal reactions developed and approved earlier. During the multi-stage experiment, the reactions significant in the course of interview were traced and analyzed - irritation, surprise, sadness, contempt, joy, fear, disgust, stress/discomfort, doubt/indecision, manifestations of mental processes. At the first phase, representatives of ‘ideal types’ of each psychotype were selected by an abridged psychological test and external diagnostics based on sensitive topics. As a result, the recommendations for a semi-structured interview were formulated. To use this technique, it is necessary to test an interviewee before the interview by the abridged psychological technique (in case there are doubts after the visual diagnostics. According to the psychotype the interviewer pays attention to the sensitive topics of the in-terview, and during the interview can reformulate the open-ended questions to reduce the sensitivity of significant topics for each respondent.
Elaine Mardis Ph.D., Professor of Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine, discusses her translational research applying genomics techniques to clinical trials, and forecasts the future of team science and cancer genomics.
Forsberg, Lars; Ernst, Denise; Farbring, Carl Åke
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred, directive counselling style for helping people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change and shown to decrease drug and alcohol use. A five-session semi-structured MI intervention [Beteende, Samtal, Förändring (BSF; Behaviour, Counselling, Change)] was implemented in Swedish prisons. To examine whether, in a real-life implementation of semi-structured MI, staff receiving ongoing MI training, based on audio-recorded feedback in peer groups (BSF+), possess greater MI skill compared with staff receiving workshop-only MI training (BSF), and staff conducting usual prison planning interviews (UPI). Prisoners were randomised to one of the three interventions. The fi rst sessions between staff and prisoner with complete data were assessed with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code 3.0. Content analysis of 45 staff: prisoner sessions revealed that counsellors in the BSF+ group were significantly more competent in MI than those in the UPI group, but there was no difference in MI competency between the BSF and UPI groups. Overall, staff were rated as not having achieved beginning proficiency. Our findings suggest that staff delivering motivational interviewing programmes for substance-misusing prisoners in Sweden are not being given sufficient training for the task. Previous literature has suggested that staff need more than a basic 3- to 5-day workshop training, but our findings suggest that they may need longer-term continuing supervision and support than previously recognised.
Robert Joseph McKee
Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.
Verdonk, Petra; Räntzsch, Viktoria; de Vries, Remko; Houkes, Inge
Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians' perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns' perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010-2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one's self and show off competencies and motivation ("Show What You Know…"). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… "And Deal With Stress Yourself"). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as 'professional and self-confident', remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the 'masculine protest' may benefit from a culture that embraces more collaborative styles, such as having open conversation
Babac, Ana; Frank, Martin; Pauer, Frédéric; Litzkendorf, Svenja; Rosenfeldt, Daniel; Lührs, Verena; Biehl, Lisa; Hartz, Tobias; Storf, Holger; Schauer, Franziska; Wagner, Thomas O F; Graf von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias
Rare diseases are, by definition, very serious and chronic diseases with a high negative impact on quality of life. Approximately 350 million people worldwide live with rare diseases. The resulting high disease burden triggers health information search, but helpful, high-quality, and up-to-date information is often hard to find. Therefore, the improvement of health information provision has been integrated in many national plans for rare diseases, discussing the telephone as one access option. In this context, this study examines the need for a telephone service offering information for people affected by rare diseases, their relatives, and physicians. In total, 107 individuals participated in a qualitative interview study conducted in Germany. Sixty-eight individuals suffering from a rare disease or related to somebody with rare diseases and 39 health care professionals took part. Individual interviews were conducted using a standardized semi-structured questionnaire. Interviews were analysed using the qualitative content analysis, triangulating patients, relatives, and health care professionals. The fulfilment of qualitative data processing standards has been controlled for. Out of 68 patients and relatives and 39 physicians, 52 and 18, respectively, advocated for the establishment of a rare diseases telephone service. Interviewees expected a helpline to include expert staffing, personal contact, good availability, low technical barriers, medical and psychosocial topics of counselling, guidance in reducing information chaos, and referrals. Health care professionals highlighted the importance of medical topics of counselling-in particular, differential diagnostics-and referrals. Therefore, the need for a national rare diseases helpline was confirmed in this study. Due to limited financial resources, existing offers should be adapted in a stepwise procedure in accordance with the identified attributes.
Lotz, Julia Desiree; Daxer, Marion; Jox, Ralf J; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Führer, Monika
Pediatric advance care planning is advocated by healthcare providers because it may increase the chance that patient and/or parent wishes are respected and thus improve end-of-life care. However, since end-of-life decisions for children are particularly difficult and charged with emotions, physicians are often afraid of addressing pediatric advance care planning. We aimed to investigate parents' views and needs regarding pediatric advance care planning. We performed a qualitative interview study with parents of children who had died from a severe illness. The interviews were analyzed by descriptive and evaluation coding according to Saldaña. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 parents of 9 children. Maximum variation was sought regarding the child's illness, age at death, care setting, and parent gender. Parents find it difficult to engage in pediatric advance care planning but consider it important. They argue for a sensitive, individualized, and gradual approach. Hope and quality of life issues are primary. Parents have many non-medical concerns that they want to discuss. Written advance directives are considered less important, but medical emergency plans are viewed as necessary in particular cases. Continuity of care and information should be improved through regular pediatric advance care planning meetings with the various care providers. Parents emphasize the importance of a continuous contact person to facilitate pediatric advance care planning. Despite a need for pediatric advance care planning, it is perceived as challenging. Needs-adjusted content and process and continuity of communication should be a main focus in pediatric advance care planning. Future research should focus on strategies that facilitate parent engagement in pediatric advance care planning to increase the benefit for the families.
Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin
Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…
A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.
Full Text Available Fictions Inc., and this interview, offers detailed readings of a diverse body of texts that, in one way or another, push readers to think about the role of the corporation in 20th and 21st century America. Using a complex set of critical tools—historicizing the rise in the pharmaceutical industry in the 1980s to read White Noise; drawing on Slavoj Žižek and Louis Althusser to explain the model of resistance that appears in Crying of Lot 49; looking at 1980s gentrification policies and government outsourcing while discussing Ghostbusters—Clare generates a series of insights about the fears and the desires embodied in the corporation. What he finds is that older avenues of resistance to consumer capitalism have closed, but the desire to imagine new ones, and maybe create them, remains open.
Nolan, Christopher W.
Discusses reasons why patrons or librarians terminate the reference interview, including the content of the interview, interpersonal dynamics, and institutional or policy factors. Goals and objectives of the person terminating the interview are considered, and guidelines for policy development and performance improvement are offered. (30…
Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi
To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Discussion with Vinton G. Cerf, widely known as father of the Internet and creator of the original email system, focuses on societal implications of the Internet; filtering; hypertext; email; the need for a global legal framework; e-commerce and potential for Web-based businesses; and implications of the Internet for education. (LRW)
Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739
Chiumento, Anna; Machin, Laura; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing.
Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy
In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available To identify and understand, through data from multiple sources, some of the factors that affect authors' and editors' decisions to use reporting guidelines in the publication of health research.Mixed methods study comprising an online survey and semi-structured interviews with a sample of authors (online survey: n = 56; response rate = 32%; semi-structured interviews: n = 5 and journal editors (online survey: n = 43; response rate = 27%; semi-structured interviews: n = 6 involved in publishing health and medical research. Participants were recruited from an earlier study examining the effectiveness of the TREND reporting guideline.Four types of factors interacted to affect authors' and editors' likelihood of reporting guideline use; individual (e.g., having multiple reasons for use of reporting guidelines; the professional culture in which people work; environmental (e.g., policies of journals; and, practical (e.g., having time to use reporting guidelines. Having multiple reasons for using reporting guidelines was a particularly salient factor in facilitating reporting guidelines use for both groups of participants.Improving the completeness and consistency of reporting of research studies is critical to the integrity and synthesis of health research. The use of reporting guidelines offers one potentially efficient and effective means for achieving this, but decisions to use (or not use reporting guidelines take many factors into account. These findings could be used to inform future studies that might, for example, test the factors that we have identified within a wider theoretical framework for understanding changes in professional practices. The use of reporting guidelines by senior professionals appears to shape the expectations of what constitutes best practice and can be assimilated into the culture of a field or discipline. Without evidence of effectiveness of reporting guidelines, and sustained, multifaceted efforts to improve reporting
Lourdes M. Martinez
Full Text Available The purpose of the study ¿Confías en mi? (Do You Trust Me? was to identify three characteristics—expertise, trustworthiness, and accessibility—of Latino parent–adolescent communication. We examined how these characteristics may influence communication about romantic relationships and sexual risk reduction strategies (i.e., abstinence, contraception. A total of 21 parent–adolescent dyads (N = 42 completed a brief demographics survey and a set of scales to obtain quantitative measures related to parental characteristics that may influence the adolescent’s perception of parental advice. An in-depth, semi-structured interview was then conducted with each parent, followed by the adolescent. Findings demonstrate that parents talk to their children, but overall conversations are not specific or comprehensive enough to support adolescents’ informed decision making about sexual health or building positive romantic relationships. Community organizations such as churches, schools, and medical settings can support families by providing brief seminars that not only provide technical information about sexual health but also allow parents to practice how to initiate communication about sex and how to gauge their child’s receptivity to discuss the topic further. Recommendations include encouraging parents to actively engage their adolescent in shared communication over time, respond to questions openly and accurately, and demonstrate concern in the teen’s life happenings.
Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.
This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)
Williams, Marion L.
Interviewers: Keethler, Greg; Sheldon, Robert S.. Interview location(s): Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico and United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Interviewed on 12 April 1983 by Jack Goody and Alan Macfarlane and filmed and edited by Sarah Harrison. Made on old and low quality equipment. An interview of the historian and naturalist David Elliston Allen
Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott J. Horowitz is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Horowitz became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the reaction and reasons for the splitting-up of the objectives for STS-101 with STS-106. Horowitz also mentions the scheduled space-walk, docking with the International Space Station (ISS), the new glass cockpit of Atlantis, the repairs of equipment and change of the batteries. Horowitz also discusses his responsibilities during the space-walk, and docking of the spacecraft. He stresses that he will have an added challenge during the space-walk, his inability to see where he needs to place the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) crew.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse
A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations
Hennink, Monique M
The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...
The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version
Kasper, Gabriele; Prior, Matthew T.
Autobiographic research interviews have become an accepted and valued method of qualitative inquiry in TESOL and applied linguistics more broadly. In recent discussions surrounding the epistemological treatment of autobiographic stories, TESOL researchers have increasingly called for more attention to the ways in which stories are embedded in…
Presents interview with Dame Cicely Saunders, founder of international hospice care movement. Saunders describes her background and experiences that led her to form the hospice movement and discusses the need for pain control for terminally ill patients. Saunders also notes her opposition to euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. (NB)
Presents an interview which explores the ideas and strategies of the counseling model contained in the interviewee's text, "The Skilled Helper". Discusses the cross-cultural applicability of the model and how conceptions of the prototype have changed or stayed the same across numerous editions of the text. (RJM)
The STS-98 Mission Specialist Tom Jones is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, and the payload and hardware it brings to the International Space Station (ISS). Mr. Jones discusses his role in the mission's spacewalks and activities.
In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…
Discusses telephone interviews with candidates seeking positions in foreign language departments, where there is only voice and language with which to represent oneself to a search committee and by which to judge their responses. Suggests ways candidates can create a favorable impression and points out that one advantage of the candidate's…
Every wednesday the Doctoral School of Human Centred Informatics hosts a small research seminar, where PhD students and senior researchers can share and discuss their ongoing work. Today, we bring an interview from spring 2008. On February 27, Lars Holmgaard Christensen presented his paper "Homo...
Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)
This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)
Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus
David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.
Hetherington, E. Mavis
Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…
Jeliazkova, Margarita I.
Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid
Full Text Available Taste and smell alterations have been recognized as common symptoms in relation to various cancers. However, previous research suggests that patients do not receive sufficient support in managing taste and smell alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how persons with experience from lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations reason about resources and strategies offered and used to manage these symptoms. Data from semi-structured individual interviews with 13 women and four men were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. We used Kleinman's now classic medical anthropological model of local health care systems, consisting of the personal, professional, and folk sector, to interpret and understand how people respond to sickness experiences in their daily lives. By presenting the findings using this model, we demonstrate that most strategies for dealing with taste and smell alterations were undertaken in the personal sector, i.e. in participants' daily lives, on an individual level and in interaction with family, social networks and communities. Taste and smell alterations implied two overarching challenges: 1 adjusting to no longer being able to trust information provided by one's own senses of taste and/or smell, and 2 coming to terms with taste and smell alterations as a part of having lung cancer. Health care professionals' involvement was described as limited, but appeared to fulfil most participants' expectations. However, through provision of normalizing information, practical advice, and to some extent, emotional support, health care professionals had potential to influence strategies and resources used for dealing with taste and smell alterations. With this study, we further the understanding of how people deal with lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations and discuss the role of health care professionals for this process.
Belqaid, Kerstin; Tishelman, Carol; Orrevall, Ylva; Månsson-Brahme, Eva; Bernhardson, Britt-Marie
Taste and smell alterations have been recognized as common symptoms in relation to various cancers. However, previous research suggests that patients do not receive sufficient support in managing taste and smell alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate how persons with experience from lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations reason about resources and strategies offered and used to manage these symptoms. Data from semi-structured individual interviews with 13 women and four men were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. We used Kleinman's now classic medical anthropological model of local health care systems, consisting of the personal, professional, and folk sector, to interpret and understand how people respond to sickness experiences in their daily lives. By presenting the findings using this model, we demonstrate that most strategies for dealing with taste and smell alterations were undertaken in the personal sector, i.e. in participants' daily lives, on an individual level and in interaction with family, social networks and communities. Taste and smell alterations implied two overarching challenges: 1) adjusting to no longer being able to trust information provided by one's own senses of taste and/or smell, and 2) coming to terms with taste and smell alterations as a part of having lung cancer. Health care professionals' involvement was described as limited, but appeared to fulfil most participants' expectations. However, through provision of normalizing information, practical advice, and to some extent, emotional support, health care professionals had potential to influence strategies and resources used for dealing with taste and smell alterations. With this study, we further the understanding of how people deal with lung cancer-related taste and smell alterations and discuss the role of health care professionals for this process.
Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)
This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.
Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.
This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs
General practitioners' views on (long-term) prescription and use of problematic and potentially inappropriate medication for oldest-old patients-A qualitative interview study with GPs (CIM-TRIAD study).
Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Heser, Kathrin; Löffler, Antje; Haenisch, Britta; Parker, Debora; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Scherer, Martin
Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is defined as medication with uncertain therapeutic effects and/or potential adverse drug reactions outweighing the clinical benefits. The prescription rate of PIM for oldest-old patients is high despite the existence of lists of PIM (e.g. the PRISCUS list) and efforts to raise awareness. This study aims at identifying general practitioners' views on PIM and aspects affecting the (long-term) use of PIM. As part of the CIM-TRIAD study, we conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 47 general practitioners, discussing 25 patients with and 22 without PIM (according to the PRISCUS list). The interview guideline included generic and patient-specific questions. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. We content analyzed the interviews using deductive and inductive category development. The majority of the general practitioners were not aware of the PRISCUS list. Agents deemed potentially inappropriate from the general practitioners' point of view and the PRISCUS list are not completely superimposable. General practitioners named their criteria to identify appropriate medication for elderly patients (e.g. renal function, cognitive state) and emphasized the importance of monitoring. We identified prescription- (e.g. benzodiazepines on alternative private prescription), medication- (e.g. subjective perception that PIM has no alternative), general practitioner- (e.g. general practitioner relies on specialists), patient- (e.g. "demanding high-user", positive subjective benefit-risk-ratio) and system-related aspects (e.g. specialists lacking holistic view, interface problems) related to the (long term) use of PIM. While the PRISCUS list does not seem to play a decisive role in general practice, general practitioners are well aware of risks associated with PIM. Our study identifies some starting points for a safer handling of PIM, e.g. stronger dissemination of the PRISCUS list, better compensation of
Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.
Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard
Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.
Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Perry, Juliana; Guggenheim, Merlin; Manser, Tanja
Effective teamwork has been recognised as a major contributor to safe patient care in surgery. Previous research has highlighted the importance of adaptive coordination for effective performance in acute care settings. Expanding this line of research this study explores the coordination behaviours and adaptive coordination strategies employed by surgical teams and identifies relevant situational characteristics influencing those coordination processes. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 33 surgical team members (nurses and physicians) from different specialties and hospitals. We identified coordination behaviours (i.e. task management, information management, teaching and leadership) and adaptive coordination strategies triggered by varying requirements due to non-routine events, intraoperative complications and differing level of experience among operating room staff. Interviewees highlighted the importance of effectively managing challenging moments and the supporting effect of positive climate on teamwork. This study complements previous research on the non-technical skills underpinning safe performance in surgical teams. It highlights the central role of coordination and points out the ways in which situational variability requires the team to behave adaptively.
Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten
Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened. This article focuses on voluntary informed consent and the specific challenges with the greatest effects on such interviews. The discussion shows that complementary and meaningful descriptions from informants imply the need to employ alternative strategies and methods that may, in other contexts, challenge the traditional understanding of what is acceptable in research. © The Author(s) 2014.
Dahl, Marie; Lindholt, Jes; Søgaard, Rikke
and mortality. Whether non-attendees need targeted information to participate in screening is unknown. Thus, it is important to explore the reasons for non-attendance, particularly as non-attendees' perspectives have not been fully explored. DESIGN: AN INTERVIEW STUDY: METHODS: The data were obtained through...... semi-structured interviews with 10 women sampled from a population who declined to participate in a women's screening program for CVD and DM. Additionally, reflective notes on the interview context were documented. The data were collected in 2013. Kvale and Brinkmann's method for data analysis......, whether non-attendance is determined by an informed decision is questionable. Negative experiences with the healthcare system led to hesitation toward screening in general. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study is relevant to healthcare workers as well as decision makers from a screening...
Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten
Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...
that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...
Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje
Full Text Available Children can be credible witnesses in court procedures given an adequately conducted forensic interview with them. This paper presents the most important features of a child's development (the cognitive and socioemotional development and the development of language and communication and from these features derives the specific guidelines for forensic interviews of children. Due to the frequent belief that children can be led to false witnessing and that they do not differentiate between reality and fantasy the topics of lying and suggestibility are also discussed. At the end some practical suggestions are given with recommendations for trainings of all professionals working with children that are potential witnesses.
Full Text Available In this interview Dr. Taillard discusses her interest and ongoing research in the areas of marketing, consumer behaviour and creativity. She considers how academic training can be applied to a business context and describes the newly formed Creativity Marketing Centre at ESCP Europe. Exploring the multiple intersections between creativity and marketing represents not only a paradigmatic change for those interested in business and consumer behaviour but also for researchers of creativity who can start envisioning and studying consumption as a creative act. This interview will offer valuable points of reflection for all those interested to know more about this approach.
Full Text Available In this issue of the English version of Social Medicine we are publishing the first of several pamphlets loaned to us by the US Health Activism History Collection. To introduce this collection we travelled to Philadelphia on June 18, 2008 to interview Dr. Walter J. Lear. Dr Lear, born in 1923, is the person responsible for the collection. In a wide-ranging interview in his home Dr. Lear discussed his personal background, the origins and purpose of the collection, the impact of the McCarthy period on the US health left, as well as his vision for the future.
Merriweather, Judith; Smith, Pam; Walsh, Timothy
To compare and contrast current nutritional rehabilitation practices against recommendations from National Institute for Health and Excellence guideline Rehabilitation after critical illness (NICE) (2009, http://www.nice.org.uk/cg83). Recovery from critical illness has gained increasing prominence over the last decade but there is remarkably little research relating to nutritional rehabilitation. The study is a qualitative study based on patient interviews and observations of ward practice. Seventeen patients were recruited into the study at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) of a large teaching hospital in central Scotland in 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on transfer to the ward and weekly thereafter. Fourteen of these patients were followed up at three months post-ICU discharge, and a semi-structured interview was carried out. Observations of ward practice were carried out twice weekly for the duration of the ward stay. Current nutritional practice for post-intensive care patients did not reflect the recommendations from the NICE guideline. A number of organisational issues were identified as influencing nutritional care. These issues were categorised as ward culture, service-centred delivery of care and disjointed discharge planning. Their influence on nutritional care was compounded by the complex problems associated with critical illness. The NICE guideline provides few nutrition-specific recommendations for rehabilitation; however, current practice does not reflect the nutritional recommendations that are detailed in the rehabilitation care pathway. Nutritional care of post-ICU patients is problematic and strategies to overcome these issues need to be addressed in order to improve nutritional intake. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
de Munnik, S; den Daas, C; Ammerlaan, H S M; Kok, G; Raethke, M S; Vervoort, S C J M
Despite prevention efforts, the incidence of sexually transmitted infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men remains high, which is indicative of unchanged sexual risk behaviour. Discussing sexual risk behaviour has been shown to help prevent sexually transmitted infections among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence whether - and how - specialised HIV nurses discuss sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Identifying these factors could indicate how best to improve the frequency and quality of discussions about sexual risk behaviour, thereby reducing sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections. Qualitative study, focus groups among HIV nurses. Dutch HIV treatment centres. A purposive sample was taken of 25 out of 87 HIV nurses working in one of the 26 specialised HIV treatment centres in the Netherlands. Of the 25 HIV nurses we approached, 22 participate in our study. Three semi-structured focus group interviews were held with 22 HIV nurses from 17 hospitals. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was performed. HIV nurses agreed that discussing sexual risk behaviour is important, but barriers were experienced in relation to doing so. In accordance with the theory of planned behaviour, attitudes, perceived norms and perceived behavioural control were all found to be relevant variables. Barriers to discussing sexual risk behaviour were identified as: dealing with embarrassment, the changing professional role of an HIV nurse, time constraints, and the structure of the consultation. To improve the frequency and quality of discussions about sexual risk behaviour with HIV-positive men who have sex with men, our data suggests it would be beneficial to support HIV nurses by developing tools and guidelines addressing what to discuss and how. Using a related topic as a conversational 'bridge' may help nurses to broach this subject with
Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.
The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake
The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.
Hsu, Clarissa; Sherman, Karen J; Eaves, Emery R; Turner, Judith A; Cherkin, Daniel C; Cromp, DeAnn; Schafer, Lisa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Positive patient expectations are often believed to be associated with greater benefits from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. However, clinical studies of CAM treatments for chronic pain have not consistently supported this assumption, possibly because of differences in definitions and measures of expectations. The goal of this qualitative paper is to provide new perspectives on the outcome expectations of patients prior to receiving CAM therapies for chronic low back pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 64 individuals receiving massage, chiropractic, acupuncture or yoga for chronic low back pain. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by a team of experienced qualitative researchers using an immersion/crystallization approach to coding and analysis. Overall, participants' expectations of treatment outcomes tended to cluster in four key domains: pain relief, improved function (including an increase in ability to engage in meaningful activities), improved physical fitness, and improved overall well-being (including mental well-being). Typically, patients had modest expectations for outcomes from treatment. Furthermore, outcome expectations were complex on several levels. First, the concept of expectations overlapped with several related concepts; in particular, hopes. Participants sometimes used expectations and hopes interchangeably and at other times made clear distinctions between these two terms depending on context. A related finding was that participants were cautious about stating that they expected positive outcomes. Finally, participants articulated strong interrelationships among the four key domains and often discussed how changes in one domain might affect other domains. Overall, these findings contribute to a growing body of literature exploring the role of expectations in patient outcomes. This paper provides important guidance that may help refine the way treatment expectations are
This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381
This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.
The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model
Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
Meinecke, Annika L; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone
Despite a wealth of research on antecedents and outcomes of annual appraisal interviews, the ingredients that make for a successful communication process within the interview itself remain unclear. This study takes a communication approach to highlight leader-follower dynamics in annual appraisal interviews. We integrate relational leadership theory and recent findings on leader-follower interactions to argue (a) how supervisors' task- and relation-oriented statements can elicit employee involvement during the interview process and (b) how these communication patterns affect both supervisors' and employees' perceptions of the interview. Moreover, we explore (c) how supervisor behavior is contingent upon employee contributions to the appraisal interview. We audiotaped 48 actual annual appraisal interviews between supervisors and their employees. Adopting a multimethod approach, we used quantitative interaction coding (N = 32,791 behavioral events) as well as qualitative open-axial coding to explore communication patterns among supervisors and their employees. Lag sequential analysis revealed that supervisors' relation-oriented statements triggered active employee contributions and vice versa. These relation-activation patterns were linked to higher interview success ratings by both supervisors and employees. Moreover, our qualitative findings highlight employee disagreement as a crucial form of active employee contributions during appraisal interviews. We distinguish what employees disagreed about, how the disagreement was enacted, and how supervisors responded to it. Overall employee disagreement was negatively related to ratings of supervisor support. We discuss theoretical implications for performance appraisal and leadership theory and derive practical recommendations for promoting employee involvement during appraisal interviews. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: Metacognition is a multi-component psychological construct, characterised by the ability to identify and describe one’s own mental states and those of others. Evidence has been found for an association between deficits in metacognitive abilities and poor social functioning, low quality of life, psychopathology, and symptoms in Personality Disorders (PDs. However, to date, there are few psychometrically validated instruments available for assessing the different components of metacognition. A semi-structured interview, the Metacognition Assessment Interview (MAI, has been developed to evaluate different domains of metacognition. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the MAI in an outpatient clinical sample. Method: The MAI was administered to a clinical population of 306 outpatients attending a private clinical centre. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation with instruments assessing alexithymia and interpersonal problems were carried out to examine the dimensionality and validity of the MAI. Result: Explorative and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a good fit for both a two-factor model and a four-factor model of metacognition. The two-factor model yielded two main dimensions, which we named: Self domain, defined as self-reflection, and Other domain, defined as critical distancing from one’s own mental state and that of others. The four-factor solution is composed of four sub-domains: monitoring, integration, differentiation and decentration. Moreover, the MAI showed good convergent validity, with significant correlations with both alexithymia and interpersonal problems. Conclusions: These results confirm that the MAI is a reliable instrument for measuring metacognition and its different sub-domains. In particular, the MAI represents a useful and flexible instrument for the assessment of metacognition impairments in different psychopathologies and it can provide
Petrosoniak, Andrew; McCarthy, Anne; Varpio, Lara
The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities (including harms and benefits) of international health electives (IHEs) involving medical trainees. This exploration contributes to the ongoing debate about the goals and implications of IHEs for medical trainees. This qualitative study used anonymous, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. All participants had previous international health experiences. Between September 2007 and March 2008, we interviewed a convenience sample of health care professionals (n=10) and medical trainees (n=10). Using a modified grounded theory methodology, we carried out cycles of data analysis in conjunction with data collection in an iterative and constant comparison process. The study's thematic structure was finalised when theme saturation was achieved. Participants described IHEs in both negative and positive terms. IHEs were described as unsustained short-term contributions that lacked clear educational objectives and failed to address local community needs. Ethical dilemmas were described as IHE challenges. Participants reflected that many IHEs included aspects of medical tourism and the majority of participants described the IHE in negative terms. However, a few participants acknowledged the benefits of the IHE. Specifically, it was seen as an introduction to a career in global health and as a potential foundation for more sustainable projects with positive host community impacts. Finally, despite similar understandings among participants, self-awareness of medical tourism was low. International health electives may include potential harms and benefits for both the trainee and the host community. Educational institutions should encourage and support structured IHEs for trainee participation. We recommend that faculties of medicine and global health educators establish pre-departure training courses for trainees and that IHE opportunities have sufficient structures in place to mitigate the negative effects of medical
In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines
Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian
Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…
This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…
Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig.......Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig....
Interviews Robert Torres, a Nuyorican who excelled at school and escaped the ghetto while his family remained, then made a documentary about the situation. This interview examines how poverty affects children; how teachers can help impoverished Hispanic students; how teachers helped him; how educators should be compensated; what making the…
Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…
Evron, L.; Schultz-Larsen, K.; Fristrup, T.
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Thos...... the findings of this study to a public health message, we have to consider moving the focus of falls prevention strategies from disease control to the domain of health promotion in order to engage older adults in preventive healthcare Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9......Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...... system taking over their life. Conclusions: This study indicates that older at-risk patients acknowledge their falls problem, but refuse to participate in hospital-based assessment programmes because they expect to lose their authority and to be caught up in the healthcare system. In order to transform...
Evron, Lotte; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Fristrup, Tine
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Thos...... the findings of this study to a public health message, we have to consider moving the focus of falls prevention strategies from disease control to the domain of health promotion in order to engage older adults in preventive healthcare.......Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...... system taking over their life. Conclusions: This study indicates that older at-risk patients acknowledge their falls problem, but refuse to participate in hospital-based assessment programmes because they expect to lose their authority and to be caught up in the healthcare system. In order to transform...
Anthony, Adelina; Carrillo Rowe, Aimee
This interview explores how performing artist, activist, writer, director, performer Adelina Anthony stages queer women of color affects as a complex terrain to mobilize a decolonial imaginary. Anthony's characters are complex, contradictory, surly, and resilient with whom audience members connect and feel deeply. Especially for queer women of color, who rarely get to see their own experiences on film or on stage, Anthony's work provides a critical forum for discussing, imagining, naming, and envisioning the connections between our personal struggles and broader forces of imperialism, heterosexual capitalism, and settler colonialism. Through the "medicina" of gritty truth-telling and side-splitting laughter, Anthony discusses her own positionality as a coyote curandera. Through the exploratory genre of the interview, Anthony helps readers palpably engage a queer woman of color "theory in the flesh" to imagine their own creative potentialities through a compassionate lens of humility and humor.
Antes, Alison L; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M
Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they use to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described using in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science.
Antes, Alison L.; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M.
Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they employ to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described employing in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science. PMID:27646401
Sposato, Niklas S; Bjerså, Kristofer
Assessment in manual therapy includes quantitative and qualitative procedures, and intervertebral motion palpation (IMP) is one of the core assessment methods in osteopathic practice. The aim of this study was to explore osteopathic practitioners' experiences of clinical decision-making and IMP as a diagnostic tool for planning and evaluation of osteopathic interventions. The study was conducted with semi-structured interviews that included eight informants. Content analysis was used as the analytical procedure. In total, three categories emerged from the analysis: strategic decision-making, diagnostic usability of IMP, and treatment applicability of IMP. The study indicated that IMP was considered relevant and was given particular importance in cases where IMP findings confirmed clinical information attained from other stages in the diagnostic process as a whole. However, IMP findings were experienced as less important if they were not correlated to other findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
STS-100 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, the rendezvous and docking of Endeavour with the International Space Station (ISS), the mission's spacewalks, and installation and capabilities of the Space Station robotic arm, UHF antenna, and Rafaello Logistics Module. Parazynski then discusses his views about space exploration as it becomes an international collaboration.
Nolan, Padhraig; Chapman, Patrick
Often, creative people are recognised primarily for the work they do in one discipline, with efforts in other areas overlooked. Some artists are truly multidisciplinary, having the ability to express themselves eloquently through more than one medium. This selection of work from Padhraig Nolan, Dublin-based artist and poet, illustrates two strands of his practice: poetry and painting. As discussed in the accompanying interview, he is an artist working in more than one medium, each of which co...
Campbell, John L.; Quincy, Charles; Osserman, Jordan
Many social science studies are based on coded in-depth semistructured interview transcripts. But researchers rarely report or discuss coding reliability in this work. Nor is there much literature on the subject for this type of data. This article presents a procedure for developing coding schemes...... useful for situations where a single knowledgeable coder will code all the transcripts once the coding scheme has been established. This approach can also be used with other types of qualitative data and in other circumstances....
Programmed for this year, the debate for the Act concerning energy transition comes at a crucial moment in Francois Hollande's five year term of office. What is in store for the programme of renewable energy development? How will France reduce its nuclear energy share? Consultant Stephane Rozes invites elected representatives and State authorities to avoid being dogmatic. (author)
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hessel, Niklas
Laura Louise Sarauw har netop forsvaret sin ph.d.-afhandling i Pædagogik ved Københavns Universitet. Hun har undersøgt, hvordan det har påvirket ti humanistiske uddannelser, at deres studieordninger med universitetsreformen i 2003 blev skrevet om, så de fokuserede på de erhvervsmæssige kompetence...
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hollesen, Laika
Det såkaldte humboldtske universitetsideal står i frit fald. Så det burde ikke komme som nogen overraskelse, at det demokratiske fundament slår revner. Det kommer i hvert fald ikke bag på Laura Louise Sarauw fra Københavns Universitet, der i sin ph.d.-afhandling har sat stort spørgsmålstegn ved d...
Mellor, Ruth M; Slaymaker, Emma; Cleland, John
In this article we discuss some methodological and ethical challenges we faced when conducting a couple-based study on men's role in contraceptive switching, and how we overcame them. The challenges we discuss include recruiting couples with a range of experiences, ensuring informed consent of participants, maintaining confidentiality within interviews, and participants discussing interview content between interviews. As appropriate, we have drawn on study participants' views of these challenges. We conclude that although couple research poses challenges, they can be overcome or minimized, and that for certain research questions this methodology is well worth using.
Luke Jai Wood
Full Text Available Robots have been used in a variety of education, therapy or entertainment contexts. This paper introduces the novel application of using humanoid robots for robot-mediated interviews. An experimental study examines how children's responses towards the humanoid robot KASPAR in an interview context differ in comparison to their interaction with a human in a similar setting. Twenty-one children aged between 7 and 9 took part in this study. Each child participated in two interviews, one with an adult and one with a humanoid robot. Measures include the behavioural coding of the children's behaviour during the interviews and questionnaire data. The questions in these interviews focused on a special event that had recently taken place in the school. The results reveal that the children interacted with KASPAR very similar to how they interacted with a human interviewer. The quantitative behaviour analysis reveal that the most notable difference between the interviews with KASPAR and the human were the duration of the interviews, the eye gaze directed towards the different interviewers, and the response time of the interviewers. These results are discussed in light of future work towards developing KASPAR as an 'interviewer' for young children in application areas where a robot may have advantages over a human interviewer, e.g. in police, social services, or healthcare applications.
Gomes, Romeu; do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira; Rebello, Lúcia Emília Figueiredo de Sousa; de Araújo, Fábio Carvalho
The present study aims at analyzing the meanings attributed to the digital rectal exam, seeking to problematize questions underlying the masculine discourse on the basis of aspects of the hegemonic masculinity model. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 men in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 2004. Among the main results is the idea that the digital rectal exam is something that violates an interdicted space, something that compromises the current understanding of masculinity, shall say, the digital rectal exam does not only affect the prostate, it also affects the masculinity, puts it to shame. We conclude that for understanding and problematizing the questions related to the prostate cancer prevention in special, and to the question of taking care of oneself from the masculine perspective in general, we need to consider the structural and symbolic aspects that underlie these questions.
Quereshi, Charlotte; Standing, Holly C; Swai, Amina; Hunter, Ewan; Walker, Richard; Owens, Stephen
Educational outcomes for young people with epilepsy (YPE) in Hai District, Tanzania, are poor, as is commonly observed elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. The reasons for this finding are not well understood, though stigma arising from supernatural concepts of epilepsy is frequently cited as a barrier to YPE accessing education. In this study, we aimed to explore the reasons why many YPE in Tanzania experience poor access to education, and elicit ways in which education could be improved for YPE according to teachers, parents and YPE. Ten focus group discussions with teachers were organized in Hai schools between March and May 2016. The themes arising from these discussions were identified, coded, analyzed and tested in semi-structured interviews with 19 YPE and 17 parents identified from a prevalent cohort of YPE identified in 2009. Behavioral problems and learning difficulties were cited as the main barriers to education for YPE. Other barriers included parental stigmatization, teachers' inadequate seizure management, and limited access to specialist schools. Teachers perceived that parents and YPE believe in spiritual etiology and traditional management for epilepsy. However, the majority of teachers, parents, and YPE cited biological etiology and management options, although understanding of epilepsy etiology and management could be improved amongst all groups. A multidimensional approach is needed to improve educational access, and hence outcomes, for YPE. Widespread community education is needed to improve knowledge of epilepsy etiology and management. Teachers require seizure management training, and parents need help to recognize YPE's right to education. Educational needs assessments would help to identify YPE requiring specialist schooling, and access to this could be improved. These interventions will likely reduce stigma, ensure appropriate academic and pastoral care at school, and thus enable YPE to attend, and succeed, in education. Copyright © 2017
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.
The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.
Mather, John C.
John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.
Details the life of Stella Adler, an actor, director, and teacher who studied with Stanislavsky. Includes an interview (conducted in 1974) which touches on her influences, teachers, theatre groups, and styles of acting. (PM)
Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... behaviours related to lifestyle diseases in adults (Rubak et al. 2005; Söderlund et al. 2011). The use of motivational interviewing by school nurses for the prevention of child obesity in a family intervention is still new, and evidence on the potentials and problems is scarce (Resnicow, Davis and Rollnick...
Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz
Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.
Motivational interviewing is presented as an approach to address resistant behaviors in clinical supervision. A case example is used to illustrate the process in which the relational and technical elements of motivational interviewing can be applied to supervisee resistance. Implications for supervisors and researchers are discussed.
Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…
Andersson, Kerstin; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Nordenram, Gunilla; Wårdh, Inger
The purpose of this study was to explore general medical practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of the oral health of their elderly patients. The design was a qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with GPs. The criterion for inclusion in the study was that the GP was a specialist in family medicine working in a primary health care centre (PHCC:s) in the county of Stockholm. The participants took part in the study after informed consent. Eleven GPs were interviewed. The interview started with semi-structured questions about the respondents' clinical presentation of their elderly patients', e.g. medication, medical treatment and socioeconomic status. The interview concluded with questions about the respondents' experiences of and perceptions of the oral health of their patients. This process started with the first interview and proceeded with successive interviews until no new relevant information was forthcoming. The initial semi-structured part of the interview guide was analysed for content with special reference to descriptive answers. The final open questions were analysed by a method inspired by grounded theory (GT) and comprised three stages: open coding, axial coding and selective coding. In the GT influenced analysis process, three categories, health perspective, working conditions and cultural differences, each in turn containing subcategories, were identified and labelled. The most significant category, cultural differences, was identified as the core category, explaining the central meaning of the respondents' perceptions of the oral health of their elderly patients. The GPs in this study showed little or no awareness of the oral health of their elderly patients. The interviews disclosed several contributing factors. Barriers to closer integration of oral and general health in the elderly were identified. There existed a cultural gap between the disciplines of dentistry and medicine, which does not enhance and may be detrimental to the
Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; Eisele, Marion
Dementia is an irreversible chronic disease with wide-ranging effects on patients', caregivers' and families' lives. Hospitalizations are significant events for people with dementia. They tend to have poorer outcomes compared to those without dementia. Most of the previous studies focused on diagnoses leading to hospitalizations using claims data. Further factors (e.g. context factors) for hospitalizations are not reproduced in this data. Therefore, we investigated the factors leading to hospitalization with an explorative, qualitative study design. We interviewed informal caregivers (N = 12), general practitioners (GPs, N = 12) and formal caregivers (N = 5) of 12 persons with dementia using a semi-structured interview guideline. The persons with dementia were sampled using criteria regarding their living situation (home care vs. nursing home care) and gender. The transcripts were analyzed using the method of structuring content analysis. Almost none of the hospitalizations, discussed with the (in-)formal caregivers and GPs, seemed to have been preventable or seemed unjustifiable from the interviewees' points of view. We identified several dementia-specific factors promoting hospitalizations (e.g. the neglect of constricted mobility, the declining ability to communicate about symptoms/accidents and the shift of responsibility from person with dementia to informal or formal caregivers) and context-specific factors promoting hospitalizations (e.g. qualification of nursing home personal, the non-availability of the GP and hospitalizations for examinations/treatments also available in ambulatory settings). Hospitalizations were always the result of the interrelation of two factors: illnesses/accidents and context factors. The impact of both seems to be stronger in presence of dementia. Points for action in terms of reducing hospitalization rates were: better qualified nurses, a 24-h-GP-emergency service and better compensation for ambulatory monitoring
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of non-completion of treatments for personality disorder are high and there are indications that those who do not complete treatment have worse outcomes than those who do. Improving both cost-efficiency and client welfare require attention to engaging people with personality disorder in treatment. A motivational interview, based on the Personal Concerns Inventory, may have the ability to enhance engagement and retention in therapy. Here, we report the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial (RCT. Methods All referrals accepted to the psychological service of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust's outpatient service for people with personality disorder are eligible for inclusion. Consenting participants are randomised to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory interview plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. We aim to recruit 100 participants over 11/2 years. A randomised controlled trial will be considered feasible if 1 the recruitment rate to the project is 54% of all referrals (95% CI 54-64, 2 80% of clients find the intervention acceptable in terms of its practicability and usefulness (95% CI 80-91, and 3 80% of therapists report finding the intervention helpful (95% CI 80-100. In a full-scale randomised controlled trial, the primary outcome measure will be completion of treatment i.e., entry into and completion of ≥ 75% of sessions offered. Therefore, information will be collected on recruitment rates, attendance at therapy sessions, and completion of treatment. The feasibility of examining the processes of engagement will be tested by assessing the value, coherence, and attainability of goals pre-treatment, and engagement in treatment. The costs associated with the intervention will be calculated, and the feasibility of calculating the cost-benefits of the intervention will be tested. The views of clients and therapists on the intervention, collected using semi-structured
Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen
To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question
Lyons, Michael J.; And Others
Students in an abnormal psychology course worked in teams to produce dramatizations of diagnostic interviews and then presented them in class. Positive and negative aspects of the activity are discussed. (RM)
Interviewee Perceptions of Employment Screening Interviews: Relationships among Perceptions of Communication Satisfaction, Interviewer Credibility and Trust, Interviewing Experience, and Interview Outcomes.
Jablin, Fredric M.; And Others
A study examined employment screening interviews to determine the relationships between an interviewee's perceptions of interview communication satisfaction, interviewer credibility and trust, previous interviewing experiences, and a number of interview outcomes, including expectation of a second interview. Data were collected from 69 students…
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to investigate online discussion as a means to promote critical reflection. The study was conducted during a semester-long graduate course on issues related to literacy instructional strategies. The participants in the study were four reading education candidates. During the semester they participated in online discussion about course readings and reflected on their own teaching experiences. The data sources were the online discussion postings, responses to questionnaires, and interviews. The results suggest that technology-mediated discussion strengthens the learning community, facilitates sharing of professional experience among participants, and enhances teacher reflection. The results also point to the multi-faceted nature of teacher reflection.
Hedemann, Lars; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted
The present investigation was carried out as a pilot study, with the aim of obtaining exploratory insights into the field of learning, and more specifically, how the use of video technology can be used as a mean to excel the outcome of the learning process. The motivation behind the study has its...... basis in the management education literature, and thereby in the discussion of how to organize teaching, in order to equip students with improved skills in reflective realization. Following the notion that experience is the basis for knowledge, the study was set out to explore how students at higher...... education programmes, i.e. at MSc and MBA level, can benefit from utilizing video recorded interviews in their process of learning and reflection. On the basis of the study, it is suggested that video interviewing makes up an interesting alternative to other learning approaches such as Simulation...
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...
Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard
GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Salloch, Sabine; Apitzsch, Birgit; Wilkesmann, Maximiliane; Ruiner, Caroline
In contrast to other countries, the appearance of locum physicians as independent contractors constitutes a rather new phenomenon in the German health care system and emerged out of a growing economization and shortage of medical staff in the hospital sector. Locums are a special type of self-employed professionals who are only temporally embedded in organisational contexts of hospitals, and this might have consequences for their professional practice. Therefore, questions arise regarding how locums perceive their ethical duties as medical professionals. In this first qualitative study on German locum physicians, the locums' own perspective is complemented by the viewpoint of permanently employed physician colleagues. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 to explore the professional practice of locum physicians from both groups' perspectives with respect to doctor-patient-relationship, cooperation with colleagues and physicians' role in society. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a deductive application and an inductive development of codes. The results were related to key tenets of medical professionalism with respect to the question: how far do locums fulfil their ethical duties towards patients, colleagues and the society? The study indicates that although ethical requirements are met broadly, difficulties remain with respect to close doctor-patient contact and the sustainability of hiring locums as a remedy in times of staff shortage. Further qualitative and quantitative research on locum physicians' professional practice, including patient perspectives and economic health care system analyses, is needed to better understand the ethical impact of hiring independent contractors in the hospital sector.
Discusses what center directors can do to reduce staff turnover. Presents guidelines for the interview process including: (1) preparing before the interview to ensure the interview is focused and will produce meaningful responses; and (2) conducting the interview by developing a rapport, listening, and giving a realistic description of the job.…
Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc
Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews.
Mazanderani, Fadhila; Paparini, Sara
Since the earliest days of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, talking about the virus has been a key way affected communities have challenged the fear and discrimination directed against them and pressed for urgent medical and political attention. Today, HIV/AIDS is one of the most prolifically and intimately documented of all health conditions, with entrenched infrastructures, practices and technologies--what Vinh-Kim Nguyen has dubbed 'confessional technologies'--aimed at encouraging those affected to share their experiences. Among these technologies, we argue, is the semi-structured interview: the principal methodology used in qualitative social science research focused on patient experiences. Taking the performative nature of the research interview as a talking technology seriously has epistemological implications not merely for how we interpret interview data, but also for how we understand the role of research interviews in the enactment of 'life with HIV'. This paper focuses on one crucial aspect of this enactment: the contemporary 'normalisation' of HIV as 'just another' chronic condition--a process taking place at the level of individual subjectivities, social identities, clinical practices and global health policy, and of which social science research is a vital part. Through an analysis of 76 interviews conducted in London (2009-10), we examine tensions in the experiential narratives of individuals living with HIV in which life with the virus is framed as 'normal', yet where this 'normality' is beset with contradictions and ambiguities. Rather than viewing these as a reflection of resistances to or failures of the enactment of HIV as 'normal', we argue that, insofar as these contradictions are generated by the research interview as a distinct 'talking technology', they emerge as crucial to the normative (re)production of what counts as 'living with HIV' (in the UK) and are an inherent part of the broader performative 'normalisation' of the virus. Copyright © 2015
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle L; Api, Unia K; Darius, Matupit; Tommbe, Rachael; Mafile'o, Tracie A; MacLaren, David J
The social and cultural positions of both researchers and research participants influence qualitative methods and study findings. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), as in other contexts, gender is a key organising characteristic and needs to be central to the design and conduct of research. The colonial history between researcher and participant is also critical to understanding potential power differences. This is particularly relevant to public health research, much of which has emerged from a positivist paradigm. This paper describes our critical reflection of flexible researcher responses enacted during qualitative research in PNG. Led by a senior male HIV researcher from PNG, a male from a PNG university and a female from an Australian university conducted qualitative interviews about faith-based responses to HIV in PNG. The two researchers planned to conduct one-on-one interviews matching gender of participants and interviewer. However, while conducting the study, four participants explicitly requested to be interviewed by both researchers. This experience led us to critically consider socially and culturally situated ways of understanding semi-structured interviewing for public health research in Melanesia. New understandings about public health research include: (i) a challenge to the convention that the researcher holds more power than the research participant, (ii) the importance of audience in Melanesia, (iii) cultural safety can be provided when two people co-interview and (iv) the effect an esteemed leader heading the research may have on people's willingness to participate. Researchers who occupy insider-outsider roles in PNG may provide participants new possibilities to communicate key ideas. Our recent experience has taught us public health research methods that are gender sensitive and culturally situated are pivotal to successful research in Melanesia. Qualitative research requires adaptability and reflexivity. Public health research methods must continue
Wang, Ya-Ching; Griffiths, Jane; Grande, Gunn
This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study that explored factors influencing lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions. A total of 37 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among women who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with the same gender who were aged 20 years or above in four areas of Taiwan (North, Central, South, and East Taiwan) between August 2012 and October 2012. Interviews were audio recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis with Nvivo audio-coding support. Four themes were identified to be strongly associated with the lesbians' breast health-care behavior and their intentions, namely, gender identity, gender role expression, partners' support, and concerns about health-care providers' reactions. Important barriers to the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions were masculine identity ("T-identity" in Taiwan), masculine appearance, concerns about health-care providers' lack of knowledge of multiple gender diversity, and their attitudes toward lesbians. Conversely, their partners' support was a factor facilitating the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions, particularly for the T-identity lesbians. These findings suggest the significance of and need for culturally competent care and are important for improving Taiwanese lesbians' breast health.
Christian, Trudy; Guell, Cornelia
The purpose of this study was to explore Barbadian women's attitudes toward and knowledge of routine cervical cancer screening (Pap tests). We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with fourteen female patients between the ages of 20 and 60 years who attended a selected public clinic in Barbados in May and June 2013. Interviews were audio-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were then transcribed verbatim and, using thematic content analysis, indexed and coded inductively for emerging similar themes. We identified four themes: (1) women had poor knowledge of the purpose of Pap tests. The most frequently occurring misconception was that the test was for the detection of sexually transmitted infections. (2) The women displayed limited cervical cancer awareness. (3) Health professionals were identified by the women as the main driving force behind women taking up screening. (4) The screening procedure was perceived as painful, but women's overriding attitude was that screening was necessary. These findings suggest that Barbadian women would benefit from focused health education efforts surrounding cervical cancer screening to eradicate the misconception that the purpose of the Pap test is the detection of sexually transmitted diseases.
Lugg, Fiona V; Butler, Christopher C; Evans, Meirion R; Wood, Fiona; Francis, Nick A
Gastroenteritis (GE) causes significant morbidity, especially in young children. A vaccine against rotavirus, a common cause of viral GE (vGE), was added to the childhood immunization schedule in the UK in July 2013 and further related vaccines are under development. To explore parents' beliefs about vGE and their attitudes towards vaccinating. Qualitative interview study with parents of children who had recently experienced an episode of GE. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted over the phone with parents. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using standard thematic approaches. Parents varied in their perception of the threat posed by GE, and parents who did not perceive GE as serious were less enthusiastic about vaccines. Other parents were supportive of vaccines in general and considered benefits to their child, their family and the wider community. Many parents said that they lacked knowledge about efficacy and effectiveness of GE vaccines but their underlying belief about the seriousness of illness motivated their attitudes. Acceptability of GE vaccines to parents could be improved by providing more information on both the burden of illness and the impact of rotavirus vaccine in other comparable countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George
Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg
questions with quantitative, qualitative, and C A inspired analyses: How do two interviewers behave in the sociolinguistic interviews which they themselves classify as good or bad interviews? And how does this relate to their own ideals for the sociolinguistic interview? How is it possible to approach...... interviews. For instance, the interviewers tend to take more of the initiatives to change the topic and ask more questions in their bad interviews than in their good interviews. Further studies of the female interviewer's best and worst interview show that rapport is achieved in her best but spoiled in her...... to questions. The studies make it clear that success and failure is not just one thing. The studies reveal great complexity and confirm that there are differences between the interviewers' best and worst interviews as well as between the two interviewers. Studying four interviews of each of the two...
Kastenbaum, Robert J.
Presents interview with Ralph Mero, Executive Director of Compassion in Dying, Seattle (Washington)-based organization that has brought new voice to controversial issue of physician-assisted rational suicide. Mero explains how his years as minister watching people suffer with cancer or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome led him to work for…
Meyer, E R
The interview between METALL and the president of Aluswuisse refers mainly to aspects of energy and deals more closely with the questions whether western Europe in view of relatively high prices for electricity is still competitive and which part can be played by aluminium in overcoming the energy crisis.
Kommentar til et interview med Schnitzler, som dagbladet Politiken publicerede i 1923 og som E.U.Pinkert oversatte til tysk. Oversættelsen udkom den 28.11.2015 i Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung med titlen "Eine Gefahr für die Jugend?"...
Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David
The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…
This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.
Thomas J. T. Williams
Full Text Available Mike Parker Pearson is the Institute of Archaeology’s newly appointed Professor of British Later Prehistory. In this interview he reflects on his experience at the birth of post-processualism, current problems and opportunities in modern archaeology, and the subject for which he is best known: Stonehenge.
In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…
Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.
Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)
Kyte, Derek; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather; Keeley, Thomas; Calvert, Melanie
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as health-related quality of life (HRQL) are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effectiveness in clinical trials, are valued by patients, and may inform important decisions in the clinical setting. It is of concern, therefore, that preliminary evidence, gained from group discussions at UK-wide Medical Research Council (MRC) quality of life training days, suggests there are inconsistent standards of HRQL data collection in trials and appropriate training and education is often lacking. Our objective was to investigate these reports, to determine if they represented isolated experiences, or were indicative of a potentially wider problem. We undertook a qualitative study, conducting 26 semi-structured interviews with research nurses, data managers, trial coordinators and research facilitators involved in the collection and entry of HRQL data in clinical trials, across one primary care NHS trust, two secondary care NHS trusts and two clinical trials units in the UK. We used conventional content analysis to analyze and interpret our data. Our study participants reported (1) inconsistent standards in HRQL measurement, both between, and within, trials, which appeared to risk the introduction of bias; (2), difficulties in dealing with HRQL data that raised concern for the well-being of the trial participant, which in some instances led to the delivery of non-protocol driven co-interventions, (3), a frequent lack of HRQL protocol content and appropriate training and education of trial staff, and (4) that HRQL data collection could be associated with emotional and/or ethical burden. Our findings suggest there are inconsistencies in the standards of HRQL data collection in some trials resulting from a general lack of HRQL-specific protocol content, training and education. These inconsistencies could lead to biased HRQL trial results. Future research should aim to develop HRQL guidelines and training programmes aimed at supporting
Background Alcohol policy priorities in Australia have been set by the National Preventative Health Task Force, yet significant reform has not occurred. News media coverage of these priorities has not reported public health experts as in agreement and Government has not acted upon the legislative recommendations made. We investigate policy experts’ views on alcohol policy priorities with a view to establishing levels of accord and providing suggestions for future advocates. Methods We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with alcohol policy experts and advocates around Australia. Open-ended questions examined participants’ thoughts on existing policy recommendations, obvious policy priorities and specifically, the future of national reforms to price and promotions policies. All transcripts were analysed for major themes and points of agreement or disagreement. Results Twenty one alcohol policy experts agreed that pricing policies are a top national priority and most agreed that “something should be done” about alcohol advertising. Volumetric taxation and minimum pricing were regarded as the most important price policies, yet differences emerged in defining the exact form of a proposed volumetric tax. Important differences in perspective emerged regarding alcohol promotions, with lack of agreement about the preferred form regulations should take, where to start and who the policy should be directed at. Very few discussed online advertising and social networks. Conclusions Despite existing policy collaborations, a clear ‘cut through’ message is yet to be endorsed by all alcohol control advocates. There is a need to articulate and promote in greater detail the specifics of policy reforms to minimum pricing, volumetric taxation and restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly regarding sporting sponsorships and new media. PMID:23800324
Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon
Alcohol policy priorities in Australia have been set by the National Preventative Health Task Force, yet significant reform has not occurred. News media coverage of these priorities has not reported public health experts as in agreement and Government has not acted upon the legislative recommendations made. We investigate policy experts' views on alcohol policy priorities with a view to establishing levels of accord and providing suggestions for future advocates. We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with alcohol policy experts and advocates around Australia. Open-ended questions examined participants' thoughts on existing policy recommendations, obvious policy priorities and specifically, the future of national reforms to price and promotions policies. All transcripts were analysed for major themes and points of agreement or disagreement. Twenty one alcohol policy experts agreed that pricing policies are a top national priority and most agreed that "something should be done" about alcohol advertising. Volumetric taxation and minimum pricing were regarded as the most important price policies, yet differences emerged in defining the exact form of a proposed volumetric tax. Important differences in perspective emerged regarding alcohol promotions, with lack of agreement about the preferred form regulations should take, where to start and who the policy should be directed at. Very few discussed online advertising and social networks. Despite existing policy collaborations, a clear 'cut through' message is yet to be endorsed by all alcohol control advocates. There is a need to articulate and promote in greater detail the specifics of policy reforms to minimum pricing, volumetric taxation and restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly regarding sporting sponsorships and new media.
Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.
STS-105 Commander Scott Horowitz is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, training for the mission, and his role in the mission's activities. He gives details on the mission's goals, which include the transfer of supplies from the Discovery Orbiter to the International Space Station (ISS) and the change-over of the Expedition 2 and Expedition 3 crews (the resident crews of ISS). Horowitz discusses the importance of the ISS in the future of human spaceflight.
Brody, Amanda E
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a potentially useful tool for clinicians who are exploring ways to improve treatment outcomes with depressed clients. MI techniques may be particularly appropriate with depressed adolescents, for whom motivation to engage in therapy is often a problem and who often experience ambivalence about life choices. The present article presents a case description of MI with a depressed adolescent who was ambivalent about what life change to pursue. MI was used to help the client identify conflicts between her values, learn how they were contributing to her distress, and move toward resolving them. Advantages and limitations of these techniques are discussed.
Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Moynihan, Ray; Paulsen, Elizabeth J
Only a small number of previous efforts to describe the experiences of organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), undertake health technology assessments (HTAs), or directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy (i.e., government support units, or GSUs) have relied on interviews and then only with HTA agencies. Interviews offer the potential for capturing experiences in great depth, particularly the experiences of organizations that may be under-represented in surveys. We purposively sampled organizations from among those who completed a questionnaire in the first phase of our three-phase study, developed and piloted a semi-structured interview guide, and conducted the interviews by telephone, audio-taped them, and took notes simultaneously. Binary or categorical responses to more structured questions were counted when possible. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative description of the themes. We interviewed the director (or his or her nominee) in 25 organizations, of which 12 were GSUs. Using rigorous methods that are systematic and transparent (sometimes shortened to 'being evidence-based') was the most commonly cited strength among all organizations. GSUs more consistently described their close links with policymakers as a strength, whereas organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both had conflicting viewpoints about such close links. With few exceptions, all types of organizations tended to focus largely on weaknesses in implementation, rather than strengths. The advice offered to those trying to establish similar organizations include: 1) collaborate with other organizations; 2) establish strong links with policymakers and stakeholders; 3) be independent and manage conflicts of interest; 4) build capacity; 5) use good methods and be transparent; 6) start small and
Background Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians’ perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns’ perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. Methods In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010–2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. Results First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one’s self and show off competencies and motivation (“Show What You Know…”). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… “And Deal With Stress Yourself”). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as ‘professional and self-confident’, remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. Conclusions The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the ‘masculine protest’ may benefit from a culture that
, occupancy, and mobility) and forms of communal organisation that have developed within these communities. These are set against processes of archiving and documentation in terms of historical and legal practices. The book collates the transcribed interviews and provides an introductory essay setting them...... in context.This artist's book follows the exhibition, Fields, Factories and Workshops at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, 7 August – 18 September 2010.English language text with Gaelic, Polish, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian sections....
Budnick, Christopher J; Kowal, Marta; Santuzzi, Alecia M
Positive interviewer feedback should encourage positive experiences and outcomes for interviewees. Yet, positive feedback is inconsistent with socially anxious interviewees' negative self-views. Socially anxious interviewees might experience increased self-focus while attempting to reconcile the inconsistency between their self-perceptions and that feedback. This could interfere with successful interview performance. This study used a 3 (feedback: positive, negative, no) × 2 (social anxiety: high, low) between-subjects design. Undergraduate students (N = 88) completed a measure of dispositional social anxiety. They then engaged in a simulated interview with a White confederate trained to adhere to a standardized script. Interviewees received positive, negative, or no interviewer feedback. Each interview was video recorded to code anxiety displays, impression management tactics, and interview success. Following positive feedback, socially anxious interviewees displayed more anxiety, less assertiveness, and received lower success ratings. Among anxious interviewees, increased self-focus provided an indirect path between positive feedback and lower success. Consistent with self-verification theory, anxious interviewees had poorer interview performance following positive feedback that contradicted their negative self-views. Thus, socially anxious interviewees might be at a disadvantage when interviewing, especially following positive feedback. Implications for interviewees and interviewers are discussed.
...) were discussed in the preanesthesia interview. A survey composed of 21 questions pertaining to demography and informed consent elements was devised and administered to 53 patients immediately following their preanesthesia interview...
Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M
This study aims to describe how pharmacists utilise and perceive delegation in the community setting. Non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of community pharmacists working in Kent between July and October 2011. Content analysis was undertaken to determine key themes and the point of theme saturation informed sample size. Findings from observations were also compared against those from interviews. Observations and interviews were undertaken with 11 pharmacists. Observations showed that delegation occurred in four different forms: assumed, active, partial and reverse. It was also employed to varying extents within the different pharmacies. Interviews revealed mixed views on delegation. Some pharmacists presented positive attitudes towards delegation while others were concerned about maintaining accountability for delegated tasks, particularly in terms of accuracy checking of dispensed medication. Other pharmacists noted the ability to delegate was not a skill they found inherently easy. Comparison of observation and interview data highlighted discrepancies between tasks pharmacists perceived they delegated and what they actually delegated. Effective delegation can potentially promote better management of workload to provide pharmacists with additional time to spend on cognitive pharmaceutical services. To do this, pharmacists' reluctance to delegate must be addressed. Lack of insight into own practice might be helped by self-reflection and feedback from staff. Also, a greater understanding of legal accountability in the context of delegation needs to be achieved. Finally, delegation is not just dependent on pharmacists, but also on support staff; ensuring staff are empowered and equipped to take on delegated roles is essential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Sommers, Benjamin D; Arntson, Emily; Kenney, Genevieve M; Epstein, Arnold M
Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) dramatically expands Medicaid in 2014 in participating states. Meanwhile, six states have already expanded Medicaid since 2010 to some or all of the low-income adults targeted under health reform. We undertook an in-depth exploration of these six “early-expander” states—California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Washington—through interviews with high-ranking Medicaid officials. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 high-ranking Medicaid officials in six states and analyzed the interviews using qualitative methods. Interviews explored enrollment outreach, stakeholder involvement, impact on beneficiaries, utilization and costs, implementation challenges, and potential lessons for 2014. Two investigators independently analyzed interview transcripts and iteratively refined the codebook until reaching consensus. Results We identified several themes. First, these expansions built upon pre-existing state-funded insurance programs for the poor. Second, predictions about costs and enrollment were challenging, indicating the uncertainty in projections for 2014. Other themes included greater than anticipated need for behavioral health services in the expansion population, administrative challenges of expansions, and persistent barriers to enrollment and access after expanding eligibility—though officials overall felt the expansions increased access for beneficiaries. Finally, political context—support or opposition from stakeholders and voters—plays a critical role in shaping the success of Medicaid expansions. Conclusions Early Medicaid expansions under the ACA offer important lessons to federal and state policymakers as the 2014 expansions approach. While the context of each state’s expansion is unique, key shared experiences were significant implementation challenges and opportunities for expanding access to needed services. PMID:24834369
Full Text Available The recording and verbatim transcription of interviews is often considered to be one of the more tedious but necessary aspects of the in-depth qualitative research process. While transcription is undoubtedly a necessary methodological tool for researchers focusing specifically on discourse and language, it has also been widely adopted by researchers across the social sciences, and is sometimes advocated as a means of inherently improving the rigour of qualitative research. Based on recent experience from fieldwork in rural China, where I had initially expected to utilise the verbatim transcription method, in this article I critically assess the role of transcription in the design, implementation, and outcome of cross-cultural multilingual qualitative research. I argue that, in certain cases, verbatim transcription can limit the kind of information that may be considered valuable as data, and delay the processes of data reduction and analysis, thus separating the researcher from the fieldwork event. In response to these critiques, I propose an alternative approach to collecting, categorising, coding, and analysing qualitative data: the systematic and reflexive interviewing and reporting (SRIR method. The SRIR method utilises semi-structured and unstructured interviews conducted by two or more researchers. After completing an interview, researchers engage in reflexive dialogue, and jointly write interview and analysis reports. In this way, the SRIR method begins the process of coding and analysis in situ, thus facilitating critical engagement with emergent themes during fieldwork rather than afterwards. The method is, therefore, ideally suited to research projects that are designed to be open ended and flexible, in order to follow up on new information and potentially even change focus. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1702152
MacCann, Donnarae; Richard, Olga
Presents an interview with Opal Moore, who discusses Black imagery in picture books published in the last four years and the institutions that circulate that imagery. Topics discussed include the issue of race pride; interracial themes; appropriate illustrations; African versus African-American books; and the roles of publishers, books reviewers,…
Rodriguez, Yvonne; Askew, Billie; Frasier, Dianne
Through an interview with educator Yvonne Rodriguez, this article discusses Descubriendo La Lectura (DLL), the result of educators' efforts in the Collaborative for Reading Recovery in Spanish. It discusses background information about DLL, how it may be implemented, requirements for and means of teacher leader training, and the requirements for…
Telephone interviews are largely neglected in the qualitative research literature and, when discussed, they are often depicted as a less attractive alternative to face-to-face interviewing. The absence of visual cues via telephone is thought to result in loss of contextual and nonverbal data and to compromise rapport, probing, and interpretation of responses. Yet, telephones may allow respondents to feel relaxed and able to disclose sensitive information, and evidence is lacking that they produce lower quality data. This apparent bias against telephone interviews contrasts with a growing interest in electronic qualitative interviews. Research is needed comparing these modalities, and examining their impact on data quality and their use for studying varying topics and populations. Such studies could contribute evidence-based guidelines for optimizing interview data. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc
The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.
Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.
Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.
Full Text Available Etienne Février : I would like to begin this interview with a question about architecture. Images of architecture appear frequently in your fiction, from Martin Dressler to more recent collections like Dangerous Laughter. In that collection’s “thirteen stories,” we find a tower reaching all the way to heaven, a life-size replica of a town so precise that even the “levels of salt in the saltshakers” match those of the original town, and a series of outwardly expanding domes—covering a house, f...
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Macey, Kat; Gregory, Angela; Nunns, David; das Nair, Roshan
Recent research has highlighted controversies in the conceptualisation, diagnosis and treatment of vaginismus. Vaginal trainers are currently the most widely used treatment. Critiques have highlighted concerns that the evidence-base of its effectiveness is limited, with controlled trials reporting disappointing results, and its prescription promotes 'performance-based' sexuality which may be detrimental. Despite this, little has been done to seek women's views about their treatment. This study set out to explore women's experiences of vaginismus treatment with vaginal trainers, and to use their voices to propose guidelines for improving treatment. 13 women who had used vaginal trainers for vaginal penetration difficulties diagnosed as vaginismus were recruited through a specialist clinic, university campuses, and online forums. The women took part in semi-structured individual interviews (face-to-face/telephone/Skype), which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using Thematic Analysis. Four superordinate themes were elicited and used to draft 'better treatment' guidelines. Themes were: (1) Lack of knowledge, (2) Invalidation of suffering by professionals, (3) Difficult journey, and (4) Making the journey easier. This paper describes themes (3) and (4). Difficult Journey describes the long and arduous 'Journey into treatment', including difficulties asking for help, undergoing physical investigations and negotiating 'the system' of medical referrals. It also describes the sometimes demoralising process of 'being in treatment', which includes emotional and practical demands of treatment. Making the journey easier highlights the importance of and limits to 'partner support'. 'Professional support' comprises personal qualities of professionals/therapeutic relationship, the value of specialist skills and knowledge and the need for facilitating couple communication about vaginismus. 'Peer support/helping each other' describes the importance of
Yanos, Philip T.; Hopper, Kim
In this paper, we discuss a problem in qualitative interviewing labeled by Bourdieu as ‘false, collusive objectification’. As described by Bourdieu, interviews where this occurs appear authentic because they often echo social science concepts and terminology and therefore may please the interviewer; however, they are actually unusable. We evaluate Bourdieu’s claim for the existence of ‘false’ interviews in light of the predominant postmodern position in qualitative research, offer examples from our own research on people diagnosed with mental illness and raise the issue of whether, when and how qualitative researchers should concern themselves with the shortcomings of interviews. We conclude with suggestions derived from Bourdieu’s view on how to address the problem he described. PMID:21132071
Yanos, Philip T; Hopper, Kim
In this paper, we discuss a problem in qualitative interviewing labeled by Bourdieu as 'false, collusive objectification'. As described by Bourdieu, interviews where this occurs appear authentic because they often echo social science concepts and terminology and therefore may please the interviewer; however, they are actually unusable. We evaluate Bourdieu's claim for the existence of 'false' interviews in light of the predominant postmodern position in qualitative research, offer examples from our own research on people diagnosed with mental illness and raise the issue of whether, when and how qualitative researchers should concern themselves with the shortcomings of interviews. We conclude with suggestions derived from Bourdieu's view on how to address the problem he described.
This paper reports the sources for and intentions of intertextuality made by 10 groups of Taiwanese university students in the process of discussing two American stories. Two types of data, small group text discussions and oral interviews, were gathered. The results indicated that participants used diverse sources of intertextual links, and with…
Middleton, Aves; Gunn, Jane; Bassilios, Bridget; Pirkis, Jane
To understand why some users call crisis helplines frequently. Nineteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with callers to Lifeline Australia who reported calling 20 times or more in the past month and provided informed consent. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic analysis was used to generate common themes. Approval was granted by The University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee. Three overarching themes emerged from the data and included reasons for calling, service response and calling behaviours. Respondents called seeking someone to talk to, help with their mental health issues and assistance with negative life events. When they called, they found short-term benefits in the unrestricted support offered by the helpline. Over time they called about similar issues and described reactive, support-seeking and dependent calling behaviours. Frequent users of crisis helplines call about ongoing issues. They have developed distinctive calling behaviours which appear to occur through an interaction between their reasons for calling and the response they receive from the helpline. The ongoing nature of the issues prompting frequent users to call suggests that a service model that includes a continuity of care component may be more efficient in meeting their needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Online gambling, encompassing a wide variety of activities and around-the-clock access, can be a potential risk factor for gamblers who tend to gamble excessively. Yet, the advent of online gambling has enabled responsible gambling (RG features that may help individuals to limit their gambling behaviour. One of these features is RG tools that track gamblers' behaviour, performs risk assessments and provides advice to gamblers. This study investigated users' views and experiences of the RG tool Playscan from a qualitative perspective using a semi-structured interview. The tool performs a risk assessment on a three-step scale (low, medium and high risk. Users from every risk category were included. Twenty interviews were carried out and analysed using thematic analysis. Two main themes with associated sub-themes were identified: “Usage of Playscan and the gambling site” and “Experiences of Playscan”. Important experiences in the sub-themes were lack of feedback from the tool and confusion when signing up to use Playscan. These experiences counteracted positive attitudes that should have promoted usage of the tool. Providing more feedback directly to users is a suggested solution to increase usage of the RG tool.
Lavender, Hilary; Khondoker, Abul Hussain; Jones, Roger
Depression remains a major public health problem, but little is known about the views and understandings of depression held by many ethnic groups. Aim. To explore views and understandings of depression in three ethnic groups-Yoruba, Sylheti-speaking Bangladeshi and White British-living in South London. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews, using vignettes describing depressed individuals. General practice and the community in Southwark, South London, UK. Participants. 20 Yoruba, 20 Bangladeshi and 20 White British people, recruited from primary care. Interviews (in English for Yoruba and White British, in Sylheti for the Bangladeshi participants) were recorded and transcribed. Atlas ti software was used to organize the data. Views on the causes and cures for depression were diverse. A diagnosis of depression can have adverse social consequences in all groups. Magic had a role in both causation and cure in the Yoruba and to a lesser extent in the Bangladeshi groups. Religion was important for many people in all groups. Family factors were dominant in the Bangladeshi participants, whilst the White British often identified more 'psychological' causes of depression. Coping methods and health-seeking behaviours included religion, family, friends and neighbours, and becoming more active. Formal psychiatric interventions and taking antidepressants were not priorities. Cultural models of depression, including its causes and treatment, are diverse, and are different among cultural groups. This study raises questions about the value of Western approaches to mild and moderate depression in these groups of patients.
Bowden, Fran Martin; Lordly, Daphne; Thirsk, Jayne; Corby, Lynda
Dietitians of Canada has collaborated with experts in knowledge translation and transfer, technology, and dietetic practice to develop and implement an innovative online decision-support system called Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition (PEN). A study was conducted to evaluate the perceived facilitators and barriers that enable dietitians to use or prevent them from using PEN. As part of the overall evaluation framework of PEN, a qualitative descriptive research design was used to address the research purpose. Individual, semi-structured telephone interviews with 17 key informants were completed, and the interview transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis. Respondents identified several facilitators of and barriers to PEN use. Facilitators included specificity to dietetics, rigorous/expert review, easy accessibility, current content, credible/secure material, well-organized/easy-to-use material, material that is valuable to practice, and good value for money. Barriers included perceived high cost, fee structuring/cost to students, certain organizational aspects, and a perceived lack of training for pathway contributors. This formative evaluation has indicated areas in which PEN could be improved and strategies to make PEN the standard for dietetic education and practice. Ensuring that PEN is meeting users' knowledge needs is of the utmost importance if dietitians are to remain on the cutting edge of scientific inquiry.
Callwood, Alison; Bolger, Sarah; Allan, Helen T
To explore how adult, child and mental health nursing and midwifery students, selected using multiple mini interviews, describe their 'values journey' following exposure to the clinical practice environment. Values based recruitment (VBR) incorporates assessment of healthcare students' personal values using approaches like multiple mini interviews. Students' experience of adjustment to their values during their programme is conceptualized as a 'values journey'. The impact of VBR in alleviating erosion of personal values remains unclear. A cross-professional longitudinal cohort study was commenced at one university in England in 2016 with data collection points at the end of years one, two and three. Non-probability consecutive sampling resulted in 42 healthcare students (8 adult, 8 child and 9 mental health nursing and 17 midwifery students) taking part. Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted at the end of participants' Year One (DC1). Data analysis incorporated inductive and deductive approaches in a hybrid synthesis. Participants described a 'values journey' where their values, particularly communication, courage and wanting to make a difference, were both challenged and retained. Participants personal journeys also acknowledged the: 'courage it takes to use values'; 'reality of values in practice' and 'need for self-reflection on values'. A 'values journey' may begin early in a healthcare student's education programme. This is important to recognize so that appropriate interventions designed to support students in higher education and clinical practice can be implemented. The values incorporated in VBR should be continually evaluated for fitness for purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S
We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed.
Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana
Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hermansen, Anna; Peolsson, Anneli; Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi; Hjelm, Katarina
To explore and describe women's experiences of daily life after anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery. Qualitative explorative design. Fourteen women aged 39-62 years (median 52 years) were included 1.5-3 years after anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical disc disease. Individual semi-structured interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The women described their experiences of daily life in 5 different ways: being recovered to various extents; impact of remaining symptoms on thoughts and feelings; making daily life work; receiving support from social and occupational networks; and physical and behavioural changes due to interventions and encounters with healthcare professionals. This interview study provides insight into women's daily life after anterior cervical decompression and fusion. Whilst the subjects improved after surgery, they also experienced remaining symptoms and limitations in daily life. A variety of mostly active coping strategies were used to manage daily life. Social support from family, friends, occupational networks and healthcare professionals positively influenced daily life. These findings provide knowledge about aspects of daily life that should be considered in individualized postoperative care and rehabilitation in an attempt to provide better outcomes in women after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.
Ali, Habiba I; Jarrar, Amjad H; Abo-El-Enen, Mostafa; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Al Ashqar, Huda
Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments is an important step in promoting healthful food choices among college students. This study explored university students' suggestions on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines. It also examined factors influencing students' food choices from vending machines. Peer-led semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 43 undergraduate students (33 females and 10 males) recruited from students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course in a large national university in the United Arab Emirates. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to generate themes using N-Vivo software. Accessibility, peer influence, and busy schedules were the main factors influencing students' food choices from campus vending machines. Participants expressed the need to improve the nutritional quality of the food items sold in the campus vending machines. Recommendations for students' nutrition educational activities included placing nutrition tips on or beside the vending machines and using active learning methods, such as competitions on nutrition knowledge. The results of this study have useful applications in improving the campus food environment and nutrition education opportunities at the university to assist students in making healthful food choices.
Lindgren, Helena; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Rådestad, Ingela
to describe home-birth risk assessment by parents. interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using a phenomenological approach. independent midwifery practices in Sweden. five couples who had had planned home births. the parents had a fundamental trust that the birth would take place without complications, and they experienced meaningfulness in the event itself. Risks were considered to be part of a complex phenomenon that was not limited to births at home. This attitude seems to be part of a lifestyle that has a bearing on how risks experienced during the birth were handled. Five categories were identified as counterbalancing the risk of possible complications: (1) trust in the woman's ability to give birth; (2) trust in intuition; (3) confidence in the midwife; (4) confidence in the relationship; and (5) physical and intellectual preparation. although the parents were conscious of the risk of complications during childbirth, a fundamental trust in the woman's independent ability to give birth was central to the decision to choose a home birth. Importance was attached to the expected positive effects of having the birth at home. knowledge of parents' assessment can promote an increased understanding of how parents-to-be experience the risks associated with home birth.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.
Raunsbæk Knudsen, Line; Thurah, Annette De; Lomborg, Kirsten
the patients' different needs, wishes and abilities to take part in tele-health follow-up. Our findings reveal a need for more insight into how tele-health follow-up could be integrated in routine clinical practice, paying special attention to how reluctant patients may be supported.......: Adopting a strategy of interpretive description, we conducted individual, semi-structured interviews with 15 RA patients participating in a tele-health follow-up. Participants were selected purposively and consecutive from both genders and with various ages, disease durations and disease severity....... The analysis was inductive with a constant comparative approach. First, we identified the main themes conveying the participants' experiences. Then, we constructed patient typologies to explain different perspectives on the tele-health follow-up. RESULTS: Five themes covered the participants' experiences: 'A...
Abraham, Traci H; Koenig, Christopher J; Zamora, Kara; Hill, Coleen; Uddo, Madeline; Kelly, Adam P; Hamilton, Michelle F; Curran, Geoffrey M; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H
Most chronic illness management occurs outside clinics and hospitals, in the everyday lives of individuals. We use data from semi-structured interviews with 37 veterans from Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California to illustrate how "health work" for mental health concerns are shaped by place. Using health work as an orienting concept for analysis, we discerned variation between the two study sites in how Veterans used interacting with the natural environment, cultivating time alone, and religious practice to manage their mental health and well-being. Through these findings, we advocate for a situated notion of health work that is mindful of how health-related behaviors are shaped by place and the attributes that constitute place. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Lass, Marie; Tatari, Camilla Rahr; Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann
OBJECTIVE: In Denmark, parents with small children have the highest contact frequency to out-of-hours (OOH) service, but reasons for OOH care use are sparsely investigated. The aim was to explore parental contact pattern to OOH services and to explore parents' experiences with managing their chil......OBJECTIVE: In Denmark, parents with small children have the highest contact frequency to out-of-hours (OOH) service, but reasons for OOH care use are sparsely investigated. The aim was to explore parental contact pattern to OOH services and to explore parents' experiences with managing...... their children's acute health problems. DESIGN: A qualitative study was undertaken drawing on a phenomenological approach. We used semi-structured interviews, followed by an inductive content analysis. Nine parents with children below four years of age were recruited from a child day care centre in Aarhus...
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Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.
The author of five best-selling novels, including "Carrie,""Salem's Lot,""The Shining,""The Stand," and "The Dead Zone," discusses the teaching of creative writing at high school and college levels. (DF)
Bronwen McDonald; Patricia Rogers
Interviews are easy to do badly and hard to do well - good planning, adequate time and appropriate skills are required. The type of interview should be carefully chosen to suit the situation rather than choosing a type of interview (such as focus groups) simply because it is commonly used. Interviews with children raise particular ethical issues that need to be carefully considered and fully addressed. This brief outlines key issues to consider in planning interviews for impact evaluation, ta...
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... situated identities among the participants cross each other. We emphasize the value of daring to lean in to the muddiness of peopled research, use it as an analytical tool and present it in its imperfect form. This approach contributes to transparency in qualitative research, opens up the data in a new way...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...
Full Text Available The interview focuses on some aspects of the composer’s work with electronics. Palmer, described by the critics as «undoubtedly the most visionary composer of his generation» speaks about the composers and musical works that have had a major impact on him. He also mentions the friendship with John Cage, his numerous travels – with particular emphasis on Japan – and the influence of Eastern culture on his musical mind. The composer discusses the notion of causality explored in Renge-Kyo, the meditative nature of Transient and Inwards, and spirituality as the central theme of both acousmatic works In the Temple and I Am. The electronic medium is also por- trayed as a mirror of an intense and vivid preoccupation for intimacy and perpetual search for timbral qualities that by now characterize most of his music. Another important aspect of Palmer’s work mentioned in the interview is the collaboration with some established performers and its importance for the realization of a musical work.
Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.
Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.
The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)
Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta
People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.
Gray, Kara E.; Hrepic, Zdeslav; Itza-Ortiz, Salomon F.; Allbaugh, Alicia R.; Engelhardt, Paula V.; Rebello, N. Sanjay; Zollman, Dean A.
We discuss the implications of a framework to characterize student reasoning in an interview and its underpinnings in cognitive psychology. Our framework, described in a previous paper in these Proceedings, enables a researcher to identify various cognitive elements used by a student during an interview. Our thesis is that this framework can help identify reasoning paths used by the students. We discuss how this framework can be applied to both a coarse and fine grained analysis of reasoning and how it can be used to infer a student's implicit reasoning processes.
In this article I apply the concept of positioning to the analysis of 15 initial psychiatric interviews. I argue that through their questions the psychiatrists-in-training impose positions requiring the patients to gaze at themselves and their actual problems from particular perspectives. I point to three such positions: (a) the position of the observing assessor, from which it is expected that the patients will make a detached assessment of themselves or their problems, (b) the position of the informing witness, which requires the patients only to verify the information about themselves, and (c) the marginal one, the position of the experiencing narrator, from which talk about experiences and problems is expected. I explore the roots and consequences of the positions, with particular attention toward objectivization of the patients' experiences in the dominant witness and assessor positions. I conclude with a discussion about the medical model in psychiatry.
Nagel, C.; Kilchmann, A.
This interview with Professor Dr. Daniel Spreng of the Center for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE) in Zuerich, Switzerland, deals with questions concerning research in the area of energy economics. In particular, the situation in Switzerland, where mains-connected sources of energy such as electricity and gas play an important role in energy supply, is looked at in the light of market liberalisation. Various approaches to the liberalisation of gas and electricity systems are discussed and the costs of liberalised supply systems are compared with those of the present monopolistic situation. Also, energy reserves and the use of the gas distribution system in a future hydrogen-based energy supply scenario are looked at. Projects currently being worked on at the CEPE are reviewed
Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.
STS-110 Pilot Stephen Frick is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Frick outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Frick discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.
STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Ross outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Ross discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care
Gotts, Zoe M; Newton, Julia L; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent
Sleep disturbances are common in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. The aim was to explore the specific role of sleep in patients' experience of their illness. A qualitative semi-structured interview format facilitated a detailed and open exploration of sleep, and the extent to which its management and problems were linked to the lived experience of CFS. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals with CFS. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, to explore and describe patients' experience of their sleep, and its impact on their condition. Sleep emerged as a key aspect of the illness experience, and its management and effect on daytime functioning was a central pre-occupation for all 11 participants; all of them saw sleep as playing a critical role in their illness through either maintaining or exacerbating existing symptoms. Exploration of individual experiences presented three overarching themes: (1) sleep pattern variability over illness course and from day to day; (2) effect of sleep on daytime functioning; and (3) attempts at coping and sleep management. Each patient with CFS has a unique experience of sleep. Despite the differing narratives regarding the role of sleep in CFS, all participants held the belief that sleep is a vital process for health and well-being which has had a direct bearing on the course and progression of their CFS. Also, every participant regarded their sleep as in some way 'broken' and in need of management/repair. Patients' insights demonstrate sleep-specific influences on their CFS, and the impact of disturbed sleep should be a consideration for clinical and research work. What is already known on this subject? Sleep disturbances are common in CFS, and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. Ontology of CFS is a matter of dispute, with models
Personality, biographical characteristics, and job interview success: a longitudinal study of the mediating effects of interviewing self-efficacy and the moderating effects of internal locus of causality.
Tay, Cheryl; Ang, Soon; Van Dyne, Linn
In this study, the authors developed and tested a model of performance in job interviews that examines the mediating role of interviewing self-efficacy (I-SE; job applicants' beliefs about their interviewing capabilities) in linking personality and biographical background with interview success and the moderating role of locus of causality attributions in influencing the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. The authors tested their model (over 5 months' duration) with matched data from 229 graduating seniors, firms, and university records. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated I-SE mediated the effects of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and leadership experience on interview success. Locus of causality attributions for interview outcomes moderated the relationship between interview success and subsequent I-SE. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Discussion: The exit interview demonstrated that there was some evidence of open label drug being taken by the participants. However, the results from the interview do not suggest that the trial results would have been seriously compromised. We would recommend the exit interview as a valuable way of assessing adherence to trial procedures.
Bradner, James E
James E Bradner is an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) as well as a Staff Physician in the Division of Hematologic Malignancies at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (MA, USA). The present research focus of the Bradner laboratory concerns the discovery and optimization of prototype drugs targeting cancer gene regulation. The clinical objective of the Bradner group is to deliver novel therapeutics for human clinical investigation in hematologic diseases. Bradner's awards and honors include the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award, the Smith Family Award for Excellence in Biomedical Research, the Dunkin' Donuts Rising Star Award and the HMS Distinguished Excellence in Teaching Award. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Hematology, the American Chemical Society and the American Association of Cancer Research. His recent research has been published in Nature, Cell, Nature Chemical Biology and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He has authored more than 20 US Patent applications, licensed to five pharmaceutical companies, and is a scientific founder of Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, SHAPE Pharmaceuticals, Tensha Therapeutics and Syros Pharmaceuticals. Bradner received his AB from Harvard University, his MD from the University of Chicago (IL, USA) and a MMS from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital (MA, USA), followed by a fellowship in Medical Oncology and Hematology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Following additional post-doctoral training in Chemistry at Harvard University and the Broad Institute (MA, USA) with Professor Stuart Schreiber, Bradner joined the research faculty of Dana-Farber in 2008. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.
Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.
Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…
Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred ‘opinion conformity’ as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities’ use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants’ preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters’ interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28203211
Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)
Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.
The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.
Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.
The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)
Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.
Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...
Hope Pius Nudzor
Full Text Available A review of the research methodology literature suggests that owing to the difficulty of gaining access to and obtaining commitments from elites, social scientists less frequently use them as research respondents, opting instead to investigate those over whom power is exercised. This article provides insights into some intricacies of elite interviewing. It recounts the experience of a novice researcher in his quest to gain access to and interview elite individuals within the Ghanaian educational system for his PhD thesis. In the process, the article sheds light on strategies and techniques (related to interviewee identification, scheduling, and researcher preparation for the interview, as well as rapport establishment with potential interviewees that are helpful as toolkits in ensuring that elite interview processes are not unduly derailed. The article argues that the strategies discussed are useful for circumventing formalised and “public relations” responses, which elites tend to communicate with the press and public.
Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth
Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence respect for human rights and respect for autonomy...... through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative researchs interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological...... interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must...
Matherly, S C; Hodges, S
Sandra C. Matherly, MA, RNC, FNP, is senior vice president, business development, and Shannon Hodges, MBA, is vice president, clinical development, Nurse On Call, Inc., Norcross, GA. Founded in 1993, Nurse on Call is a software and services company offering nursing, medical, and business expertise in setting up and operating a patient management unit using telecommunications and information systems. In this interview, Ms. Matherly and Ms. Hodges discuss the history and development of Nurse on Call, and offer advice for starting a successful nurse entrepreneur enterprise.
Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Ford, Loretta C; Aldrich, Heather; Oetzel, Keri Bolton; Cook, Paul; Schmiege, Sarah; Wold, Mary
This paper reports the findings of motivational interviewing (MI) training with and without technology support on school-based health center (SBHC) providers' satisfaction with MI training, providers' self-report of behavioral counseling related to childhood overweight/obesity, and parents' perception of care after training. The effects of training and technology on MI is part of a larger comparative effectiveness, cluster randomized trial. Twenty-four SBHCs in six states received virtual training on MI. Half the sites received HeartSmartKids™, a bilingual (English/Spanish), decision-support technology. The technology generated tailored patient education materials. Standard growth charts were plotted and health risks were highlighted to support MI counseling. The results of the MI training included provider satisfaction with MI training and parent assessment of the components of MI in their child's care. Providers and parents were surveyed at baseline, after training, and six months after training. Providers were satisfied with training and reported improvements in counseling proficiency (ptechnology group reported significant improvement in provider support for healthy eating (p=0.04). Virtual training has the potential of preparing providers to use MI to address childhood obesity. Technology improved parent support for healthy eating. Future research should evaluate the impact of technology to support MI on patient outcomes. Childhood obesity guidelines emphasize that MI should be used to promote healthy weight in children. Training providers on MI may help more providers incorporate obesity guidelines in their practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience. Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Paterson, Barbara; Hall, Elisabeth
Abstract: Little has been written about how to teach novice researchers about qualitative research interviewing. In this article, the authors recognize qualitative research interviewing as a practice that one develops through reflexivity. They propose that novices can develop a reflexive...... to enhance the development of novice researchers as qualitative research interviewers....... interviewing practice by using a guided framework to review video records of the interviews they conduct. The authors discuss the framework and illustrate its use with an exemplar derived from the experience of a novice researcher. They conclude with a discussion of the need for further research about how best...
Quas, Jodi A.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Melinder, Annika; Goodman, Gail S.; D’Mello, Michelle; Schaaf, Jennifer
The present study investigated developmental differences in the effects of repeated interviews and interviewer bias on children’s memory and suggestibility. Three- and 5-year-olds were singly or repeatedly interviewed about a play event by a highly biased or control interviewer. Children interviewed once by the biased interviewer after a long delay made the most errors. Children interviewed repeatedly, regardless of interviewer bias, were more accurate and less likely to falsely claim that they played with a man. In free recall, among children questioned once after a long delay by the biased interviewer, 5-year-olds were more likely than were 3-year-olds to claim falsely that they played with a man. However, in response to direct questions, 3-year-olds were more easily manipulated into implying that they played with him. Findings suggest that interviewer bias is particularly problematic when children’s memory has weakened. In contrast, repeated interviews that occur a short time after a to-be-remembered event do not necessarily increase children’s errors, even when interviews include misleading questions and interviewer bias. Implications for developmental differences in memory and suggestibility are discussed. PMID:17605517
Kaltman, Stacey; WinklerPrins, Vincent; Serrano, Adriana; Talisman, Nicholas
Despite the prevalence of unhealthy behaviors among patients in the healthcare system, traditional medical training involves little or no exposure to effective behavior change techniques such as Motivational Interviewing. An online learning community for enhanced training in Motivational Interviewing was developed for 3rd-year medical students. The website included educational materials about Motivational Interviewing as well as problematic health behaviors, a repository of exemplar videos and student videos with feedback, and a discussion board. Student participants were given the opportunity to record an encounter with a patient and to receive feedback on their use of Motivational Interviewing from a faculty member. Student volunteers in the Family Medicine Clerkship at Georgetown University School of Medicine were randomized to enhanced training, which included the online learning community, or training as usual. All student volunteers completed a questionnaire assessing self-efficacy initially and at the end of the clerkship. Students also participated in an Observed Structured Clinical Exam, which was subsequently coded by a blinded rater for behavioral counts of Motivational Interviewing techniques, key steps in Motivational Interviewing, and overall Motivational Interviewing style. Students in the enhanced training arm were rated as having significantly higher scores in Motivational Interviewing style in the Observed Structured Clinical Exam than training as usual students. A significant increase in self-efficacy from pre- to posttest in the overall sample was observed but between-group differences were not significant. Student feedback was particularly positive regarding video recorded practice sessions with patients and individualized feedback. The results of this study as well as student feedback suggest that future work should include patient practice sessions and individualized feedback in developing Motivational Interviewing curricula.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television.......Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television....
Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.
Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
Montalvo, Frank F.
Describes the critical-incident interview, a cross-cultural training technique that helps social work students assess clients' ethnic- and racial-identity development. Uses examples from student interviews to present the steps involved in teaching the technique. Includes guidelines for selecting and interviewing informants, and gives three scales…
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal interviews. 15.25 Section 15.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.25 Personal interviews. (a) The NRC may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the NRC when— (1) A matter...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal interviews. 540.63 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may... or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at an...
Guillemin, M.; Harris, A.
In the social sciences, there has been an increasing level of interest in the five senses, especially in disciplines such as anthropology, sociology, architecture and human geography. In this case study, we focus on using the senses in qualitative research interviews. We discuss a research method
The importance of developing teachers' skills and feelings of power and professionalism is stressed in an interview with Ernest Boyer. Other topics of discussion include the establishment of a "teacher excellence fund" and the concept that school improvement is "people improvement." (DF)
Campbell, Chari A.
Presents interview with Dr. Violent Oaklander, experienced child therapist and author of "Windows to Our Children: A Gestalt Therapy with Children and Adolescents." Discusses critical components of successful therapy with children. Explains how developmental stage of child affects therapeutic process, and provides specific examples of working with…
Yost, Jeffrey R.
Computer Security History Project Computer security pioneer Dorothy Denning discusses her career including her Lattice Model for Computer Security, research on database security, intrusion detection, and other areas, such as her influential textbooks. The interview also addresses computer security research infrastructure and collaborators at various institutions where she worked including Purdue University, SRI International, Digital Equipment Corporation, Georgetown University, and Naval ...
Say, Rebecca; Thomson, Richard; Robson, Stephen; Exley, Catherine
Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women's attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals' attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs
McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A
Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of
Mesman, Roos; Faber, Marjan J; Westert, Gert P; Berden, Bart
Objective In many countries, the evidence for volume-outcome associations in surgery has been transferred into policy. Despite the large body of research that exists on the topic, qualitative studies aimed at surgeons' views on, and experiences with, these volume-based policies are lacking. We interviewed Dutch surgeons to gain more insight into the implications of volume-outcome policies for daily clinical practice, as input for effective surgical quality improvement. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively selected surgeons from a stratified sample for hospital type and speciality. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent inductive content analysis. Results Two overarching themes were inductively derived from the data: (1) minimum volume standards and (2) implications of volume-based policies. Although surgeons acknowledged the premise 'more is better', they were critical about the validity and underlying evidence for minimum volume standards. Patients often inquire about caseload, which is met with both understanding and discomfort. Surgeons offered many examples of controversies surrounding the process of determining thresholds as well as the ways in which health insurers use volume as a purchasing criterion. Furthermore, being held accountable for caseload may trigger undesired strategic behaviour, such as unwarranted operations. Volume-based policies also have implications for the survival of low-volume providers and affect patient travel times, although the latter is not necessarily problematic in the Dutch context. Conclusions Surgeons in this study acknowledged that more volume leads to better quality. However, validity issues, undesired strategic behaviour and the ways in which minimum volume standards are established and applied have made surgeons critical of current policy practice. These findings suggest that volume remains a controversial quality measure and causes polarization that is not
Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.
Full Text Available Obesity in Sweden has doubled to 14% over the last 20 years. New strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Excessive gestational weight gain has been found to contribute substantially to obesity, and there is a consistent association between postpartum weight retention and obesity later in life. We aimed to explore what factors women perceive as reasons for having substantial postpartum weight retention, to identify areas for new and improved interventions.Qualitative interview study (semi-structured using an emergent design. Fifteen women, with a postpartum weight retention ≥ 10 kg, were interviewed by a trained cognitive therapist. Eight women had pre-pregnancy BMI below 30 kg/m2. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed using inductive manifest content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded and clustered into categories.Participants reported no knowledge of current gestational weight gain recommendations or of risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes with excessive weight gain or postpartum weight retention. Excessive eating emerged as a common strategy to provide relief of psychological, emotional and physical discomfort, such as depression and morning sickness. Women perceived medical staff as being unconcerned about weight, and postpartum weight loss support was scarce or absent. Some women reported eating more due to a belief that breastfeeding would automatically lead to weight loss.There is a need to raise awareness about risks with unhealthy gestational weight development and postpartum weight retention in women of childbearing age. The common strategy to cope with psychological, emotional or physical discomfort by eating is an important factor to target with intervention. The postpartum year is a neglected period where additional follow-up on weight and weight loss support is strongly indicated.
James Briscoe is a group leader at The Francis Crick Institute in London. His lab's research focusses on the developing vertebrate spinal cord, with a particular interest in how sonic hedgehog gradients, and the downstream signal transduction and transcriptional networks, regulate the development of this tissue. In September 2018, James will become the new Editor-in-Chief of Development. We met with James to discuss his career and research interests, the importance of interdisciplinary thinking in developmental biology, and his views on the current state and future opportunities in scientific publishing. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
A A Abbasova
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.
Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de
One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…
Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…
Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.
This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective
Raywid, Mary Anne
Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…
Chen, H Carrie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; ten Cate, Olle
Learning in the clinical workplace can appear to rely on opportunistic teaching. The cognitive apprenticeship model describes assigning tasks based on learner rather than just workplace needs. This study aimed to determine how excellent clinical teachers select clinical learning experiences to support the workplace participation and development of different level learners. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. We explored their approach to teach different level learners and their perceived role in promoting learner development. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 clinical teachers and identified three themes related to their teaching approach: sequencing of learning experiences, selection of learning activities and teacher responsibilities. All teachers used sequencing as a teaching strategy by varying content, complexity and expectations by learner level. The teachers initially selected learning activities based on learner level and adjusted for individual competencies over time. They identified teacher responsibilities for learner education and patient safety, and used sequencing to promote both. Excellent clinical teachers described strategies for matching available learning opportunities to learners' developmental levels to safely engage learners and improve learning in the clinical workplace.
Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen
Medications are highly effective at reducing risk of recurrent stroke, but success is influenced by adherence to treatment. Among survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), adherence to medication is known to be suboptimal. To identify and report barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke/TIA. A qualitative interview study was conducted within general practice surgeries in the East of England, UK. Patients were approached by letter and invited to take part in a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with survivors of stroke, caregivers, and GPs to explore their perspectives and views around secondary prevention and perceived barriers to medication adherence. Key themes were identified using a grounded theory approach. Verbatim quotes describing the themes are presented here. In total, 28 survivors of stroke, including 14 accompanying caregivers and five GPs, were interviewed. Two key themes were identified. Patient level barriers included ability to self-care, the importance people attach to a stroke event, and knowledge of stroke and medication. Medication level barriers included beliefs about medication and beliefs about how pills work, medication routines, changing medications, and regimen complexity and burden of treatment. Patients who have had a stroke are faced with multiple barriers to taking secondary prevention medications in UK general practice. This research suggests that a collaborative approach between caregivers, survivors, and healthcare professionals is needed to address these barriers and facilitate medication-taking behaviour. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Karlsson, Linn; Gerdle, Björn; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Andersson, Gerhard; Larsson, Britt
The purpose of this study was to describe how patients with chronic pain experience physical activity and exercise (PA&E). This qualitative interview study included 16 women and two men suffering from chronic pain and referred to a multimodal pain rehabilitation program. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. One main theme emerged: "To overcome obstacles and to seize opportunities to be physically active despite chronic pain." This main theme was abstracted from five themes: "Valuing a life with physical activity," "Physical activity and exercise - before and after pain," "A struggle - difficulties and challenges," "The enabling of physical activity," and "In need of continuous and active support." Although these participants valued PA&E, they seldom achieved desirable levels, and performance of PA&E was undermined by difficulties and failure. The discrepancy between the intention to perform physical activity and the physical activity accomplished could be related to motivation, self-efficacy, and action control. The participants desired high-quality interaction with healthcare providers. The findings can be applied to chronic pain rehabilitation that uses PA&E as treatment.
Fitzgerald, Niamh; Molloy, Heather; MacDonald, Fiona; McCambridge, Jim
Few studies of the implementation of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) have been conducted in community settings such as mental health, social work and criminal justice teams. This qualitative interview study sought to explore the impact of training on ABI delivery by staff from a variety of such teams. Fifteen semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with trained practitioners and with managers to explore the use of, perceived need for and approaches to ABI delivery and recording with clients, and compatibility of ABIs with current practice. Interviews were analysed thematically using an inductive approach. Very few practitioners reported delivery of any ABIs following training primarily because they felt ABIs to be inappropriate for their clients. According to practitioners, this was either because they drank too much or too little to benefit. Practitioners reported a range of current activities relating to alcohol, and some felt that their knowledge and confidence were improved following training. One practitioner reported ABI delivery and was considered a training success, while expectations of ABIs did not fit with current practice including assessment procedures for the remainder. Identified barriers to ABI delivery included issues relating to individual practitioners, their teams, current practice and the ABI model. They are likely to be best addressed by strategic team- and setting-specific approaches to implementation, of which training is only one part. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Wubbena, Zane C.
In this interview, Curry Malott and Derek R. Ford discuss their new book, "Marx, Capital, and Education: Towards a Critical Pedagogy of Becoming." The interview begins with a general inquiry into their intellectual backgrounds as scholar-activists and, importantly, comrades. The authors then discuss the process of collaborating together…
Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD
Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.
Johnson, Jonni L; Shelley, Alexandra E
Although decisions in child sexual abuse (CSA) cases are influenced by many factors (e.g., child age, juror gender), case and trial characteristics (e.g., interview quality) can strongly influence legal outcomes. In the present study, 319 prospective jurors read about a CSA investigation in which the alleged victim was interviewed at a child advocacy center (CAC) or traditional police setting. The prospective jurors then provided legally relevant ratings (e.g., child credibility, interview quality, defendant guilt). Structural equation modeling techniques revealed that child credibility predicted greater confidence in guilt decisions and also mediated all associations with such decisions. Having fewer negative prior opinions and rating the interview as of better quality were associated with higher child credibility ratings. Mitigating factors (e.g., interview quality), as opposed to proxy indicators (e.g., participant gender), better predicted CSA case outcomes. Similar associations across groups (e.g., CAC interviews did not make child victims more or less credible) permit a tentative conclusion that CACs do not positively or negatively affect decisions made in hypothetical CSA cases. Ideas for future studies examining factors influencing decisions in CSA cases are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available This article discusses the photo interview method used in a participatory inter- and transdisciplinary research setting. The photo interview has proven particularly useful for sustainability and environmental studies in which eliciting community points of view is crucial to the research effort. Based on experiences in several countries, the author describes and analyses the photo interview process and its three phases—involving, sharing and analysing—and explores potential influences on data quality. In the first phase, researchers use the photo interview method to involve community residents from different levels of society in the research process. In the second phase, the photo interview method encourages community residents and scientists to share insights and perspectives and to partner in developing a common understanding of local structures, processes, and possible solutions. In the third phase, the photo interview method allows researchers to analyse visual and textual data as a representation of a local societal context. In decoding images, researchers ground the analysis in subjective perspectives, use residents' visual codes along with other methods to further analyse community data, and explore the wider societal context in which the study is embedded. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803127
Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.
Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)
In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints
Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.
Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted
Tuffrey-Wijne, I; Rose, T
Most staff working in intellectual disability services will be confronted with people with intellectual disabilities who need support around death, dying and bereavement. Previous studies suggest that intellectual disability staff tend to protect clients from knowing about death and avoid communication about death. The aims of this study were to gain further insight into the individual, organisational and contextual factors that affect the communication of death-related bad news to people with intellectual disabilities by intellectual disability staff and to develop guidelines for services to enable appropriate communication with clients about death and dying. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 social care staff working in intellectual disability residential or supported living services in London, who had supported a client affected by death-related bad news in the past 6 months. Staff found supporting people with intellectual disabilities around death and dying extremely difficult and tended to avoid communication about death. The following factors had a particularly strong influence on staff practice around communicating death-related bad news: fear and distress around death; life and work experience; and organisational culture. Staff attitudes to death communication had a stronger influence than their client's level of cognitive or communicative abilities. Managers were important role models. Service managers should ensure not only that all their staff receive training in death, loss and communication but also that staff are enabled to reflect on their practice, through emotional support, supervision and team discussions. Future work should focus on the development and testing of strategies to enable intellectual disability staff to support their clients in the areas of dying, death and bereavement. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chemical and Engineering News, 1987
Relates the comments offered in an interview with Erich Bloch, the National Science Foundation (NSF) Director. Discusses issues related to NSF and its funding, engineering research centers, involvement with industry, concern for science education, computer centers, and its affiliation with the social sciences. (ML)
Teeuw Marieke E
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often suggested that an effort must be made to increase awareness among consanguineous couples of their reproductive risk, and to refer them for genetic counseling if needed. Primary care professionals are considered most appropriate for addressing the subject and identifying couples at risk during consultations in their practice. This Dutch study aims to explore the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of such professionals regarding their care for consanguineous couples. Methods Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives and general practitioners. Results Although most primary care professionals considered it their task to inform couples about the risks of consanguinity, during consultations the topic was generally only briefly touched upon and quickly abandoned. Important reasons for this were professionals’ beliefs about religious and social values of couples, their low perception of the couples’ reproductive risk and expected limited feasibility of referral. Feelings of embarrassment regarding addressing consanguinity did not seem to play a significant role. Conclusions Primary care professional beliefs about their clients’ religious and social values, their attitudes toward the risk, and perceived limited options for referral seem to conflict with the professional norm to address the topic of consanguinity.
McCoy, Lisa K; Hermos, John A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Frayne, Susan M
Faith-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs provide residential treatment for many substance abusers. To determine key governing concepts of such programs, we conducted semi-structured interviews with sample of eleven clinical and administrative staff referred to us by program directors at six, Evangelical Christian, faith-based, residential rehabilitation programs representing two large, nationwide networks. Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods examined how spirituality is incorporated into treatment and elicited key theories of addiction and recovery. Although containing comprehensive secular components, the core activities are strongly rooted in a Christian belief system that informs their understanding of addiction and recovery and drives the treatment format. These governing conceptions, that addiction stems from attempts to fill a spiritual void through substance use and recovery through salvation and a long-term relationship with God, provide an explicit, theory-driven model upon which they base their core treatment activities. Knowledge of these core concepts and practices should be helpful to clinicians in considering referrals to faith-based recovery programs.
Igarashi, Toshiko; Wakita, Mariko; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo
midwifery homes (similar to birth centres) are rich in midwifery wisdom and skills that differ from those in hospital obstetrical departments, and a certain percentage of pregnant women prefer birth in these settings. This study aimed to understand the organisation of the perinatal environment considered important by independent midwives in non-hospital settings and to clarify the processes involved. semi-structured qualitative interview study and constant comparative analysis. 14 independent midwives assisting at births in midwifery homes in Japan, and six independent midwives assisting at home births. Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Shiga, Japan. midwives assisting at non-hospital births organised the birth environment based on the following four categories: 'an environment where the mother and family are autonomous'; 'a physical environment that facilitates birth'; 'an environment that facilitates the movement of the mother for birth'; and 'scrupulous safety preparation'. These, along with their sub-categories, are presented in this paper. independent midwives considered it important to create a candid relationship between the midwife and the woman/family from the period of pregnancy to facilitate birth in which the woman and her family were autonomous. They also organised a distinctive environment for non-hospital birth, with preparations to guarantee safety. Experiential knowledge and skills played a major part in creating an environment to facilitate birth, and the effectiveness of this needs to be investigated objectively in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a Swedish cohort, semi-structured interviews were performed to explore the experiences of work ability in these young workers. Systematic text condensation inspired by phenomenology was used in the analysis. Work ability was experienced as complex, consisting of four themes, each with three subthemes. To be alert and have energy, to possess sufficient education, skills and working life experience and experience meaningfulness and engagement in work, were perceived to be fundamental for work ability and were seen as the worker's own responsibility. Moreover, work ability can be improved or reduced by the psychosocial work climate, the work organization and the private life. Optimal work ability was experienced when all themes integrated in a positive way. Work ability was experienced as the worker's own responsibility that could be influenced by work circumstances and private life. To promote good work ability among young workers, work ability has to be understood in its specific context. Whether the understanding of work ability found in this study is explicit for the group of young adults needs to be explored in a more general population in further research.
Skogheim, Gry; Hanssen, Tove A
In some economically developed countries, women's choice of birth care and birth place is encouraged. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives who started working in alongside/free-standing midwifery units (AMU/FMU) and their experiences with labour care in this setting. A qualitative explorative design using a phenomenographic approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten strategically sampled midwives working in midwifery units. The analysis revealed the following five categories of experiences noted by the midwives: mixed emotions and de-learning obstetric unit habits, revitalising midwifery philosophy, alertness and preparedness, presence and patience, and coping with time. Starting to work in an AMU/FMU can be a distressing period for a midwife. First, it may require de-learning the medical approach to birth, and, second, it may entail a revitalisation (and re-learning) of birth care that promotes physiological birth. Midwifery, particularly in FMUs, requires an especially careful assessment of the labouring process, the ability to be foresighted, and capability in emergencies. The autonomy of midwives may be constrained also in AMUs/FMUs. However, working in these settings is also viewed as experiencing "the art of midwifery" and enables revitalisation of the midwifery philosophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sumiya, Motofumi; Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.
Ward, Deborah J
To investigate the barriers to and motivators for learning infection prevention and control as identified by midwifery students. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 undergraduate midwifery students within one large university. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Barriers to good clinical practice were identified by students which were concordant with previous literature related to reasons for non-compliance with infection control precautions. Issues such as competing demands specific to midwifery were also identified. Factors which act as barriers to learning good practice in placements included conflicting information and practices from different staff and placement areas and staff attitudes towards students who tried to comply with precautions. Motivators to good practice included the perceived vulnerability of infants to infection, the role modelling of good practice to new mothers and the monitoring of practice. This study demonstrated that midwifery students perceive barriers and motivators to learning infection prevention and control in their clinical placements. Many of the barriers identified are related to the attitudes and practices of qualified staff. Some of the motivators are related specifically to midwifery practice. Midwives need to be aware of the effects of what is observed in practice on midwifery students and how their practices and attitudes can influence learning both positively and negatively. As healthcare-associated infection and poor compliance with precautions are a global problem, this research should be of benefit to midwives and midwifery educators worldwide in terms of addressing barriers and ensuring better clinical education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cederwall, Carl-Johan; Olausson, Sepideh; Rose, Louise; Naredi, Silvana; Ringdal, Mona
To determine: 1) if the three elements of person-centred care (initiating, working and safeguarding the partnership) were present, and 2) to identify evidence of barriers to person-centred care during prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Secondary analysis of semi structured interviews with 19 critical care nurses using theoretical thematic analysis. This study was conducted in three Swedish intensive care units, one in a regional hospital and two in a university hospital. Three themes and nine subthemes related to person-centred care were identified. The three themes included: 1) 'finding a person behind the patient' related to the 'initiating the partnership' phase, 2) 'striving to restore patient́s sense of control' related to 'working the partnership' phase and 3) 'impact of patient involvement' related to 'safeguarding the partnership' phase of person-centred care'. Additionally a further theme 'barriers to person-centred care' was identified. We found evidence of all three person-centred care routines. Barriers to person-centred care comprised of lack team collaboration and resources. Facilitating patients to actively participate in decision-making during the weaning process may optimise weaning outcomes and warrants further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delnoij Diana MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20 were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes from consumers' thoughts and evaluations. These themes were categorized under four important areas of interest: (1 a response to the design; (2 a response to the information content; (3 the use of the information, and (4 the purpose of the information. Conclusion Several barriers to an effective use of comparative healthcare information were identified, such as too much information and the ambiguity of terms presented on websites. Particularly important for future research is the question of how comparative healthcare information can be integrated with alternative information, such as patient reviews on the Internet. Furthermore, the readability of quality of care concepts is an issue that needs further attention, both from websites and communication experts.
Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one’s own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture. PMID:29408894
Full Text Available Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.
Leath, Audrey T.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.
Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim
Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.
Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy
Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection
Full Text Available Often, creative people are recognised primarily for the work they do in one discipline, with efforts in other areas overlooked. Some artists are truly multidisciplinary, having the ability to express themselves eloquently through more than one medium. This selection of work from Padhraig Nolan, Dublin-based artist and poet, illustrates two strands of his practice: poetry and painting. As discussed in the accompanying interview, he is an artist working in more than one medium, each of which could be said to communicate with the other. In both painting and poetry, Nolan is inspired by landscape and a sense of place, and he turns his inspirations into remarkable art pieces, whether they be crafted with words or paint. Originally from Enniscorthy in County Wexford, Padhraig Nolan now lives near Dún Laoghaire, where he works as a graphic designer, illustrator and visual artist. He also writes poetry, reviews and songs. His work is regularly published and exhibited in Ireland and internationally. His website is www.padhraignolan.com
This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381
Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language
In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed
With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797
Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph
The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...
Serres, Michelle L.; Gundrum, Todd E.
Objective. To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. Methods. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. Results. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station—impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. Conclusion. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity. PMID:24159209
Peeters, Michael J; Serres, Michelle L; Gundrum, Todd E
To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station-impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity.
Thales Vilela Lelo
Full Text Available This paper reflects about a possible positive dimension of the conflict, starting with an exhibition that addresses the world of journalism interviews. Using the positivity attributed to the conflict in the theorizing of Georg Simmel as a complement to the dialogical movement developed in Martin Buber theorizations, will perform the analysis of an interview conducted in the Globo News guided by the discrepancy between the interviewer/interviewee. From this point, the concepts are articulated with an emphasis on a pragmatic framework, so that it discusses the conflict as an element with potential to promote destabilization on conventional frames of journalism, managing the public and inviting him to debate about a specific problematic field.
Dam, Gregory; Kaufmann, Stefan
Clinical interviews are a powerful method for assessing students' knowledge and conceptualdevelopment. However, the analysis of the resulting data is time-consuming and can create a "bottleneck" in large-scale studies. This article demonstrates the utility of computational methods in supporting such an analysis. Thirty-four 7th-grade student explanations of the causes of Earth's seasons were assessed using latent semantic analysis (LSA). Analyses were performed on transcriptions of student responses during interviews administered, prior to (n = 21) and after (n = 13) receiving earth science instruction. An instrument that uses LSA technology was developed to identify misconceptions and assess conceptual change in students' thinking. Its accuracy, as determined by comparing its classifications to the independent coding performed by four human raters, reached 90%. Techniques for adapting LSA technology to support the analysis of interview data, as well as some limitations, are discussed.
Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard
Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey The 3rd part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the fall of 2009 and the summer and fall of 2010 as an interview based survey of 18 selected participants (nine...
Neuschwander, Murielle; In-Albon, Tina; Meyer, Andrea H; Schneider, Silvia
The objective of this study was to investigate the satisfaction and acceptance of a structured diagnostic interview in clinical practice and in a research setting. Using the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents (Kinder-DIPS), 28 certified interviewers conducted 202 interviews (115 with parents, 87 with children). After each interview, children, parents, and interviewers completed a questionnaire assessing the overall satisfaction (0 = not at all satisfied to 100 = totally satisfied) and acceptance (0 = completely disagree to 3 = completely agree) with the interview. Satisfaction ratings were highly positive, all means >82. The mean of the overall acceptance for children was 2.43 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.41), 2.54 (SD = 0.33) of the parents, 2.30 (SD = 0.43) of the children's interviewers, and 2.46 (SD = 0.32) of the parents' interviewers. Using separate univariate regression models, significant predictors for higher satisfaction and acceptance with the interview are higher children's Global Assessment of Functioning, fewer number of children's diagnoses, shorter duration of the interview, a research setting, female sex of the interviewer, and older age of the interviewer. Results indicate that structured diagnostic interviews are highly accepted by children, parents, and interviewers. Importantly, this is true for different treatment settings. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Asha R Aggarwal, Iqbal Khan Department of Medical Education, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton, UK Objectives: In the UK, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR should be undertaken in the event of cardiac arrest unless a patient has a “Do Not Attempt CPR” document. Doctors have a legal duty to discuss CPR with patients or inform them that CPR would be futile. In this study, final-year medical students were interviewed about their experiences of resuscitation on the wards and of observing conversations about resuscitation status to explore whether they would be equipped to have an informed discussion about resuscitation in the future. Methods: Twenty final-year medical students from two medical schools were interviewed about their experiences on the wards. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis was undertaken.Results: Students who had witnessed CPR on the wards found that aspects of it were distressing. A significant minority had never seen resuscitation status being discussed with a patient. No students reported seeing a difficult conversation. Half of the students interviewed reported being turned away from difficult conversations by clinicians. Only two of the twenty students would feel comfortable raising the issue of resuscitation with a patient. Conclusion: It is vital that doctors are comfortable talking to patients about resuscitation. Given the increasing importance of this aspect of communication, it should be considered for inclusion in the formal communication skills teaching during medical school. Keywords: undergraduate, communication, DNACPR, palliative care, end of life care
Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory
The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope
Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne
Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills
The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.
Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced
Schöpf, Andrea C; von Hirschhausen, Maike; Farin, Erik; Maun, Andy
Aim The aim of this study was to explore elderly patients' and general practitioners' (GPs') perceptions of communication about polypharmacy, medication safety and approaches for empowerment. To manage polypharmacy, GPs need to know patients' real medication consumption. However, previous research has shown that patients do not always volunteer all information about their medication regimen, for example, such as the intake of over-the-counter medication or the alteration or discontinuation of prescribed medication. A qualitative interview study including patients of at least 65 years old with polypharmacy (⩾5 medications) and their GPs in a German Primary Healthcare Centre. The transcripts from the semi-structured interviews (n=6 with patients; n=3 with GPs) were analysed using a framework analytical approach. Findings We identified three themes: differing medication plans: causes?; dialogue concerning medication: whose responsibility?; supporting patients' engagement: how? While GPs stated that patients do not always report or might even conceal information, all patients reported that they could speak openly about everything with their GPs. In this context, trust might act as a double-edged sword, as it can promote open communication but also prevent patients from asking questions. Both GPs and patients could name very few ways in which patients could be supported to become more informed and active in communication concerning polypharmacy and medication safety. This study shows that patients' awareness of the significance of their active role in addressing polypharmacy needs to be increased. This includes understanding that trusting the doctor does not preclude asking questions or seeking more information. Thus, interventions which improve patients' communication skills and address specific issues of polypharmacy, particularly in elderly patients, should be designed. GPs might support patients by 'inviting' their contribution.
White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean
Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people’s food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants’ practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants’ practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances
Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean
Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances change
Martin, Mona L; Halling, Katarina; Eek, Daniel; Krohe, Meaghan; Paty, Jean
The aim of this study was to explore the need for a new disease-specific patient reported outcome (PRO) measure for use in clinical trials of drugs designed to target the underlying causes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in the process contribute to our understanding of the symptoms and impacts that define the patient experience with PCOS. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 20 women diagnosed with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria who had not menstruated in the previous month. The relative importance of PCOS symptoms and impact concepts to patients was determined by analyzing the frequency of their expression in the interview transcripts. These insights were compared to clinicians' perceptions of PCOS. Pain- and discomfort-related symptoms accounted for the highest proportion (27.6%) of the 735 patient expressions, although clinicians did not consider pain to be important to patients with PCOS. The most frequently expressed individual symptoms were cramping (70% of patients; 14.7% of concepts), irregular menstruation (95% of patients; 12.2% of concepts), facial hair growth (75% of patients; 10.6% of concepts), heavy bleeding (70% of patients; 8.8% of concepts), infertility (70% of patients; 5.4% of concepts), and bloating (60% of patients; 5.2% of concepts). Cramping, heavy bleeding, and bloating were not identified by clinicians as being important to patients with PCOS. The impacts most frequently reported by patients with PCOS related to emotional well-being (e.g. anxiety/stress) and coping behaviors (e.g. acne medication, hair removal). The only validated PCOS-specific PRO, the PCOSQ, does not capture some key PCOS symptoms and impacts expressed by patients with PCOS, most notably those related to pain and discomfort, bleeding intensity and coping behaviours. Furthermore, some key PCOS symptoms may be under-recognized in the clinic.
Full Text Available Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women, aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity, the task (process of cooking, and the context (situational drivers. Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and
McCauley, Claire-Odile; McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; McLaughlin, Derek
The aim of this study was to co-create of an interview schedule exploring mental health recovery in collaboration with young adult service users. Service user involvement in research has been increasingly recognized as providing a vital authentic insight into mental health recovery. Engagement and collaboration with service users have facilitated the exploration of inaccessible or under-investigated aspects of the lived experience of mental health recovery, not only directing the trajectory of research, but making it relevant to their own contextual experience. A qualitative content analysis framework was employed in the co-creation of a semi-structured interview schedule through an engagement process with service users. Two separate engagement groups took place at the premises of the service user organizations, between January - February 2014. Miles and Huberman's analysis framework was chosen for this phase as it enabled the visual presentation of factors, concepts or variables and the established relationship between them. The lived experience of mental ill health in young adulthood and how this was understood by others was a particularly relevant theme for participants. Further themes were identified between the impact of painful experiences at this developmental life stage leading to a deeper understanding of others through finding meaning in their own mental health recovery journey. Our findings identified that suffering painful experiences is an integral aspect in the process of mental health recovery. This understanding has particular relevance to mental health nursing practice, ensuring the care delivered is cognizant of the suffering or painful experiences that young adults are encountering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique M; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira
Previous research has highlighted an ambiguity in understanding cooking related terminology and a number of barriers and facilitators to home meal preparation. However, meals prepared in the home still include convenience products (typically high in sugars, fats and sodium) which can have negative effects on health. Therefore, this study aimed to qualitatively explore: (1) how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and (2) their barriers and facilitators to cooking with basic ingredients. 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants (aged 18-58 years) living on the island of Ireland, eliciting definitions of 'cooking from scratch' and exploring the reasons participants cook in a particular way. The interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and Nvivo 10 was used for an inductive thematic analysis. Our results highlighted that although cooking from 'scratch' lacks a single definition, participants viewed it as optimal cooking. Barriers to cooking with raw ingredients included: 1) time pressures; (2) desire to save money; (3) desire for effortless meals; (4) family food preferences; and (5) effect of kitchen disasters. Facilitators included: 1) desire to eat for health and well-being; (2) creative inspiration; (3) ability to plan and prepare meals ahead of time; and (4) greater self-efficacy in one's cooking ability. Our findings contribute to understanding how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and barriers and facilitators to cooking with raw ingredients. Interventions should focus on practical sessions to increase cooking self-efficacy; highlight the importance of planning ahead and teach methods such as batch cooking and freezing to facilitate cooking from scratch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hill Robert L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most questionnaires used for physical activity (PA surveillance have been developed for adults aged ≤65 years. Given the health benefits of PA for older adults and the aging of the population, it is important to include adults aged 65+ years in PA surveillance. However, few studies have examined how well older adults understand PA surveillance questionnaires. This study aimed to document older adults' understanding of questions from the International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ, which is used worldwide for PA surveillance. Methods Participants were 41 community-dwelling adults aged 65-89 years. They each completed IPAQ in a face-to-face semi-structured interview, using the "think-aloud" method, in which they expressed their thoughts out loud as they answered IPAQ questions. Interviews were transcribed and coded according to a three-stage model: understanding the intent of the question; performing the primary task (conducting the mental operations required to formulate a response; and response formatting (mapping the response into pre-specified response options. Results Most difficulties occurred during the understanding and performing the primary task stages. Errors included recalling PA in an "average" week, not in the previous 7 days; including PA lasting Conclusions These findings indicate a need for caution in administering IPAQ to adults aged ≥65 years. Most errors resulted in over-reporting, although errors resulting in under-reporting were also noted. Given the nature of the errors made by participants, it is possible that similar errors occur when IPAQ is used in younger populations and that the errors identified could be minimized with small modifications to IPAQ.
Fisher, Rebecca Fr; Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard
The existence of a crisis in primary care in the UK is in little doubt. GP morale and job satisfaction are low, and workload is increasing. In this challenging context, finding ways for GPs to manage that workload is imperative. To explore what existing or potential strategies are described by GPs for dealing with their workload, and their views on the relative merits of each. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with GPs working within NHS England. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Of those who responded to advertisements, a maximum-variation sample was selected and interviewed until data saturation was reached. Data were analysed thematically. Responses were received from 171 GPs, and, from these, 34 were included in the study. Four main themes emerged for workload management: patient-level, GP-level, practice-level, and systems-level strategies. A need for patients to take greater responsibility for self-management was clear, but many felt that GPs should not be responsible for this education. Increased delegation of tasks was felt to be key to managing workload, with innovative use of allied healthcare professionals and extended roles for non-clinical staff suggested. Telephone triage was a commonly used tool for managing workload, although not all participants found this helpful. This in-depth qualitative study demonstrates an encouraging resilience among GPs. They are proactively trying to manage workload, often using innovative local strategies. GPs do not feel that they can do this alone, however, and called repeatedly for increased recruitment and more investment in primary care. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Mouthon, Luc; Alami, Sophie; Boisard, Anne-Sophie; Chaigne, Benjamin; Hachulla, Eric; Poiraudeau, Serge
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic connective-tissue disease responsible for reduced life expectancy, disability and a decreased quality of life. In order to optimize patients-physicians relationship and care strategy we aimed to survey views of patients on SSc and its management to reveal potential hurdles and improve health care strategies. A qualitative study combined semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and a direct observation of an information session was performed between November 2008 and January 2009. Twenty-five patients with SSc were included. They encounter difficulties to have a clear representation of their disease. Physical, psychological, and social repercussions of SSc may lead to a psychological distress and different coping strategies, which widely differ among interviewed patients. Patients' views on their therapeutic journey and the management of their disease highlighted strong expectations about patient-physician relationship. These expectations were numerous, complex and sometimes ambivalent. Patients expected physicians to be human and attentive but also involved in research in the field and to provide psychological and affective support to help them to accept the uncertainty of disease evolution and lack of curative treatment. They also expected more individualized management, improvements in diagnosis and follow-up organization, more efforts in education and information, comprehensive behaviors and support from working colleagues and relatives, and increased funding from the health care system. Our results suggest that SSc management could be optimized, particularly with more attention to the patient-practitioner relationship. Patient profiles should be more precisely defined in terms of coping strategies and treatment preferences to propose more individualized options.
Stenberg, Jenny; Henriksson, Catrin; Lindberg, Magnus; Furuland, Hans
Inadequate volume control may be a main contributor to poor survival and high mortality in hemodialysis patients. Bioimpedance measurement has the potential to improve fluid management, but several dialysis centers lack an agreed fluid management policy, and the method has not yet been implemented. Our aim was to identify renal care professionals' perceived barriers and facilitators for use of bioimpedance in clinical practice. Qualitative data were collected through four focus group interviews with 24 renal care professionals: dieticians, nephrologists and nurses, recruited voluntarily from a nation-wide selection of hemodialysis centers, having access to a bioimpedance-device. The participants were connected to each other and a moderator via equipment for telemedicine and the sessions were recorded. The interviews were semi-structured, focusing on the participants' perceptions of use of bioimpedance in clinical practice. Thematic content analysis was performed in consecutive steps, and data were extracted by employing an inductive, interactive, comparative process. Several barriers and facilitators to the use of bioimpedance in clinical practice were identified, and a multilevel approach to examining barriers and incentives for change was found to be applicable to the ideas and categories that arose from the data. The determinants were categorized on five levels, and the different themes of the levels illustrated with quotations from the focus groups participants. Determinants for use of bioimpedance were identified on five levels: 1) the innovation itself, 2) the individual professional, 3) the patient, 4) the social context and 5) the organizational context. Barriers were identified in the areas of credibility, awareness, knowledge, self-efficacy, care processes, organizational structures and regulations. Facilitators were identified in the areas of the innovation's attractiveness, advantages in practice, and collaboration. Motivation, team processes and
Dukala, Karolina; Polczyk, Romuald
The main objective was to explore the influence of interviewer behavior-abrupt versus friendly-and the age of participants on interrogative suggestibility. The study involved 42 young adults and 50 elderly participants. The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale 2 was used. Data analysis involved a 2-factor between-subjects design (interviewer behavior × age) and mediation analysis. The scores of elderly participants were significantly lower than younger adults on memory indices and significantly higher on some suggestibility indexes. Some suggestibility indices in the abrupt experimental condition were higher than those in the friendly experimental condition. Elderly participants who were interviewed under the abrupt condition were more likely to change their answers after receiving negative feedback than younger adults. Memory quality was a mediator of the relationship between age and the tendency to yield to suggestive questions. Self-appraisal of memory was a mediator between both age and interviewer behavior and the tendency to change answers after negative feedback. Mechanisms of the relationship between age, interviewer behavior, and suggestibility are discussed on the basis of the mediational analyses. The findings suggest that a friendly manner should be adopted when interrogating witnesses.
Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret
We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the "Making Choices©" Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the "think aloud" interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids.
EJ van Aswegen
Full Text Available This article has its genesis in the inquirer’s interest in the need for internalizing critical thinking, creative thinking and reflective skills in adult learners. As part of a broader study the inquirer used a combination of two techniques over a period of nine months, namely: Socratic discussion/questioning and Learning Through Discussion Technique. The inquirer within this inquiry elected mainly qualitative methods, because they were seen as more adaptable to dealing with multiple realities and more sensitive and adaptable to the many shaping influences and value patterns that may be encountered (Lincoln & Guba, 1989. Purposive sampling was used and sample size (n =10 was determined by the willingness of potential participants to enlist in the chosen techniques. Feedback from participants was obtained: (1 verbally after each discussion session, and (2 in written format after completion of the course content. The final/ summative evaluation was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. This was deemed necessary, in that the participants were already studying for the end of the year examination. For the purpose of this condensed report the inquirer reflected only on the feedback obtained with the help of the questionnaire. The empirical study showed that in spite of various adaptation problems experienced, eight (8 of the ten (10 participants felt positive toward the applied techniques.
van Aswegen, E J; Brink, H I; Steyn, P J
This article has its genesis in the inquirer's interest in the need for internalizing critical thinking, creative thinking and reflective skills in adult learners. As part of a broader study the inquirer used a combination of two techniques over a period of nine months, namely: Socratic discussion/questioning and Learning Through Discussion Technique. The inquirer within this inquiry elected mainly qualitative methods, because they were seen as more adaptable to dealing with multiple realities and more sensitive and adaptable to the many shaping influences and value patterns that may be encountered (Lincoln & Guba, 1989). Purposive sampling was used and sample size (n = 10) was determined by the willingness of potential participants to enlist in the chosen techniques. Feedback from participants was obtained: (1) verbally after each discussion session, and (2) in written format after completion of the course content. The final/summative evaluation was obtained through a semi-structured questionnaire. This was deemed necessary, in that the participants were already studying for the end of the year examination. For the purpose of this condensed report the inquirer reflected only on the feedback obtained with the help of the questionnaire. The empirical study showed that in spite of various adaptation problems experienced, eight (8) of the ten (10) participants felt positive toward the applied techniques.
Full Text Available Current article includes an analysis of interviewing in sport psychology, an observing of modern scientific interview protocols, a description of interview cases in private practice and research; also there is a discussion about efficiency and limitations of interview method in the article. Approaches to interviewing as the main and auxiliary method are discussed in details. The objective of the article is to show how an interview can reveal interesting biographical facts, personality traits, the installation of an athlete, to reflect his inner world, and to form working in the field of sport psychology professionals and students view on the advantages and opportunities an interview in the work of sports psychologist (research and practice. This method can be regarded as a tool of knowledge, but is also used as a preliminary interview before long-term or short-term therapeutic work. Clinical conversation as one of the options the interview are invited to the discussion; the article provides a common protocol for clinical interviews in the sport.
White, Geoffry D.
A course option in abnormal psychology involves students in interviewing and observing the activities of individuals in the off-campus community who are concerned with some aspect of abnormal psychology. The technique generates student interest in the field when they interview people about topics such as drug abuse, transsexualism, and abuse of…
Det gående interview understøtter børns aktive deltagelse, og giver indblik i den materielle og kulturelle kontekst......Det gående interview understøtter børns aktive deltagelse, og giver indblik i den materielle og kulturelle kontekst...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV.......The interview was conducted in Oslo on May 22nd 2006 prior to the Abel prize celebration and was later shown on Norwegian TV....
... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION RELEASE OF INFORMATION TO NEWS AND... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA... American public. However, journalists may have access to the NASA officials they seek to interview...
op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bruijnes, Merijn; Peters, R.M.; Krikke, T.
A serious game for learning the social skills required for effective police interviewing is a challenging idea. Building artificial conversational characters that play the role of a suspect in a police interrogation game requires computational models of police interviews as well as of the internal