WorldWideScience

Sample records for discussed include carbon

  1. Discussion

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  2. The Diversification Benefits of Including Carbon Assets in Financial Portfolios

    Yinpeng Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allowances traded in the EU-Emission Trading Scheme (EU-ETS were initially designed as an economic motivation for efficiently curbing greenhouse as emissions, but now it mimics quite a few characteristics of financial assets, and have now been used as a candidate product in building financial portfolios. In this study, we examine the time-varying correlations between carbon allowance prices with other financial indices, during the third phase of EU-ETS. The results show that, at the beginning of this period, carbon price was still strongly corrected with other financial indices. However, this connection was weakened over time. Given the relative independence of carbon assets from other financial assets, we argue for the diversification benefits of including carbon assets in financial portfolios, and building such portfolios, respectively, with the traditional global minimum variance (GMV strategy, the mean-variance-OGARCH (MV-OGARCH strategy, and the dynamic conditional correlation (DCC strategy. It is shown that the portfolio built with the MV-OGARCH strategy far out-performs the others and that including carbon assets in financial portfolios does help reduce investment risks.

  3. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  4. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  5. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  7. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo

  8. Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)

    Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a

  9. Carbon footprint of milk from sheep farming systems in northern Spain including soil carbon sequestration in grasslands

    Batalla, Inma M.; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    The link between climate change and livestock production has made carbon footprint based on life cycle assessment a world-wide indicator to assess and communicate the amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of product. Nevertheless, the majority of studies have not included soil carbon seques...

  10. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  11. Transient simulations of historical climate change including interactive carbon emissions from land-use change.

    Matveev, A.; Matthews, H. D.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon fluxes from land conversion are among the most uncertain variables in our understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle, which limits our ability to estimate both the total human contribution to current climate forcing and the net effect of terrestrial biosphere changes on atmospheric CO2 increases. The current generation of coupled climate-carbon models have made significant progress in simulating the coupled climate and carbon cycle response to anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but do not typically include land-use change as a dynamic component of the simulation. In this work we have incorporated a book-keeping land-use carbon accounting model into the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM), and intermediate-complexity coupled climate-carbon model. The terrestrial component of the UVic ESCM allows an aerial competition of five plant functional types (PFTs) in response to climatic conditions and area availability, and tracks the associated changes in affected carbon pools. In order to model CO2 emissions from land conversion in the terrestrial component of the model, we calculate the allocation of carbon to short and long-lived wood products following specified land-cover change, and use varying decay timescales to estimate CO2 emissions. We use recently available spatial datasets of both crop and pasture distributions to drive a series of transient simulations and estimate the net contribution of human land-use change to historical carbon emissions and climate change.

  12. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  13. An approach to include soil carbon changes in life cycle assessments

    Petersen, Bjorn Molt; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    to estimate carbon sequestration to be included in LCA is suggested and applied to two examples where the inclusion of carbon sequestration is especially relevant: 1) Bioenergy: removal of straw from a Danish soil for energy purposes and 2) Organic versus conventional farming: comparative study of soybean...... comparable to the IPCC 2006 tier I approach in a time perspective of 20 year, where after the suggested methodology showed a continued soil carbon change toward a new steady state. The suggested method estimated a carbon sequestration for the first example when storing straw in the soil instead of using...... it for bioenergy of 54, 97 and 213 kg C t(-1) straw C in a 200, 100 and 20 years perspective, respectively. For the conversion from conventional to organic soybean production, a difference of 32, 60 or 143 kg soil C ha(-1) yr(-1) in a 200,100 or 20 years perspective, respectively was found. The study indicated...

  14. Effects of changes in carbonate chemistry speciation on Coccolithus braarudii: a discussion of coccolithophorid sensitivities

    U. Riebesell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and associated shifts in carbonate chemistry speciation induced by increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 have the potential to impact marine biota in various ways. The process of biogenic calcification, for instance, is usually shown to be negatively affected. In coccolithophores, an important group of pelagic calcifiers, changes in cellular calcification rates in response to changing ocean carbonate chemistry appear to differ among species. By applying a wider CO2 range we show that a species previously reported insensitive to seawater acidification, Coccolithus braarudii, responds both in terms of calcification and photosynthesis, although at higher levels of CO2. Thus, observed differences between species seem to be related to individual sensitivities while the underlying mechanisms could be the same. On this basis we develop a conceptual model of coccolithophorid calcification and photosynthesis in response to CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry speciation.

  15. Discussion of Carbon Emissions for Charging Hot Metal in EAF Steelmaking Process

    Yang, Ling-zhi; Jiang, Tao; Li, Guang-hui; Guo, Yu-feng

    2017-07-01

    As the cost of hot metal is reduced for iron ore prices are falling in the international market, more and more electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking enterprises use partial hot metal instead of scrap as raw materials to reduce costs and the power consumption. In this paper, carbon emissions based on 1,000 kg molten steel by charging hot metal in EAF steelmaking is studied. Based on the analysis of material and energy balance calculation in EAF, the results show that 146.9, 142.2, 137.0, and 130.8 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 %, while 143.4, 98.5, 65.81, and 31.5 kg/t of carbon emissions are produced at a hot metal ratio of 0 %, 30 %, 50 %, and 70 % by using gas waste heat utilization (coal gas production) for EAF steelmaking unit process. However, carbon emissions are increased by charging hot metal for the whole blast furnace-electric arc furnace (BF-EAF) steelmaking process. In the condition that the hot metal produced by BF is surplus, as carbon monoxide in gas increased by charging hot metal, the way of coal gas production can be used for waste heat utilization, which reduces carbon emissions in EAF steelmaking unit process.

  16. Migration of carbon dioxide included micro-nano bubble water in porous media and its monitoring

    Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Suzuki, K.; Koichi, O.

    2017-12-01

    The distributed CO2 storage is the small scale storage and its located near the emission areas. In the distributed CO2 storage, the CO2 is neutralized by sediment and underground water in the subsurface region (300-500m depth). Carbon dioxide (CO2) included micro-nano bubbles is one approach in neutralizing CO2 and sediments by increasing CO2 volume per unit volume of water and accelerating the chemical reaction. In order to design underground treatment for CO2 gas in the subsurface, it is required to elucidate the behavior of CO2 included micro-nano bubbles in the water. In this study, we carried out laboratory experiment using the soil tank, and measure the amount of leakage of CO2 gas at the surface. In addition, the process of migration of carbon dioxide included micro-nano bubble was monitored by the nondestructive method, wave velocity and resistivity.

  17. A discussion for stabilization time of carbon steel in atmospheric corrosion

    Zhang, Zong-kai; Ma, Xiao-bing; Cai, Yi-kun

    2017-09-01

    Stabilization time is an important parameter in long-term prediction of carbon steel corrosion in atmosphere. The range of the stabilization time of carbon steel in atmospheric corrosion has been published in many scientific literatures. However, the results may not precise because engineering experiences is dominant. This paper deals with the recalculation of stabilization time based on ISO CORRAG program, and analyzes the results and makes a comparison to the data mentioned above. In addition, a new thinking to obtain stabilization time will be proposed.

  18. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  19. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  20. In situ aquifer bioremediation of organics including cyanide and carbon disulfide

    Abou-Rizk, J.A.M.; Leavitt, M.E.; Graves, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Low levels (< 1 mg/L) of acetone, cyanide, phenol, naphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, and carbon disulfide from an inactive industrial landfill were found above background levels in a shallow aquifer at an eastern coastal site. In situ biodegradation was evaluated for treatment of these contaminants. Two soil samples and three groundwater samples were taken from the site for a laboratory bioassessment and a biotreatability test. The positive results of the bioassessment suggested moving forward with biotreatability testing. Biotreatability test results indicated suitable site conditions for bioremediation and that all the contaminants of concern at the site could be biodegraded to nondetect or very low levels (< 50 microg/L) with oxygen only; i.e., addition of nutrients was not required. Pilot-scale testing was undertaken on site to provide information for full-scale design, including oxygen requirements and air injection well spacing. This report describes the approach, the results, and their impact on the full-scale remediation system

  1. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  2. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  3. Method for calculating carbon footprint of cattle feeds – including contribution from soil carbon changes and use of cattle manure

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels; Nguyen, T Lan T

    2014-01-01

    fodder crop, an individual production scheme was set up as the basis for calculating the carbon footprint (CF). In the calculations, all fodder crops were fertilized by artificial fertilizer based on the assumption that the environmental burden of using manure is related to the livestock production......Greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) related to feed production is one of the hotspots in livestock production. The aim of this paper was to estimate the carbon footprint of different feedstuffs for dairy cattle using life cycle assessment (LCA). The functional unit was ‘1 kg dry matter (DM) of feed...

  4. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    Wang Run; Liu Wenjuan; Xiao Lishan; Liu Jian; Kao, William

    2011-01-01

    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: → We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. → Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. → We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  5. Routing strategy including time and carbon dioxide emissions : effects on network performance

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Y.; Goni Ros, B.; GAO, Jian; Knoop, V.L.

    2016-01-01

    Traffic congestion leads to delays and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Traffic management measures such as providing information on environmental route costs have been proposed to mitigate congestion. Multi-criteria routing dynamic traffic assignment (MCR-DTA) models are needed to evaluate

  6. Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy

    Radue, Matthew S.

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra

  7. Slowing the rate of loss of mineral wetlands on human dominated landscapes - Diversification of farmers markets to include carbon (Invited)

    Creed, I. F.; Badiou, P.; Lobb, D.

    2013-12-01

    Canada is the fourth-largest exporter of agriculture and agri-food products in the world (exports valued at 28B), but instability of agriculture markets can make it difficult for farmers to cope with variability, and new mechanisms are needed for farmers to achieve economic stability. Capitalizing on carbon markets will help farmers achieve environmentally sustainable economic performance. In order to have a viable carbon market, governments and industries need to know what the carbon capital is and what potential there is for growth, and farmers need financial incentives that will not only allow them to conserve existing wetlands but that will also enable them to restore wetlands while making a living. In southern Ontario, farmers' needs to maximize the return on investment on marginal lands have resulted in loss of 70-90% of wetlands, making this region one of the most threatened region in terms of wetland degradation and loss in Canada. Our project establishes the role that mineral wetlands have in the net carbon balance by contributing insight into the potential benefits to carbon management provided by wetland restoration efforts in these highly degraded landscapes. The goal was to establish the magnitude of carbon offsets that could be achieved through wetland conservation (securing existing carbon stocks) and restoration (creating new carbon stocks). The experimental design was to focus on (1) small (0.2-2.0 ha) and (2) isolated (no inflow or outflow) mineral wetlands with the greatest restoration potential that included (3) a range of restoration ages (drained (0 yr), 3 yr, 6 yr, 12 yr, 20 yr, 35 yr, intact marshes) to capture potential changes in rates of carbon sequestration with restoration age of wetland. From each wetland, wetland soil carbon pools samples were collected at four positions: centre of wetland (open-water); emergent vegetation zone; wet meadow zone where flooding often occurs (i.e., high water mark); and upland where flooding rarely

  8. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  9. Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods.

  10. Investigations on the binary systems of boron with chromium, columbium, nickel, and thorium, including a discussion of the Phase TiB in the titanium-boron system

    Andersson, L H; Kiessling, R

    1950-01-01

    Investigations on the binary systems chromium-, columbium-, nickel-, and thorium-boron are reported. The titanium-boron system is discussed, and it is shown that the phase TiB, previously assumed to have zincblende structure, probably has a face-centered titanium lattice with boron in the octahedral interstices. In the chromium-boron system, the structure of the eta phase has been determined. It has the composition Cr/sub 3/B/sub 4/ and is isomorphous with Ta/sub 3/B/sub 4/ and Mn/sub 3/B/sub 4/. Some data for the delta phase are also given. For the columbium-boron system, a phase analysis has been carried out. The structures of three of the intermediary phases, CbB, Cb/sub 3/B/sub 2/, and CbB/sub 2/ (with extended homogeneity range), have been determined. They are isomorphous with corresponding phases of the tantalum-boron system. A brief phase analysis of the nickel-boron system showed the existence of a phase with lower boron content than Ni/sub 2/B, which has not been previously reported. In the thorium-boron system a new phase, probably with a complicated structure, was found with a boron content of about 50 at. %.

  11. Petroleum geological features and exploration prospect of deep marine carbonate rocks in China onshore: A further discussion

    Zhao Wenzhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep marine carbonate rocks have become one of the key targets of onshore oil and gas exploration and development for reserves replacement in China. Further geological researches of such rocks may practically facilitate the sustainable, steady and smooth development of the petroleum industry in the country. Therefore, through a deep investigation into the fundamental geological conditions of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, we found higher-than-expected resource potential therein, which may uncover large oil or gas fields. The findings were reflected in four aspects. Firstly, there are two kinds of hydrocarbon kitchens which were respectively formed by conventional source rocks and liquid hydrocarbons cracking that were detained in source rocks, and both of them can provide large-scale hydrocarbons. Secondly, as controlled by the bedding and interstratal karstification, as well as the burial and hydrothermal dolomitization, effective carbonate reservoirs may be extensively developed in the deep and ultra-deep strata. Thirdly, under the coupling action of progressive burial and annealing heating, some marine source rocks could form hydrocarbon accumulations spanning important tectonic phases, and large quantity of liquid hydrocarbons could be kept in late stage, contributing to rich oil and gas in such deep marine strata. Fourthly, large-scale uplifts were formed by the stacking of multi-episodic tectonism and oil and gas could be accumulated in three modes (i.e., stratoid large-area reservoir-forming mode of karst reservoirs in the slope area of uplift, back-flow type large-area reservoir-forming mode of buried hill weathered crust karst reservoirs, and wide-range reservoir-forming mode of reef-shoal reservoirs; groups of stratigraphic and lithologic traps were widely developed in the areas of periclinal structures of paleohighs and continental margins. In conclusion, deep marine carbonate strata in China onshore contain the conditions for

  12. Carbon Footprint of Inbound Tourism to Iceland: A Consumption-Based Life-Cycle Assessment including Direct and Indirect Emissions

    Hannah Sharp

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions caused by tourism have been studied from several perspectives, but few studies exist that include all direct and indirect emissions, particularly those from aviation. In this study, an input/output-based hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA method is developed to assess the consumption-based carbon footprint of the average tourist including direct and indirect emissions. The total inbound tourism-related GHG emissions are also calculated within a certain region. As a demonstration of the method, the full carbon footprint of an average tourist is assessed as well as the total GHG emissions induced by tourism to Iceland over the period of 2010–2015, with the presented approach applicable in other contexts as well. Iceland provides an interesting case due to three features: (1 the tourism sector in Iceland is the fastest-growing industry in the country with an annual growth rate of over 20% over the past five years; (2 almost all tourists arrive by air; and (3 the country has an almost emissions-free energy industry and an import-dominated economy, which emphasise the role of the indirect emissions. According to the assessment, the carbon footprint for the average tourist is 1.35 tons of CO2-eq, but ranges from 1.1 to 3.2 tons of CO2-eq depending on the distance travelled by air. Furthermore, this footprint is increasing due to the rise in average flight distances travelled to reach the country. The total GHG emissions caused by tourism in Iceland have tripled from approximately 600,000 tons of CO2-eq in 2010 to 1,800,000 tons in 2015. Aviation accounts for 50%–82% of this impact (depending on the flight distance underlining the importance of air travel, especially as tourism-related aviation is forecasted to grow significantly in the near future. From a method perspective, the carbon footprinting application presented in the study would seem to provide an efficient way to study both the direct and indirect

  13. Robust IR Remote Sensing Technique of the Total Column of Trace Gases Including Carbon Dioxide and Methane

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.

    2011-01-01

    Progress on the development of a differential radiometer based upon the Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) for methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (C02) detection in the atmosphere is presented. Methane measurements are becoming increasingly important as a component of NASA's programs to understand the global carbon cycle and quantifY the threat of global warming. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas in the Earth's radiation budget (after water vapor and carbon dioxide) and the second most important anthropogenic contributor to global warming. The importance of global warming and air quality to society caused the National Research Council to recommend that NASA develop the following missions [1]: ASCENDS (Active Sensing of C02 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons), GEOCAPE (Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), and GACM (Global Atmosphere Composition Mission). Though methane measurements are not specifically called out in these missions, ongoing environmental changes have raised the importance of understanding the methane budget. In the decadal survey is stated that "to close the carbon budget, we would also address methane, but the required technology is not obvious at this time. If appropriate and cost-effective methane technology becomes available, we strongly recommend adding a methane capability". In its 2007 report the International Panel on Climate Change identified methane as a key uncertainty in our understanding saying that the causes of recent changes in the growth rate of atmospheric CH4 are not well understood. What we do know is that methane arises from a number of natural sources including wet lands and the oceans plus man made sources from agriculture, as well as coal and petroleum production and distribution. It has recently been pointed out that large amount of methane are frozen in the permafrost of Canada and Siberia. There is a fear that melting of this permafrost driven by global warming may release large amounts of

  14. Transcriptome landscape of Lactococcus lactis reveals many novel RNAs including a small regulatory RNA involved in carbon uptake and metabolism.

    van der Meulen, Sjoerd B; de Jong, Anne; Kok, Jan

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing has revolutionized genome-wide transcriptome analyses, and the identification of non-coding regulatory RNAs in bacteria has thus increased concurrently. Here we reveal the transcriptome map of the lactic acid bacterial paradigm Lactococcus lactis MG1363 by employing differential RNA sequencing (dRNA-seq) and a combination of manual and automated transcriptome mining. This resulted in a high-resolution genome annotation of L. lactis and the identification of 60 cis-encoded antisense RNAs (asRNAs), 186 trans-encoded putative regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and 134 novel small ORFs. Based on the putative targets of asRNAs, a novel classification is proposed. Several transcription factor DNA binding motifs were identified in the promoter sequences of (a)sRNAs, providing insight in the interplay between lactococcal regulatory RNAs and transcription factors. The presence and lengths of 14 putative sRNAs were experimentally confirmed by differential Northern hybridization, including the abundant RNA 6S that is differentially expressed depending on the available carbon source. For another sRNA, LLMGnc_147, functional analysis revealed that it is involved in carbon uptake and metabolism. L. lactis contains 13% leaderless mRNAs (lmRNAs) that, from an analysis of overrepresentation in GO classes, seem predominantly involved in nucleotide metabolism and DNA/RNA binding. Moreover, an A-rich sequence motif immediately following the start codon was uncovered, which could provide novel insight in the translation of lmRNAs. Altogether, this first experimental genome-wide assessment of the transcriptome landscape of L. lactis and subsequent sRNA studies provide an extensive basis for the investigation of regulatory RNAs in L. lactis and related lactococcal species.

  15. Discussion Graphs

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  16. Wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes conveying fluid supported on linear viscoelastic two-parameter foundation including thermal and small-scale effects

    Sina, Nima; Moosavi, Hassan; Aghaei, Hosein; Afrand, Masoud; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a nonlocal Timoshenko beam model is employed for studying the wave dispersion of a fluid-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube on Viscoelastic Pasternak foundation under high and low temperature change. In addition, the phase and group velocity for the nanotube are discussed, respectively. The influences of Winkler and Pasternak modulus, homogenous temperature change, steady flow velocity and damping factor of viscoelastic foundation on wave dispersion of carbon nanotubes are investigated. It was observed that the characteristic of the wave for carbon nanotubes conveying fluid is the normal dispersion. Moreover, implying viscoelastic foundation leads to increasing the wave frequencies.

  17. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  18. Summary discussions

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  19. Cyclic Sequences, Events and Evolution of the Sino-Korean Plate,with a Discussion on the Evolution of Molar-tooth Carbonates,Phosphorites and Source Rocks

    MENG Xianghua; GE Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the research that the authors conducted on the cyclic sequences, events and evolutionary history from Proterozoic to Meso-Cenozoic in the Sino-Korean plate based on the principle of the Cosmos-Earth System. The authors divided this plate into 20 super-cyclic or super-mega-cyclic periods and more than 100 Oort periods. The research focused on important sea flooding events, uplift interruption events, tilting movement events, molar-tooth carbonate events, thermal events, polarity reversal events, karst events, volcanic explosion events and storm events, as well as types of resource areas and paleotectonic evolution. By means of the isochronous theory of the Cosmos-Earth System periodicity and based on long-excentricity and periodicity, the authors elaborately studied the paleogeographic evolution of the aulacogen of the Sino-Korean plate, the oolitic beach platform formation, the development of foreland basin and continental rift valley basin, and reconstructed the evolution of tectonic paleogeography and stratigraphic framework in the Sino-Korean plate in terms of evolutionary maps. Finally, the authors gave a profound discussion on the formation and development of molar-tooth carbonates, phosphorites and source rocks.

  20. Radiation-curing of acrylate composites including carbon fibres: A customized surface modification for improving mechanical performances

    Martin, Arnaud; Pietras-Ozga, Dorota; Ponsaud, Philippe; Kowandy, Christelle; Barczak, Mariusz; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The lower transverse mechanical properties of radiation-cured acrylate-based composites reinforced with carbon-fibre with respect to the thermosettable analogues was investigated from the viewpoint of chemical interactions at the interface between the matrix and the carbon material. XPS analysis of representative commercial carbon fibres revealed the presence of a significant amount of chemical functions potentially exerting an adverse effect on the initiation and propagation of the free radical polymerization initiated under high energy radiation. The EB-induced polymerization of n-butyl acrylate as a simple model monomer was conducted in the presence of various aromatic additives exhibiting a strong inhibiting effect, whereas thiols efficiently sensitize the initiation mechanism and undergo transfer reactions. A method based on the surface modification of sized fibres by thiomalic acid is proposed for overcoming the localized inhibition phenomenon and for improving the mechanical properties of the resulting acrylate-based composites. - Highlights: • Surface functions of C-fibres are analyzed for their effect on radical reaction. • Irradiation of nBu-acrylate in presence of aromatic additives reveals inhibition. • Thiol groups sensitize the radiation-initiated polymerization of nBu-acrylate. • Modification of C-fibres with thiomalic acid enhances composite properties

  1. Panel discussion

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  2. Challenges for INAA in studies of materials from advanced material research including rare earth concentrates and carbon based ceramics

    Bode, P.; Van Meerten, Th.G.

    2000-01-01

    Rare-earth elements are increasingly applied in advanced materials to be used, e.g., in electronic industry, automobile catalysts, or lamps and optical devices. Trace element analysis of these materials might be an interesting niche for NAA because of the intrinsic high accuracy of this technique, and the shortage of matrix matching reference materials with other methods for elemental analysis. The carbon composite materials form another category of advanced materials, where sometimes a very high degree of purity is required. Also for these materials, NAA has favorable analytical characteristics. Examples are given of the use of NAA in the analysis of both categories of materials. (author)

  3. Preparation of carbon paste electrodes including poly(styrene) attached glycine-Pt(IV) for amperometric detection of glucose.

    Dönmez, Soner; Arslan, Fatma; Sarı, Nurşen; Kurnaz Yetim, Nurdan; Arslan, Halit

    2014-04-15

    In this study, a novel carbon paste electrode that is sensitive to glucose was prepared using the nanoparticles modified (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) with polystyren (FMPS) with L-Glycine-Pt(IV) complexes. Polymeric nanoparticles having Pt(IV) ion were prepared from (4-Formyl-3-methoxyphenoxymethyl) polystyren, glycine and PtCl4 by template method. Glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized to a modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE) by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Determination of glucose was carried out by oxidation of enzymatically produced H2O2 at 0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Effects of pH and temperature were investigated, and optimum parameters were found to be 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. Linear working range of the electrode was 5.0×10(-6)-1.0×10(-3) M, R(2)=0.997. Storage stability and operational stability of the enzyme electrode were also studied. Glucose biosensor gave perfect reproducible results after 10 measurements with 2.3% relative standard deviation. Also, it had good storage stability (gave 53.57% of the initial amperometric response at the end of 33th day). © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  5. Panel Discussion

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  6. Characterization of Genotoxic Response to 15 Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes with Variable Physicochemical Properties Including Surface Functionalizations in the FE1-Muta(TM) Mouse Lung Epithelial Cell Line

    Jackson, Petra; Kling, Kirsten; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes vary greatly in physicochemical properties. We compared cytotoxic and genotoxic response to 15 multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with varying physicochemical properties to identify drivers of toxic responses. The studied MWCNT included OECD Working Party on Manufactured...... Nanomaterials (WPMN) (NM-401, NM-402, and NM-403), materials (NRCWE-026 and MWCNT-XNRI-7), and three sets of surface-modified MWCNT grouped by physical characteristics (thin, thick, and short I-III, respectively). Each Groups I-III included pristine, hydroxylated and carboxylated MWCNT. Group III also included...... an amino-functionalized MWCNT. The level of surface functionalization of the MWCNT was low. The level and type of elemental impurities of the MWCNT varied by...

  7. Fossil energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, including soil carbon effects, of producing agriculture and forestry feedstocks

    Christina E. Canter; Zhangcai Qin; Hao Cai; Jennifer B. Dunn; Michael Wang; D. Andrew Scott

    2017-01-01

    The GHG emissions and fossil energy consumption associated with producing potential biomass sup­ply in the select BT16 scenarios include emissions and energy consumption from biomass production, harvest/collection, transport, and pre-processing activities to the reactor throat. Emissions associated with energy, fertilizers, and...

  8. To sink or burn? A discussion of the potential contributions of forests to greenhouse gas balances through storing carbon or providing biofuels

    Kirschbaum, M.U.F.

    2003-01-01

    Forests can affect net CO 2 emissions by increasing or decreasing the amount of stored carbon, or by supplying biofuels for power generation to substitute for fossil fuels. However, forests store the most carbon when they remain undisturbed and are allowed to grow to maturity, whereas using wood for bioenergy requires wood removal from forests, which reduces on-site carbon storage. Hence, it is difficult to manage a forest simultaneously for maximum carbon storage and supplying fuelwood. For developing optimal strategies for the use of vegetation sinks, it is necessary to consider the feedbacks via the inherent natural adjustments in the global carbon cycle. Increased atmospheric CO 2 currently provides a driving force for carbon uptake by natural carbon reservoirs, such as the world's oceans. When carbon is removed from the atmosphere and stored in biomass, it lowers the concentration gradient between the atmosphere and these other reservoirs. This reduces the subsequent inherent rate of CO 2 removal from the atmosphere. This means that transferring a quantity of CO 2 from the atmosphere to a biomass pool lowers the atmospheric concentration the most immediately after the initial removal, but subsequently, the atmospheric concentration trends back towards the values without biospheric removal. The optimal timing for the use of vegetation sinks therefore depends on a number of factors: the length of time over which forest growth can be maintained, whether biomass is used for energy generation and on the nature of the most detrimental aspects of climate-change impacts. Climate-change impacts related to the instantaneous effect of temperature are mitigated less by vegetation sinks than impacts that act via the cumulative effect of increased temperature. It also means that short-term carbon storage in temporary sinks is not generally beneficial in mitigating climate change

  9. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (Pincreased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  10. Discussion on resin conversion related problems in the process of using ion exchange method to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine

    Yu Suqin; Du Yuhai; Long Qing; Han Wei; Que Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange method was used to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine, lean resin was converted by sodium bicarbonate solution. Because of high sodium bicarbonate, chlorine and uranium concentration in the converted solution, it is difficult to effectively use. Combined with the production practices of the mine, the resin conversion related problems were analyzed. Some measures were taken for improving utilization rate of the converted solution, and good results were obtained. The utilization rate of the converted solution increased to about 20% from less than lO%, and the consumption of sodium bicarbonate reduced by about 30%. (authors)

  11. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  12. The metal failure cases discussed

    Gupton, P

    1978-06-05

    The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.

  13. Summary of group discussions

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  14. Focus group discussions

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  15. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  16. Carbon monoxide

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The document identifies the main sources of carbon monoxide (CO) in the general outdoor atmosphere, describes methods of measuring and monitoring its concentration levels in the United Kingdom, and discusses the effects of carbon monoxide on human health. Following its review, the Panel has put forward a recommendation for an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom of 10 ppm, measured as a running 8-hour average. The document includes tables and graphs of emissions of CO, in total and by emission source, and on the increase in blood levels of carboxyhaemoglobin with continuing exposure to CO. 11 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Carbon dioxide and climate. [Appendix includes names and addresses of the Principal Investigators for the research projects funded in FY1991

    1991-10-01

    Global climate change is a serious environmental concern, and the US has developed An Action Agenda'' to deal with it. At the heart of the US effort is the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which has been developed by the Committee on Earth and Environmental Sciences (CEES) of the Federal Coordinating Council for Sciences, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET). The USGCRP will provide the scientific basis for sound policy making on the climate-change issue. The DOE contribution to the USGCRP is the Carbon Dioxide Research Program, which now places particular emphasis on the rapid improvement of the capability to predict global and regional climate change. DOE's Carbon Dioxide Research Program has been addressing the carbon dioxide-climate change connection for more than twelve years and has provided a solid scientific foundation for the USGCRP. The expansion of the DOE effort reflects the increased attention that the Department has placed on the issue and is reflected in the National Energy Strategy (NES) that was released in 1991. This Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1991 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments. The Environmental Sciences Division of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research supports a Carbon Dioxide Research Program to determine the scientific linkage between the rise of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, especially carbon dioxide, and climate and vegetation change. One facet is the Core CO{sub 2} Program, a pioneering program that DOE established more than 10 years ago to understand and predict the ways that fossil-fuel burning could affect atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, global climate, and the Earth's biosphere. Major research areas are: global carbon cycle; climate detection and models of climate change; vegetation research; resource analysis; and, information and integration.

  18. Activated carbons and gold

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  19. Discussion on Papers 8 - 10

    Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  20. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  1. A Large-scale Finite Element Model on Micromechanical Damage and Failure of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites Including Thermal Residual Stress

    Liu, P. F.; Li, X. K.

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman's cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.

  2. capital. A discussion paper

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  3. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change, Part II: RothC modelling of carbon dynamics including radiocarbon data

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Abiven, Samuel; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Reisser, Moritz; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2016-04-01

    It is still largely unknown what drives the vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to climate change, i.e. the likelihood of a soil to loose its SOC along with the change in environmental conditions. Our objective is to assess the SOC vulnerability of Swiss forest soils and identify its potential drivers: climate (temperature, soil moisture), soil (clay content, pH) and landscape (slope, aspect) properties. Fifty-four sites were selected for balanced spatial and driver magnitudes distribution. We measured the SOC characteristics (content and radiocarbon) and studied the C decomposition by laboratory soil incubations (details in Part I, abstract by B. González Domínguez). In order to assess the current SOC pool distribution and its radiocarbon signatures, we extended the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model with radiocarbon (14C) isotope modelling (RothCiso). The RothC model distinguishes four active SOC pools, decomposable and resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humified organic matter, and an inert SOC pool (Jenkinson 1990). The active pools are decomposed and mineralized to CO2 by first order kinetics. The RothCiso assigns all pools a 14C signature, based on the atmospheric 14C concentrations of the past century (plant C inputs) and their turnover. Currently we constrain the model with 14C signatures measured on the 54 fresh and their corresponding archived bulk soil samples, taken 12-24 years before. We were able to reproduce the measured radiocarbon concentrations of the SOC with the RothCiso and first results indicate, that the assumption of an inert SOC pool, that is radiocarbon dead, is not appropriate. In a second step we will compare the SOC mean residence time assessed by the two methodological approaches - incubation (C efflux based) and modelling (C stock based) - and relate it to the environmental drivers mentioned above. With the combination of the two methodological approaches and 14C analysis we hope to gain more insights into

  4. Carbonization

    Hennebutte, H G; Goutal, E

    1921-07-04

    Materials such as coal, peat, or schist are subjected to a rising temperature in successive stages in apparatus in which the distillation products are withdrawn at each stage. For example in a three-stage process, the acid products of the first or low-temperature stage are fixed in a suitable reagent, the basic products from a second or higher-temperature stage are absorbed in an acid reagent, hydrocarbons being retained by solvents, while the third are subjected to a pyrogenation process carried out in a closed vessel. Wherein the material is subjected in stages to a rising temperature, the gasified products being withdrawn at each stage, and are prevented as far as possible from mixing with the carbonized products.

  5. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  6. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  7. Learning through Discussions

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  8. Carbon

    Rivelino, Roberto; Maniero, Angelo M.; Prudente, Frederico Vasconcellos; Costa, Luís Silva da

    2006-01-01

    A combined Monte Carlo simulation with semiempirical quantum mechanics calculations has been performed to investigate the structure of hydrated fullerene (C60HyFn) and the influence of hydration on its UV–vis spectra. The statistical information of the C60 fullerene aqueous solution (C60FAS) is obtained from NPT ensemble including one C60 fullerene immerses in 898 water molecules. To obtain an efficient ensemble average, the auto-correlation function of the energy has been calculated. The ana...

  9. Session 1 - discussion

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  11. Discussion on Papers 5 - 7

    Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  12. Discussion on nuclear issues

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  13. Summary of discussion

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  14. Summary and Discussion.

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  15. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  16. Carbon sequestration.

    Lal, Rattan

    2008-02-27

    Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.

  17. Hot atom chemistry of carbon

    Wolf, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    The chemistry of energetic carbon atoms is discussed. The experimental approach to studies that have been carried out is described and the mechanistic framework of hot carbon atom reactions is considered in some detail. Finally, the direction that future work might take is examined, including the relationship of experimental to theoretical work. (author)

  18. Panel discussion : contract design

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  19. Panel discussion : contract design

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  20. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  1. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  2. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  3. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  4. Trading forest carbon

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  5. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  6. Results and discussion

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  7. Strategies for Stimulating Discussion

    2017-06-01

    such as Army leader education. The Army currently trains and educates Soldiers and Civilians from diverse backgrounds through career -long learning...techniques is sparse and largely anecdotal. Typically the exercise concepts in the literature are presented as ideas that can be included in a toolkit

  8. Final plenary discussion

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)

  9. Erosion of soil organic carbon: implications for carbon sequestration

    Van Oost, Kristof; Van Hemelryck, Hendrik; Harden, Jennifer W.; McPherson, B.J.; Sundquist, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural activities have substantially increased rates of soil erosion and deposition, and these processes have a significant impact on carbon (C) mineralization and burial. Here, we present a synthesis of erosion effects on carbon dynamics and discuss the implications of soil erosion for carbon sequestration strategies. We demonstrate that for a range of data-based parameters from the literature, soil erosion results in increased C storage onto land, an effect that is heterogeneous on the landscape and is variable on various timescales. We argue that the magnitude of the erosion term and soil carbon residence time, both strongly influenced by soil management, largely control the strength of the erosion-induced sink. In order to evaluate fully the effects of soil management strategies that promote carbon sequestration, a full carbon account must be made that considers the impact of erosion-enhanced disequilibrium between carbon inputs and decomposition, including effects on net primary productivity and decomposition rates.

  10. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  11. Changing global carbon cycle

    Canadell, Pep

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (C02) is the single largest human perturbation on the earth's radiative balance contributing to climate change. Its rate of change reflects the balance between anthropogenic carbon emissions and the dynamics of a number of terrestrial and ocean processes that remove or emit C02. It is the long term evolution of this balance that will determine to large extent the speed and magnitude of the human induced climate change and the mitigation requirements to stabilise atmospheric C02 concentrations at any given level. In this talk, we show new trends in global carbon sources and sinks, with particularly focus on major shifts occurring since 2000 when the growth rate of atmospheric C02 has reached its highest level on record. The acceleration in the C02 growth results from the combination of several changes in properties of the carbon cycle, including: acceleration of anthropogenic carbon emissions; increased carbon intensity of the global economy, and decreased efficiency of natural carbon sinks. We discuss in more detail some of the possible causes of the reduced efficiency of natural carbon sinks on land and oceans, such as the decreased net sink in the Southern Ocean and on terrestrial mid-latitudes due to world-wide occurrence of drought. All these changes reported here characterise a carbon cycle that is generating stronger than expected climate forcing, and sooner than expected

  12. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  13. Discussion

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  14. Fiscal 2000 achievement report. Development of comprehensive technologies for environmental conservation including prevention of global warming by the carbonization of wood, etc.; 2000 nendo jumoku nado no tanka ni yoru ondanka boshinado fukugo kankyo taisaku gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop new technologies whereby carbon dioxide is absorbed by and fixed in rapidly growing trees. The trees are felled and subjected to high-efficiency carbonization, and the thus-obtained carbonized material is used for environmental purification or the like and then buried in the ground. Studies are under way to find out if the cycle (operations) may be organized into an industry. Activities are conducted in the five fields of (1) carbonized materials, (2) carbonization, (3), industrial use of charcoal, (4) stabilization of charcoal, and (5) reports on surveys (mainly overseas). In field (2), following an introduction consisting of the carbonization mechanism and the definition of terms, surveys are conducted of the existence of carbonizable resources in Japan, distribution channels of imported charcoal and activated charcoal in Japan, various carbonization apparatuses, carbonization equipment incorporated into gasifying fusion furnaces, carbonization furnace as a system, and the trends of development of pyroligneous acid and development of its use. In field (3), studies are made on its use in industries, on its application to agriculture, forestry, and livestock industry, and on the utilization of its electromagnetic properties. (NEDO)

  15. Irradiation-induced structure and property changes in tokamak plasma-facing, carbon-carbon composites

    Burchell, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma-facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce large neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 degree C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included uni-directional, two-directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Dimensional changes are reported for the composite materials and are related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, the irradiation-induced dimensional changes are reported and discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. The effect of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of two three-directional, carbon-carbon composites is reported and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is discussed

  16. Organic-Carbon Sequestration in Soil/Sediment of the Mississippi River Deltaic Plain - Data; Landscape Distribution, Storage, and Inventory; Accumulation Rates; and Recent Loss, Including a Post-Katrina Preliminary Analysis (Chapter B)

    Markewich, Helaine W.; Buell, Gary R.; Britsch, Louis D.; McGeehin, John P.; Robbins, John A.; Wrenn, John H.; Dillon, Douglas L.; Fries, Terry L.; Morehead, Nancy R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil/sediment of the Mississippi River deltaic plain (MRDP) in southeastern Louisiana is rich in organic carbon (OC). The MRDP contains about 2 percent of all OC in the surface meter of soil/sediment in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). Environments within the MRDP differ in soil/sediment organic carbon (SOC) accumulation rate, storage, and inventory. The focus of this study was twofold: (1) develop a database for OC and bulk density for MRDP soil/sediment; and (2) estimate SOC storage, inventory, and accumulation rates for the dominant environments (brackish, intermediate, and fresh marsh; natural levee; distributary; backswamp; and swamp) in the MRDP. Comparative studies were conducted to determine which field and laboratory methods result in the most accurate and reproducible bulk-density values for each marsh environment. Sampling methods included push-core, vibracore, peat borer, and Hargis1 sampler. Bulk-density data for cores taken by the 'short push-core method' proved to be more internally consistent than data for samples collected by other methods. Laboratory methods to estimate OC concentration and inorganic-constituent concentration included mass spectrometry, coulometry, and loss-on-ignition. For the sampled MRDP environments, these methods were comparable. SOC storage was calculated for each core with adequate OC and bulk-density data. SOC inventory was calculated using core-specific data from this study and available published and unpublished pedon data linked to SSURGO2 map units. Sample age was estimated using isotopic cesium (137Cs), lead (210Pb), and carbon (14C), elemental Pb, palynomorphs, other stratigraphic markers, and written history. SOC accumulation rates were estimated for each core with adequate age data. Cesium-137 profiles for marsh soil/sediment are the least ambiguous. Levee and distributary 137Cs profiles show the effects of intermittent allochthonous input and/or sediment resuspension. Cesium-137 and 210Pb data gave the most

  17. Carbon photonics

    Konov, V I [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    The properties of new carbon materials (single-crystal and polycrystalline CVD diamond films and wafers, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene) and the prospects of their use as optical elements and devices are discussed. (optical elements of laser devices)

  18. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  19. The effects of neutron irradiation on the structure of carbon-carbon composites

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P.; Hollenberg, G. W.; Slagle, O.D.; Watson, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper irradiation behavior of carbon fibers and carbon-carbon composites are discussed in terms on simple microstructural models. Previous data are discussed in terms of these models. New data are presented for the irradiation-induced dimensional changes of selected carbon-carbon composites. The influence of fiber precursor on carbon- carbon irradiation performance is discussed

  20. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  1. Carbon nanomaterial based electrochemical sensors for biogenic amines

    Yang, Xiao; He, Xiulan; Li, Fangping; Fei, Junjie; Feng, Bo; Ding, Yonglan

    2013-01-01

    This review describes recent advances in the use of carbon nanomaterials for electroanalytical detection of biogenic amines (BAs). It starts with a short introduction into carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamonds, carbon nanofibers, fullerenes, and their composites. Next, electrochemical sensing schemes are discussed for various BAs including dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine. Examples are then given for methods for simultaneous detection of various BAs. Finally, we discuss the current and future challenges of carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for BAs. The review contains 175 references. (author)

  2. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  3. Carbonate aquifers

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Sukop, Michael; Curran, H. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Only limited hydrogeological research has been conducted using ichnology in carbonate aquifer characterization. Regardless, important applications of ichnology to carbonate aquifer characterization include its use to distinguish and delineate depositional cycles, correlate mappable biogenically altered surfaces, identify zones of preferential groundwater flow and paleogroundwater flow, and better understand the origin of ichnofabric-related karst features. Three case studies, which include Pleistocene carbonate rocks of the Biscayne aquifer in southern Florida and Cretaceous carbonate strata of the Edwards–Trinity aquifer system in central Texas, demonstrate that (1) there can be a strong relation between ichnofabrics and groundwater flow in carbonate aquifers and (2) ichnology can offer a useful methodology for carbonate aquifer characterization. In these examples, zones of extremely permeable, ichnofabric-related macroporosity are mappable stratiform geobodies and as such can be represented in groundwater flow and transport simulations.

  4. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  5. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  6. Discussion of "Carbon benefits of wolfberry plantation on secondary saline land in Jingtai oasis, Gansu - A case study on application of the CBP model" by Yaolin Wang, Chuanyan Zhao, Quanlin Ma, Yingke Li, Hujia Jing, Tao Sun, Eleanor Milne, Mark Easter, Keith Paustian, Hoi Wen Au Yong, John McDonagh (2015) [Journal of Environmental Management 157, 303-310].

    Azarnivand, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Wang et al. (2015) employed driving force-pressure-state-impact-response (DPSIR) framework to provide a robust decision-making structure for carbon emission reduction by use of wolfberry plantation in the Jingtai oasis, China. DPSIR appropriately identified the causes of problem along with adopting the responses to the barriers associated with wolfberry plantation. However, the discusser argues that, the paper could have prepared more viable outcomes, if the authors had used causal network rather than causal chains through the DPSIR framework. Furthermore, they could have quantified the mutual relationship among the relevant factors to provide a detailed economic assessment. With this knowledge in hand, the current discussion letter suggests eDPSIR and meDPSIR to address drawbacks regarding conventional DPSIR framework. Due to proper performance of eDPSIR and meDPSIR, they are recommended as practical tools in the future environmental studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation damage in carbon-carbon composites: Structure and property effects

    Burchell, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation tokamak reactors such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require high thermal conductivity carbon-carbon composites and other materials, such as beryllium, to protect their plasma facing components from the anticipated high heat fluxes. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce a large neutron flux. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HAIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORAL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (da) at an irradiation temperature of ∼600 degrees C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated here included unidirectional, two- directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Irradiation induced dimensional changes are reported for the materials and related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, carbon-carbon composite material dimensional changes are discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. Neutron irradiation induced reductions in the thermal conductivity of two, three-directional carbon-carbon composites are reported, and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is demonstrated. Irradiation induced strength changes are reported for several carbon-carbon composite materials and are explained in terms of in-crystal and composite structural effects

  8. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  9. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  10. Can warming particles enter global climate discussions?

    Bond, Tami C

    2007-01-01

    'Soot' or 'black carbon', which comes from incomplete combustion, absorbs light and warms the atmosphere. Although there have been repeated suggestions that reduction of black carbon could be a viable part of decreasing global warming, it has not yet been considered when choosing actions to reduce climatic impact. In this paper, I examine four conceptual barriers to the consideration of aerosols in global agreements. I conclude that some of the major objections to considering aerosols under hemispheric or global agreements are illusory because: (1) a few major sources will be addressed by local regulations, but the remainder may not be addressed by traditional air quality management; (2) climate forcing by carbon particles is not limited to 'hot spots'-about 90% of it occurs at relatively low concentrations; (3) while aerosol science is complex, the most salient characteristics of aerosol behavior can be condensed into tractable metrics including, but not limited to, the global warming potential; (4) despite scientific uncertainties, reducing all aerosols from major sources of black carbon will reduce direct climate warming with a very high probability. This change in climate forcing accounts for at least 25% of the accompanying CO 2 forcing with significant probability (25% for modern diesel engines, 90% for superemitting diesels, and 55% for cooking with biofuels). Thus, this fraction of radiative forcing should not be ignored

  11. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  12. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes as Optical Sensors in Biomedicine.

    Farrera, Consol; Torres Andón, Fernando; Feliu, Neus

    2017-11-28

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have become potential candidates for a wide range of medical applications including sensing, imaging, and drug delivery. Their photophysical properties (i.e., the capacity to emit in the near-infrared), excellent photostability, and fluorescence, which is highly sensitive to the local environment, make SWCNTs promising optical probes in biomedicine. In this Perspective, we discuss the existing strategies for and challenges of using carbon nanotubes for medical diagnosis based on intracellular sensing as well as discuss also their biocompatibility and degradability. Finally, we highlight the potential improvements of this nanotechnology and future directions in the field of carbon nanotubes for biomedical applications.

  14. The Social Studies Should Include More Discussion of International Human Rights.

    Torney, Judith V.

    1980-01-01

    Students need more exposure to the concept of human rights. They need to know The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent covenants. Also, they need to know that substantial agreement exists in the international community about what constitutes human rights. (Author/KC)

  15. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  16. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  17. Open Education Week Panel Discussion

    Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...

  18. Carbon fibre as a composites materials precursor-A review

    Ismail, A.F.; Yusof, N.; Mustafa, A.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon fibers are widely used as reinforcement in composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics, carbon fiber reinforced ceramics, carbon-carbon composites and carbon fiber reinforced metals, due to their high specific strength and modulus. Carbon fiber composites are ideally suited to applications where strength, stiffness, lower weight and outstanding fatigue characteristics are critical requirements. Generally, there are two main sectors of carbon fiber applications. Application of carbon fiber in high technology sectors includes aerospace and nuclear engineering whereby the use of carbon fiber is driven by maximum performance and not significantly influenced by cost factors. Meanwhile, the application in general engineering and transportations sector is dominated by cost constraints. Carbon fibers used in composites are often coated or surface treated to improve interaction between the fiber surface and the matrix. PAN/ CNT composite fibers are good candidates for the development of next generation carbon fibers with improved tensile strength and modulus while retaining its compressive strength. This paper aims at reviewing and critically discussing the fabrication aspects of carbon fiber for composites which can be divided into several sections: precursor selection, spinning process, pretreatment of the precursor, pyrolysis process, and also surface treatment of the carbon fiber. The future direction of carbon fiber for composite is also briefly identified to further extend the boundary of science and technology in order to fully exploit its potential. (author)

  19. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  20. General discussion of feasibility study

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  1. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  2. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  3. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  4. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  5. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  6. Carbon Dioxide Effects Research and Assessment Program: Proceedings of the carbon dioxide and climate research program conference

    Schmitt, L E [ed.

    1980-12-01

    Papers presented at the Carbon Dioxide and Climate Research Program Conference are included in this volume. Topics discussed are: the carbon cycle; modeling the carbon system; climatic response due to increased CO2; climate modeling; the use of paleoclimatic data in understanding climate change; attitudes and implications of CO2; social responses to the CO2 problem; a scenario for atmospheric CO2 to 2025; marine photosynthesis and the global carbon cycle; and the role of tropical forests in the carbon balance of the world. Separate abstracts of nine papers have been prepared for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (RJC)

  7. The effect of neutron irradiation on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials

    Burchell, T.D.; Eatherly, W.P.; Robbins, J.M.; Strizak, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Carbon-based materials are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce high neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from an irradiation experiment are reported and discussed here. Fusion relevant graphite and carbon-carbon composites were irradiated in a target capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 1.59 dpa at 600 degrees C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included nuclear graphite grade H-451 and one-, two-, and three-directional carbon-carbon composite materials. Dimensional changes, thermal conductivity and strength are reported for the materials examined. The influence of fiber type, architecture, and heat treatment temperature on properties and irradiation behavior are reported. Carbon-Carbon composite dimensional changes are interpreted in terms of simple microstructural models

  8. Discussion on the thermal conductivity enhancement of nanofluids

    2011-01-01

    Increasing interests have been paid to nanofluids because of the intriguing heat transfer enhancement performances presented by this kind of promising heat transfer media. We produced a series of nanofluids and measured their thermal conductivities. In this article, we discussed the measurements and the enhancements of the thermal conductivity of a variety of nanofluids. The base fluids used included those that are most employed heat transfer fluids, such as deionized water (DW), ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol, silicone oil, and the binary mixture of DW and EG. Various nanoparticles (NPs) involving Al2O3 NPs with different sizes, SiC NPs with different shapes, MgO NPs, ZnO NPs, SiO2 NPs, Fe3O4 NPs, TiO2 NPs, diamond NPs, and carbon nanotubes with different pretreatments were used as additives. Our findings demonstrated that the thermal conductivity enhancements of nanofluids could be influenced by multi-faceted factors including the volume fraction of the dispersed NPs, the tested temperature, the thermal conductivity of the base fluid, the size of the dispersed NPs, the pretreatment process, and the additives of the fluids. The thermal transport mechanisms in nanofluids were further discussed, and the promising approaches for optimizing the thermal conductivity of nanofluids have been proposed. PMID:21711638

  9. Discussion on Papers 14 - 16

    Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  10. Discussion of Minos Mine operating system

    Pan, B.

    1991-10-01

    The MINOS (mine operating system), which is used in the majority of British collieries, provides central control at the surface for the machinery and environmental equipment distributed throughout the mine. Installed equipment, including face machinery, conveyors, pumps, fans and sensors are connected to local outstations which all communicate with the control system via a single run of signal cable. The article discusses the system particularly its use in the Automated Control System of Underground Mining Locomotives (ACSUML). The discussion includes the use of MINOS to improve wagon identification, the operating principle of ACSUML and the possibilities of a driverless locomotive. 2 figs.

  11. Summary of presentations and discussions

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  12. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  13. Composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  14. Soil carbon management in large-scale Earth system modelling

    Olin, S.; Lindeskog, M.; Pugh, T. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    , carbon sequestration and nitrogen leaching from croplands are evaluated and discussed. Compared to the version of LPJ-GUESS that does not include land-use dynamics, estimates of soil carbon stocks and nitrogen leaching from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems were improved. Our model experiments allow us...

  15. Carbons and carbon supported catalysts in hydroprocessing

    Furimsky, Edward

    2009-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive summary of recent research in the field and covers all areas of carbons and carbon materials. The potential application of carbon supports, particularly those of carbon black (CB) and activated carbon (AC) in hydroprocessing catalysis are covered. Novel carbon materials such as carbon fibers and carbon nano tubes (CNT) are also covered, including the more recent developments in the use of fullerenes in hydroprocessing applications. Although the primary focus of this book is on carbons and carbon supported catalysts, it also identifies the difference in the effect of carbon supports compared with the oxidic supports, particularly that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The difference in catalyst activity and stability was estimated using both model compounds and real feeds under variable conditions. The conditions applied during the preparation of carbon supported catalysts are also comprehensively covered and include various methods of pretreatment of carbon supports to enhance catalyst performance. The model compounds results consistently show higher hydrodesulfurization and hydrodeoxygenation activities of carbon supported catalysts than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported catalysts. Also, the deactivation of the former catalysts by coke deposition was much less evident. Chapter 6.3.1.3 is on carbon-supported catalysts: coal-derived liquids.

  16. Soil Carbon: Compositional and Isotopic Analysis

    Moran, James J.; Alexander, M. L.; Laskin, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    This is a short chapter to be included in the next edition of the Encyclopedia of Soil Science. The work here describes techniques being developed at PNNL for investigating organic carbon in soils. Techniques discussed include: laser ablation isotope ratio mass spectrometry, laser ablation aerosol mass spectrometry, and nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  17. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  18. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  19. Nanostructured Deep Carbon: A Wealth of Possibilities

    Navrotsky, A.

    2012-12-01

    The materials science community has been investigating novel forms of carbon including C60 buckyballs, nanodiamond, graphene, carbon "onion" structures with a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonding , and multicomponent nanostructured Si-O-C-N polymer derived ceramics. Though such materials are generally viewed as metastable, recently measured energetics of several materials suggest that this may not always be the case in multicomponent systems. Finely disseminated carbon phases, including nanodiamonds, have been found in rocks from a variety of deep earth settings. The question then is whether some of the more exotic forms of carbon can also exist in the deep earth or other planetary interiors. This presentation discusses thermodynamic constraints related to surface and interface energies, nanodomain structures, and compositional effects on the possible existence of complex carbon, carbide and oxycarbide nanomaterials at high pressure.

  20. Batteries not included

    Cooper, M.

    2001-09-08

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge.

  1. Batteries not included

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  2. Protolytic carbon film technology

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  3. New seismograph includes filters

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  4. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  5. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  6. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  7. Uranium, fuel for thought - discussion

    Baxter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the arguments in a paper by R. Phillips on the safety of the nuclear industry are criticised. Areas covered include reactor safety and radiation hazards. The author considers that a choice should be made on economic grounds which point to coal and nuclear being used as complimentary energy sources

  8. Analytic device including nanostructures

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  9. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  10. Being Included and Excluded

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  11. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  12. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Reitze, Arnold W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  13. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  14. Carbon debt - Lost in the forest?

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ‘carbon debt’ and carbon payback time with reference to bioenergy and biofuels was probably launched by anarticle in Science in 2008. The concept is increasingly seen as an indicator of the sustainability of bioenergy supply chains.Particularly for forest bioenergy supply chains...... the time lapse between harvest and regrowth may be a signifi cant factor for themodeled carbon debt. A meta-analysis of more than 250 model scenarios was conducted to evaluate the factors and assumptionsdetermining carbon debts and payback time of forest bioenergy supply chains. Factors such as spatial...... and temporal scale, biome,origin of the wood resource, which fossil fuels are displaced, forest history, baseline scenario, accounting principle, and databackground were included in the analysis. This paper discusses the evolution of the carbon debt concept, how different factorsand assumptions infl uence...

  15. Carbon Based Nanotechnology: Review

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews publicly available information related to carbon based nanotechnology. Topics covered include nanomechanics, carbon based electronics, nanodevice/materials applications, nanotube motors, nano-lithography and H2O storage in nanotubes.

  16. Recent progress in the preparation and application of carbon nanocapsules

    Hwang, Kuo Chu

    2010-01-01

    In this review paper, the processes for the fabrication of carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanospheres, carbon onions, onion-like carbons and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules are reviewed. These processes include carbon arc discharge, metal catalysed chemical vapour deposition, thermal pyrolysis of organometallics and nanodiamonds, electric arc in liquid (e.g. liquid N 2 , H 2 O and organic solvents), and microwave arcing. The applications of both hollow and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules/nanoparticles as x-ray target materials, nanolubricants, broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers, catalysts for organic reactions, electrode materials for batteries and electrochemical immunoassays, biomedical gene/drug transporters, etc are also reviewed. The future prospects are also discussed.

  17. Recent progress in the preparation and application of carbon nanocapsules

    Hwang, Kuo Chu, E-mail: kchwang@mx.nthu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-22

    In this review paper, the processes for the fabrication of carbon nanoparticles, carbon nanospheres, carbon onions, onion-like carbons and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules are reviewed. These processes include carbon arc discharge, metal catalysed chemical vapour deposition, thermal pyrolysis of organometallics and nanodiamonds, electric arc in liquid (e.g. liquid N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and organic solvents), and microwave arcing. The applications of both hollow and metal-filled carbon nanocapsules/nanoparticles as x-ray target materials, nanolubricants, broadband electromagnetic wave absorbers, catalysts for organic reactions, electrode materials for batteries and electrochemical immunoassays, biomedical gene/drug transporters, etc are also reviewed. The future prospects are also discussed.

  18. Panel discussion on laboratory accelerator programs: present and future

    Richter, B.

    1986-09-01

    The present SLAC accelerator program is summarized briefly, and the future of electron-positron colliders is discussed. Present activities discussed include the PEP storage ring, the SPEAR storage ring, the Linear Accelerator, and the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project. Future prospects include a larger scale linear collider. The stability requirements on acceleration are briefly discussed

  19. The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa

    Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2014-01-01

    carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces......South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border...

  20. Gasification of carbon deposits on catalysts and metal surfaces

    Figueiredo, J L

    1986-10-01

    'Coke' deposited on catalysts and reactor surfaces includes a variety of carbons of different structures and origins, their reactivities being conveniently assessed by Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR). The gasification of carbon deposits obtained in the laboratory under well controlled conditions, and the regeneration of coked catalysts from petroleum refining processes are reviewed and discussed. Filamentary carbon deposits, containing dispersed metal particles, behave as supported metal catalysts during gasification, and show high reactivities. Pyrolytic and acid catalysis carbons are less reactive on their own, as the gasification is not catalysed; however, metal components of the catalyst or metal impurities deposited on the surface may enhance gasification. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Axial nonimaging characteristics of imaging lenses: discussion.

    Siew, Ronian

    2016-05-01

    At observation planes away from the image plane, an imaging lens is a nonimaging optic. We examine the variation of axial irradiance with distance in image space and highlight the following little-known observation for discussion: On a per-unit-area basis, the position of the highest concentration in image space is generally not at the focal plane. This characteristic is contrary to common experience, and it offers an additional degree of freedom for the design of detection systems. Additionally, it would also apply to lenses with negative refractive index. The position of peak concentration and its irradiance is dependent upon the location and irradiance of the image. As such, this discussion also includes a close examination of expressions for image irradiance and explains how they are related to irradiance calculations beyond the image plane. This study is restricted to rotationally symmetric refractive imaging systems with incoherent extended Lambertian sources.

  2. Discussion of participation possibilities at KEK

    Gill, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    A group of physicists at TRIUMF have been meeting regularly to discuss options for involvement in experiments that relate closely to the physics that would be undertaken at the KAON Factory. At a meeting held to discuss possibilities for work at KEK in the light of the new facilities that are under construction or proposed as part of the JHP, the topics considered ranged from the ion source to kaon beams. They included measurements of kaon-nucleon elastic and inelastic scattering in the 1600 to 2000 MeV range; transport of polarized proton beams through synchrotrons; the development of laser pumped polarized ion sources and volume cusp H - sources; studies of the problems that high intensity beams will present for the maintenance of H - stripping foils; collaboration on radioactive beam facilities; production of hypernuclei; low energy kaon scattering; and new types of detectors

  3. D 3.6 Africa: Discussion report

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in general, sub-matter experts, experts on peace and conflict studies, and practitioners in crisis management. A total of eighteen speakers explored the effectiveness of international assistance to the four African examples from different perspectives, drawing a rather pessimistic picture of the current......One round-table event was organised within the framework of Work Package III, part of the IECEU project. The events focused on the WP3’s four case studies: Libya, CAR, South Sudan and DRC. This report provides information on the round-table event and presents the main points of discussion...... that emerged during it. The round-table discussion and the subsequent seminar on the Effectiveness of International Assistance and Local Ownership in the four case studies was organised by the Royal Danish Defence College on 31 October-1. November 2016. The round-table participants included experts on Africa...

  4. Some critical environmental issues of the energy discussions

    Wilson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    There are two complementary approaches to studying the environmental effects of fuel use and energy conversion. The first is to be completely systematic and to follow through each technology in great detail, and itemise each impact, whether large or small. The second, followed here, is to pick out those items that either dominate the risk or impact, or dominate the public perception therefore, and try to understand them in some detail. I pick the following that I believe are the most important environmental issues today: 1 What is the effect of particulate air pollution on today's levels? 2 What is the probability that carbon dioxide emissions will cause global warming? 3 Can we use this energy source in a sustainable fashion over several millennia? I will spend much of the space on a discussion of these three. However, there are a number of other items that some group or another think are important. They must also be considered to sufficient extent to persuade everyone involved that indeed they are less important. These include: 4 What is the probability and effect of a severe nuclear power accident? 5 Why is there public concern about nuclear waste although it is not justified by the calculations? 6 Why are hydroelectric dams not as universally popular as they were? 7 Can we avoid the proliferation of bombs using plutonium if we have a nuclear power program? 8 Can we reduce the cost of electricity from nuclear power to what is was 25 years ago? (Author)

  5. Performance-based regulation. Panel Discussion

    Youngblood, Robert; Bier, Vicki M.; Bukowski, Richard W.; Prasad Kadambi, N.; Koonce, James F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Performance-based regulation is a part of the NRC's Strategic Plan and is realizing steady progress in conceptual development for actual applications. For example, high-level, conceptual guidelines have been proposed that would apply to reactors, materials, and waste areas. Performance-based approaches are also being applied in other regulated industries such as FAA and OSHA. The discussion will include comments from speakers from different parts of the nuclear industry and other industries regarding benefits and weaknesses of performance-based regulation. (authors)

  6. Carbon nanotubes for biological and biomedical applications

    Yang Wenrong; Thordarson, Pall; Gooding, J Justin; Ringer, Simon P; Braet, Filip

    2007-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, researchers have been exploring their potential in biological and biomedical applications. The recent expansion and availability of chemical modification and bio-functionalization methods have made it possible to generate a new class of bioactive carbon nanotubes which are conjugated with proteins, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids. The modification of a carbon nanotube on a molecular level using biological molecules is essentially an example of the 'bottom-up' fabrication principle of bionanotechnology. The availability of these biomodified carbon nanotube constructs opens up an entire new and exciting research direction in the field of chemical biology, finally aiming to target and to alter the cell's behaviour at the subcellular or molecular level. This review covers the latest advances of bio-functionalized carbon nanotubes with an emphasis on the development of functional biological nano-interfaces. Topics that are discussed herewith include methods for biomodification of carbon nanotubes, the development of hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes and biomolecules for bioelectronics, and carbon nanotubes as transporters for a specific delivery of peptides and/or genetic material to cells. All of these current research topics aim at translating these biotechnology modified nanotubes into potential novel therapeutic approaches. (topical review)

  7. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    1997-01-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs)

  8. The global carbon cycle

    Maier-Reimer, E.

    1991-01-01

    Basic concepts of the global carbon cycle on earth are described; by careful analyses of isotopic ratios, emission history and oceanic ventilation rates are derived, which provide crucial tests for constraining and calibrating models. Effects of deforestation, fertilizing, fossil fuel burning, soil erosion, etc. are quantified and compared, and the oceanic carbon process is evaluated. Oceanic and terrestrial biosphere modifications are discussed and a carbon cycle model is proposed

  9. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  10. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB). Users' Manual and Technical Documentation

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2014 which includes corn and three cellulosic feedstocks: corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass.

  11. Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review

    Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

  12. Nanostructured carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes for supercapacitors: a review.

    Zhi, Mingjia; Xiang, Chengcheng; Li, Jiangtian; Li, Ming; Wu, Nianqiang

    2013-01-07

    This paper presents a review of the research progress in the carbon-metal oxide composites for supercapacitor electrodes. In the past decade, various carbon-metal oxide composite electrodes have been developed by integrating metal oxides into different carbon nanostructures including zero-dimensional carbon nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanostructures (carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers), two-dimensional nanosheets (graphene and reduced graphene oxides) as well as three-dimensional porous carbon nano-architectures. This paper has described the constituent, the structure and the properties of the carbon-metal oxide composites. An emphasis is placed on the synergistic effects of the composite on the performance of supercapacitors in terms of specific capacitance, energy density, power density, rate capability and cyclic stability. This paper has also discussed the physico-chemical processes such as charge transport, ion diffusion and redox reactions involved in supercapacitors.

  13. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  14. Carbon nanotubes from synthesis to in vivo biomedical applications.

    Sajid, Muhammad Imran; Jamshaid, Usama; Jamshaid, Talha; Zafar, Nadiah; Fessi, H; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-03-30

    Owing to their unique and interesting properties, extensive research round the globe has been carried out on carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes based systems to investigate their practical usefulness in biomedical applications. The results from these studies demonstrate a great promise in their use in targeted drug delivery systems, diagnostic techniques and in bio-analytical applications. Although, carbon nanotubes possess quite interesting properties, which make them potential candidates in the biomedical science, but they also have some inherent properties which arise great concern regarding their biosafety. In this comprehensive review, we have discussed different aspects of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube based systems related to biomedical applications. In the beginning, a short historical account of these tiny yet powerful particles is given followed by discussion regarding their types, properties, methods of synthesis, large scale production method, purification techniques and characterization aspects of carbon nanotubes. In the second part of the review, the functionalization of carbon nanotubes is reviewed in detail, which is not only important to make them biocompatible and stable in biological systems but also render them a great property of loading various biomolecules, diagnostic and therapeutic moieties resulting in diversified applications. In the final part of the review, emphasis is given on the pharmacokinetic aspects of carbon nanotubes including administration routes, absorption mechanisms, distribution and elimination of carbon nanotubes based systems. Lastly, a comprehensive account about the potential biomedical applications has been given followed by insights into the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brain plasticity, memory, and aging: a discussion

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.

    1977-12-01

    It is generally assumed that memory faculties decline with age. A discussion of the relationship of memory and aging and the possibility of retarding the potential decline is hampered by the fact that no satisfactory explanation of memory is available in either molecular or anatomical terms. However, this lack of description of memory does not mean that there is a lack of suggested mechanisms for long-term memory storage. Present theories of memory usually include first, neurophysiological or electrical events, followed by a series of chemical events which ultimately lead to long-lasting anatomical changes in the brain. Evidence is increasing for the biochemical and anatomical plasticity of the nervous system and its importance in the normal functioning of the brain. Modification of this plasticity may be an important factor in senescence. This discussion reports experiments which indicate that protein synthesis and anatomical changes may be involved in long-term memory storage. Environmental influences can produce quantitative differences in brain anatomy and in behavior. In experimental animals, enriched environments lead to more complex anatomical patterns than do colony or impoverished environments. This raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of the isolated animal which is frequently being used as a model for aging research. A more important applied question is the role of social and intellectual stimulation in influencing aging of the human brain.

  16. From carbon nanostructures to high-performance sorbents for chromatographic separation and preconcentration

    Postnov, V N; Rodinkov, O V; Moskvin, L N; Novikov, A G; Bugaichenko, A S; Krokhina, O A

    2016-01-01

    Information on carbon nanostructures (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene, nanodiamond and nanodispersed active carbon) used to develop high-performance sorbents of organics and heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions is collected and analyzed. The advantages in the synthesis of hybrid carbon nanostructures and the possibilities of surface modification of these systems in order to carry out fast sorption pre-concentration are considered. Prospects for application of these materials in sorption technologies and analytical chemistry are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references

  17. The use of the carbon dioxide laser in head and neck lymphangioma.

    White, B; Adkins, W Y

    1986-01-01

    The carbon dioxide laser has been used to treat various lesions of the head and neck, ranging from carcinomas to hemangiomas, and even including tatoos. A search of the literature does not reveal any reports of the carbon dioxide laser being used to treat lymphangioma. This report discusses the efficacy of treating lymphangioma of the air and food passages with the carbon dioxide laser, and presents three patients who have been treated in this fashion-two for palliation and one for cure.

  18. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nano materials

    Mostofizadeh, A.; Li, Y.; Song, B.; Huang, Y.; Mostofizadeh, A.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nano technology which is called carbon-related nano materials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nano materials. Carbon nano materials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nano materials such as zero-dimensional carbon nano materials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nano diamond, and onion-like carbons), one-dimensional carbon nano materials (including carbon nano fibers and carbon nano tubes), and two-dimensional carbon nano materials (including graphene and carbon nano walls) are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nano materials.

  19. Synthesis, Properties, and Applications of Low-Dimensional Carbon-Related Nanomaterials

    Ali Mostofizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. The goal of this paper is to provide a review of some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. Carbon nanomaterials are formed in various structural features using several different processing methods. The synthesis techniques used to produce specific kinds of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including fullerene, carbon-encapsulated metal nanoparticles, nanodiamond, and onion-like carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene and carbon nanowalls are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, the paper deals with an overview of the properties of the mainly important products as well as some important applications and the future outlooks of these advanced nanomaterials.

  20. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    Cooper, John F [Oakland, CA

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  1. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    G Michael Allan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005 from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188 of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188 of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188 of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005 and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009 or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02. Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. CONCLUSION: While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  2. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; LaSalle, Kate; Vandermeer, Ben; Ma, Victoria; Klein, Douglas; Manca, Donna

    2010-08-23

    Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs) routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005) from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188) of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188) of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188) of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005) and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009) or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02). Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  3. The need and necessity of an EU-wide renewable energy target for 2030. Discussion paper

    De Vos, R.; Winkel, T.; Klessmann, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 2020, some leading EU energy and climate policies will expire. At present, the EU and its Member States are discussing the design of a post-2020 policy portfolio. In a discussion paper commissioned by the European Copper Institute, Ecofys shows that an EU-wide renewable energy target is a necessary part of a 2030 portfolio. The paper analyses, in detail, two realistic policy portfolio options for renewable energy, target-setting in particular: one 'decarbonisation-only' EU target with voluntary national targets for renewable energy, and one that includes an EU-wide renewable energy target, broken down into binding national targets. The analysis shows that the latter option, when supported by appropriate and improved EU and Member States' policies and measures, is most suitable in facilitating a European low-carbon economy.

  4. Catalytic Enhancement of Solid Carbon Oxidation in HDCFCs

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Ippolito, Davide; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    data as a function of temperature, anode and cathode atmospheres, and their flow rates are discussed. In the anode chamber, catalysts are mixed with the carbon-carbonate mixture. These catalysts include various manganese oxides (MnO2, Mn2O3, and Mn3O4, Fig. 1) and doped-ceria (CeO2, Ce1-xGdxO2, Ce1-x...

  5. Maximum organic carbon limits at different melter feed rates (U)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report documents the results of a study to assess the impact of varying melter feed rates on the maximum total organic carbon (TOC) limits allowable in the DWPF melter feed. Topics discussed include: carbon content; feed rate; feed composition; melter vapor space temperature; combustion and dilution air; off-gas surges; earlier work on maximum TOC; overview of models; and the results of the work completed

  6. Carbon stocks and flux in French forests

    Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Pignard, Gerome; Badeau, Vincent; Thimonier, A.; Dhote, Jean-Francois; Nepveu, G.; Berges, L.; Augusto, L.; Belkacem, S.; Nys, C.

    2000-01-01

    Forests contain most of the carbon stored in the earth's biomass (81 %) and could play a role in CO 2 mitigation to a certain extent. We estimate French forest carbon stocks in biomass to be 860 MtC on 14.5 million hectares of forests, and 1,140 MtC in forest soils. Total carbon in the 14.5 million hectares of French forests is estimated at 2,000 MtC. Average annual flux for the 1979/91 period is 10.5 MtC/y, i.e. 10 % of national fossil fuel emissions. The main causes of this net carbon uptake are the rapid increase of forest area, increasing productivity due to environmental changes, ageing or, in some localized areas, more intensive silviculture practices. These carbon sinks are not offset by the harvesting level which remains low on average (61 % of the annual volume growth). Forestry carbon mitigation options applicable in France are discussed. The need for global economic and ecological budgets (including carbon stocks, soil fertility and biodiversity) of the possible alternatives is stressed. (authors)

  7. Global carbon budget 2013

    Le Quere, C.; Moriarty, R.; Jones, S.D.; Boden, T.A.; Peters, G.P.; Andrew, R.M.; Andres, R.J.; Ciais, P.; Bopp, L.; Maignan, F.; Viovy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO 2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO 2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990's, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated for the first time in this budget with data products based on surveys of ocean CO 2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO 2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO 2 and land cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). All uncertainties are reported as ±1, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2003-2012), EFF was 8.6±0.4 GtC yr -1 , ELUC 0.9±0.5 GtC yr -1 , GATM 4.3±0

  8. Summary of the presentations and discussions

    Massaut, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    key points can be highlighted: The main question seems to be: 'What are the elements making the funding system safer?' This can be looked at through different aspects: cost estimate; control of the funding and money collection; control of investment of the money; how to cope with uncertainties (including early shutdown and bankruptcy). The stability of the funding system over the time is a key factor for securing the funding (a good counter-example is the UK story). The decommissioning exercise should start before the plant is in operation; i.e. when a plant is constructed. An important aspect is also the information exchange with people having participated to actual D and D projects. Discussions by session: At the plenary discussions the following items were also recorded: the possibility of having an international body managing decommissioning funds; how far the present generation would need to go today to protect future generations from a virtual risk and how far do these ethical considerations need to be covered by the funds; the use of ethical values in the discussion with the public and the stakeholders; the pros and cons of segregated funds; the management and control of funds

  9. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  10. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  11. Climate Prediction Center: ENSO Diagnostic Discussion

    Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go Expert Assessments ENSO Diagnostic Discussion Archive About Us Our Assessments > ENSO Diagnostic Discussion El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion PDF : English Version Spanish Version Adobe PDF Reader (Click icon for Adobe PDF Reader) Word: English Version

  12. Novel phase of carbon, ferromagnetism, and conversion into diamond

    Narayan, Jagdish; Bhaumik, Anagh

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new phase of carbon (referred to as Q-carbon) and address fundamental issues related to direct conversion of carbon into diamond at ambient temperatures and pressures in air without any need for catalyst and presence of hydrogen. The Q-carbon is formed as result of quenching from super undercooled state by using high-power nanosecond laser pulses. We discuss the equilibrium phase diagram (P vs. T) of carbon and show that by rapid quenching kinetics can shift thermodynamic graphite/diamond/liquid carbon triple point from 5000 K/12 GPa to super undercooled carbon at atmospheric pressure in air. It is shown that nanosecond laser heating of diamond-like amorphous carbon on sapphire, glass, and polymer substrates can be confined to melt carbon in a super undercooled state. By quenching the carbon from the super undercooled state, we have created a new state of carbon (Q-carbon) from which nanodiamond, microdiamond, microneedles, and single-crystal thin films are formed depending upon the nucleation and growth times allowed for diamond formation. The Q-carbon quenched from liquid is a new state of solid carbon with a higher mass density than amorphous carbon and a mixture of mostly fourfold sp 3 (75%–85%) with the rest being threefold sp 2 bonded carbon (with distinct entropy). It is expected to have new and improved mechanical hardness, electrical conductivity, chemical, and physical properties, including room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) and enhanced field emission. Here we present interesting results on RTFM, enhanced electrical conductivity and surface potential of Q-carbon to emphasize its unique properties. The Q-carbon exhibits robust bulk ferromagnetism with estimated Curie temperature of about 500 K and saturation magnetization value of 20 emu g −1 . From the Q-carbon, diamond phase is nucleated and a variety of micro- and nanostructures and large-area single-crystal diamond sheets are grown by allowing growth times

  13. Carbon finance options in renewable energy

    Nahar, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol splits the world into two categories, notably Annex 1 with binding targets; and non-Annex 1 without any binding targets. This presentation discussed the Kyoto Protocol, with particular reference to the flexibility mechanisms which allow countries to achieve their emission targets in a cost effective way through emission trading, joint implementation, or clean development mechanisms (CDM). The CDM was outlined in detail in terms of how it works. The CDM key concepts include baseline use, additionality, and monitoring. Reasons for risk and CDM renewable energy projects were also outlined. Other topics that were presented included the impact of carbon finance; United States federal climate policy; European Union policy; EVO structured carbon; portfolio management; and EVO structured carbon. tabs., figs.

  14. Analysis of low-carbon industrial symbiosis technology for carbon mitigation in a Chinese iron/steel industrial park: A case study with carbon flow analysis

    Zhang, Hui; Dong, Liang; Li, Huiquan; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Tang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 mitigation strategies in industrial parks are a significant component of the Chinese climate change mitigation policy, and industrial symbiosis can provide specific CO 2 mitigation opportunity. Technology is important to support symbiosis, but few studies in China have focused on this topic at the industrial park level. This research presented a case study in a national iron and steel industrial park in China. Focus was given onto carbon mitigation through industrial symbiosis technology using substance flow analysis (SFA). Three typical iron and steel industry technologies, including coke dry quenching (CDQ), combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and CO 2 capture by slag carbonization (CCSC) were evaluated with SFA. Technology assessment was further conducted in terms of carbon mitigation potential and unit reduction cost. Compared with the Business as usual (BAU) scenario, application with CDQ, CCPP, and CCSC reduced the net carbon emissions by 56.18, 134.43, and 222.89 kg CO 2 per ton crude steel inside the industrial parks, respectively, including both direct and indirect emissions. Economic assessment revealed that the unit costs for the three technologies were also high, thereby necessitating national financial support. Finally, relevant policy suggestions and future concerns were proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • A typical carbon mitigation case study on China iron/steel industrial park. • Using carbon SFA to investigate mitigation effects of industrial symbiosis technology. • CCPP greatly reduced the indirect carbon emission embodied in power purchase. • CCSC reduced the carbon emission by distributing fixed carbon into by-product. • Specific low carbon-tech promotion policies fit to China was discussed and proposed

  15. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  16. An exploration of residents’ low-carbon awareness and behavior in Tianjin, China

    Bai, Yin; Liu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the empirical evidence of the link between residents’ low-carbon awareness and their behaviors in China. A questionnaire measuring seven dimensions (including low-carbon knowledge, low-carbon value, low-carbon attitude, private low-carbon behavior, public low-carbon behavior, barrier and motivator) was distributed to the residents of Tianjin, yielding 354 valid responses. The results indicated that there was a low-carbon awareness–behavior gap. In particular, the level of behavior was higher than awareness because the motivators were stronger than the barriers. Second, in exploring the affects of motivators versus barriers on the residents’ private and public low-carbon behaviors, we found that motivators promoted both private and public low-carbon behaviors while barriers significantly inhibited public low-carbon behaviors. Third, Chinese social and cultural factors are discussed to inform our exploration of the mechanisms forming the residents’ awareness–behavior gap. - Highlights: • There was a low-carbon awareness–behavior gap. • The level of behavior was higher than awareness. • The motivators promoted both private and public low-carbon behaviors. • The barriers significantly inhibited public low-carbon behaviors

  17. An Analytical Framework for the Steady State Impact of Carbonate Compensation on Atmospheric CO2

    Omta, Anne Willem; Ferrari, Raffaele; McGee, David

    2018-04-01

    The deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration impacts the fraction of the marine calcium carbonate production that is buried in sediments. This gives rise to the carbonate compensation feedback, which is thought to restore the deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration on multimillennial timescales. We formulate an analytical framework to investigate the impact of carbonate compensation under various changes in the carbon cycle relevant for anthropogenic change and glacial cycles. Using this framework, we show that carbonate compensation amplifies by 15-20% changes in atmospheric CO2 resulting from a redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and ocean (e.g., due to changes in temperature, salinity, or nutrient utilization). A counterintuitive result emerges when the impact of organic matter burial in the ocean is examined. The organic matter burial first leads to a slight decrease in atmospheric CO2 and an increase in the deep-ocean carbonate ion concentration. Subsequently, enhanced calcium carbonate burial leads to outgassing of carbon from the ocean to the atmosphere, which is quantified by our framework. Results from simulations with a multibox model including the minor acids and bases important for the ocean-atmosphere exchange of carbon are consistent with our analytical predictions. We discuss the potential role of carbonate compensation in glacial-interglacial cycles as an example of how our theoretical framework may be applied.

  18. Satellite Based Cropland Carbon Monitoring System

    Bandaru, V.; Jones, C. D.; Sedano, F.; Sahajpal, R.; Jin, H.; Skakun, S.; Pnvr, K.; Kommareddy, A.; Reddy, A.; Hurtt, G. C.; Izaurralde, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    and discussed some of which include 1) comparison of remote sensing based crop type LAI and crop phenology estimates with observed field scale data 2) comparison of carbon flux estimates from CCMS framework with measured fluxes at flux tower sites 3) regional scale differences in carbon fluxes among various crops in Nebraska.

  19. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  20. Carbon cycle

    Jaeger, J; Halbritter, G; Neumann-Hauf, G

    1982-05-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the subjects of the carbon cycle, the increase of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration and the possible impacts of an increased CO/sub 2/ concentration on the climate. In addition to this survey, the report discusses the questions that are still open and the resulting research needs. During the last twenty years a continual increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by about 1-2 ppm per years has been observed. In 1958 the concentration was 315 ppm and this increased to 336 ppm in 1978. A rough estimate shows that the increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is about half of the amount of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere by the combustion of fossil fuels. Two possible sinks for the CO/sub 2/ released into the atmosphere are known: the ocean and the biota. The role of the biota is, however, unclear, since it can act both as a sink and as a source. Most models of the carbon cycle are one-dimensional and cannot be used for accurate predictions. Calculations with climate models have shown that an increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration leads to a warming of the earth's surface and lower atmosphere. Calculations show that a doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/-concentration would lead to a net heating of the lower atmosphere and earth's surface by a global average of about 4 W m/sup -2/. Greater uncertainties arise in estimating the change in surface temperature resulting from this change in heating rate. It is estimated that the global average annual surface temperature would change between 1.5 and 4.5 K. There are, however, latitudinal and seasonal variations of the impact of increased CO/sub 2/ concentration. Other meteorological variables (e.g. precipitation, wind speed etc.) would also be changed. It appears that the impacts of the other products of fossil fuel combustion are unlikely to counteract the impacts of CO/sub 2/ on the climate.

  1. Carbon for sensing devices

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  2. Safety goals for nuclear power plants: a discussion paper

    1982-02-01

    This report includes a proposed policy statement on safety goals for nuclear power plants published by the Commission for public comment and a supporting discussion paper. Proposed qualitative goals and associated numerical guidelines for nuclear power-plant accident risks are presented. The significance of the goals and guidelines, their bases and rationale, and their proposed mode of implementation are discussed

  3. Discussion Strategies for the Inclusion of ALL Students

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Student-centered discussion strategies are described in this article in pursuance of insuring that ALL student voices have a chance to be heard in the classroom. Discussion strategies that are presented include the following: The 10 Second Rule, Think-Pair-Share, Quick Writes, Recorder-Reporter, and K-W-L.

  4. Are You Ready To Discuss IT Outsourcing on Your Campus?

    McCord, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Explores why the idea of outsourcing campus information technology (IT) services rouses opinions and passions best handled by informed dialogue. Discusses how to conduct this dialog, including common myths about outsourcing and useful lessons. (EV)

  5. In Situ Formation of Carbon Nanomaterials on Bulk Metallic Materials

    J. Y. Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials were synthesized in situ on bulk 316L stainless steel, pure cobalt, and pure nickel by hybrid surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT. The microstructures of the treated samples and the resulted carbon nanomaterials were investigated by SEM and TEM characterizations. Different substrates resulted in different morphologies of products. The diameter of carbon nanomaterials is related to the size of the nanograins on the surface layer of substrates. The possible growth mechanism was discussed. Effects of the main parameters of the synthesis, including the carbon source and gas reactant composition, hydrogen, and the reaction temperature, were studied. Using hybrid SMAT is proved to be an effective way to synthesize carbon nanomaterials in situ on surfaces of metallic materials.

  6. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Montemayor, V.

    2016-01-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  7. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  8. Pilot monitoring program: geologic input for the hillslope component (includes a discussion of Caspar Creek geology and geomorphology)

    T. E. Spittler

    1995-01-01

    The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) is submitting this report and accompanying maps to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) to fulfill Interagency Agreement number 8CA38400, Pilot Monitoring Program -- Geologic Input for the Hillslope Component. Under this agreement, DMG has assisted CDF in the...

  9. The Use of Dream Discussions in Counseling.

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical underpinnings of dream theories and suggests that discussions of dreams in counseling can aid in setting up and maintaining therapeutic contact with clients. A number of theoretical positions on the function of dreams are discussed. Specific dream counseling techniques are also delineated. (JAC)

  10. Online discussion: Enhancing students' critical thinking skills

    Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling

    2017-10-01

    Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.

  11. 33 CFR 240.5 - Discussion.

    2010-07-01

    ... CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.5 Discussion. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the Conference Report, H.R. Rpt. No. 99-1013, which accompanies H.R. 6. The House passed version of the bill... compatible work completed by local interests. The Senate passed version authorized crediting of compatible...

  12. Three discussions on object-oriented typing

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors.......This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors....

  13. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  14. Summaries of discussion groups and closeout

    1998-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Workshop registrants selected the following topics for group discussions: Commercial technology and beam instrumentation, 4th generation light source instrumentation, feedback systems, beam loss monitors, calibration methods, high resolution and highly stable BPM methods, challenges in beam profiling. Summaries of these discussion sessions are listed in the article that follows

  15. Discussion on Soft Computing at FLINS '96

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This is a report on the discussion about soft computing (SC) during FLINS'96. The discussion is based on the five questions formulated by X. Li, viz. (1) What is SC? (2) What are the characteristics of SC? (3) What are the principal achievements of SC? (4) What are the typical problems of SC and

  16. Intertextuality in Text-Based Discussions

    Ismail, Hamidah Mohd; Majid, Faizah Abd

    2011-01-01

    One of the main issues often discussed among academics is how to encourage active participation by students during classroom discussions. This applies particularly to students at the tertiary level who are expected to possess creative and critical thinking skills. Hence, this paper reports on a study that examined how these skills were…

  17. Evaluating the role of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta

    Doluweera, G.H.; Jordaan, S.M.; Moore, M.C.; Keith, D.W.; Bergerson, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Developing long-term carbon control strategies is important in energy intensive industries such as the oil sands operations in Alberta. We examine the use of cogeneration to satisfy the energy demands of oil sands operations in Alberta in the context of carbon management. This paper evaluates the role of cogeneration in meeting Provincial carbon management goals and discusses the arbitrary characteristics of facility- and product-based carbon emissions control regulations. We model an oil sands operation that operates with and without incorporated cogeneration. We compare CO 2 emissions and associated costs under different carbon emissions control regulations, including the present carbon emissions control regulation of Alberta. The results suggest that incorporating cogeneration into the growing oil sands industry could contribute in the near-term to reducing CO 2 emissions in Alberta. This analysis also shows that the different accounting methods and calculations of electricity offsets could lead to very different levels of incentives for cogeneration. Regulations that attempt to manage emissions on a product and facility basis may become arbitrary and complex as regulators attempt to approximate the effect of an economy-wide carbon price. - Highlights: ► We assess the effectiveness of cogeneration for carbon management in Alberta. ► Cogeneration can offset a significant portion of Alberta's high carbon electricity. ► CO 2 reduction potential of cogeneration may be higher if installed immediately. ► Product based policies should approximate the effect of an economy-wide policy.

  18. Analyzing Social Media Relationships in Context with Discussion Graphs

    Kiciman, Emre; Choudhury, Munmun De; Counts, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We present discussion graphs, a hyper-graph-based representation of social media discussions that captures both the structural features of the relationships among entities as well as the context of the discussions from which they were derived. Building on previous analyses of social media network...... and pseudo-cliques, when applied to the analysis of textual social media content. We apply our framework across several domains captured in Twitter, including the mining of peoples' statements about their locations and activities and discussions of the U.S. 2012 elections....

  19. The carbon-nitrogen balance of the nodule and its regulation under elevated carbon dioxide concentration.

    Libault, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Legumes have developed a unique way to interact with bacteria: in addition to preventing infection from pathogenic bacteria like any other plant, legumes also developed a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with one gender of soil bacteria: rhizobium. This interaction leads to the development of a new root organ, the nodule, where the differentiated bacteria fix for the plant the atmospheric dinitrogen (atmN2). In exchange, the symbiont will benefit from a permanent source of carbon compounds, products of the photosynthesis. The substantial amounts of fixed carbon dioxide dedicated to the symbiont imposed to the plant a tight regulation of the nodulation process to balance carbon and nitrogen incomes and outcomes. Climate change including the increase of the concentration of the atmospheric carbon dioxide is going to modify the rates of plant photosynthesis, the balance between nitrogen and carbon, and, as a consequence, the regulatory mechanisms of the nodulation process. This review focuses on the regulatory mechanisms controlling carbon/nitrogen balances in the context of legume nodulation and discusses how the change in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration could affect nodulation efficiency.

  20. Online discussions with pregnant and parenting adolescents: perspectives and possibilities.

    Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A

    2005-10-01

    The Internet is an innovative strategy to increase public participation. It is important to include pregnant and parenting teens' perspectives when planning programs to meet their needs. This qualitative study explored online discussions as a strategy to enhance participation by this population. Findings showed that online communication was preferred over face-to-face group discussions. Being anonymous online encouraged open and honest feedback. Participants experienced various forms of social support, however, there was an overall lack of teen involvement online. Strategies to engage adolescents in online discussions and reduce barriers are discussed. Strategies included the use of teen moderators, home computer access, technical support, and engagement in naturally flowing online discussions to meet social support needs. Blending researchers' with teens' needs for social support in an online environment is encouraged. With careful planning and design, online communications can result in mutual benefits for researchers, service providers, and pregnant and parenting adolescents.

  1. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  2. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  3. Applications for alliform carbon

    Gogotsi, Yury; Mochalin, Vadym; McDonough, IV, John Kenneth; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre Louis

    2017-02-21

    This invention relates to novel applications for alliform carbon, useful in conductors and energy storage devices, including electrical double layer capacitor devices and articles incorporating such conductors and devices. Said alliform carbon particles are in the range of 2 to about 20 percent by weight, relative to the weight of the entire electrode. Said novel applications include supercapacitors and associated electrode devices, batteries, bandages and wound healing, and thin-film devices, including display devices.

  4. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  5. Removal of carbon dioxide in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel off gas by adsorption

    Fukumatsu, Teruki; Munakata, Kenzo; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamatsuki, Satoshi; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    1998-01-01

    The off gas produced by reprocessing spent nuclear fuel includes various radioactivities and these nuclei should be removed. In particular, 14 C mainly released as the form of carbon dioxide is one of the most required gaseous radioactivities to be removed because it has long a half-life. One of the methods to remove gaseous nuclei is the use of adsorption technique. The off gas contains water vapor which influences adsorption process of carbon dioxide. In this report, behavior of adsorption of carbon dioxide on various adsorbent and influence on adsorption behavior of carbon dioxide by containing water vapor are discussed. (author)

  6. The role of boreal forests and forestry in the global carbon budget : a synthesis

    Fyles, I.H.; Shaw, C.H.; Apps, M.J.; Karjalainen, T.; Stocks, B.J.; Running, S.W.; Kurz, W.A.; Weyerhaeuser, G.Jr.; Jarvis, P.G.

    2002-10-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of all papers presented at the conference on the role of boreal forests in the global carbon budget. The scientific community is recognizing the critical links between boreal forest ecosystems, carbon dynamics and global climate change. This paper addresses the five main topics discussed at the conference including: (1) carbon stocks and fluxes, (2) the effects of natural disturbances on carbon dynamics, (3) effects of management practices on carbon dynamics, (4) afforestation and carbon sequestration, and (5) effects of climate change and elevated carbon dioxide concentration on carbon dynamics. Large-scale model simulations suggest that increased global temperatures will result in increased net ecosystem productivity (NEP). Several model simulations also indicate that net primary productivity (NPP) will increase. While most forest stands are currently carbon sinks, disturbances such as fire, insects and tree harvesting make forests susceptible to becoming a source of carbon. In contrast, some studies suggest that climate change will cause shifting vegetation patterns, increased soil carbon and higher forest productivity that may result in higher sequestration of carbon in the boreal forest. 84 refs.

  7. Supporting Teacher Reflection through Online Discussion

    Jiening Ruan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to investigate online discussion as a means to promote critical reflection. The study was conducted during a semester-long graduate course on issues related to literacy instructional strategies. The participants in the study were four reading education candidates. During the semester they participated in online discussion about course readings and reflected on their own teaching experiences. The data sources were the online discussion postings, responses to questionnaires, and interviews. The results suggest that technology-mediated discussion strengthens the learning community, facilitates sharing of professional experience among participants, and enhances teacher reflection. The results also point to the multi-faceted nature of teacher reflection.

  8. Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Academy supports discussion meetings of small groups of scientists from within India and outside organized by a ... Conference on Physics and Chemistry of Spintronic Materials ... Recent advances in operator theory and operator algebras

  9. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  10. Management's discussion and analysis | IDRC - International ...

    2010-11-02

    Nov 2, 2010 ... As discussed later, the variance from budget relates to accounting ... projects or programs (see Note 10 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, page 76). ... is based on generally accepted management accounting principles ...

  11. Creating With Carbon

    2003-01-01

    A subsidiary of SI Diamond Technology, Inc., Applied Nanotech, of Austin, Texas, is creating a buzz among various technology firms and venture capital groups interested in the company s progressive research on carbon-related field emission devices, including carbon nanotubes, filaments of pure carbon less than one ten-thousandth the width of human hair. Since their discovery in 1991, carbon nanotubes have gained considerable attention due to their unique physical properties. For example, a single perfect carbon nanotube can range from 10 to 100 times stronger than steel, per unit weight. Recent studies also indicate that the nanotubes may be the best heat-conducting material in existence. These properties, combined with the ease of growing thin films or nanotubes by a variety of deposition techniques, make the carbon-based material one of the most desirable for cold field emission cathodes.

  12. Discussion on Papers 3 and 4

    Mitchell, H.; Haigh, G.W.R.; Jenkins, E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in the discussion covered: the accuracy of the cost estimates for the project; the number of sluices to be used; factors controlling the selection of steel or concrete for caisson construction and the design life of the caissons; the type of gates and lock mechanism; shipping traffic forecasts; and the effect of the barrage on port operations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the two papers under discussion. (UK)

  13. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  14. Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) Users’ Manual and Technical Documentation

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qin, Zhangcai [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mueller, Steffen [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Kwon, Ho-young [International Food Policy Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Wander, Michelle M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) calculates carbon emissions from land use change (LUC) for four different ethanol production pathways including corn grain ethanol and cellulosic ethanol from corn stover, Miscanthus, and switchgrass, and a soy biodiesel pathway. This document discusses the version of CCLUB released September 30, 2017 which includes five ethanol LUC scenarios and four soy biodiesel LUC scenarios.

  15. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  16. Assessing CO2 Mitigation Options Utilizing Detailed Electricity Characteristics and Including Renewable Generation

    Bensaida, K.; Alie, Colin; Elkamel, A.; Almansoori, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel techno-economic optimization model for assessing the effectiveness of CO2 mitigation options for the electricity generation sub-sector that includes renewable energy generation. The optimization problem was formulated as a MINLP model using the GAMS modeling system. The model seeks the minimization of the power generation costs under CO2 emission constraints by dispatching power from low CO2 emission-intensity units. The model considers the detailed operation of the electricity system to effectively assess the performance of GHG mitigation strategies and integrates load balancing, carbon capture and carbon taxes as methods for reducing CO2 emissions. Two case studies are discussed to analyze the benefits and challenges of the CO2 reduction methods in the electricity system. The proposed mitigations options would not only benefit the environment, but they will as well improve the marginal cost of producing energy which represents an advantage for stakeholders.

  17. Pollutants removal from syngas using carbon materials

    Al-Dury, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The incomplete combustion of biomass can cause the production of combustible gases including carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen and methane. This study discussed a method of removing pollutants from syngas. Experiments were conducted using a fluidized bed atmospheric gasifier. The aim of the study was to characterize the solid waste pyrolysis and gasification process while developing a syngas cleanup and conditioning system. The unit was operated in both gasifying and combustion modes in order to compare traditional and alternative energy production values and environmental impacts. Active carbon, black cook and char coal samples were used as filters at temperatures ranging between 120 and 200 degrees C. Dolomite was used as a bed material. Results of the study showed that carbon materials can be used as a cheap and effective method of cleaning syngas during biomass gasifications conducted at low temperatures. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Carbon composites composites with carbon fibers, nanofibers, and nanotubes

    Chung, Deborah D L

    2017-01-01

    Carbon Composites: Composites with Carbon Fibers, Nanofibers, and Nanotubes, Second Edition, provides the reader with information on a wide range of carbon fiber composites, including polymer-matrix, metal-matrix, carbon-matrix, ceramic-matrix and cement-matrix composites. In contrast to other books on composites, this work emphasizes materials rather than mechanics. This emphasis reflects the key role of materials science and engineering in the development of composite materials. The applications focus of the book covers both the developing range of structural applications for carbon fiber composites, including military and civil aircraft, automobiles and construction, and non-structural applications, including electromagnetic shielding, sensing/monitoring, vibration damping, energy storage, energy generation, and deicing. In addition to these new application areas, new material in this updated edition includes coverage of cement-matrix composites, carbon nanofibers, carbon matrix precursors, fiber surface ...

  19. Umberto Eco on Libraries: A Discussion of "De Biblioteca."

    Winter, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a scholar's reactions to libraries made by Umberto Eco in "De Biblioteca." Topics addressed include functions of libraries, including collecting; accessibility of materials; the scholar's creative use of libraries, and discovering materials not looked for or known about; North American research libraries; photocopying; and…

  20. Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui basin and discussion of paleocene-eocene boundary

    Chen Liang; Xie Yecai; Wang Zhengqing; Ma Chuang

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of microfossils assemblages of core SB-01 from Sanshui Basin have been analysised in this paper. Based on micropaleontological study and data from carbon and oxygen isotopes of bulk carbonates, which depth of Paleocene-Eocene boundary from the core was discussed. Ostracode assemblages include the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage(89.0-73.38 m) with few species and low abundance and the Sinocypris nitela-Cyprois buxinensis-Limnocythere honggangensis assemblage (73.38-0 m) with few species and low abundance during early and middle the core deposition and relatively many species and abundance increasing quickly of the late time of the core deposition; Charophyte assemblages contain the Peckichara subspherica-Rhabdochara jiangduensis assemblage (89.0-73.38 m) with rich species, high abundance and large sizes of fossils and the Gyrogona qianjiangica-Obtusochara brevicylindrica assemblage (73.38-53.75 m) with few species,low abundance and small sizes of fossils. At 73.38 m core depth, the great changes of microfossils assemblages and carbon isotopes values (decrease by more than 3.0 per thousand) and oxygen isotopes values of bulk carbonates take place, which consist with the geological records of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Hence, Paleocene-Eocene boundary of SanShui Basin should be roughly placed at 73.38 m core depth. (authors)

  1. [Computer mediated discussion and attitude polarization].

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Endo, Kimihisa; Yoshida, Fujio

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that computer mediated discussions lead to more extreme decisions than face-to-face (FTF) meeting. Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire (1984) claimed that computer mediated communication (CMC) tended to be relatively uninhibited, as seen in 'flaming', and that group decisions under CMC using Choice Dilemma Questionnaire tended to be more extreme and riskier than FTF meetings. However, for the same reason, CMC discussions on controversial social issues for which participants initially hold strongly opposing views, might be less likely to reach a consensus, and no polarization should occur. Fifteen 4-member groups discussed a controversial social issue under one of three conditions: FTF, CMC, and partition. After discussion, participants rated their position as a group on a 9-point bipolar scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. A stronger polarization effect was observed for FTF groups than those where members were separated with partitions. However, no extreme shift from their original, individual positions was found for CMC participants. There results were discussed in terms of 'expertise and status equalization' and 'absence of social context cues' under CMC.

  2. Carbon isotopes in mollusk shell carbonates

    McConnaughey, Ted A.; Gillikin, David Paul

    2008-10-01

    Mollusk shells contain many isotopic clues about calcification physiology and environmental conditions at the time of shell formation. In this review, we use both published and unpublished data to discuss carbon isotopes in both bivalve and gastropod shell carbonates. Land snails construct their shells mainly from respired CO2, and shell δ13C reflects the local mix of C3 and C4 plants consumed. Shell δ13C is typically >10‰ heavier than diet, probably because respiratory gas exchange discards CO2, and retains the isotopically heavier HCO3 -. Respired CO2 contributes less to the shells of aquatic mollusks, because CO2/O2 ratios are usually higher in water than in air, leading to more replacement of respired CO2 by environmental CO2. Fluid exchange with the environment also brings additional dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) into the calcification site. Shell δ13C is typically a few ‰ lower than ambient DIC, and often decreases with age. Shell δ13C retains clues about processes such as ecosystem metabolism and estuarine mixing. Ca2+ ATPase-based models of calcification physiology developed for corals and algae likely apply to mollusks, too, but lower pH and carbonic anhydrase at the calcification site probably suppress kinetic isotope effects. Carbon isotopes in biogenic carbonates are clearly complex, but cautious interpretation can provide a wealth of information, especially after vital effects are better understood.

  3. Summary discussion: An integrated advanced tokamak reactor

    Sauthoff, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tokamak concept improvement workshop addressed a wide range of issues involved in the development of a more attractive tokamak. The agenda for the workshop progressed from a general discussion of the long-range energy context (with the objective being the identification of a set of criteria and ''figures of merit'' for measuring the attractiveness of a tokamak concept) to particular opportunities for the improvement of the tokamak concept. The discussions concluded with a compilation of research program elements leading to an improved tokamak concept

  4. Microprobe analysis of carbon gradients

    Lamothe, M.; Convert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Problems arising in carbon analysis and how they are solved are presented: sample pollution limitation using cold trap and gas jet cleaning sample preparation, carbon content determination and calibration, automation and optimization. Examples given include concentration monitoring. Carbon homogeneity after complete cementation and decarburization by heat treatment. 6 refs, 14 figs [fr

  5. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  6. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    2010-07-01

    ... providing emergency supplies of clean drinking water. Sewage treatment and disposal, and other sanitary... with contamination of water used in its process is not eligible. The drinking water used by the people... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies...

  7. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    2015-12-11

    automatically filter cyber discussions from Stack Exchange, Reddit, and Twitter posts written in English. Criminal hackers often use social media...monitoring hackers on Facebook and in private chat rooms. As a result, system administrators were prepared to counter distributed denial-of-service

  8. Group Discussion and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas.

    Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…

  9. Political discussions with family and friends

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...

  10. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  11. Women in the workplace: a panel discussion

    Perrin, E.V.; Hunt, V.R.; Murray, F.J.; Krekel, S.; Allan, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: problems of women in the workplace; public policy concerning human reproduction; toxic effects of lead in human populations; health hazards of occupational radiation exposure; reproductive hazards on the job; considerations for protecting the unborn; and legal implications

  12. Structural Changes in Online Discussion Networks

    Yang, Yang; Medaglia, Rony

    2014-01-01

    Social networking platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique socio-cultural and institutional environment. This paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different-minded interactions ov...

  13. A framework for discussion on the environment

    1990-01-01

    This document outlines the measures the government of Canada proposes to take in order to make Canada the world's most environmentally friendly country. The reflection and discussion that this document generates will influence the order of priority in the final action plan

  14. Unseen Discussions: Artist@Hotmail.Com.

    Huberman, Anthony

    For the recent exhibition "Greater New York: New Art in New York Now," the Education Department at P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, a large museum located in the Long Island City section of Queens, New York, organized a unique email-based discussion. The museum set up an e-mail address for most participating artists using the free…

  15. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  16. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  17. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    Fraga, E.S.

    2015-05-22

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  18. The Problem of Retraction in Critical Discussion

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    2001-01-01

    In many contexts a retraction of commitment is frowned upon. For instance, it is not appreciated, generally, if one withdraws a promise or denies an earlier statement. Critical discussion, too, can easily be disrupted by retractions, if these occur too frequently and at critical points. But on the

  19. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  20. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  1. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  2. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  3. Technical discussions II - Flow cytometric analysis

    Cunningham, A; Cid, A; Buma, AGJ

    In this paper the potencial of flow cytometry as applied to the aquatic life sciences is discussed. The use of flow cytometry for studying the ecotoxicology of phytoplankton was introduced. On the other hand, the new flow cytometer EUROPA was presented. This is a multilaser machine which has been

  4. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  5. Assessing Online Discussions: A Holistic Approach

    Wang, Yu-mei; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a holistic approach to assessing online discussions. This holistic approach integrates three assessment methods: assessment of learning, assessment for learning, and assessment as learning. Assessment of learning directly examines students' learning products to decide whether they have achieved the expected learning through…

  6. Analyzing online political discussions: Methodological considerations

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Online political discussions are thought to lead to more political engagement and empowerment of peripheral groups in society and thereby contributing to deliberative citizenship. Because people have increased opportunities to voice their political opinions and publish these for a potentially large

  7. Workplace Mobbing: A Discussion for Librarians

    Hecker, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace mobbing occurs in libraries but is usually unrecognized and unchecked because the phenomenon has not been described and given a name. This discussion provides the library profession with an overview but also with specific background details to assist with recognizing mobbing and preventing severe harm to employees and organizations.

  8. Examining the Doctoral Thesis: A Discussion

    Carter, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The examination of doctoral theses controls an important academic threshold, yet practices are often private, codes non-specific, and individuals isolated. This article adds to recent investigation of the examination culture by reporting informal panel discussion amongst a total of 23 University of Auckland (New Zealand) faculty members as to…

  9. Measuring Skill in Games : Several Approaches Discussed

    Dreef, M.R.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    An aspect of casino games that in general leads to discussions among both participants and spectators, is the relative extent to which a player can positively influence his results by making appropriate strategic choices.This question is closely related to the issue of how to distinguish between

  10. [Discussion on logistics management of medical consumables].

    Deng, Sutong; Wang, Miao; Jiang, Xiali

    2011-09-01

    Management of medical consumables is an important part of modern hospital management. In modern medical behavior, drugs and medical devices act directly on the patient, and are important factors affecting the quality of medical practice. With the increasing use of medical materials, based on practical application, this article proposes the management model of medical consumables, and discusses the essence of medical materials logistics management.

  11. Coal economics and taxation discussed at symposium

    1978-06-01

    Some of the highlights from the Symposium on Coal Economics and Taxation Symposium, Regina Saskatchewan May 7-9, 1978, sponsored by the Coal Association of Canada are presented. Investment, provincial policy, sources of funds, uncertainty, tax policies, and operating costs are discussed.

  12. Online Discussion about Sexuality Education in Schools

    Broadbear, James T.; Broadbear, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality education in schools continues to be a controversial issue although public debate has seemingly calmed in recent years. Dialogue about the value and purpose of sexuality education for adolescents can provide health education specialists a better understanding of public opinion and online discussion may be a potentially ideal way to…

  13. Student Partisan Identity and Online Discussions

    Clark, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    Political division in the United States is the subject of much analysis in the fields of political science and psychology. While political partisanship looms large over discussions of the national political climate's influence on schools and classrooms, very little work exists that directly examines the effects of high school students' political…

  14. Principles for Community College Finance: Discussion Paper.

    Keating, Joseph P.

    In preparation for the 1987 demise of the current community college funding mechanism in California, this discussion paper reviews the current fiscal situation in the state and considers the needs that should be addressed in the finance mechanism that would become effective in July 1987. Background information is presented on the history of the…

  15. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Predicted summary of panel discussion on smart instruments

    Sorber, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The following is a hypothetical account of a panel discussion on Smart Instruments. It enumerates topics that are likely to covered in the actual discussion. A smart instrument may be defined as one that performs smart functions or as one that contains a computer of some sort. Neither definition is perfect. Smart functions might include, but are not limited to: automated data logging (reading, location, time); transfer (downloading) logged data to outside computer; computer assisted, remote calibration; linearity and dead time correction; performance trending; self diagnosis of faults; detector probe recognition; automated beta factor application; and automatic range selection. These smart functions are discussed

  17. Accumulation of organic carbon in northwestern Arabian sea sediments

    Khan, A.A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study accumulation of organic carbon in marine sediments of northwestern Arabian sea has been discussed. This paper presents the geochemical analysis of Organic carbon content and accumulation, delta 13 stable carbon isotope and Ba/Al. The primary objective was to investigate the high resolution information about the variations in paleoproductivity and source of organic matter in sediments below an upwelling area. Undisturbed sediments (Piston core NIOP-486) of late Pleistocene time were collected during Netherlands Indian Ocean Program (NIOP-1992-93). The core NIOP-486 was raised from a depth of 2077 meters near the Owen Ridge. This core records deposition history of last 200,000 years and includes 4 warm and 3 cold periods. The distribution of organic carbon content in studied core shows a pronounced cyclicity during glacial and interglacial stages. Organic carbon accumulation trends show that high sedimentation rates in glacial stages results in rapid burial and hence increase organic carbon accumulation. Paleoproductivity indicator Ba/Al has been used to compare with the organic carbon content and is correlated with the warm and cold periods variations in monsoons upwelling intensity. Generally, low paleoproductivity is found in glacial stages. The organic carbon content and accumulation, in sediments however seems to differ from the paleoproductivity trends shown by Ba/Al in glacial sediments of stage 6. Delta 13 C.org isotope results of the core NIOP-486 confirm that organic matter in sediments is predominantly marine (-20 to -23% ). (author)

  18. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  19. Synthesis of carbon nanorods by reduction of carbon bisulfide

    Lou Zhengsong; He Minglong; Zhao Dejian; Li Zhongchun; Shang Tongming

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: Our manuscript is a concise preliminary account of original and of significant research, which illuminates carbon nanorods and variously shaped Y-junction carbon nanorods are successfully fabricated on a large scale through a carbon bisulfide thermal reduction process. Various shaped Y-junction carbon nanorods can be used as studying the electronic and transport properties of the nano-meter carbon material. - Abstract: Carbon nanorods are synthesized at large scale by the reduction of carbon bisulfide at 600 o C. Moreover, novel Y-junction carbon nanorods are detected in the samples. The X-ray power diffraction pattern indicates that the products are hexagonal graphite. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and N 2 physisorption studies show that carbon nanorods predominate in the product. Based on the supercritical carbon bisulfide system, the possible growth mechanism of the carbon nanorods was discussed. This method provides a simple and cheap route to large-scale synthesis of carbon nanorods.

  20. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of the carbonate facies

    The Vindhyan sedimentary succession in central India spans a wide time bracket from the Paleopro- terozoic to the Neoproterozoic period.Chronostratigraphic significance of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of the carbonate phase in Vindhyan sediments has been discussed in some recent studies.However,the ...

  1. Theory including future not excluded

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  2. Monthly carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring and cement manufacture in the United States

    Blasing, T.J.; Hand, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Annual data on carbon emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement manufacture have been used in studies of the carbon cycle for the last few decades. However, annual data do not specify carbon emissions on the seasonal time-scales relevant to biospheric uptake and other processes affecting the carbon cycle. Estimates of monthly emissions from fossil-fuel consumption in the US have shown that an increasing percentage of the annual emissions are occurring during the growing season; however, carbon emitted from flaring natural gas at well sites was not accounted for in those emissions estimates, nor was carbon emitted during cement manufacture. Here we show that emissions from flaring, which amount around 0.1 % of all fossil-fuel carbon emissions in the US, have no clear and persistent annual pattern that can be detected in the data. In contrast, carbon emissions from cement manufacture, which add about 0.7% to carbon emissions from fossil fuels in the US, have a clear and persistent annual pattern including low values in late winter and early spring. In this paper, we provide a few remarks on carbon emissions from natural-gas flaring before presenting monthly emissions estimates. We then focus on the methodology for calculating carbon emissions from cement manufacture before presenting and discussing the monthly emissions estimates

  3. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  4. CERN in discussions with its neighbours

    2009-01-01

    CERN recently invited local partners, elected representatives, and representatives of local administrations and associations to an information and discussion evening, giving those invited an opportunity to raise various topics linked to CERN’s presence in the local area. On Tuesday, 20 October the Globe of Science and Innovation took on a distinctly regional flavour when some 60 representatives of local administrations and public bodies in Switzerland and France as well as teachers, heads of local schools and chairs of local associations attended an information and discussion evening at the invitation of the Director-General. In his opening address, the Director-General underlined CERN’s commitment to transparency and the desire to enhance its communication with the local community. This address was followed by four presentations. Philippe Bloch, head of the Physics Department, explained the scientific goals of the LHC and the L...

  5. RELAP5-3D Code Includes ATHENA Features and Models

    Riemke, Richard A.; Davis, Cliff B.; Schultz, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, SF 6 , xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5-3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  6. Discussion on control room habitability assessment

    Li Bing; Chen Yingying; Xiao Jun; Yang Duanjie; Cui Hao

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on control room envelope integrity, source term analysis in habitability assessments and other impact factors for dose consequence is provided combined with regulatory requirements and the current status of domestic NPPs. Considering that the infiltration is an important factor for control room habitability assessment, CRE integrity test should be performed to demonstrate the CRE's infiltration characteristics. The consequence assessment should be performed based on different DBAs and different pathways, such as pathways internal to the plant. (authors)

  7. Discussion on data access services of WAN

    Liu Aigui; Wang Lu; Wu Wenjing; Chen Gang

    2007-01-01

    Traditional storage system has been unable to meet the demand of computing. WAN storage systems face many problems since the complexity of WAN. This paper in-depth discusses on data interoperability, data prediction, active data service and semantic-based data access according to the characteristics of high energy physics applications. To eliminate isolated island, improve performance and simplify usage, it will be better to meet the demands of high energy physics applications. (authors)

  8. Literacy: a discussion of graphocentrism in microculture

    Michelle Donizeth Euzébio; Anderson Jair Goulart; Angelita Darela Mendes

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of graphocentrism in microculture. We aim to describe, based on literacy studies, the presence of written language in the life of socially and historically situated subjects, thematizing the axiological capital of less favored socioeconomic contexts. Subjects are children undergoing schooling process, living in a district of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Discussions on the theme are based on Barton (1994), Barton, Hamilton and Ivanic (2000),...

  9. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    2016-02-02

    reverse engineering, security, malware , blackhat) were labeled as cyber and posts on non- cyber topics (e.g., astronomy, electronics, beer, biology, mu...firewall, hash, infect, inject, install, key, malicious, malware , network, obfuscate, overflow, packet, password, payload, request, risk, scan, script...cyber vulnerabilities (e.g., malware , overflow, attack). The keyword system lacked the keywords used in Heartbleed discussions, and thus suffered from

  10. A licensing discussion: SMRs in Canada

    De Vos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The CNSC (Canadian AECB) is ready to regulate Small Modular Reactors (SMR) facilities in Canada. The CNSC is well situated to engage with proponents of SMR reactors in design reviews or licensing discussions. A risk-informed (graded) approach is possible in many instances for reactors but it is not a relaxation of requirements. The vendor design review process helps reduce regulatory risks by encouraging early engagement.

  11. Round table discussion during session 1

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  12. Strategies in Managing Rapport in Classroom Discussion

    Reski Reski

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to find out the strategies, applied by students in classroom interaction particularly in discussion, to maintain their interpersonal rapport as well as to enhance their rapport management with their fellow students. There are five strategies based on Spencer-Oatey (2008) that the interactants apply in social interactions. The strategies are request, compliments, apologies, gratitude and disagreement. The research is done to see whether the students realize the management of ra...

  13. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  14. NIR - State of the risk discussion today

    Baldermann, C.; Bernhardt, J.H.; Brueggemeyer, H.; Leitgeb, N.; Reichardt, R.; Steinmetz, M.

    2006-01-01

    The actual state of knowledge on health risks of non-ionizing radiation is discussed on an international as well as a national basis. Emphasis is given to EMF risks when using mobile phones on the one hand, and to the dangers from natural and artificial UV radiation on the other. Furthermore, a comprehensive compilation is given of national laws and regulations for telecommunication and mobile phones in Germany. (Orig.)

  15. Discussing three pillars of corporate governance

    Andrei STĂNCULESCU; Eugen MITRICĂ

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a meaningful attempt to critically analyze the cohesion and relationship between three fundamental pillars of the corporate governance system: the shareholders, the board of directors and the employees. We present the characteristics of each pillar and discuss its relevance in corporate governance. A couple of world-renowned corporate governance models are considered. A synthetic conclusion is drawn based on information presented.

  16. Developing low-cost carbon-based sorbents for Hg capture from flue gas

    Perry, R.; Lakatos, J.; Snape, C.E.; Sun, C. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2005-07-01

    To help reduce the cost of Hg capture from flue gas a number of low-cost carbons are being investigated, including activated tyre char and PFA carbon, in conjunction with some of the pre-treatments that have been found to be effective for commercial actived carbons. Experimental conditions for screening the sorbents have been selected to determine breakthrough capacities rapidly. The unactivated carbons have low breakthrough capacities under the test conditions employed (around 0.1 mg g{sup -1}) but these improve upon steam activation (around 0.25 mg g{sup -1}) but are still lower than those of non-impregnated commercial activated carbons (around 0.4-0.7 mg g{sup -1}), due to their lower surface areas. Comparable improvements to the commercial carbons have been achieved for impregnation treatments, including sulfur and bromine. However, certain gasification chars do have much higher breakthrough capacities than commercial carbons used for flue gas injection. Manganese oxide impregnation with low concentration is particularly effective for the activated and unactivated carbons giving breakthrough capacities comparable to the commercial carbons. Pointers for further increasing breakthrough and equilibrium capacities for carbon-based sorbents are discussed. 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  18. Literature Discussion as Positioning: Examining Positions in Dialogic Discussions in a Third-Grade Classroom

    Wee, Jongsun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine positions of students and a teacher in dialogic discussion. In this study, dialogic discussion was defined with Bakhtin's (1981) dialogism, Nystrand's (1997) explanation of dialogically organized instruction, and Mercer's (1995) explanation of Exploratory Talk. Studies about literature discussion in…

  19. Round table discussion during session 2

    Mays, C.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the second session of the FSC Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Do local stakeholders have, internally or externally, all the expertise they need in order to address the issues raised by radioactive waste management projects? - Do institutional stakeholders have all the expertise they need to take local impacts into account? - What kinds of expert input are sought and attained by the different stakeholders? - Were any formal methods used to aid local partnerships perform technology assessments? Or other types of assessment? - How to maintain the knowledge and expertise achieved by the stakeholders? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. As in Session I, most of the round table discussion focussed specifically on the experience of the local partnerships. Many insights were shared about the nature and role of expertise in complex decision making. They are summarised below, on the basis of the feedback provided to the plenary by each round table. Some of these insights can be generalised to other contexts. All in all, a profile emerged of the local partnerships as a unique and effective tool to deal with knowledge issues in managing risk. (author)

  20. An exploratory discussion on business files compilation

    Gao Chunying

    2014-01-01

    Business files compilation for an enterprise is a distillation and recreation of its spiritual wealth, from which the applicable information can be available to those who want to use it in a fast, extensive and precise way. Proceeding from the effects of business files compilation on scientific researches, productive constructions and developments, this paper in five points discusses the way how to define topics, analyze historical materials, search or select data and process it to an enterprise archives collection. Firstly, to expound the importance and necessity of business files compilation in production, operation and development of an company; secondly, to present processing methods from topic definition, material searching and data selection to final examination and correction; thirdly, to define principle and classification in order to make different categories and levels of processing methods available to business files compilation; fourthly, to discuss the specific method how to implement a file compilation through a documentation collection upon principle of topic definition gearing with demand; fifthly, to address application of information technology to business files compilation in view point of widely needs for business files so as to level up enterprise archives management. The present discussion focuses on the examination and correction principle of enterprise historical material compilation and the basic classifications as well as the major forms of business files compilation achievements. (author)

  1. The debate about death: an imperishable discussion?

    FÉLIX BACIGALUPO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review we discuss some of the complex edges of the concept of death that arose after the notorious advances in science and medicine over the last 50 years, in which the classical cardio-pulmonary criteria have led to the neurological criteria of death. New complicated questions like the definition of death and the operational criteria for diagnosing it have arisen and we think that they are far from being adequately and satisfactorily solved. A number of important issues -like the reliability and differences between cardio-pulmonary versus brain based criteria of death, if death is an event or a process, the meaning of integration and irreversibility- have not yet received sufficient attention. Here we have approached the death problem from two (biological complex system perspectives: the organism level and the cellular-molecular level. We also discuss issues from a third systemic approach, that is, the entire society, thus involving legal, religious, bioethical and political aspects of death. Our aim is to integrate new perspectives in order to promote further discussion on these critical yet frequently neglected issues

  2. Nuclear waste under glass, further discussion

    O'Keefe, J. A.; Barkatt, A.; Glass, B. P.; Alterescu, S.

    J. J. Crovisier and J. Honnorez [1988] discuss an article by W. W. Maggs, “Mg May Protect Waste Under Glass” [Maggs, 1988] summarizing work by A. Barkatt (Catholic University, Washington, D.C.), B. P. Glass (University of Delaware, Newark), and S. Alterescu and J. A. O'Keefe (NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Md.). We found that seawater is orders of magnitude less corrosive t h an fresh water in attacking tektite glass; traced the protective effect to the presence of magnesium, at a level of about 1.3 g/L in seawater; and suggested that the effect might be useful in protecting nuclear waste glasses from corrosion.Crovisier and Honnorez first make the point that the rate of corrosion of glass is, in principle, a function of the ratio of surface area 5 to the effective volume V. This concept, which is usually discussed in American literature under the name of S/V effects, is discussed by Crovisier and Honnorez in terms of the “permeability of the environment.” These effects have been carefully considered throughout our work (see, for example, Barkatt et al. [19867rsqb;). It turns out that in the sea the effective S/V is so small that the effects referred to by Crovisier and Honnorez can be ignored.

  3. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  4. Fabrication of 3D Carbon Microelectromechanical Systems (C-MEMS).

    Pramanick, Bidhan; Martinez-Chapa, Sergio O; Madou, Marc; Hwang, Hyundoo

    2017-06-17

    A wide range of carbon sources are available in nature, with a variety of micro-/nanostructure configurations. Here, a novel technique to fabricate long and hollow glassy carbon microfibers derived from human hairs is introduced. The long and hollow carbon structures were made by the pyrolysis of human hair at 900 °C in a N2 atmosphere. The morphology and chemical composition of natural and pyrolyzed human hairs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), respectively, to estimate the physical and chemical changes due to pyrolysis. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the glassy nature of the carbon microstructures. Pyrolyzed hair carbon was introduced to modify screen-printed carbon electrodes ; the modified electrodes were then applied to the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and ascorbic acid. Sensing performance of the modified sensors was improved as compared to the unmodified sensors. To obtain the desired carbon structure design, carbon micro-/nanoelectromechanical system (C-MEMS/C-NEMS) technology was developed. The most common C-MEMS/C-NEMS fabrication process consists of two steps: (i) the patterning of a carbon-rich base material, such as a photosensitive polymer, using photolithography; and (ii) carbonization through the pyrolysis of the patterned polymer in an oxygen-free environment. The C-MEMS/NEMS process has been widely used to develop microelectronic devices for various applications, including in micro-batteries, supercapacitors, glucose sensors, gas sensors, fuel cells, and triboelectric nanogenerators. Here, recent developments of a high-aspect ratio solid and hollow carbon microstructures with SU8 photoresists are discussed. The structural shrinkage during pyrolysis was investigated using confocal microscopy and SEM. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the crystallinity of the structure, and the atomic percentage of the elements present in the material before and after

  5. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  6. Effectiveness and Discussion of Ventilation Design with Automatic Revolving Window

    Chang Jing Yi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve and discuss the effectiveness of automatic revolving window ventilation on human comfort, where the temperature sensor mounted indoors gives the signal to start the stepping motor of the revolving window. There is a controller for automatic regulation according to the difference between the preset temperature and indoor temperature, where the air flow of ventilating fan imports outside air to take excess heat away from the room, in order to reduce the indoor temperature. The revolving window opening angle is simulated and analyzed, and the impact of different air rates on the indoor temperature is analyzed. This system can regulate the indoor temperature to effectively reach the optimal human comfort temperature, and can reduce the frequency of using air conditioning, in order to attain the goals of energy saving, carbon reduction, and environmental protection.

  7. Carbonation of cerium oxychloride

    Peterson, E.J.; Onstott, E.I.; Bowman, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    Cerous carbonates can be used in thermochemical cycles for H production if the resulting ceric oxides can be converted back into cerous carbonates. One way is to reduce and hydrolyze ceric oxide with HCl to produce CeOCl and then to carbonate it. The reaction 3CeOCl + 3CO 2 + 8H 2 O → CeCl 3 (aq) + Ce 2 (CO 3 ) 3 . 8H 2 O was found to occur in aqueous medium if the final CeCl 3 content is low. Carbonation of CeOCl could also be conducted in acetone --H 2 O . CeClCO 3 . 3H 2 O was decomposed and characterized. The reactions which can be used for water splitting are discussed briefly

  8. Global carbon inequality

    Hubacek, Klaus; Baiocchi, Giovanni; Feng, Kuishuang; Munoz Castillo, Raul; Sun, Laixiang; Xue, Jinjun

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  9. Carbon/carbon composite materials

    Thebault, J.; Orly, P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon/carbon composites are singular materials from their components, their manufacturing process as well as their characteristics. This paper gives a global overview of these particularities and applications which make them now daily used composites. (authors)

  10. Synthesis of the working group discussions

    2003-01-01

    The workshop was an important step in the establishment of a strategy to review the part of SKB's safety case that is devoted to the demonstration of the isolation function of a future spent fuel repository. The emphasis was on identification rather than resolution of issues in this workshop synthesis. Subsequent steps therefore have to be taken within the Swedish regulatory bodies to follow up on this report and suggest activities within the regulators research programmes, as well as organise more detailed issue evaluation for different experts group. Ongoing and planned activities within the SKB programme that are related to the issues identified in this report would have to be reviewed in detail. The great emphasis of isolation of spent nuclear fuel rather than, e.g., radionuclide retardation and dilution, featured in the SR97 performance assessment, suggests that the Swedish regulators have to be prepared to review this part of the coming PAs in greater detail. The specific features of the workshop that contributed to the rather comprehensive description of issues relevant for future licensing activities are: The combined consideration of the areas of the copper canister and bentonite buffer, the assessment of both chemical and mechanical aspects of EBS and canister integrity, the use of a published comprehensive performance assessment (SR-97) as a basis for discussions, the active participation by SKB providing additional information on recent developments. There is an educational value for external consultants and researchers, as well as SKI staff, in addressing the broad subject areas relevant for the EBS isolation function. However, a broad coverage to some extent necessitates rather superficial view of the various issues under consideration. It should be noted that the descriptions in this synthesis can by no means be regarded as fully comprehensive, and that additional key issues may be identified in the SKB programme as well as future regulatory

  11. Emerging carbon constraints for corporate risk management

    Busch, Timo; Hoffmann, Volker H.

    2007-01-01

    While discussions about global sustainability challenges abound, the financial risks that they incur, albeit important, have received less attention. We suggest that corporate risk assessments should include sustainability-related aspects, especially with relation to the natural environment, and encompass the flux of critical materials within a company's value chain. Such a comprehensive risk assessment takes into account input- as well as output-related factors. With this paper, we focus on the flux of carbon and define carbon constraints that emerge due to the disposition of fossil fuels in the input dimension and due to direct and indirect climate change effects in the output dimension. We review the literature regarding the financial consequences of carbon constraints on the macroeconomic, sector, and company level. We conclude that: a) financial consequences seem to be asymmetrically distributed between and within sectors, b) the individual risk exposure of companies depends on the intensity of and dependency on carbon-based materials and energy, and c) financial markets have only started to incorporate these aspects in their valuations. This paper ends with recommendations on how to incorporate our results in an integrated carbon risk management framework. (author)

  12. Analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium

    Lievens, F; Parmentier, C [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    Chemical analyses used by SCK/CEN at Mol Belgium, in the carbon mass transfer studies include on-line activity measurements, and off-line carbon determinations on sodium samples and on alloys equilibrated with the carbon activity in the loop sodium. For carbon activity measurements efforts were directed to the development of EMF and diffusion type carbon meters. The Monitor tab technique was used for calibration. Chemical off-line analyses were developed for identification and measurement of total carbon and for carbon chemical states in the ppb range. Analysed chemical states are carbides, Carbonates, Carbonyl and Cyanide. (author)

  13. Analysis and monitoring of carbon in sodium

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical analyses used by SCK/CEN at Mol Belgium, in the carbon mass transfer studies include on-line activity measurements, and off-line carbon determinations on sodium samples and on alloys equilibrated with the carbon activity in the loop sodium. For carbon activity measurements efforts were directed to the development of EMF and diffusion type carbon meters. The Monitor tab technique was used for calibration. Chemical off-line analyses were developed for identification and measurement of total carbon and for carbon chemical states in the ppb range. Analysed chemical states are carbides, Carbonates, Carbonyl and Cyanide. (author)

  14. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  15. Off-gas treatment carbon footprint calculator : form and function

    Kessell, L. [Good EarthKeeping Organization Inc., Corona, CA (United States); Squire, J.; Crosby, K. [Haley and Aldrich Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Carbon footprinting is the measurement of the impact on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide released directly and indirectly by an individual, organization, process, event or product. This presentation discussed an off-gas treatment carbon footprint calculator. The presentation provided a review of off-gas treatment technologies and presented a carbon footprint model. The model included: form and function; parameters; assumptions; calculations; and off-gas treatment applications. Parameters of the model included greenhouse gases listed in the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, hydrofluorocarbons, and perfluorocarbons. Assumptions of the model included stationary combustion emissions; mobile combustion emissions; indirect emissions; physical or chemical processing emissions; fugitive emissions; and de minimus emissions. The presentation also examined resource conservation and discussed three greenhouse gas footprint case studies. It was concluded that the model involved a calculator with standard calculations with clearly defined assumptions with boundaries. tabs., figs.

  16. Discussion of some issues in risk study

    Qu Jingyuan; Liu Yuanzhong

    1998-01-01

    The concept of risk, the methods for assessing risk and the acceptability of risk are discussed. The emphasis was laid on the three components for complete description of a risk: scenario, probability and consequence of an event. The disadvantages of the concept and presentation of risk used in some risk analysis were pointed out. The paper emphasized that it is necessary to explicitly consider the multi-dimensionality of risk in the assessment and management of risk. Several important factors influencing the acceptability of risk and the methodology for evaluating the acceptability of risk were also described

  17. Experts' discussion on reactor safety research

    1980-01-01

    The experts' discussion on reactor safety research deals with risk analysis, political realization, man and technics, as well as with the international state of affairs. Inspite of a controversy on individual issues and on the proportion of governmental and industrial involvment in reactor safety research, the continuation and intensification of corresponding research work is said to be necessary. Several participants demanded to consider possible 'conventional accidents' as well as a stronger financial commitment by the industry in this sector. The ratio 'man and technics' being an interface decisive for the proper functioning or failure of complex technical systems requires even more research work to be done. (GL) [de

  18. Discuss on luminescence dose data analysis technology

    Ma Xinhua; Xiao Wuyun; Ai Xianyun; Shi Zhilan; Liu Ying

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology. General design planning of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology is put forward with the diverse demands. The emphasis is focused on dose data processing method, luminescence curve analysis method, using of network, mechanics of communication among computers, data base management system of individual dose in this paper. The main methods and skills used in this technology as well as their advantages are also discussed. And it offers general design references for development luminescence dose data processing software. (authors)

  19. 9. university discussion meeting on energy

    1988-01-01

    Eight conference papers are presented which discussed the following topics: 1. Energy and environment - conflict or harmony; 2. A common electricity market within the European Community - from the point of view of the German electricity industry; 3. Radioactive waste in nuclear engineering; 4. Effects of electric and magnetic fields on humans; 5. Classroom ventilation; 6. The polluted atmosphere - potential effects on the global climate; 7. Environment-centered marketing, a challenge to a household appliances supplier; 8. High-temperature superconductors - perspectives for application. (UA) [de

  20. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Cynthia E. Milton.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  1. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Ruth Leary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  2. Effects of the EU law on the climate protection. On the implementation of the European guideline on carbon capture and storage (CCS) into German legislation; Auswirkungen des EU-Rechts auf den Klimaschutz. Zur Umsetzung der europaeischen Richtlinie zu Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in das deutsche Recht

    Greb, Tobias [SammlerUsinger Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution is covering the implementation of the European guideline on climate protection and carbon capture and storage (CCS) into German legislation. The CCS technology and special critical aspects concerning the CCS technology are described. The specific legal frame includes the facilities for carbon dioxide precipitation, carbon dioxide pipelines, and carbon dioxide storage sites. The legal drafts concerning CCD are discussed including commissioning, and conflicts of interest. The long-term responsibility including transfer of responsibilities and follow-up regulations are further problems with respect to the implementation into German legislation.

  3. Device including a contact detector

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  4. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  5. Discussion meet on electroanalytical techniques and their applications

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Gopinath, N.; Govindan, R.

    2008-02-01

    Electrochemistry is truly an interdisciplinary science and plays an important role in different branches of science and technology. The present Discussion Meet on ElectroAnalytical Techniques (DM- ELANTE-2008) is focused on the update of various electroanalytical techniques which have brought out a substantial change in electroanalytical chemistry. The aim of this Discussion Meet is to provide a forum to all the electroanalytical scientists to discuss their recent findings and information, learn from the mutual experiences and interests, and to promote cooperation both nationally and internationally. It is proposed to have tutorial lectures as well as invited talks during the Discussion Meet on various electroanalytical techniques including Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Spectro-electrochemistry, Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. The Role of Oncology Nurses in Discussing Clinical Trials.

    Flocke, Susan A; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Daly, Barbara J; Jackson, Brigid; Fulton, Sarah E; Liu, Tasnuva M; Surdam, Jessica; Manne, Sharon; Meropol, Neal J

    2017-09-01

    To describe oncology nurses' experiences discussing clinical trials with their patients, and to assess barriers to these discussions.
. A qualitative study designed to elicit narratives from oncology nurses. 
. Community- and academic-based oncology clinics throughout the United States.
. 33 oncology nurses involved in direct patient care in community-based and large hospital-based settings. The sample was drawn from members of the Oncology Nursing Society. 
. In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed using a 
immersion/crystallization approach to identify themes and patterns. The analyses highlight specific issues, examples, and contexts that present challenges to clinical trial discussions with patients.
. Oncology nurses view their roles as patient educators and advocates to be inclusive of discussion of clinical trials. Barriers to such discussions include lack of knowledge and strategies for addressing patients' common misconceptions and uncertainty about the timing of discussions.
. These data indicate that enabling nurses to actively engage patients in discussions of clinical trials requires educational interventions to build self-efficacy and close knowledge gaps. 
. Oncology nurses can play a critical role in advancing cancer care by supporting patients in decision making about clinical trial participation. This will require training and education to build their knowledge, reduce barriers, and increase their self-efficacy to fulfill this responsibility in various clinical settings.

  7. Carbon black vs. black carbon and other airborne materials containing elemental carbon: Physical and chemical distinctions

    Long, Christopher M.; Nascarella, Marc A.; Valberg, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Airborne particles containing elemental carbon (EC) are currently at the forefront of scientific and regulatory scrutiny, including black carbon, carbon black, and engineered carbon-based nanomaterials, e.g., carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, and graphene. Scientists and regulators sometimes group these EC-containing particles together, for example, interchangeably using the terms carbon black and black carbon despite one being a manufactured product with well-controlled properties and the other being an undesired, incomplete-combustion byproduct with diverse properties. In this critical review, we synthesize information on the contrasting properties of EC-containing particles in order to highlight significant differences that can affect hazard potential. We demonstrate why carbon black should not be considered a model particle representative of either combustion soots or engineered carbon-based nanomaterials. Overall, scientific studies need to distinguish these highly different EC-containing particles with care and precision so as to forestall unwarranted extrapolation of properties, hazard potential, and study conclusions from one material to another. -- Highlights: •Major classes of elemental carbon-containing particles have distinct properties. •Despite similar names, carbon black should not be confused with black carbon. •Carbon black is distinguished by a high EC content and well-controlled properties. •Black carbon particles are characterized by their heterogenous properties. •Carbon black is not a model particle representative of engineered nanomaterials. -- This review demonstrates the significant physical and chemical distinctions between elemental carbon-containing particles e.g., carbon black, black carbon, and engineered nanomaterials

  8. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  9. Best Friends’ Discussions of Social Dilemmas

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend's reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents’ social and moral development. PMID:23666555

  10. Best friends' discussions of social dilemmas.

    McDonald, Kristina L; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents' social and moral development.

  11. Disgust discussed: introduction to the special section.

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2013-03-01

    The author introduces a special section of Psychological Bulletin devoted to the study of disgust. After discussing conflicts between its supposed role as a basic emotion and its more recently understood involvement in responding to moral transgressions, the author summarizes 3 articles contained in the special section. Widen and Russell (2013) present a developmental account of disgust highlighting the ages at which children experience, express, understand, verbalize, and recognize disgust. The article shows that disgust is present early but that recognition of disgust in others is considerably delayed. Chapman and Anderson (2013) review evidence pertaining to the question of whether genuine disgust is elicited by moral transgressions. Their review covers data from self-report, brain imaging, facial behavior, and implicit measures gathered from both experimental and correlational studies. They conclude that moral transgressions elicit genuine disgust. Russell and Giner-Sorolla (2013) ask what types of moral transgressions are most likely to elicit pure disgust. They find that moral transgressions involving body violations are more likely than others to elicit such disgust. Moreover, they suggest that disgust elicited by body violations is likely to be more resistant to modification by context, situation, and efforts at rationalization. Taken together, the reviews support the view that rudiments of disgust to physical objects are present early in life but later become adapted to social influence and new moral purposes. Social implications are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  12. Panel discussion: Chemistry aspects of pet radiotracers

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A panel discussion on the radiotracer development process opened with a question regarding the role of toxicological studies in the process of obtaining a physician-sponsored Investigational New Drug (IND) for a new radiopharmaceutical. Panel members were uniformly supportive of new radiotracer development, expressing their opinions that the regulatory hurdles were there but could be overcome. Several institutions are actively working with regulatory agencies to determine just what toxicology data are relevant to new radiopharmaceutical development in the PET field. The FDA is beginning to understand that the pharmacology of PET tracer doses may be completely different from what is usually important in drug trials. The second part of the panel discussion centered on the role, if any, of the pharmaceutical companies in new radiotracer development. It was pointed out that what the radiochemist is looking for in a radiopharmaceutical is different from what these companies are searching for in a therapeutic drug. Panel and audience members responded to the question: What would a pharmaceutical company gain from collaboration with radiopharmaceutical research laboratories? Several examples were given such as providing crucial data from humans rather than animals; determining individualized drug doses to maximize the therapeutic index of a new drug regimen; and replacing the large amounts of time and money currently invested by drug companies in the radiolabeling and evaluation of metabolites of new drugs

  13. Critical Discussion of Essentials of Diagnosis and Recording in Periodontics.

    Ellen, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Issues to be addressed before writing standards of care for the diagnosis of adult periodontal disease are discussed. These include considerations in screening and examination; arriving at diagnosis and prognosis, informing the patient, and referral; monitoring outcomes using diagnostic signs and tests; and new technology for and approaches to…

  14. A Bargaining Experiment To Motivate a Discussion on Fairness.

    Dickinson, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Employs a classroom version of the research game, the Ultimatum Game, to teach undergraduate students how fairness affects behavior. Focuses on three concepts related to fairness. Finds that classroom results motivate discussion about a downward sloping demand curve for fairness. Provides an appendix that includes instructional materials. (JEH)

  15. A Discussion of Art Therapy as a Science.

    Gantt, Linda M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines four factors that may cause art therapists to reject the scientific method. Gives an overview of historical developments in science to provide a background for a discussion of each factor. Includes material from anthropology, psychoanalysis, and alternative health care. Offers suggestions for training art therapists in scientific…

  16. Clinical application and assessment of Belotero: a roundtable discussion.

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Fagien, Steven; Flynn, Timothy C; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2013-10-01

    In this final article for the Supplement, the authors address the physical and aesthetic characteristics of the latest hyaluronic acid, Belotero Balance. Topics include unique characteristics of the hyaluronic acid, aesthetic indications, administration techniques, adverse events, and differences between Belotero and other hyaluronic acids. The article closes with a brief discussion about nomenclature of hyaluronic acid products.

  17. Discussing a Philosophical Background for the Ethnomathematical Program

    Vilela, Denise Silva

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which Wittgenstein's analytical framework may be relevant to philosophical reflection on ethnomathematics. The discussion develops Bill Barton's suggestion that a philosophical basis for the ethnomathematical program should include and explain culturally different mathematics systems, and the coexistence of…

  18. Round table discussion of future Solar Neutrino Program

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of the future neutrino program includes a critique of the chlorine-37 experiment and the necessary continued effort, the astronomical and cosmological implications of the various nonstandard models, future programs in laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations on reaction cross sections, opacities, convections, and observations of elemental abundances on the Sun and the meteorites, and lastly the program in solar neutrino research

  19. Learning within Incoherent Structures: The Space of Online Discussion Forums.

    Thomas, Matthew J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results from a study of undergraduate students' learning outcomes and patterns of interaction within an online discussion forum. Topics include social dynamics of computer-mediated communication versus face-to-face communication; cognitive engagement; critical and reflective thinking; and student interaction. (Author/LRW)

  20. Panel discussion on exploitation of geothermal resources in thermal zones

    Viramonte, J G; Mange, J; Stefani, G

    1978-03-01

    The topics discussed include the major known geothermal resources, varying ways of exploiting geothermal resources, technical and economic difficulties in the exploitation, the place of geothermal energy in the total energy policy of a given country, advanced exploration techniques, and indications of needed areas of study. The panelists represented most of the South American countries, Mexico, and Italy. (JSR)

  1. Discussion: Agricultural Commodities and Agribusiness Stocks as Financial Assets

    Brorsen, B. Wade

    2012-01-01

    Nonfarm investors might benefit from diversifying their portfolios by investing in the agricultural sector. Such diversifying investments could include investments in agricultural stocks or long-only futures positions through index funds. The papers in this session investigate the diversification potential of agricultural investments and discuss the effects of investments in index funds on agricultural markets.

  2. Grand unified models including extra Z bosons

    Li Tiezhong

    1989-01-01

    The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present

  3. Tailings and mineral carbonation : the potential for atmospheric CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Rollo, H.A. [Lorax Environmental Services Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, H.E. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering; Lee, C.A. [Dillon Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration includes geological storage, ocean storage, organic storage, and mineral storage (mineral carbonation). This presentation discussed tailings and mineral carbonation and the potential for atmospheric CO{sub 2} sequestration. In particular, it outlined CO{sub 2} sequestration and presented a history of investigations. The Ekati Diamond Mine was discussed with particular reference to its location, geology, and processing. Other topics that were presented included mineralogy; water chemistry; modeling results; and estimates of annual CO{sub 2} sequestration. Conclusions and implications were also presented. It was concluded that ore processing at mines with ultramafic host rocks have the potential to partially offset CO{sub 2} emissions. In addition, it was found that existing tailings at ultramafic deposits may be viable source materials for CO{sub 2} sequestration by mineral carbonation. tabs., figs.

  4. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  5. Hurricane impacts on US forest carbon sequestration

    Steven G. McNulty

    2002-01-01

    Recent focus has been given to US forests as a sink for increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Current estimates of US Forest carbon sequestration average approximately 20 Tg (i.e. 1012 g) year. However, predictions of forest carbon sequestration often do not include the influence of hurricanes on forest carbon storage. Intense hurricanes...

  6. Carbon Nanomembranes

    Angelova, Polina; Gölzhäuser, Armin

    2017-03-01

    This chapter describes the formation and properties of one nanometer thick carbon nanomembranes (CNMs), made by electron induced cross-linking of aromatic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The cross-linked SAMs are robust enough to be released from the surface and placed on solid support or over holes as free-standing membranes. Annealing at 1000K transforms CNMs into graphene accompanied by a change of mechanical stiffness and electrical resistance. The developed fabrication approach is scalable and provides molecular level control over thickness and homogeneity of the produced CNMs. The mechanisms of electron-induced cross-linking process are discussed in details. A variety of polyaromatic thiols: oligophenyls as well as small and extended condensed polycyclic hydrocarbons have been successfully employed, demonstrating that the structural and functional properties of the resulting nanomembranes are strongly determined by the structure of molecular monolayers. The mechanical properties of CNMs (Young's modulus, tensile strength and prestress) are characterized by bulge testing. The interpretation of the bulge test data relates the Young's modulus to the properties of single molecules and to the structure of the pristine SAMs. The gas transport through the CNM is measured onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - thin film composite membrane. The established relationship of permeance and molecular size determines the molecular sieving mechanism of permeation through this ultrathin sheet.

  7. Discussion on ``Teaching the Second Law''

    Silbey, Robert; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Keck, James C.; Lewins, Jeffery; Lior, Noam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Steinfeld, Jeffrey; von Spakovsky, Michael R.; Wang, Lin-Shu; Zanchini, Enzo

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Joseph Smith Jr., Howard Butler, Andrew Foley, Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli, Bernhardt Trout, Jeffery Lewins, Enzo Zanchini, and Michael von Spakovsky. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law taught in so many different ways? Why so many textbooks on thermodynamics? Why so many schools of thought? • Some say that thermodynamics is limited to equilibrium, others that it extends to nonequilibrium. How is entropy defined for nonequilibrium states?

  8. An uplifting discussion of T-duality

    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Moore, Gregory W.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that string theory has a T-duality symmetry relating circle compactifications of large and small radius. This symmetry plays a foundational role in string theory. We note here that while T-duality is order two acting on the moduli space of compactifications, it is order four in its action on the conformal field theory state space. More generally, involutions in the Weyl group W ( G) which act at points of enhanced G symmetry have canonical lifts to order four elements of G, a phenomenon first investigated by J. Tits in the mathematical literature on Lie groups and generalized here to conformal field theory. This simple fact has a number of interesting consequences. One consequence is a reevaluation of a mod two condition appearing in asymmetric orbifold constructions. We also briefly discuss the implications for the idea that T-duality and its generalizations should be thought of as discrete gauge symmetries in spacetime.

  9. Is rational discussion of open access possible?

    Rick Anderson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Access (OA, like any other model or strategy for the dissemination of knowledge, carries with it clear benefits as well as costs and downsides. These vary depending on the OA strategy in question, and in order for OA to bring maximum benefit to the world of scholarship, its costs and benefits need be examined carefully and dispassionately so that the former can be maximized and the latter minimized. Unfortunately, the OA advocacy community tends to resist all attempts to examine OA in this way, to the point that those who approach OA in a spirit of critical analysis (rather than celebration and evangelism are attacked and punished. This article describes the problem, provides examples of it, and proposes strategies for promoting a more rigorous and analytical discussion of OA.

  10. Faraday Discussions meeting Catalysis for Fuels.

    Fischer, Nico; Kondrat, Simon A; Shozi, Mzamo

    2017-05-02

    Welcome to Africa was the motto when after more than 100 years the flag ship conference series of the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Faraday Discussions was hosted for the first time on the African Continent. Under the fitting topic 'Catalysis for Fuels' over 120 delegates followed the invitation by the conference chair Prof. Graham Hutchings FRS (Cardiff Catalysis Institute), his organizing committee and the co-organizing DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Catalysis c*change (). In the presentations of 21 invited speakers and 59 posters, cutting edge research in the field of catalysis for fuels, designing new catalysts for synthetic fuels, hydrocarbon conversion in the production of synthetic fuels and novel photocatalysis was presented over the two-day meeting. The scene was set by the opening lecture of Prof. Enrique Iglesias (UC Berkeley) and wrapped-up with the concluding remarks by Philip Gibson (SASOL).

  11. Carbon Fiber from Biomass

    Milbrandt, Anelia [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center, Godlen, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fiber (CF), known also as graphite fiber, is a lightweight, strong, and flexible material used in both structural (load-bearing) and non-structural applications (e.g., thermal insulation). The high cost of precursors (the starting material used to make CF, which comes predominately from fossil sources) and manufacturing have kept CF a niche market with applications limited mostly to high-performance structural materials (e.g., aerospace). Alternative precursors to reduce CF cost and dependence on fossil sources have been investigated over the years, including biomass-derived precursors such as rayon, lignin, glycerol, and lignocellulosic sugars. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of CF precursors from biomass and their market potential. We examine the potential CF production from these precursors, the state of technology and applications, and the production cost (when data are available). We discuss their advantages and limitations. We also discuss the physical properties of biomass-based CF, and we compare them to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF. We also discuss manufacturing and end-product considerations for bio-based CF, as well as considerations for plant siting and biomass feedstock logistics, feedstock competition, and risk mitigation strategies. The main contribution of this study is that it provides detailed technical and market information about each bio-based CF precursor in one document while other studies focus on one precursor at a time or a particular topic (e.g., processing). Thus, this publication allows for a comprehensive view of the CF potential from all biomass sources and serves as a reference for both novice and experienced professionals interested in CF production from alternative sources.

  12. WTC. A discussion on built space regeneration

    Marina Mihăilă

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Before 9/11 WTC was an international landmark. The definition of the two high-rise buildings identity, their tourist, social, visual and economic significance, disappeared with the destruction of their materiality. As a result, the contemplative visual and unwritten discourse of the Lower Manhattan disappeared together with the architectural, urban, technological essence and also with the philosophy of stability and equilibrium of a prosperous society. At the social-mental level this event triggers a crisis in personal and collective consciences (of the American Nation but also of the Nations, and a crisis of humanity. The architectural - urban and ideas competition organized to select the best urban-social-architectural concept proved to be a difficult task. Not only it had to “fill” a particular place on earth, but it also needed to configure a philosophy of place that would ‘heal” the wounds of the local and international communities, namely the lack of security and prosperity brought on by a no longer hidden technology of aggression bringing cities and communities under threats never experienced before at times of peace. In its first part the article discusses the competition, proposals and the finalized urban project. The particular challenges related to the selection of design in the case of WTC are doubled by a certain complexity related to the institutional arrangements common to most large urban development projects. It is also clear that there is interdependency between the project governance and the project results. These aspects are discussed in the second part of the article.

  13. Round-table discussion on food irradiation

    1973-01-01

    The possibilities of using radiation for food preservation as a way of alleviating the food deficiency problem in a large part of the world has been studied for some 20 years. Since the idea was recognized as a viable one, scientists had to develop it along three levels: firstly, the technological problems and economic viability had to be faced; at the same time tests had to be initiated to prove the wholesomeness of the irradiated foodstuffs, and then public acceptance and confidence in the end product had to be established. Work is proceeding along these three lines and in some cases, success has been won on all fronts. In others, it is continuing. As a FLASHBACK to the situation TWO YEARS AGO, we thought it interesting to reprint excerpts from a round-table discussion at which scientists from five countries sat down to discuss the pros and cons of food irradiation. ost at the gathering was Dr. Rocco Basson, Director of Chemistry at Pelindaba, South Africa, and the man responsible for directing radiation processing in that country. With him were Dr. Lapidot, Head of the Radiation and Engineering and Processing Section of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission at Soreq; Dr. Saint-Lebe of the Radioagronomy Service, French Atomic Energy Commission, at Cadarache; Dr. Ulmann, then Director of the Food Irradiation Pilot Plant at Wageningen in Holland; and Mr. Roy Hickman, leader of the International Project in the Field of Irradiation, sponsored by the FAO, IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, centred at Karlsruhe in Germany. (author)

  14. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Carbon Composite Valve for an Internal Combustion Engine

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valve for internal combustion engines and the like formed of continuous carbon fibers throughout the valve's stem and head is disclosed. The valve includes braided carbon fiber material over axially aligned unidirectional carbon fibers forming a valve stem; the braided and unidirectional carbon fibers being broomed out at one end of the valve stem forming the shape of the valve head; the valve-shaped structure being densified and rigidized with a matrix of carbon containing discontinuous carbon fibers: and the finished valve being treated to resist oxidation. Also disclosed is a carbon matrix plug containing continuous and discontinuous carbon fibers and forming a net-shape valve head acting as a mandrel over which the unidirectional and braided carbon fibers are formed according to textile processes. Also disclosed are various preform valves and processes for making finished and preform carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite valves.

  15. Carbon taxes: Their benefits, liabilities

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Thompson, L.L.J.

    1993-01-01

    A carbon tax holds much promise for helping to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions, but administration will be a problem. Non-compliance, tilting the economic scales in favor of one energy source at the expense of another, and questions of equity between and within nations all must be addressed if the market-based efficiencies of a carbon tax are to become a concrete global reality. This article discusses carbon taxes in the following topic areas: how to set the rates for carbon taxes; administering the tax; international cooperation; type or form of tax; tax adjustments in existing taxes

  16. National library associations: websites and electronic discussion ...

    This article reviews the state of national library association websites in Africa based on an examination and analysis of the Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia sites. Problems identified include lack of regular updates, technical errors, lack of funds to acquire quality website editing tools and ...

  17. Proposed Radiation Control Act: discussion paper

    1989-01-01

    The history and nature of the present NSW Radioactive Substances Act passed in 1957 is outlined. The direction of reform is suggested and some options for changes presented. These include the extension of controls to cover non-ionising radiation, the introduction of controls over the mining and milling of radioactive ores, and improved licensing provisions. Professional and public comment is sought

  18. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  19. A Multicultural Discussion About Personality Development

    Carlson, Jon; Kurato, Yoshiya; Ruiz, Elizabeth; Ng, Kok-Mun; Yang, Julia

    2004-01-01

    The use of knife and fork common in Western cultures has influenced Japanese people not only in terms of eating habits but also Japanese personality characteristics. This influence fosters the notion of segmentation - that all areas of life, including people, can be sectioned into parts and so analyzed. Mind and body are considered two discrete…

  20. Highlight: Canadian and Caribbean parliamentarians discuss open ...

    Improving people's lives through open data ... because it offers so many solutions to challenges faced by governments, communities, ... can spur business growth and catalyze innovations in health, education, agriculture, ... open data in government procurement, infrastructure, and natural resources, including water quality.

  1. Electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes

    Qin, L-C

    2006-01-01

    The properties of a carbon nanotube are dependent on its atomic structure. The atomic structure of a carbon nanotube can be defined by specifying its chiral indices (u, v), that specify its perimeter vector (chiral vector), with which the diameter and helicity are also determined. The fine electron beam available in a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers a unique probe to reveal the atomic structure of individual nanotubes. This review covers two aspects related to the use of the electron probe in the TEM for the study of carbon nanotubes: (a) to understand the electron diffraction phenomena for inter-pretation of the electron diffraction patterns of carbon nanotubes and (b) to obtain the chiral indices (u, v), of the carbon nanotubes from the electron diffraction patterns. For a nanotube of a given structure, the electron scattering amplitude from the carbon nanotube is first described analytically in closed form using the helical diffraction theory. From a known structure as given by the chiral indices (u, v), its electron diffraction pattern can be calculated and understood. The reverse problem, i.e. assignment of the chiral indices from an electron diffraction pattern of a carbon nanotube, is approached from the relationship between the electron scattering intensity distribution and the chiral indices (u, v). We show that electron diffraction patterns can provide an accurate and unambiguous assignment of the chiral indices of carbon nanotubes. The chiral indices (u, v) can be read indiscriminately with a high accuracy from the intensity distribution on the principal layer lines in an electron diffraction pattern. The symmetry properties of electron diffraction from carbon nanotubes and the electron diffraction from deformed carbon nanotubes are also discussed in detail. It is shown that 2mm symmetry is always preserved for single-walled carbon nanotubes, but it can break down for multiwalled carbon nanotubes under some special circumstances

  2. Making carbon sequestration a paying proposition

    Han, Fengxiang X.; Lindner, Jeff S.; Wang, Chuji

    2007-03-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased from a preindustrial concentration of about 280 ppm to about 367 ppm at present. The increase has closely followed the increase in CO2 emissions from the use of fossil fuels. Global warming caused by increasing amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the major environmental challenge for the 21st century. Reducing worldwide emissions of CO2 requires multiple mitigation pathways, including reductions in energy consumption, more efficient use of available energy, the application of renewable energy sources, and sequestration. Sequestration is a major tool for managing carbon emissions. In a majority of cases CO2 is viewed as waste to be disposed; however, with advanced technology, carbon sequestration can become a value-added proposition. There are a number of potential opportunities that render sequestration economically viable. In this study, we review these most economically promising opportunities and pathways of carbon sequestration, including reforestation, best agricultural production, housing and furniture, enhanced oil recovery, coalbed methane (CBM), and CO2 hydrates. Many of these terrestrial and geological sequestration opportunities are expected to provide a direct economic benefit over that obtained by merely reducing the atmospheric CO2 loading. Sequestration opportunities in 11 states of the Southeast and South Central United States are discussed. Among the most promising methods for the region include reforestation and CBM. The annual forest carbon sink in this region is estimated to be 76 Tg C/year, which would amount to an expenditure of 11.1-13.9 billion/year. Best management practices could enhance carbon sequestration by 53.9 Tg C/year, accounting for 9.3% of current total annual regional greenhouse gas emission in the next 20 years. Annual carbon storage in housing, furniture, and other wood products in 1998 was estimated to be 13.9 Tg C in the region. Other sequestration options

  3. Rivers of Carbon: Carbon Fluxes in a Watershed Context

    Wohl, E.; Tom, B.; Hovius, N.

    2017-12-01

    Research within the past decade has identified the roles of diverse terrestrial processes in mobilizing terrestrial carbon from bedrock, soil, and vegetation and in redistributing this carbon among the atmosphere, biota, geosphere, and oceans. Rivers are central to carbon redistribution, serving as the primary initial receptor of mobilized terrestrial carbon, as well as governing the proportions of carbon sequestered within sediment, transported to oceans, or released to the atmosphere. We use a riverine carbon budget to examine how key questions regarding carbon dynamics can be addressed across diverse spatial and temporal scales from sub-meter areas over a few hours on a single gravel bar to thousands of square kilometers over millions of years across an entire large river network. The portion of the budget applying to the active channel(s) takes the form of ,in which Cs is organic carbon storage over time t. Inputs are surface and subsurface fluxes from uplands (CIupl) and the floodplain (CIfp), including fossil, soil, and biospheric organic carbon; surface and subsurface fluxes of carbon dioxide to the channel (CICO2); and net primary productivity in the channel (CINPP). Outputs occur via respiration within the channel and carbon dioxide emissions (COgas) and fluxes of dissolved and particulate organic carbon to the floodplain and downstream portions of the river network (COriver). The analogous budget for the floodplain portion of a river corridor is .

  4. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH.

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf

    2006-03-01

    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  6. Potential for nuclear terrorism: a discussion

    Kellen, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because there has never been an incident of nuclear terrorism, the author is reduced to informed speculation. The past cannot be used to extrapolate into the future. For terrorists as for nations, the domain of nuclear attack represents are unprecedented quantum leap, one that groups think carefully about. Terrorists will consider many factors, including the public climate, because they are not psychotics operating in a vacuum (though groups may include psychotic individuals). Rather, they are people involved in a reciprocal political and psychological relationship with the rest of the world. In reaching some assessment of the potential for nuclear terrorism, there is an immense number of variables to deal with, beginning with the many types of terrorists and terrorism, including nuclear. They can, however, look at individual terrorist groups - a their compositions, capabilities, motivations, and modus operandi - and reach some conclusions. The author first looks at the possible forms nuclear terrorism might take and at the severity of the consequences. A strict distinction must be made between nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the means (for example, a nuclear device) and nuclear terrorism where nuclear things are the target (for example, nuclear power stations), or where they are both such as a nuclear weapon thrown at a nuclear power station. 2 tables

  7. Forest managment options for sequestering carbon in Mexico

    Masera, O.R.; Bellon, M.R.; Segura, G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper identifies and examines economic response options to avoid carbon emissions and increase carbon sequestration in Mexican forests. A ''Policy'' scenario covering the years 2000, 2010 and 2030 and a ''Technical Potential'' scenario (year 2030) are developed to examine the potential carbon sequestration and costs of each response option. Benefit-cost analyses for three case studies, including management of a pulpwood plantation, a native temperate forest and a native tropical evergreen forest are presented and discussed. The study suggests that a large potential for reducing carbon emissions and increasing carbon sequestration exists in Mexican forests. However, the achievement of this potential will require important reforms to the current institutional setting of the forest sector. The management of native temperate and tropical forests offers the most promising alternatives for carbon sequestration. The cost effectiveness of commercial plantations critically depends on very high site productivity. Restoration of degraded forest lands; particularly through the establishment of energy plantations, also shows a large carbon sequestration potential. (Author)

  8. Production of thin carbon stripper foils using heated-substrates in a cathodic arc deposition system

    Merchant, A.R.; Lobanov, N.; Elliman, R.G.; Ophel, T.R.; Rode, A.; Weisser, D.C.; Turkentine, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The lifetime of carbon stripper foil can have a marked impact on the successful running of a beam line. Standard techniques for production of carbon stripper foils include evaporation of carbon (ec) and laser-pulsed ablation (Ipa). Recent work by a using Ipa has been successful in substantially increasing the lifetime of a very thin foil. The suspected mechanism for the increased lifetime of the foil is that the amorphous carbon foil is density-matched to that of graphite (around 2.26g/cc). In this work, we attempt to reproduce this result by producing carbon stripper foils with a mass-density similar to graphite using a cathodic arc deposition system. The cathodic arc is well known for the production of tetrahedral amorphous carbon: a high density, high stress form of carbon with over 90% sp 3 -like bonds; to reduce the density of the carbon and promote more graphitic structure, a high bias was initially attempted but this proved unsuccessful. Another method is to use a heated-substrate holder to reduce compressive stress within the deposited film. The performance of the density-matched carbon stripper foils and the implications for future production of high-quality carbon stripper foils in our laboratory will be discussed. (authors)

  9. Discussion on ``Foundations of the Second Law''

    Silbey, Robert; Ao, Ping; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Cengel, Yunus; Foley, Andrew; Freedman, Steven; Graeff, Roderich; Keck, James C.; Lloyd, Seth; Maroney, Owen; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Weissman, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Seth Lloyd, Owen Maroney, Silviu Guiasu, Ping Ao, Jochen Gemmer, Bernard Guy, Gian Paolo Beretta, Speranta Gheorghiu-Svirschevski, and Dorion Sagan. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Why is the second law true? Is it an inviolable law of nature? If not, is it possible to develop a perpetual motion machine of the second kind? • Are second law limitations objective or subjective, real or apparent, due to the nature of physical states or the representation and manipulation of information? Is entropy a physical property in the same sense as energy is universally understood to be an intrinsic property of matter? • Does the second law conflict with quantum mechanics? Are the differences between mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions of physical phenomena reconcilable? Does the reversible law of motion of hamiltonian mechanics and quantum mechanics conflict with the empirical observation of irreversible phenomena?

  10. Discussion on ``The Second Law and Energy''

    Lloyd, Seth; Banerjee, Debjyoti; Bejan, Adrian; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Geskin, Ernest; Ghoniem, Ahmed; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Keck, James C.; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Peterson, Richard; Salamon, Peter; Williamson, Lihong

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Thomas Widmer, Ernest Geskin, James Keck, Noam Lior, Debjyoti Banerjee, Richard Peterson, Erik Ydstie, Ron Zevenhoven, Zhuomin Zhang, and Ahmed Ghoniem. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Current state-of-the-art efficiency of combined-cycle energy conversion technology is about 60%. Based on the trend of historical data, some forecast that second-law efficiency of energy conversion will reach 80% by the end of the century. What technologies are at sight that might hold this promise? • Nanotechnologies and microtechnologies point towards the development of microscopic heat engines? How do second law limitations map down to these scales? • Combustion is the principal way of converting the chemical energy of fossil fuels to thermal energy, but it is highly irreversible. Are there promising ways to reduce combustion irreversibility? Are fuel cells the only alternative to combustion?

  11. Discussion on ``Frontiers of the Second Law''

    Lloyd, Seth; Bejan, Adrian; Bennett, Charles; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Butler, Howard; Gordon, Lyndsay; Grmela, Miroslav; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Hatsopoulos, George N.; Jou, David; Kjelstrup, Signe; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Rubi, Miguel; Schneider, Eric D.; Sekulic, Dusan P.; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 4, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Adrian Bejan, Bjarne Andresen, Miguel Rubi, Signe Kjelstrup, David Jou, Miroslav Grmela, Lyndsay Gordon, and Eric Schneider. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Is the second law relevant when we trap single ions, prepare, manipulate and measure single photons, excite single atoms, induce spin echoes, measure quantum entanglement? Is it possible or impossible to build Maxwell demons that beat the second law by exploiting fluctuations? • Is the maximum entropy generation principle capable of unifying nonequilibrium molecular dynamics, chemical kinetics, nonlocal and nonequilibrium rheology, biological systems, natural structures, and cosmological evolution? • Research in quantum computation and quantum information has raised many fundamental questions about the foundations of quantum theory. Are any of these questions related to the second law?

  12. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion.

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  13. Discussion of the dizziness handicap inventory.

    Mutlu, Basak; Serbetcioglu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    A review of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). NUMBER OF STUDIES: Seventy-four studies. Articles published between January 1990 and May 2012 were identified by searches in PubMed electronic database. Of the 227 articles meeting the inclusion criteria 74 were reviewed. These articles are discussed under nine topics; Reliability, validity and internal consistency of the original version of DHI, relationship between vestibular/balance tests and DHI, association between DHI and the other scales related to balance impairments, exploratory factor analysis of the DHI, screening version of DHI, translations of DHI into other languages, the role of DHI to assess the success of the treatment of balance disorder, DHI results in various vestibular disorders, general characteristics of DHI in patients with balance impairment. Self reported measures represent unique pieces of the information important for the management of dizzy patients. DHI is the most widely used self reported measurement of patients with dizziness. It has been translated into fourteen languages, so it is widely accepted.

  14. Discussion on posting and labeling for radioprotection

    Suzuki, Fabio F.

    2009-01-01

    The radioprotection aims the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation or radioactive substances as well as the safety of radiation sources. As ionizing radiation is not perceived by human senses, the warning signs and labels on radiation sources and the safety posters in controlled and supervised areas have an important role to keep the doses and risks as low as reasonably achievable, to prevent radiological accidents and to mitigate their consequences. In Brazil, several technical regulations require such safety labels and posters, however, despite their importance, there is quite few guidance about their format or contents. In this paper the posting and labeling requirements for radiological control existing in Brazilian technical regulations are discussed, confronting them with national, foreign and international technical standards and by drawing up a parallel with requirements of technical regulations from other countries. Changes are suggested in some parts of the national regulations, to prevent some differences in the current guidance, allowing the optimization of posting and labeling programs of radiological facilities. (author)

  15. Vicarious learning through capturing taskdirected discussions

    F. Dineen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The research programme on vicarious learning, part of which we report in this paper, has been aimed at exploring the idea that learning can be facilitated by providing learners with access to the experiences of other learners. We use Bandura's term vicarious learning to describe this (Bandura, 1986, and we believe it to be a paradigm that offers particular promise when seen as an innovative way of exploiting recent technical advances in multimedia and distance learning technologies. It offers the prospect of a real alternative to the building of intelligent tutors (which directly address the problem of allowing learners access to dialogue, but which have proved largely intractable in practice or to the direct support of live dialogues (which do not offer a solution to the problem of providing 'live' tutors - unless they are between peer learners. In the research reported here our main objectives were to develop techniques to facilitate learners' access to, especially, dialogues and discussions which have arisen when other learners were faced with similar issues or problems in understanding the material. This required us to investigate means of indexing and retrieving appropriate dialogues and build on these to create an advanced prototype system for use in educational settings.

  16. Discussion of entanglement entropy in quantum gravity

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2018-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy in gravity theory with quantum effects. A simplest model is a two dimensional Einstein gravity theory. We use an n-sheet manifold to obtain an area term of entanglement entropy by summing over all background fields. Based on AdS/CFT correspondence, strongly coupled conformal field theory is expected to describe perturbative quantum gravity theory. An ultraviolet complete quantum gravity theory should not depend on a choice of an entangling surface. To analysis the problem explicitly, we analyze two dimensional conformal field theory. We find that a coefficient of a universal term of entanglement entropy is independent of a choice of an entangling surface in two dimensional conformal field theory for one interval to show a tentative evidence. Finally, we discuss that translational invariance in a quantum system at zero temperature, size goes to infinity and no mass scales, except for cut-off, possibly be a necessary condition in quantum gravity theory by ruing out a volume law of entanglement entropy. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Carbon accounting of forest bioenergy: from model calibrations to policy options (Invited)

    Lamers, P.

    2013-12-01

    Programs to stimulate biomass use for the production of heating/cooling and electricity have been implemented in many countries as part of their greenhouse gas emission reduction strategies. Critiques claim however that the use of forest biomass, e.g. as a replacement of hard-coal in large-scale power plants or mineral oil fuelled residential heating boilers, countervails carbon saving and thus also climate change mitigation strategies, at least in the short-term, as forest biomass combustion releases previously stored biogenic carbon back into the atmosphere. While there seems general agreement that carbon emitted from bioenergy combustion was and will again be sequestered from the atmosphere given a sustainable biomass management system, there is inherent concern that carbon release and sequestration rates may not be in temporal balance with each other and eventually jeopardize mid-century carbon/temperature/climate targets. So far, biomass carbon accounting systems (including those that are part of regulatory standards) have not incorporated this potential temporal imbalance or ';carbon debt'. The potential carbon debt caused by wood harvest and the resulting time spans needed to reach pre-harvest carbon levels (payback) or those of a reference case (parity) have become important parameters for climate and bioenergy policy developments. The present range of analyses however varies in assumptions, regional scopes, and conclusions. Policy makers are confronted with this portfolio while needing to address the temporal carbon aspect in current regulations. In order to define policies for our carbon constrained world, it is critical to better understand the dimensions and regional differences of these carbon cycles. This paper/presentation discusses to what extent and under which circumstances (i.e. bioenergy systems) a temporal forest carbon imbalance could jeopardize future temperature and eventually climate targets. It further reviews the current state of

  18. The Contemporary Carbon Cycle

    Houghton, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    The global carbon cycle refers to the exchanges of carbon within and between four major reservoirs: the atmosphere, the oceans, land, and fossil fuels. Carbon may be transferred from one reservoir to another in seconds (e.g., the fixation of atmospheric CO2 into sugar through photosynthesis) or over millennia (e.g., the accumulation of fossil carbon (coal, oil, gas) through deposition and diagenesis of organic matter). This chapter emphasizes the exchanges that are important over years to decades and includes those occurring over the scale of months to a few centuries. The focus will be on the years 1980-2000 but our considerations will broadly include the years ˜1850-2100. Chapter 8.09, deals with longer-term processes that involve rates of carbon exchange that are small on an annual timescale (weathering, vulcanism, sedimentation, and diagenesis).The carbon cycle is important for at least three reasons. First, carbon forms the structure of all life on the planet, making up ˜50% of the dry weight of living things. Second, the cycling of carbon approximates the flows of energy around the Earth, the metabolism of natural, human, and industrial systems. Plants transform radiant energy into chemical energy in the form of sugars, starches, and other forms of organic matter; this energy, whether in living organisms or dead organic matter, supports food chains in natural ecosystems as well as human ecosystems, not the least of which are industrial societies habituated (addicted?) to fossil forms of energy for heating, transportation, and generation of electricity. The increased use of fossil fuels has led to a third reason for interest in the carbon cycle. Carbon, in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), forms two of the most important greenhouse gases. These gases contribute to a natural greenhouse effect that has kept the planet warm enough to evolve and support life (without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average temperature would be -33

  19. An explanation of carbon emission markets

    2009-01-01

    After having outlined the necessity to drastically reduce anthropic carbon emissions, and discussed how to associate standards, taxes and quota markets, the authors describe how carbon emission markets have emerged: the Kyoto protocol, the emission trade scheme (ETS) of the European Union, other carbon markets (existing or in preparation). They introduce and present four pillars of carbon emission markets: the allocation process, the reliability of emission measurement and control, market records and transparency, and introduction of flexibility. They examine the possibility of success in the development of a greenhouse gas emission market. The authors discuss the problems raised by a design of carbon markets by government and their use by private actors, how to connect existing or future regional carbon markets, the integration of forest and agriculture through new compensatory mechanisms, how to face carbon leaks by widening carbon markets

  20. The Thera eruption: continuing discussion of the dating

    Aitken, M.J.; Betancourt, P.P.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently it had been generally accepted that the radiocarbon dates for the destruction levels at Akrotiri resulting from the Minoan eruption of Thera on the Aegean island of Santorini 'did not make sense', interference by carbon dioxide emanations from the volcano, deficient in carbon-14, sometimes being suggested as the cause (as recently discussed by Olsson 1987). The scatter was said to be unacceptably large, but above all, after calibration the majority of dates were at least a century earlier than expected on the basis of the accepted Minoan chronology, established by archaeological linkages to the Egyptian astronomically-anchored calendar. The situation has now been changed. First, from a reassessment of linkages it has been proposed (Betancourt 1987) that the relevant Late Minoan period (LM IA) started at least a century earlier than according to the usual chronology. Secondly, accurate high-precision calibration curves have become available (e.g. Pearson and Stuiver 1986); although previous curves are generally concordant with these, for the relevant period the new calibration has the effect of making calibrated dates more recent by about half a century. The purpose of the present note is to bring together the various datings that are now extant. Although a shift of a century may seem trivial to those remote from Aegean archaeology the topic is of more than local interest on account of the tendency for opponents of radiocarbon to use the dates as 'yet another example of failure' and of the challenge to science-based techniques to provide an unambiguous result for this major natural catastrophy. (author)

  1. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation with carbonic acid

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The Albany Research Center (ARC) of the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been conducting a series of mineral carbonation tests at its Albany, Oregon, facility over the past 2 years as part of a Mineral Carbonation Study Program within the DOE. Other participants in this Program include the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Arizona State University, Science Applications International Corporation, and the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. The ARC tests have focused on ex-situ mineral carbonation in an aqueous system. The process developed at ARC utilizes a slurry of water mixed with a magnesium silicate mineral, olivine [forsterite end member (Mg2SiO4)], or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. This slurry is reacted with supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce magnesite (MgCO3). The CO2 is dissolved in water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which dissociates to H+ and HCO3 -. The H+ reacts with the mineral, liberating Mg2+ cations which react with the bicarbonate to form the solid carbonate. The process is designed to simulate the natural serpentinization reaction of ultramafic minerals, and for this reason, these results may also be applicable to in-situ geological sequestration regimes. Results of the baseline tests, conducted on ground products of the natural minerals, have been encouraging. Tests conducted at ambient temperature (22 C) and subcritical CO2 pressures (below 73 atm) resulted in very slow conversion to the carbonate. However, when elevated temperatures and pressures are utilized, coupled with continuous stirring of the slurry and gas dispersion within the water column, significant reaction occurs within much shorter reaction times. Extent of reaction, as measured by the stoichiometric conversion of the silicate mineral (olivine) to the carbonate, is roughly 90% within 24 hours, using distilled water, and a reaction temperature of 185?C and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 115 atm. Recent tests using a bicarbonate solution, under identical reaction

  2. Use of global context for handling noisy names in discussion texts of a homeopathy discussion forum

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The task of identifying named entities from the discussion texts in Web forums faces the challenge of noisy names. As the names are often misspelled or abbreviated, the conventional techniques have failed to detect the noisy names properly. In this paper we propose a global context based framework for handling the noisy names. The framework is tested on a named entity recognition system designed to identify the names from the discussion texts in a homeopathy diagnosis discussion forum. The proposed global context-based framework is found to be effective in improving the accuracy of the named entity recognition system.

  3. Literacy: a discussion of graphocentrism in microculture

    Michelle Donizeth Euzébio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the characterization of graphocentrism in microculture. We aim to describe, based on literacy studies, the presence of written language in the life of socially and historically situated subjects, thematizing the axiological capital of less favored socioeconomic contexts. Subjects are children undergoing schooling process, living in a district of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Discussions on the theme are based on Barton (1994, Barton, Hamilton and Ivanic (2000, Heath (1982, and Street (1994, 2003. Looking at literacy from a sociocultural perspective implies understanding that subjects deal with written language in their daily life in different ways. It seems that school tends to teach subject matters defined beforehand, and this hampers the dialog with different social practices played by students who come from family environments with different schooling levels. This study is inserted in a project whose focus is the defense of a more sensible look of school concerning the different realities which constitute school itself, regarding the teaching of written language. The present research aims to answer the following questions: How can we configure the microculture (family, school, church, neighborhood – more or less graphocentric – where children attending 1st to 5th grade live, in an economically less privileged community of Florianópolis? How can we delineate the axiological capital regarding the mastering of written language by those children? What literacy events are more recurrent within that microculture? The data were collected by means of interviews, observations and field annotations, focusing on the visible elements of literacy events, similarly to what has been done by Hamiton (2000, such as participants, environments, artifacts, and activities. On the hand, the non-visible constituents of literacy practices, such as hidden participants, domain, resources, and routines, were observed during

  4. [Demand for abortion. Pre-abortion discussion].

    Guiol, L

    1994-03-01

    The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.

  5. Pulsar velocity observations: Correlations, interpretations, and discussion

    Helfand, D.J.; Tademaru, E.

    1977-01-01

    From an examination of the current sample of 12 pulsars with measured proper motions and the z-distribution of the much larger group of over 80 sources with measured period derivatives, we develop a self-consistent picture of pulsar evolution. The apparent tendency of pulsars to move parallel to the galactic plane is explained as the result of various selection effects. A method for calculating the unmeasurable radial velocity of a pulsar is presented; it is shown that the total space velocities thus obtained are consistent with the assumption of an extreme Population I origin for pulsars which subsequently move away from the plane with a large range of velocities. The time scale for pulsar magnetic field decay is derived from dynamical considerations. A strong correlation of the original pulsar field strength with the magnitude of pulsar velocity is discussed. This results in the division of pulsars into two classes: Class A sources characterized by low space velocities, a small scale height, and low values of P 0 P 0 ; and Class B sources with a large range of velocities (up to 1000 km s -1 ), a much greater scale height, and larger values of initial field strength. It is postulated that Class A sources originate in tight binaries where their impulse acceleration at birth is insufficient to remove them from the system, while the Class B sources arise from single stars or loosely bound binaries and are accelerated to high velocities by their asymmetric radiation force. The evolutionary picture which is developed is shown to be consistent with a number of constraints imposed by supernova rates, the relative frequency of massive binaries and Class A sources, theoretical field-decay times, and the overall pulsar galactic distribution

  6. Water, food, and population -- a panel discussion.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes a conference panel discussion among parliamentarians and researchers on water and food supplies and population growth in Asia. The Western Samoa legislator urged delegates to be aware of human development that was no more than the promotion of values associated with a market economy. Samoans increased their per capita caloric consumption. The food supply is provided locally, and 90% of exports are food products. Food security would be jeopardized by a fivefold increase in population. Samoan human development indicators were relatively good for a developing country. However, the country was still ranked as a low-income, food-deficit country. The Pakistani delegate explained that Pakistan's agriculture used the largest, continuous irrigation system in the world. However, the system operated inefficiently. There was concern that future high population growth would jeopardize food security. Another barrier was institutional mismanagement of irrigation and reliance on imports for staple items. Agricultural productivity must increase to meet the increased needs of continued population growth. All available land is currently under cultivation. Future strategies will necessitate international cooperation and innovative and environmentally sound technology. Professor Xuan remarked that increased population growth and rising demand, decreased water quality, and changing consumption patterns were a threat to water supplies. Sustainable increases in food production would entail better water management: reforestation to reduce and prevent water runoff, better technological exploitation of rain water, and more efficient use of irrigation systems. Better international financing schemes were needed for support of these policy changes. Professor Ness suggested free markets in water in order to price water at actual rates of consumption. Polluters should pay. Water management was also threatened by global warming.

  7. Bioethics and multiculturalism: nuancing the discussion.

    Durante, Chris

    2018-02-01

    In his recent analysis of multiculturalism, Tom Beauchamp has argued that those who implement multicultural reasoning in their arguments against common morality theories, such as his own, have failed to understand that multiculturalism is neither a form of moral pluralism nor ethical relativism but is rather a universalistic moral theory in its own right. Beauchamp's position is indeed on the right track in that multiculturalists do not consider themselves ethical relativists. Yet, Beauchamp tends to miss the mark when he argues that multiculturalism is in effect a school of thought that endorses a form of moral universalism that is akin to his own vision of a common morality. As a supporter of multiculturalism, I would like to discuss some aspects of Beauchamp's comments on multiculturalism and clarify what a multicultural account of public bioethics might look like. Ultimately, multiculturalism is purported as a means of managing diversity in the public arena and should not be thought of as endorsing either a version of moral relativism or a universal morality. By simultaneously refraining from the promotion of a comprehensive common moral system while it attempts to avoid a collapse into relativism, multiculturalism can serve as the ethico-political framework in which diverse moralities can be managed and in which opportunities for ethical dialogue, debate and deliberation on the prospects of common bioethical norms are made possible. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  9. Factual Summary of Papers, Presentations and Discussions

    2010-01-01

    Session 1 provided the opportunity to be informed of the Japanese institutional scene on geologic disposal as well as to acquaint the Japanese dignitaries and workshop participants with the RWMC Regulators' Forum, the challenges we face and the aims of the workshop. A lecture on accomplishments and issues in long-term safety regulation prepared discussions during the workshop. Session 2 - Fundamental Concepts and Evolution of International Guidance: One important point is that the use of language in this subject is not conducive to easy understanding by the public, certainly, and perhaps even by others. We need to consider how it might be made more accessible for the purpose of public involvement and regulatory dialogue. This might open the way to creating a readily comprehensible long-term objective for geological disposal that is consistent with the objectives for protecting society from the potential consequences of other activities with long-lived implications. The goal of the following presentations was to give an overall picture on these questions. Session 3 - Establishing Regulatory Criteria that Account for the Inherent Difficulties Associated with the Long-time Frames for Protection: Even though there have been significant developments in recent years and experience feedback from a number of ongoing geological disposal projects, international guidance remains rather difficult to understand and apply. The recent work from the RWMC-RF on long-term safety criteria for geological for geological disposal also shows that there are important differences between national criteria as well as differences in regulatory approach. It has emerged that we have no common basis for setting criteria as between different NEA countries and that the process of setting criteria is not readily explicable to the general public. Furthermore we are required, for the purposes of the international Joint Convention on the Safe Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste, to protect

  10. Stable carbon isotope signals in particulate organic and inorganic carbon of coccolithophores - A numerical model study for Emiliania huxleyi.

    Holtz, Lena-Maria; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter; Thoms, Silke

    2017-05-07

    A recent numerical cell model, which explains observed light and carbonate system effects on particulate organic and inorganic carbon (POC and PIC) production rates under the assumption of internal pH homeostasis, is extended for stable carbon isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C). Aim of the present study is to mechanistically understand the stable carbon isotopic fractionation signal (ε) in POC and PIC and furthermore the vital effect(s) included in measured ε PIC values. The virtual cell is divided into four compartments, for each of which the 12 C as well as the 13 C carbonate system kinetics are implemented. The compartments are connected to each other via trans-membrane fluxes. In contrast to existing carbon fractionation models, the presented model calculates the disequilibrium state for both carbonate systems and for each compartment. It furthermore calculates POC and PIC production rates as well as ε POC and ε PIC as a function of given light conditions and the compositions of the external carbonate system. Measured POC and PIC production rates as well as ε PIC values are reproduced well by the model (comparison with literature data). The observed light effect on ε POC (increase of ε POC with increasing light intensities), however, is not reproduced by the basic model set-up, which is solely based on RubisCO fractionation. When extending the latter set-up by assuming that biological fractionation includes further carbon fractionation steps besides the one of RubisCO, the observed light effect on ε POC is also reproduced. By means of the extended model version, four different vital effects that superimpose each other in a real cell can be detected. Finally, we discuss potential limitations of the ε PIC proxy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monitoring the chemical nature of the carbon pool of Louisiana wetland soils undergoing erosion: carbon speciation and redox processes

    Haywood, B.; Cook, R. L.; Hayes, M. P.; White, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Wetlands account for approximately one third of all the soil carbon on the planet; however, due to erosion caused by a range of factors, including sea level rising, they are also some of the most vulnerable carbon pools. Small changes within this sequestered carbon pool can have a large impact on atmospheric CO2 levels. Thus, it is essential to understand how this sequestered carbon reacts to wetland loss in order to gain deeper insight into the global carbon cycle. In the study to be presented, Barataria Bay, Louisiana, USA is used as a model system for wetland loss. A sampling site and sampling grid has been established, and consists of three transects on and from an individual island. Each transect has five different distances ranging from 2 m inland to 8 m outland (into the water). At each of these different distances, depth profiles from 0 to 100 cm for inland samples, and 0-70 cm for submerged samples, were collected in order to identify spatial trends not only from inland to submerged, but also through the depth of the soil profile. Three types of samples were collected, namely water, pore water, and soil samples, with the latter being obtained from the combined collection of water and core samples. Samples have undergone spectroscopic characterizing including UV/Vis, fluorescence (excitation emission matrices, EEMs, and parallel factor, PARAFAC, analysis of the EEMs), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, solid state 13C), and electron pair resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in concert with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy to monitor the initial state of carbon speciation as well as redox processes. The data are used to establish a starting point on which to monitor changes within the carbon pool as the sampling site experience erosion over the next few years. The discussion will focus on the lability of different carbon pools and the potential lability-inducing mechanisms as well as the initial carbon speciation and redox state of the sampling

  12. Growth of Y-shaped Carbon Nanofibers from Ethanol Flames

    Cheng Jin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Y-shaped carbon nanofibers as a multi-branched carbon nanostructure have potential applications in electronic devices. In this article, we report that several types of Y-shaped carbon nanofibers are obtained from ethanol flames. These Y-shaped carbon nanofibers have different morphologies. According to our experimental results, the growth mechanism of Y-shaped carbon nanofibers has been discussed and a possible growth model of Y-shaped carbon nanofibers has been proposed.

  13. Development of Low Density, Flexible Carbon Phenolic Ablators

    Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Covington, Alan; Doxtad, Evan; Beck, Robin; Gasch, Matt; Arnold, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was the enabling TPS material for the Stardust mission where it was used as a single piece heatshield. PICA has the advantages of low density (approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter) coupled with efficient ablative capability at high heat fluxes. Due to its brittle nature and low strain to failure recent efforts at NASA ARC have focused on alternative architectures to yield flexible and more conformal carbon phenolic materials with comparable densities to PICA. This presentation will discuss flexible alternatives to PICA and include preliminary mechanical and thermal properties as well as recent arc jet and LHMEL screening test results.

  14. Possibilities and Challenges designing low-carbon-energy technologies

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    Though there is broad consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on the use of low-carbon technologies, and even though there is a big potential to turn to a more sustainable design and innovation, there are several elements that need to be taken...... as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main possibilities and challenges when designing low-carbon illumination technologies? To answer this question, we use a systemic approach including environmental, economic, energy and political issues using relevant concepts from the Ecological...

  15. Nanotechnology for implantable sensors: carbon nanotubes and graphene in medicine.

    Wujcik, Evan K; Monty, Chelsea N

    2013-01-01

    Implantable sensors utilizing nanotechnology are at the forefront of diagnostic, medical monitoring, and biological technologies. These sensors are often equipped with nanostructured carbon allotropes, such as graphene or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), because of their unique and often enhanced properties over forms of bulk carbon, such as diamond or graphite. Because of these properties, the fundamental and applied research of these carbon nanomaterials have become some of the most cited topics in scientific literature in the past decades. The age of carbon nanomaterials is simply budding, however, and is expected to have a major impact in many areas. These areas include electronics, photonics, plasmonics, energy capture (including batteries, fuel cells, and photovoltaics), and--the emphasis of this review--biosensors and sensor technologies. The following review will discuss future prospects of the two most commonly used carbon allotropes in implantable sensors for nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology, CNTs and graphene. Sufficient further reading and resources have been provided for more in-depth and specific reading that is outside the scope of this general review. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Issues behind Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report explores the vulnerability of heavy industry to carbon leakage and competitiveness loss. It reviews the existing literature on competitiveness and carbon leakage under uneven climate policies. It also suggests a statistical method to track carbon leakage, and applies this methodology to Phase I of the EU emissions trading scheme, for various industrial activities: iron and steel, cement, aluminium and refineries. Finally, it reviews measures to mitigate carbon leakage, as discussed in Australia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and the US.

  17. Discussion about photodiode architectures for space applications

    Gravrand, O.; Destefanis, G.; Cervera, C.; Zanatta, J.-P.; Baier, N.; Ferron, A.; Boulade, O.

    2017-11-01

    Detection for space application is very demanding on the IR detector: all wavelengths, from visible-NIR (2- 3um cutoff) to LWIR (10-12.5um cutoff), even sometimes VLWIR (15um cutoff) may be of interest. Moreover, various scenarii are usually considered. Some are imaging applications where the focal plane array (FPA) is used as an optical element to sense an image. However, the FPA may also be used in spectrometric applications where light is triggered on the different pixels depending on its wavelength. In some cases, star pointing is another use of FPAs where the retina is used to sense the position of the satellite. In all those configurations, we might distinguish several categories of applications: • low flux applications where the FPA is staring at space and the detection occurs with only a few number of photons. • high flux applications where the FPA is usually staring at the earth. In this case, the black body emission of the earth and its atmosphere ensures usually a large number of photons to perform the detection. Those two different categories are highly dimensioning for the detector as it usually determines the level of dark current and quantum efficiency (QE) requirements. Indeed, high detection performance usually requires a large number of integrated photons such that high QE is needed for low flux applications, in order to limit the integration time as much as possible. Moreover, dark current requirement is also directly linked to the expected incoming flux, in order to limit as much as possible the SNR degradation due to dark charges vs photocharges. Note that in most cases, this dark current is highly depending on operating temperature which dominates detector consumption. A classical way to mitigate dark current is to cool down the detector to very low temperatures. This paper won't discuss the need for wavefront sensing where the number of detected photons is low because of a very narrow integration window. Rigorously, this kind of

  18. Discussion of gas trade model (GTM) results

    Manne, A.

    1989-01-01

    This is in response to your invitation to comment on the structure of GTM and also upon the differences between its results and those of other models participating in EMF9. First a word upon the structure. GTM was originally designed to provide both regional and sectoral detail within the North American market for natural gas at a single point in time, e.g. the year 2000. It is a spatial equilibrium model in which a solution is obtained by maximizing a nonlinear function, the sum of consumers and producers surplus. Since transport costs are included in producers cost, this formulation automatically ensures that geographical price differentials will not differ by more than transport costs. For purposes of EMF9, GTM was modified to allow for resource development and depletion over time

  19. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  20. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  1. Multifunctional Carbon Electromagnetic Materials - Motors & Actuators, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposal is to apply multifunctional carbon electromagnetic materials, including carbon nanotube electrical thread (replaces copper wire) and...

  2. Carbon-On-Carbon Manufacturing

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Buchanan, Larry (Inventor); Banzon, Jr., Jose T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The presently disclosed technology relates to carbon-on-carbon (C/C) manufacturing techniques and the resulting C/C products. One aspect of the manufacturing techniques disclosed herein utilizes two distinct curing operations that occur at different times and/or using different temperatures. The resulting C/C products are substantially non-porous, even though the curing operation(s) substantially gasify a liquid carbon-entrained filler material that saturates a carbon fabric that makes up the C/C products.

  3. A better carbon footprint label

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  4. Porous carbons

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and ...

  5. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  6. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  7. [Violent computergames: distribution via and discussion on the Internet].

    Nagenborg, Michael

    2005-11-01

    The spread and use of computer-games including (interactive) depictions of violence are considered a moral problem, particularly if played by children and youths. This essay expresses an opinion on H. Volper's (2004) demand of condemning certain contents by media ethics. At the same time, an overview on the spread and use of "violent games" by children and youths is offered. As a matter of fact, the share of these titles in the complete range must not be estimated too high, certain titles on the other hand are extremely wide-spread. Finally, Fritz's and Fehr's thesis of the cultural conflict "computer game" (2004) is discussed, demonstrated at the example of the discussion on the Internet, and on the basis of this thesis a mediating position between the two cultures including audience ethics (Funiok 1999) is presented.

  8. Panel discussion on rock mechanics issues in repository design

    Bieniawski, Z.T.; Kim, K.S.; Nataraja, M.

    1996-01-01

    The panel discussion was introduced by Mr. Z.T.(Richard) Bieniawski and then continued with five additional speakers. The topics covered in the discussion included rock mechanics pertaining to the design of underground facilities for the disposal of radioactive wastes and the safety of such facilities. The speakers included: Mr. Kun-Soo Kim who is a specialist in the area of rock mechanics testing during the Basalt Waste Isolation Project; Dr. Mysore Nataraja who is the senior project manager with the NRC; Dr. Michael Voegele who is the project manager for Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on the Yucca Mountain Project; Dr. Edward Cording who is a member of the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board; and Dr. Hemendra Kalia who is employed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and coordinates various activities of testing programs at the Yucca Mountain Site

  9. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  10. (Discussion of) oil pollution in Argentina

    1978-06-01

    The port of Comodora Rivadavia shows signs of long-term oil pollution of a nature which would not be tolerated in relation to the exploitation of North Sea oil. The field is operated by Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (Argentine), produces 70,000 bbl/day of oil from onshore and offshore wells, and has been in operation since 1907. A very marked tideline of bituminous oil residues contaminates the harbor installations and completely covers the pebbles, boulders, and rocks in the inertidal region. This material is of a considerable thickness and has completely obliterated any form of littoral marine life in these habitats. The sandy beach does not show signs of accumulative oil, and it is used as an important recretional area. Since seriously oiled seabirds can be seen, it is surprising that Patagonian crested ducks, king cormorants, and kelp gulls occur in large numbers but show little sign of oil contamination. The Magellan penguin, which is much less abundant locally, may have been much more vulnerable to the oil. Photographs are included.

  11. Innovative public information programs. Panel Discussion

    Emmy Roos; Chuck Vincent; David Knox; Lauretta Kerchma-Olson

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: What is new in public information in the nuclear industry? With developments such as deregulation in the United States, the ever-changing global energy market, and constant scientific and technological advances, public information programs are more important than ever. Co-sponsored by the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Committee, panelists will present news of innovations in a broad spectrum of areas. These include the new research on the views of public opinion leaders about nuclear energy, the new ANS Public Information Web site, volunteer outreach by nuclear professionals at the local level, public information innovations at nuclear utilities, unique international programs, an update on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's strategic plan for public confidence, and recent changes at the U.S. Department of Energy. Invited presentations: New ANS Public Information Web Site International Programs (Emmy Roos (ETCetera)); ANS Teacher Workshops and the Northern Ohio Section's Highly Successful Implementation of Them (Chuck Vincent (ANS)); Innovations at Exelon (David Knox (Exelon)) Innovative Public Information Center Programs (Lauretta Kerchma-Olson (Nucl Mgt, Two Rivers))

  12. Panel discussion: LNG's future in Asia

    Ohashi, Tadahiko

    1992-01-01

    The panelists convened to: (1) identify and evaluate the role which LNG is likely to play in the changing energy scene; (2) to examine the future supply and demand structure of the LNG trade; (3) to discover the key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade; and (4) to find solutions to these problems. The panelists identified and outlined growing opportunities for LNG utilization in Asia during the next two decades. They shared the opinion that the structure of the supply and demand balance for LNG in Asia will shift during the next decade, providing considerable room for new projects. The key obstacles to continued growth in LNG trade are the lack of: long-distance transmission networks and an efficient competitive market pricing mechanism for LNG in the Asian region. The major importers in the region are keen on developing a range of new long-term supply alternatives, not simply within the Asia-Pacific region, but also from a wider perspective. These alternatives include: financing the expansion of production from existing facilities, development of new fields, and construction of long-distance pipelines

  13. Discussion of discrete D shape toroidal coil

    Kaiho, Katsuyuki; Ohara, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Ko; Onishi, Toshitada

    1988-01-01

    A novel design for a toroidal coil, called the D shape coil, was reported by J. File. The coil conductors are in pure tension and then subject to no bending moment. This leads to a smaller number of emf supports in a simpler configuration than that with the conventional toroidal coil of circular cross-section. The contours of the D shape are given as solutions of a differential equation. This equation includes the function of the magnetic field distribution in the conductor region which is inversely proportional to the winding radius. It is therefore important to use the exact magnetic field distribution. However the magnetic field distribution becomes complicated when the D shape toroidal coil is comprised of discrete coils and also depends on the D shape configuration. A theory and a computer program for designing the practical pure-tension toroidal coil are developed. Using this computer code, D shape conductors are calculated for various numbers of discrete coils and the results are compared. Electromagnetic forces in the coils are also calculated. It is shown that the hoop stress in the conductors depends only on the total ampere-turns of the coil when the contours of the D shape are similar. (author)

  14. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine.

    Jain, Astha; Homayoun, Aida; Bannister, Christopher W; Yum, Kyungsuk

    2015-03-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes that emit photostable near-infrared fluorescence have emerged as near-infrared optical biosensors for life sciences and biomedicine. Since the discovery of their near-infrared fluorescence, researchers have engineered single-walled carbon nanotubes to function as an optical biosensor that selectively modulates its fluorescence upon binding of target molecules. Here we review the recent advances in the single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical sensing technology for life sciences and biomedicine. We discuss the structure and optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes, the mechanisms for molecular recognition and signal transduction in single-walled carbon nanotube complexes, and the recent development of various single-walled carbon nanotube-based optical biosensors. We also discuss the opportunities and challenges to translate this emerging technology into biomedical research and clinical use, including the biological safety of single-walled carbon nanotubes. The advances in single-walled carbon nanotube-based near-infrared optical sensing technology open up a new avenue for in vitro and in vivo biosensing with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution, beneficial for many areas of life sciences and biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Delashmit, R.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Snitchler, G.; Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced

  16. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G.; Scanlan, R.; Royet, J.

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Pulmonary Nodules with Cutaneous Manifestations: A Case Report and Discussion

    Ardiles T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of multiple pulmonary nodules is large and includes congenital and inherited disorders, malignancy, infectious etiologies, noninfectious granulomatous and inflammatory conditions,among many others. Diagnostic evaluation is aided by attention to extrapulmonary symptoms and features. We herein describe an unusual case of multiple pulmonary nodules attributed to cysticercosis and present a discussion of pathophysiologic changes related to medications and highlight the diagnostic value of extrapulmonary cutaneous features.

  18. Review on the progress in synthesis and application of magnetic carbon nanocomposites

    Zhu, Maiyong; Diao, Guowang

    2011-07-01

    This review focuses on the synthesis and application of nanostructured composites containing magnetic nanostructures and carbon-based materials. Great progress in fabrication of magnetic carbon nanocomposites has been made by developing methods including filling process, template-based synthesis, chemical vapor deposition, hydrothermal/solvothermal method, pyrolysis procedure, sol-gel process, detonation induced reaction, self-assembly method, etc. The applications of magnetic carbon nanocomposites expanded to a wide range of fields such as environmental treatment, microwave absorption, magnetic recording media, electrochemical sensor, catalysis, separation/recognization of biomolecules and drug delivery are discussed. Finally, some future trends and perspectives in this research area are outlined.

  19. A brief review on activated carbon derived from agriculture by-product

    Yahya, Mohd Adib; Mansor, Muhammad Humaidi; Zolkarnaini, Wan Amani Auji Wan; Rusli, Nurul Shahnim; Aminuddin, Anisah; Mohamad, Khalidah; Sabhan, Fatin Aina Mohamad; Atik, Arif Abdallah Aboubaker; Ozair, Lailatun Nazirah

    2018-06-01

    A brief review focusing on preparation of the activated carbon derived from agriculture by-products is presented. The physical and chemical activation of activated carbon were also reviewed. The effects of various parameters including types of activating agents, temperature, impregnation ratio, were also discussed. The applications of activated carbon from agricultural by products were briefly reviewed. It is provenly evident in this review, the relatively inexpensive and renewable resources of the agricultural waste were found to be effectively being converted into wealth materials.

  20. Discussion on teaching reform of environmental planning and management

    Zhang, Qiugen; Chen, Suhua; Xie, Yu; Wei, Li'an; Ding, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    The curriculum of environmental planning and management is an environmental engineering major curriculum established by the teaching steering committee of environmental science and engineering of Education Ministry, which is the core curriculum of Chinese engineering education professional certification. It plays an important role in cultivating environmental planning and environmental management ability of environmental engineering major. The selection and optimization of the course teaching content of environmental planning and management were discussed which including curriculum teaching content updating and optimizing and teaching resource system construction. The comprehensive application of teaching method was discussed which including teaching method synthesis and teaching method. The final combination of the assessment method was also discussed which including the formative assessment normal grades and the final result of the course examination. Through the curriculum comprehensive teaching reform, students' knowledge had been broadened, the subject status and autonomy of learning had been enhanced, students' learning interest had been motivated, the ability of students' finding, analyzing and solving problems had been improved. Students' innovative ability and positive spirit had been well cultivated.

  1. Magneto-carbonization method for production of carbon fiber, and high performance carbon fibers made thereby

    Naskar, Amit K.; Ozcan, Soydan; Eberle, Claude C.; Abdallah, Mohamed Gabr; Mackiewicz, Ludtka Gail; Ludtka, Gerard Michael; Paulauskas, Felix Leonard; Rivard, John Daniel Kennedy

    2017-08-08

    Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from fiber precursor, wherein the fiber precursor is subjected to a magnetic field of at least 3 Tesla during a carbonization process. The carbonization process is generally conducted at a temperature of at least 400.degree. C. and less than 2200.degree. C., wherein, in particular embodiments, the carbonization process includes a low temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 400.degree. C. or 500.degree. C. and less than or up to 1000.degree. C., 1100.degree. C., or 1200.degree. C., followed by a high temperature carbonization step conducted at a temperature of at least or above 1200.degree. C. In particular embodiments, particularly in the case of a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber precursor, the resulting carbon fiber may possess a minimum tensile strength of at least 600 ksi, a tensile modulus of at least 30 Msi, and an ultimate elongation of at least 1.5%.

  2. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients.

  3. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  5. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Giving Credit where Credit is Due. A Practical Method to Distinguish between Human and Natural Factors in Carbon Accounting

    Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Cowie, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Net carbon emissions from the biosphere differ from fossil-fuel based emissions in that: (1) a large proportion of biospheric carbon exchange is not under direct human control; (2) land-use decisions often have only a small short-term effect on net emissions, but a large long-term effect; and (3) biospheric carbon exchange is potentially reversible. Because of these differences, carbon accounting approaches also need to be different for fossil-fuel and biosphere-based emissions. Recognising that, the international negotiators at COP 7 adopted a range of guiding principles for accounting for biospheric carbon exchange, including: that accounting excludes removals resulting from (a) elevated carbon dioxide concentrations above pre-industrial level; (b) indirect nitrogen deposition; and (c) the dynamic effects of age structure resulting from activities and practices before the reference year. In this paper, we highlight some of the challenges in biospheric carbon accounting for Canada, the U.S.A, New Zealand and Australia, four nations for which biospheric net carbon exchange is large relative to fossil-fuel based emissions. We discuss an accounting scheme that is based on assessing changes in average carbon stocks due to changes in land use. That scheme is tailored to the special needs of biospheric carbon management and is consistent with the accounting principles adopted at COP 7. The paper shows how the accounting scheme would resolve many of the biospheric carbon accounting anomalies identified for the four nations we studied

  8. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Wahlstroem, B. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland). VTT Automation

    1999-12-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  9. A discussion of theoretical and practical rationality

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical rationality as defined in Expected Utility Theory and amended with other considerations gives a good basis for decision making. One should however always keep in mind that practical rationality often is far more complicated. People use their everyday experience when placed before new problems and this may lead to apparently irrational choices which on a closer scrutiny may be completely rational. Theories in human decision making unfortunately becomes untestable, firstly because a theory taking all considerations into account would be to complex to be practical and secondly because the data needed to test the theory cannot be collected. The benefit of EUT is that it is simple and straightforward as compared with competing theories. In the natural sciences rationality is often seen simply as a problem of optimisation. This view is practical, but it has to include also psychological and sociological considerations. The apparent controversy between natural and behavioural sciences could at least in principle be resolved by a better understanding of the complexity of human rationality. The human mind does not work in isolation, but it is adapted to a social community and a continuously changing environment. Understanding all components of human rationality is a challenge which cannot be solved on a short term basis. An important part of human rationality is connected to the intricate balance between individual and societal utility. The human mind has over thousands of years learnt to resolve that balance, but in the modern society there are decisions which may not be solvable with an intuitive approach and a strategy of trial and error. For these decisions more solid theories of rationality will be needed. EUT can in spite of its dismerits be used as the backbone for such a theory, but it has to be extended with better explanations of both individual and social rationality. If this understanding of the practical aspects of human rationality can be reached

  10. MO-FG-BRB-04: Panel discussion

    Van Dyk, J.

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is growing rapidly with an estimated 15 million new cases per year worldwide in 2015, growing to 19 million by 2025 and 24 million by 2035. The largest component of this growth will occur in low-to-middle income countries (LMICs). About half of these cases will require radiation treatment. The gap for available cancer treatment, including radiation therapy, between high-income countries (HICs) and LMICs is enormous. Accurate data and quantitative models to project the needs and the benefits of cancer treatment are a critical first step in closing the large cancer divide between LMICs and HICs. In this context, the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) has developed a Global Task Force on Radiotherapy for Cancer Control (GTFRCC) with a charge to answer the question as to what it will take to close the gap between what exists today and reasonable access to radiation therapy globally by 2035 and what the potential clinical and economic benefits are for doing this. The Task Force has determined the projections of cancer incidence and the infrastructure required to provide access to radiation therapy globally. Furthermore it has shown that appropriate investment not only yields improved clinical outcomes for millions of patients but that it also provides an overall economic gain throughout all the income settings where this investment is made. This symposium will summarize the facets associated with this global cancer challenge by reviewing the cancer burden, looking at the requirements for radiation therapy, reviewing the benefits of providing such therapy both from a clinical and economic perspective and finally by looking at what approaches can be used to aid in the alleviation of this global cancer challenge. The speakers are world renowned experts in global public health issues (R. Atun), medical physics (D. Jaffray) and radiation oncology (N. Coleman). Learning Objectives: To describe the global cancer challenge and the

  11. Characterization of Black and Brown Carbon Concentrations and Sources during winter in Beijing

    Yan, Caiqing; Liu, Yue; Hansen, Anthony D. A.; Močnik, Griša; Zheng, Mei

    2017-04-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), play important roles in air quality, human health, and climate change. A better understanding of sources of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol (including black carbon and brown carbon) is particular critical for formulating emission-based control strategies and reducing uncertainties in current aerosol radiative forcing estimates. Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced serious air pollution problems and high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in recent years, especially during heating seasons. During November and December of 2016, several severe haze episodes occurred in Beijing, with hourly average PM2.5 mass concentration up to 400 μg/m3. In this study, concentration levels and sources of black carbon and brown carbon were investigated based on 7-wavelength Aethalometer (AE-33) with combination of other PM2.5 chemical composition information. Contributions of traffic and non-traffic emissions (e.g., coal combustion, biomass burning) were apportioned, and brown carbon was separated from black carbon. Our preliminary results showed that (1) Concentrations of BC were around 5.3±4.2 μg/m3 during the study period, with distinct diurnal variations during haze and non-haze days. (2) Traffic emissions contributed to about 37±17% of total BC, and exhibited higher contributions during non-haze days compared to haze days. (3) Coal combustion was a major source of black carbon and brown carbon in Beijing, which was more significant compared to biomass burning. Sources and the relative contributions to black carbon and brown carbon during haze and non-haze days will be further discussed.

  12. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  13. Panel discussion: In vivo pet modeling and data analysis

    Koeppe, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following the first afternoon session on in vivo PET modeling and data analysis, a panel assembled to discuss in greater detail some of the issues pertinent to the kinetic analysis of PET data. The discussion was opened with a comment on some of the diofficulties of PET imaging in the study of neurotransmitter and receptor systems, including resolution limitations, image distortions, and levels of nonspecific binding. Dr. Hutchins reiterated that the imaging distortions predicted by his simulation studies include both open-quotes scaleclose quotes and open-quotes shape open-quotes distortions. Then the panel discussed the issue of registration of functional (PET) and anatomic (MRI or CT) images. The use of an anatomic image as a road map or guide to where one is in the physiologic PET image is a very important part of performing PET studies. It is at least as important to align a dynamic PET sequence internally, from frame to frame, as it is to align the PET study to an anatomic study. If a dynamic imaging procedure will take 30-90 min or more, a method is needed to assure that the patient has not moved substantially during the procedure or that the movement can be accounted for. Several possibilities were discussed. The next topic considered the issue of model complexity versus model reduction. If a model is too complex, it cannot provide accurate estimates of the model parameters due to the lack of identifiability of individual parameters. Modeling approaches such as simplifying the model to two parameters and changing the experimental protocol to provide more information so model simplification is not necessary were discussed on the basis of the tradeoff between procedural complexity and quality of information

  14. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  15. Climate Change Impacts on the Organic Carbon Cycle at the Land-Ocean Interface

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Cammer, Sarah S.; McIntosh, Hadley A.; Pondell, Christina R.

    2012-05-01

    Estuaries are among the most altered and vulnerable marine ecosystems. These ecosystems will likely continue to deteriorate owing to increased population growth in coastal regions, expected temperature and precipitation changes associated with climate change, and their interaction with each other, leading to serious consequences for the ecological and societal services they provide. A key function of estuaries is the transfer, transformation, and burial of carbon and other biogenic elements exchanged between the land and ocean systems. Climate change has the potential to influence the carbon cycle through anticipated changes to organic matter production in estuaries and through the alteration of carbon transformation and export processes. This review discusses the effects of climate change on processes influencing the cycling of organic carbon in estuaries, including examples from three temperate estuaries in North America. Our goal is to evaluate the impact of climate change on the connectivity of terrestrial, estuarine, and coastal ocean carbon cycles.

  16. Green lights in the American discussion on climate?

    Ten Kate, W.

    2008-05-01

    The author surveys the climate discussion in the United States. The expectation that the next American president will take a more favourable position towards a global emissions regime may be justified. However, to make an American entry into a post-Kyoto agreement likely, broad support throughout the United States political system is needed. As a result of popular, academic and business appeals to reduce carbon emissions a number of local and state governments have adopted emission reduction targets. In addition, these bottom-up approaches have also resulted in the development of regional emission trading schemes. The value of these regional initiatives lies not only in their reduction targets, but rather in the influence they could have at the federal level, notably in the U.S. Congress. Any future American president will find narrow state-specific interest in Congress obstructing his or her efforts to establish American leadership in international climate negotiations. Regional U.S. emission schemes will help provide broader political support in Congress for the next American president's international climate change policies. [nl

  17. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  18. Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Facility Siting and Policy Considerations: International Comparison

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Carbon fiber is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications due largely to its superior material properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The current global carbon fiber manufacturing industry is predominately located in China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. The carbon fiber market is expected to expand significantly through 2024 and to require additional manufacturing capacity to meet demand. Carbon fiber manufacturing facilities can offer significant economic development and employment opportunities as exemplified by the $1 billion investment and 500 jobs expected at a new Toray plant in Moore, South Carolina. Though the market is expected to expand, it is unclear where new manufacturing facilities will locate to meet demand. This uncertainty stems from the lack of research evaluating how different nations with significant carbon fiber manufacturing capacity compare as it relates to certain manufacturing facility siting factors such as costs of labor and energy as well as policy directed at supporting carbon fiber development, domestic deployment, and exports. This report fills these gaps by evaluating the top carbon fiber manufacturing countries, including China, European Union countries, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The report documents how the United States compares to these countries based on a range of manufacturing siting considerations and existing policies related to carbon fiber. It concludes with a discussion of various policy options the United States could adopt to both (1) increase the competitiveness of the United States as it relates to attracting new carbon fiber manufacturing and (2) foster broader end-use markets for deployment.

  19. Discussing Ethical Issues in the Classroom: Leveraging Pedagogical Moments that May Otherwise Undermine Important Discussions

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Hull, William J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The authors identify, examine, and clarify three kinds of hindrances (dismissive/evasive tactics, logical stoppers, and ad hominem arguments) to teaching about ethical issues in P-12 schools. In discussing these three types of obstacles, they stress that the barriers themselves provide both challenges and opportunities for teachers. Indeed, they…

  20. 11 things a geologist thinks an engineer should know about carbonate beaches

    Halley, Robert B.; Magoon, Orville T.; Robbins, Lisa L.; Ewing, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    This is a review of the geological aspects of carbonate beaches that a geologist thinks may be useful for an engineer. Classical geologic problems of carbonate beaches, for example how ancient examples are recognized in rock sequences, are of little interest to engineers. Geologists not involved in engineering problems may find it difficult to know what an engineer should understand about carbonate beaches. Nevertheless, there are at least eleven topics that are potentially very useful for engineers to keep in mind. These eleven are chosen with as much thought going into what has been omitted as has been given to the eleven included topics. Some qualifications are in order: First, this paper does not discuss certain kinds of carbonate shorelines that are beyond the scope of engineering issues. For example, this review does not discuss very high-energy carbonate boulder beaches. These beaches are comprised of pieces of carbonate material ganging in size from ten centimeters to meters. Typically, these are high-energy storm deposits formed from pieces of either eroded carbonate rock or other large carbonate pieces such as pieces of large corals. This paper focuses on sand-sized (0.0625–2.0 mm) coastal carbonate deposits. Second, offshore beaches will not be discussed. There are many carbonate beaches that form on banks or shoals exposed at low tide, but our discussion is confined to what most people think of when they go to some tropical island and/or resort and walk out to lay on the beach. Third, this paper does not consider mixed carbonate/quartz sand beaches. While mixed beaches are common, only the end member of purely carbonate sand beaches is considered. Fourth, there will be no order of preference of the eleven topics. And lastly, these eleven topics are not consensus items. These are simply one geologist s thoughts about the aspects of carbonate beaches that would be useful for engineering colleagues to keep in mind. Where possible, general reference is

  1. Global carbon inequality

    Hubacek, Klaus [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Masaryk University, Department of Environmental Studies, Brno (Czech Republic); Baiocchi, Giovanni [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); University of Maryland, Department of Economics, College Park, MD (United States); Feng, Kuishuang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Munoz Castillo, Raul [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); Interamerican Development Bank, Washington, DC (United States); Sun, Laixiang [University of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences, College Park, MD (United States); SOAS, University of London, London (United Kingdom); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg (Austria); Xue, Jinjun [Nagoya University, Graduate School of Economics, Nagoya (Japan); Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan (China)

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change and inequality are inescapably linked both in terms of who contributes climate change and who suffers the consequences. This fact is also partly reflected in two United Nations (UN) processes: on the one hand, the Paris Agreement of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change under which countries agreed to hold the increase in the global average temperature to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels and, on the other hand, the UN's Sustainable Development Goals aiming to end poverty. These agreements are seen as important foundation to put the world nations on a sustainable pathway. However, how these agreements can be achieved or whether they are even mutually compatible is less clear. We explore the global carbon inequality between and within countries and the carbon implications of poverty alleviation by combining detailed consumer expenditure surveys for different income categories for a wide range of countries with an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output approach to estimate carbon footprints of different household groups, globally, and assess the carbon implications of moving the poorest people out of poverty. Given the current context, increasing income leads to increasing carbon footprints and makes global targets for mitigating greenhouse gases more difficult to achieve given the pace of technological progress and current levels of fossil fuel dependence. We conclude that the huge level of carbon inequality requires a critical discussion of undifferentiated income growth. Current carbon-intensive lifestyles and consumption patterns need to enter the climate discourse to a larger extent. (orig.)

  2. Including dynamic CO2 intensity with demand response

    Stoll, Pia; Brandt, Nils; Nordström, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Hourly demand response tariffs with the intention of reducing or shifting loads during peak demand hours are being intensively discussed among policy-makers, researchers and executives of future electricity systems. Demand response rates have still low customer acceptance, apparently because the consumption habits requires stronger incentive to change than any proposed financial incentive. An hourly CO 2 intensity signal could give customers an extra environmental motivation to shift or reduce loads during peak hours, as it would enable co-optimisation of electricity consumption costs and carbon emissions reductions. In this study, we calculated the hourly dynamic CO 2 signal and applied the calculation to hourly electricity market data in Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. This provided a novel understanding of the relationships between hourly electricity generation mix composition, electricity price and electricity mix CO 2 intensity. Load shifts from high-price hours resulted in carbon emission reductions for electricity generation mixes where price and CO 2 intensity were positively correlated. The reduction can be further improved if the shift is optimised using both price and CO 2 intensity. The analysis also indicated that an hourly CO 2 intensity signal can help avoid carbon emissions increases for mixes with a negative correlation between electricity price and CO 2 intensity. - Highlights: • We present a formula for calculating hybrid dynamic CO 2 intensity of electricity generation mixes. • We apply the dynamic CO 2 Intensity on hourly electricity market prices and generation units for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate the spearman correlation between hourly electricity market price and dynamic CO 2 intensity for Great Britain, Ontario and Sweden. • We calculate carbon footprint of shifting 1 kWh load daily from on-peak hours to off-peak hours using the dynamic CO 2 intensity. • We conclude that using dynamic CO 2 intensity for

  3. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Quéré, Corinne Le; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere the global carbon budget is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as +/- 1(sigma), reflecting the current capacity to characterize the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  4. Carbon-carbon primary structure for SSTO vehicles

    Croop, Harold C.; Lowndes, Holland B.

    1997-01-01

    A hot structures development program is nearing completion to validate use of carbon-carbon composite structure for primary load carrying members in a single-stage-to-orbit, or SSTO, vehicle. A four phase program was pursued which involved design development and fabrication of a full-scale wing torque box demonstration component. The design development included vehicle and component selection, design criteria and approach, design data development, demonstration component design and analysis, test fixture design and analysis, demonstration component test planning, and high temperature test instrumentation development. The fabrication effort encompassed fabrication of structural elements for mechanical property verification as well as fabrication of the demonstration component itself and associated test fixturing. The demonstration component features 3D woven graphite preforms, integral spars, oxidation inhibited matrix, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC oxidation protection coating, and ceramic matrix composite fasteners. The demonstration component has been delivered to the United States Air Force (USAF) for testing in the Wright Laboratory Structural Test Facility, WPAFB, OH. Multiple thermal-mechanical load cycles will be applied simulating two atmospheric cruise missions and one orbital mission. This paper discusses the overall approach to validation testing of the wing box component and presents some preliminary analytical test predictions.

  5. Carbon dioxide and the greenhouse effect: an unresolved problem

    Smith, I M

    1978-01-01

    This paper evaluates current scientific literature concerned with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The extent and possible causes of natural variations in global climate are outlined as a background to potential variations due to human activity. Estimates are given on relative contributions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion, deforestation and other land modifications. The possibility of a rise in global temperature as a result of increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is discussed including model predictions, natural factors which could compensate for or emphasize a warming effect, and the implications if extensive warming actually occurred. Carbon dioxide disposal is discussed but there appears to be no practicable long-term means of accomplishing this. It is concluded that there is no evidence of a rise in global temperature due to carbon dioxide at present. Predictions, which involve a high degree of uncertainty, indicate that the global temperature could rise appreciably in the next century. An increase in precipitation rate is also expected.

  6. Neutron scattering investigation of carbon/carbon composites

    Prem, M.; Krexner, G.; Peterlik, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composites, built up from bi-directionally woven fabrics from PAN based carbon fibers, pre-impregnated with phenolic resin followed by pressure curing and carbonization at 1000 o C and a final heat treatment at either 1800 o C or 2400 o C, were investigated by means of small-angle as well as wideangle elastic neutron scattering. Sample orientations arranging the carbon fibers parallel and perpendicular to the incoming beam were examined. Structural features of the composites, i.e. of the fibers as well as the inherently existing pores, are presented and the influence of the heat treatment on the structural properties is discussed. (author)

  7. A Thematic Analysis of Online Discussion Boards for Vasectomy.

    Samplaski, Mary K

    2018-01-01

    To examine posts on Internet discussion groups related to vasectomies, and identify common ideas through a structured theme analysis. Internet discussion boards were identified using the search term "vasectomy." Three discussion boards were identified as having the most posts and were chosen for analysis. Using an iterative and structured analysis process, each post was analyzed using thematic analysis in 3 steps (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding) to determine common themes. A total of 129 posts were analyzed. The most common posts related to changes in sexual function after vasectomy. The second most common theme was pain after vasectomy. There were also posts about considerations before vasectomy, planning for postvasectomy care, what to expect after vasectomy, potential issues after vasectomy and how to manage these, and feelings about vasectomy. Some of the information present did not have a factual basis. Posts dedicated to postvasectomy pain and sexual dysfunction were of the highest quantity. There was no medical provider input to these discussion boards. Educational efforts should be targeted to these areas and should include a health-care professional. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DisVis: Visualizing Discussion Threads in Online Health Communities.

    Nakikj, Drashko; Mamykina, Lena

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals turn to online health communities (OHC) for information, advice and support about their health condition or disease. As a result of users' active participation, these forums store overwhelming volumes of information, which can make access to this information challenging and frustrating. To help overcome this problem we designed a discussion visualization tool DisVis. DisVis includes features for overviewing, browsing and finding particular information in a discussion. In a between subjects study, we tested the impact of DisVis on individuals' ability to provide an overview of a discussion, find topics of interest and summarize opinions. The study showed that after using the tool, the accuracy of participants' answers increased by 68% (p-value = 0.023) while at the same time exhibiting trends for reducing the time to answer by 38% with no statistical significance (p-value = 0.082). Qualitative interviews showed general enthusiasm regarding tools for improving browsing and searching for information within discussion forums, suggested different usage scenarios, highlighted opportunities for improving the design of DisVis, and outlined new directions for visualizing user-generated content within OHCs.

  9. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...

  10. Designing carbon markets. Part I: Carbon markets in time

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in time (i.e., intertemporally). It is part of a twin set of papers that ask, starting from first principles, what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of temporal design that would help to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including banking and borrowing and other mechanisms to provide greater carbon price predictability and credibility over time.

  11. Discussion paper : offshore wind facilities renewable energy approval requirements

    2010-06-01

    This paper discussed a proposed shoreline exclusion zone for offshore wind projects in Ontario. Considerations relevant to offshore wind projects and the protection of human health, cultural heritage, and the environment were also discussed. The paper was prepared in order to provide greater clarity to renewable energy developers and to Ontario residents about the offshore wind policy that is currently being considered by the Ontario Government. Feedback received from the discussion paper will be used to propose policy and associated regulatory amendments. A 5 km shoreline exclusion zone for all offshore wind facilities was proposed. Some projects may be required to be located beyond the proposed exclusion zone. Proposed developments within the exclusion zone must meet all applicable requirements, including those related to cultural and natural heritage. The zone will establish a distance between drinking water intakes, and ensure that sediment dredging and other construction-related activities do not impact drinking water quality, and ensure that potential noise levels are within acceptable levels. The zone will establish a distance between near-shore activities and wind facilities, and also help to maintain the ecological health of inland waters. Guidelines and technical requirements for wind facility operators were also included.

  12. Calcium Carbonate

    ... Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also ... to your pharmacist or contact your local garbage/recycling department to learn about take-back programs in ...

  13. Biological effects of accelerated boron, carbon, and neon ions

    Grigoryev, Yu.G.; Ryzhov, N.I.; Popov, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of accelerated boron, carbon, and neon ions on various biological materials were determined. The accelerated ions included 10 B, 11 B, 12 C, 20 Ne, 22 Ne, and 40 Ar. Gamma radiation and x radiation were used as references in the experiments. Among the biological materials used were mammalian cells and tissues, yeasts, unicellular algae (chlorella), and hydrogen bacteria. The results of the investigation are given and the biophysical aspects of the problem are discussed

  14. A universal model for nanoporous carbon supercapacitors applicable to diverse pore regimes, carbon materials, and electrolytes.

    Huang, Jingsong; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy-storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications that require high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model, which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbon materials and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (>50 nm) at which pores are large enough so that pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, which show the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbon materials. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal for carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials, including activated carbon materials, template carbon materials, and novel carbide-derived carbon materials, and with diverse electrolytes, including organic electrolytes, such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF(4)) and tetraethylammonium methylsulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H(2)SO(4) and KOH electrolytes, and even an ionic liquid electrolyte, such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size It may lend support for the systematic optimization of the properties of carbon

  15. Investigating Interactions between the Silica and Carbon Cycles during Precipitation and Early Diagenesis of Authigenic Clay/Carbonate-Mineral Associations in the Carbonate Rock Record

    McKenzie, J. A.; Francisca Martinez Ruiz, F.; Sanchez-Roman, M.; Anjos, S.; Bontognali, T. R. R.; Nascimento, G. S.; Vasconcelos, C.

    2017-12-01

    The study of authigenic clay/carbonate-mineral associations within carbonate sequences has important implications for the interpretation of scientific problems related with rock reservoir properties, such as alteration of potential porosity and permeability. More specifically, when clay minerals are randomly distributed within the carbonate matrix, it becomes difficult to predict reservoir characteristics. In order to understand this mineral association in the geological record, we have undertaken a comparative study of specially designed laboratory experiments with modern environments, where clay minerals have been shown to precipitate together with a range of carbonate minerals, including calcite, Mg-calcite and dolomite. Two modern dolomite-forming environments, the Coorong lakes, South Australia and Brejo do Espinho Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were selected for this investigation. For comparative evaluation, enrichment microbial culture experiments, using natural pore water from Brejo do Espinho as the growth medium to promote mineral precipitation, were performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. To establish the environmental parameters and biological processes facilitating the dual mineral association, the experimental samples have been compared with the natural minerals using HRTEM measurements. The results demonstrate that the clay and carbonate minerals apparently do not co-precipitate, but the precipitation of the different minerals in the same sample has probably occurred under different environmental conditions with variable chemistries, e.g., hypersalinity versus normal salinity resulting from the changing ratio of evaporation versus precipitation. Thus, the investigated mineral association is not a product of diagenetic processes but of sequential in situ precipitation processes related to changes in the silica and carbon availability. Implications for ancient carbonate formations will be presented and discussed in the context of a specific

  16. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Based Molecular Electronics

    Srivastava, Deepak; Saini, Subhash; Menon, Madhu

    1998-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes and the nanotube heterojunctions have recently emerged as excellent candidates for nanoscale molecular electronic device components. Experimental measurements on the conductivity, rectifying behavior and conductivity-chirality correlation have also been made. While quasi-one dimensional simple heterojunctions between nanotubes with different electronic behavior can be generated by introduction of a pair of heptagon-pentagon defects in an otherwise all hexagon graphene sheet. Other complex 3- and 4-point junctions may require other mechanisms. Structural stability as well as local electronic density of states of various nanotube junctions are investigated using a generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics (GDBMD) scheme that incorporates non-orthogonality of the orbitals. The junctions investigated include straight and small angle heterojunctions of various chiralities and diameters; as well as more complex 'T' and 'Y' junctions which do not always obey the usual pentagon-heptagon pair rule. The study of local density of states (LDOS) reveal many interesting features, most prominent among them being the defect-induced states in the gap. The proposed three and four pointjunctions are one of the smallest possible tunnel junctions made entirely of carbon atoms. Furthermore the electronic behavior of the nanotube based device components can be taylored by doping with group III-V elements such as B and N, and BN nanotubes as a wide band gap semiconductor has also been realized in experiments. Structural properties of heteroatomic nanotubes comprising C, B and N will be discussed.

  18. Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoribbons: Potentials for Nanoscale Electrical Interconnects

    Swastik Kar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown and/or deposited at a desired location. In this Review, we will focus our attention on carbon-based nanostructures (in particular, carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons which could play an important role in the technological quest to replace copper/low-k for interconnect applications. We will provide the reader with a number of possible architectures, including single-wall as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes, arranged in horizontal and vertical arrays, regarded as individual objects as well as bundles. Modification of their functional properties in order to fulfill interconnect applications requirements are also presented. Then, in the second part of the Review, recently discovered graphene and in particular graphene and few-graphene layers nanoribbons are introduced. Different architectures involving nanostructured carbon are presented and discussed in light of interconnect application in terms of length, chirality, edge configuration and more.

  19. Biomass derived porous nitrogen doped carbon for electrochemical devices

    Litao Yan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass derived porous nanostructured nitrogen doped carbon (PNC has been extensively investigated as the electrode material for electrochemical catalytic reactions and rechargeable batteries. Biomass with and without containing nitrogen could be designed and optimized to prepare PNC via hydrothermal carbonization, pyrolysis, and other methods. The presence of nitrogen in carbon can provide more active sites for ion absorption, improve the electronic conductivity, increase the bonding between carbon and sulfur, and enhance the electrochemical catalytic reaction. The synthetic methods of natural biomass derived PNC, heteroatomic co- or tri-doping into biomass derived carbon and the application of biomass derived PNC in rechargeable Li/Na batteries, high energy density Li–S batteries, supercapacitors, metal-air batteries and electrochemical catalytic reaction (oxygen reduction and evolution reactions, hydrogen evolution reaction are summarized and discussed in this review. Biomass derived PNCs deliver high performance electrochemical storage properties for rechargeable batteries/supercapacitors and superior electrochemical catalytic performance toward hydrogen evolution, oxygen reduction and evolution, as promising electrodes for electrochemical devices including battery technologies, fuel cell and electrolyzer. Keywords: Biomass, Nitrogen doped carbon, Batteries, Fuel cell, Electrolyzer

  20. Carbon "Quantum" Dots for Fluorescence Labeling of Cells.

    Liu, Jia-Hui; Cao, Li; LeCroy, Gregory E; Wang, Ping; Meziani, Mohammed J; Dong, Yiyang; Liu, Yuanfang; Luo, Pengju G; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2015-09-02

    The specifically synthesized and selected carbon dots of relatively high fluorescence quantum yields were evaluated in their fluorescence labeling of cells. For the cancer cell lines, the cellular uptake of the carbon dots was generally efficient, resulting in the labeling of the cells with bright fluorescence emissions for both one- and two-photon excitations from predominantly the cell membrane and cytoplasm. In the exploration on labeling the live stem cells, the cellular uptake of the carbon dots was relatively less efficient, though fluorescence emissions could still be adequately detected in the labeled cells, with the emissions again predominantly from the cell membrane and cytoplasm. This combined with the observed more efficient internalization of the same carbon dots by the fixed stem cells might suggest some significant selectivity of the stem cells toward surface functionalities of the carbon dots. The needs and possible strategies for more systematic and comparative studies on the fluorescence labeling of different cells, including especially live stem cells, by carbon dots as a new class of brightly fluorescent probes are discussed.

  1. Addressing Stillbirth in India Must Include Men.

    Roberts, Lisa; Montgomery, Susanne; Ganesh, Gayatri; Kaur, Harinder Pal; Singh, Ratan

    2017-07-01

    Millennium Development Goal 4, to reduce child mortality, can only be achieved by reducing stillbirths globally. A confluence of medical and sociocultural factors contribute to the high stillbirth rates in India. The psychosocial aftermath of stillbirth is a well-documented public health problem, though less is known of the experience for men, particularly outside of the Western context. Therefore, men's perceptions and knowledge regarding reproductive health, as well as maternal-child health are important. Key informant interviews (n = 5) were analyzed and 28 structured interviews were conducted using a survey based on qualitative themes. Qualitative themes included men's dual burden and right to medical and reproductive decision making power. Wives were discouraged from expressing grief and pushed to conceive again. If not successful, particularly if a son was not conceived, a second wife was considered a solution. Quantitative data revealed that men with a history of stillbirths had greater anxiety and depression, perceived less social support, but had more egalitarian views towards women than men without stillbirth experience. At the same time fathers of stillbirths were more likely to be emotionally or physically abusive. Predictors of mental health, attitudes towards women, and perceived support are discussed. Patriarchal societal values, son preference, deficient women's autonomy, and sex-selective abortion perpetuate the risk for future poor infant outcomes, including stillbirth, and compounds the already higher risk of stillbirth for males. Grief interventions should explore and take into account men's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors towards reproductive decision making.

  2. Anthropogenic Forcing of Carbonate and Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments.

    Keil, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term. These drivers affect the cycling of both carbonate and organic carbon in the ocean. The overall effect of anthropogenic forcing in the modern ocean is to decrease delivery of carbon to sediments, increase sedimentary dissolution and remineralization, and subsequently decrease overall carbon preservation.

  3. Summary of discussions at the ''HIGH pT'' session

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1990-12-01

    A summary of the discussion at the HIGH p T session is presented. There was a clear consensus at this session that Jets and Jet Phenomena in Relativistic Heavy Ion collisions would best be studied using leading particles, in the same way that these phenomena were originally mapped out in p-p collisions. The new topic of ''Jet Quenching in Nuclei'' was extensively discussed. It was clear that this proposed phenomenon could also be studied by measuring fragmentation functions in Deeply Inelastic Lepton-Nucleus Scattering; but there was controversy over whether the effect should be seen in proton-Nucleus reactions. Other hard-scattering phenomena, including ''Mini-jets,'' single particle inclusive production, the ''Cronin Effect,'' and direct photon production, are mentioned. 26 refs., 3 figs

  4. Pipeline abandonment: a discussion paper on technical and environmental issues

    Etherington, K.

    1996-01-01

    Formation of government/industry joint steering committee to oversee a review of pipeline abandonment and preparation of a discussion paper was reported. The review became urgent in view of the fact that many of the pipeline systems are nearing the end of their useful life, and the current absence of guidelines in Canada to deal with pipeline abandonment, or to offer guidance on ways of assessing abandonment costs and funding. In view of this situation the safety and the environmental, financial, and legal implications of abandoned pipelines have become an increasing concern to regulatory authorities and the oil and gas industry. Issues to be dealt with in the discussion paper include subsidence, contamination, water crossing, erosion, land management, restoration, utility and pipeline crossings, creation of water conduits, the cost of abandonment, operator choice of abandonment options, and the level of surface disturbance associated with such options

  5. Electricity exports: Discussion of provincial economic benefits and costs

    1993-01-01

    A review was conducted by the British Columbia Energy Council to assess the economic and social impacts of the export of long-term firm electricity to the USA and the distribution of these impacts. The objectives of, and the differences between, benefit-cost and socio-economic impact analysis are discussed as they apply to potential electricity export projects. Provincial export project review requirements (project justification, environmental impacts, socio-economic impact assessment) and proposed legislative changes are first reviewed. The concepts and objectives of value added, economic rent, opportunity costs, economic (benefit-cost) analysis, and socio-economic impact analysis are explained. Employment issues including unemployed labor, employment benefits, and regional and occupational considerations are then discussed, as well as transfers to various levels of government in the form of taxes, subsidies, resource royalties, and depletion costs. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Hairy carbon electrodes studied by cyclic voltammetry and battery discharge testing

    Chung, Deborah D. L.; Shui, Xiaoping; Frysz, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    Hairy carbon is a new material developed by growing submicron carbon filaments on conventional carbon substrates. Typical substrate materials include carbon black, graphite powder, carbon fibers, and glassy carbon. A catalyst is used to initiate hair growth with carbonaceous gases serving as the carbon source. To study the electrochemical behavior of hairy carbons, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and discharge testing were conducted. In both cases, hairy carbon results surpassed those of the substrate material alone.

  7. The Carbon City Index (CCI)

    Boyd, Britta; Straatman, Bas; Mangalagiu, Diana

    This paper presents a consumption-based Carbon City Index for CO2 emissions in a city. The index is derived from regional consumption and not from regional production. It includes imports and exports of emissions, factual emission developments, green investments as well as low carbon city...

  8. Pricing Carbon Emissions in China

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T.K. Mai (Te-Ke); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe purpose of the paper is to provide a clear mechanism for determining carbon emissions pricing in China as a guide to how carbon emissions might be mitigated to reduce fossil fuel pollution. The Chinese Government has promoted the development of clean energy, including

  9. Organic electrochemistry and carbon electrodes

    Weinberg, N.

    1983-01-01

    Carbons are often used in organic electrosynthesis and are critical as anodes or cathodes to certain reactions. Too often the surface properties of carbons have been left uncharacterized in relation to the reaction; however, these physical and chemical properties of carbons are important to the nature of the products, and the selectivity. Examples presented include the Kolbe reaction, the oxidation of aromatics in presence of carboxylate salts, electrofluorination of organics, acetamidation of aromatics, the hydrodimerization of formaldehyde and the oxidation of carbon fibers. These reactions apparently involve special surface characteristics: structure, surface area, stabilized surface sites, and the presence or absence of significant ''oxide'' functionality

  10. Engaging Communities using a MOOC combined with Public Library Discussions

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.; Morrill, J.; Handlos, Z.; Morrill, S.

    2015-12-01

    A massive open online course, or MOOC, is an noncredit education activity that delivers learning content to anyone with access to the Internet. Individual courses are generally free of charge, while a certificate can have small costs. The University of Wisconsin-Madison has exploring the use of MOOC as part of its Wisconsin Idea. In the 2015, a series of MOOCs focusing on the environment were offered via Coursera. One of those MOOCS was "Changing Weather and Climate of the Great Lakes Region." This 4-week course features a new season each week through short lectures and activities covering Great Lakes weather, observed changes in the climate, and societal impacts of climate change. (https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate) The MOOC conveyed information from NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Weather-Ready Nation initiative as well as findings from the recent National Climate Assessment and the Wisconsin Initiative on Climate Change Impacts (WICCI). The course was organized by members of the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies; material included discussion, videos for lectures as well as guest lecturers. There were also weekly visits by the course team to 21 public libraries throughout the state of WI. The library collaboration as facilitated by WiLS (Wisconsin Library Services - wils.org), who organized the application and selection process. The public libraries hosted local residents and course instructors in discussions of course content in the context of their communities as well as strategies to mitigate the climate change impacts. This presentation will discuss the public library discussions experience and the our evaluation of the impact of including a face-to-face component in the MOOC activity on engagement and learning.

  11. Energy storage device including a redox-enhanced electrolyte

    Stucky, Galen; Evanko, Brian; Parker, Nicholas; Vonlanthen, David; Auston, David; Boettcher, Shannon; Chun, Sang-Eun; Ji, Xiulei; Wang, Bao; Wang, Xingfeng; Chandrabose, Raghu Subash

    2017-08-08

    An electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) energy storage device is provided that includes at least two electrodes and a redox-enhanced electrolyte including two redox couples such that there is a different one of the redox couples for each of the electrodes. When charged, the charge is stored in Faradaic reactions with the at least two redox couples in the electrolyte and in a double-layer capacitance of a porous carbon material that comprises at least one of the electrodes, and a self-discharge of the energy storage device is mitigated by at least one of electrostatic attraction, adsorption, physisorption, and chemisorption of a redox couple onto the porous carbon material.

  12. Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP

    Yiping Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.

  13. Radiative losses and electron cooling rates for carbon and oxygen plasma impurities

    Marchand, R.; Bonnin, X.

    1992-01-01

    Radiative losses and electron cooling rates are calculated for carbon and oxygen ions under conditions relevant to fusion plasmas. Both rates are calculated with the most recent recommended atomic data. A modified coronal model which includes the effects of metastable states is described and used to calculate the rates. Comparisons with other approaches are also discussed. (author). 36 ref, figs

  14. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and

  15. Activated carbon for incinerator uses

    Che Seman Mahmood; Norhayati Alias; Mohd Puad Abu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the activated carbon from palm oil kernel shell for use as absorbent and converter for incinerator gas. The procedure is developed in order to prepare the material in bulk quantity and be used in the incinerator. The effect of the use of activating chemicals, physical activation and the preparation parameter to the quality of the carbon products will be discussed. (Author)

  16. Carbon Cycling with Nuclear Power

    Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-11-01

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline, diesel or jet fuel are the most efficient ways of delivering energy to the transportation sector, in particular cars, ships and airplanes. Unfortunately, their use nearly unavoidably leads to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Unless an equivalent amount is removed from the air, the carbon dioxide will accumulate and significantly contribute to the man-made greenhouse effect. If fuels are made from biomass, the capture of carbon dioxide is a natural part of the cycle. Here, we discuss technical options for capturing carbon dioxide at much faster rates. We outline the basic concepts, discuss how such capture technologies could be made affordable and show how they could be integrated into a larger system approach. In the short term, the likely source of the hydrocarbon fuels is oil or gas; in the longer term, technologies that can provide energy to remove oxygen from carbon dioxide and water molecules and combine the remaining components into liquid fuels make it possible to recycle carbon between fuels and carbon dioxide in an entirely abiotic process. Here we focus on renewable and nuclear energy options for producing liquid fuels and show how air capture combined with fuel synthesis could be more economic than a transition to electric cars or hydrogen-fueled cars.

  17. Viewer Discussion is Advised. Video Clubs Focus Teacher Discussion on Student Learning

    Elizabeth A. van Es

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Video is being used widely in professional development. Yet, little is known about how to design video-based learning environments that are productive for teacher learning. One promising model is a video club (Sherin, 2000. Video clubs bring teachers together to view and analyze video segments from one another’s classrooms. The idea is that by watching and discussing video segments focused on student thinking, teachers will learn practices for identifying and analyzing noteworthy student thinking during instruction and can use what they learn to inform their instructional decisions. This paper addresses issues to consider when setting up a video club for teacher education, such as defining goals for using video, establishing norms for viewing and discussing one another’s teaching, selecting clips for analysis, and facilitating teacher discussions. Si consiglia la discussione tra osservatori. Nei Video Club gli insegnanti mettono a fuoco le modalità con cui gli studenti apprendono.Il video è stato ampiamente utilizzato per la formazione professionale. Tuttavia poche sono le conoscenze relative alla progettazione di ambienti di apprendimento basati su video che siano efficaci per la formazione degli insegnanti. Un modello promettente è il “video club” (Sherin, 2000. Video club uniscono insegnanti che guardano ed analizzano insieme segmenti video delle proprie rispettive classi. L'idea è che gli insegnanti, guardando e discutendo segmenti video centrati sul pensiero degli alunni, imparino ad adottare durante l’insegnamento pratiche d'identificazione e analisi di pensieri degli alunni degni di nota e possano poi utilizzare ciò che hanno imparato nelle decisioni didattiche. Questo articolo affronta le questioni da considerare quando si configura un video club per la formazione degli insegnanti, come ad esempio la definizione di obiettivi per l'utilizzo dei video, le norme per la visione e discussione dei rispettivi video, la selezione

  18. Organic carbon dynamics in mangrove ecosystems: a review

    Kristensen, E.; Bouillon, S.; Dittmar, T.; Marchand, C.

    2008-01-01

    Our current knowledge on production, composition, transport, pathways and transformations of organic carbon in tropical mangrove environments is reviewed and discussed. Organic carbon entering mangrove foodwebs is either produced autochthonously or imported by tides and/or rivers. Mangrove litter

  19. Catalyst retention in continuous flow with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Stouten, S.C.; Noel, T.; Wang, Q.; Hessel, V.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the retention of organometallic catalysts in continuous flow processes utilizing supercritical carbon dioxide. Due to its innovative properties, supercritical carbon dioxide offers interesting possibilities for process intensification. As a result of safety and cost

  20. Pipeline abandonment - a discussion paper on technical and environmental issues

    1996-11-01

    The technical and environmental issues associated with pipeline abandonment were reviewed to provide a basis for the development of guidelines that companies could follow in order to abandon oil and gas pipelines in an environmentally safe and economic manner. Some of the topics discussed include land use management, ground subsidence, soil and groundwater contamination, erosion and the potential to create water conduits. A major issue still to be resolved, i.e., the legal and financial aspects of pipeline abandonment, was addressed. An industry-financed fund has been created to cover the cost of reclamation and abandonment of orphaned pipelines and certain associated pipeline facilities. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Discussion of several problems in nuclear instrument scale

    Li Xuezhen; Zhou Sichun; Xiao Caijin

    2005-01-01

    The equipment scale is the first problem in measurement, including nuclear apparatus, otherwise there are different methods of equipment scale, then how to get the best way to seek the scale equation is the keystone of study. The article discusses several methods to get scale equation from the angle of error transformation, and compares their superiority, then gets the most precision method--Deming method, in addition, there is another simple and applied method, that is method of the mean, in the end, validates the theory through X fluorescence equipment scale. (authors)

  2. Tanning and beauty: Mother and teenage daughters in discussion.

    Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C

    2016-07-01

    Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A description and comparison of selected forest carbon registries: a guide for States considering the development of a forest carbon registry

    Jessica Call; Jennifer Hayes

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in tools for measuring and reducing emissions of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas. Two tools that have been receiving a lot of attention include carbon markets and carbon registries. Carbon registries are established to record and track net carbon emission levels over time. These registries provide quantifiable and verifiable carbon...

  4. The provenance, formation, and implications of reduced carbon phases in Martian meteorites

    Steele, Andrew; McCubbin, Francis M.; Fries, Marc D.

    2016-11-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current observations of reduced carbon in Martian meteorites, differentiating between terrestrial contamination and carbon that is indigenous to Mars. Indeed, the identification of Martian organic matter is among the highest priority targets for robotic spacecraft missions in the next decade, including the Mars Science Laboratory and Mars 2020. Organic carbon compounds are essential building blocks of terrestrial life, so the occurrence and origin (biotic or abiotic) of organic compounds on Mars is of great significance; however, not all forms of reduced carbon are conducive to biological systems. This paper discusses the significance of reduced organic carbon (including methane) in Martian geological and astrobiological systems. Specifically, it summarizes current thinking on the nature, sources, and sinks of Martian organic carbon, a key component to Martian habitability. Based on this compilation, reduced organic carbon on Mars, including detections of methane in the Martian atmosphere, is best described through a combination of abiotic organic synthesis on Mars and infall of extraterrestrial carbonaceous material. Although conclusive signs of Martian life have yet to be revealed, we have developed a strategy for life detection on Mars that can be utilized in future life-detection studies.

  5. Research of System Building Basing on the Low Carbon Economy About Carbon Accounting for the Enterprise

    Yao Liqiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As global warming has become truth, is developing as a new economic model, The new economic development model has given rise to an important branch of environmental accounting, namely carbon accounting. At first, this paper discusses the carbon accounting theoretical foundation comprehensively, and then analyzes the environment of the construction of the carbon accounting system. The focus of the article is to build enterprise carbon accounting system, it covers the confirmation and measurement, record and information disclosure of the enterprise carbon accounting on the way of low carbon economy, its core is the processing of carbon emission rights, information disclosure mode and content, etc.; The purpose of this paper is to build enterprise carbon accounting system which is suitable for China’s national conditions, in order to provide certain reference and theoretical support for the low carbon economy development of our country.

  6. Generation, capture, and utilization of industrial carbon dioxide.

    Hunt, Andrew J; Sin, Emily H K; Marriott, Ray; Clark, James H

    2010-03-22

    As a carbon-based life form living in a predominantly carbon-based environment, it is not surprising that we have created a carbon-based consumer society. Our principle sources of energy are carbon-based (coal, oil, and gas) and many of our consumer goods are derived from organic (i.e., carbon-based) chemicals (including plastics, fabrics and materials, personal care and cleaning products, dyes, and coatings). Even our large-volume inorganic-chemicals-based industries, including fertilizers and construction materials, rely on the consumption of carbon, notably in the form of large amounts of energy. The environmental problems which we now face and of which we are becoming increasingly aware result from a human-induced disturbance in the natural carbon cycle of the Earth caused by transferring large quantities of terrestrial carbon (coal, oil, and gas) to the atmosphere, mostly in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon is by no means the only element whose natural cycle we have disturbed: we are transferring significant quantities of elements including phosphorus, sulfur, copper, and platinum from natural sinks or ores built up over millions of years to unnatural fates in the form of what we refer to as waste or pollution. However, our complete dependence on the carbon cycle means that its disturbance deserves special attention, as is now manifest in indicators such as climate change and escalating public concern over global warming. As with all disturbances in materials balances, we can seek to alleviate the problem by (1) dematerialization: a reduction in consumption; (2) rematerialization: a change in what we consume; or (3) transmaterialization: changing our attitude towards resources and waste. The "low-carbon" mantra that is popularly cited by organizations ranging from nongovernmental organizations to multinational companies and from local authorities to national governments is based on a combination of (1) and (2) (reducing carbon consumption though greater

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-05-17

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  14. Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis

    Huetig, Janine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations

  15. Method for Extracting and Sequestering Carbon Dioxide

    Rau, Gregory H.; Caldeira, Kenneth G.

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO2 from a gaseous environment.

  16. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    Rau, Gregory H [Castro Valley, CA; Caldeira, Kenneth G [Livermore, CA

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  17. Reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials: a review

    Vasyukova, I.; Gusev, A.; Tkachev, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the current review, we assembled the experimental evidences of an association between carbon nanomaterials including carbon black, graphite nanoplatelets, graphene, single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and fullerene exposure and adverse reproductive and developmental effects, in vitro and in vivo studies. It is shown that carbon nanomaterials reveal toxic effect on reproductive system and offspring development of the animals of various system groups to a certain degree depending on carbon crystal structure. Although this paper provides initial information about the potential male and female reproductive toxicity of carbon nanomaterials, further studies, using characterized nanoparticles, relevant routes of administration, and doses closely reflecting all the expected levels of exposure are needed.

  18. A Sedimentary Carbon Inventory for a Scottish Sea Loch

    Smeaton, Craig; Austin, William; Davies, Althea; Baltzer, Agnes

    2015-04-01

    Coastal oceans are sites of biogeochemical cycling, as terrestrial, atmospheric, and marine carbon cycles interact. Important processes that affect the carbon cycle in the coastal ocean include upwelling, river input, air-sea gas exchange, primary production, respiration, sediment burial, export, and sea-ice dynamics. The magnitude and variability of many carbon fluxes are accordingly much higher in coastal oceans than in open ocean environments. Having high-quality observations of carbon stocks and fluxes in the coastal environment is important both for understanding coastal ocean carbon balance and for reconciling continent-scale carbon budgets. Despite the ecological, biological, and economic importance of coastal oceans, the magnitude and variability of many of the coastal carbon stocks are poorly quantified in most regions in comparison to terrestrial and deep ocean carbon stocks. The first stage in understanding the carbon dynamics in coastal waters is to quantify the existing carbon stocks. The coastal sediment potentially holds a significant volume of carbon; yet there has been no comprehensive attempt to quantitatively determine the volume of carbon held in those coastal sediments as echoed by Bauer et al., (2013) "the diverse sources and sinks of carbon and their complex interactions in these waters remain poorly understood". We set out to create the first sedimentary carbon inventory for a sea loch (fjord); through a combination of geophysics and biogeochemistry. Two key questions must be answered to achieve this goal; how much sediment is held within the loch and what percentage of that sediment carbon? The restrictive geomorphology of sea lochs (fjords) provides the perfect area to develop this methodology and answer these fundamental questions. Loch Sunart the longest of the Scottish sea lochs is our initial test site due to existing geophysical data being available for analysis. Here we discuss the development of the joint geophysics and

  19. Peer Observation of Rounds Leads to Collegial Discussion of Teaching.

    Pierce, J Rush; Rendón, Patrick; Rao, Deepti

    2018-01-01

    Faculty in the Division of Hospital Medicine provide most of the clinical teaching for learners at our institution. The majority of these faculty are Assistant Professors with limited formal instruction in clinical teaching. Previous Divisional strategies to improve clinical teaching ability included discussion of effective teaching behaviors, developing written expectations for teaching faculty, and instituting seminars on effective clinical teaching. Heretofore, the Division had not utilized a direct observation exercise. We developed a direct observation exercise to encourage discussion of teaching techniques and contemplation of change. Using a social learning model, we developed a peer-to-peer observation followed by a nonevaluative discussion. We created a tool for describing teaching behaviors in 5 domains that were similar to or different from the usual behavior of the observing peer: learner presentations, team leadership, bedside teaching, professionalism, and other. After the observation, the observing and observed faculty met to discuss observed teaching behaviors. Both faculty members discussed and then recorded any teaching behaviors that they planned to adopt or change. We implemented this intervention in a 22-member Academic Division of Hospital Medicine at a tertiary care medical center in the United States. A high proportion were junior faculty and graduates of our residency program. We reviewed records of 28 of 31 observations that were completed during the initial 9-month period of implementation and later surveyed faculty. The exercise resulted in planned changes in teaching behaviors that included instituting new methods to improve teaching team leadership, triaging of patients seen on rounds, faculty behaviors during oral presentations, giving real-time feedback, use of technology and humor, demonstrating physical examination findings, and modeling professional behaviors. Faculty later reported adoption of new teaching behaviors that were

  20. Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols

    M. O. Andreae

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the definition and measurement techniques for atmospheric 'black carbon' ('BC' or 'elemental carbon'' ('EC' have long been subjects of scientific controversy, the recent discovery of light-absorbing carbon that is not black ('brown carbon, Cbrown' makes it imperative to reassess and redefine the components that make up light-absorbing carbonaceous matter (LAC in the atmosphere. Evidence for the atmospheric presence of Cbrown comes from (1 spectral aerosol light absorption measurements near specific combustion sources, (2 observations of spectral properties of water extracts of continental aerosol, (3 laboratory studies indicating the formation of light-absorbing organic matter in the atmosphere, and (4 indirectly from the chemical analogy of aerosol species to colored natural humic substances. We show that brown carbon may severely bias measurements of 'BC' and 'EC' over vast parts of the troposphere, especially those strongly polluted by biomass burning, where the mass concentration of Cbrown is high relative to that of soot carbon. Chemical measurements to determine 'EC' are biased by the refractory nature of Cbrown as well as by complex matrix interferences. Optical measurements of 'BC' suffer from a number of problems: (1 many of the presently used instruments introduce a substantial bias into the determination of aerosol light absorption, (2 there is no unique conversion factor between light absorption and 'EC' or 'BC' concentration in ambient aerosols, and (3 the difference in spectral properties between the different types of LAC, as well as the chemical complexity of Cbrown, lead to several conceptual as well as practical complications. We also suggest that due to the sharply increasing absorption of Cbrown towards the UV, single-wavelength light absorption measurements may not be adequate for the assessment of absorption of solar radiation in the troposphere. We discuss the possible consequences of these effects for our