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Sample records for discussion questions activities

  1. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  2. Discourse Integration Guided by the "Question under Discussion"

    Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    What makes a discourse coherent? One potential factor has been discussed in the linguistic literature in terms of a Question under Discussion (QUD). This approach claims that discourse proceeds by continually raising explicit or implicit questions, viewed as sets of alternatives, or competing descriptions of the world. If the interlocutor accepts…

  3. Classroom Voting Questions to Stimulate Discussions in Precalculus

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Huckaby, David A.; Storm, Christopher; Stewart, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Classroom voting can be an effective way to stimulate student discussions. In this pedagogy, the instructor poses a multiple-choice question to the class, and then allows a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion before students vote, either with clickers, cell phones, or a non-electronic method. After the vote the instructor…

  4. Socratic Questioning in the Paideia Method to Encourage Dialogical Discussions

    Davies, Maree; Sinclair, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of using Socratic questioning, based on the Paideia Method, on the nature of middle-schools students' patterns of interaction and on the cognitive complexity of their discussions. The hypothesis is that an experimental group will increase in both interaction focus and complexity at T3, which is the face-to-face…

  5. NUFACT11 round table discussion questions and answers

    Blondel, A

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model, it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ(13) makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses, it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and asso...

  6. Thorium and Molten Salt Reactors: Essential Questions for Classroom Discussions

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Hirsch, Allison; Murray, Meredith; Rarick, Richard

    2018-04-01

    A little-known type of nuclear reactor called the "molten salt reactor" (MSR), in which nuclear fuel is dissolved in a liquid carrier salt, was proposed in the 1940s and developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1960s. Recently, the MSR has generated renewed interest as a remedy for the drawbacks associated with conventional uranium-fueled light-water reactors (LWRs) in use today. Particular attention has been given to the "thorium molten salt reactor" (TMSR), an MSR engineered specifically to use thorium as its fuel. The purpose of this article is to encourage the TPT community to incorporate discussions of MSRs and the thorium fuel cycle into courses such as "Physics and Society" or "Frontiers of Physics." With this in mind, we piloted a pedagogical approach with 27 teachers in which we described the underlying physics of the TMSR and posed five essential questions for classroom discussions. We assumed teachers had some preexisting knowledge of nuclear reactions, but such prior knowledge was not necessary for inclusion in the classroom discussions. Overall, our material was perceived as a real-world example of physics, fit into a standards-based curriculum, and filled a need in the teaching community for providing unbiased references of alternative energy technologies.

  7. NUFACT11 Round Table DiscussionQuestions and Answers

    Blondel, A; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ 13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R and D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R and D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  8. Questioning the Question: How can a husband rape his wife? : A Discussion in an International Classroom

    Anjali Nicole Walquist

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I assume that upon reading this you already have some reaction or answer. I have one, too. The interesting part is that they can be very different. Some people think along the lines of “Yes, I can't imagine how a husband can rape his wife because that is so cruel.” Other people may think something like “Yes, how is this even possible, that a husband having sex with his wife could be considered rape.” These views are quite different, and it is this difference that interests me.In this essay, I will reflect upon the question “How can a husband rape his wife?” I will discuss my personal background, and describe the situation and experience in which this question was brought up. Next, I will discuss various reflections I have had about this difference. I will then reflect on how this idea, or even the definitions of the terms, may be based on a person’s culture, gender, and/or opinions. After that, I will look at how this topic may affect social workers, service users and social work as a profession. Lastly, I will also explain how this has helped me gain a better understanding of this issue.

  9. Conflict resolution: panel discussion and questions from the audience

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Several questions were raised following the speakers' presentations. The question arose as to whether Congress should have let the 1986 milestone in the original Act occur, rather than drafting the Amendments Act in an effort to alleviate a potential problem. Generally, response held that allowing things to run their course would have raised pertinent issues, caused conflict, and ultimately resulted in negotiation and compromise. A question was raised about managing the transition from public involvement and participation to actual negotiations. The speakers responded that negotiation is a necessary step after informing the public. Letting people vent their frustrations is important but does not solve the problems. Controversy can result from public participation as easily as may consensus, because of value disagreements. The next step is to bargain and negotiate after the information is shared. The speakers were then asked how they felt about enforced (by state statute) mediation. All speakers responding felt that by building in mandatory mediation, the process is hurt more than helped. Mediation only works if all parties want it

  10. Questions as indicators of ocean literacy: students' online asynchronous discussion with a marine scientist

    Fauville, Géraldine

    2017-11-01

    In this article, 61 high-school students learned about ocean acidification through a virtual laboratory followed by a virtual lecture and an asynchronous discussion with a marine scientist on an online platform: VoiceThread. This study focuses on the students' development of ocean literacy when prompted to ask questions to the scientist. The students' questions were thematically analysed to assess (1) the kind of reasoning that can be discerned as premises of the students' questions and (2) what possibilities for enhancing ocean literacy emerge in this instructional activity. The results show how interacting with a scientist gives the students an entry point to the world of natural sciences with its complexity, uncertainty and choices that go beyond the idealised form in which natural sciences often are presented in school. This activity offers an affordable way of bringing marine science to school by providing extensive expertise from a marine scientist. Students get a chance to mobilise their pre-existing knowledge in the field of marine science. The holistic expertise of the marine scientist allows students to explore and reason around a very wide range of ideas and aspect of natural sciences that goes beyond the range offered by the school settings.

  11. Discussion

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  12. Discussion of David Thissen's Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory

    Wainer, Howard

    2016-01-01

    The usual role of a discussant is to clarify and correct the paper being discussed, but in this case, the author, Howard Wainer, generally agrees with everything David Thissen says in his essay, "Bad Questions: An Essay Involving Item Response Theory." This essay expands on David Thissen's statement that there are typically two principal…

  13. Examining the Effect of Small Group Discussions and Question Prompts on Vicarious Learning Outcomes

    Lee, Yekyung; Ertmer, Peggy A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of group discussions and question prompts on students' vicarious learning experiences. Vicarious experiences were delivered to 65 preservice teachers via VisionQuest, a Web site that provided examples of successful technology integration. A 2x2 factorial research design employed group discussions and question…

  14. Discussion and group work design in O2O teaching of applied optics: questions, strategies and extending

    Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng; Liu, Xiangdong; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-08-01

    Applied optics course in Zhejiang University is a National Excellent Resource Sharing Course in China, and the online to offline teaching strategies have been implemented and shared with dozens of universities and colleges in China. Discussion is an important activity in teaching. In this paper our main consideration is designing the discussion questions and group works so as to develop the students' critical thinking, cooperative and sharing spirits, and communication abilities in the cosmopolitan era. Typical questions that connect different chapters and help the students to understand the relationship between each sub-system in both field of view and aperture are given for discussion. We inspire the students to complete group works such as ray trace programming by cooperation and then make presentations. All of these create a circumstance for sharing thoughts and developing intelligence and knowledge. A poll shows that the students pay more attention to optical design than before and have made progress in conversation and cooperation.

  15. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...

  16. Discussion

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  17. Discussing Active Learning from the Practitioner's Perspective

    Bamba, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of how active learning took place in a class containing specific readings,cooperative and collaborative group work, and a writing assignment for college students at a Northern Virginia Community College campus (NVCC). Requisite knowledge, skills, learner characteristics, brain-based learning, and…

  18. Quiet or Questioning? Students' Discussion Behaviors in Student-Centered Education across Cultures

    Frambach, Janneke M.; Driessen, Erik W.; Beh, Philip; van der Vleuten, Cees P. M.

    2014-01-01

    A tool used in student-centered education is discussion among students in small learning groups. The Western origin of student-centered education, coupled with cross-cultural differences in communication styles, may detract from its cross-cultural applicability. This study investigates how in student-centered education, students' cultural…

  19. Using Peer Discussion Facilitated by Clicker Questions in an Informal Education Setting: Enhancing Farmer Learning of Science

    Smith, Michelle K.; Annis, Seanna L.; Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Drummond, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions. PMID:23077638

  20. Using peer discussion facilitated by clicker questions in an informal education setting: enhancing farmer learning of science.

    Michelle K Smith

    Full Text Available Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.

  1. Using peer discussion facilitated by clicker questions in an informal education setting: enhancing farmer learning of science.

    Smith, Michelle K; Annis, Seanna L; Kaplan, Jennifer J; Drummond, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Blueberry growers in Maine attend annual Cooperative Extension presentations given by university faculty members. These presentations cover topics, such as, how to prevent plant disease and monitor for insect pests. In 2012, in order to make the sessions more interactive and promote learning, clicker questions and peer discussion were incorporated into the presentations. Similar to what has been shown at the undergraduate level, after peer discussion, more blueberry growers gave correct answers to multiple-choice questions than when answering independently. Furthermore, because blueberry growers are characterized by diverse levels of education, experience in the field etc., we were able to determine whether demographic factors were associated with changes in performance after peer discussion. Taken together, our results suggest that clicker questions and peer discussion work equally well with adults from a variety of demographic backgrounds without disadvantaging a subset of the population and provide an important learning opportunity to the least formally educated members. Our results also indicate that clicker questions with peer discussion were viewed as a positive addition to university-related informal science education sessions.

  2. Question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity

    Elvira A. Baranova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s questions are an indicator of active cognitive perception of reality. Questions but not answers are relevant in revealing a child’s mental life, consciousness and thinking. The lack of question-asking skills can hinder learning, searching and exploration in children. To determine in 7- and 8-year-old school children the common and variable peculiarities of designing a search process for necessary information concerning an unknown object by volitionally formulated questions, as well as the dynamics of the questioning process throughout a school year. The study was based on an experimental methodology, codenamed Guess what there is in the box, and was conducted in four schools in Cheboksary. The sample comprised 158 primary school first-graders who took part in a confirmatory experiment twice, once in September and once in May. The research showed that 96.3% of the questions asked were search questions. Only 30% of the first-graders initiated their searching activities of their own will without having to resort to the given search algorithm, while 70% did not begin asking questions without outside stimulation. The analysis of the dynamics of children’s question-asking behavior exhibited a tendency to decrease in a number of questions asked over the course of the school year. Primary school children need psychological and pedagogical scaffolding aimed at developing a question-asking behavior as a form of cognitive activity to achieve a possible age potential in development.

  3. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question.

    Jørgensen, M E; Sørensen, M R; Ekholm, O; Rasmussen, N K

    2013-10-01

    Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1-3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four samples from 57 to 100 min/day. Question order was associated with the reported number of minutes spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and with prevalence of meeting the recommendation, whereas physical inactivity was associated with the differences in formulation of the question. Questionnaire context influences the way people respond to questions about physical activity significantly and should be tested systematically in validation studies of physical activity questionnaires. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Remarks presented (questions/answers discussed) at public regional meetings to discuss regulations (10 CFR Part 21) for reporting of defects and noncompliance, July 12--26, 1977

    1977-09-01

    In enacting the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, Congress included Section 206 which requires the reporting of defects and noncompliances directly to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This congressional action required that the NRC promulgate rules and regulations, as necessary, to assure appropriate implementation of Section 206. In response to this mandate, the NRC drafted a new regulation. Following a period of public comment and revision, the regulation identified as 10 CFR Part 21, Reporting Defects and Noncompliance, was published in a Federal Register Notice on June 6, 1977. To assist NRC licensees and other firms and organizations covered by the new Part 21 regulation, public regional meetings were conducted by staff representatives to explain the rule. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on the meaning and application of the rule. Staff remarks contained in the original publication of this document were also provided to those in attendance. At each meeting the staff received a request for the questions and answers discussed by the staff to be made available for use as guidance by the nuclear industry covered by the rule. It was announced that a consolidation of the staff position question/answer guidance would be made available to each organization or firm attending these meetings and for others where a request is made in accordance with the directions printed insidethe front cover of the document. The staff will be guided in its implementation and enforcement of Part 21 by the positions set forth in the document. The revision of NUREG-0302 includes the following three parts relating to 10 CFR Part 21: (1) remarks presented by staff representatives; (2) Federal Register Notice material; and (3) a consolidation of questions and answers from the public regional meetings

  5. Importance of questionnaire context for a physical activity question

    Jørgensen, M. E.; Sørensen, Mette Rosenlund; Ekholm, O.

    2013-01-01

    ; however, this has never been shown for physical activity questions. The aim was to study the influence of different formulations and question order on self-report physical activity in a population-based health interview survey. Four samples of each 1000 adults were drawn at random from the National Person......Adequate information about physical activity habits is essential for surveillance, implementing, and evaluating public health initiatives in this area. Previous studies have shown that question order and differences in wording result in systematic differences in people's responses to questionnaires...... Register. A new question about physical activity was included with minor differences in formulations in samples 1–3. Furthermore, the question in sample 2 was included in sample 4 but was placed in the end of the questionnaire. The mean time spent on moderate physical activity varied between the four...

  6. Resources for Education and Outreach Activities discussion session

    Barney, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire; Kobel, Michael; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Melo, Ivan; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few years a variety of resources have been developed, by individuals and groups, to support Education & Outreach activities in particle physics. Following short (five-minute) presentations by six speakers, a discussion session allowed the audience to go further in depth in activities they found particularly interesting. This paper presents brief overviews from each of the six speakers, followed by a summary of the ensuing discussion

  7. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  8. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  9. Promoting End-of-Life Discussions in Advanced Cancer: Effects of Patient Coaching and Question Prompt Lists.

    Rodenbach, Rachel A; Brandes, Kim; Fiscella, Kevin; Kravitz, Richard L; Butow, Phyllis N; Walczak, Adam; Duberstein, Paul R; Sullivan, Peter; Hoh, Beth; Xing, Guibo; Plumb, Sandy; Epstein, Ronald M

    2017-03-10

    Purpose To build on results of a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a combined patient-oncologist intervention to improve communication in advanced cancer, we conducted a post hoc analysis of the patient intervention component, a previsit patient coaching session that used a question prompt list (QPL). We hypothesized that intervention-group participants would bring up more QPL-related topics, particularly prognosis-related topics, during the subsequent oncologist visit. Patients and Methods This cluster RCT with 170 patients who had advanced nonhematologic cancer (and their caregivers) recruited from practices of 24 participating oncologists in western New York. Intervention-group oncologists (n = 12) received individualized communication training; up to 10 of their patients (n = 84) received a previsit individualized communication coaching session that incorporated a QPL. Control-group oncologists (n = 12) and patients (n = 86) received no interventions. Topics of interest identified by patients during the coaching session were summarized from coaching notes; one office visit after the coaching session was audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by using linear regression modeling for group differences. Results Compared with controls, more than twice as many intervention-group participants brought up QPL-related topics during their office visits (70.2% v 32.6%; P coaching, 158 (60.3%) were QPL related; 20 (12.7%) addressed prognosis. Overall, patients in the intervention group brought up 82.4% of topics of interest during the office visit. Conclusion A combined coaching and QPL intervention was effective to help patients with advanced cancer and their caregivers identify and bring up topics of concern, including prognosis, during their subsequent oncologist visits. Considering that most patients are misinformed about prognosis, more intensive steps are needed to better promote such discussions.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of fluoride and its in vivo importance: identification of research questions.

    Van Loveren, C

    2001-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the antimicrobial activity of fluoride and its in vivo importance in order to identify research questions. There is a lot of information on mechanisms by which fluoride may interfere with bacterial metabolism and dental plaque acidogenicity. The antimicrobial activity of fluoride products is enhanced when fluoride is associated with antimicrobial cations like Sn(2+) and amine. It is not clear whether the antimicrobial mechanisms of fluoride are operating in vivo or even to what extent antimicrobial activity can contribute to caries prevention. This latter question may be the most important one in research. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Question order in the assessment of misperception of physical activity

    van Dijke Marius

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People often have misperceptions (overestimation or underestimation about the health-related behaviours they engage in, which may have adverse consequences for their susceptibility to behavioural change. Misperception is usually measured by combining and comparing quantified behavioural self-reports with subjective classification of the behaviour. Researchers assume that such assessments of misperception are not influenced by the order of the two types of measurement, but this has never been studied. Based on the precaution adoption model and the information processing theory, it might be expected that taking the subjective measurement after a detailed quantified behavioural self-report would improve the accuracy of the subjective measurement because the quantified report urges a person to think more in detail about their own behaviour. Methods In an experiment (n = 521, quantified self-report and subjective assessment were manipulated in a questionnaire. In one version, the quantified self-report was presented before the subjective assessment, whereas in the other version, the subjective assessment came first. Results Neither subjective assessment nor overestimation of physical activity were biased by the order of the questions. Underestimation was more prevalent among subgroups of the group which answered the subjective assessment after the quantified self-report. Conclusion Question order in questionnaires does not seem to influence misperceptions concerning physical activity in groups relevant for health education (overestimators: those who do not meet the guidelines for physical activity while rating their physical activity as sufficient or high. The small order effect found in underestimators is less relevant for health education because this subgroup already meets the guideline and therefore does not need to change behaviour.

  12. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  13. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita [Hospital of the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, German WHO-REMPAN Collaboration Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for

  14. A reflective discussion: questions about globalization and multiculturalism in nursing as revealed during a student/staff exchange programme.

    Graham, Iain; Norman, Linda

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present elements of a discussion on the discipline of nursing that arose from a student-faculty exchange programme, as a reflection of the experiences the students and faculty had during the 3-year exchange. It suggests that the globalization of health and the international migration of nurses might prove to be an opportunity for nurses to learn more about nursing practice. It became apparent to the participants that the phenomenon of nursing, although understood by them all, was not easy to describe, and words used in Swedish, Finnish or British or American English were often not easy to interpret or explain. These reflections were noted by the authors when the group came together to plan the programme and design experiences for the participants. We were concerned how nursing could contribute to health-care improvement globally if it wasn't universally understood within the four countries concerned.

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  16. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. © 2014 D. L. Linton et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  18. Active Learning Through Discussion in E-Learning

    Daru Wahyuningsih

    2016-01-01

    Active learning is generally made by a lecturer in learning face to face. In the face to face learning, lecturer can implement a variety of teaching methods to make students actively involved in learning. This is different from learning that is actuating in e-learning. The main characteristic of e-learning is learning that can take place anytime and anywhere. Special strategies are needed so that lecturer can make students play an active role in the course of e-learning. Research in order to ...

  19. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    Vucicevic, M.; Sukalo, I.

    1989-01-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  20. General discussion about enzymes activities of radiation injury

    Vucicevic, M; Sukalo, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1989-07-01

    Researching reliable and practical indicators of radiation injury, however, is very interesting and considerable department of scientific studies, practical and theoretical. Enzymes activities are among biochemical indicators which are changed after radiation injury. Activity of these specific proteins is important in regulation of every biochemical reaction in existing beings. Biological macromolecules can be damaged by radiation or the cell permeability can be changed. All of these influence directly on enzymes activities. In this paper we present the review of the all important enzymes, indicators of the radiation injury, which variances on reference to normal values are significant of the functional and the structural changes of essential organs (author)

  1. A child's question in school as an expression of active attitude towards the environment

    Pavlović Branka S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance and role of a child's question in school and developing of children and adolescents' active attitude towards social environment. Emphasis is placed on the importance of a child's question for developing civic participation in social community. Considerations start from 'humanocentric' strategy of social development, oriented primarily to local community and man as a focal point of development, his potentials being in the focus of all development interests. Potentially, school as a part of local and broader social community has very large but in reality a modest role in developing civic conscious and participation. The paper points to some causes for such state-of-the-arts but also to some possibilities of improving school's role, without in-depth reforms, by introducing changes in methods of work and attitudes towards child's spontaneous questions and curiosity as a development phenomenon. Let us remind you of the improperly used classes of a class head teacher or students' class community. As a part of a school system development strategy, it is also necessary to stimulate more active attitude of school towards social reality. One of the ways of integrating school into social community is to nurture culture of asking questions in school as an educational institution and then through all institutions of social life.

  2. Online Activity Around Scholarly Astronomy Literature - A Discussion of Altmetrics

    Henneken, Edwin A.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Thompson, Donna; Grant, Carolyn S.; Murray, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    So, your research is mentioned or gets discussed in social media, in blogs and other online channels. Do you care? Should you care? Will this exposure result in better science? Researchers probably should care, and most likely policy makers already care, because it matters how research, funded by them, is being portrayed in society. We have pretty solid ideas about how to quantify the impact of research on itself. This has been studied for decades in the fields of informetrics, bibliometrics and scientometrics. But how do you quantify the societal impact of research? You will need to assume that this impact can be measured in principle, and that is possible to come up with a recipe that quantifies this impact. Assuming that there is a societal impact seems quite reasonable for most disciplines in science. It is definitely true for parts of astronomy and physics. Just think of the attention given to the LHC or to the hunt for exoplanets. Enter the concept of "alternative metrics", or "altmetrics". As a result of the growing interest in altmetrics, various services (like the websites impactstory.org and altmetric.com) claim to have found a way to quantify the societal impact of research, either in a person-centric or publication-centric way. On this poster we explore, using data provided by altmetric.com, how astronomy fits in this altmetrics picture. How do popular science articles compare to those in the core astronomy journals? Is there any correlation between the altmetric measure and indicators like downloads, reads or citations? We briefly discuss the benefits that altmetrics might offer and the pitfalls involved in quantifying such measures.

  3. Understanding Trail Runners’ Activity on Online Community Forums: An Inductive Analysis of Discussion Topics

    Rochat Nadège

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Recreational trail runners often participate in online community forums where they can freely read posted messages, join discussions and/or introduce new discussion topics. This tool can enhance learning as runners connect with other trail runners and reflect on how they can better organize their own practice. Studying forum activity would provide greater insight into the relationship between field practice and dedicated forums. The aim of this study was therefore to detect the topics discussed online by trail runners in order to understand how they collectively look for solutions that help them adapt to issues that emerge during actual practice. The discussion topics (n = 171 on the forum hosted by the Raidlight brand were examined using inductive content analysis, which distinguished two general dimensions. The first dimension was training and had four first-order themes (i.e., “specific trail running sessions”, “complementary trail running sessions”. “training plans” and “specific questions about races” grouped into two second-order themes (i.e., “training session contents” and “structure and schedule”. The second dimension was health and had seven first-order themes (i.e., “tendinitis”, “muscle issues”, “foot issues”, “sprains and fractures”, “pain”, “physiology” and “substances and practitioners” grouped into two second-order themes (i.e., “pain and injury” and “prevention”. The results indicate that the issues that trail runners discuss on forums are significant and that the successions of questions and solutions are a fruitful means for building, enriching and adjusting their activity as they cope with constraints. As a practical consequence, suggestions for improving such online platforms are made.

  4. Understanding Trail Runners' Activity on Online Community Forums: An Inductive Analysis of Discussion Topics.

    Rochat, Nadège; Hauw, Denis; Gür, Gaëlle; Seifert, Ludovic

    2018-03-01

    Recreational trail runners often participate in online community forums where they can freely read posted messages, join discussions and/or introduce new discussion topics. This tool can enhance learning as runners connect with other trail runners and reflect on how they can better organize their own practice. Studying forum activity would provide greater insight into the relationship between field practice and dedicated forums. The aim of this study was therefore to detect the topics discussed online by trail runners in order to understand how they collectively look for solutions that help them adapt to issues that emerge during actual practice. The discussion topics (n = 171) on the forum hosted by the Raidlight brand were examined using inductive content analysis, which distinguished two general dimensions. The first dimension was training and had four first-order themes (i.e., "specific trail running sessions", "complementary trail running sessions". "training plans" and "specific questions about races") grouped into two second-order themes (i.e., "training session contents" and "structure and schedule"). The second dimension was health and had seven first-order themes (i.e., "tendinitis", "muscle issues", "foot issues", "sprains and fractures", "pain", "physiology" and "substances and practitioners") grouped into two second-order themes (i.e., "pain and injury" and "prevention"). The results indicate that the issues that trail runners discuss on forums are significant and that the successions of questions and solutions are a fruitful means for building, enriching and adjusting their activity as they cope with constraints. As a practical consequence, suggestions for improving such online platforms are made.

  5. Can Reading Questions Foster Active Learning? A Study of Six College Courses

    Koontz, T. M.; Plank, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Many instructors strive to encourage student reading outside of class and active learning in class. One pedagogical tool, structured reading questions, can help do both. Using examples from question sets across six courses, the authors illustrate how reading questions can help students achieve the six active-learning principles described by…

  6. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Children Physical Activity Motivation

    Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity…

  7. Questions and Advice to the Swedish Radiation Authority in their Current Work on Radiation Safety from Participants in Focus Group Discussions in the Municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-01-01

    In connection to their work on developing a 'general advice document', based on the radiation protection law, the Swedish Radiation Authority (SSI) initiated a process in 2002 that welcomed comments and suggestions from the general public, specifically representatives and interested parties involved in the work related to a Swedish repository for high level nuclear wastes. The authority held a seminar in September, and presented the forthcoming task. The present paper summarises and exemplifies discussions in focus groups in October 2002, when participants from the municipalities of Oskarshamn and Oesthammar met to give their input to the authority's ongoing work. The questions and suggestions emerging from the focus groups are classified into three major areas in this presentation: 1. Issues related specifically to radiation and radioactivity. 2. Issues of comprehension of terminology, measurements, risk, and safety. 3. Issues concerning the information process and the transfer of knowledge. The discussion highlights that issues and comments raised by the public are not constrained to specific knowledge questions, e.g. on radiation or risk, but may relate to legal, strategic and political considerations, as well as the basics of the performed analyses and the related assumptions and evaluations. Ideas for improving public knowledge and for facilitating an exchange of information are outlined below

  8. Activities in a social networking-based discussion group by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography doctors.

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Lina; Liu, Na; Wang, Xiangping; Zhang, Rongchun; Liu, Zhiguo; Liang, Shuhui; Yao, Shaowei; Tao, Qin; Jia, Hui; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2017-10-01

    Online social networking is increasingly being used among medical practitioners. However, few studies have evaluated its use in therapeutic endoscopy. Here, we aimed to analyze the shared topics and activities of a group of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) doctors in a social networking-based endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography discussion group (EDG). Six ERCP trainers working in Xijing Hospital and 48 graduated endoscopists who had finished ERCP training in the same hospital were invited to join in EDG. All group members were informed not to divulge any private information of patients when using EDG. The activities of group members on EDG were retrospectively extracted. The individual data of the graduated endoscopists were collected by a questionnaire. From June 2014 to May 2015, 6924 messages were posted on EDG, half of which were ERCP related. In total, 214 ERCP-related topics were shared, which could be categorized into three types: sharing experience/cases (52.3%), asking questions (38.3%), and sharing literatures/advances (9.3%). Among the 48 graduated endoscopists, 21 had a low case volume of less than 50 per year and 27 had a high volume case volume of 50 or more. High-volume graduated endoscopists posted more ERCP-related messages (P=0.008) and shared more discussion topics (P=0.003) compared with low-volume graduated endoscopists. A survey showed that EDG was useful for graduated endoscopists in ERCP performance and management of post-ERCP complications, etc. A wide range of ERCP-related topics were shared on the social networking-based EDG. The ERCP-related behaviors on EDG were more active in graduated endoscopists with an ERCP case volume of more than 50 per year.

  9. Validity of selected physical activity questions in white Seventh-day Adventists and non-Adventists.

    Singh, P N; Tonstad, S; Abbey, D E; Fraser, G E

    1996-08-01

    The validity and reliability of selected physical activity questions were assessed in both Seventh-day Adventist (N = 131) and non-Adventist (N = 101) study groups. Vigorous activity questions similar to those used by others and new questions that measured moderate and light activities were included. Validation was external, comparing questionnaire data with treadmill exercise time, resting heart rate, and body mass index (kg.m-2), and internal, comparing data with other similar questions. Both Adventist and non-Adventist males showed significant age-adjusted correlations between treadmill time and a "Run-Walk-Jog Index" (R = 0.28, R = 0.48, respectively). These correlations increased substantially when restricting analysis to exercise speeds exceeding 3 mph (R = 0.39, R = 0.71, respectively). Frequency of sweating and a vigorous physical activity index also correlated significantly with treadmill time in males. Correlations were generally weaker in females. Moderate- and light-intensity questions were not correlated with physical fitness. Internal correlations R = 0.50-0.78) between the above three vigorous activity questions were significant in all groups, and correlations (R = 0.14-0.60) for light and moderate activity questions were also documented. Test-retest reliability coefficients were high for vigorous activity questions (R = 0.48-0.85) and for one set of moderate activity questions (R = 0.43-0.75). No important differences in validity and reliability were found between Adventist and non-Adventists, but the validity of vigorous activity measures was generally weaker in females.

  10. Exploring Pre-Service Science Teacher Methods and Strategies for the Driving Questions in Research Inquiry: From Consulting an Instructor to Group Discussion

    Aydin, Miraç

    2016-01-01

    An important stage in any research inquiry is the development of research questions that need to be answered. The strategies to develop research questions should be defined and described, but few studies have considered this process in greater detail. This study explores pre-service science teachers' research questions and the strategies they can…

  11. Analyzing the Learning Process of an Online Role-Playing Discussion Activity

    Hou, Huei-Tse

    2012-01-01

    Instructional activities based on online discussion strategies have gained prevalence in recent years. Within this context, a crucial research topic is to design innovative and appropriate online discussion strategies that assist learners in attaining a deeper level of interaction and higher cognitive skills. By analyzing the process of online…

  12. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    Melike Aydemir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To do this, questions were asked in different ways and answers were requested in different formats in synchronous virtual sessions. The participants consisted of 28 postgraduate students registered in an online criminal justice program at a university located in the North-East part of Turkey. Data was collected in the context of a Research Methods in Security Sciences course during 2012–2013 fall semester. Results showed effects of question type on learner interest, while answer format has an effect on usefulness of online activities. In conclusion, to increase interest in synchronous virtual classrooms by asking questions, instead of closed-ended questions, open-ended questions which everybody can answer should be preferred.

  13. Re-Appropriating a Question/Answer System to Support Dialectical Constructivist Learning Activity

    Carroll, John M.; Wu, Yu; Shih, Patrick C.; Zheng, Saijing

    2016-01-01

    Learning can be engaged by dialectic, that is, by identifying pros and cons that inhere in propositions, and more generally, by raising questions about the validity of claims. We report here on a classroom case study of dialectical constructivist pedagogy: Students created dialectical analyses of two lectures and four books as core activities in a…

  14. 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members: Frequently Asked Questions

    2017-05-01

    outstanding research that has had a clear impact on improving policy decisions practice or discourse, either in the public or private sectors .” 6. What...2017 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Active Duty Members 433 | OPA Frequently Asked Questions 2016 Workplace and Gender Relations...OPA), has been conducting surveys of gender issues for the active duty military since 1988. RSSC uses scientific state of the art statistical

  15. Classroom Active Learning Complemented by an Online Discussion Forum to Teach Sustainability

    Dengler, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the pedagogical benefits of an active learning course delivery complemented by an online discussion forum to teach sustainability by evaluating the case of a geography master's course. The potential benefits and some challenges of an active learning course delivery to teach sustainability in geography and related…

  16. Legacy question

    Healy, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The legacy question discussed refers to the definition of appropriate actions in this generation to provide a world that will allow future generations to use the earth without excessive limitations caused by our use and disposal of potentially hazardous materials

  17. An active-learning assignment requiring pharmacy students to write medicinal chemistry examination questions.

    Kolluru, Srikanth

    2012-08-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an assignment requiring doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry sections of a pharmacotherapeutics course. Students were divided into groups of 5-6 and given detailed instructions and grading rubrics for writing multiple-choice examination questions on medicinal chemistry topics. The compiled student-written questions for each examination were provided to the entire class as a study aid. Approximately 5% of the student-written questions were used in course examinations. Student appreciation of and performance in the medicinal chemistry portion of the course was significantly better than that of the previous year's class. Also, students' responses on a qualitative survey instrument indicated that the assignment provided students' guidance on which concepts to focus on, helped them retain knowledge better, and fostered personal exploration of the content, which led to better performance on examinations. Adding an active-learning assignment in which students write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry portion of a pharmacotherapeutics course was an effective means of increasing students engagement in the class and knowledge of the course material.

  18. Algumas questões epistemológicas e éticas da psicologia: a avaliação em discussão Some episthemological and ethical questions in psychology: avaliation under discussion

    Susana Inês Molon

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho pretende fazer uma reflexão sobre alguns dilemas epistemológicos e éticos que encontramos na produção do conhecimento psicológico frente à racionalidade hegemônica que institui um modelo de produção, de aplicação e de avaliação do conhecimento para a educação e para os programas de Pós-graduação, sobretudo da Psicologia. Para entendermos a condição presente da Psicologia, recorremos ao seu passado, buscando os indícios da sua história de luta e resistência, os registros de permanência e de rupturas, para que possamos pensar prospectivamente sobre nossa condição e nosso devir. No esforço de sistematizar alguns pontos do debate, vamos abordar inicialmente as especificidades da produção do conhecimento da Psicologia; logo em seguida, enfatizaremos a crise da racionalidade hegemônica e a emergência de um novo paradigma na ciência, e finalizaremos com a discussão sobre a avaliação.This study reflects upon some episthemological and ethical dilemma we find in the psychological knowledge production facing the hegemonic rationality that establishes a model of production, application and evaluation of knowledge to education and to Post-Graduation programmes, above all in Psychology. In order to understand the present condition of Psychology, we revisited its past, searching for indication of its struggle and resistence history, searching marks of permanence and ruptures, so we could think prospectively about our condition and our becoming. In the effort to systematize some points of the discussion, we initially approach the specificities of Psychology knowledge production; then, we emphasize the hegemonic rationality crisis and the emergence of a new pradigm in science, and we conclude with the discussion on evaluation.

  19. Activity, content, contributors, and influencers of the twitter discussion on urologic oncology.

    Borgmann, Hendrik; Loeb, Stacy; Salem, Johannes; Thomas, Christian; Haferkamp, Axel; Murphy, Declan G; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the activity, content, contributors, and influencers of the Twitter discussion on urologic oncology. We performed a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative Twitter analysis for the hashtags #prostatecancer, #bladdercancer, #kidneycancer, and #testicularcancer. Symplur was used to analyse activity over different time periods and the top influencers of the Twitter discussion. Tweet Archivist and Twitonomy analysis tools were used to assess characteristics of content and contributors. Twitter discussion on urologic oncology in 2014 contained 100,987 tweets created by 39,326 participants. Mean monthly tweet activity was 6,603±2,183 for #prostatecancer, 866±923 for #testicularcancer, 457±477 for #bladdercancer and 401±504 for #kidneycancer. Twitter activity increased by 41% in 2013 and by 122% in 2014. The content analysis detected awareness, cancer, and risk as frequently mentioned words in urologic oncology tweets. Prevalently used related hashtags were the general hashtag #cancer, awareness hashtags, and the respective cancer/urology tag ontology hashtags. Contributors originated from 41 countries on 6 continents and had a mean of 5,864±4,747 followers. They tweeted from platforms on exclusively mobile devices (39%) more frequently than from desktop devices (29%). Health care organizations accounted for 58% of the top influencers in all cancers. The largest proportion of physicians were among the #prostatecancer and #kidneycancer (each 9%) influencers and individual contributors were most frequent in the discussion on #kidneycancer (57%) and #testicularcancer (50%). There is a significant and growing activity in the Twitter discussion on urologic oncology, particularly on #prostatecancer. The Twitter discussion is global, social, and mobile, and merits attention of stakeholders in health care as a promising communication tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Active Gaming to Promote Physical Activity: Questions to Consider for Your School

    Meyler, Tim; Banks, Sarah; Wilson, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The physical activity potential and physiological and motivational benefits of active gaming have been a hot topic in the past few years. It is easy to see why active games are popular among certain populations, particularly those with prior or current video game experience. Video games are fun to play and challenging, give a player total control,…

  1. Questioning the Questions

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  2. Clarifying and discussing successful aging at work and the active role of employees

    Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I clarify and further discuss 4 issues raised by Zacher in critically analyzing my perspective on successful aging at work and the active role of employees. First, I argue that the sustainability concept is a valuable and useful concept to better understand successful aging at work,

  3. The Play Curricular Activity Reflection Discussion Model for Game-Based Learning

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates the process of game-based learning in classrooms through the use of the Play Curricular activity Reflection Discussion (PCaRD) model. A mixed-methods study was conducted at a high school to implement three games with the PCaRD model in a year-long elective course. Data sources included interviews and observations for…

  4. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  5. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions.

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-02-28

    College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discussions were conducted consisting of 17 male and 29 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.7 ± 1.6 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Students reported that both physical and sedentary activities were influenced by individual factors (e.g. perceived enjoyment, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, modelling, social support), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, travel time/distance, prices), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students' physical activity and sedentary behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, university lifestyle, exams and academic pressure. Recommendations for future physical activity interventions include improving information strategies regarding on-campus sports activities, cheaper and/or more flexible sports subscriptions and formulas, including 'sports time' into the curricula, and providing university bicycles around campus. Students also believed that increasing students' physical activity might decrease their sedentary behaviour at the same time. The recommendations and ideas discussed in this study may facilitate the development of effective and tailored (multilevel) intervention programs aiming to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students.

  6. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  7. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  9. Distance learning in english teacher's training: Reflexion activities in discussion forums

    Fernanda Costa Ribas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we problematize the issues related to teacher’s training in the English language amidst the emersion of new literacies, especially those mediated by digital technologies, based in my experience both as a teacher and a researcher in Degree Courses in Languages, both classroom based and distance learning. Based in referential about teachers’ beliefs, reflexive practices, new literacies, and teachers’ training for the use of technologies, we focus our experience in the development of institutional material for a distance learning teaching degree course, describing some of the activities developed as discussion forums. With that, our aim is to discuss ways to promote the reflection of future teachers about their beliefs and experiences, and the interaction of these with teaching concepts and theories, allowing them to establish connections between theory and practice during practice - in other words, through their engagement in online activities of a subject in a Supervised Internship in English.

  10. THE ATTITUDES TOWARD SPORT ADVERTISING AMONG THE QUESTION HOW OFTEN CONSUMERS PARTICIPATE IN SPORTS ACTIVITIES

    Stevo Popović

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes toward sport advertising among the question how often consumers participate in sports activities The sample included 433 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a months. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modeled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the results it was concluded that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.05. It is interesting to highlight that it was found that the significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in sports activities less than four times a months with negative attitudes and consumers who participate in sports activities more than five times a months with positive attitudes toward sport advertising

  11. Students’ Evaluation of Google Hangouts Through A Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    Michiko KOBAYASHI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies. After the activity, students responded to a survey to evaluate the ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts. Qualitative data were also collected through the survey to examine their overall learning experience. The results indicated that Google Hangouts is a useful instructional tool, but not easy to use. Although technical problems occurred during the conference, the activity provided valuable experiences for both U.S. and Japanese students. The study provides suggestions for how Google Hangouts can be integrated into online classrooms based on the findings.

  12. The effect of changes to question order on the prevalence of 'sufficient' physical activity in an Australian population survey.

    Hanley, Christine; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-03-01

    Population surveys are frequently used to assess prevalence, correlates and health benefits of physical activity. However, nonsampling errors, such as question order effects, in surveys may lead to imprecision in self reported physical activity. This study examined the impact of modified question order in a commonly used physical activity questionnaire on the prevalence of sufficient physical activity. Data were obtained from a telephone survey of adults living in Queensland, Australia. A total of 1243 adults participated in the computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) survey conducted in July 2008 which included the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ) presented in traditional or modified order. Binary logistic regression analyses was used to examine relationships between question order and physical activity outcomes. Significant relationships were found between question order and sufficient activity, recreational walking, moderate activity, vigorous activity, and total activity. Respondents who received the AAQ in modified order were more likely to be categorized as sufficiently active (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.60). This study highlights the importance of question order on estimates of self reported physical activity. This study has shown that changes in question order can lead to an increase in the proportion of participants classified as sufficiently active.

  13. Online Discussion on #KidneyStones: A Longitudinal Assessment of Activity, Users and Content.

    Salem, Johannes; Borgmann, Hendrik; Bultitude, Matthew; Fritsche, Hans-Martin; Haferkamp, Axel; Heidenreich, Axel; Miernik, Arkadiusz; Neisius, Andreas; Knoll, Thomas; Thomas, Christian; Tsaur, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Twitter is a popular microblogging platform for the rapid dissemination of information and reciprocal exchange in the urological field. We aimed to assess the activity, users and content of the online discussion, #KidneyStones, on Twitter. We investigated the Symplur Signals analytics tool for Twitter data distributed via the #KidneyStones hashtag over a one year period. Activity analysis reflected overall activity and tweet enhancements. We assessed users' geolocations and performed an influencer analysis. Content analysis included the most frequently used words, tweet sentiment and shares for top tweets. 3,426 users generated over 10,333 tweets, which were frequently accompanied by links (49%), mentions (30%) and photos (13%). Users came from 106 countries across the globe and were most frequently from North America (63%) and Europe (16%). Individual and organisational healthcare professionals made up 56% of the influencers of the Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones. Besides the words 'kidney' (used 4,045 times) and 'stones' (3,335), 'pain' (1,233), 'urine' (1,158), and 'risk' (1,023) were the most frequently used words. 56% of tweets had a positive sentiment. The median (range) number of shares was 85 (62-587) for the top 10 links, 45.5 (17-94) for the top 10 photos, and 44 (22-95) for the top 10 retweets. The rapidly growing Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones engaged multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector on a global scale and reached both professionals and laypeople. When used effectively and responsibly, the Twitter platform could improve prevention and medical care of kidney stone patients.

  14. Online Discussion on #KidneyStones: A Longitudinal Assessment of Activity, Users and Content.

    Johannes Salem

    Full Text Available Twitter is a popular microblogging platform for the rapid dissemination of information and reciprocal exchange in the urological field. We aimed to assess the activity, users and content of the online discussion, #KidneyStones, on Twitter.We investigated the Symplur Signals analytics tool for Twitter data distributed via the #KidneyStones hashtag over a one year period. Activity analysis reflected overall activity and tweet enhancements. We assessed users' geolocations and performed an influencer analysis. Content analysis included the most frequently used words, tweet sentiment and shares for top tweets.3,426 users generated over 10,333 tweets, which were frequently accompanied by links (49%, mentions (30% and photos (13%. Users came from 106 countries across the globe and were most frequently from North America (63% and Europe (16%. Individual and organisational healthcare professionals made up 56% of the influencers of the Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones. Besides the words 'kidney' (used 4,045 times and 'stones' (3,335, 'pain' (1,233, 'urine' (1,158, and 'risk' (1,023 were the most frequently used words. 56% of tweets had a positive sentiment. The median (range number of shares was 85 (62-587 for the top 10 links, 45.5 (17-94 for the top 10 photos, and 44 (22-95 for the top 10 retweets.The rapidly growing Twitter discussion on #KidneyStones engaged multiple stakeholders in the healthcare sector on a global scale and reached both professionals and laypeople. When used effectively and responsibly, the Twitter platform could improve prevention and medical care of kidney stone patients.

  15. Social network activation: the role of health discussion partners in recovery from mental illness.

    Perry, Brea L; Pescosolido, Bernice A

    2015-01-01

    In response to health problems, individuals may strategically activate their social network ties to help manage crisis and uncertainty. While it is well-established that social relationships provide a crucial safety net, little is known about who is chosen to help during an episode of illness. Guided by the Network Episode Model, two aspects of consulting others in the face of mental illness are considered. First, we ask who activates ties, and what kinds of ties and networks they attempt to leverage for discussing health matters. Second, we ask about the utility of activating health-focused network ties. Specifically, we examine the consequences of network activation at time of entry into treatment for individuals' quality of life, social satisfaction, ability to perform social roles, and mental health functioning nearly one year later. Using interview data from the longitudinal Indianapolis Network Mental Health Study (INMHS, N = 171), we focus on a sample of new patients with serious mental illness and a group with less severe disorders who are experiencing their first contact with the mental health treatment system. Three findings stand out. First, our results reveal the nature of agency in illness response. Whether under a rational choice or habitus logic, individuals appear to evaluate support needs, identifying the best possible matches among a larger group of potential health discussants. These include members of the core network and those with prior mental health experiences. Second, selective activation processes have implications for recovery. Those who secure adequate network resources report better outcomes than those who injudiciously activate network ties. Individuals who activate weaker relationships and those who are unsupportive of medical care experience poorer functioning, limited success in fulfilling social roles, and lower social satisfaction and quality of life later on. Third, the evidence suggests that social networks matter above and

  16. Evaluation of Forensic DNA Traces When Propositions of Interest Relate to Activities: Analysis and Discussion of Recurrent Concerns

    Biedermann, Alex; Champod, Christophe; Jackson, Graham; Gill, Peter; Taylor, Duncan; Butler, John; Morling, Niels; Hicks, Tacha; Vuille, Joelle; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    When forensic scientists evaluate and report on the probative strength of single DNA traces, they commonly rely on only one number, expressing the rarity of the DNA profile in the population of interest. This is so because the focus is on propositions regarding the source of the recovered trace material, such as “the person of interest is the source of the crime stain.” In particular, when the alternative proposition is “an unknown person is the source of the crime stain,” one is directed to think about the rarity of the profile. However, in the era of DNA profiling technology capable of producing results from small quantities of trace material (i.e., non-visible staining) that is subject to easy and ubiquitous modes of transfer, the issue of source is becoming less central, to the point that it is often not contested. There is now a shift from the question “whose DNA is this?” to the question “how did it get there?” As a consequence, recipients of expert information are now very much in need of assistance with the evaluation of the meaning and probative strength of DNA profiling results when the competing propositions of interest refer to different activities. This need is widely demonstrated in day-to-day forensic practice and is also voiced in specialized literature. Yet many forensic scientists remain reluctant to assess their results given propositions that relate to different activities. Some scientists consider evaluations beyond the issue of source as being overly speculative, because of the lack of relevant data and knowledge regarding phenomena and mechanisms of transfer, persistence and background of DNA. Similarly, encouragements to deal with these activity issues, expressed in a recently released European guideline on evaluative reporting (Willis et al., 2015), which highlights the need for rethinking current practice, are sometimes viewed skeptically or are not considered feasible. In this discussion paper, we select and discuss

  17. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  18. The effect of the question topic on interviewer behavior; an interaction analysis of control activities of interviewers

    van der Zouwen, J.; Smit, J.H.; Draisma, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In a standardized personal interview, elderly (65+) Dutch respondents (N = 233), were asked detailed retrospective questions about six physical activities like walking, cycling and their performance of household tasks. Surprisingly, the proportion of inadequate answers was small, suggesting that the

  19. A Systematic Approach to Discussing Active Surveillance with Patients with Low-risk Prostate Cancer.

    Ehdaie, Behfar; Assel, Melissa; Benfante, Nicole; Malhotra, Deepak; Vickers, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    across medicine. In this study, we evaluated the impact of teaching physicians how to better communicate the benefits and risks of prostate cancer treatments on the willingness of patients to choose active surveillance. Decisions related to cancer are often guided by emotions and biases that lead most patients to seek radical treatment; however, we demonstrated that if discussions are framed differently, these biases can be overcome and more patients will choose active surveillance. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Young (gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    remobilized from older gold mineralization? Current research is investigating these and other questions to improve our genetic understanding of these young gold systems, which in turn can lead to improved exploration targeting. The recent rapid growth in resources for both young gold deposits and geothermal systems underscores their underdeveloped exploration potential. Even though many young gold deposits exhibit relatively shallow hot-springs-style mineralization, their young age may preclude exposure by erosion. Uplift along active normal faults has exposed some deposits (e.g., Florida Canyon, Dixie Comstock, Wind Mountain), but in other areas, such as the Walker Lane, where strike-slip faulting is prevalent, the opportunities for exposure can be limited. Many active geothermal systems are also concealed below the surface in that hot springs or steam vents may be absent above areas of thermal groundwater.With sources of energy to support mine production becoming more problematic, the potential advantages of simultaneously exploring for young gold deposits and spatially associated geothermal systems are becoming more apparent. Exploration methods recently proven effective in geothermal exploration that can be adapted to gold exploration include temperature surveys, hyperspectral remote sensing, geophysical surveys, water analyses, and detailed mapping of geothermal-related features and related fault systems.

  1. [Analysis of the question-answer activity of a hospital pharmacy. Example of the handling of drug interactions].

    Jacqueroux, E; Lalande, L; Meddour, N; Papailhau, C; Bernard, E; Charroin, C; Perichou, J; Charpiat, B; Locher, F; Garcia, S

    2015-05-01

    The medical care of patients generates questions among healthcare professionals. Some will necessitate an advanced research. The hospital pharmacist is at the interface between prescribers, caregivers and the medicines and is requested to answer these requests. Studies conducted in other countries showed that this question-answer activity represents a significant amount of time in daily work. In France, this topic was poorly explored. The objective of our work was to study the volume and the type of questions, the clinical situations, the time required, the medicines implicated and the sources of information used. A prospective study was conducted in the pharmacy of a university hospital. All the requests answered by the pharmaceutical team, which needed a specific research, analysis and writing of an answer were collected. A hundred and one questions were analyzed, originating from doctors or medicals interns. Almost half concerned drug interactions, and among them, almost a fourth were not mentioned in the Summary of Product Characteristics of the medicines involved. A pharmaceutical advice was provided in 91.5% of the cases. Time dedicated to the research varied between less than 30 minutes and more than 8 hours. This study illustrates the question-answer activity of a hospital pharmacy, which is currently not taken into account as an indicator of pharmaceutical activity. A large part concerns analysis and management of drug interactions and requires a significant amount of pharmaceutical time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Males Are Not as Active as Females in Online Discussion: Gender Differences in Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Strategies

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the gender difference in students' perceived discussion strategies in face-to-face and online asynchronous contexts. A survey of 363 university students and follow-up interviews of 20 participants was conducted to examine any gender differences within each context and between the two contexts. The Discussion Strategies Scale…

  3. Using Targeted Active-Learning Exercises and Diagnostic Question Clusters to Improve Students' Understanding of Carbon Cycling in Ecosystems

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non–biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal. PMID:22383618

  4. Using targeted active-learning exercises and diagnostic question clusters to improve students' understanding of carbon cycling in ecosystems.

    Maskiewicz, April Cordero; Griscom, Heather Peckham; Welch, Nicole Turrill

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used targeted active-learning activities to help students improve their ways of reasoning about carbon flow in ecosystems. The results of a validated ecology conceptual inventory (diagnostic question clusters [DQCs]) provided us with information about students' understanding of and reasoning about transformation of inorganic and organic carbon-containing compounds in biological systems. These results helped us identify specific active-learning exercises that would be responsive to students' existing knowledge. The effects of the active-learning interventions were then examined through analysis of students' pre- and postinstruction responses on the DQCs. The biology and non-biology majors participating in this study attended a range of institutions and the instructors varied in their use of active learning; one lecture-only comparison class was included. Changes in pre- to postinstruction scores on the DQCs showed that an instructor's teaching method had a highly significant effect on student reasoning following course instruction, especially for questions pertaining to cellular-level, carbon-transforming processes. We conclude that using targeted in-class activities had a beneficial effect on student learning regardless of major or class size, and argue that using diagnostic questions to identify effective learning activities is a valuable strategy for promoting learning, as gains from lecture-only classes were minimal.

  5. Summary of group discussions

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  6. Expectations of younger patients concerning activities after knee arthroplasty: are we asking the right questions?

    Witjes, Suzanne; van Geenen, Rutger C I; Koenraadt, Koen L M; van der Hart, Cor P; Blankevoort, Leendert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Kuijer, P Paul F M

    2017-02-01

    Indications for total and unicondylar knee arthroplasty (KA) have expanded to younger patients, in which Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) often show ceiling effects. This might be due to higher expectations. Our aims were to explore expectations of younger patients concerning activities in daily life, work and leisure time after KA and to assess to what extent PROMs meet and evaluate these activities of importance. Focus groups were performed among osteoarthritis (OA) patients leisure time after KA. Additionally, 28 activities of daily life, 17 of work and 27 of leisure time were depicted from seven PROMS, which were rated on importance, frequency and bother. A total score, representing motivation for surgery, was also calculated. Data saturation was reached after six focus groups including 37 patients. Younger OA patients expect to perform better on 16 activities after KA, including high-impact leisure time activities. From the PROMs, daily life and work activities were rated high in both importance and motivation for surgery, but for leisure time activities importance varied highly between patients. All seven PROMs score activities of importance, but no single PROM incorporates all activities rated important. Younger patients expect to perform better on many activities of daily life, work and leisure time after KA, and often at demanding levels. To measure outcomes of younger patients, we suggest using PROMs that include work and leisure time activities besides daily life activities, in which preferably scored activities can be individualized.

  7. Critical Thinking and Social Interaction in Active Learning: A Conceptual Analysis of Class Discussion from Iranian Students' Perspective

    Hajhosseini, Mansoureh; Zandi, Saeid; Hosseini Shabanan, Sediqeh; Madani, Yaser

    2016-01-01

    Following the failures in traditional methods of teaching, theorists have recently emphasized students' active role in education in which the teacher is no longer a mere transmitter of knowledge. Discussion-based teaching has been regarded as a route to improving students' active role. The current study intended to discover the benefits of using…

  8. To the question of peculiarities of thermal activation of natural siliceous raw material

    Chumachenko Natalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of research of activity enhancement of natural siliceous raw material are given in the article. Fossil meal of Khotynetsky deposit, diatomite of Sharlovsky deposit, silica clay of Balasheika deposit were used as natural active mineral admixtures. The influence of heat-treating temperature and dispersion on activity of different types of siliceous raw material is studied. The increase of activity of fixation of Ca(OH2 in several times is traced after heat-treating at a certain temperature in the range from 100 to 800°C. The type of activity change is discovered. Explanation is given connected with the change of silica structure in the surface layer. Parameters of the highest activity are defined for every type of siliceous raw material.

  9. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity and Bone Health in Children and Adolescents

    Janz, Kathleen F.; Thomas, David Q.; Ford, M. Allison; Williams, Skip M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence strongly supports a positive, causal effect of physical activity on bone strength and suggests long-term benefits of childhood physical activity to the prevention of osteoporosis. The contribution of healthy bone development in youth is likely to be as important to fracture prevention as the amount of late adulthood bone loss. Families,…

  10. A discussion on improving hydration activity of steel slag by altering its mineral compositions.

    Wang, Qiang; Yan, Peiyu; Feng, Jianwen

    2011-02-28

    This study aims to investigate the ways to improve the cementitious properties of steel slag. The results show that the cementitious phase of steel slag is composed of silicate and aluminate, but the large particles of these phases make a very small contribution to the cementitious properties of steel slag. RO phase (CaO-FeO-MnO-MgO solid solution), Fe(3)O(4), C(2)F and f-CaO make no contribution to the cementitious properties of steel slag. A new kind of steel slag with more cementitious phase and less RO phase can be obtained by removing some large particles. This new steel slag possesses better cementitious properties than the original steel slag. The large particles can be used as fine aggregates for concrete. Adding regulating agent high in CaO and SiO(2) during manufacturing process of steel slag to increase the cementitious phase to inert phase ratio is another way to improve its cementitious properties. The regulating agent should be selected to adapt to the specific steel slag and the alkalinity should be increased as high as possible on the premise that the f-CaO content does not increase. The cooling rate should be enhanced to improve the hydration activity of the cementitious phase at the early ages and the grindability of steel slag. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  12. Active cooling in traumatic brain-injured patients: a questionable therapy?

    Grände, P-O; Reinstrup, P; Rommer, Bertil Roland

    2009-01-01

    -quality trials are considered, TBI patients treated with active cooling were more likely to die, a conclusion supported by a recent high-quality Canadian trial on children. Still, there is a belief that a modified protocol with a shorter time from the accident to the start of active cooling, longer cooling...... and rewarming time and better control of blood pressure and intracranial pressure would be beneficial for TBI patients. This belief has led to the instigation of new trials in adults and in children, including these types of protocol adjustments. The present review provides a short summary of our present...... knowledge of the use of active cooling in TBI patients, and presents some tentative explanations as to why active cooling has not been shown to be effective for outcome after TBI. We focus particularly on the compromised circulation of the penumbra zone, which may be further reduced by the stress caused...

  13. Four Questions

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

  14. Active Learning in Fluid Mechanics: Youtube Tube Flow and Puzzling Fluids Questions

    Hrenya, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Active-learning exercises appropriate for a course in undergraduate fluid mechanics are presented. The first exercise involves an experiment in gravity-driven tube flow, with small groups of students partaking in a contest to predict the experimental flow rates using the mechanical energy balance. The second exercise takes the form of an…

  15. Asking Questions in Academia

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers.......Motivation for the activity In academia the most important skill is to ask academically relevant and sound questions. This is not easy and students need to practice asking questions orally and in writing before they write research papers....

  16. Curiosity Questions

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  17. Nuclear questions

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  18. Proceedings of DAE-BRNS discussion meet on current trends and future perspectives of neutron activation analysis

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The theme of the meet includes: Development of Neutron Activation Analysis (Naca) methods : k o -based NAA, Chemical NAA, Short-lived NAA, Prompt Gamma ray NAA (PGNAA), Fast neutron NAA using reactor and 14 MeV neutrons, Applications of NAA methods in various fields, Gamma ray spectrometry, An in-sight to data analysis in NAA, Position of NAA in comparison to other Nuclear Analytical Techniques (NATs) and Future perspectives in a panel discussion. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  19. Unreviewed safety question evaluation of 100K East and 100K West in-basin fuel characterization program activities

    Alwardt, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis for answers to an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) safety evaluation of the 105K East (KE) and 105K West (KW) in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program as described in the characterization shipping plan. The significant activities that are common to both 105 KE and 105 KW basins are the movement of canisters from their main basin storage locations (or potentially from the 105 KE Tech View Pit if a dump table is available) to the south loadout pit transfer channel, hydrogen generation testing in the single element fuel container, loading the single element fuel container into the shipping cask, loading of the shipping cask onto a flat-bed trailer, return of the test fuel elements or element pieces from the 327 facility, placement of the fuel elements back into Mark 2 canisters, and placement of the canisters in the main storage basin. Decapping of canisters in the south loadout pit transfer channel and re-encapsulation of canisters are activities specific to the 105 KW basin. The scope of this safety evaluation includes only those characterization fuel shipment activities performed in the 105 KE and 105 KW fuel storage basin structures up to installation of the overpack. The packaging safety evaluation report governs the shipment of the fuel elements. The K Basins Plant Review Committee has determined that the in-basin activities associated with the fuel characterization program fuel shipments are bounded by the current safety envelop and do not constitute an unreviewed safety question. This determination is documented on Attachment 1

  20. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  1. Life in a Crime Scene: Stop, Question, and Frisk Activity in New York City Neighborhoods in the Aftermath of Homicides

    Johanna Lacoe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An incident of extreme violence, such as a homicide, disrupts daily life not only through the incident itself but also through the chaos and disruption that emerge in the aftermath of violence. This article presents descriptive evidence about how communities are affected by increased police activity—specifically, stop, question, and frisk (SQF activity—following an incident of extreme violence. Our results show that SQF activity in a block group increases in the week following a homicide in New York City, with the largest increases in neighborhoods with high crime rates. Furthermore, neighborhoods with different racial and ethnic compositions have differential levels of average SQF activity and also experience differential responses from the police in the aftermath of a homicide. African American residents have a higher probability of being stopped following a homicide than do nonblack residents across neighborhoods of all types.

  2. Discussion of impact of relics activation on protection and utilization approaches-take the old summer palace as an example

    Xiaoqi, J.

    2015-08-01

    As the popularization of cultural relics and the rapid development of cultural tourism industry, a large number of cultural relic tourism resources goes into public eyes. Activation of relics has became an important way for tourist to contact and understand culture relics. The way of how to properly interpret the historical sense and cultural uniqueness to the masses of tourists in order to achieve social service functions of relic resources has always been research focal point of site protection and utilization, so nowadays it has important significance to protection and utilization of heritage resources in our country. From the point of activation of relics and based on the analysis of resource characteristic, the paper in depth discuss ways of activation of relics of the Old Summer Palace, in order to provide reference for sustainable development of sites tourism in China.

  3. Attitudes of Consumers from Podgorica toward Advertising through Sport among the Question how Often they Participate in Sports Activities

    Dijana Kovacevic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. The significant differences were found in one of three variables, while the consumers who participate less than 4 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.

  4. Summary discussions

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  5. Asking the Right Questions

    Richter, Line

    Based on fieldwork in Mali this paper discusses the role of anthropology (and the anthropologist) in a large public health research project on children's health. In the uncertainty and disquiet that comes with the battle to combat and avoid diseases in a setting where poverty and abysmal diseases......, is the ability to move beyond even the best hidden assumptions and question our own questions, thereby enabling us to ask the right questions....

  6. Panel discussion

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  7. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  8. Thousand Questions

    2012-01-01

    (perhaps as an expanded Turing test) on its listeners. These questions are extracted in real-time from Twitter with the keyword search of the ‘?’ symbol to create a spatio-temporal experience. The computerized voice the audience hears is a collective one, an entanglement of humans and non-humans......In this work the network asks “If I wrote you a love letter would you write back?” Like the love letters which appeared mysteriously on the noticeboards of Manchester University’s Computer Department in the 1950s, thousands of texts circulate as computational processes perform the questions......, that circulates across networks. If I wrote you a love letter would you write back? (and thousands of other questions’ ) (封不回的情書?千言萬語無人回 was commissioned by the Microwave International New Media Festival 2012....

  9. Traveling questions

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that uncertainty and nonknowledge, and not just research results, can be important vehicles of translation through which genetic research participation comes to affect the lives of research participants. Based on interviews with participants in a genetic research project, I....... Research questions, and not just results, may serve as a generative form of knowledge that can travel as fast as any answer....

  10. Discussion Graphs

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  11. A question of balance: Explaining differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on preschoolers' feeding and physical activity.

    Eli, Karin; Howell, Kyndal; Fisher, Philip A; Nowicka, Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Although one quarter of US and UK families rely on grandparents as the main providers of informal childcare, grandparental perspectives on the feeding and physical activity of young children remain understudied. The study's aim was to elucidate parents' and grandparents' perspectives on young children's feeding and physical activity, and identify how they negotiate potential differences between these perspectives. We interviewed 22 parents and 27 grandparents from 16 families of children aged 3-5 years in the Pacific Northwest, US. Using familial homeostasis as a novel theoretical framework, the interviews were analyzed to assess differences between parental and grandparental perspectives on feeding and physical activity. The analysis yielded six thematic categories: (1) disagreements about feeding stem from parents' and grandparents' differing definitions of healthy feeding; (2) differences between parents' and grandparents' feeding practices reflect differences in perceived caretaking roles; (3) parents and grandparents negotiate differences in feeding practices through grandparental compliance and parental compromise; (4) differences in preschoolers' physical activity are influenced by parents' and grandparents' own access to and engagement in physical activity; (5) parents and grandparents express few disagreements about preschoolers' screen-time; (6) parents and grandparents rarely discuss preschoolers' physical activity. The findings suggest that parental and grandparental decision-making about feeding and exercise is informed by ideas of what constitutes familial balance and a balanced lifestyle for a preschool aged child, rather than by the child's weight status. Parents and grandparents appear to engage in practices designed to preserve familial homeostasis, which may provide a compelling explanation for the persistent difficulties in implementing family-based childhood obesity interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disposal R&D in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign: A Discussion of Opportunities for Active International Collaboration

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-06-01

    For DOE's Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), international collaboration is a beneficial and cost-effective strategy for advancing disposal science with regards to multiple disposal options and different geologic environments. While the United States disposal program focused solely on Yucca Mountain tuff as host rock over the past decades, several international programs have made significant progress in the characterization and performance evaluation of other geologic repository options, most of which are very different from the Yucca Mountain site in design and host rock characteristics. Because Yucca Mountain was so unique (e.g., no backfill, unsaturated densely fractured tuff), areas of direct collaboration with international disposal programs were quite limited during that time. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel at Yucca Mountain has shifted UFDC's interest to disposal options and geologic environments similar to those being investigated by disposal programs in other nations. Much can be gained by close collaboration with these programs, including access to valuable experience and data collected over recent decades. Such collaboration can help to efficiently achieve UFDC's long-term goals of conducting 'experiments to fill data needs and confirm advanced modeling approaches' (by 2015) and of having a 'robust modeling and experimental basis for evaluation of multiple disposal system options' (by 2020). This report discusses selected opportunities of active international collaboration, with focus on both Natural Barrier System (NBS) and Engineered Barrier System (EBS) aspects and those opportunities that provide access to field data (and respective interpretation/modeling) or allow participation in ongoing field experiments. This discussion serves as a basis for the DOE/NE-53 and UFDC planning process for FY12 and beyond.

  13. Disposal R and D in the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign: A Discussion of Opportunities for Active International Collaboration

    Birkholzer, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    For DOE's Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC), international collaboration is a beneficial and cost-effective strategy for advancing disposal science with regards to multiple disposal options and different geologic environments. While the United States disposal program focused solely on Yucca Mountain tuff as host rock over the past decades, several international programs have made significant progress in the characterization and performance evaluation of other geologic repository options, most of which are very different from the Yucca Mountain site in design and host rock characteristics. Because Yucca Mountain was so unique (e.g., no backfill, unsaturated densely fractured tuff), areas of direct collaboration with international disposal programs were quite limited during that time. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel at Yucca Mountain has shifted UFDC's interest to disposal options and geologic environments similar to those being investigated by disposal programs in other nations. Much can be gained by close collaboration with these programs, including access to valuable experience and data collected over recent decades. Such collaboration can help to efficiently achieve UFDC's long-term goals of conducting 'experiments to fill data needs and confirm advanced modeling approaches' (by 2015) and of having a 'robust modeling and experimental basis for evaluation of multiple disposal system options' (by 2020). This report discusses selected opportunities of active international collaboration, with focus on both Natural Barrier System (NBS) and Engineered Barrier System (EBS) aspects and those opportunities that provide access to field data (and respective interpretation/modeling) or allow participation in ongoing field experiments. This discussion serves as a basis for the DOE/NE-53 and UFDC planning process for FY12 and beyond.

  14. Ash erupted during normal activity at Stromboli (Aeolian Islands, Italy) raises questions on how the feeding system works

    D'Oriano, Claudia; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    2007). This new finding has important implications on how the feeding system of the volcano works and raises two main questions: i) is this an occasional occurrence or is a normal feature of the persistent activity? and ii) how volatile-rich parcels of deep magma rise through a crystal-rich body without significant mixing ?

  15. Analyzing the Social Knowledge Construction Behavioral Patterns of an Online Synchronous Collaborative Discussion Instructional Activity Using an Instant Messaging Tool: A Case Study

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Online discussions have been widely utilized as an educational activity, and much research has been conducted on the process and behaviors involved in asynchronous discussions. However, research on behavioral patterns in learners' synchronous discussions, including the process of social knowledge construction and project coordination is limited.…

  16. Energy questions

    1980-01-01

    This Working Paper is about the energy crisis. Its chief aim is to give a lot of information about the various sources of energy and the problems about the supply and the use of them. It is in five parts. Part One illustrates the importance of energy in the world economy and particularly in Britain. Part Two describes the various sources of energy; coal, oil, gas, electricity and nuclear, and discusses the renewable sources and energy conservation. Part Three gives arguments for and against a nuclear future. Part Four describes the debate in the Churches on the nuclear option and Part Five sets out some theological and ethical themes relevant to responsible decision making on these matters. (author)

  17. Repetitive Questioning Exasperates Caregivers

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is due to an impaired episodic memory and is a frequent, often presenting, problem in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (amnestic type. It is due to the patients’ difficulties learning new information, retaining it, and recalling it, and is often aggravated by a poor attention span and easy distractibility. A number of factors may trigger and maintain repetitive questioning. Caregivers should try to identify and address these triggers. In the case discussion presented, it is due to the patient’s concerns about her and her family’s safety triggered by watching a particularly violent movie aired on TV. What went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how it could have been avoided or averted are explored. Also reviewed are the impact of repetitive questioning, the challenges it raises for caregivers, and some effective intervention strategies that may be useful to diffuse the angst that caregivers experience with repetitive questioning.

  18. Questioning Strategies of Literature Teachers among Grade 8 Filipino Students

    Magdalena M. Ocbian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Questioning is a useful and relevant tool to facilitate classroom discussion in a literature class. This study identified the levels of questions teachers use in their literature class, determined the different question strategies they utilized and proposed activities to enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Video analysis was the main instrument used. These videos were provided during the conduct of class observations by the researchers. There were eight respondents in the study selected through total enumeration. They are teachers from Gubat Cluster of secondary schools of Sorsogon Province. To identify the levels of questions and questioning strategies, question tally form and percentage were used. Results revealed that knowledge was the most used level of questions followed by comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The most used question technique is the participation, followed by proving, sequencing, wait time, balance and student questions. It was recommended that literature teachers vary their level of questions when discussing literary pieces. They may utilize different question techniques to develop critical thinking skills of their students. The use of the proposed activities may enhance the questioning strategies of literature teachers. Likewise, school heads and program supervisors may utilize video analysis technique as a mode for classroom observation.

  19. Acoustic Neuroma: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    ... or how a bite of bread tastes with dinner. Leverage your strengths for a more positive life Strengths are built-in capacities for certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. 5 ways to keep your memory sharp The way you live, what you eat and drink, and how you treat your body ...

  20. Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    ... or how a bite of bread tastes with dinner. Leverage your strengths for a more positive life Strengths are built-in capacities for certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. 5 ways to keep your memory sharp The way you live, what you eat and drink, and how you treat your body ...

  1. Colonic Polyps: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor

    ... or how a bite of bread tastes with dinner. Leverage your strengths for a more positive life Strengths are built-in capacities for certain thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. 5 ways to keep your memory sharp The way you live, what you eat and drink, and how you treat your body ...

  2. Questioning the Scholarly Discussion around Decentralization in Turkish Education System

    Yildiz, Soner Onder

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of Turkish Republic till date, Turkish Education System (TES) has been steered by a handful of politicians and civil servants, who enjoy maximum centralized authority. Over the years, therefore, centralized management has repeatedly been blamed for the deadlocks hampering progress in the TES. Turkish scholars often seem to find…

  3. Thorium and Molten Salt Reactors: "Essential Questions for Classroom Discussions"

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Hirsch, Allison; Murray, Meredith; Rarick, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A little-known type of nuclear reactor called the "molten salt reactor" (MSR), in which nuclear fuel is dissolved in a liquid carrier salt, was proposed in the 1940s and developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the 1960s. Recently, the MSR has generated renewed interest as a remedy for the drawbacks associated with conventional…

  4. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers

    Koops Willem JM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students’ activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students’ decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Methods Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students’ postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Results Twenty-four papers (51.6% were revised after the online discussion. The

  5. Computer supported collaborative learning in a clerkship: an exploratory study on the relation of discussion activity and revision of critical appraisal papers.

    Koops, Willem J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; de Leng, Bas A; Snoeckx, Luc H E H

    2012-08-20

    Medical students in clerkship are continuously confronted with real and relevant patient problems. To support clinical problem solving skills, students perform a Critical Appraisal of a Topic (CAT) task, often resulting in a paper. Because such a paper may contain errors, students could profit from discussion with peers, leading to paper revision. Active peer discussion by a Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) environment show positive medical students perceptions on subjective knowledge improvement. High students' activity during discussions in a CSCL environment demonstrated higher task-focussed discussion reflecting higher levels of knowledge construction. However, it remains unclear whether high discussion activity influences students' decisions revise their CAT paper. The aim of this research is to examine whether students who revise their critical appraisal papers after discussion in a CSCL environment show more task-focussed activity and discuss more intensively on critical appraisal topics than students who do not revise their papers. Forty-seven medical students, stratified in subgroups, participated in a structured asynchronous online discussion of individual written CAT papers on self-selected clinical problems. The discussion was structured by three critical appraisal topics. After the discussion, the students could revise their paper. For analysis purposes, all students' postings were blinded and analysed by the investigator, unaware of students characteristics and whether or not the paper was revised. Postings were counted and analysed by an independent rater, Postings were assigned into outside activity, non-task-focussed activity or task-focussed activity. Additionally, postings were assigned to one of the three critical appraisal topics. Analysis results were compared by revised and unrevised papers. Twenty-four papers (51.6%) were revised after the online discussion. The discussions of the revised papers showed significantly higher

  6. Repetitive Questioning II

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive questioning is a major problem for caregivers, particularly taxing if they are unable to recognize and understand the reasons why their loved one keeps asking the same question over and over again. Caregivers may be tempted to believe that the patient does not even try to remember the answer given or is just getting obnoxious. This is incorrect. Repetitive questioning is due to the underlying disease: The patient’s short term memory is impaired and he is unable to register, encode, retain and retrieve the answer. If he is concerned about a particular topic, he will keep asking the same question over and over again. To the patient each time she asks the question, it is as if she asked it for the first time. Just answering repetitive questioning by providing repeatedly the same answer is not sufficient. Caregivers should try to identify the underlying cause for this repetitive questioning. In an earlier case study, the patient was concerned about her and her family’s safety and kept asking whether the doors are locked. In this present case study, the patient does not know how to handle the awkward situation he finds himself in. He just does not know what to do. He is not able to adjust to the new unexpected situation. So he repeatedly wants to reassure himself that he is not intruding by asking the same question over and over again. We discuss how the patient’s son-in-law could have avoided this situation and averted the catastrophic ending.

  7. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  8. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  9. Teacher's Questions in Reading Classes

    Zuliati Rohmah

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present paper discusses an English teacher's questions in Reading classes at MAN Malang III. Types of questions, functions of teacher's questions, question levels and the strategies applied by the teacher were put as the research problems. Non-participant observa­tion was applied to collect the data with the researcher as the main in­strument aided by field-notes and a tape recorder. It was found that the distribution of the questions did not allow the students to talk longer and to think more analytically. Meanwhile, the strategies applied by the teacher helped the students to respond to the questions previously unanswered. The teacher is suggested to produce more open and refer­ential question as well as inference and evaluation questions as to give more chances for the students to think aloud more.

  10. Eight Questions about Corruption

    Jakob Svensson

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss eight frequently asked questions about public corruption: (1) What is corruption? (2) Which countries are the most corrupt? (3) What are the common characteristics of countries with high corruption? (4) What is the magnitude of corruption? (5) Do higher wages for bureaucrats reduce corruption? (6) Can competition reduce corruption? (7) Why have there been so few (recent) successful attempts to fight corruption? (8) Does corruption adversely affect growth?

  11. Validity of instruments to measure physical activity may be questionable due to a lack of conceptual frameworks: a systematic review

    2011-01-01

    Background Guidance documents for the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) advise the use of conceptual frameworks, which outline the structure of the concept that a PRO aims to measure. It is unknown whether currently available PROs are based on conceptual frameworks. This study, which was limited to a specific case, had the following aims: (i) to identify conceptual frameworks of physical activity in chronic respiratory patients or similar populations (chronic heart disease patients or the elderly) and (ii) to assess whether the development and validation of PROs to measure physical activity in these populations were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Methods Two systematic reviews were conducted through searches of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cinahl databases prior to January 2010. Results In the first review, only 2 out of 581 references pertaining to physical activity in the defined populations provided a conceptual framework of physical activity in COPD patients. In the second review, out of 103 studies developing PROs to measure physical activity or related constructs, none were based on a conceptual framework of physical activity. Conclusions These findings raise concerns about how the large body of evidence from studies that use physical activity PRO instruments should be evaluated by health care providers, guideline developers, and regulatory agencies. PMID:21967887

  12. PENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR PKN KELAS V MELALUI MODEL ACTIVE LEARNING (TIPE ROLE REVERSAL QUESTION SDN 4 DOPLANG KECAMATAN JATI KABUPATEN BLORA

    Ambar Susilo Murti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitution No. 20 of 2003, concerning Citizenship Education (PKN is a compulsory subject for primary education, secondary, and compulsory subjects for higher education. The purpose of this study is to improve learning outcomes Civics using Active Learning Model Type Question Role Reversal in Class V SDN 4 Doplang Jati district of  Blora. This research was a class action (classroom action research. The stages as follows: (1 planning, (2 implementation, (3 observation and (4 reflection. The result of research indicating that students who received grades ≥70 the first cycle increased by 25%  from the initial 44% to 69%. Then students who scored ≥70 on the second cycle increased 28% to 97%. The average value of the first cycle increased by 8.75% from 66.53 into 75.28 early in the first cycle and then the second cycle of the average value increased again by 10.97% to 86.25. Researchers suggest teachers should encourage students to be more daring in expressing opinions, questions and ideas that are not held only in Civics alone but on other subjects. In addition, teachers are expected to use active learning model of the type of role reversal question in improving student learning outcomes in other subjects. As for the school is expected to provide training to teachers on implementing learning activities are innovative and creative. Keywords: active learning, civic education, learning outcomes.

  13. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  14. Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice...

  15. SR 3218. Study and questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany. AS 3.2 Development of action strategies

    Brohmann, Bettina; Huenecke, Katja; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Neles, Julia

    2011-01-01

    The report on the questioning of persons in regions with final repository activities in Germany includes the following chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Assessment criteria. (3) Status and analysis of selected topics: information by the operator; communication and communication channels; participation - information exchange; cooperation; concerns and risks; compensation and compensatory payments. (4) Action strategies: superior aspects (credibility, reliance, public relations, resource conservation, aspects of information and communication); site-related action recommendations and summarized action strategies (Asse, Morsleben, Gorleben, Salzgitter).

  16. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  17. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth and Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness

    Malina, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can…

  18. Effectiveness of educational and social worker interventions to activate patients' discussion and pursuit of preemptive living donor kidney transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Boulware, L Ebony; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Kraus, Edward S; Melancon, J Keith; Falcone, Brenda; Ephraim, Patti L; Jaar, Bernard G; Gimenez, Luis; Choi, Michael; Senga, Mikiko; Kolotos, Maria; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Cook, Courtney; Light, Laney; DePasquale, Nicole; Noletto, Todd; Powe, Neil R

    2013-03-01

    Many patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have difficulty becoming actively engaged in the pursuit of preemptive living donor kidney transplantation. The Talking About Live Kidney Donation (TALK) Study was a randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of educational and social worker interventions designed to encourage early discussions and active pursuit of preemptive living donor kidney transplantation in patients with progressive CKD. We recruited participants with progressive CKD from academically affiliated nephrology practices in Baltimore, MD. Participants randomly received: (1) usual care (routine care with their nephrologists), the (2) TALK education intervention (video and booklet), or the (3) TALK social worker intervention (video and booklet plus patient and family social worker visits). We followed participants for 6 months to assess their self-reported achievement of behaviors reflecting their discussions about and/or pursuit of living donor kidney transplantation (discussions with family, discussions with physicians, initiating recipient evaluation, completing recipient evaluation, and identifying a potential living donor). We assessed outcomes through a questionnaire at 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-up. Participants receiving usual care with their nephrologists (n = 44), TALK education (n = 43), and the TALK social worker (n = 43) were similar at baseline. TALK Study interventions improved participants' living donor kidney transplantation discussion and pursuit behaviors, with the social worker leading to greater patient activation (participants' predicted probability of achieving living donor kidney transplantation discussions, evaluations, or donor identification over 6 months): probabilities were 30% (95% CI, 20%-46%), 42% (95% CI, 33%-54%), and 58% (95% CI, 41%-83%), respectively, in the usual care, TALK education, and TALK social worker groups (P = 0.03). Our population was well educated and mostly insured, potentially limiting

  19. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity in bipolar disorders: A consensus statement from the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health.

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    Research has only recently started to consider the importance and applicability of physical activity (PA) for people with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study is to highlight 10 pertinent PA research questions in people with BD. The International Organization of Physical Therapy in Mental Health executed a consultation with all National organizations (n=13) to identify the most salient questions to guide future research on PA in BD. We identified the following 10 questions: (1) What are the benefits of PA for people with BD? (2) What are the most prominent safety issues for PA prescription in BD? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with BD? (4) What are the key barriers to PA among people with BD? (5) What are the most effective motivational strategies for ensuring PA adoption and maintenance in BD? (6) How do we translate PA research into community practice? (7) If one treatment goal is increased physical activity, what type of professionals are needed as part of a multidisciplinary team? (8) How do we incorporate PA as a vital sign in clinical practice? (9) How can we prevent sedentary behavior in BD? (10) What is the most appropriate PA assessment method? We did not consult people with BD. Addressing these questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in BD. Ultimately, achieving this will reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve the quality of life of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A question of emphasis

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie; Björnsdóttir, I

    2000-01-01

    of pharmaceuticals? Seven focus group discussions were conducted with pharmacy customers in different locations in May, August and October 1997. Widespread ignorance about the legislation was observed. Pharmacy customers preferred to discuss the role of physicians in 'irrational drug use' to discussing community...... pharmacies. A definite split was observed between urban and rural pharmacy customers; whereas definite changes were reported in the urban setting (lower prices and increased access), the rural population's perception is that it is being left out. Although the study design is not generalisable, it is clear......The reported results are part of the overall evaluation of the new drug distribution legislation that went into effect in March 1996, liberalising ownership of community pharmacies in Iceland. We addressed the following question: What impact did the legislation have on users' access to and costs...

  1. Questions about elastic waves

    Engelbrecht, Jüri

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  2. The question about paleoinformatics

    Vartic, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    The author is treating questions about development of informatics in ancient Dacia during Y-th Century B.C. - 2-nd Century A.C. He is introducing a new terminology (paleoinformatics) in view of defining the interests of Daces in numbering, the elementary numbers theory and various aspects of numbers representation. A relation between elementary numbers theory and informatisation has been discussed. A particular interest has been given to calculation of the Circle length/Diameter ratio (number Pi), its calculation by Daces.

  3. Attitudes of Consumers from the Mostar Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina toward Advertising through Sport among the Question how Often they Participate in Sports Activities

    Marin Corluka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is an attractive promotional tool for marketers who can use it to strengthen communication with consumers and persuade them to purchasing certain product or service. Hence, there is necessity to analyse their general attitudes among various questions, while this research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Mostar consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often they participate in sports activities. The sample included 228 respondents, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not participate in sport activities at all, then consumers who participate in sport activities less than ones a month, next 1–4 a month, 5–10 a month, 11–20 a month, as well as consumers participate in sport activities more than 20 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analysed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there are significant differences showed up between the consumers who participate in various sports activities. These results are so important for the marketers, mostly due to the reason they can’t merge all the potential consumers who participate in various sports activities into one homogeneous group. This isthe case in previous investigations and this observation presents relevant information.

  4. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  5. Discussion on Papers 8 - 10

    Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  6. Nuclear questions; Le nucleaire en questions

    Berg, Eugene

    2012-02-15

    Civilian and military nuclear questions fill a multitude of publications these days, especially after the Japanese tsunami and the Fukushima disaster. The author analyses some of them and highlights the links between civil and military nuclear industries, the realities of the nuclear cycle and related industrial questions before concluding on the controversial issue of weapons and their proliferation potential

  7. Trick questions: cosmopolitan hospitality

    Eleanor Byrne

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Byrne’s paper consists of two parallel texts. The first explores the limits of cosmopolitanism in practice, taking as its subject the Life in the UK Citizenship Test, inaugurated under the Labour Government in 2005. It argues that the test exemplifies the predicament of all attempts at cosmopolitan hospitality as unconditional welcoming, through a discussion of the relation between questioning and welcoming the stranger. Establishing the relationship between cosmopolitanism and hospitality as envisaged in Derrida’s reading of Kant it asks what kind of cosmopolitan hospitality is either possible or desirable by exploring what Derrida calls the ‘perversions’ inherent in the structures of hospitality. It focuses on the concept of the ‘trick questions’ that the state asks the foreigner observed by Derrida in his reading of The Apology of Socrates; questions that seem to invite answers but foreclose the possibilities of a free response. The second text asks how this logic that Derrida identifies can be pushed or coaxed into new ways of addressing the perceived threats of ‘unconditional’ hospitality through a reading of ‘unconditional hospitality’ as queer in the work of Tove Jansson.

  8. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion

    Iimoto, T.; Nunokawa, J.; Fujii, H.; Takashima, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Yajima, T.; Matsuzawa, H.; Kurosawa, K.; Yanagawa, Y.; Someya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. (authors)

  9. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  10. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  11. MPL in Context: Some Questions

    Adail Sobral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian translation (2015 of Patrick Sériot's Preface to the French translation (2010 of Marxism and the Philosophy of Language (MPL provides a good opportunity to discuss this work and its relevance for the field of Human Sciences, considering different possible interpretations. In this sense, this work presents a discussion on questions that deserve, in our opinion, to be addressed both in Sériot's work (taken as an example of MPL's interpretation and in Voloshinov's.

  12. Expanding the "Active Layer": Discussion of Church and Haschenburger (2017) What is the "Active Layer"? Water Resources Research 53, 5-10, Doi:10.1002/2016WR019675

    Ashmore, Peter; Peirce, Sarah; Leduc, Pauline

    2018-03-01

    Church and Haschenburger (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016WR019675) make helpful distinctions around the issue of defining the active layer, with which we agree. We propose expanding discussion and definition of the "active layer" in fluvial bedload transport to include the concept of the "morphological active layer." This is particularly applicable to laterally unstable rivers (such as braided rivers) in which progressive morphological change over short time periods is the process by which much of the bedload transport occurs. The morphological active layer is also distinguished by variable lateral and longitudinal extent continuity over a range of flows and transport intensity. We suggest that the issue of forms of active layer raised by Church and Haschenburger opens up an important discussion on the nature of bedload transport in relation to river morpho-dynamics over the range of river types.

  13. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  14. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  15. Improving Student Question Classification

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  16. Une question interdite

    Pierre Legendre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Is legal history a left-over or is it waiting for a takeover bid (just like a company in serious trouble which would allow the expression of new analyses and outlines for a better understanding of the contemporary western world? Its propositions of erudition, are they just interesting for small academic circles, or could they open a new pathway for fundamental reflections on the phenomenon of norms in general and the structure of its evolution in the special case of norm-production coming from Roman Christianity? And what is the significance of the idea of »legal tradition«, an idea forged in Western Europe, within the framework of a presumed global westernization without any counter-balance? The essay discusses the illegibility of legal history in today’s culture. Under the well reflected motto »The Forbidden Question« it concludes firmly: To renovate itself, this discipline has to perform its work in a new way, guided by a very precise and distinct vision on theory. The author examines the conditions for this.

  17. Nanodesign: some basic questions

    Schommers, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that nanoscience will be the dominant direction for technology in this century, and that this science will influence our lives to a large extent as well as open completely new perspectives on all scientific and technological disciplines. To be able to produce optimal nanosystems with tailor-made properties, it is necessary to analyze and construct such systems in advance by adequate theoretical and computational methods. Since we work in nanoscience and nanotechnology at the ultimate level, we have to apply the basic laws of physics. What methods and tools are relevant here? The book gives an answer to this question. The background of the theoretical methods and tools is critically discussed, and also the world view on which these physical laws are based. Such a debate is not only of academic interest but is of highly general concern, and this is because we constantly move in nanoscience and nanotechnology between two extreme poles, between infinite life and total destruction . On the one ...

  18. Areva: questions about a champion

    Bottois, P.

    2009-01-01

    Siemens announced in January 26, 2009 its decision to leave Areva NP, i.e. the Areva/Siemens common daughter company for reactors. This news re-launches the questions about the long-term financing strategy of the Areva group, of its capitalistic partnerships and of its position in the world nuclear market. Siemens on its side wishes to preserve its position in this market and a possible cooperation with the Russian AtomEnergoProm is under discussion. Areva, the world leader of nuclear industry, integrates a mining activity as well and is the world number 3 of uranium exploitation (15% of the world offer). It wishes to double its production by 2012 thanks to big investments in Niger, Namibia and Canada. Areva is developing its enrichment capacities as well thanks to the future Georges-Besse II ultracentrifugation facility which is under construction at Tricastin (Drome, France) and which should be put into service in 2009. And finally, a second EPR (European pressurized reactor), the new generation of Areva reactors, is to be built at Penly (Haute Normandie, France) between 2012 and 2017 and will generate 1400 employments in the region. (J.S.)

  19. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  20. Live your questions now

    Brownrigg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    'Live Your Questions Now' is a case study for Cubitt Education's publication 'Aging in Public: creative practice in ageing and the public realm from across the UK', edited by Daniel Baker and published by Cubitt Gallery, Studios and Education, London in 2016. The publication was linked to Cubitt's programme 'Public Wisdom' (2011-2015). My case study is about 'Live your questions now', a group exhibition I curated in 2011 for Mackintosh Museum, The Glasgow School of Art. 'Live your questions n...

  1. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  2. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  3. Epistemology: 5 Questions

    Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in epistemology. We hear their views on epistemology with particular emphasis on the intersection between mainstream and formal approaches to the field...

  4. What Children Learn from Questioning

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  5. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  6. Panel discussion: Chemistry aspects of pet radiotracers

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A panel discussion on the radiotracer development process opened with a question regarding the role of toxicological studies in the process of obtaining a physician-sponsored Investigational New Drug (IND) for a new radiopharmaceutical. Panel members were uniformly supportive of new radiotracer development, expressing their opinions that the regulatory hurdles were there but could be overcome. Several institutions are actively working with regulatory agencies to determine just what toxicology data are relevant to new radiopharmaceutical development in the PET field. The FDA is beginning to understand that the pharmacology of PET tracer doses may be completely different from what is usually important in drug trials. The second part of the panel discussion centered on the role, if any, of the pharmaceutical companies in new radiotracer development. It was pointed out that what the radiochemist is looking for in a radiopharmaceutical is different from what these companies are searching for in a therapeutic drug. Panel and audience members responded to the question: What would a pharmaceutical company gain from collaboration with radiopharmaceutical research laboratories? Several examples were given such as providing crucial data from humans rather than animals; determining individualized drug doses to maximize the therapeutic index of a new drug regimen; and replacing the large amounts of time and money currently invested by drug companies in the radiolabeling and evaluation of metabolites of new drugs

  7. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  8. Three questions on Lorentz violation

    Iorio, Alfredo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Charles University of Prague - V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Physics ' E. R. Caianiello' , University of Salerno and I.N.F.N. Naples, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno - Via Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    We review the basics of the two most widely used approaches to Lorentz violation - the Standard Model Extension and Noncommutative Field Theory - and discuss in some detail the example of the modified spectrum of the synchrotron radiation. Motivated by touching upon such a fundamental issue as Lorentz symmetry, we ask three questions: What is behind the search for Lorentz violation? Is String Theory a physical theory? Is there an alternative to Supersymmetry?.

  9. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Cosmetic Procedure Questions Want to look younger? Start ...

  10. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  11. CAT questions and answers

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  12. QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ACTIVITIES OF LIBRARY ASSOCIATIONS AT THE FIRST NATIONAL CONGRESS OF LIBRARY WORKERS (1926: DECISION AND IMPLEMENTATION DIFFICULTIES (THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF CONGRESS

    В. Ю. Соколов

    2017-02-01

    meaning and essence of the presentations and discussions, the issue of development of library associations in Ukraine at the First National Congress of library workers in 1926 and studies their influence on the development of libraries in Ukraine in the second half of the 1920 years overall. In his scientific work by extensive use of  historical-comparative, historical and genetic, statistical, chronological, biographical research methods, the method of diachronic analysis. The article describes the social and cultural conditions of the library associations main stages of development and features of their operation; disclosed value of their work in coordinating the work of libraries; analyzed the characteristic shape and features of these socio-professional organizations training and retraining of library staff. The author found that the success of a development and library associations have sought to consolidate and promote professional scatter libraries in the country were limited initially counteraction on the part of trade unions, and in the future and the governing bodies of political education. The author analyzed and proved that the library association worked out and implemented in practice various forms of organizational work, a variety of means and methods of solution and implementation of professional tasks, using a rich arsenal of democratic mechanisms and raising many issues of library building that was positively evaluated by delegates from 'ride. The main areas of library associations were: formation and development of professional skills of librarians; improving the efficiency of urban libraries through the organization and coordination of their activities; establishing a system of methodological assistance to libraries of different types and species, particularly rural libraries; promotion of scientific research, cultural, and educational activities libraries. However, in the late 1920 years Party and Soviet government bureaucracy gradually

  13. Learning through Discussions

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  14. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  15. Session 1 - discussion

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  16. The Question Concerning Thinking

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  17. Generating ethnographic research questions

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    ? By drawing on the conceptual history of anthropology, the aim of this article is to generate ethnographic-oriented research questions concerned with higher education. The first part of the article provides an ethnographic background, while the second part focuses on Paul Willis's reasoning on ethnographic......As part of recent complex transformations, it seems that higher educational organisations are being forced to reorganise, standardise and streamline in order to survive in the new political and economic context. How are ethnographers in general going to approach these contemporary phenomena...... imagination, as a prerequisite for generating alternative research questions. The third part makes explicit anthropologist Maurice Godelier's theoretical imagination, carving out some specific theoretical parts which may be used in the generating process. The conclusion then suggests a number of questions...

  18. Using self-efficacy theory to develop interventions that help older people overcome psychological barriers to physical activity: a discussion paper.

    Lee, Ling-Ling; Arthur, Antony; Avis, Mark

    2008-11-01

    Only a fifth of older people undertake a level of physical activity sufficient to lead to health benefit. Misconceptions about the ageing process and beliefs about the costs and benefits of exercise in late life may result in unnecessary self-imposed activity restriction. Thus, adhering to a physical activity can be difficult particularly when the benefits of exercise are often not immediate. Many of the barriers to engaging in physical activity among older people are attitudinal. It is therefore important to take account of the non-physical aspects of physical activity intervention programmes, such as increasing confidence. Self-efficacy is a widely applied theory used to understand health behaviour and facilitate behavioural modification, such as the increase of physical activity. This paper aims to examine the ways in which self-efficacy theory might be used in intervention programmes designed to overcome psychological barriers for increasing physical activity among older people. A number of studies have demonstrated that exercise self-efficacy is strongly associated with the amount of physical activity undertaken. Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of a physical activity intervention is beneficial. Physical activity interventions aimed at improving the self perception of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate and maintain physical activity behaviour. There are a number of ways for nurses to facilitate older people to draw on the four information sources of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, verbal encouragement, and physiological and affective states. Research challenges that future studies need to address include the generalisability of exercise setting, the role of age as an effect modifier, and the need for more explicit reporting of how self-efficacy is operationalised in interventions.

  19. Using Socratic Questioning in the Classroom.

    Moore, Lori; Rudd, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Socratic questioning method and discusses its use in the agricultural education classroom. Presents a four-step model: origin and source of point of view; support, reasons, evidence, and assumptions; conflicting views; and implications and consequences. (JOW)

  20. Are treatment effects of neurofeedback training in children with ADHD related to the successful regulation of brain activity? A review on the learning of regulation of brain activity and a contribution to the discussion on specificity.

    Agnieszka eZuberer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While issues of efficacy and specificity are crucial for the future of neurofeedback training, there may be alternative designs and control analyses to circumvent the methodological and ethical problems associated with double-blind placebo studies. Surprisingly, most NF studies do not report the most immediate result of their NF training, i.e. whether or not children with ADHD gain control over their brain activity during the training sessions. For the investigation of specificity, however, it seems essential to analyze the learning and adaptation processes that take place in the course of the training and to relate improvements in self-regulated brain activity across training sessions to behavioral, neuropsychological and electrophysiological outcomes. To this aim, a review of studies on neurofeedback training with ADHD patients, which include the analysis of learning across training sessions or relate training performance to outcome, is presented. Methods on how to evaluate and quantify learning of EEG regulation over time are discussed. Non-learning has been reported in a small number of ADHD-studies, but has not been a focus of general methodological discussion so far. For this reason, selected results from the brain-computer interface (BCI research on the so-called brain-computer illiteracy, the inability to gain control over one’s brain activity, are also included. It is concluded that in the discussion on specificity, more attention should be devoted to the analysis of EEG regulation performance in the course of the training and its impact on clinical outcome. It is necessary to improve the knowledge on characteristic cross-session and within-session learning trajectories in ADHD and to provide the best conditions for learning.

  1. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  2. Discussion on Soft Computing at FLINS '96

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This is a report on the discussion about soft computing (SC) during FLINS'96. The discussion is based on the five questions formulated by X. Li, viz. (1) What is SC? (2) What are the characteristics of SC? (3) What are the principal achievements of SC? (4) What are the typical problems of SC and

  3. Focus group discussions

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  4. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  5. The social question revisited

    Kenneth, Petersson; Olsson, Ulf; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is the re-installation of the social question as a historical practice. The purpose is to investigate how historic figures return and are applied in contemporary political discourses, more precisely in the context of education, education policy and teacher education...

  6. Questioning Danish Cartoon Images

    Bojsen, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    Danes today when it is considered demeaning and racist in most other countries. The conclusion does emphatically not plead in favour of law enforced limitations of the freedom of expression, but does question the prevalent "freedom of ignorance" concerning black identities which means...

  7. Discussion on nuclear issues

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  8. Summary of discussion

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  9. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  10. Summary and Discussion.

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  11. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  12. Early Years Education: Are Young Students Intrinsically or Extrinsically Motivated Towards School Activities? A Discussion about the Effects of Rewards on Young Children's Learning

    Theodotou, Evgenia

    2014-01-01

    Rewards can reinforce and at the same time forestall young children's willingness to learn. However, they are broadly used in the field of education, especially in early years settings, to stimulate children towards learning activities. This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature related to intrinsic and extrinsic motivational…

  13. Panel discussion : contract design

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  14. Panel discussion : contract design

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  15. Annotating Logical Forms for EHR Questions.

    Roberts, Kirk; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the creation of a semantically annotated corpus of questions about patient data in electronic health records (EHRs). The goal is to provide the training data necessary for semantic parsers to automatically convert EHR questions into a structured query. A layered annotation strategy is used which mirrors a typical natural language processing (NLP) pipeline. First, questions are syntactically analyzed to identify multi-part questions. Second, medical concepts are recognized and normalized to a clinical ontology. Finally, logical forms are created using a lambda calculus representation. We use a corpus of 446 questions asking for patient-specific information. From these, 468 specific questions are found containing 259 unique medical concepts and requiring 53 unique predicates to represent the logical forms. We further present detailed characteristics of the corpus, including inter-annotator agreement results, and describe the challenges automatic NLP systems will face on this task.

  16. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  17. Ten Questions about Emergence

    Fromm, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are many open questions about emergence and self-organization, ranging from a clear ...

  18. 501 reading comprehension questions

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  19. A Comparative Discussion of the Catalytic Activity and CO2-Selectivity of Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr (Intermetallic Compounds in Methanol Steam Reforming

    Norbert Köpfle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The activation and catalytic performance of two representative Zr-containing intermetallic systems, namely Cu-Zr and Pd-Zr, have been comparatively studied operando using methanol steam reforming (MSR as test reaction. Using an inverse surface science and bulk model catalyst approach, we monitored the transition of the initial metal/intermetallic compound structures into the eventual active and CO2-selective states upon contact to the methanol steam reforming mixture. For Cu-Zr, selected nominal stoichiometries ranging from Cu:Zr = 9:2 over 2:1 to 1:2 have been prepared by mixing the respective amounts of metallic Cu and Zr to yield different Cu-Zr bulk phases as initial catalyst structures. In addition, the methanol steam reforming performance of two Pd-Zr systems, that is, a bulk system with a nominal Pd:Zr = 2:1 stoichiometry and an inverse model system consisting of CVD-grown ZrOxHy layers on a polycrystalline Pd foil, has been comparatively assessed. While the CO2-selectivity and the overall catalytic performance of the Cu-Zr system is promising due to operando formation of a catalytically beneficial Cu-ZrO2 interface, the case for Pd-Zr is different. For both Pd-Zr systems, the low-temperature coking tendency, the high water-activation temperature and the CO2-selectivity spoiling inverse WGS reaction limit the use of the Pd-Zr systems for selective MSR applications, although alloying of Pd with Zr opens water activation channels to increase the CO2 selectivity.

  20. Dynamic Question Ordering in Online Surveys

    Early Kirstin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have the potential to support adaptive questions, where later questions depend on earlier responses. Past work has taken a rule-based approach, uniformly across all respondents. We envision a richer interpretation of adaptive questions, which we call Dynamic Question Ordering (DQO, where question order is personalized. Such an approach could increase engagement, and therefore response rate, as well as imputation quality. We present a DQO framework to improve survey completion and imputation. In the general survey-taking setting, we want to maximize survey completion, and so we focus on ordering questions to engage the respondent and collect hopefully all information, or at least the information that most characterizes the respondent, for accurate imputations. In another scenario, our goal is to provide a personalized prediction. Since it is possible to give reasonable predictions with only a subset of questions, we are not concerned with motivating users to answer all questions. Instead, we want to order questions to get information that reduces prediction uncertainty, while not being too burdensome. We illustrate this framework with two case studies, for the prediction and survey-taking settings. We also discuss DQO for national surveys and consider connections between our statistics-based question-ordering approach and cognitive survey methodology.

  1. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  2. GASB 35 Implementation Guide: Questions and Answers for Public Colleges and Universities Using Business Type Activity (BTA) Reporting. A Supplement to GASB's Implementation Guide for Statement 34

    National Association of College and University Business Officers (NJ1), 2001

    2001-01-01

    This guide was prepared for public institution business officers as a supplement to the "Guide to Implementation of GASB Statement 54 on Basic Financial Statements--and Management's Discussion and Analysis--for State and Local Governments, published in April 2000 by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) on GASB Statements 34 and 35.…

  3. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  4. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  5. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  6. Altered alkaline phosphatase activity in obese Zucker rats liver respect to lean Zucker and Wistar rats discussed in terms of all putative roles ascribed to the enzyme.

    Bertone, V; Tarantola, E; Ferrigno, A; Gringeri, E; Barni, S; Vairetti, M; Freitas, I

    2011-02-08

    Biliary complications often lead to acute and chronic liver injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Bile composition and secretion depend on the integrated action of all the components of the biliary tree, starting from hepatocytes. Fatty livers are often discarded as grafts for OLT, since they are extremely vulnerable to conventional cold storage (CS). However, the insufficiency of donors has stimulated research to improve the usage of such marginal organs as well as grafts. Our group has recently developed a machine perfusion system at subnormothermic temperature (20°C; MP20) that allows a marked improvement in preservation of fatty and even of normal rat livers as compared with CS. We sought to evaluate the response of the biliary tree of fatty liver to MP20, and a suitable marker was essential to this purpose. Alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, EC 3.1.3.1), frequently used as marker of membrane transport in hepatocytes and bile ducts, was our first choice. Since no histochemical data were available on AlkP distribution and activity in fatty liver, we have first settled to investigate AlkP activity in the steatotic liver of fatty Zucker rats (fa/fa), using as controls lean Zucker (fa/+) and normal Wistar rats. The AlkP reaction in Wistar rats was in accordance with the existing data and, in particular, was present in bile canaliculi of hepatocytes in the periportal region and midzone, in the canals of Hering and in small bile ducts but not in large bile ducts. In lean ZR liver the AlkP reaction in Hering canals and small bile ducts was similar to Wistar rat liver but hepatocytes had lower canalicular activity and besides presented moderate basolateral reaction. The difference between lean Zucker and Wistar rats, both phenotypically normal animals, could be related to the fact that lean Zucker rats are genotypically heterozygous for a recessive mutated allele. In fatty liver, the activity in ductules and small bile ducts was unchanged, but most hepatocytes

  7. Altered alkaline phosphatase activity in obese Zucker rats liver respect to lean Zucker and Wistar rats discussed in terms of all putative roles ascribed to the enzyme

    V. Bertone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Biliary complications often lead to acute and chronic liver injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Bile composition and secretion depend on the integrated action of all the components of the biliary tree, starting from hepatocytes. Fatty livers are often discarded as grafts for OLT, since they are extremely vulnerable to conventional cold storage (CS. However, the insufficiency of donors has stimulated research to improve the usage of such marginal organs as well as grafts. Our group has recently developed a machine perfusion system at subnormothermic temperature (20°C; MP20 that allows a marked improvement in preservation of fatty and even of normal rat livers as compared with CS. We sought to evaluate the response of the biliary tree of fatty liver to MP20, and a suitable marker was essential to this purpose. Alkaline phosphatase (AlkP, EC 3.1.3.1, frequently used as marker of membrane transport in hepatocytes and bile ducts, was our first choice. Since no histochemical data were available on AlkP distribution and activity in fatty liver, we have first settled to investigate AlkP activity in the steatotic liver of fatty Zucker rats (fa/fa, using as controls lean Zucker (fa/+ and normal Wistar rats. The AlkP reaction in Wistar rats was in accordance with the existing data and, in particular, was present in bile canaliculi of hepatocytes in the periportal region and midzone, in the canals of Hering and in small bile ducts but not in large bile ducts. In lean ZR liver the AlkP reaction in Hering canals and small bile ducts was similar to Wistar rat liver but hepatocytes had lower canalicular activity and besides presented moderate basolateral reaction. The difference between lean Zucker and Wistar rats, both phenotypically normal animals, could be related to the fact that lean Zucker rats are genotypically heterozygous for a recessive mutated allele. In fatty liver, the activity in ductules and small bile ducts was unchanged, but

  8. Question of neutrino mass

    Branco, G.C.; Senjanovic, G.

    1978-01-01

    We investigate the question of neutrino mass in theories in which neutrinos are four-component Dirac particles. Our analysis is done in the framework of left-right--symmetric theories. The requirement of calculability and natural smallness of neutrino mass leads to the following constraints: (i) left and right charged weak currents must be ''orthogonal'' to each other, and (ii) there should be no W/sub L/-W/sub R/ mixing at the three level. Finally, we exhibit a model in which, due to the existence of an unbroken symmetry of the total Lagrangian, the electron and muon neutrinos remain massless to all orders in perturbation theory

  9. Social Epistemology: 5 Questions

    Social Epistemology: 5 Questions is a collection of interviews with some of the world’s most influential scholars working on social epistemology from a range of disciplinary perspectives. We hear their views on social epistemology; its aim, scope, use, broader intellectual environment, future...... direction, and how the work of the interviewees fits in these respects. Interviews with David Bloor, Cristina Bicchieri, Richard Bradley, Lorraine Code, Hans van Ditmarsch, Miranda Fricker, Steve Fuller, Sanford Goldberg, Alvin Goldman, Philip Kitcher, Martin Kusch, Jennifer Lackey, Helen E. Longino, Philip...

  10. capital. A discussion paper

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  11. Results and discussion

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  12. Quantum theory from questions

    Hoehn, Philipp [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wever, Christopher [Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In contrast to relativity, quantum theory has evaded a commonly accepted apprehension, in part because of the lack of physical statements that fully characterize it. In an attempt to remedy the situation, we summarize a novel reconstruction of the explicit formalism of quantum theory (for arbitrarily many qubits) from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S's state as O's ''catalogue of knowledge'' about S; no ontic assumptions are necessary. From the rules, one can derive, among other things, the state spaces, the unitary group, the von Neumann evolution and show that the binary questions correspond to Pauli operators. The reconstruction also offers new structural insights in the form of novel informational charges and informational complementarity relations which define the state spaces and the unitary group. This reconstruction permits a new perspective on quantum theory.

  13. Final plenary discussion

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)

  14. Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention-Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?

    Manore, Melinda M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda

    2017-08-19

    Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators' understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed.

  15. The Application of Learning Model SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review can Increase Activeness and Learning Outcomes of Student

    Olivia Frances Rivan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze implementation of SQ4R learning method, students ' active participation and students ' achievement in the subject " Public Administration of Public Relations and Protocol " for students of class XI ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE 1 at SMK PGRI Turen. This type of research is a Classroom Action Research (CAR. Data collection was done by interview, observation, documentation, test, and field note. The result of the research shows that (1 the implementation of learning goes well, proved by the increase of students ' active participation and students ' achievement, (2 the students ' active participation increased from the percentage of 61% in the circle 1 to 82% in circle 2, (3 Students ' achievement from the cognitive aspect increased from the average of 6.7 in circle 1 to 88.7 on circle 2.

  16. Formative student-authored question bank: perceptions, question quality and association with summative performance.

    Walsh, Jason L; Harris, Benjamin H L; Denny, Paul; Smith, Phil

    2018-02-01

    There are few studies on the value of authoring questions as a study method, the quality of the questions produced by students and student perceptions of student-authored question banks. Here we evaluate PeerWise, a widely used and free online resource that allows students to author, answer and discuss multiple-choice questions. We introduced two undergraduate medical student cohorts to PeerWise (n=603). We looked at their patterns of PeerWise usage; identified associations between student engagement and summative exam performance; and used focus groups to assess student perceptions of the value of PeerWise for learning. We undertook item analysis to assess question difficulty and quality. Over two academic years, the two cohorts wrote 4671 questions, answered questions 606 658 times and posted 7735 comments. Question writing frequency correlated most strongly with summative performance (Spearman's rank: 0.24, p=<0.001). Student focus groups found that: (1) students valued curriculum specificity; and (2) students were concerned about student-authored question quality. Only two questions of the 300 'most-answered' questions analysed had an unacceptable discriminatory value (point-biserial correlation <0.2). Item analysis suggested acceptable question quality despite student concerns. Quantitative and qualitative methods indicated that PeerWise is a valuable study tool. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. From Questions to Queries

    M. Drlík

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The extension of (Internet databases forceseveryone to become more familiar with techniques of datastorage and retrieval because users’ success often dependson their ability to pose right questions and to be able tointerpret their answers. University programs pay moreattention to developing database programming skills than todata exploitation skills. To educate our students to become“database users”, the authors intensively exploit supportivetools simplifying the production of database elements astables, queries, forms, reports, web pages, and macros.Videosequences demonstrating “standard operations” forcompleting them have been prepared to enhance out-ofclassroomlearning. The use of SQL and other professionaltools is reduced to the cases when the wizards are unable togenerate the intended construct.

  18. The Coding Question.

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-07-01

    Recent electrophysiological results imply that the duration of the stimulus onset asynchrony in eyeblink conditioning is encoded by a mechanism intrinsic to the cerebellar Purkinje cell. This raises the general question - how is quantitative information (durations, distances, rates, probabilities, amounts, etc.) transmitted by spike trains and encoded into engrams? The usual assumption is that information is transmitted by firing rates. However, rate codes are energetically inefficient and computationally awkward. A combinatorial code is more plausible. If the engram consists of altered synaptic conductances (the usual assumption), then we must ask how numbers may be written to synapses. It is much easier to formulate a coding hypothesis if the engram is realized by a cell-intrinsic molecular mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biofuels - 5 disturbing questions

    Legalland, J.P.; Lemarchand, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Initially considered as the supreme weapon against greenhouse gas emissions, biofuels are today hold responsible to all harms of the Earth: leap of agriculture products price, deforestation, food crisis. Considered some time ago as the perfect clean substitute to petroleum, biofuels are now suspected to have harmful effects on the environment. Should it be just an enormous technical, environmental and human swindle? Should we abandon immediately biofuels to protect the earth and fight the threatening again starvation? Should we wait for the second generation of efficient biofuels, made from non food-derived products and cultivation wastes? This book analyses this delicate debate through 5 main questions: do they starve the world? Are they a clean energy source? Do they contribute to deforestation? Are they economically practicable? Is the second generation ready? (J.S.)

  20. Comparative discussion of the activated sludge and packed bed techniques in biological sewage water cleaning; Vergleichende Betrachtung von Belebungs- und Festbettverfahren fuer die biologische Abwasserreinigung

    Kroiss, H [Technische Univ., Vienna (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserguete und Abfallwirtschaft

    1994-12-31

    It is reasonable to state that, given proper planning, erection and careful operation, both activated sludge plants and packed bed reactors with a biofilm are capable of meeting extremely high demands on the quality of the effluent. What was to be shown is the fact that operating behaviour and demands on measurement and control techniques differ considerably. Rating depends on different criteria, according to the technique chosen, and also cost calculation is largely determined in each case by special local conditions. All this makes it difficult to compare solutions with one another or to transfer experience gathered in one plant to another application. So the choice of the best possible method in a given case remains an interesting task.- One must try to make as objective a comparison as possible of different solutions according to the relevant criteria, beyond what is quantifiable merely in terms of finance.- Any decision taken on the basis of such a comparison is bound to reflect also the values that the decision-makers hold. But it should always be possible when taking decisions about processes to leave ideology out of consideration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es kann festgestellt werden, dass sowohl Belebungsanlagen wie auch Biofilmreaktoren bei richtiger Planung, Errichtung und sorgfaeltigem Betrieb in der Lage sind, auch extrem hohe Ansprueche an die Ablaufguete zu erfuellen. Was gezeigt werden sollte, ist der Umstand, dass erhebliche Unterschiede im Betriebsverhalten und in den Anforderungen an die Mess- und Regeltechnik bestehen. Fuer die Bemessung sind je nach Verfahren andere Kriterien massgebend, und auch fuer die Kostenrechnung gilt, dass die speziellen oertlichen Bedingung bei jedem Anwendungsfall von ausschlaggebender Bedeutung sind. Das alles hat zur Folge, dass es sehr schwierig ist, verschiedene Loesungsmoeglichkeiten miteinander zur vergleichen, oder die Erfahrung von einer Anlage auf einen anderen Anwendungsfall zu uebertragen. Die Auswahl des ``besten

  1. Questions and Questioning Techniques: A View of Indonesian Students’ Preferences

    Debora Tri Ragawanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated students’ preference on teacher’s questions and questionings techniques and more importantly on how they could facilitate or impede their learning. The results on teacher’s questioning techniques showed that random nomination was more preferred than pre-arranged format nomination. In addition, techniques of nominating volunteering students and of giving wait-time were disliked by most student-respondents. As for types of question, the yes/no question was favored by most of the respondents. Different from the yes/no question, the number of respondents leaning forward to the analysis question, questions about fact of life, and questions to state opinion did not show a significant difference from the number of those leaning against the same questions.

  2. Arthritis: Frequently Asked Questions

    ... lift your mood and make you feel more positive. Learn about physical activity for people with arthritis and CDC-recommended physical ... Top of Page 6. How does being overweight affect arthritis? It’s ... physical activity and diet changes can help you lose weight. ...

  3. Questions of agency

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    2008-01-01

    The view that participating in psychosocial support groups can be helpful to women exposed to gendered violence, such as rape and attempted rape, has much support. Drawing on a ‘subject theory’ approach and an empirical project, this article discusses some aspects of group practices. Which aspects...

  4. A question of image

    Frazer, F.

    1999-01-01

    The unacceptable public face of the oil industry is said to be a potential obstacle which will hamper the rate of recovery when economic conditions eventually improve. Certain initiatives and advertising campaigns have been launched to improve present public perception and these are discussed. The efforts should also encourage potential recruits to join a safe and attractive industry. (UK)

  5. Questions for Bernard Spolsky

    McCarty, Teresa L.

    2016-01-01

    This essay is based on a June 2014 interview with Bernard Spolsky, in which he discussed his life with educational linguistics. A self-described "accidental professor," Spolsky directed the first study of Navajo sociolinguistics, established educational linguistics as a field of study and practice, co-created a national language policy…

  6. Gary O's Fence Question.

    Daniels, David S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the problem of finding the amount of fence it would require for the outfield fence of a baseball field of given dimensions. Presents different solution methods for each of the levels from grades 9-12. The different methods incorporate geometry, trigonometry, analytic geometry, and calculus. (MDH)

  7. A Universe of Questions.

    Zeldovich, Yakov

    1992-01-01

    Reprinted from the original Russian manuscript of Yakov Zeldovich, this article chronicles his studies of the universe and his attempts to construct a theory of its evolution. He provides the high school student with compelling cosmological discussions about uniformity, galactic clusters, radiation, evolution, the big bang, and gravitational…

  8. Difficult Questions of Difficult Questions: The Role of The Researcher and Transcription Styles

    Henderson, Holly

    2018-01-01

    This paper refracts a comparison of three distinct transcription styles through questions of researcher reflexivity. It uses the data from a single question asked by the researcher in multiple interviews for a small empirical project. These data are transcribed in three ways, and the resulting transcripts are discussed in relation to the analysis…

  9. Four Principles for Selecting HCI Research Questions

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    In this position paper, I present and explain the position that what we should study in HCI depends on the objective of the research and its political, social, cultural, technological, and historical context. I outline four principles for selecting research questions and give a personal account...... of how I have selected research questions using these four principles. The aim with the paper is to generate discussion and advance the understanding of what to study in HCI....

  10. The Application of Learning Model SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Reflect, Recite, Review) can Increase Activeness and Learning Outcomes of Student

    Olivia Frances Rivan; Suharto -; Neny Chuinda

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze implementation of SQ4R learning method, students ' active participation and students ' achievement in the subject " Public Administration of Public Relations and Protocol " for students of class XI ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE 1 at SMK PGRI Turen. This type of research is a Classroom Action Research (CAR). Data collection was done by interview, observation, documentation, test, and field note. The result of the research shows that (1) the implementation of l...

  11. Discussion of the question whether a local authority can claim to be affected in its planning competence by a permit issued for construction of a radwaste processing plant. High Administrative Court Lueneburg, judgement of 21.1.1993 - 7 K 5/90

    Czajka, D.

    1993-01-01

    A local authority has taken legal action against the first partial permit for the construction of a radwaste conditioning pilot plant at Gorleben, claiming to be affected in its planning competence by the fact that transport of spent fuel elements between the spent fuel storage facility and the pilot plant 2 km away would have to proceed on the rural district road. The action has been discussed. Appealable head notes: A local authority is not affected in its planning competence by a permit issued for construction of a facility for radwaste processing, although the operation of said facility may result in radwaste being transported by a road crossing the local authority's territory. (orig.) [de

  12. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    ... Information for Travelers Flu Activity & Surveillance CDC's WHO Collaborating Center Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView Overview ... illness in young children as well as a leading cause of death from respiratory illness in those ...

  13. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  14. Measuring Skill in Games : Several Approaches Discussed

    Dreef, M.R.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    An aspect of casino games that in general leads to discussions among both participants and spectators, is the relative extent to which a player can positively influence his results by making appropriate strategic choices.This question is closely related to the issue of how to distinguish between

  15. Answer This Simple Question

    Smith, J. Elspeth S.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author discusses her journey from her first year of the PhD program at USC, and the work she is doing now for a company that builds infrastructure in Afghanistan. She explores the ways in which studies for her 1985 PhD in Rhetoric, Linguistics and Literature did and did not prepare her for the work she does now. Her memoir…

  16. After sympathy, a question

    Dalsgård, Anne Line

    2018-01-01

    Within a discussion of fieldwork, friendship and ethics Dalsgård describes how a piece of fictional writing worked as a sympathetic experiment and both changed her understanding of a young woman's situation and deepened her relationship to her. She employs Adam Smith’s concept of sympathy as the ...... of research and shows us that fiction can be real (including the fiction of anthropological field research identified by Clifford Geertz) because it has real consequences....

  17. Not merely a question of self-control: The longitudinal effects of overeating behaviors, diet quality and physical activity on dieters' perceived diet success.

    Keller, Carmen; Hartmann, Christina

    2016-12-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted between 2010 (T1) and 2014 (T2) on a random sample from the general Swiss population (N = 2781, 46% male). Results showed that dieters (restrained eaters) who reported lack of success in T2 were overweight in T1, had higher levels of emotional and external eating, overeating, and ambivalence toward eating palatable food in T1, and a significantly increased body mass index (BMI) in the period between T1 and T2. Dieters who reported success in T2 had maintained a normal BMI between T1 and T2, had a higher diet quality in T1 and had maintained regular physical activity for at least one year before T2. The logistic regression revealed that high levels of dispositional self-control provided the most important predictor of being a successful dieter. When controlling for dispositional self-control, high levels of emotional eating, overeating, and ambivalence in T1, together with increases in these levels between T1 and T2, were associated with a decreased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. High levels of diet quality in T1 and the maintenance of regular physical activity were associated with an increased likelihood of being a successful dieter in T2. Results suggest that diet success and failure is a long-term phenomenon, partly but not fully explained by dispositional self-control. Independent of self-control persistent patterns of overeating due to emotional eating and ambivalent feelings toward eating palatable food, also explain long-term diet failure. A high diet quality and maintenance of regular physical activity accounted for dieters' long-term success. This is the first study that examined the long-term psychological and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 101 questions about energy

    Furfari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Today, energy in the center of the world events. People get swamped with information about energy, environment, energy saving or renewable energy sources. However, the solutions proposed are still in the centre of debates and no consensus exists which allows to define a clear policy: nuclear energy or wind power? Solar energy or biomass fuels? And what about the meaning of the expression 'clean coal'? And why oil prices go up and down while it is said that the resource is close to exhaustion? Mass media are trying to tell us that 'urgency is here', mainly because of the climatic threat of greenhouse gases and because of a world economy totally dependent of politically unstable areas, like Middle East, Africa or Caucasus, but with huge oil and gas resources. And what about Europe, and what about all this gas in Russia? It is hard for a non-specialist to find his way in this complex domain. This is the aim of this book which has opted for the non-politically correct attitude to answer 101 key-questions about the energy topic: Europe's security of supply, energy geopolitics, oil future, energy crises, sustainable development etc. (J.S.)

  19. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions across the Inquiry Continuum

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in…

  20. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  1. Hierarchical Markov blankets and adaptive active inference. Comment on "Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation" by Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead et al.

    Kirchhoff, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Ramstead MJD, Badcock PB, Friston KJ. Answering Schrödinger's question: A free-energy formulation. Phys Life Rev 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plrev.2017.09.001 [this issue] motivate a multiscale characterisation of living systems in terms of hierarchically structured Markov blankets - a view of living systems as comprised of Markov blankets of Markov blankets [1-4]. It is effectively a treatment of what life is and how it is realised, cast in terms of how Markov blankets of living systems self-organise via active inference - a corollary of the free energy principle [5-7].

  2. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  3. The energy question

    1987-01-01

    In April 1987, Energy, Mines and Resources Minister Marcel Masse launched a public review of Canada's energy options into the twenty-first century. He appointed a national advisory committee to preside over the process and he made clear his desire that there be full public participation. In Canada energy is everybody's business. We are rich in resources, but factors such as geography, climate, regional imbalance and provincial ownership ensure that this is among the most stressful and national issues. Energy is about Canadians, about our dealings with each other, directly and through our institutions. Our management of this issue speaks tellingly of our respect for each other's rights, as well as our willingness to coalesce for mutual support. Canada's energy policy should reflect our sense of self and our collective vision of the nation. History tells us that we strain the bonds of our federation when we fail to formulate policies that meet these standards. Perhaps we have relied too heavily on institutions, instead of on an informed and thoughtful public, to set the framework for policy making. This booklet is directed at interested Canadians who want to be involved in this process. It is not an interim report - no consensus yet exists; it is an invitation to participate and a stimulus for discussion. The Advisory Committee believes that individual contributions are essential to its deliberations. It hopes that many will take the time to submit their ideas. Perspectives offered will be gratefully received and shall be respectfully considered

  4. Energy - a vital question

    Bakkenbuell, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The DAG has become involved with the topics and problems of energy policy very early and has already pointed on the necessity of an overall plan for energy policy for the Federal Republic of Germany in the sixties. The claim directed to the legislative bodies in the F. R. of Germany had sprung from the conclusion that endangering energy supply in the medium or long term would lead to a serious disorder within economic and thus social life. In order to meet the risks for industry and society which are related to an endangering of energy supply at an early stage and with regard to the future the DAG think it indispensable to further update the existing political energy programme of the Federal Government. The DAG hope that the political claims which are included in this brochure and which were worked out at the 8th Energiepolitische Bundestagung of the DAG might influence the German programme for energy policy. At the same time this brochure is meant to provide a factual contribution to the present energy discussion which, in general, is still based on emotional arguments. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  6. Can we share questions? Performance of questions from different question banks in a single medical school.

    Freeman, Adrian; Nicholls, Anthony; Ricketts, Chris; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    To use progress testing, a large bank of questions is required, particularly when planning to deliver tests over a long period of time. The questions need not only to be of good quality but also balanced in subject coverage across the curriculum to allow appropriate sampling. Hence as well as creating its own questions, an institution could share questions. Both methods allow ownership and structuring of the test appropriate to the educational requirements of the institution. Peninsula Medical School (PMS) has developed a mechanism to validate questions written in house. That mechanism can be adapted to utilise questions from an International question bank International Digital Electronic Access Library (IDEAL) and another UK-based question bank Universities Medical Assessment Partnership (UMAP). These questions have been used in our progress tests and analysed for relative performance. Data are presented to show that questions from differing sources can have comparable performance in a progress testing format. There are difficulties in transferring questions from one institution to another. These include problems of curricula and cultural differences. Whilst many of these difficulties exist, our experience suggests that it only requires a relatively small amount of work to adapt questions from external question banks for effective use. The longitudinal aspect of progress testing (albeit summatively) may allow more flexibility in question usage than single high stakes exams.

  7. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  8. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  9. When is a research question not a research question?

    Mayo, Nancy E; Asano, Miho; Barbic, Skye Pamela

    2013-06-01

    Research is undertaken to answer important questions yet often the question is poorly expressed and lacks information on the population, the exposure or intervention, the comparison, and the outcome. An optimal research question sets out what the investigator wants to know, not what the investigator might do, nor what the results of the study might ultimately contribute. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent to which rehabilitation scientists optimally define their research questions. A cross-sectional survey of the rehabilitation research articles published during 2008. Two raters independently rated each question according to pre-specified criteria; a third rater adjudicated all discrepant ratings. The proportion of the 258 articles with a question formulated as methods or expected contribution and not as what knowledge was being sought was 65%; 30% of questions required reworking. The designs which most often had poorly formulated research questions were randomized trials, cross-sectional and measurement studies. Formulating the research question is not purely a semantic concern. When the question is poorly formulated, the design, analysis, sample size calculations, and presentation of results may not be optimal. The gap between research and clinical practice could be bridged by a clear, complete, and informative research question.

  10. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  11. The burning question

    Brandon, Ruth.

    1987-01-01

    The beginnings and development of the nuclear arms race from 1945 to 1987 is recounted. Alongside the arms race, the campaign to abolish nuclear weapons was born and has grown. The key moments and events in its development are considered and certain themes followed. These include the growing awareness of scientists of the part they play in modern warfare and their reactions to this, the different methods used by politicians and military leaders to diffuse unwelcome comment and the discrepancy between words and action. The peace movement has developed all over the world but this book deals mostly with its activities in the Western democracies. Political and religious aspects and public opinion about the peace movement are considered. (U.K.)

  12. Questions for Music Education Research

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  13. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade e validade de questionário de atividade física para gestantes Evaluation of the reproducibility and validity of a physical activity questionnaire for pregnant women

    Monica Yuri Takito

    2008-04-01

    resultados obtidos pelo freqüêncímetro não mostrou graus de concordância adequados.INTRODUCTION: Physical activity practice has been encouraged by several national and international entities aiming health promotion. However, there is no consensus concerning the influence and optimal intensity of physical activity during pregnancy, probably due to difficulties to measure and classify the level of physical activity by questionnaires. It has not been identified any validation study of physical activity questionnaire on Brazilian pregnant women. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the reliability and concurrent validity of a physical activity questionnaire for pregnant women. METHODS: A sample of 68 women in the second trimester of pregnancy has been interviewed by the elaborated questionnaire. Reliability was assessed after approximately a week and in the postpartum. The subjects used a heart rate monitor between the two first interviews (n=38. RESULTS: Reproducibility analyses were adapted with interclass correlation coefficients varying from 0.54 to 0.85. The analysis of categorical variables, with subjective questions of self-perception of physical activity, resulted in wider range of kappa coefficients, with values between 0.29 and 0.76 for application of the questionnaire within one week of interval, and between 0.08 and 0.70 when compared with the postpartum. The validity analyses had a satisfactory result considering the average of differences seen through Bland-Altman graphics comparing questionnaire and the heart rate monitors. However, the dispersion interval was not adequate, since it varied in more than seven hours for light activities and almost eleven hours per day for moderate activities. Analyses of current study seem to assure the reliability of the physical activity questionnaire for pregnant women. However, concerning validation, the comparison with results obtained by heart rate monitors did not show adequate degrees of agreement.

  14. How can we not 'lose it' if we still don't understand how to 'use it'? Unanswered questions about the influence of activity participation on cognitive performance in older age--a mini-review.

    Bielak, Allison A M

    2010-01-01

    The 'use it or lose it' hypothesis of cognitive aging predicts that engagement in intellectual, social, and physical activities offers protective benefits from age-related cognitive decline and lowers dementia risk. Although this hypothesis has not yet been supported conclusively, there is some empirical evidence in favor of the proposal. However, a number of questions surrounding the relationship between activity participation and cognitive ability in older adulthood are not yet well answered. This mini-review identifies seven key methodological and theoretical issues that are critical to our understanding and eventual possible promotion of activity participation as a way to maintain cognitive well-being. These include the mechanisms involved, the optimal ways of assessing activity engagement, which cognitive domains receive the most benefit from activity engagement, the temporal nature and the directionality of the relationship, the influence of demographic variables such as age, gender, or education, and whether one activity domain offers the most benefit to cognition. The current knowledge on each of these issues is critically evaluated, including describing what we already know about the issue, and identifying potential difficulties and opportunities that may exist in finding an answer. More studies need to take on the challenge of specifically targeting these issues, as each is essential to moving the field forward. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  16. Maintaining Live Discussion in Two-Stage Open Peer Review

    Sandewall, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Open peer review has been proposed for a number of reasons, in particular, for increasing the transparency of the article selection process for a journal, and for obtaining a broader basis for feedback to the authors and for the acceptance decision. The review discussion may also in itself have a value for the research community. These goals rely on the existence of a lively review discussion, but several experiments with open-process peer review in recent years have encountered the problem of faltering review discussions. The present article addresses the question of how lively review discussion may be fostered by relating the experience of the journal Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence (ETAI) which was an early experiment with open peer review. Factors influencing the discussion activity are identified. It is observed that it is more difficult to obtain lively discussion when the number of contributed articles increases, which implies difficulties for scaling up the open peer review model. Suggestions are made for how this difficulty may be overcome. PMID:22363282

  17. Discussing Medieval Dialogue between the Soul and the Body and Question of Dualism

    Barbara Peklar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is based on the rejection of medieval dualism or on distinguishing the body from the flesh, as suggested by Suzannah Biernoff (2002. This differentiation corresponds to an interpretation of the body, actually corpse, within some of the body and soul debates including the popular Visio Philiberti. Here the body is not sinful flesh, but is presented neutrally or realistically (not grotesquely, because the personality is thematized instead of the ideology. Thus in this debate, physicality is distinct from problematic weakness, and expresses the individual. This means that, unlike in the transi where the individual is transient or perishes with the decaying flesh (and finally becomes an anonymous skeleton, individuality is not fixed to the flesh or inconstant matter. Rather, it is carried by the incorporeal body or spiritual image which is autonomous or distinct from its material grounding, and so individuality is not superficial. The difference between the body and the flesh is also maintained in illustrations, although they are corporeal images, since the parchment displays the image of the individual just as skin does, however, in the preparation of parchment, the flesh was removed from the skin. Or, in the picturesque words of Giles of Rome, “liquid is taken into and poured out of a waterskin but the skin remains”,44 meaning, in accordance with Paul (1 Corinthians 15, 49, individuality is the individual form, independent of material, and therefore worth preserving. In short, not only the individuality is important, but it also has to be expressed by the image.

  18. Enhancing HumanAgent Teaming with Individualized, Adaptive Technologies: A Discussion of Critical Scientific Questions

    2018-05-04

    reliability of information available is often unknown. What mechanisms must be in place to account for and adapt to the fluid nature of information ...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection information . Send comments regarding

  19. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  20. Examining student-generated questions in an elementary science classroom

    Diaz, Juan Francisco, Jr.

    This study was conducted to better understand how teachers use an argument-based inquiry technique known as the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach to address issues on teaching, learning, negotiation, argumentation, and elaboration in an elementary science classroom. Within the SWH framework, this study traced the progress of promoting argumentation and negotiation (which led to student-generated questions) during a discussion in an elementary science classroom. Speech patterns during various classroom scenarios were analyzed to understand how teacher--student interactions influence learning. This study uses a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative aspect of the study is an analysis of teacher--student interactions in the classroom using video recordings. The quantitative aspect uses descriptive statistics, tables, and plots to analyze the data. The subjects in this study were fifth grade students and teachers from an elementary school in the Midwest, during the academic years 2007/2008 and 2008/2009. The three teachers selected for this study teach at the same Midwestern elementary school. These teachers were purposely selected because they were using the SWH approach during the two years of the study. The results of this study suggest that all three teachers moved from using teacher-generated questions to student-generated questions as they became more familiar with the SWH approach. In addition, all three promoted the use of the components of arguments in their dialogs and discussions and encouraged students to elaborate, challenge, and rebut each other's ideas in a non-threatening environment. This research suggests that even young students, when actively participating in class discussions, are capable of connecting their claims and evidence and generating questions of a higher-order cognitive level. These findings demand the implementation of more professional development programs and the improvement in teacher education to help

  1. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  2. 'Who will employ them? 'Questions as engagement strategies in ...

    This study investigates the use of questions for engagement by writers in discussions in online job portals. Based on a mini corpus of 40 postings together with their comments consisting of 139,104 words extracted from Naijahotjobs and Nairaland job portal discussions, the study addresses the functional use of questions in ...

  3. Pitfalls in training simulated patients to respond appropriately to questions from medical students in family history-taking activities: the current situation surrounding the training of simulated patients for learning activities at Nippon Medical School.

    Aso, Ryoko; Inoue, Chikako; Yoshimura, Akinobu; Shimura, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to train simulated patients (SPs) to respond appropriately to questions about family history from medical students in simulated medical interviews. To this end, we carried out a survey of 91 SPs and 76 4th-year medical students to investigate their notions of what constitutes a family. All of the SPs and students surveyed deemed parents and children living together to be members of a family. In a situation where one spouse's parents live together with the basic family unit, 93% of the SPs considered them to be members of the family, whereas only 79% of the students did. Married children living apart from their parents were considered members of the family by 18% of the SPs and 39% of the students. These results indicate clear differences between the SPs and students in their notions of the family. To verify the level of understanding of the definitions of family and blood relatives in particular scenarios used in simulated medical interviews, we administered a written test to 14 SPs who were training to assist in the nationwide common achievement test in medicine, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The overall score of the SPs was 93.5%; the incorrect answers were "a sibling is not a blood relative" and "a spouse is a blood relative." We analyzed the performance of these 14 SPs in medical interviews carried out after training for the OSCE, in which they were asked questions that required them to reveal their understanding of blood relatives, cohabiting relatives, and the family. All of the SPs responded appropriately to the students' questions about family history. After the OSCE, we asked the SPs to assess themselves on how well they had given their family histories and to evaluate the usefulness of the SP training they had received. Their mean self-assessment score on providing a family history was 3.6 (scale: 1-4); on the usefulness of training, it was 3.4 (scale: 1-4). In conclusion, training SPs to respond appropriately to

  4. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    Biggers, Mandy

    2018-02-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  5. Literacy: a discussion of graphocentrism in microculture

    Michelle Donizeth Euzébio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of graphocentrism in microculture. We aim to describe, based on literacy studies, the presence of written language in the life of socially and historically situated subjects, thematizing the axiological capital of less favored socioeconomic contexts. Subjects are children undergoing schooling process, living in a district of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Discussions on the theme are based on Barton (1994, Barton, Hamilton and Ivanic (2000, Heath (1982, and Street (1994, 2003. Looking at literacy from a sociocultural perspective implies understanding that subjects deal with written language in their daily life in different ways. It seems that school tends to teach subject matters defined beforehand, and this hampers the dialog with different social practices played by students who come from family environments with different schooling levels. This study is inserted in a project whose focus is the defense of a more sensible look of school concerning the different realities which constitute school itself, regarding the teaching of written language. The present research aims to answer the following questions: How can we configure the microculture (family, school, church, neighborhood – more or less graphocentric – where children attending 1st to 5th grade live, in an economically less privileged community of Florianópolis? How can we delineate the axiological capital regarding the mastering of written language by those children? What literacy events are more recurrent within that microculture? The data were collected by means of interviews, observations and field annotations, focusing on the visible elements of literacy events, similarly to what has been done by Hamiton (2000, such as participants, environments, artifacts, and activities. On the hand, the non-visible constituents of literacy practices, such as hidden participants, domain, resources, and routines, were observed during

  6. On safety goals and related questions

    Kaplan, S.

    1985-01-01

    The question of what safety goals should be established for nuclear power plants has been receiving a great deal of urgent attention and debate recently, both by those responsible for reactor licensing and by others interested in establishing a quantitative measure of reactor safety. The same question, phrased alternately in the forms: ''What is acceptable risk?'' and ''How safe is safe enough?,'' has been debated extensively for quite a long time. The purpose of the present paper, therefore, is to show that the above questions, taken at face value, exist within an unworkable context, which the authors shall call the Old Regulatory Context (ORC), and that within this context lead to several absurdities. They shall argue that this context needs to be replaced by another context, which they call the Decision Theory Context (DTC), and which the authors discuss here

  7. Continuing the Conversation: Questions about the Framework

    Megan E. Dempsey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the prevalence of the Information Literacy Competency Standards in the library profession for the past 15 years, and the heated debate that took place regarding whether or not the Framework for Information Literacy and the Standards could harmoniously co-exist, the article raises questions about the future of information literacy in higher education. We do not necessarily have answers to these questions, but offer our own perspectives, some insight into how the Standards have served New Jersey academic librarians in the past, and how we envision using the Framework and the Standards together to further information literacy instruction at our institutions. Discussions of these questions have led us to the conclusion that the Framework and the Standards serve different purposes and have different intended audiences and are thus both valuable to the library profession.

  8. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Montemayor, V.

    2016-01-01

    learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can

  9. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)

    2016-06-15

    learning techniques into a traditional medical physics classroom course. I will describe these techniques and how they were implemented as well as student performance before and after implementation. Student feedback indicated that these course changes improved their ability to actively assimilate the course content, thus improving their understanding of the material. Shahid Naqvi - My talk will focus on ways to help students visualize crucial concepts that lie at the core of radiation physics. Although particle tracks generated by Monte Carlo simulations have served as an indispensable visualization tool, students often struggle to resolve the underlying physics from a simultaneous jumble of tracks. We can clarify the physics by “coding” the tracks, e.g., by coloring the tracks according to their “starting” or “crossing” regions. The regionally-coded tracks when overlaid with dose distributions help the students see the elusive connection between dose, kerma and electronic disequilibrium. Tracks coded according to local energy or energy-loss rate can illustrate the need for stopping power corrections in electron beams and explain the Bragg peak in a proton beam. Coding tracks according to parent interaction type and order can clarify the often misunderstood distinction between primary and scatter dose. The students can thus see the “whole” simultaneously with the “sum of the parts,” which enhances their physical insight and creates a sustainable foundation for further learning. After the presentations the speakers and moderator will be open to questions and discussion with the audience members. Learning Objectives: Be able to explain Project-Based Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain Flipped Learning and how can it be incorporated into a Medical Physics classroom. Be able to explain active-learning strategies for the teaching of Medical Physics. Be able to explain how Monte Carlo simulations can

  10. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  11. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  12. Fostering Effective Studying and Study Planning with Study Questions

    Wilhelm, Pascal; Pieters, Jules M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the hypothesis that study question use would be…

  13. Fifty important research questions in microbial ecology.

    Antwis, Rachael E; Griffiths, Sarah M; Harrison, Xavier A; Aranega-Bou, Paz; Arce, Andres; Bettridge, Aimee S; Brailsford, Francesca L; de Menezes, Alexandre; Devaynes, Andrew; Forbes, Kristian M; Fry, Ellen L; Goodhead, Ian; Haskell, Erin; Heys, Chloe; James, Chloe; Johnston, Sarah R; Lewis, Gillian R; Lewis, Zenobia; Macey, Michael C; McCarthy, Alan; McDonald, James E; Mejia-Florez, Nasmille L; O'Brien, David; Orland, Chloé; Pautasso, Marco; Reid, William D K; Robinson, Heather A; Wilson, Kenneth; Sutherland, William J

    2017-05-01

    Microbial ecology provides insights into the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of microbial communities underpinning every ecosystem on Earth. Microbial communities can now be investigated in unprecedented detail, although there is still a wealth of open questions to be tackled. Here we identify 50 research questions of fundamental importance to the science or application of microbial ecology, with the intention of summarising the field and bringing focus to new research avenues. Questions are categorised into seven themes: host-microbiome interactions; health and infectious diseases; human health and food security; microbial ecology in a changing world; environmental processes; functional diversity; and evolutionary processes. Many questions recognise that microbes provide an extraordinary array of functional diversity that can be harnessed to solve real-world problems. Our limited knowledge of spatial and temporal variation in microbial diversity and function is also reflected, as is the need to integrate micro- and macro-ecological concepts, and knowledge derived from studies with humans and other diverse organisms. Although not exhaustive, the questions presented are intended to stimulate discussion and provide focus for researchers, funders and policy makers, informing the future research agenda in microbial ecology. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Intertextuality in Text-Based Discussions

    Ismail, Hamidah Mohd; Majid, Faizah Abd

    2011-01-01

    One of the main issues often discussed among academics is how to encourage active participation by students during classroom discussions. This applies particularly to students at the tertiary level who are expected to possess creative and critical thinking skills. Hence, this paper reports on a study that examined how these skills were…

  15. Discussion of the Porter hypothesis

    1999-11-01

    In the reaction to the long-range vision of RMNO, published in 1996, The Dutch government posed the question whether a far-going and progressive modernization policy will lead to competitive advantages of high-quality products on partly new markets. Such a question is connected to the so-called Porter hypothesis: 'By stimulating innovation, strict environmental regulations can actually enhance competitiveness', from which statement it can be concluded that environment and economy can work together quite well. A literature study has been carried out in order to determine under which conditions that hypothesis is endorsed in the scientific literature and policy documents. Recommendations are given for further studies. refs

  16. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  17. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  18. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associa...

  19. Interviews concerning topical questions in nuclear technology

    Segatz, U.; Schatz, A.; Stephany, M.; Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the Nuclex meeting, October 3-7, 1978, Basle/Switzerland, the editorial department of 'Atom und Strom' questioned some leading scientists in nuclear technology on particularly relevant topics. The following subjects were discussed: - How long can we do without nuclear energy, - Modern technology for nuclear power plants, - Nuclear fuel cycle and environment, - Nuclear energy and European Communities, - Nuclear energy and its risks (reflections on incidents). (orig./UA) [de

  20. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  1. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  2. Ethics & the CEO. Panel discussion.

    Yuspeh, A; Ryan, M J; Dalton, J E; Tong, D A; Hofmann, P B

    1998-01-20

    When does a golden parachute become a bribe? How should an imperiled hospital serve both its mission and the interests of good business? H&HN put five executives on the spot with these questions, asking them to respond to a fictitious scenario inspired by today's headlines. Here's what they said.

  3. Immunodiagnosis of tuberculosis: new questions, new tools conference 2008

    Gennaro Maria L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis exists as a spectrum of conditions ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease. Novel, accurate tuberculosis immunodiagnostics have been introduced over the last decade, but it remains challenging to timely diagnose active disease and to accurately distinguish asymptomatic M. tuberculosis infection from immune memory resulting from a prior infection eradicated by the host response. The conference titled Immunodiagnosis of Tuberculosis: New Questions, New Tools, which was held on September 21-23, 2008 in Virginia Beach, Virginia, United States, brought together basic scientists and clinical experts to discuss recent progress in tuberculosis research and diagnosis. Global analyses of M. tuberculosis biology and the host immune response, with emphasis on systems approaches to the study of host-pathogen interactions, were presented. Moreover, conference participants discussed new tests in the pipeline and reviewed new technologies leading to novel assay formats. The discussion included technologies ranging from simple, inexpensive point-of-care tests to automated molecular platforms for detection of multiple infections based on the “lab on a chip” concept. It was also recognized that the utility of any new diagnostic relies on laboratory capacity, accessibility, costs, and test deployment. The conference included lessons from the field. For example, the application of existing technologies to neglected areas, such as diagnosis in children and HIV+ populations, was discussed.

  4. Augmenting Fellow Education Through Spaced Multiple-Choice Questions.

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Yun, Heather C

    2018-01-01

    The San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium Infectious Disease Fellowship program historically included a monthly short-answer and multiple-choice quiz. The intent was to ensure medical knowledge in relevant content areas that may not be addressed through clinical rotations, such as operationally relevant infectious disease. After completion, it was discussed in a small group with faculty. Over time, faculty noted increasing dissatisfaction with the activity. Spaced interval education is useful in retention of medical knowledge and skills by medical students and residents. Its use in infectious disease fellow education has not been described. To improve the quiz experience, we assessed the introduction of spaced education curriculum in our program. A pre-intervention survey was distributed to assess the monthly quiz with Likert scale and open-ended questions. A multiple-choice question spaced education curriculum was created using the Qstream(R) platform in 2011. Faculty development on question writing was conducted. Two questions were delivered every 2 d. Incorrectly and correctly answered questions were repeated after 7 and 13 d, respectively. Questions needed to be answered correctly twice to be retired. Fellow satisfaction was assessed at semi-annual fellowship reviews over 5 yr and by a one-time repeat survey. Pre-intervention survey of six fellows indicated dissatisfaction with the time commitment of the monthly quiz (median Likert score of 2, mean 6.5 h to complete), neutral in perceived utility, but satisfaction with knowledge retention (Likert score 4). Eighteen fellows over 5 yr participated in the spaced education curriculum. Three quizzes with 20, 39, and 48 questions were designed. Seventeen percentage of questions addressed operationally relevant topics. Fifty-nine percentage of questions were answered correctly on first attempt, improving to 93% correct answer rate at the end of the analysis. Questions were attempted 2,999 times

  5. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  6. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  7. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  8. RESULTS OF THE QUALITATIVE QUESTIONS

    Adam Graham

    In April of 2005, Governance, Equity and Health (GEH) held an all-partners' ... data collected – six respondents left a blank response for the question addressing level of ... Meeting participants were organized into five thematic working groups:.

  9. Instance-Based Question Answering

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  10. Query2Question: Translating Visualization Interaction into Natural Language.

    Nafari, Maryam; Weaver, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Richly interactive visualization tools are increasingly popular for data exploration and analysis in a wide variety of domains. Existing systems and techniques for recording provenance of interaction focus either on comprehensive automated recording of low-level interaction events or on idiosyncratic manual transcription of high-level analysis activities. In this paper, we present the architecture and translation design of a query-to-question (Q2Q) system that automatically records user interactions and presents them semantically using natural language (written English). Q2Q takes advantage of domain knowledge and uses natural language generation (NLG) techniques to translate and transcribe a progression of interactive visualization states into a visual log of styled text that complements and effectively extends the functionality of visualization tools. We present Q2Q as a means to support a cross-examination process in which questions rather than interactions are the focus of analytic reasoning and action. We describe the architecture and implementation of the Q2Q system, discuss key design factors and variations that effect question generation, and present several visualizations that incorporate Q2Q for analysis in a variety of knowledge domains.

  11. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  12. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Ruth Leary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  13. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  14. Productive whole-class discussions: A qualitative analysis of peer leader behaviors in general chemistry

    Eckart, Teresa Mcclain

    The intention of this research was to describe behaviors and characteristics of General Chemistry I peer leaders using a pedagogical reform method referred to as Peer-led Guided Inquiry (PLGI), and to discuss the ways in which these peer leaders created productive whole-class discussions. This reform technique engaged students to work on guided inquiry activities while working cooperatively in small groups, led by undergraduate peer leaders. These sessions were video recorded and transcribed. The data was evaluated using grounded theory methods of analysis. This study examined the dialog between students and peer leaders, paying specific attention to question types and observed patterns of interactions. The research took shape by examining the kinds of questions asked by peer leaders and the purposes these questions served. In addition to looking at questions, different kinds of behaviors displayed by peer leaders during their small group sessions were also observed. A close examination of peer leader questions and behaviors aided in developing an answer to the overall research question regarding what factors are associated with productive whole-class discussions. Five major categories of peer leader behaviors evolved from the data and provided a means to compare and contrast productive whole-class discussions. While no category single-handedly determined if a discussion was good or bad, there was a tendency for peer leaders who exhibited positive traits in at least three of the following categories to have consistently better whole-class discussions: Procedural Practices, Supervisory Qualities, Questioning Techniques, Feedback/Responses, and Interpersonal Skills. Furthermore, each of the major categories is tied directly to Interpersonal, Communication, and Leadership skills and their interactions with each other. This study also addressed applications that each of these categories has on instructional practices and their need in peer leader training. In addition

  15. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  16. Response: Discussion of 'Morphotectonic records of neotectonic activity in the vicinity of North Almora Thrust Zone, Central Kumaun Himalaya' by Kothyari et al. (2017), Geomorphology (285), 272-286

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Kandregula, Raj Sunil; Luirei, Khayingshing

    2018-01-01

    Rana and Sharma (2017) dispute our tectonic interpretation mainly on the basis of what they believe (climate?). However, we welcome their comments, as this gives us a chance to highlight the ambiguity inherent in discriminating the climate-tectonic imprints in morphotectonic records that are prevalent in current research. We should note that the paper published by Kothyari et al. (2017) was reviewed by national/international reviewers. We would like to emphasize the fact that the paper does not rule out the role of climate. However, most importantly, it presents significant features and observations that collection/assemblage points toward the dominant role of tectonics in their shaping, and not solely climate, as postulated by Rana and Sharma (2017). The objective of this paper is to identify tectonic signatures (geomorphology) in a monsoon - dominated, tectonically active terrain like the North Almora Thrust (NAT). These faults are marked by previous workers based on field evidence such as folding and faulting of lithological units; presence of slickensides parallel to the fault; offset of NAT owing to a transverse fault; and offset of drainage, drainage basin analysis, strath terraces, fluviolacustrine terraces, development of scarp, narrow river course, and deeply incised valleys. However, we disagree with the comments raised by Rana and Sharma (2017), because they are highly skewed toward the climate school of thought, and did not perceive the setting as a collection of landforms. Instead, they attempted to view them in isolation. Because these comments are important, we will try to further our research incorporating issues related to isolation of climate and tectonics imprints in the immediate future. We would like to thank Rana and Sharma (2017) for raising some basic questions on our work as this gave us an excellent opportunity to summarize and present the dominance of various processes and related landforms as earlier reported by Kothyari et al. (2017). A

  17. Discussion on ``Frontiers of the Second Law''

    Lloyd, Seth; Bejan, Adrian; Bennett, Charles; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Butler, Howard; Gordon, Lyndsay; Grmela, Miroslav; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Jou, David; Kjelstrup, Signe; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Rubi, Miguel; Schneider, Eric D.; Sekulic, Dusan P.; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Adrian Bejan, Bjarne Andresen, Miguel Rubi, Signe Kjelstrup, David Jou, Miroslav Grmela, Lyndsay Gordon, and Eric Schneider. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Is the second law relevant when we trap single ions, prepare, manipulate and measure single photons, excite single atoms, induce spin echoes, measure quantum entanglement? Is it possible or impossible to build Maxwell demons that beat the second law by exploiting fluctuations? • Is the maximum entropy generation principle capable of unifying nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, nonlocal and nonequilibrium rheology, biological systems, natural structures, and cosmological evolution? • Research in quantum computation and quantum information has raised many fundamental questions about the foundations of quantum theory. Are any of these questions related to the second law?

  18. Questioning Chemistry: The Role of Level, Familiarity, Language and Taxonomy

    Rodrigues, Susan; Taylor, Neil; Cameron, Margaret; Syme-Smith, Lorraine; Fortuna, Colette

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on data collected via an audience response system, where a convenience sample of 300 adults aged 17-50 pressed a button to register their answers for twenty multiple choice questions. The responses were then discussed with the respondents at the time. The original dataset includes physics, biology and chemistry questions. The…

  19. Children's Exhaustive Readings of Questions

    Cremers, Alexandre; Tieu, Lyn; Chemla, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Questions, just like plain declarative sentences, can give rise to multiple interpretations. As discussed by Spector & Egré (2015), among others, questions embedded under know are ambiguous between "weakly exhaustive" (WE), "intermediate exhaustive" (IE), and "strongly exhaustive" (SE) interpretations (for…

  20. Can Questions Facilitate Learning from Illustrated Science Texts?

    Iding, Marie K.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of using questions to facilitate processing of diagrams in science texts. Investigates three different elements in experiments on college students. Finds that questions about illustrations do not facilitate learning. Discusses findings with reference to cognitive load theory, the dual coding perspective, and the…

  1. Is engagement with a purpose the essence of active learning?

    Álvarez Mesa, Mauricio

    2009-01-01

    In the 2009 edition of the conference on “Active Learning in Engineering Education”, there were several and fruitful discussions within a small workgroup about the essence of active learning. At the end we came with an attempt to sum up our whole discussion with one question. Our question is the same as the title of this essay. Taking this question as a starting point this article propose a specific purpose from which active learning can be based. Peer Reviewed

  2. Perception of the energy question in different regions of France

    Fouque, B.; Villaret, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The authors first outline the main variables which account for regional differences in the perception of the energy question, and go on to discuss these differences and the factors underlying them [fr

  3. Planetary Ions at Mercury: Unanswered Questions After MESSENGER

    Raines, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We will discuss the key open questions relating to planetary ions, including the behavior of recently created photoions, the near absence of Ca+ / K+ in MESSENGER ion measurements, and the role of ion sputtering in the system.

  4. Brain plasticity, memory, and aging: a discussion

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.

    1977-12-01

    It is generally assumed that memory faculties decline with age. A discussion of the relationship of memory and aging and the possibility of retarding the potential decline is hampered by the fact that no satisfactory explanation of memory is available in either molecular or anatomical terms. However, this lack of description of memory does not mean that there is a lack of suggested mechanisms for long-term memory storage. Present theories of memory usually include first, neurophysiological or electrical events, followed by a series of chemical events which ultimately lead to long-lasting anatomical changes in the brain. Evidence is increasing for the biochemical and anatomical plasticity of the nervous system and its importance in the normal functioning of the brain. Modification of this plasticity may be an important factor in senescence. This discussion reports experiments which indicate that protein synthesis and anatomical changes may be involved in long-term memory storage. Environmental influences can produce quantitative differences in brain anatomy and in behavior. In experimental animals, enriched environments lead to more complex anatomical patterns than do colony or impoverished environments. This raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of the isolated animal which is frequently being used as a model for aging research. A more important applied question is the role of social and intellectual stimulation in influencing aging of the human brain.

  5. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  6. Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions

    Probability and Statistics: 5 Questions is a collection of short interviews based on 5 questions presented to some of the most influential and prominent scholars in probability and statistics. We hear their views on the fields, aims, scopes, the future direction of research and how their work fits...... in these respects. Interviews with Nick Bingham, Luc Bovens, Terrence L. Fine, Haim Gaifman, Donald Gillies, James Hawthorne, Carl Hoefer, James M. Joyce, Joseph B. Kadane Isaac Levi, D.H. Mellor, Patrick Suppes, Jan von Plato, Carl Wagner, Sandy Zabell...

  7. Internet discussion forums as part of a student-centred teaching concept of pharmacology.

    Sucha, Michael; Engelhardt, Stefan; Sarikas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The world wide web opens up new opportunities to interconnect electronic and classroom teaching and to promote active student participation. In this project article we describe the use of internet discussion forums as part of a student-centred teaching concept of pharmacology and discuss its advantages and disadvantages based on evaluation data and current literature. Final year medical students at the Technische Universität München (Munich, Germany) with the elective pharmacology moderated an internet forum that allowed all students to discuss pharmacology-related questions. Evaluation results of forum participants and elective students demonstrated a learning benefit of internet forums in pharmacology teaching. Internet discussion forums offer an easy-to-implement and effective way to actively engage students and increase the learning benefit of electronic and classroom teaching in pharmacology.

  8. Discussion: the supply price control

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    Following the paper given by the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) at the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries (CRI) seminar on Regulatory Policy and the Energy Sector held in November 1992, the issue of Supply Price Controls is debated. The role of OFFER as standing between Government and the Regional Electricity Companies is explored in a question and answer session, covering areas such as pool versus, contract prices, market forces, regulatory arrangements for the electricity supply, price discrimination and franchise markets. (UK)

  9. Plant modification needs more discussion

    Porter, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    AB In response to a letter by D. R. Ort (Nature (London) (1997) 385, 290) it is suggested that the claim that foods from genetically engineered plants are essentially the same as those from conventionally bred plants (from a biosafety perspective) is not easily reconciled with the emphasis on the...... protection within society. The issue of labelling of genetically engineered soyabeans has highlighted the importance of ethical considerations. The patentability of DNA from individual humans, of human embryos, and of animal and plant materials is questioned....

  10. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  11. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  12. Discussion on Papers 5 - 7

    Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  13. Open Education Week Panel Discussion

    Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...

  14. Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3

    Natalie Edelman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS and sexually transmitted infection (STI testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. Methods We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16–44 years, who participated in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010–2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a 2+ partners in the last year (2PP; b non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC; c non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC. We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure. Results Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion, and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever, younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year, and living at home with both

  15. Understanding Bitcoins: Facts and Questions

    Bruno Saboia de Albuquerque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to do a research challenge about the digital currency named Bitcoins, as well as exploit the general concept behind digital currencies and cryptocurrencies, and enumerate some of its current criticism and problems. Such currencies usage and public knowledge is increasing hastily on the last few months, and many questions arise with its popularity.

  16. Some questions and answers concerning fast reactors

    Marshall, W.

    1980-01-01

    The theme of the lecture is the place of the fast reactor in an evolving nuclear programme. The whole question of plutonium is first considered, ie its method of production and the ways in which it can be used in the fast reactor fuel cycle. Whether fast reactors are necessary is then discussed. Their safety is examined with particular attention to those design features which are most criticised ie high volumetric power density of the core, and the use of liquid sodium as coolant. Attention is then paid to environmental and safeguard aspects. (U.K.)

  17. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  18. Does a Discussion by Any Other Name Sound the Same? Teaching Discussion in Three ELA Methods Courses

    Alston, Chandra L.; Danielson, Katie A.; Dutro, Elizabeth; Cartun, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Facilitating discussions in English Language Arts can develop students' skills as speakers and listeners and their ability to engage with diverse perspectives. However, classroom observations often demonstrate a lack of student talk, raising questions about the complexity of facilitating discussion and teachers' opportunities to learn and hone the…

  19. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  20. General discussion of feasibility study

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  1. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  2. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  3. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  4. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  5. Factual Summary of Papers, Presentations and Discussions

    2010-01-01

    Session 1 provided the opportunity to be informed of the Japanese institutional scene on geologic disposal as well as to acquaint the Japanese dignitaries and workshop participants with the RWMC Regulators' Forum, the challenges we face and the aims of the workshop. A lecture on accomplishments and issues in long-term safety regulation prepared discussions during the workshop. Session 2 - Fundamental Concepts and Evolution of International Guidance: One important point is that the use of language in this subject is not conducive to easy understanding by the public, certainly, and perhaps even by others. We need to consider how it might be made more accessible for the purpose of public involvement and regulatory dialogue. This might open the way to creating a readily comprehensible long-term objective for geological disposal that is consistent with the objectives for protecting society from the potential consequences of other activities with long-lived implications. The goal of the following presentations was to give an overall picture on these questions. Session 3 - Establishing Regulatory Criteria that Account for the Inherent Difficulties Associated with the Long-time Frames for Protection: Even though there have been significant developments in recent years and experience feedback from a number of ongoing geological disposal projects, international guidance remains rather difficult to understand and apply. The recent work from the RWMC-RF on long-term safety criteria for geological for geological disposal also shows that there are important differences between national criteria as well as differences in regulatory approach. It has emerged that we have no common basis for setting criteria as between different NEA countries and that the process of setting criteria is not readily explicable to the general public. Furthermore we are required, for the purposes of the international Joint Convention on the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste, to protect

  6. Twenty Questions for PER: How Does It All Fit Together?

    Redish, Edward F.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2005-09-01

    In physics education research (PER), we have focused our attention for many years on finding ways to improve our instruction and have achieved some notable successes. In this paper, we suggest that the time has come to embed this activity in a more complete and scientific view of PER, one that builds a coherent understanding of the system of teaching and learning in addition to improving the practice of our instruction. We outline five broad topics of interest for PER and discuss questions that need to be addressed in each topic over the next few years. The topics are: the model of the participants, the model of the contexts, the model of the content, the engineering of instruction, and the overall epistemology of PER — How do we decide when we think we know something?

  7. Asking questions: a management tool.

    Wachs, J E; Price, M

    1995-05-01

    The occupational health nurse manager does not have all the answers. In using a democratic style of leadership with well qualified professionals, the technique of questioning can be invaluable in clarifying the issue, brainstorming solutions, developing a course of action, and monitoring success. The personal rewards to the occupational health nurse manager will include a reputation for being an effective listener, a problem solver, and a valued member of the company's management team.

  8. 222 questions about the energy

    Barrachina Gomez, M.; Cerrolaza Asenjo, J.A.; Garcia Alonso, J.M.; Iranzo Martin, J.E.; Lopez Perez, B.; Minguez Perres, E.; Minguez Torres, E.; Pascualena Cambra, M.T.; Poza Galiano, A. de la; Secades Ariz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The book presents with an easy language, questions about energy. The main topics are: - Energy and energy sources - Energy and society - The energy in the world - Basic concepts of Nuclear Physics - Basic concepts of radiological protection - Electric power - Nuclear Fuel cycle - Environmental impact - Radioactive wastes management - The risk in the electricity production - Standardization of Nuclear Safety - Economic aspects of electricity generation - Energy and Spanish economy

  9. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    1995-04-01

    the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European

  10. Political discussions with family and friends

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...

  11. Round table discussion during session 2

    Mays, C.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the second session of the FSC Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Do local stakeholders have, internally or externally, all the expertise they need in order to address the issues raised by radioactive waste management projects? - Do institutional stakeholders have all the expertise they need to take local impacts into account? - What kinds of expert input are sought and attained by the different stakeholders? - Were any formal methods used to aid local partnerships perform technology assessments? Or other types of assessment? - How to maintain the knowledge and expertise achieved by the stakeholders? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. As in Session I, most of the round table discussion focussed specifically on the experience of the local partnerships. Many insights were shared about the nature and role of expertise in complex decision making. They are summarised below, on the basis of the feedback provided to the plenary by each round table. Some of these insights can be generalised to other contexts. All in all, a profile emerged of the local partnerships as a unique and effective tool to deal with knowledge issues in managing risk. (author)

  12. The debate about death: an imperishable discussion?

    FÉLIX BACIGALUPO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review we discuss some of the complex edges of the concept of death that arose after the notorious advances in science and medicine over the last 50 years, in which the classical cardio-pulmonary criteria have led to the neurological criteria of death. New complicated questions like the definition of death and the operational criteria for diagnosing it have arisen and we think that they are far from being adequately and satisfactorily solved. A number of important issues -like the reliability and differences between cardio-pulmonary versus brain based criteria of death, if death is an event or a process, the meaning of integration and irreversibility- have not yet received sufficient attention. Here we have approached the death problem from two (biological complex system perspectives: the organism level and the cellular-molecular level. We also discuss issues from a third systemic approach, that is, the entire society, thus involving legal, religious, bioethical and political aspects of death. Our aim is to integrate new perspectives in order to promote further discussion on these critical yet frequently neglected issues

  13. Discussion on Papers 14 - 16

    Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  14. Summary of presentations and discussions

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  15. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  16. The role of qualitative discussion in problem solving

    Cerny, V.

    1998-01-01

    The paper contributes to the methodology of problem solving in physics. We argue that the task of solving a problem does not end by obtaining the result. We claim that a question like 'Why the result came out as it did?' can be meaningfully posed and that deeper understanding of the subject comes out as a result of a discussion on possible answers to such a question (Author)

  17. Discussion on ``Teaching the Second Law''

    Silbey, Robert; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Keck, James C.; Lewins, Jeffery; Lior, Noam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Steinfeld, Jeffrey; von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Wang, Lin-Shu; Zanchini, Enzo

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Joseph Smith Jr., Howard Butler, Andrew Foley, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, Bernhardt Trout, Jeffery Lewins, Enzo Zanchini, and Michael von Spakovsky. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law taught in so many different ways? Why so many textbooks on thermodynamics? Why so many schools of thought? • Some say that thermodynamics is limited to equilibrium, others that it extends to nonequilibrium. How is entropy defined for nonequilibrium states?

  18. Is rational discussion of open access possible?

    Rick Anderson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Access (OA, like any other model or strategy for the dissemination of knowledge, carries with it clear benefits as well as costs and downsides. These vary depending on the OA strategy in question, and in order for OA to bring maximum benefit to the world of scholarship, its costs and benefits need be examined carefully and dispassionately so that the former can be maximized and the latter minimized. Unfortunately, the OA advocacy community tends to resist all attempts to examine OA in this way, to the point that those who approach OA in a spirit of critical analysis (rather than celebration and evangelism are attacked and punished. This article describes the problem, provides examples of it, and proposes strategies for promoting a more rigorous and analytical discussion of OA.

  19. Peeling or not peeling—is that the question?

    Friedrich, Helmut

    2018-04-01

    The concepts of isolated self-gravitating system, asymptotic flatness and asymptotic simplicity are reconsidered; various related results are discussed and put into perspective; basic open questions are discussed. Extended version of a talk given at the symposium honoring Piotr T Chruściel on the occasion of his 60th birthday, 17–18 August 2017.

  20. Experiences of Scandinavian nurses in discussing sexuality with patients, clients and residents

    Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Rasmussen, Philippa; Conroy, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this review is to critically appraise, synthesize, and present the best available evidence to address the question: How do Scandinavian nurses experience discussing sexual issues with patients, residents and clients?......REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this review is to critically appraise, synthesize, and present the best available evidence to address the question: How do Scandinavian nurses experience discussing sexual issues with patients, residents and clients?...

  1. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  2. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  3. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    encourage women to actively participate in fertility discussions with their husbands.

  4. Questioning in Distributed Product Development Teams: Supporting Shared Understanding

    Cash, Philip; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    globally distributed NPD activities. Poor shared understanding can ultimately result in delays and rework. One major antecedent of shared understanding development is question asking. This work uses a quasiexperimental study to test the impact of questioning support on different types of distributed teams...

  5. Automatic Generation and Ranking of Questions for Critical Review

    Liu, Ming; Calvo, Rafael A.; Rus, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Critical review skill is one important aspect of academic writing. Generic trigger questions have been widely used to support this activity. When students have a concrete topic in mind, trigger questions are less effective if they are too general. This article presents a learning-to-rank based system which automatically generates specific trigger…

  6. Fostering effective studying and study planning with study questions

    Wilhelm, P.; Pieters, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In a course on biological psychology and neuropsychology, study questions were provided that also appeared as test questions in the course exam. This method was introduced to support students in active processing and reproduction of the study texts, and study planning. Data were gathered to test the

  7. Reflective questioning in management education : lessons from supervising thesis projects

    Seggelen-Damen, van I.C.M.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2014-01-01

    Reflective questioning is a critical activity in management learning and education. This article describes research on the nature of reflective questioning in groups of management students working on final MSc projects. Drawing on content analysis of recorded meetings, we identify the following key

  8. Some Big Questions about Design in Educational Technology

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    This article asks five questions that lead us to the foundations of design practice in educational technology. Design processes structure time, space, place, activity, role, goal, and resource. For educational technology to advance in its understanding of design practice, it must question whether we have clear conceptions of how abstract…

  9. Open forum: Question and responses

    Schulze, R.H.; Krupa, S.; Shen, T.T.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in this section is: With the end of the Cold War and the exchange of information improving between East and West, what roles should government agencies and non-government organizations from developed countries play in assisting less developed countries in developing a stronger environmental protection program? Responses presented here were obtained from Richard H. Schulze (President of Trinity Consultants, Inc.), Sagar Krupa (Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota), and Thomas T. Shen (Ph.D., D.AAEE, Retiree of the New York Department of Environmental Conservation)

  10. Ten questions about systems biology

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  11. Ten questions about systems biology

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  12. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  13. Round table discussion during session 1

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  14. Questions, pictures, answers: introducing pictures in question-answering systems

    Theune, Mariet; van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Bosma, W.E.; Hofs, D.H.W.; Nijholt, Antinus; Krahmer, E.J.; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Marsi, E.C.; Ruiz Miyarez, L.; Munoz Alvarado, A.; Alvarez Moreno, C.

    We present the Dutch IMIX research programme on multimodal interaction, speech and language technology. We discuss our contributions to this programme in the form of two research projects, IMOGEN and VIDIAM, and the technical integration of the various modules developed by IMIX subprojects to build

  15. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  16. Investor Outlook: The Unanswered Questions.

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2017-06-01

    The year 2016 was an exciting one for the field, with several notable successes outweighing a few setbacks. As the number of patients treated successfully (and safely) with gene therapy grows, the totality of evidence points to a robust platform with utility in orphan/ultra-orphan diseases as well as broader indications, and with hopefully increasing predictability of results. This year promises to feature more patients treated, more clinical data, and more gene therapy products in registration-enabling studies. For the field to continue to advance and mature into the next great drug delivery platform, a few unsolved and remaining questions need to be addressed, including the business model for cures, a broader safety/efficacy profile once more patients are treated, optimization of delivery (including next-generation approaches), and greater understanding of the impact of competitive dynamics. In this report, we detail the success and setbacks of 2016 and highlight the unanswered questions-and how the answers may shape the field in the years ahead.

  17. Are Quantum Theory Questions Epistemic?

    Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How to displace-move quantum theory [Ǭ] questions-problems to philosophy? Seeing the collapse of our society’s cultural-intellectual-morals, the philosophy of the 21st century has to contribute to the formation of new principles-formalisms: the big task of the contemporary philosophy ©] is to innovate, to transform the building of the knowledge! Which is the role of the contemporary philosopher? (Noam Chomsky. Building science so that it is more human, out of the scientific mercantilism so that it does not continue transgressing that which is most precious: the thought-life. The ideas that I propose demand a deep cultural-epistemiologicscientific-philosophical-ethical rethinking that goes from quantum entities up to life in society. The starting idea is «the quantum [Ǭ], the paradigm of the contemporary science ©]» (Bernard D’Espagnat. I propose to displace-move questions of the quantum theory [Ǭ]: spin, measure, layering to the field of philosophy (φ to build generic symbols. Can the contemporary episteme model the collapse of the ? For a philosopher, can understanding the importance and the behaviour of the spin bring something new to philosophy ? Can information of the states of the spin be used to observe in a holographic way the pattern energy-information contained in the quantum entities? Is quantum [Ǭ] physics mechanical?

  18. Pisa Question and Reasoning Skill

    Ersoy Esen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to determine the level of the reasoning skills of the secondary school students. This research has been conducted during the academic year of 2015-2016 with the participation of 51 students in total, from a province in the Black Sea region of Turkey by using random sampling method. Case study method has been used in this study, since it explains an existing situation. In this study, content analysis from the qualitative research methods was carried out. In order to ensure the validity of the scope, agreement percentage formula was used and expert opinions were sought.The problem named Holiday from the Chapter 1 of the normal units in Problem Solving Questions from PISA (Program for International Student Assessments [35] are used as the data collection tool for the study. The problem named Holiday consists of two questions. Applied problems were evaluated according to the mathematical reasoning stages of TIMSS (2003. The findings suggest that the students use proportional reasoning while solving the problems and use the geometric shapes to facilitate the solution of the problem. When they come across problems related to each other, it is observed that they create connections between the problems based on the results of the previous problem. In conclusion, the students perform crosscheck to ensure that their solutions to the problems are accurate.

  19. Les questions de migrations internationales

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  20. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  1. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  2. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  3. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  4. The effects of previewing questions, repetition of input, and topic preparation on listening comprehension of Iranian EFL learners

    Afsar Rouhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt was made to examine the effects of previewing questions, repetition of input, and topic preparation on listening comprehension of Iranian learners of English. The study was conducted with 104 high school students in 3 experimental and one control groups. The participants in the previewing questions group read the comprehension questions before hearing the text and answering the questions. The topic preparation group took advantage of topic-related texts in Persian followed by previewing questions; then they listened to the texts and answered the questions. The repetition of input group had two hearings with previewing before each hearing that preceded answering the comprehension questions. The control group, however, only had one hearing before answering the questions. The results obtained from data analysis showed that the topic preparation group performed better than the other participating groups. The repetition group, in turn, did better than the previewing group. There was, however, no statistically significant difference between the previewing and repetition groups. Based on the results obtained, it can be argued that providing and/or activating background knowledge and repeating a listening task might facilitate listening comprehension in EFL classroom settings. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  5. Disgust discussed: introduction to the special section.

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2013-03-01

    The author introduces a special section of Psychological Bulletin devoted to the study of disgust. After discussing conflicts between its supposed role as a basic emotion and its more recently understood involvement in responding to moral transgressions, the author summarizes 3 articles contained in the special section. Widen and Russell (2013) present a developmental account of disgust highlighting the ages at which children experience, express, understand, verbalize, and recognize disgust. The article shows that disgust is present early but that recognition of disgust in others is considerably delayed. Chapman and Anderson (2013) review evidence pertaining to the question of whether genuine disgust is elicited by moral transgressions. Their review covers data from self-report, brain imaging, facial behavior, and implicit measures gathered from both experimental and correlational studies. They conclude that moral transgressions elicit genuine disgust. Russell and Giner-Sorolla (2013) ask what types of moral transgressions are most likely to elicit pure disgust. They find that moral transgressions involving body violations are more likely than others to elicit such disgust. Moreover, they suggest that disgust elicited by body violations is likely to be more resistant to modification by context, situation, and efforts at rationalization. Taken together, the reviews support the view that rudiments of disgust to physical objects are present early in life but later become adapted to social influence and new moral purposes. Social implications are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  6. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  7. Appearance questions can be misleading

    Hansen, Mikkel; Markman, Ellen M.

    2005-01-01

    Preschoolers' success on the appearance-reality task is a milestone in theory-of-mind development. On the standard task children see a deceptive object, such as a sponge that looks like a rock, and are asked, "What is this really?" and "What does this look like?" Children below 4 1/2 years of age...... fail saying that the object not only is a sponge but also looks like a sponge. We propose that young children's difficulty stems from ambiguity in the meaning of "looks like." This locution can refer to outward appearance ("Peter looks like Paul") but in fact often refers to likely reality ("That looks...... like Jim"). We propose that "looks like" is taken to refer to likely reality unless the reality is already part of the common ground of the conversation. Because this joint knowledge is unclear to young children on the appearance-reality task, they mistakenly think the appearance question is about...

  8. Cycle downstream: the plutonium question

    Zask, G.; Rome, M.; Delpech, M.

    1998-01-01

    This day, organized by the SFEN, took place at Paris the 4 june 1998. Nine papers were presented. They take stock on the plutonium physics and its utilization as a nuclear fuel. This day tried to bring information to answer the following questions: do people have to keep the plutonium in the UOX fuel or in the MOX fuel in order to use it for future fast reactors? Do people have to continue obstinately the plutonium reprocessing in the MOX for the PWR type reactors? Will it be realized a underground disposal? Can it be technically developed plutonium incinerators and is it economically interesting? The plutonium physics, the experimental programs and the possible solutions are presented. (A.L.B.)

  9. Discussion on data access services of WAN

    Liu Aigui; Wang Lu; Wu Wenjing; Chen Gang

    2007-01-01

    Traditional storage system has been unable to meet the demand of computing. WAN storage systems face many problems since the complexity of WAN. This paper in-depth discusses on data interoperability, data prediction, active data service and semantic-based data access according to the characteristics of high energy physics applications. To eliminate isolated island, improve performance and simplify usage, it will be better to meet the demands of high energy physics applications. (authors)

  10. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  11. The metal failure cases discussed

    Gupton, P

    1978-06-05

    The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.

  12. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  13. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  14. Still asking the wrong questions

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    -up of the entrepreneur (Gartner, 1988). Building on this critique I will use the presentation to show, through the use of a historical case, how much we need new conceptualizations in order to highlight the collective development of ideas, which would also open for a discussion about the values guiding entrepreneurship...

  15. The energy in 21 questions

    Bacher, P.

    2007-01-01

    Written by an expert and user, this book takes stock on the different energies sources, examines the problems of each source and discusses their future. It proposes a citizen debate on the energies with more especially reflexion on the nuclear, the radioactive wastes, the climatic change and the ethical aspect of the solidarity north south. (A.L.B.)

  16. Questioning Trends in University Dance

    Van Dyke, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This article revisits ideas put forward at the beginning of an academic career and discusses the ways in which time and experience within academe has shifted the author's perspective. Specifically, focusing on the balance of artistic thinking with the widely perceived need to justify the arts in higher education, the author explores questions…

  17. Bruxism: Conceptual discussion and review

    Murali, R. V.; Rangarajan, Priyadarshni; Mounissamy, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Bruxism is commonly considered a detrimental motor activity, potentially causing overload of the stomatognathic structures. The etiology of bruxism is unclear, but the condition has been associated with stress, occlusal disorders, allergies and sleep positioning. Due to its nonspecific pathology, bruxism may be difficult to diagnose. Unfortunately, very little data exists on the subject of a cause-and-effect relationship of bruxism to the point that expert opinions and cautionary approaches are still considered the best available sources for suggesting good practice indicators. The present paper reviewed current concepts on bruxism, etiology, diagnosis and management, underlining its effects on dental structures in an attempt to provide clinically useful suggestions based on scientifically sound data. PMID:26015729

  18. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  19. Wh-interrogative formats used for questioning and beyond

    Egbert, Maria; Vöge, Monika

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to a critical discussion of how ‘question' and ‘questioning' may be defined in terms of form and function by analyzing the interactional usage of two apparently synonymous ‘question' words, German warum (why) and wieso (why) and their common English translation why. Warum...... of German warum and wieso with English why (Schegloff 1984, Clayman and Heritage 2002a, Koshik 2003) shows that why allows for ambiguity, whereas warum and wieso are unambiguous. While there is a core usage of these lexical items, they are also employed differently with an orientation to institutionality...

  20. Three Questions about the Internet of Things and Children

    Manches, Andrew; Duncan, Pauline; Plowman, Lydia; Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Children's interaction with technology is evolving; increasingly there are devices that can capture and respond seamlessly to their everyday activity. This raises pertinent questions such as: how these technologies shape children's activity; how the data from their activity is used, and to what extent children, and their parents, are…

  1. The Question Complexity Rubric: Development and Application for a National Archive of Astro 101 Multiple-Choice Questions

    Cormier, Sebastien; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars CATS

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years we have been developing an online national archive of multiple-choice questions for use in the Astro 101 classroom. These questions are intended to either supplement an instructor's implementation of Think-Pair-Share or be used for assessment purposes (i.e. exams and homework). In this talk we will describe the development, testing and implementation of the Question Complexity Rubric (QCR), which is designed to guide the ranking of questions in this archive based on their conceptual complexity. Using the QCR, a score is assigned to differentiate each question based on the cognitive steps necessary to comprehensively explain the reasoning pathway to the correct answer. The lowest QCR score is given to questions with a reasoning pathway requiring only declarative knowledge whereas the highest QCR score is given to questions that require multiple pathways of multi-step reasoning. When completed, the online question archive will provide users with the utility to 1) search for and download questions based on subject and average QCR score, 2) use the QCR to score questions, and 3) add their own questions to the archive. We will also discuss other potential applications of the QCR, such as how it informs our work in developing and testing of survey instruments by allowing us to calibrate the range of question complexity. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

  2. Water data to answer urgent water policy questions: Monitoring design, available data, and filling data gaps for determining whether shale gas development activities contaminate surface water or groundwater in the Susquehanna River Basin

    Betanzo, Elin A.; Hagen, Erik R.; Wilson, John T.; Reckhow, Kenneth H.; Hayes, Laura; Argue, Denise M.; Cangelosi, Allegra A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout its history, the United States has made major investments in assessing natural resources, such as soils, timber, oil and gas, and water. These investments allow policy makers, the private sector and the American public to make informed decisions about cultivating, harvesting or conserving these resources to maximize their value for public welfare, environmental conservation and the economy. As policy issues evolve, new priorities and challenges arise for natural resource assessment, and new approaches to monitoring are needed. For example, new technologies for oil and gas development or alternative energy sources may present new risks for water resources both above and below ground. There is a need to evaluate whether today’s water monitoring programs are generating the information needed to answer questions surrounding these new policy priorities. The Northeast-Midwest Institute (NEMWI), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, initiated this project to explore the types and amounts of water data needed to address water-quality related policy questions of critical concern to today’s policy makers and whether those data are currently available. The collaborating entities identified two urgent water policy questions and conducted case studies in the Northeast-Midwest region to determine the water data needed, water data available, and the best ways to fill the data gaps relative to those questions. This report details the output from one case study and focuses on the Susquehanna River Basin, a data-rich area expected to be a best-case scenario in terms of water data availability.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Chiropractic

    ... Marketing Patient Fact Sheets Contact the ACA State Licensing Boards Research JMPT Abstracts Latest Issue Evidence in ... Chiropractic Posture Backpack Safety Spinal Health Winter Activities Kids and Sports Exercising Outdoors with Baby Gardening Chronic ...

  4. Frequent Questions about General Conformity

    These regulations ensure that federal activities or actions don't cause new violations to the NAAQS and ensure that NAAQS attainment is not delayed. This page has information about other agency representatives or stakeholders

  5. Positions in doctors' questions during psychiatric interviews.

    Ziółkowska, Justyna

    2009-11-01

    In this article I apply the concept of positioning to the analysis of 15 initial psychiatric interviews. I argue that through their questions the psychiatrists-in-training impose positions requiring the patients to gaze at themselves and their actual problems from particular perspectives. I point to three such positions: (a) the position of the observing assessor, from which it is expected that the patients will make a detached assessment of themselves or their problems, (b) the position of the informing witness, which requires the patients only to verify the information about themselves, and (c) the marginal one, the position of the experiencing narrator, from which talk about experiences and problems is expected. I explore the roots and consequences of the positions, with particular attention toward objectivization of the patients' experiences in the dominant witness and assessor positions. I conclude with a discussion about the medical model in psychiatry.

  6. Seven essential questions on G-quadruplexes.

    König, Sebastian L B; Evans, Amanda C; Huppert, Julian L

    2010-08-01

    The helical duplex architecture of DNA was discovered by Francis Crick and James Watson in 1951 and is well known and understood. However, nucleic acids can also adopt alternative structural conformations that are less familiar, although no less biologically relevant, such as the G-quadruplex. G-quadruplexes continue to be the subject of a rapidly expanding area of research, owing to their significant potential as therapeutic targets and their unique biophysical properties. This review begins by focusing on G-quadruplex structure, elucidating the intermolecular and intramolecular interactions underlying its formation and highlighting several substructural variants. A variety of methods used to characterize these structures are also outlined. The current state of G-quadruplex research is then addressed by proffering seven pertinent questions for discussion. This review concludes with an overview of possible directions for future research trajectories in this exciting and relevant field.

  7. Reproductive Life Planning: Raising the Questions.

    Morse, Jessica E; Moos, Merry-K

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Unintended pregnancy has been a concerning public health problem for decades. As we begin to understand the complexities of pregnancy intention and how women experience these pregnancies, reproductive life planning offers a paradigm shift. Methods Reproductive life planning is a patient-centered approach that places a patient's reproductive preferences-whether concrete or ambivalent-at the forefront of her clinical care. Results This process grants women and men the opportunity to consider how reproduction fits within the context of their broader lives. Within a clinical encounter, reproductive life planning allows counseling and care to be tailored to patient preferences. Discussion Although there is great potential for positive public health impacts in unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use and improved preconception health, the true benefit lies within reinforcing reproductive empowerment. Despite recommendations for universal adoption, many questions remain regarding implementation, equity and outcomes.

  8. Autoantibodies in systemic sclerosis: Unanswered questions

    CRISTIANE eKAYSER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disease characterized by vascular abnormalities, and cutaneous and visceral fibrosis. Serum autoantibodies directed to multiple intracellular antigens are present in more than 95% of patients and are considered a hallmark of SSc. They are helpful biomarkers for the early diagnosis of SSc and are associated with distinctive clinical manifestations. With the advent of more sensitive, multiplexed immunoassays, new and old questions about the relevance of autoantibodies in SSc are emerging. In this review we discuss the clinical relevance of autoantibodies in SSc emphasizing the more recently published data. Moreover, we will summarize recent advances regarding the stability of SSc autoantibodies over the course of disease, whether they are mutually exclusive and their potential roles in the disease pathogenesis.

  9. Current questions concerning Space Law

    Courteix, Simone.

    1978-01-01

    This report covers in part the legal problems connected with the use of nuclear sources in space. These problems were highlighted by the accidental fall of the Soviet statellite Cosmos-954 in Canadian territory in January 1978. The author describes the status of international law on the subject, the work in the United Nations and discusses the measures to be taken to define a code of practice use of nuclear sources in space. (NEA) [fr

  10. Masculinity and Femininity in Question

    Herlambang, Pauline; Djundjung, Jenny M

    2015-01-01

    The character traits in Shinchan seem to be contrary to the structure of masculine and feminine traits. I am interested in discussing the feminine character traits that are adopted by the male characters and the masculine character traits that are adopted by the female characters in a patriarchal society in Japan. Under the patriarchal system, there are rigid segregation of gender roles and the expected feminine and masculine traits. The main purpose of this paper is that even though some of ...

  11. Budgeting in an Academic Library: A Lively Lunch Discussion

    Wikoff, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Are you always seeking to improve budgeting in your academic library? Are you fascinated by the challenge of predicting costs for subscriptions? I went on an "Academic Library Budgeting Roadshow," and had discussions with peers at seven other institutions. In this session, I will present a summary of my findings, then pose the same questions to the group. We'll discuss everything from the budget process and timeline, to allocating funds, to predicting subscription costs, to what you do if you...

  12. WGOE Discussion topic introduction: Counterfeit, Suspect, and Fraudulent parts

    Thorp, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation (slides) provided an introduction to CSFI discussion. It presents: 1 - the many faces of counterfeiting (design and intellectual property, manufacturing and fabrication, product control, branding and document fraud), 2 - the key messages from the June 3, 2010 US-NRC Commission Briefing, 3 - the Regulator's role in ensuring nuclear plant safety, 4 - the CSFI survey status, 5 - the questions to be discussed during the meeting

  13. Environment based innovation: policy questions

    Mario Rui Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources and physical cultural resources, referred to in this paper as “Environmental Resources”, can be important assets for regional competitiveness and innovation. In recent years, these types of assets have been increasingly taken into consideration in the design and implementation of regional development strategies, as a consequence of their potential role as a source of differentiation and of new competitive advantages. However, in contrast to environmental policies, which usually focus on the protection of the environment, innovation policies and their instruments are largely shaped by, and geared towards, knowledge-based innovation.In this paper, we discuss the role played by environmental resources in the context of regional innovation policies. We begin by discussing the relationship between environmental resources and regional development, and by emphasizing some contrasting views with regard to the function of environmental resources in regional development. Then, we address the relationship between regional competitive advantages and innovation strategies. The specific issues and problems that arise whenever the aim is to attain competitive advantages through the valorisation of environmental resources constitute the core of section III. In that section, we highlight the specific characteristics of environmental resources and we discuss the applicability of the “natural resource curse” argument to the dynamics based on the valorisation of environmental resources. The reasons that justify public interventionas well as the difficulties concerning the adequate level of intervention (local / regional / national are also examined. The paper ends with some conclusions and policy implications.

  14. Planning of questions for various level of reading of textbooks for early grade students

    Edita Haxhijaha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of education, questioning has been one of the usual techniques of teaching. Despite all the changes in the education theory and technology, this technique continues to be usual, because it is an efficient tool to increase learning. Questioning is an interactive relation, which enlivens the conversation, by giving continuity to the finding of final result. Questioning should be assessed as a technique, which gives high results, when it is managed successfully and with attention towards the teacher, playing meanwhile an important role during the learning of students. Through various planed activities, I tried to influence teachers in order to plan as many questions as possible, for the development of student’s critical thinking. Taking into account the development of further activities I focused in the results extracted from the data gained from the observation of teachers, target group, consultations with teachers, and took into consideration various literature which considered this issue. This research included five teachers that teach in classes 1-5, in the ELSS “Emin Duraku” in Prizren/Kosovo. Observation consisted of two periods. Results of the first period of observation showed that while preparing the teaching work, specifically planning of questions I noticed that a big number were direct questions with a low level of thinking. The research continued by maintaining the target group focused where important discussions were held about the importance of planning the questions of different levels that helped students to understand what they read and also contributed to the increasing of their interest for reading-understanding of various school texts. Then the second period of observation was conducted. Results showed that there were differences in the planning of questions by teachers, compared to the results of the first period of observation. Conclusions of this operational research showed that students can

  15. Frequently Asked Questions: The Higgs!

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? How does the Higgs mechanism work? What is the difference in physics between strong evidence and a discovery? Why do physicists speak in terms of "sigmas"? Find out here!   Why have we tried so hard to find the Higgs particle? Because it could be the answer to the question: how does Nature decide whether or not to assign mass to particles? All the fundamental particles making up matter – the electron, the quarks, etc. – have masses. Moreover, quantum physics requires that forces are also carried by particles. The W and Z particles that carry the weak force responsible for radioactivity must also have masses, whereas the photon, the carrier of the electromagnetic force, has no mass at all. This is the root of the “Higgs problem”: how to give masses to the fundamental particles and break the symmetry between the massive W and Z and the massless photon? Just assigning masses by hand...

  16. Verum focus and polar questions

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checkingoperation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence.In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian,polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focusprobe.This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-levelpredicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal nonfiniteform or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained bytwo movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. Wealso present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic,contrastive.

  17. Verum focus and polar questions

    Ion Giurgea

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We argue that some word order phenomena in Romanian and Sardinian are the result of a checking operation in the left periphery involving verum focus (i.e. focus on the polarity component of the sentence. In particular, this operation accounts for some word order patterns found in polar questions. In Romanian, polarity fronting is realized as head-movement of (V+T to a higher peripheral head which bears a Focus-probe. This licenses VS orders for predications in which VS is not allowed as a neutral order (i-level predicates, iteratives, generics. In Sardinian, an entire phrase headed by the lexical predicate (verbal non-finite form or non-verbal predicate is fronted before the auxiliary. We argue that this order is obtained by two movement operations, head-raising of Aux to Foc and movement of the predicate phrase to SpecFoc. We also present the semantics of polarity focus, distinguishing several types of focus (informational, emphatic, contrastive.

  18. Creating Discussions with Classroom Voting in Linear Algebra

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Duncan, Jonathan; Stewart, Ann; Snipes, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of classroom voting in linear algebra, in which the instructors posed multiple-choice questions to the class and then allowed a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion. After each student in the class voted on the correct answer using a classroom response system, a set of clickers, the instructor then guided a…

  19. Discussion: How different can perspectives on L2 development be?

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I discuss the contributions to this special issue of Language Learning on orders and sequences in second language (L2) development. Using a list of questions, I attempt to characterize what I see as the strengths, limitations, and unresolved issues in the approaches to L2 development

  20. The Discussion of Social Entrepreneurship: Review of the Literature

    Daud@Fhiri Nur Suriaty; Diyana Ishak Siti Intan; Abdullah Suhairimi; Azmi A. A.; Ishak Aida Shakila; Ahmad Z.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the various discussion of social entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship provides a unique opportunity and assumptions to question, challenge and rethink from different perspective of management and business research. This article offers a comparative analysis of commercial entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship using a prevailing analytical model from commercial entrepreneurship. The analysis highlights key differences and similarities betwee...

  1. Students discussing their mathematical ideas: the role of the teacher

    Pijls, M.; Dekker, R.

    2011-01-01

    This article adds to current research on enhancing student discourse in mathematics teaching specifically in secondary schools but with equal relevance to elementary schools. Three mathematics teachers in secondary education were confronted with the question of how to encourage students to discuss

  2. Collaborative Reasoning: Language-Rich Discussions for English Learners

    Zhang, Jie; Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative Reasoning (CR) is a peer-led, small group discussion approach that aims to promote intellectual and personal engagement in elementary school classrooms. In CR, students read a text that raises an unresolved issue with multiple and competing points of view. Students are expected to take positions on a big question, support the…

  3. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  4. Barriers to optimal care between physicians and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning adolescent patients.

    Kitts, Robert Li

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify barriers to optimal care between physicians and LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) adolescents. To this end, 464 anonymous, self-administered surveys were distributed in 2003 to residents and attending physicians in pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics-gynecology, psychiatry, emergency medicine, and family practice at Upstate Medical University. The survey included questions pertaining to practice, knowledge, and attitude pertaining to lesbian, gay, transgender, or questioning (LGBTQ) adolescents. One hundred eight four surveys were returned. The majority of physicians would not regularly discuss sexual orientation, sexual attraction, or gender identity while taking a sexual history from a sexually active adolescent. As well, the majority of physicians would not ask patients about sexual orientation if an adolescent presented with depression, suicidal thoughts, or had attempted suicide. If an adolescent stated that he or she was not sexually active, 41% of physicians reported that they would not ask additional sexual health-related questions. Only 57% agreed to an association between being a LGBTQ adolescent and suicide. The majority of physicians did not believe that they had all the skills they needed to address issues of sexual orientation with adolescents, and that sexual orientation should be addressed more often with these patients and in the course of training. This study concludes that barriers in providing optimal care for LGBTQ adolescents can be found with regard to practice, knowledge, and attitude regardless of medical field and other demographics collected. Opportunities exist to enhance care for LGBTQ adolescents.

  5. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law''

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?

  6. Discussion on ``The Second Law and Energy''

    Lloyd, Seth; Banerjee, Debjyoti; Bejan, Adrian; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Geskin, Ernest; Ghoniem, Ahmed; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Keck, James C.; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Peterson, Richard; Salamon, Peter; Williamson, Lihong

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Thomas Widmer, Ernest Geskin, James Keck, Noam Lior, Debjyoti Banerjee, Richard Peterson, Erik Ydstie, Ron Zevenhoven, Zhuomin Zhang, and Ahmed Ghoniem. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Current state-of-the-art efficiency of combined-cycle energy conversion technology is about 60%. Based on the trend of historical data, some forecast that second-law efficiency of energy conversion will reach 80% by the end of the century. What technologies are at sight that might hold this promise? • Nanotechnologies and microtechnologies point towards the development of microscopic heat engines? How do second law limitations map down to these scales? • Combustion is the principal way of converting the chemical energy of fossil fuels to thermal energy, but it is highly irreversible. Are there promising ways to reduce combustion irreversibility? Are fuel cells the only alternative to combustion?

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion.

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  8. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    1997-01-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs)

  9. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  10. Medical Students' Understanding of Directed Questioning by Their Clinical Preceptors.

    Lo, Lawrence; Regehr, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: Throughout clerkship, preceptors ask medical students questions for both assessment and teaching purposes. However, the cognitive and strategic aspects of students' approaches to managing this situation have not been explored. Without an understanding of how students approach the question and answer activity, medical educators are unable to appreciate how effectively this activity fulfills their purposes of assessment or determine the activity's associated educational effects. A convenience sample of nine 4th-year medical students participated in semistructured one-on-one interviews exploring their approaches to managing situations in which they have been challenged with questions from preceptors to which they do not know the answer. Through an iterative and recursive analytic reading of the interview transcripts, data were coded and organized to identify themes relevant to the students' considerations in answering such questions. Students articulated deliberate strategies for managing the directed questioning activity, which at times focused on the optimization of their learning but always included considerations of image management. Managing image involved projecting not only being knowledgeable but also being teachable. The students indicated that their considerations in selecting an appropriate strategy in a given situation involved their perceptions of their preceptors' intentions and preferences as well as several contextual factors. Insights: The medical students we interviewed were quite sophisticated in their understanding of the social nuances of the directed questioning process and described a variety of contextually invoked strategies to manage the situation and maintain a positive image.

  11. Ecological questions on the disposal of radioactive waste

    Brenner, A.; Kägi, W.; Marugg, F.; Bellmann, R.; Giaquinto, K.

    2014-10-01

    This comprehensive paper elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses six central key questions on the disposal of radioactive wastes. Various factors in the philosophical-ethics area are discussed including disposal and responsibility, disposal and social justness, co-operation, trusteeship, nature and ecocide and questions of guilt. The ethics part of the report is dedicated to conflict management. The second part of the report deals with environmental policy. Aspects dealt with include sustainability, the principles of provision, participation and the cost-by-cause principle. Efficiency and newer developments in environmental policy are discussed. The disposal of radioactive waste is reviewed together with the effects of discussions on this topic and related developments

  12. Re-orienting discussions of scientific explanation: A functional perspective.

    Woody, Andrea I

    2015-08-01

    Philosophy of science offers a rich lineage of analysis concerning the nature of scientific explanation, but the vast majority of this work, aiming to provide an analysis of the relation that binds a given explanans to its corresponding explanandum, presumes the proper analytic focus rests at the level of individual explanations. There are, however, other questions we could ask about explanation in science, such as: What role(s) does explanatory practice play in science? Shifting focus away from explanations, as achievements, toward explaining, as a coordinated activity of communities, the functional perspective aims to reveal how the practice of explanatory discourse functions within scientific communities given their more comprehensive aims and practices. In this paper, I outline the functional perspective, argue that taking the functional perspective can reveal important methodological roles for explanation in science, and consequently, that beginning here provides resources for developing more adequate responses to traditional concerns. In particular, through an examination of the ideal gas law, I emphasize the normative status of explanations within scientific communities and discuss how such status underwrites a compelling rationale for explanatory power as a theoretical virtue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Science and Faith: Discussing Astronomy Research with Religious Audiences

    Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2006-12-01

    An important component of our outreach as research astronomers involves interaction with the religious community. From my personal perspective, being an active research astronomer who is also a practicing Christian, I am sometimes invited to present the latest astronomical research to church audiences and other religious groups; belonging to both communities thereby provides a valuable means of contributing to the dialogue between science and religion. These opportunities can be used to explain that science and religion are not necessarily in conflict but can be considered to be quite complementary. For instance, an important aspect of religion deals with the purpose of our existence, while science is more focussed on providing physical explanations for what we observe in the world, using a well-defined scientific process. Hence, religious believers need not necessarily abandon their faith in order to accept mainstream scientific research; these address very different and complementary aspects of our existence. Recent ideas such as Intelligent Design attempt to address the scientific method, but do not address the ultimate religious question of purpose and do not contribute towards reconciling science and religion in this sense. Ultimately, every individual arrives at their own understanding of this rather complex interplay; I will present some personal reflections on general approaches for discussing mainstream astronomical research with religious audiences, aimed at helping to advance the dialogue between religion and science in general.

  14. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after each step

  15. Student teachers’ mathematical questioning and courage in metaphorical thinking learning

    Hendriana, H.; Hidayat, W.; Ristiana, M. G.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed in the form of experiments with control group design and post-test only which aimed to examine the role of metaphorical thinking learning in the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers based on the level of mathematical courage. The population of this study was student teachers of mathematics education study program in West Java Province, while the sample of this study was 152 student teachers which were set purposively and then randomly to be included in the experimental class and control class. Based on the results and discussion, it was concluded that: (a) the mathematical questioning ability of student teachers who received Metaphorical Thinking learning was better than those who received conventional learning seen from mathematical courage level; (b) learning and mathematical courage level factors affected the achievement of student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability. In addition, there was no interaction effect between learning and mathematical courage level (high, medium, and low) simultaneously in developing student teachers’ mathematical questioning ability; (c) achievement of mastering mathematical questioning ability of student teacher was still not well achieved on indicator of problem posing in the form of non-routine question and open question.

  16. THE ESSENCE OF QUESTIONING AND EXPLICIT READING INSTRUCTION STRATEGY

    Sa’dulloh Muzammil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Teacher’s questioning may function to assist students comprehend more reading materials and to enable them to be proficient readers. Yet, the students may be less benefited from which if the teacher neither provides sufficient explicit reading strategy nor involves higher-level questions. Consequently, the teacher should pay more careful attentions as follows: 1 teacher should involve both lower- and high-lever questions; 2 teacher should provide students with explicit reading strategy; 3 teacher should be aware of the activities in reading phases: pre-, during-, and post-reading.

  17. The Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Insights and Questions from Numerical Models

    Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; de Avillez, Miguel A.; Korpi, Maarit J.

    2003-01-01

    "The purpose of numerical models is not numbers but insight." (Hamming) In the spirit of this adage, and of Don Cox's approach to scientific speaking, we discuss the questions that the latest generation of numerical models of the interstellar medium raise, at least for us. The energy source for the interstellar turbulence is still under discussion. We review the argument for supernovae dominating in star forming regions. Magnetorotational instability has been suggested as a way of coupling di...

  18. Frequently Asked Questions about Bunion Surgery

    ... A | Print | Share Frequently Asked Questions About Bunion Surgery Here are some frequently asked questions (FAQs) and ... best for you. 5. How can I avoid surgery? Sometimes observation of the bunion is all that ...

  19. Immigration and Competitiveness – Some Methodological Questions

    Tünde Patay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Immigrants can contribute significantly to the economic and social development of regions or urban areas. Some key figures on migration are thus traditionally used in studies on local development. Beyond the usual description of migratory movements, two research fields are often in the centre of controversies, namely the labour market and the inclusion of immigrants. Comparing the European regions, the phases of urban development as well as the relevant internal and external factors present a mixed picture in Europe. At the same time, the dynamics of migratory movements and the reactions of national and subnational policies also vary. The Member States of the European Union aim to harmonise their definitions and data on migration issues, however, the daily practice leads us to the questions of reliability and comparability of migration statistics; and the interdisciplinary character of migration research offers the use of variable research methods. The aim of this study, as a part of a presentation at a conference on urban development, is to describe some key methodological issues of migration research exploring the typical questions. The first part of the paper calls attention to the importance of data quality, processing and interpretation, describing the research methods mainly used in studies on immigration. The second part summarizes the significance of immigration in regional competitiveness, pointing out the possible “stumbling stones” in the relevant migration studies. Some of these factors, the areas that are mainly in the centre of scientific and political debates, are discussed in this paper, namely the labour market challenges and issues relating to the different aspects of segregation.

  20. On the Development of Episodic Memory: Two Basic Questions

    Dahl, Jonna Jelsbak; Sonne, Trine; Kingo, Osman Skjold

    2013-01-01

    In this focused review we present and discuss two basic questions related to the early development of episodic memory in children: (1) “What is an episode?”, and (2) “How do preverbal children recall a specific episode of a recurring event?” First, a brief introduction to episodic memory...... is outlined. We argue in favor of employing a definition of episodic memory allowing us to investigate the development of episodic memory by purely behavioral measures. Second, research related to each of the two questions are presented and discussed, at first separately, and subsequently together. We argue...... and attempt to demonstrate, that pursuing answers to both questions is of crucial importance – both conceptually and methodologically - if we are ever to understand the early development of episodic memory. ...

  1. Graded Multiple Choice Questions: Rewarding Understanding and Preventing Plagiarism

    Denyer, G. S.; Hancock, D.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes an easily implemented method that allows the generation and analysis of graded multiple-choice examinations. The technique, which uses standard functions in user-end software (Microsoft Excel 5+), can also produce several different versions of an examination that can be employed to prevent the reward of plagarism. The manuscript also discusses the advantages of having a graded marking system for the elimination of ambiguities, use in multi-step calculation questions, and questions that require extrapolation or reasoning. The advantages of the scrambling strategy, which maintains the same question order, is discussed with reference to student equity. The system provides a non-confrontational mechanism for dealing with cheating in large-class multiple-choice examinations, as well as providing a reward for problem solving over surface learning.

  2. Secondary Data Analysis: An Important Tool for Addressing Developmental Questions

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Dowsett, Chantelle J.

    2012-01-01

    Existing data sets can be an efficient, powerful, and readily available resource for addressing questions about developmental science. Many of the available databases contain hundreds of variables of interest to developmental psychologists, track participants longitudinally, and have representative samples. In this article, the authors discuss the…

  3. Questions for the Study and Teaching of Shakespeare and Milton.

    DeVito, Angela, Ed.; Medine, Peter, Ed.

    The discussion questions and essay prompts in this collection were compiled from contributions made by participants in the 1991 Arizona Shakespeare-Milton Institute. After an introduction which presents some general guidelines for teachers and students, the collection addresses the following works: "As You Like It"; "The…

  4. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  5. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  6. Ten questions about radiant heating and cooling systems

    Rhee, Kyu-Nam; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Kim, Kwang Woo

    2017-01-01

    to extend the applicability of the RHC system are providing the continuous impetus for research on RHC systems. This paper summarizes the important issues involved in the research on RHC system, whereby ten questions and answers concerning the RHC system are discussed, which will help researchers to conduct...

  7. Question marks concerning CO2 trade after 2012

    Wellander, Dag

    2006-01-01

    Different aspects of the Kyoto protocol are discussed, from the (in)significance of the Kyoto protocol, the inefficiency of the CO 2 trade system, to questions about how electricity prices will be affected in the EU, and what will be the solution in the future when the Kyoto agreement ends in 2012

  8. Women's Healthcare, Censorship, and the Library: Problems, Issues, Questions.

    Kuhl, Nancy

    The goal of this paper is to explore a number of examples of the censorship of women's healthcare issues and to investigate issues and questions related to those examples. The paper looks primarily at censorship in the United States; however, the problems and issues discussed are international in scope, and some international examples are…

  9. Emerging Model of Questioning through the Process of Teaching and Learning Electrochemistry

    Iksan, Zanaton Haji; Daniel, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Verbal questioning is a technique used by teachers in the teaching and learning process. Research in Malaysia related to teachers' questioning in the chemistry teaching and learning process is more focused on the level of the questions asked rather than the content to ensure that students understand. Thus, the research discussed in this paper is…

  10. Questions of Brain Hemispheric Specialization and Gender Difference in Spatial Tests.

    McWhinnie, Harold J.

    This paper presents a review of selected literature relevant to a general question of hemispheric specialization (right or left brain) and questions of gender differences in spatial abilities among a group of art students. Three basic questions for discussion are proposed: (1) is there a relationship between hemispheric dominance and spatial…

  11. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  12. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  13. IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn; Hummel, Hans; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob; De Vries, Fred

    2004-01-01

    This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are: Where can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification? What is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”? What is the IMS LD Specification

  14. The Socratic Method and Levels of Questioning.

    Watson, Karilee

    1980-01-01

    Determines if instruction in the Socratic method would increase higher level questioning during peer teaching experiences in teacher education programs. Raters, using the higher order questioning strategy, evaluated 14 students. A significant increase in higher level questions being asked suggests the Socratic Method may be useful. (Author)

  15. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  16. Summary of the presentations and discussions

    Massaut, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    key points can be highlighted: The main question seems to be: 'What are the elements making the funding system safer?' This can be looked at through different aspects: cost estimate; control of the funding and money collection; control of investment of the money; how to cope with uncertainties (including early shutdown and bankruptcy). The stability of the funding system over the time is a key factor for securing the funding (a good counter-example is the UK story). The decommissioning exercise should start before the plant is in operation; i.e. when a plant is constructed. An important aspect is also the information exchange with people having participated to actual D and D projects. Discussions by session: At the plenary discussions the following items were also recorded: the possibility of having an international body managing decommissioning funds; how far the present generation would need to go today to protect future generations from a virtual risk and how far do these ethical considerations need to be covered by the funds; the use of ethical values in the discussion with the public and the stakeholders; the pros and cons of segregated funds; the management and control of funds

  17. Guiding students towards sensemaking: teacher questions focused on integrating scientific practices with science content

    Benedict-Chambers, Amanda; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2017-10-01

    Science education reforms articulate a vision of ambitious science teaching where teachers engage students in sensemaking discussions and emphasise the integration of scientific practices with science content. Learning to teach in this way is complex, and there are few examples of sensemaking discussions in schools where textbook lessons and teacher-directed discussions are the norm. The purpose of this study was to characterise the questioning practices of an experienced teacher who taught a curricular unit enhanced with educative features that emphasised students' engagement in scientific practices integrated with science content. Analyses indicated the teacher asked four types of questions: explication questions, explanation questions, science concept questions, and scientific practice questions, and she used three questioning patterns including: (1) focusing students on scientific practices, which involved a sequence of questions to turn students back to the scientific practice; (2) supporting students in naming observed phenomena, which involved a sequence of questions to help students use scientific language; and (3) guiding students in sensemaking, which involved a sequence of questions to help students learn about scientific practices, describe evidence, and develop explanations. Although many of the discussions in this study were not yet student-centred, they provide an image of a teacher asking specific questions that move students towards reform-oriented instruction. Implications for classroom practice are discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.

  18. Panel discussion on laboratory accelerator programs: present and future

    Richter, B.

    1986-09-01

    The present SLAC accelerator program is summarized briefly, and the future of electron-positron colliders is discussed. Present activities discussed include the PEP storage ring, the SPEAR storage ring, the Linear Accelerator, and the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project. Future prospects include a larger scale linear collider. The stability requirements on acceleration are briefly discussed

  19. Questioning As a Pedagogical Tool for Eliciting Student Generated Questions During the Teaching of Acid-base Equilibria

    Ayoade Ejiwale Okanlawon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, teachers simply taught problem-solving by explaining the worked-out examples taken from textbooks and students were expected to listen quietly, copy the solution to the problem, and then work independently at their desks. But a large body of research notes that guiding students to develop a solution pathway with questioning is more effective than simply explaining the sequence of steps to solve the problem. Students involved in question- and-answer sessions are more attentive than those who listen passively to teacher explanations and they are more likely to generate questions. The questions students ask during a lesson perform a number of important functions, including providing the teacher with valuable information about students’ understanding and misunderstanding, fostering self-regulation, inviting classroom discussions and aiding comprehension of contents presented. The skill of posing questions during classroom instruction is often under-valued and under taught in today’s classrooms. To encourage students to ask quality and thought provoking questions related to the contents taught, explicit instruction is required. This paper, therefore, qualitatively reports factors that foster student generated questions during the problem-solving instruction involving acid-base titration problem.

  20. Common questions about infectious mononucleosis.

    Womack, Jason; Jimenez, Marissa

    2015-03-15

    Epstein-Barr is a ubiquitous virus that infects 95% of the world population at some point in life. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections are often asymptomatic, some patients present with the clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis (IM). The syndrome most commonly occurs between 15 and 24 years of age. It should be suspected in patients presenting with sore throat, fever, tonsillar enlargement, fatigue, lymphadenopathy, pharyngeal inflammation, and palatal petechiae. A heterophile antibody test is the best initial test for diagnosis of EBV infection, with 71% to 90% accuracy for diagnosing IM. However, the test has a 25% false-negative rate in the first week of illness. IM is unlikely if the lymphocyte count is less than 4,000 mm3. The presence of EBV-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies confirms infection, but the test is more costly and results take longer than the heterophile antibody test. Symptomatic relief is the mainstay of treatment. Glucocorticoids and antivirals do not reduce the length or severity of illness. Splenic rupture is an uncommon complication of IM. Because physical activity within the first three weeks of illness may increase the risk of splenic rupture, athletic participation is not recommended during this time. Children are at the highest risk of airway obstruction, which is the most common cause of hospitalization from IM. Patients with immunosuppression are more likely to have fulminant EBV infection.

  1. [Demand for abortion. Pre-abortion discussion].

    Guiol, L

    1994-03-01

    The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.

  2. Can ecological history influence immunomarker responses and antioxidant enzyme activities in bivalves that have been experimentally exposed to contaminants? A new subject for discussion in "eco-immunology" studies.

    Matozzo, Valerio; Giacomazzo, Matteo; Finos, Livio; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Bargelloni, Luca; Milan, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that environmental parameters affect bivalve immunomarkers. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that clams (Venerupis philippinarum) collected in sites with different environmental conditions respond differently to experimental contaminant exposure. Clams were collected at two sites within the Lagoon of Venice that are influenced differently by both anthropogenic impact and natural conditions: Marghera, which is characterised by relatively high contamination levels and restricted clam fishing, and Chioggia, which is inside a licensed clam culture area that is characterised by lower contamination levels. Total haemocyte count, haemocyte diameter and volume, lysozyme activity in both haemocyte lysate and cell-free haemolymph, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in gills and digestive glands were measured at time 0 (clam sampling time), after 7 days of acclimation in the laboratory and after 1, 3 and 7 days of copper exposure. Interestingly, statistical analyses (three-way ANOVA and Canonical Correlation Analysis) revealed persistent differences in the biological responses of clams from the two sampling sites before and after copper exposure. Conversely, the influence of copper on cellular and biochemical parameters was negligible. Overall, the results obtained indicated that animals with a different ecological history respond differently to experimental contaminant exposure. In addition, this study suggested that immunomarkers and other biomarkers might be used to determine the origin of fishing products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Initial state fluctuations and final state correlations: status and open questions

    Adare, Andrew; Luzum, Matthew; Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The recent appreciation of the importance of event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions has lead to a large amount of diverse theoretical and experimental activity. In particular, there is significant interest in understanding the fluctuations in the initial stage of a collision, how exactly these fluctuations are propagated through the system evolution, and how they are manifested in correlations between measured particles. In order to address these questions a workshop was organized on ‘initial state fluctuations and final state correlations’, held at ECT* in Trento, Italy during the week of 2–6 July 2012. The goal was to collect recent work in order to provide a coherent picture of the current status of our understanding, to identify important questions that remain open, and to set a course for future research. Here we report the outcome of the presentations and discussions, focusing on the most important conclusions. (comment)

  4. Students' Perceptions of Online Discussions, Participation and E-Moderation Behaviours in Peer-Moderated Asynchronous Online Discussions

    Ghadirian, Hajar; Fauzi Mohd Ayub, Ahmad; Salehi, Keyvan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' perceptions of online discussions, participation and e-moderation behaviours in peer-moderated asynchronous online discussions. Using survey data, the learning system's activity log and discussion transcripts, the authors analysed how 84 learners' perceptions of online…

  5. Questioning the claims from Kaiser.

    Talbot-Smith, Alison; Gnani, Shamini; Pollock, Allyson M; Gray, Denis Pereira

    2004-06-01

    The article by Feachem et al, published in the BMJ in 2002, claimed to show that, compared with the United Kingdom (UK) National Health Service (NHS), the Kaiser Permanente healthcare system in the United States (US) has similar healthcare costs per capita, and performance that is considerably better in certain respects. To assess the accuracy of Feachem et al's comparison and conclusions. Detailed re-examination of the data and methods used and consideration of the 82 letters responding to the article. Analyses revealed four main areas in which Feachem et al's methodology was flawed. Firstly, the populations of patients served by Kaiser Permanente and by the NHS are fundamentally different. Kaiser's patients are mainly employed, significantly younger, and significantly less socially deprived and so are healthier. Feachem et al fail to adjust adequately for these factors. Secondly, Feachem et al have wrongly inflated NHS costs by omitting substantial user charges payable by Kaiser members for care, excluding the costs of marketing and administration, and deducting the surplus from Kaiser's costs while underestimating the capital charge element of the NHS budget and other costs. They also used two methods of converting currency, the currency rate and a health purchasing power parity conversion. This is double counting. Feachem et al reported that NHS costs were 10% less per head than Kaiser. Correcting for the double currency conversion gives the NHS a 40% cost advantage such that per capita costs are 1161 dollars and 1951 dollars for the NHS and Kaiser, respectively. Thirdly, Feachem et al use non-standardised data for NHS bed days from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, rather than official Department of Health bed availability and activity statistics for England. Leaving aside the non-comparability of the population and lack of standardisation of the data, the result is to inflate NHS acute bed use and underestimate the efficiency of

  6. Molyneux's Question: A Window on Crossmodal Interplay in Blindness

    Valeria Occelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1688, the Irish scientist William Molyneux sent a letter to the philosopher John Locke in which he asked whether a man who had been born blind and whose experience of the world was based on senses other than vision, would be able to distinguish and name a globe and a cube by sight alone, once he had been enabled to see. This issue immediately raised considerable interest amongst philosophers, who, for centuries, have continued to speculate about how this issue might be resolved. More recently, the possibility of corrective surgery for people born with congenital cataracts, has offered a valuable opportunity to explore this topic experimentally. A discussion of how Molyneux’s question has been addressed over the centuries, allows us to investigate a number of intellectual challenges, involving a variety of fields, ranging from philosophy, psychology and the cognitive sciences, to neuroscience. For instance, Molyenux’s question raises the question of whether sensory experience is specific to each sensory modality, or rather supramodal, and if a transfer of knowledge across modalities can be established. Molyneux’s question is also relevant to the discussion of whether, how and to what extent a concept of space can be developed by blind people. More generally, it concerns the idea of how conceptual knowledge is acquired and processed when vision is lacking. The present paper aims to provide an overview of all the issues raised by Molyenux’s question.

  7. Deterrence and the Celerity of the Death Penalty: A Neglected Question in Deterrence Research. Discussion Paper No. 532-78.

    Bailey, William C.

    This paper focuses on the deterrent effect of the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates. The deterrent effect of both the certainty and the celerity of the death penalty on homicide rates is examined cross-sectionally for States. Multiple measures of execution and homicide are considered, along with various sociodemographic variables, in…

  8. Cancer and beyond: the question of survivorship.

    Breaden, K

    1997-11-01

    Today, more people are surviving cancer as a result of improved treatment and early diagnosis. In Australia, the 5-year survival rate for persons diagnosed with cancer is now approaching 50%. Although there is a growing population of cancer survivors, little is known about what surviving entails. Traditionally, a survivor has been defined as one who has been disease-free for more than 5 years. However, this definition does not take into account the experience nor the process of survival and the aim of this article is to document the process of surviving cancer as reflected in the experiences of cancer survivors. Using a method of hermeneutic phenomenology (as described by van Manen), the study draws on the stories of six women, who by their definition, are surviving cancer. A discussion of themes has been structured according to the everyday experiences of living in a body and living in time. The women describe a survival process that includes: 'feeling whole again'; 'the body as the house of suspicion'; 'the future in question'; 'changes in time'; 'lucky to be alive'; and 'sharing the journey'.

  9. Probabilistic modeling of dietary intake of substances - The risk management question governs the method

    Pieters MN; Ossendorp BC; Bakker MI; Slob W; SIR

    2005-01-01

    In this report the discussion on the use of probabilistic modeling in relation to pesticide use in food crops is analyzed. Due to different policy questions the current discussion is complex and considers safety of an MRL as well as probability of a health risk. The question regarding the use of

  10. Semantic annotation of consumer health questions.

    Kilicoglu, Halil; Ben Abacha, Asma; Mrabet, Yassine; Shooshan, Sonya E; Rodriguez, Laritza; Masterton, Kate; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2018-02-06

    Consumers increasingly use online resources for their health information needs. While current search engines can address these needs to some extent, they generally do not take into account that most health information needs are complex and can only fully be expressed in natural language. Consumer health question answering (QA) systems aim to fill this gap. A major challenge in developing consumer health QA systems is extracting relevant semantic content from the natural language questions (question understanding). To develop effective question understanding tools, question corpora semantically annotated for relevant question elements are needed. In this paper, we present a two-part consumer health question corpus annotated with several semantic categories: named entities, question triggers/types, question frames, and question topic. The first part (CHQA-email) consists of relatively long email requests received by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) customer service, while the second part (CHQA-web) consists of shorter questions posed to MedlinePlus search engine as queries. Each question has been annotated by two annotators. The annotation methodology is largely the same between the two parts of the corpus; however, we also explain and justify the differences between them. Additionally, we provide information about corpus characteristics, inter-annotator agreement, and our attempts to measure annotation confidence in the absence of adjudication of annotations. The resulting corpus consists of 2614 questions (CHQA-email: 1740, CHQA-web: 874). Problems are the most frequent named entities, while treatment and general information questions are the most common question types. Inter-annotator agreement was generally modest: question types and topics yielded highest agreement, while the agreement for more complex frame annotations was lower. Agreement in CHQA-web was consistently higher than that in CHQA-email. Pairwise inter-annotator agreement proved most

  11. 專論/From the Viewpoints of People’s Need of Information and Social Activities toDiscuss the Difference between Public Library and Internet/葉乃靜(Nei-Ching Yeh

    葉乃靜 Nei-Ching Yeh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the difference and the similarities between the public library and the Internet service, especially focused on web 2.0 websites, and discovered some helpful techniques from the Internet, which could be derived to develop the system used in the public library. This study applied comparative research method to elicit the difference between the public library and Internet service. Based on the following viewpoints, the characteristics of people’s daily life, people’s needs for information and social interaction, and types of resources, this paper elucidated the difference between public libraries and Internet service. This paper suggests that the public library could examine the information defined by the user and know its application in daily life to recognize its method of application in service designs. 本文旨在探討公共圖書館與網路服務的異同,尤其關注web 2.0 網站。基於網路的受歡迎,引發作者試圖由網路服務尋找對公共圖書館服務之啟發動機。本文採用比較研究法的精神,了解公共圖書館與網路服務的差異,再找出可能對提升公共圖書館服務的歡迎度有助益的策略建議。本文進行比較研究的基礎如下:日常生活的特徵、民眾對資訊和社會互動的基礎、公共圖書館與網路提供之資源的類型。文末建議,公共圖書館可以審視讀者認知的資訊,及其如何被應用於日常生活,再由此思考公共圖書館的可行作法。 頁次:4-13

  12. Online research article discussion board to increase knowledge translation during emergency medicine residency.

    Stoneking, Lisa R; Grall, Kristi H; Min, Alice A; Panchal, Ashish R

    2013-01-01

    Many clinicians have difficulties reading current best practice journal articles on a regular basis. Discussion boards are one method of online asynchronous learning that facilitates active learning and participation. We hypothesized that an online repository of best practice articles with a discussion board would increase journal article reading by emergency medicine residents. PARTICIPANTS ANSWERED THREE QUESTIONS WEEKLY ON A DISCUSSION BOARD: What question does this study address? What does this study add to our knowledge? How might this change clinical practice? A survey regarding perceived barriers to participating was then distributed. Most participants completed an article summary once or twice in total (23/32, 71.9%). Only three were involved most weeks (3/32, 9.4%) whereas 5/32 (15.6%) participated monthly. The most common barriers were lack of time (20/32, 62.5%), difficulty logging on (7/32, 21.9%), and forgetting (6/32, 18.8%). Although subjects were provided weekly with an article link, email, and feedback, journal article reading frequency did not increase.

  13. Blended e-learning Design: Discussion of Cultural Issues

    Ahmed A Al-Hunaiyyan; Salah AL-Sharhan; Nabeel Al-Huwail

    2008-01-01

    Blended e-learning is becoming an educational issue especially with the new development of e-learning technology and globalization. Educators as the question: can we design these systems to accommodate different cultural groups and various learning strategies. This paper addresses some design issues when selecting a blended e-learning approach; it discusses some cultural elements that affect the design of blended e-learning. The paper also explores issues related to learning design, then emph...

  14. Q stands for a big question

    McBarnet, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the launch of the Schlumberger's Q-Marine approach to seismic imaging and the almost simultaneous establishment of Western Geco from the merged Western Geophysical and Schlumberger's Geco-Prakla, and examines the effects of these activities on the seismic data acquisition market. Details are given of the ability to carry out repeated 3-dimensional seismic surveys over a reservoir during production using conventional streamer acquisition allowing in effect 4-dimensional reservoir monitoring. The on-board computer processing systems, the streamer steering system, and the collection of accurate high resolution data are discussed

  15. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  16. Power dynamics and questioning in elementary science lessons

    Reinsvold, Lori Ann

    Discourse interactions between a teacher and students in an inquiry-based fourth-grade science classroom were analyzed to investigate how power dynamics and questioning strategies within elementary science lessons help support students in building their science understanding. Five inquiry-based classroom sessions were observed; verbal interactions were audio- and video-recorded. Research data consisted of observation transcripts, teacher interviews, student work, and instructional materials. Analyses were conducted on the frequencies of utterances, participation roles, power categories, and questioning categories. Results revealed that when students used more frequent power, (a) no significant differences were noted between frequencies of teacher and student talk, (b) the teacher posed more questions than did the students, and (c) students explained what they knew and asked questions to clarify their understanding. When the teacher used more frequent power, she asked questions to provide students opportunities to negotiate investigative processes and explain what they knew and how they knew it. Evidence of student understanding of the science concepts was found in how students used subject matter to discuss what they knew and how they knew it. Pre-service and in-service teachers should be encouraged to consider how their use of power and questioning strategies can engage students to reflect on how they build understanding of science concepts. Teachers can use Professional Learning Communities to reflect on how their practice engages students. Future research should be employed to observe classrooms across an entire school year to determine how power and questioning dynamics flow among students and teachers and change over time. Research can also be used to understand the influence of gender and culture on power and questioning dynamics in classroom settings.

  17. Discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS

    Aleksa, Martin, E-mail: martin.aleksa@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Diemoz, Marcella [INFN Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-21

    This document summarizes a discussion on the electromagnetic calorimeters of ATLAS and CMS, two experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), that took place at the 13th Vienna Conference on Instrumentation in February 2013. During the discussion each electromagnetic calorimeter and its performance was described in response to ten questions chosen to cover a wide range from the design and construction of the calorimeters over the calibration and performance to their role in the discovery of the Higgs boson and upgrade plans.

  18. Online discussion forums with embedded streamed videos on distance courses

    Vicenc Fernandez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing literature on education and technology has frequently highlighted the usefulness of online discussion forums for distance courses; however, the majority of such investigations have focused their attention only on text-based forums. The objective of this paper is to determine if the embedding of streamed videos in online discussion forums generates educational dialogue and consequently the feedback that students need in a Management Accounting Course. The findings suggest some interesting issues, such as: students prefer text answers except in complex questions, and videos never replace text commentaries and explanations, but rather complement them.

  19. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  20. A Technique Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    M. Hakan Türkçapar; A. Emre Sargýn

    2012-01-01

    “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during t...

  1. Conducting systematic reviews of intervention questions I: Writing the review protocol, formulating the question and searching the literature.

    O'Connor, A M; Anderson, K M; Goodell, C K; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    This article is the fourth of six articles addressing systematic reviews in animal agriculture and veterinary medicine. Previous articles in the series have introduced systematic reviews, discussed study designs and hierarchies of evidence, and provided details on conducting randomized controlled trials, a common design for use in systematic reviews. This article describes development of a review protocol and the first two steps in a systematic review: formulating a review question, and searching the literature for relevant research. The emphasis is on systematic reviews of questions related to interventions. The review protocol is developed prior to conducting the review and specifies the plan for the conduct of the review, identifies the roles and responsibilities of the review team and provides structured definitions related to the review question. For intervention questions, the review question should be defined by the PICO components: population, intervention, comparison and outcome(s). The literature search is designed to identify all potentially relevant original research that may address the question. Search terms related to some or all of the PICO components are entered into literature databases, and searches for unpublished literature also are conducted. All steps of the literature search are documented to provide transparent reporting of the process. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Key Questions in Building Defect Prediction Models in Practice

    Ramler, Rudolf; Wolfmaier, Klaus; Stauder, Erwin; Kossak, Felix; Natschläger, Thomas

    The information about which modules of a future version of a software system are defect-prone is a valuable planning aid for quality managers and testers. Defect prediction promises to indicate these defect-prone modules. However, constructing effective defect prediction models in an industrial setting involves a number of key questions. In this paper we discuss ten key questions identified in context of establishing defect prediction in a large software development project. Seven consecutive versions of the software system have been used to construct and validate defect prediction models for system test planning. Furthermore, the paper presents initial empirical results from the studied project and, by this means, contributes answers to the identified questions.

  3. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

    Phillips James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined.

  4. NMDA Receptors in Glial Cells: Pending Questions.

    Dzamba, David; Honsa, Pavel; Anderova, Miroslava

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate receptors of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type are involved in many cognitive processes, including behavior, learning and synaptic plasticity. For a long time NMDA receptors were thought to be the privileged domain of neurons; however, discoveries of the last 25 years have demonstrated their active role in glial cells as well. Despite the large number of studies in the field, there are many unresolved questions connected with NMDA receptors in glia that are still a matter of debate. The main objective of this review is to shed light on these controversies by summarizing results from all relevant works concerning astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and polydendrocytes (also known as NG2 glial cells) in experimental animals, further extended by studies performed on human glia. The results are divided according to the study approach to enable a better comparison of how findings obtained at the mRNA level correspond with protein expression or functionality. Furthermore, special attention is focused on the NMDA receptor subunits present in the particular glial cell types, which give them special characteristics different from those of neurons - for example, the absence of Mg(2+) block and decreased Ca(2+) permeability. Since glial cells are implicated in important physiological and pathophysiological roles in the central nervous system (CNS), the last part of this review provides an overview of glial NMDA receptors with respect to ischemic brain injury.

  5. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  6. Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges

    Wilson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

  7. The ecological crisis: a question of justice

    Kempf, H.

    2010-01-01

    The question of ecology has become a major issue for international relations in the next half-century. But it poses new problems of worldwide justice more than questions of power politics, and its solution will always be a reflection of internal social issues in the countries concerned. (author)

  8. Questions and dependency in intuitionistic logic

    Ciardelli, Ivano; Iemhoff, Rosalie; Yang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the logic of questions and dependencies has been investigated in the closely related frameworks of inquisitive logic and dependence logic. These investigations have assumed classical logic as the background logic of statements, and added formulas expressing questions and

  9. Question-answer sequences in survey interviews

    Dijkstra, W.; Ongena, Y.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction analysis was used to analyze a total of 14,265 question-answer sequences of (Q-A Sequences) 80 questions that originated from two face-to-face and three telephone surveys. The analysis was directed towards the causes and effects of particular interactional problems. Our results showed

  10. Michaelis' hundred Questions and the Royal Instructions

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  11. Michaelis' Hundred Questions and the Royal Instruction

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Michaelis' 100 questions for the expedition is a remarkable document. It provides insight into the sources and methods of biblical research anno 1762, at the same time as highlighting the challenges the members of the expedition faced. As the scholarly foundation of the expedition, the questions ...

  12. Three Key Questions on Measuring Learning

    McTighe, Jay

    2018-01-01

    The author examines three essential questions on educational assessment: What really matters in a contemporary education? How should we assess those things that matter? How might our assessments enhance learning that matters, not just measure it? In answering these question, he argues that schools need a broader collection of measures, with a…

  13. Environmental Ethics: Questions for Adult Education.

    Parker, Jenneth

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of questions through which adult educators can explore controversial questions of environmental values and moral behavior in their programs. The subjects include geography, local history, natural history, economics, politics, business, labor education, world affairs, literature, women's studies, psychology, and courses for the…

  14. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  15. 37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.

    2010-07-01

    ... of law, referral to the Register of Copyrights by the Copyright Royalty Judges is mandatory. A “novel... discretionary referral of material questions of copyright law to the Register of Copyrights by the Copyright... Copyrights in resolving material questions of substantive law is binding upon the Copyright Royalty Judges...

  16. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    ... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...

  17. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    NONE

    2018-04-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter.

  18. Chapter 9: Questions from CNEN specific exams

    2018-01-01

    The following are real questions from CNEN specific exams for obtaining the certification of RSO for gamma irradiators. These are questions that require essay answers, that are interpretative ones and therefore that may accept more than one interpretation, therefore more than one answer. For this reason, suggestions of answers will be presented in the second part of this chapter

  19. Sport and Exercise Pedagogy and Questions about Learning

    Quennerstedt, Mikael; Öhman, Marie; Armour, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    One important challenge ahead for sport and exercise pedagogy (SEP) researchers is to consider afresh questions about learning. Learning in the fields of sport, physical activity and physical education (PE) is a particularly complex business. Most existing theories of learning are defined cognitively, yet learning in sport and physical activity…

  20. Surveying Parental Mediation: Connections, Challenges and Questions for Media Literacy

    Mendoza, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines three strategies of parental mediation--coviewing, restrictive mediation, and active mediation--in order to make connections, challenge, and raise questions for media literacy. Coviewing, whether it is intentional practice, or whether it functions to promote media literacy, is explored. Restrictive mediation, how it connects to…

  1. The expert meeting dedicated to the discussion of results of a local open-label multicenter observational study of the efficiency and safety of tofacitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with the inefficiency of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and to the elaboration of recommendations for the use for tofacitinib in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The expert meeting dedicated to the discussion of results of a local open-label multicenter observational study of the efficiency and safety of tofacitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with the inefficiency of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and to the elaboration of recommendations for the use for tofacitinib in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. The European atomic politics under the treaty of Lisboa and actual questions of the export of nuclear waste

    Ehlenz, Christian; Frenz, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the actual discussion considerably influenced by safety questions activated by the reactor accident in Tschernobyl in 1986, the EAG gains increasing significance. However, a substantial safety risk proceeds not only with nuclear power stations as a possible goal for attacks of terror, but also from the uncontrolled spreading with nuclear material. The latter equally affects the question on handling radioactive waste materials being straightly discussed in Germany as well as in the European Union as proven by the European Union commissioner Oettinger. This is to be considered in connection with the problem how extensively the competences of the Euratom for the nuclear safety may be interpreted. The actual changes of the legal situation by means of the Lisboa contract for the EAG altogether turned out marginally and let its demand for a reform based on the actual conditions appear more urgent.

  3. Estudo da adaptação e aplicabilidade do questionário perfil de atividades de Adelaide em idosos de uma comunidade Nipo-Brasileira Adaptation and applicability of the Adelaide activities profile for older adults of a community of Japanese origin

    Miriam Masako Kanashiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento ativo está associado ao bem-estar e qualidade de vida. Este estudo de corte transversal teve o propósito de adaptar e analisar a aplicabilidade do questionário Perfil de Atividades de Adelaide (PAA, no Brasil e caracterizar a frequência e perfil de atividades de idosos pertencentes à cultura Japonesa. O questionário PAA foi traduzido e adaptado para o português do Brasil. A amostra foi composta por dois grupos: 30 praticantes do jogo mahjong e 30 praticantes do esporte gateball, de ambos os sexos. Observou-se que as mulheres foram mais ativas nos domínios serviço doméstico, serviço para outros, e lazer intelectual, os homens, em atividades sociais. O PAA pode ser útil para analisar o perfil da prática de atividades entre idosos e orientar a indicação de intervenções gerontológicas.Active aging is associated with well-being and quality of life. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to adapt and analyze the applicability of the Adelaide Activities Profile (AAP in Brazil, and characterize the frequency and type of activities carried out by older adults who belong to the Japanese community. The questionnaire was translated and adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The sample was composed by two groups: 30 mahjong players and 30 gateball players, men and women. Women were more active in domestic chores, service to others, and intellectual leisure; men were more active in social activities. The AAP may be useful to analyze the activity profile of older adults and guide the indication of gerontological interventions.

  4. Children’s questions as a base of teaching

    Pavlović Branka S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers interrelationships between children’s questions and teaching and learning in the light of experimental studies on the role and aim of children’s questions in Nature and Society teaching in the third grade of primary school. The experiment comprising two parallel groups was carried out on the sample of 150 respondents from two primary schools in Šabac during the second term of the academic year 2002/2003. The present paper involves a portion of the results obtained for the type of questions children asked during teaching process as classified by independent observers; average distribution of some types of questions; qualitative analysis of discussions conducted with children after two classes where identical teaching content was presented in groups E and K; qualitative analysis of two interviews conducted with teachers after those classes in groups E and K; observers’ general impression of classes in groups E and K. The results showed that teaching based on children’s questions encourages children’s proactive attitude towards learning and leads to its higher cognitive efficiency and that children express a high degree of satisfaction by participating in thus organized work during classes and preference of atmosphere present in the classroom during such classes compared to the atmosphere during classes managed in a traditional way. Communication between children and between teacher and children is less formal, more relaxed and dynamic, which all produces motivational effects on children makes them more engaged in learning during teaching whose base is in their questions and not in teaching managed by teacher’s questions.

  5. Does Question Structure Affect Exam Performance in the Geosciences?

    Day, E. A.; D'Arcy, M. K.; Craig, L.; Streule, M. J.; Passmore, E.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The jump to university level exams can be challenging for some students, often resulting in poor marks, which may be detrimental to their confidence and ultimately affect their overall degree class. Previous studies have found that question structure can have a strong impact on the performance of students in college level exams (see Gibson et al., 2015, for a discussion of its impact on physics undergraduates). Here, we investigate the effect of question structure on the exam results of geology and geophysics undergraduate students. Specifically, we analyse the performance of students in questions that have a 'scaffolded' framework and compare them to their performance in open-ended questions and coursework. We also investigate if observed differences in exam performance are correlated with the educational background and gender of students, amongst other factors. It is important for all students to be able to access their degree courses, no matter what their backgrounds may be. Broadening participation in the geosciences relies on removing systematic barriers to achievement. Therefore we recommend that exams are either structured with scaffolding in questions at lower levels, or students are explicitly prepared for this transition. We also recommend that longitudinal studies of exam performance are conducted within individual departments, and this work outlines one approach to analysing performance data.

  6. Increasing participation and improving the quality of discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes

    Smith, Burleigh M.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Schaeffer, Janae; Sherman, James A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate procedures to improve classroom discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes. An increased number of students participated in discussions when rules were stated for discussions, students were praised for their contributions, the teacher restated or paraphrased students' contributions aloud or on the blackboard, the teacher planned an outline of discussion questions, student contributions to discussions were recorded and were used to determine par...

  7. Experts discuss unconventional conflicts in the Americas | IDRC ...

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Experts discuss unconventional conflicts in the Americas ... in illicit activities — like drug smuggling and illegal mining — that destabilize societies and ruin lives. ... Social exclusion and "violences" in Central American cities.

  8. Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Descriptions and Research Questions

    2009-01-01

    computational brain . Cambridge, MA: Bradford/ MIT Press. Cianciolo, A. T., Prevou, M., Cianciolo, D., & Morris, R. (2007). Using digital storytelling to...volume 3, no. 2 (Fall 2009) 6–23 Storytelling as an Instructional Method: Descriptions and Research Questions Dee H. Andrews, Thomas D. Hull, and...Jennifer A. Donahue Abstract This paper discusses the theoretical and empirical foundations of the use of storytelling in instruction. The defi nition

  9. Moderated discussion: Are we addressing the ``real`` issue?

    Feher, M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Session 5 a was moderated discussion on the topic of ``Are we addressing the `real` issue?`` The Moderator opened the session with the following questions areas to stimulate discussion. Questions Part 1: Is the concept of alarms and alarm systems still valid? Are we designing for physical features rather than information that has to be conveyed? Are we addressing the essential annunciation needs or are attempting to implement patch-work solutions to solve specific problems? Is the design process so firmly established in organizations that a major change is required to result in different and improved approaches? Will the cost of increasing scrutinity for Software QA make advancement impossible or too costly? What is the role of overview display in accident management and how do imbedded alarms play a role? Is the need for reliable signals adequately addressed (or can it be)? Questions Part 2: Should we include automated diagnosis and decision making with annunciation? What is the role of the operator? Is the operator someone who only follows fixed procedures, or is he/she a responsible authority, or both? Does the focus on safety-first divert the attention away from other important issues, such as operational efficiency? Does the concept of ``hard-wired`` annunciation still apply given advancements in reliability of computer systems? How do we shorten the design and implementation time period cost effectively while still improving the performance?.

  10. Moderated discussion: Are we addressing the ''real'' issue?

    Feher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Session 5 a was moderated discussion on the topic of ''Are we addressing the 'real' issue?'' The Moderator opened the session with the following questions areas to stimulate discussion. Questions Part 1: Is the concept of alarms and alarm systems still valid? Are we designing for physical features rather than information that has to be conveyed? Are we addressing the essential annunciation needs or are attempting to implement patch-work solutions to solve specific problems? Is the design process so firmly established in organizations that a major change is required to result in different and improved approaches? Will the cost of increasing scrutinity for Software QA make advancement impossible or too costly? What is the role of overview display in accident management and how do imbedded alarms play a role? Is the need for reliable signals adequately addressed (or can it be)? Questions Part 2: Should we include automated diagnosis and decision making with annunciation? What is the role of the operator? Is the operator someone who only follows fixed procedures, or is he/she a responsible authority, or both? Does the focus on safety-first divert the attention away from other important issues, such as operational efficiency? Does the concept of ''hard-wired'' annunciation still apply given advancements in reliability of computer systems? How do we shorten the design and implementation time period cost effectively while still improving the performance?

  11. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  12. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  13. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  14. Leases – Public Discussion of a New Common Standard

    Valášková, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the importance of public discussion for developing a new common standard in case of topical lease accounting. To stimulate the public discussion the IASB and the FASB have done several outreach activities and going to continue in obtaining more views from stakeholders

  15. Questions asked concerning energy savings in lighting systems

    Bernet, J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the question why information on the power consumption of lighting fixtures is not often to be found in articles in lifestyle magazines or in the displays of designer-boutiques. The efficiency of various types of lighting is discussed. In particular, the differences between traditional incandescent bulbs and energy-saving lighting systems are examined from the aesthetical, colour-reproduction and energy-consumption points of view. Further information presented includes details on colour-reproduction indexes and colour temperature. The lighting needs of various types of room are looked at and the influence of the physical form of the lighting fixtures on purchasing decisions is examined

  16. The Curious Question of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema

    Melissa L. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether pulmonary edema develops during exercise on land is controversial. Yet, the development of pulmonary edema during swimming and diving is well established. This paper addresses the current controversies that exist in the field of exercise-induced pulmonary edema on land and with water immersion. It also discusses the mechanisms by which pulmonary edema can develop during land exercise, swimming, and diving and the current gaps in knowledge that exist. Finally, this paper discusses how these fields can continue to advance and the areas where clinical knowledge is lacking.

  17. Water-energy-food nexus: concepts, questions and methodologies

    Li, Y.; Chen, X.; Ding, W.; Zhang, C.; Fu, G.

    2017-12-01

    The term of water-energy -food nexus has gained increasing attention in the research and policy making communities as the security of water, energy and food becomes severe under changing environment. Ignorance of their closely interlinkages accompanied by their availability and service may result in unforeseeable, adverse consequences. This paper comprehensively reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of water-energy-food, with a focus on concepts, research questions and methodologies. First, two types of nexus definition are compared and discussed to understand the essence of nexus research issues. Then, three kinds of nexus research questions are presented, including internal relationship analysis, external impact analysis, and evaluation of the nexus system. Five nexus modelling approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages, disadvantages and application, with an aim to identify research gaps in current nexus methods. Finally, future research areas and challenges are discussed, including system boundary, data uncertainty and modelling, underlying mechanism of nexus issues and system performance evaluation. This study helps bring research efforts together to address the challenging questions in the nexus and develop the consensus on building resilient water, energy and food systems.

  18. Climate Prediction Center: ENSO Diagnostic Discussion

    Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go Expert Assessments ENSO Diagnostic Discussion Archive About Us Our Assessments > ENSO Diagnostic Discussion El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion PDF : English Version Spanish Version Adobe PDF Reader (Click icon for Adobe PDF Reader) Word: English Version

  19. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  20. Climate warming: answering some basic questions

    Jancovici, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs, drawings, figures and tables, this long publication offers a detailed overview of the physical aspects of climatic change (definition of the greenhouse effect, explanation and assessment of warming, relationship and differences between greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, between climate change and greenhouse effect induced by human activity, and between meteorology and climate) and states some generalities on greenhouse effect gases. The author then discusses prospective issues on climatic change (notion of average temperature, role and liability of climate models, evolutions of temperatures and precipitations in different places, influence of greenhouse gas reduction), the various risks associated with climatic change (changes of sea currents, impact on ecosystems, diseases, ozone depletion, geographical differences, threat from methane hydrate). After a presentation of the carbon cycle, the next chapters are discussing the scientific discourses, the assessment of greenhouse effect in our everyday life, the impact of possible collective and individual actions, the relationship between greenhouse effect and economy, and strategic choices in France on airports and on nuclear energy