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Sample records for discuss russia energy

  1. Energy and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbeau, A.S.; Noel, P.; Finon, D.; Baudrand, D.; Zaki, M.; Chevallier, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Five issues are addressed concerning energy and Russia: energy perspectives in Russia (according to world energy outlook for 2011 and to Russia energy outlook), notably in terms of energy mix by 2035; the relationship between geopolitics and the gas market in Russia and for the European Union; the possibility of a European common foreign policy in front of a supposed Russian risk (involved actors, the issue of corridors); the refining industry in Russia (key figures, obstacles to its competitiveness improvement); and Total as a major company operating in Russia (context, projects). Questions concerning these issues are briefly answered

  2. Germany, Russia, and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This article first recalls and comments the objectives defined in March 2007 by the European Council in terms of energy to struggle against climate change. These objectives relate to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to renewable energies, to energy saving, and to the share of biofuels. It outlines that Germany worries about the political situation in Russia and the capacities of this country to supply Europe with hydrocarbons. Figures related to consumption of primary energy and to sources of production of electricity in Germany show that Germany is facing an increased energy dependency. The issues related to the relationship between the EU and Russia in the field of energy are further discussed, notably from the German point of view, but also from a European point of view as the EU expects a stronger reaction of Germany in front of the Russian situation

  3. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  4. Russia energy survey 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Russia is a key oil and gas exporter. The chances for successful economic reform in Russia depend on the success of the energy sector. So does the stability of world energy markets. This survey, the first since 1995, describes the energy-security issues affecting Russian oil, gas, coal and nuclear power after decades of inadequate investment and maintenance. The study concentrates on Russia's still-incomplete implementation of energy-sector reform. It raises questions about the energy sector's ability to meet the country's increasing energy demand. Particular note is taken of the country's plans to increase the use of coal in order to reduce its dependence on natural gas. The International Energy Agency commends Russian efforts to increase energy efficiency. The IEA supports the Russian view that price reform and customer choice are the keys to increased efficiency. To raise the 550 to 700 billion dollars it will need to invest in energy infrastructure by the year 2020, the study suggests, Russia must create a much more stable and competitive investment environment. 36 figs., 2 apps.

  5. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveeva, Anna

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK)

  6. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  7. Russia: the energy weapon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensebaa, F.; Du Castel, V.

    2008-01-01

    A few weeks ahead of the Russian presidential elections and in the current context of hydrocarbon prices rises, Futuribles is publishing an article this month on the return of the state to the heart of the Russian energy sector. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Russian government has carried out an important restructuring of the national energy sector around major public and private companies. The main objectives of this reorganization were to sustain the economic growth of Russia and also - increasingly, in the view of Faouzi Bensebaa and Viviane du Castel - gain the country greater influence on the international scene. In this article, the authors present an assessment of the Russian energy sector and turn the spotlight on a number of projects (Sakhalin 1 and 2, Khariaga) which particularly illustrate the Russian strategy of controlling hydrocarbon resources for economic and geopolitical ends. They show, in this way, how the state is gradually taking over control of national energy resources (including by going back on agreements struck with foreign partner companies) and using that control for political ends (particularly towards 'nearby foreign countries'). At the end of their article, they nevertheless stress the factors militating against this renewed control of the energy sector: contradictions internal to the Russian regime, technological backwardness, international financial inter-linkages... (authors)

  8. Geothermal energy utilization in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalova, V. [Institute of Environmental Geoscience, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Geothermal energy use is the way to clean, sustainable energy development for the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and is making progress using them - mostly with low-temperature geothermal resources and heat pumps This is optimal for many regions of Russia -in the European part, in the Urals and others. Electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands There are two possible ways of using geothermal resources, depending on the properties of thermal waters heat/power and mineral extraction. The mineral-extraction direction is basic for geothermal waters, which contain valuable components in industrial quantities The most significant deposits of thermal waters represent the brines containing from 35 up to 400 and more g/l of salts. These are the minerals of many chemical dements. (author)

  9. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  10. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  11. Russia's parliamentary elections and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveeva, Anna [Royal Institute of International Affairs, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the effects of Russia's parliamentary elections on the Russian energy sector and gives details of Russia's legislation concerning Production Sharing Agreement (PSA). The importance of party politics, use of the energy sector as a ready source of cash for electoral campaigns, the government's strengthening of its representation on the board of Gazprom, the role of foreign investors, the bankruptcy of the Siberian Far Eastern Oil Company (Sidanko), the postponement of reforms, and the wait-and-see attitude of investors especially with the forthcoming presidential and Duma elections are discussed. (UK).

  12. Discussion about principles of lobour organizing in Soviet Russia in 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лариса Владимировна Борисова

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the various points of view on the work organization, stated by heads of the Soviet Russia are analyzed during discussion about militarization and forced labor by spring of 1920.

  13. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  14. China, Russia and Central Asia: The energy dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergsager, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    How China will satisfy its rising energy demand will have impact on the availability and market price of energy resources such as oil and gas, but also on foreign policy. Of special interest is the role of rising neighboring countries and region; Russia and Central Asia countries, who can supply China by way of pipelines. In this paper important factors influencing Chinese energy decision-making are discussed, with a particular focus on energy investments abroad. The state capitalism framework is used to explain the long-term policies of Chinese energy investments as well as discuss the importance of State-Owned Enterprises and National Oil Companies to the Chinese economy. On this background the energy relations between Russia, China and other Central Asia states is discussed. The main focus is on the influence Chinese Energy Based Loan (EBL) agreements have on the Chinese presence both economically and politically in the region. The objective is to present the current situation and outlook for Sino-Russian-Central Asian energy relations as well as the economic implications a closer Chinese presence could have for the region. China's EBLs with Central Asian countries illustrate the preferred Chinese approach in expanding trade relations and should be considered as important examples for future bilateral agreements.(Author)

  15. Security of Europe's energy supply. Russia's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffaux, P.

    1994-01-01

    A conference on ''Europe's Energy supplies by Russia'', has been organised march 17th 1994 by the Energy and Raw Materials Geopolitics Centre and the Moscow Energy Club, with participation of the World Energy Council. The round-table on petrol outlined the Eastern Europe dependency and the skepticism of western petroleum companies concerning Russian's deposits. The round table on gas outlined the importance of Russian's gas deposits and the development of its european exportations. The round table on nuclear power stated the heavy costs of security improvements, and argued for the taking off, after year 2000, of a new generation of reactors jointly designed by western and russian engineers. (D.L.). 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. The energy outlook for Russia and the dialogue between the European Union and Russian concerning energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, B.

    2003-01-01

    The discussions concerning energy taking place between the European Union and Russia are aimed at setting up a permanent partnership in the energy sector in order to ensure that the exploitation of Russian energy resources makes it possible to guarantee the economic development of Russia while at the same time supplying sufficient energy exports to the European Union. The outlook for Russia's energy strategy in the years up to 2020 are based on a rate of growth in GDP of 5 % per year, combined with structural changes in economic activities and a vigorous energy efficiency policy, leading to a significant reduction in energy intensity. The low level of growth in demand resulting from this, combined with an increase in production and a reduction in the percentage of natural gas in electricity production guarantees a high level of potential for oil and gas exports in 2020, Compatible with the energy importation requirements of the future European Union and security of supply. The energy outlook for Russia presented by the International Energy Agency (IEA) are based on much lower economic growth figures and on a limited reduction in energy intensity. The percentage accounted for by natural gas in the production of electricity remains high. The IEA assessment is also based on a major increase in the production capacities for hydrocarbons in Russia while at the same time stressing the importance of the financial effort required to achieve this. Like the Russian outlook, it also identifies a major potential for the exportation of oil and natural gas by 2020. The convergence of these two outlooks concerning the future energy exporting capacity of Russia are seriously overshadowed by the fact that they differ greatly concerning their hypotheses and results with regard to domestic consumption and the production of energy. A 'warning scenario' combining the most similar hypotheses from both outlooks demonstrates the uncertain accompanying them. This analysis highlights the

  17. The EU-Russia Energy Dialogue: Competition Versus Monopolies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Russia and the European Union have clearly entered a new stage in their energy relations, defined by a growing asymmetry between a strengthened national monopoly on the supply side and a gradual opening of markets in Europe. In this context, a multitude of new approaches to EU Russia energy relations have been voiced recently by a wide variety of experts. Unfortunately, many of them involve 'defensive' solutions, driven by lack of mutual trust on both sides. Is a positive approach nevertheless still possible? The paper argues that competition is a key universal value in the development of a new and sustainable energy relationship between Russia and Europe. It is clear that EU competition regulators should take the lead in setting up a new framework for EU-Russia energy relations in the future. The success of their endeavors will not only determine the security of energy supply for European consumers, but also that of the Russian and Eurasian energy markets. (author)

  18. European Uunion Energy Security and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodari A. Simonia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the retrospective of relations between Russia, USA and EU in the sphere of energy security, as well as their interaction regarding the current political crisis in the Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the evolution of the key actors'positions and the development of their relations within the framework of the regulatory regimes established by the most significant agreements in the energy sphere. In conclusion the authors claim that what they say in their article not only does substantially reinforce the arguments set forth by Professor Giuseppe Guarino, who argues about the negative consequences caused by the dictatorship of the Brussels's bureaucracy within the EU, but also inflicts another blow on the Maastricht Treaty and the Treaty of Lisbon in terms of external policy and trade, since the both Treaties were designed to convert the EU in a real competitor of the United States in the then forming multipolar World. The Brussel's bureaucracy, having turned into a dutiful instrument of the US geopolitical strategy, hindered the movement of the EU in that direction, while its dictatorship in energy security aggravates the crisis situation of the EU, almost pushing the EU to the brink of collapse and disintegration. We have lately witnessed an evolving and growing phenomenon of the so called "Euroscepticism". The results of the Europarliament elections in late May, 2014, were a graphic demonstration of the symptoms of this alarming for the EU disease, when the anti-EU parties in the four out 22 EU countries won the elections (France, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Greece Those results, regardless of the panic headlines in mass media and statements like "shocking" or "earthquake" made by some politicians, were not able to significantly affect the nature of the European Parliament, though they can significantly complicate its work. This is so far the first "alarming bell" tolling for the EU.

  19. The EU Integration Discourse in the Energy Relations with Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tichý Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy issue is a long-term one of the most discussed, controversial topics in relations between the European Union and the Russian Federation. The intention of the present article is an attempt to overcome the largely non-discursive and in the security conditions anchored way of looking at the energy interaction of the EU and the RF and through an integration discourse to analyze EU energy relations with Russia in the years 2004 - 2014. In the theoretical level, the article is based on a critical constructivism, which in relation to the discourse as the main concept reflects a number of fundamental knowledge. At the methodological level, the article is based on the discourse analysis as a basic methodological tool through which the author examines the EU text documents.

  20. Aarne Michaël Tallgren and the International Discussion on the Bronze Age of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Salminen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is on international scholarly discussion on the Bronze Age of Russia from 1908 until 1939, and in particular on the related role of the internationally renowned Finnish archaeologist Aarne Michaël Tallgren (1885–1945. How did a social network of researchers produce new interpretations and what were the key factors that distinguished the participants in the discussion? Was it a continuous process or a series of sudden changes? How did different ideological backgrounds influence the interpretations? In Western Europe, Tallgren’s most important interlocutors were Gero von Merhart, V Gordon Childe and Ellis H Minns, and in Russia V A Gorodcov and A A Spicyn. The paper is mainly based on correspondence between Tallgren and his colleagues.

  1. Nuclear power development in Russia. Russia's energy industry preparing for the free market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The energy industry in Eastern Europe is preparing for the free market economy. The ambitions goal is to get fit and prepared for joining the free market economy as a competitor, and within the shortest possible time at that, struggling against the sharp wind of change that will blow, and trying to make the best of actually very unfavourable economic and political conditions. Priority has been given to privatisation of power plants and electricity networks, and to a speedy connection to the Western grids. However, all parties concerned are well aware that this task cannot be accomplished out of Russia's own resources alone. Whether the economy in Russia can be put on a stable footing and develop stable structures will depend on the development and efficient use of nuclear power, as the most important resources of Russia's energy industry are concentrated in the eastern part of the country, while 70% of electricity generation and demand is concentrated in the European part. (orig.) [de

  2. Nuclear energy discussion in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brupbacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    As regards the subject of nuclear power, Switzerland is no better off than Germany or the Benelux nations. In particular, Swiss people do not have superior insight or more general agreement in their views as to nuclear energy use. With reference to the whole nation, advocates and opponents of nuclear power currently are about equal in number; hence decisions are blocked the same as elsewhere. (orig.) [de

  3. Energy as a Bond. Relations with Russia in the Context of Europe and The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handke, S.; De Jong, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    supplies to Europe. Both Russia and Europe can gain much if they are able to strengthen their mutually beneficial economic cooperation. Political conflicts are normal among countries with diverging interests, but they should not be discussed in the context of economic cooperation, especially not in the area of energy. After all, energy dependence in the case of the EU and Russia exists on both sides. Increasing economic interdependence, not only in the area of energy, will lessen fears on both sides about asymmetric dependence. This paper examines the recent policy changes in Russia, its economic development, and the state of the Russian energy sectors. To analyse EU-Russian energy relations in a much broader context, EU policies towards Russia are discussed. Further, some statements are made about Dutch-Russian energy cooperation and the importance of a bilateral approach as part of an EU member state's overall external energy policy. The findings are evaluated in the context of the trends in international energy relations focussing on the role of the state and the decreasing importance of market-oriented players. The paper argues that Russia's economic recovery and modernisation is an opportunity for further cooperation with the EU. Hence, energy should be seen as the bond that makes cooperation in many areas imperative and beneficial, following the historic vision that energy has brought about and could continue to stimulate in the wider cooperation between the peoples of Europe

  4. Energy statistics of pre-revolutionary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Simonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of creation and development of the energy statistics of the Russian Empire of the initial stage of electrification and the formation of the energy economy, which is related to: 1 the economic upsurge of the 1890s; 2 the new economic recovery of 1907–1913 and 3 the militarization of industry in 1914–1916. The real technical and economic indicators and complex statistical data of the pre-revolutionary electric power industry were either hushed up or deliberately distorted during the Soviet era. Even in the encyclopaedic literature it was considered that pre-revolutionaryRussia“was on one of the last places in the world” for the production of electricity. The author analyzes statistical surveys (censuses of the manufacturing industry for 1900 and 1908 (the “varzar censuses”, which gave the first material on the state of its energy sector, namely: the composition, quantity and power of primary engines and electric motors. For the first time in historiography, the data of the “energy censuses” of the Ministry of Finance for 1905 and 1913 on the number and capacity of central public power stations and private power stations (block stations of industrial enterprises, organizations and institutions are cited. The data of the census were conducted with the participation of the apparatus of factory and factory inspections in 1906 and in1916 inall provinces of the Russian Empire, with the exception of six provinces of the frontline zone. A lot of work was done to record electricity production / consumption, which was conducted by the Russian electrotechnical community. According to incomplete data published in 1917 by the Secretariat of the Standing Committee of the VII All-Russia Electrotechnical Congress, from 1905 to 1913 (that is, for 8 years the total number of power stations in the Russian Empire increased by 1.7 times, and the amount of electricity produced by them Has grown in 3,8 times. The

  5. EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Tatyana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue, the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU — Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories. The article demonstrates that the EU nd Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market. The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  6. Eco-development and energy efficient technologies in Russia: prospects and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakova, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the concept of eco-standards in Russia, and discusses new technologies that allow to build energy-efficient houses in the form of countryside real estate. Special attention is given to the principle of heat production based on the use of individual facilities, power centers mini thermal power plants, as well as to ways to reduce water consumption at home. Presents analysis of the advantages projects “built-to-suit” for the introduction of the energy efficient technologies. Justified idea and principles of “green construction” in Russia in the real estate market. Conclusion about the effectiveness of the use, opportunities and development of energy efficient technologies.

  7. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  8. Nuclear energy industry in Russia promoting global strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2001-01-01

    Since former USSR disintegrated to birth new Russia on December, 1991, it already passed ten years. As Russian economic hardship affected its nuclear energy development, No.1 reactor of the Rostov nuclear power station (VVER-1000) established its full power operation on September, 2001 after passing eight years of pausing period as a Russian nuclear power station, at dull development of nuclear energy in the world. When beginning of its commercial operation, scale of nuclear power generation under operation in Russia will reach to the fourth one in the world by getting over the one in Germany. Russia also begins international business on reprocessing of spent fuel and intermittent storage. And, Russia positively develops export business of concentrated uranium and nuclear fuel, too. Furthermore, Russia shows some positive initiatives on export of nuclear power station to China, Iran and India, and development on advanced nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle forecast to future. Here was introduced on international developmental development of nuclear energy industry activated recently at delayed time for this ten years. (G.K.)

  9. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Russia and Chelyabinsk Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This paper reviews opportunities to implement energy efficiency projects in Russian public buildings, created by new Russian legislation and regulations. Given Russia's limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. The authors use Chelyabinsk Region as an example to discuss opportunities, challenges and solutions to financing and implementing an EPC in Russia, navigating through federal requirements and specific local conditions.

  10. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-07-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  11. Energy Security of Russia and the EU: Current Legal Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seliverstov, S.

    2009-01-01

    Security of energy supply is a cornerstone of European energy policy. It receives specific mention both in the Constitution Treaty and in the Lisbon Treaty. Of course, energy and energy-generated revenues are vital for Russia as well. It is a common understanding that Russia and the EU are extremely interdependent in terms of energy. On the one hand, Russia is the strategic energy supplier to the EU as a whole; for some member states Russian supplies represent the only source of the external energy flows. On the other hand, the revenues generated from the west-bound supplies of oil and gas constitute a significant share of the overall export income and of the budget of Russian Federation. Taking the interdependency as a point of departure the present article answers the following questions: What are the differences and the similarities in the European and the Russian approaches towards security of energy supply? Is their understanding of energy security so different? What are the current legal instruments guiding interaction in this sphere? What are the actual trends that could give some indication of how the situation may develop in the future? - While the concepts of 'security of energy supplies' or of 'energy security' are theoretical in nature, the ways the concepts are understood and the legal framework for them directly influences the way they are applied in practice. (author)

  12. Russia-Turkey: A Relationship Shaped by Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeot, Remi

    2013-03-01

    Deepening ties in between Turkey and Russia in the energy sector prompt questions as to where the balance of power between the two countries lies, with the former relying heavily on the latter for its energy needs. In light of Europe's efforts to diversify its energy sources and of tensions in its relationship with Ukraine, Russia is building the South Stream pipeline under the Black Sea (through Turkish territorial waters). At the same time, Turkey is strengthening its position in South Stream's rival pipeline projects, which aim to supply the European Union with gas from the Caspian Sea region. This means there is a difficult balance between the two countries as they try to negotiate a compromise on the basis of several lines of economic interest. While Russia attempts to protect its European revenues, Turkey is trying to enhance its status as an energy hub between Europe, the Caucasus and the Middle East. As well as the major pipeline projects, the Turkish government and, increasingly, private Turkish operators are developing an energy partnership with Russia in a growing number of fields, including nuclear power. At first glance, this would appear to make Turkey more dependent on Russia. However, the strategic maneuvers surrounding competing regional pipeline projects could give Turkey more room for negotiation and allow it to mitigate its energy dependency. Lastly, the economic significance and the timescales of all these common energy projects explain the desire of the two countries to play down their contrasting political interests in the Middle East. (author)

  13. The Energy Markets of the APEC Countries: Opportunities for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valeryevna Dyomina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article evaluates the export possibilities of Russian energy resources to the markets of the APEC countries. The analysis is made with the help of the IEA Model of short-term energy security (MOSES Primary Energy Sources and Secondary Fuels. This model addresses four dimensions of energy security. These include external and domestic factors, reflecting both risk exposure and resilience, the ability of energy systems to adapt to or withstand disruptions. In MOSES countries with similar characteristics are grouped in the energy profiles (from A to E by each energy resource. Countries with profiles from B to E present potential markets for Russian energy resources, while countries with the profile A are our competitors. The most promising market of energy resources is China, but for Russia it is likely to become a monopsony market. The authors assume that Russia will retain its position with respect to the concluded long-term contracts for energy resources supply, but expectations about the formation of a large market niche are overestimated. The study concludes that Russia can strengthen its competitive positions due to the launch of complete products on the markets of the APEC countries, especially, due to the creation of new market niches on the basis of technological leadership

  14. Small Distributed Energy Russia: Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafev Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues and current trends of research in the field of decentralized energy supply for the period up to 2030 were considered. The analysis of the cogeneration market in Russia was done. The questions of gasification and hydrogen technologies as applied to the market of cogeneration plants were elucidated. Promising technologies for autonomous decentralized energy supply and the evaluation of their applicability to small energy were presented.

  15. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  16. HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIA-KAZAKHSTAN GEO-ENERGY COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владимир Ильич Цай

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the perspective directions of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan in the sphere of fuel and energy complex. The authors give particular examples of the joint implementation of the adopted documents aimed at strengthening the two countries’ cooperation in the exploration and production of oil and gas in the past decade. Particular attention is paid to the Russia-Kazakhstan cooperation in the spheres of nuclear power, oil and oil products. These areas are considered by the example of the largest enterprises of fuel and energy complexes of Russia and Kazakhstan. One of the main components of the fuel and energy complex is the Petroleum Industry.

  17. RUSTEC: Greening Europe's energy supply by developing Russia's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boute, Anatole; Willems, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The North-West of Russia is characterized by a large renewable energy resource base in geographic proximity to the EU. At the same time, EU Member States are bound by mandatory renewable energy targets which could prove to be costly to achieve in the current budgetary context and which often face strong local opposition. Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy makes it possible for Member States to achieve their targets by importing electricity produced from renewable energy sources from non-EU countries. So far, most attention has been on the Mediterranean Solar Plan or Desertec. An EU–Russia Renewable Energy Plan or RUSTEC – being based on onshore wind/biomass/hydro energy and on-land interconnection, rather than solar power and subsea lines – could present a cost-efficient and short-term complement to Desertec. This article examines the political, geopolitical, economic, social and legal challenges and opportunities of exporting “green” energy from Russia to the EU. It argues that EU–Russian cooperation in the renewable energy field would present a win-win situation: Member States could achieve their targets on the basis of Russia's renewable energy potential, while Russia could begin to develop a national renewable energy industry without risking potential price increases for domestic consumers—a concern of great political sensitivity in Russia. - Highlights: ► Russia has a huge renewable energy potential in geographic proximity to the EU. ► This potential could help the EU decarbonize its electricity supply at least cost.► EU–Russia green energy export is a win-win situation but lacks political attention.► RUSTEC could be a short-term and cost-efficient complement to Desertec. ► RUSTEC would diversify EU energy imports/Russian exports and stimulate innovation.

  18. Energy wealth and tax reform in Russia and Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinthal, E.; Luong, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    Resource-rich states throughout the developing world are prone to rent-seeking, excessive borrowing, wasteful spending, and unbalanced growth as well as states with weak institutions and authoritarian regimes. Are the five energy-rich Soviet successor states necessarily doomed to repeat this experience, often referred to as the 'resource curse'? This paper advances and tests the hypothesis that Russia and Kazakhstan are more likely to avoid the 'resource curse' than Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Azerbaijan because they privatized their energy sectors. Specifically, we find that privatization offers a potential path out of the 'resource curse' when it involves a transfer of ownership to domestic actors. Although Kazakhstan initially appeared to be developing a viable tax regime in response to foreign investors, over the long term Kazakhstan's tax regime has become increasingly volatile and dependent upon these foreign investors. In contrast, domestic oil companies are helping to foster the development of an increasingly viable tax regime in Russia. (author)

  19. Energy Vulnerability and EU-Russia Energy Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Hunter Christie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of energy vulnerability is reviewed and discussed with a focus on Russia’s foreign energy relations, in particular those with European countries. A definition and a conceptual framework for quantifying energy vulnerability are proposed in the context of a review of recent research on energy vulnerability indices. In particular it is suggested that source country diversification should be reflected using the expected shortfall measure used in financial economics, rather than the Herfindahl-Hirschman or Shannon-Wiener indices, and that the former should then enter a calibrated function in order to yield expected economic loss. The issues of asymmetric failure probabilities and accidental versus intentional supply disruptions are then discussed with examples of recent Russian actions. Energy vulnerability measurement and modelling should ultimately inform policy. In particular, member states should legislate that no energy infrastructure project by one or more member states may increase the energy vulnerability of another member state. Additionally, European environmental policies, notably the EU ETS, should be amended so as to account for induced changes in energy vulnerability. Finally, member states should increase the level of transparency and disclosure with respect to gas import statistics and gas supply contracts.

  20. SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION IN HOUSES HEATING SYSTEMS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Mingaleva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar energy is widely used around the world for electricity generation and heating systems in municipal services. But its use is complicated in the number of territories with uneven receipts of solar radiation on the earth’s surface and large number of cloudy days during a year. A hypothesis on the possibility of application of individual solar collectors for heating of houses in the number of cities of Russia has been tested. The existing designs of solar collectors and checking the possibility of their application in northern territories of Russia are investigated. The analysis was carried out taking into account features of relief and other climatic conditions of the Perm and Sverdlovsk regions. As the result of research, the basic recommended conditions for application of solar batteries in houses of the northern Russian cities have been resumed.

  1. Alternative energy as a factor of ecological and energy security: features of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Nikolaevich Porfiryev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the current situation in the sphere of alternative energy engineering in Russia. On the one hand, the national economy and the population in general do not have problems with energy supply and Russia in general is the world's largest exporter of energy. On the other hand, centralized energy supply covers only one third of its territory and two-thirds are in the area of decentralized and autonomous power supply. In the current situation, energy sources that are independent of centralized networks based on clean technologies are a promising alternative. The paper assesses the current state of alternative energy development in the world and in Russia, its potential and prospects. It was found out that development and qualitative improvement of the regulatory framework should have priority for alternative energy mastering in Russia as well as active joint action of government, business and civic leaders to gradually consolidate in public consciousness and behaviour of a new culture of energy consumption based on the rules of economy and environmental safety. The analysis of the proposals for the development of alternative energy industries in Russia was made. Particular attention is paid to energy saving experience and energy efficiency in housing services and public utilities. Questions on the creation and development of formal and informal institutions of non-conventional energy sources usage are asked.

  2. Interpreting the dynamic nexus between energy consumption and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuejun

    2011-01-01

    Research on the nexus between energy consumption and economic growth is a fundamental topic for energy policy making and low-carbon economic development. Russia proves the third largest energy consumption country in the world in recent years, while little research has shed light upon its energy consumption issue till now, especially its energy-growth nexus. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the dynamic nexus of the two variables in Russia based on the state space model. The results indicate that, first of all, Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. Hence it is unsuitable to merely portrait the nexus in an average manner. Second, ever since the year of 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades, mainly due to the industrial structure adjustment and technology progress. Third, among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst, which suggests the complexity of energy-growth nexus in Russia. Finally, there exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth, though their quantitative proportional relation does not have solid foundation according to the cointegration theory. - Research highlights: →This study investigates the dynamic nexus of energy consumption and economic growth in Russia. → Russia's energy consumption is cointegrated with its economic growth in a time-varying way though they do not have static or average cointegration relationship. → Ever since 2000, Russia's energy efficiency has achieved much more promotion compared with that in previous decades. → Among BRIC countries, the consistency of Russia's energy consumption and economic growth appears the worst. → There exists bi-directional causality between Russia's energy consumption and economic growth.

  3. The relationships between the European Union and Russia in the field of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report which has been prepared by members of the French National Assembly, questions the reliability of the relationship between the European Union and Russia in the field of energy. It highlights the doubts and fears born by the recent context of tensions between Russia and Ukraine and the weakness of the agreement between these two countries, but also the resulting fears for energy security, the renewal of geopolitical tensions. It comments the apparent weakness of Europeans in front of the Russian 'giants', and regrets the absence of a European energy policy. Then, trying to adopt Moscow's point of view, the authors reviews the different tensions with the EU, discuss the will of Russia to reaffirm its power and how the existence of the EU is actually perceived, the strengths and weaknesses of an economy which is oriented toward raw materials. In the second part of this report, the authors are trying to define a multi-step solution of these tensions and problems, notably by building up a common European energy policy, developing new energies, and finding new suppliers

  4. FEASIBILITY OF CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR ENERGY FACILITIES ON THE TERRITORY OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виталий Игоревич Беляев

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the energy problems that could solve the construction of solar energy facilities in Russia. From various points of view, it is considered how rational is the placement of solar stations in Russia. A number of problems experienced by solar energy are presented directly on the territory of Russia. A comparison of Russia with Western states with respect to the construction of solar stations is shown. A new branch of "green" energy in the world is presented - bio photovoltaic systems

  5. Energy wood resources availability and delivery cost in Northwest Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerasimov, Yuri; Karjalainen, Timo [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: yuri.gerasimov@metla.fi

    2013-10-01

    Availability of solid by-products from wood harvesting and mechanical wood processing was estimated as sources for energy production based on recent actual harvesting, sawmill, and plywood production in Northwest Russia at 30 million m{sup 3}. Nearly 70% of the energy wood, 20 million m{sup 3}, was from harvesting, consisting of non-industrial round wood, unused branches and tops, defective wood resulting from logging, and spruce stumps removed after final felling. Over 30%, 10 million m{sup 3}, of the available volume was from sawmills and plywood mills, i.e. wood chips, sawdust, and bark. Due to current low utilization of energy wood for bioenergy in Northwest Russia, delivery cost of energy wood to the potential border-crossing points in Finland was analyzed for three means of transport: railways, roadways, and waterways. Nearly 28 million m{sup 3} of the energy wood could be transported by railways and 2 million m{sup 3} by roadways and waterways. The costs were lowest by roadways from the nearby border areas (10-15 Euro/m{sup 3} for wood processing by-products and 16-22 Euro/m{sup 3} for forest chips). The costs by railways varied from 12 to 27 Euro/m{sup 3} on shorter distances to 47-58 Euro/m{sup 3} on longer distances. Waterway transportation was the most expensive, about 28-48 Euro/m{sup 3}. It should be emphasized that we have estimated availability and delivery costs of energy wood, not prices which are defined by the market based on supply and demand.

  6. Analysis of renewable energy projects' implementation in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, S. V.; Nizhegorodtsev, R. M.

    2017-06-01

    With the enactment in 2013 of a renewable energy scheme by contracting qualified power generation facilities working on renewable energy sources (RES), the process of construction and connection of such facilities to the Federal Grid Company has intensified in Russia. In 2013-2015, 93 projects of solar, wind, and small hydropower energy were selected on the basis of competitive bidding in the country with the purpose of subsequent support. Despite some technical and organizational problems and a time delay of some RES projects, in 2014-2015 five solar generating facilities with total capacity of 50 MW were commissioned, including 30 MW in Orenburg oblast. However, the proportion of successful projects is low and amounts to approximately 30% of the total number of announced projects. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the experience of implementation of renewable energy projects that passed through a competitive selection and gained the right to get a partial compensation for the construction and commissioning costs of RES generating facilities in the electric power wholesale market zone. The informational background for the study is corporate reports of project promoters, analytical and information materials of the Association NP Market Council, and legal documents for the development of renewable energy. The methodological base of the study is a theory of learning curves that assumes that cost savings in the production of high-tech products depends on the production growth rate (economy of scale) and gaining manufacturing experience (learning by doing). The study has identified factors that have a positive and a negative impact on the implementation of RES projects. Improvement of promotion measures in the renewable energy development in Russia corresponding to the current socio-economic situation is proposed.

  7. Discussion on ``The Second Law and Energy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth; Banerjee, Debjyoti; Bejan, Adrian; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Geskin, Ernest; Ghoniem, Ahmed; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Gyftopoulos, Elias P.; Keck, James C.; Lior, Noam; Miller, Sam; Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus M.; Peterson, Richard; Salamon, Peter; Williamson, Lihong

    2008-08-01

    This article reports an open discussion that took place during the Keenan Symposium "Meeting the Entropy Challenge" (held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on October 5, 2007) following the short presentations—each reported as a separate article in the present volume—by Thomas Widmer, Ernest Geskin, James Keck, Noam Lior, Debjyoti Banerjee, Richard Peterson, Erik Ydstie, Ron Zevenhoven, Zhuomin Zhang, and Ahmed Ghoniem. All panelists and the audience were asked to address the following questions • Current state-of-the-art efficiency of combined-cycle energy conversion technology is about 60%. Based on the trend of historical data, some forecast that second-law efficiency of energy conversion will reach 80% by the end of the century. What technologies are at sight that might hold this promise? • Nanotechnologies and microtechnologies point towards the development of microscopic heat engines? How do second law limitations map down to these scales? • Combustion is the principal way of converting the chemical energy of fossil fuels to thermal energy, but it is highly irreversible. Are there promising ways to reduce combustion irreversibility? Are fuel cells the only alternative to combustion?

  8. 9. university discussion meeting on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Eight conference papers are presented which discussed the following topics: 1. Energy and environment - conflict or harmony; 2. A common electricity market within the European Community - from the point of view of the German electricity industry; 3. Radioactive waste in nuclear engineering; 4. Effects of electric and magnetic fields on humans; 5. Classroom ventilation; 6. The polluted atmosphere - potential effects on the global climate; 7. Environment-centered marketing, a challenge to a household appliances supplier; 8. High-temperature superconductors - perspectives for application. (UA) [de

  9. Energy Efficiency Investments in Public Facilities - Developing a Pilot Mechanism for Energy Performance Contracts (EPCs) in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha; Parker, Steven A.; Baranovskiy, Aleksandr

    2012-02-01

    : Russian public sector buildings tend to be very inefficient, which creates vast opportunities for savings. This report overviews the latest developments in the Russian legislation related to energy efficiency in the public sector, describes the major challenges the regulations pose, and proposes ways to overcome these challenges. Given Russia’s limited experience with energy performance contracts (EPCs), a pilot project can help test an implementation mechanism. This paper discusses how EPCs and other mechanisms can help harness energy savings opportunities in Russia in general, and thus, can be applicable to any Russian region.

  10. Renewable energy and decentralized power generation in Russia: an opportunity for German-Russian energy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Chukanov, Denis; Opitz, Petra; Pastukhova, Maria; Piani, Gianguido; Westphal, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Renewable and decentralized power generation are a centerpiece of Germany's domestic energy transition (Energiewende) and a major element of its international efforts to promote this goal. Recently, the renewables sector has also been advancing in Russia, albeit from a lower level. Thus, it is time to explore the status quo and analyze the potential for sustainable energy cooperation. In the context of the current deterioration in EURussian (energy) relations, crafting a sustainable energy pa...

  11. Construction of public discussions and the strategies of deproblimatization in the debate on Russia's accession to the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazun Anastasia, D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Russia's accession to the WTO remained one of the most talked economic events for a long time. Representatives of various interest groups (both supporters and opponents of joining the organization attended in the public debate on this issue. The paper presents the results of the analysis of publications in the print media on Russia's accession to the WTO over a period from December 2010 to December 2013. The focuses of our attention are two time slots: one and a half years prior to the entry and one and a half years after. The total number of analyzed articles is 397. As a result of the research we made some conclusions about the features of the construction of the WTO's media image. The paper presents an analysis of the positions of representatives of different groups and an evaluation of their involvement in the discussion. In addition, we provide illustrations of basic strategies used for deproblematization of the Russia's accession to the WTO, as well as to make assumptions about the reasons for which such actions became necessary.

  12. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  13. Carbon taxation in Russia : prospects for a double dividend and improved energy efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Russia is not only one of the world?s major sources of carbon based energy ? coal, oil and gas ? but is also one the most intensive users of energy. Furthermore, Russia accounts for a disproportionately large share of global carbon dioxide emissions ? some 5% to 6% of global carbon dioxide emissions (EIA, 2011a). It has been estimated (World Bank, 2008) that Russia could reduce its use of primary energy use by 45% with consequent economic and environmental benefits. High energy and carbon int...

  14. Interviews and discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthoefer, H.

    1976-01-01

    Mr. Hans Matthoefer, Federal Minister for Research and Technology, has commented on the problems occurring in connection with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy in several interviews during the past months. The present pocketbook contains a summary of these talks and interviews classified into the following main subjects: dialogue with citizens on nuclear energy, energy sources and energy saving, environment and energy, energy and economic development. The answers given by Federal Minister Matthoefer make the aims of the research and technology policy of the Federal Republic clear: Promotion of the efficiency of economy in order to be able to participate in the international competition, but not at the expense of the environment and of the population. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Relations between Russia and Europe from the perspective of energy strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jian

    2008-02-15

    After the Cold War, Russia and the EU made great improvements in their economic ties and political contacts. However, differences in ideology, geopolitics and so forth still exist, making the relationship between Russia and Europe more and more complex and changeable. On the one hand, the Western world maintains a policy of containment toward Russia. Moreover, NATO and the Dual Eastern Expansion of the EU impose direct pressure on Russia's traditional sphere of strategic influence. On the other hand, Russia is recovering from the ruins of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and actively engaging in military and energy diplomacy, trying to return to great power status by way of its own asymmetric advantages in resources. Because of this resource strategy, energy plays an indispensable role for the evolution process of bilateral relations. (orig.)

  16. Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation in the Baltic region: the untapped potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova T. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A stereotypical understanding of EU-Russia energy relations is often reduced to trade in oil and natural gas, which downplays the importance of energy efficiency cooperation. Such cooperation is promoted within the Energy Charter and its Treaty, Partnership and Cooperation Agreement, Energy Dialogue, Common Economic Space, Partnership for Modernisation. However, it lacks practical development, which relates to the instability of the legal environment in Russia, insufficient mechanisms of financial support for energy conservation projects and poor political support. Nevertheless, energy efficiency cooperation is capable of changing Russia-EU energy cooperation qualitatively: it offers a cheaper way to meet the needs of the EU, redefines interdependence between the parties, and introduces new elements of equality between them. Energy efficiency cooperation also transforms the patterns of the EU-Russia legal harmonization, creates new conditions for the convergence of regulations and the development of the middle class in Russia. Due to its specific features, cooperation in the Baltic Sea region becomes a locomotive of the Russia-EU energy efficiency cooperation, and, as a result, is capable of changing the quality of relations between the partners.

  17. Nuclear energy, a point for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibel, W.

    1977-01-01

    In a world no longer believing in a life after death, life on this world becomes an absolute value and death an absolute threat. The irrational parts of the resistence against nuclear energy, this worry for the saving of this value and the fear of this threat are seen. Such fears cannot be met with tables about accident frequency and risk factors. Therefore in the author's opinion, also the churches are requested to give a concerning answer to the question of the meaning of life, for these fears not to arise repeatedly, namely today in protests against technical development and nuclear energy, and tomorrow somewhere else. (GL) [de

  18. Health, environmental risks and externalities of nuclear and other energy systems of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A.P.; Demin, V.F.

    2000-01-01

    Due to different reasons the structure of electricity production systems of Russia should be reconsidered and changed. In this reconsideration the results of comparative risk assessment (CRA) and external cost assessment (ECA) are needed. CRA and ECA study has been carried out in the frame of the research program of International Center of Environmental Safety of Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russia. Main directions of this study are: 1) developing CRA and ECA methodology and data base ; 2) performing CRA and ECA for nuclear and other energy systems. Some tendencies in development of electricity production systems in Russia and preliminary results of CRA and ECA are described. (author)

  19. Deconstructing the 'energy weapon': Russia's threat to Europe as case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Stegen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    As the likelihood increases that Russia will dominate the European Union's (EU) energy supply, questions have emerged as to whether Russia would use the energy weapon to influence EU member policies and extract political concessions. Countervailing voices argue that Russia would be restricted by interdependence and market forces. As of yet, no one has analyzed the assumptions underlying the energy weapon thesis. Moreover, many scholars examining EU-Russian energy relations rely on non-Russian data. This article seeks to fill several informational and theoretical gaps by including Russian sources and first-hand data and by systematically analyzing the conditions that must obtain before an energy supplier can successfully convert its energy resources into political power. The resulting model can be utilized to analyze the capacity of a supplier to use the energy weapon-whether it be Russia, Iran, Venezuela or any other energy heavyweight-and to assess whether the deployment was successful. Five purported cases of Russian manipulation are analyzed in this article and the findings indicate that, more often than not, Russia failed to achieve political concessions. Looking to the future, the plausibility of Russia using the energy weapon to exploit Europe's dependence, particularly on gas, is also examined. - Highlights: → Energy producers may manipulate supply and prices to coerce political concessions. → Energy weapon model: four conditions must obtain for successful deployment. → Western policy-makers worry about EU dependence on and vulnerability to Russia. → Analysis of five Russian cases reveals tenuous link between weapon use and success. → In medium term, EU can likely avoid yielding political autonomy for supply security.

  20. Europe warms to US energy overtures as relations with Russia turn cold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    What a difference a year makes.. Political instability in Ukraine that led to Russia's annexation of the Crimean peninsula has changed more than the political geography of the region. In March 2013, European Union and Russian leaders signed a 'roadmap' for energy cooperation until 2050. Russia has long been the largest oil, gas, uranium and coal exporter to the EU - and the EU has been by far Russia's largest trading partner. The 5{sup th} US-EU Energy Council meeting, held in Brussels in March, really had only one item on the agenda: How to deal with the 'fallout' of Russia-Ukraine tensions and the potential implications for energy supplies across Europe. (orig.)

  1. Energy relationships between the European union and Russia in the world context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, P.; Aoun, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    A seminar was held by the CGEMP and the MIEC on April 18 and 19 2005 on the energy relationships between the European Union and Russia in the world context. Three issues discussed during the seminar seem important to us. Coal seems to have to play an increasingly significant role in electricity production, not only in China and India, but also in the European Union, according to the Commission's forecasts. These projections are clearly incompatible with the objectives for Kyoto, unless investments are made in research and development for carbon sequestration and its impact on the cost of electricity, which does not seem the case currently. Investments upstream an in gas and oil transportation are likely to pose problems for supply safety in the medium term. These problems seem to be increased by the liberalization of gas and electricity markets in the Union. Lastly, the seminar brought out the very different perception of the risk by Russia and by the European Union and the International Energy Agency. (authors)

  2. Modeling the CO2 emissions, energy use, and economic growth in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien; Yu, Hsiao-Cheng; Yang, Yeou-Herng

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies the co-integration technique and causality test to examine the dynamic relationships between pollutant emissions, energy use, and real output during the period between 1990 and 2007 for Russia. The empirical results show that in the long-run equilibrium, emissions appear to be energy use elastic and output inelastic. This elasticity suggests high energy use responsiveness to changes in emissions. The output exhibits a negative significant impact on emissions and does not support EKC hypothesis. These indicate that both economic growth and energy conservation policies can reduce emissions and no negative impact on economic development. The causality results indicate that there is a bidirectional strong Granger-causality running between output, energy use and emissions, and whenever a shock occurs in the system, each variable makes a short-run adjustment to restore the long-run equilibrium. The average speed of adjustment is as low as just over 0.26 years. Hence, in order to reduce emissions, the best environmental policy is to increase infrastructure investment to improve energy efficiency, and to step up energy conservation policies to reduce any unnecessary waste of energy. That is, energy conservation is expected to improve energy efficiency, thereby promoting economic growth. -- Highlights: → In Russia, emissions are energy use elastic and real output inelastic, but energy is a more important determinant of emissions than output. → In Russia, the real output exhibits a negative significant impact on emissions and does not support EKC hypothesis. → In Russia, there is a bidirectional strong causality relationship between emissions, energy use and output. → In Russia, the average speed of a short-run adjustment to restore long-run equilibrium is about 0.26 years. → In Russia, the energy conservation is expected to improve energy efficiency, thereby promoting economic growth.

  3. Jenergeticheskoe sotrudnichestvo Rossii i Evrosojuza: osnovnye napravlenija jevoljucii i sovremennoe sostojanie [EU — Russia energy cooperation: major development trends and the present state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of EU — Russia energy relations through the lens of the evolution of three parameters: the political agenda (the Energy Dialogue, the institutional structure, and the legal modalities. The identification of these three aspects for assessing the evolution of EU-Russia energy relations is the novelty in the author’s approach. This study aims to identify the previous stages and assess the current state of EU — Russia energy dialogue, since they set out conditions for energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region. This research is based on a political and legal analysis of various documents and employs various international relations theories (including integration theories. The article demonstrates that the EU and Russia have made a transition to the integration agenda manifested in the Energy Dialogue (its current goal is the creation of a common European energy market. The author describes the process of gradual consolidation of transgovernmental and transnational institutions, which leads to depoliticization of cooperation and mutual socialization of the partners. Finally, legal discussions on the development of common rules have become more constructive. In sum, the current situation in EU — Russia energy relations is favourable and positively affects cooperation in the Baltic Sea region.

  4. NIKIEhT input in the energy strategy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Gabaraev, B.A.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Dzhalavyan, A.V.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Murav'ev, E.V.; Orlov, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigations performed by specialists at Research and Design Institute of Electrical Technology together with other enterprises, institutes, and organizations concerning the formulation of a strategy for the development of nuclear power in Russia in the first half of the 21st century are presented. The individual stages of the work, key assumptions, ideas, and recommendations, on which the strategy is based, the initiatives which the President of the Russian Federation advanced at the millennium summit held at the United Nations, and the international INPRO project initiated by Russia are examined. It is concluded that innovative development and a transition to building as quickly as possible nuclear power objects that meet the requirements and demands of the new century are necessary [ru

  5. Energies and media nr 32. Conditions for the nuclear sector. Uranium and its enrichment for EDF. The role of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    After some comments on recent events in the nuclear sector in different countries (international conference, agreement between Rosatom and the IAEA, energy policy and projects in India, Turkey, Vietnam, France, Finland, UK, Sweden, USA, Germany), this publication discusses the uranium enrichment issue for EDF and the role of Russia. It refers to a report by the French High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety (HCTISN) and to a hearing by the French Parliament. Different aspects are discussed: the national and international legal contexts and their relationship, the EDF reactor supply (enriched uranium of MOX, fixed elements in enrichment contracts, supply security), enrichment processes and installations (in France, natural uranium enrichment, use of reprocessed or recycle uranium, use of depleted uranium as a by-product of enrichment), how EDF and AREVA are working with Russia (enrichment of recycled uranium, use of depleted uranium)

  6. Production from Giant Gas Fields in Norway and Russia and Subsequent Implications for European Energy Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    70 bcm In addition, there are a number of potential downside factors for future Russian gas supplies to the European markets. Consequently, a 90% increase of import volumes to the EU by 2030 will be impossible to achieve. From a European energy security perspective the dependence of pipeline gas imports is not the only energy security problem to be in the limelight, the question of physical availability of overall gas supplies deserves serious attention as well. There is a lively discussion regarding the geopolitical implications of European dependence on imported gas from Russia. However, the results of this thesis suggest that when assessing the future gas demand of the EU it would be of equal importance to be concerned about diminishing availability of global gas supplies

  7. European energy security analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply.

  8. European energy security. Analysing the EU-Russia energy security regime in terms of interdependence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esakova, Nataliya

    2012-07-01

    Nataliya Esakova performs an analysis of the interdependencies and the nature of cooperation between energy producing, consuming and transit countries focusing on the gas sector. For the analysis the theoretical framework of the interdependence theory by Robert O. Keohane and Joseph S. Nye and the international regime theory are applied to the recent developments within the gas relationship between the European Union and Russia in the last decade. The objective of the analysis is to determine, whether a fundamental regime change in terms of international regime theory is taking place, and, if so, which regime change explanation model in terms of interdependence theory is likely to apply. (orig.)

  9. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vihriaelae, H.

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference '95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  10. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H [ed.

    1996-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  11. The economics of wind energy. Collection of papers for discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vihriaelae, H. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    This publication contains the proceedings of EWEA Special Topic Conference `95 on the economics of wind energy, held in Helsinki, Finland, on 5-7 September, 1995. The programme consisted of panel discussions and poster presentations on National Programmes and Operational Experience of Wind Energy, Grid Issues and Avoided Direct Costs of Wind Energy, Avoided External Costs of Wind Energy, The Role of Wind Energy in Future Energy Supply and Technical Innovations of Wind Energy

  12. Energy literacy in Alberta : a collective challenge : discussion and framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.

    2010-03-15

    The actions needed to advance energy literacy in Alberta were discussed. Advancing Energy Literacy in Alberta (AELA) is a process that supports the objectives of Alberta's energy strategy through the development of a multi-stakeholder process that will lead to better energy information, education and outreach initiatives for the province's large and diverse audience. Advancing energy literacy is in the interest of the energy community and the economic well being of the province. Strategies for launching an energy literacy program were also discussed. tabs.

  13. Multiplying sources as the best strategy for EU-Russia energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Energy security and gas supply have become issues of central concern for the European Union as reserves in the North Sea are dwindling. Russia is offering to replace the North Sea supplies in the future, but the EU should be aware that Moscow will not be able to fully meet Europe's demand in the future. Russia will remain a significant supplier, but the EU needs to look for other possible sources of gas supply in Northern Africa, in the Caspian Sea region, in the Barents Sea, and in the Persian Gulf. Diversification is the best strategy for enhancing European energy security. (author)

  14. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J.

    2001-01-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  15. The Russian-Mongolian vector of the eastern energy strategy of Russia: role of energy potential of the Baikal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneev, Boris; Ivanova, Irina; Izbuldin, Alexander; Muzychuk, Svetlana; Maysyuk, Elena; Borisov, Gennady; Butkhuyag, Sodovin

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the specific features of Russia's economic development in a new economic environment that caused the need to revise the priorities of energy policy. The research presents the initial conditions, targets and strategic directions of energy development in the East of the country. The focus is made on the priority lines of innovation and technology cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asian countries in the field of energy, and recommendations on necessary conditions and initiatives for their successful implementation are given.

  16. How is Russia adapting to a threatening new energy world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de; Parmigiani, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The US shale gas revolution has shaken global gas markets. The US is on the eve of becoming self-sufficient in natural gas (and oil), thanks to the massive discoveries of unconventional resources on their territory, while being able to export part of their production. These developments have been closely watched by traditional oil and gas producers. The sharpening of competitive pressure on global gas markets is indeed shaking their positions. A range of reactions has been observed among producing countries: exploration and production contracts were revised in order to ease foreign direct investments and to attract new technologies developed by the majors; some concession were made towards consumers with new gas contracts' pricing formula - the most touchy issue -; massive investments were made in LNG and upstream projects. What about Russia, the largest natural gas reserves holder, and the largest natural gas producer and exporter? Has it been too slow to react, as often underlined by many commentators? (authors)

  17. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  18. Regional electoral process in a context of discussion about the project of the electoral codex of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Олеговна Лисянская

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article are analyzed pluses and minuses of different electoral systems, their applicability to the Russian conditions, considering the reforms of the electoral legislation of Russia. The project of the Electoral Codex as possible document that regulates regional electoral process put under consideration.

  19. Regional electoral process in a context of discussion about the project of the electoral codex of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Елена Олеговна Лисянская

    2009-01-01

    In the given article are analyzed pluses and minuses of different electoral systems, their applicability to the Russian conditions, considering the reforms of the electoral legislation of Russia. The project of the Electoral Codex as possible document that regulates regional electoral process put under consideration.

  20. Nuclear power in Northern Russia: A case study on future energy security in the Murmansk region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, Miia; Korppoo, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The economy of the Murmansk region in Russia is based on energy intensive industry, mainly metallurgies, and consequently, the region is highly dependant on the ageing Kola nuclear power plant. This interdependence together with other weaknesses in the regional energy system creates threats to the energy supply security of the region. This paper analyses the internal and external threats influencing the region and presents potential solutions. Scenarios further illustrate possible future paths these potential solutions could deliver by the year 2025

  1. Russia's control over the Stan's and the implications for European Security of Energy Supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komduur, R.

    2007-02-01

    An outline is given of the relationship between the Russian Federation and its energy-rich neighbours in Central Asia. Within a couple of years the availability of 'Russian' gas that Europe imports will depend on the amounts of gas Russia is able to import from Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan: in this paper referred to as the Stan's

  2. Building state capacity in Russia: A case study of energy sector reform, 1992--1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younkyoo

    This study seeks an explanation for the neglect of state building in Russia. The major hypothesis is that dependence on external rent leads to the weakness of the state. Three intervening variables---transaction costs, bargaining power of the state, and discount rates---are posited to explain variance on the dependent variable, the weakness of the state. Based on the exploration of three dimensions of energy sector reform, the dissertation argues that in the short run resource rents may be the only reliable and adequate source of finance for the Russian government. The division of resource rents among the many claimants (state vs. business, state vs. society, Moscow vs. regions, and Russia vs. foreign companies), it submits, will pose a stringent test of the viability of democratic governance in Russia. The dissertation concludes that some evidence indicates that Russia has in fact met the characteristics of the rentier state. The greater reliance on a large resource sector for revenue has led to high transaction costs of tax collection, weak bargaining power of the state, and high discount rates of government officials in Russia.

  3. EU-Russia energy relations. What chance for solutions? A focus on the natural gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehme, Dimo

    2011-07-01

    Public debate about energy relations between the EU and Russia is distorted. These distortions present considerable obstacles to the development of true partnership. At the core of the conflict is a struggle for resource rents between energy producing, energy consuming and transit countries. Supposed secondary aspects, however, are also of great importance. They comprise of geopolitics, market access, economic development and state sovereignty. The European Union, having engaged in energy market liberalisation, faces a widening gap between declining domestic resources and continuously growing energy demand. Diverse interests inside the EU prevent the definition of a coherent and respected energy policy. Russia, for its part, is no longer willing to subsidise its neighbouring economies by cheap energy exports. The Russian government engages in assertive policies pursuing Russian interests. In so far, it opts for a different globalisation approach, refusing the role of mere energy exporter. In view of the intensifying struggle for global resources, Russia, with its large energy potential, appears to be a very favourable option for European energy supplies, if not the best one. However, several outcomes of the strategic game between the two partners can be imagined. Engaging in non-cooperative strategies will in the end leave all stakeholders worse-off. The European Union should therefore concentrate on securing its partnership with Russia instead of damaging it. Stable cooperation would need the acceptance that the partner may pursue his own goals, which might be different from one's own interests. The question is, how can a sustainable compromise be found? This thesis finds that a mix of continued dialogue, a tit for tat approach bolstered by an international institutional framework and increased integration efforts appears as a preferable solution. (orig.)

  4. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  5. Energy Efficiency Sector in Russia. Market Survey of Equipment and Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present Survey is to give an insight of energy efficiency (EE) in Russia and to assess the demand for EE equipment and services in the energy sector. In the Survey the term 'Energy Efficiency' means the efficient generation, distribution and consumption of heat and power. The main EE measures are classified as recovery of sources of energy, measuring and controlling systems, optimal use of the equipment, modernisation, in-house energy generation and renewable energy sources. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the current situation of the Russian energy sector. The term 'energy sector' is used in the context of generation, distribution and consumption of heat and power. The infrastructure and the ownership of the energy sector are examined. In this chapter special attention is paid to the Power Sector Reform and how the Reform affects the development of EE in the Russian energy sector. Chapter 4 describes the current situation in EE, giving the reasons of inefficiency in energy use and possible solutions for improving. Chapter 5 presents a market research of equipment that could make a great input into EE development. The research has shown that the most promising opportunities for suppliers of EE equipment lie in the heat sector (generation, distribution, consumption). This chapter also describes the development of ESCOs (Energy Service Companies) in Russia. Chapter 6 gives an overview of domestic and foreign capital available to finance EE development. According to conventional market based incentives, end users invest into increasing their profits more intensively than into projects aiming at energy saving. That is mostly because energy is relatively cheap in Russia and the federal governmental policy does not stimulate EE development either. Chapter 7 on the market approach advises on steps that have to be taken and risks that need to be avoided in order to enter the Russian market successfully. It warns of the possible pitfalls on this way. Chapter 8

  6. Energy summit discussions with Federal Chancellor Merkel - potential legislative consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The energy summit discussions held by Federal Chancellor Merkel are to converge in a consistent energy policy concept by late 2007. The second summit held on October 9, 2006 was prepared by three working groups. Working Group 1 was to handle 'International Aspects', Working Group 2, the 'National Aspects of Energy Supply', and Working Group 3, finally, 'Research and Energy Efficiency'. The reports dealing with international aspects and with research and energy efficiency were in the focus of discussions at the summit. The report about national aspects had not yet reached the level of maturity required for discussion. None of the reports contained anything under the headings of 'Setting aside the Gorleben Moratorium' and 'Continued Exploration of the Salt Dome for a Repository' and 'Extension of the Plant Life of Our Nuclear Power Plants'. This sounds very easy and is urgently required, but it is neither announced nor seriously debated in politics. If these legislative measures were taken and the rhetoric about the broad energy mix turned into energy policy reality, many problems in climate protection, in energy supply continuity, and in competitive electricity supply could be solved more easily. (orig.)

  7. Oil and natural gas in Russia's eastern energy strategy: Dream or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mareš, Miroslav; Laryš, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses Russia's Eastern energy strategy in the sectors of oil and natural gas, presenting its main aspects and examining it from the security perspective against the backdrop of official Russian documents. The goals set by the strategy are compared with the steps presently taken and planned by the Russian administration, as well as with short- and medium-term Russian energy policies in the sectors of oil and natural gas. The authors conclude that implementation of the Energy Strategy to 2030 in the sectors of oil and natural gas will be highly complicated in the Eastern vector of Russian politics and achievable only if new deposits are found. - Highlights: ► We compare goals of the Russia's Eastern energy strategy in the sectors of oil and natural gas with real policy.► In the Eastern vector are included China, both Korean states and Japan. ► For Russia's energy strategy to 2030 the Eastern market in the sector of oil and natural gas is advantageous and desirable. ► The present conditions can bring economic as well as political risks.

  8. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  9. 77 FR 5770 - Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    .... Participating entities will have the option of additional meetings with business prospects in cities nearby... and joint venture partners; meeting with national and regional government officials; and networking... Diego Gas & Electric Company, the city of San Diego, Belgorodenergo, (the Belgorod region energy company...

  10. Russia power engineering and power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of work of the International consultative meeting: Russian-Europe: strategy of energy safety is described. The purpose of the meeting consisted in discussion of energy situation in Russia and Europe, prospects for provision of reliability, efficiency and safety of fuel and power supply in Russia and the role of the Russian fuel and power resonances in energy supply of Europe. The reporters at the meeting dealt with various aspects related to energy safety

  11. Deconstructing the 'energy weapon': Russia's threat to Europe as case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Stegen, Karen, E-mail: k.smithstegen@jacobs-university.de [Jacobs University Bremen (Germany); Bremer Energie Institut (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    As the likelihood increases that Russia will dominate the European Union's (EU) energy supply, questions have emerged as to whether Russia would use the energy weapon to influence EU member policies and extract political concessions. Countervailing voices argue that Russia would be restricted by interdependence and market forces. As of yet, no one has analyzed the assumptions underlying the energy weapon thesis. Moreover, many scholars examining EU-Russian energy relations rely on non-Russian data. This article seeks to fill several informational and theoretical gaps by including Russian sources and first-hand data and by systematically analyzing the conditions that must obtain before an energy supplier can successfully convert its energy resources into political power. The resulting model can be utilized to analyze the capacity of a supplier to use the energy weapon-whether it be Russia, Iran, Venezuela or any other energy heavyweight-and to assess whether the deployment was successful. Five purported cases of Russian manipulation are analyzed in this article and the findings indicate that, more often than not, Russia failed to achieve political concessions. Looking to the future, the plausibility of Russia using the energy weapon to exploit Europe's dependence, particularly on gas, is also examined. - Highlights: > Energy producers may manipulate supply and prices to coerce political concessions. > Energy weapon model: four conditions must obtain for successful deployment. > Western policy-makers worry about EU dependence on and vulnerability to Russia. > Analysis of five Russian cases reveals tenuous link between weapon use and success. > In medium term, EU can likely avoid yielding political autonomy for supply security.

  12. Russia-Scandinavia: dangerous liaisons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godzimirski, Jakub M.

    2011-01-01

    After a description of the geopolitical and strategic background of the relationships between Russia and Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) as some of these Scandinavian countries belong either to the EU or to NATO, the author more particularly addresses the energetic dimension of this geopolitical relationship. He discusses the level of energy dependence of the different Scandinavian countries, their energy consumptions regarding the different energy types, their imports and exports from and to Russia, and the historical dimension of relationships with Russia as well as their present technological exchanges in the field of energy infrastructures (mainly oil and gas pipelines, but also in the field of renewable energies). In conclusion, the author outlines the Nordic dimension of the Russian Grand Energy Strategy

  13. The Energy Partnership between Russia and the Countries of Northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei M. Nikonorov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study tries to answer the most fundamental question of energy cooperation between Russia and the countries of Northeast Asia, "Do we really need a model of cooperation in the energy sector?". This question is important for understanding the aspects of energy cooperation in the region, because the idea of creating this cooperation is based on the assumption that there is complementarity and interdependence between the structures of supply and demand of these countries offer. To find the answer to this question, we analyzed the sectors of demand, consumption, and Russian proposals and the countries of Northeast Asia oil and gas, as the current dominant energy sources, and renewable energy sectors considered (renewable energy sources, as a potential future sources.

  14. EU – RUSSIA AND THE ENERGY DIMENSION OF THE EASTERN PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Dusciac

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Union Strategy, launched in February 2015, is a vast project aiming at identifying a set of common responses to a series of present and future challenges in the field of energy. The question of energy security occupies a central position in EU’s relationships with its neighbours. In this context, economic and political ties with the Russian Federation in its role of major supplier of energy resources to EU member states are of crucial importance. Acquiring a higher degree of independence from the Russian supply of natural gas has been proclaimed as a national priority by several ex-Soviet republics. Moldova, Ukraine and Georgia have recently signed Association Agreements with the EU. We look into the early stages of the implementation of AA’s and analyse their consequences on the EU – Russia relations in the energy field. A series of common characteristics and possible developments in the field of energy are analysed.

  15. Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  16. Impact of Climate Change on Energy Production, Distribution, and Consumption in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Klimenko, A. V.; Tereshin, A. G.; Fedotova, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    An assessment of the overall impact of the observed and expected climatic changes on energy production, distribution, and consumption in Russia is presented. Climate model results of various complexity and evaluation data on the vulnerability of various energy production sectors to climate change are presented. It is shown that, due to the increase of air temperature, the efficiency of electricity production at thermal and nuclear power plants declines. According to the climate model results, the production of electricity at TPPs and NPPs by 2050 could be reduced by 6 billion kW h due to the temperature increase. At the same time, as a result of simulation, the expected increase in the rainfall amount and river runoff in Russia by 2050 could lead to an increase in the output of HPP by 4-6% as compared with the current level, i.e., by 8 billion kW h. For energy transmission and distribution, the climate warming will mean an increase in transmission losses, which, according to estimates, may amount to approximately 1 billion kW h by 2050. The increase of air temperature in summer will require higher energy consumption for air conditioning, which will increase by approximately 6 billion kW h by 2050. However, in total, the optimal energy consumption in Russia, corresponding to the postindustrial level, will decrease by 2050 by approximately 150 billion kW h as a result of climate- induced changes. The maximum global warming impact is focused on the heat demand sector. As a result of a decrease in the heating degree-days by 2050, the need for space heating is expected to fall by 10-15%, which will cause a fuel conservation sufficient for generating approximately 140 billion kW h of electricity. Hence, a conclusion about the positive direct impact of climate change on the Russia's energy sector follows, which is constituted in the additional available energy resource of approximately 300 billion kW h per year.

  17. The Creation of an Energy Security Society as a Way to Decrease Securitization Levels between the European Union and Russia in Energy Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khrushcheva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The energy trade between the European Union and Russia is securitized due to a combination of factors. First, there are securitizing agents within the European Union. Second, the domestic consolidation of the energy sector under governmental control, the Gazprom monopoly on transportation networks linking Central Asian gas with European markets and the state imposed-limits on foreign direct investment may also raise concerns in the European Union. Finally, Russia is also securitizing the energy sphere by claiming that the EU is trying to impose its values on Russia (for example through the Energy Charter Treaty, which contradicts Russian interests. This article combines securitization theory and the English School of thought and argues that the creation of an Energy Security Society could help de-securitize energy trade between the European Union and Russia.

  18. Research document no. 19. The transposition conditions of the market institutions in transition economies (Russia). The energy case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2000-07-01

    The majority of the institutions of the market economy exist today in Russia but they do not take on with the russian economic framework. One assists in fact with particular appropriation modes of these institutions, defining behaviors directed by logics of survival. To analyze the situation, the author presents the standard approaches of the economic transition in the case of the energy in russia and the institutional and organization models failure. (A.L.B.)

  19. Evaluation of the Development of the Renewable Energy Markets in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrovna Grechukhina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to systemize and present the quantitative and quality evaluation of the economic and non-economic effects of the implementation of the new mechanism of the support of renewable energy in Russia. It should allow meeting the middle-term goal of 2.5 % of renewables at the Russian wholesale electricity market by 2024. To achieve this aim, in the introduction part of the article, a detailed description of the new mechanism of the support of the renewable energy in Russia is presented. It is based on the payment for energy in the wholesale electricity market. The estimated aggregate positive effect resulting from this mechanism’s implementation was expected as follows: a replacement of non-renewable fossil fuels to renewable energy, b reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, c the average prices reduction in the wholesale electricity market, d reduction of the costs on environmental measures and health protection measures in traditional power generation, e creating new jobs, f reduction of fresh water used for cooling in traditional power generation, g multiplicative effects from the development of renewable energy and etc. The resulting economic effect is estimated at 47.77 billion rubles per year by 2024. The authors relied on expert estimates, forecasts of the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Economic Development, the Russian Energy Agency, the International Energy Agency, the International Agency for Renewable Energy, the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century, the experience of foreign countries, the data of Russian Federal State Statistics Service.

  20. Formation of Conceptual Provisions for the Development of the Energy Efficient Housing Construction in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyeva, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Current problems and the prospects of energy saving in Russia as well as the importance of creation of complete legislative and legal base and the mechanisms of economic incentives of energy saving is are considered in article. The analysis of the existing criteria of the energy efficiency of buildings is carried out. The introduction of so-called “road map” of the development of energy saving in housing-and-communal services is expedient. According to the author, that will allow to provide owners of buildings and the servicing companies with the information for acceptance of organizational and technical project, construction and operational decisions, reasonable decisions on maintenance, reconstruction or dismantling of the buildings, directed to lowering of energetic expenses and also to the proper organization of life cycle of buildings in general.

  1. On the state of the radiation safety in the atomic energy and nuclear industry of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The general aspects of the activity of organs of government in the field of human radiation protection and some other problems of nuclear industry connecting with the new economic and politic situation in Russia have been discussed. There are present information about the organs of government relating to the questions of radiation safety and the major directions of governmental policy in this fields. Some problems of the elimination of the consequences of the accidents in NPPs (Chernobyl, Chelyabinsk), the programs of the radiation safety improvement of population and the information about new normative nuclear safety documents have also been written in this report. (author)

  2. Discussion paper : offshore wind facilities renewable energy approval requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    This paper discussed a proposed shoreline exclusion zone for offshore wind projects in Ontario. Considerations relevant to offshore wind projects and the protection of human health, cultural heritage, and the environment were also discussed. The paper was prepared in order to provide greater clarity to renewable energy developers and to Ontario residents about the offshore wind policy that is currently being considered by the Ontario Government. Feedback received from the discussion paper will be used to propose policy and associated regulatory amendments. A 5 km shoreline exclusion zone for all offshore wind facilities was proposed. Some projects may be required to be located beyond the proposed exclusion zone. Proposed developments within the exclusion zone must meet all applicable requirements, including those related to cultural and natural heritage. The zone will establish a distance between drinking water intakes, and ensure that sediment dredging and other construction-related activities do not impact drinking water quality, and ensure that potential noise levels are within acceptable levels. The zone will establish a distance between near-shore activities and wind facilities, and also help to maintain the ecological health of inland waters. Guidelines and technical requirements for wind facility operators were also included.

  3. Outlook for the energy sector of Russia and Central Asia: structural and cultural perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heus, R.

    1994-01-01

    The combined interaction of three factors produces unique challenges in the energy sectors of Russia and the Central Asian Republics. The first is the specific nature and history of the oil industry of the former USSR. For many decades this, the largest oil industry in the world, was run by the government of the USSR without external assistance. Furthermore, unlike any other frontier region, most oil and gas exploration and discovery was domestic. Secondly, the former USSR is a society with structural and cultural features of both the East and the West. Thirdly, there is the legacy of an autocratic decision-making structure. The integration of the energy sector of the former USSR into the world energy sector will require the challenges represented by these factors to be worked through and this may take well into the next century. (UK)

  4. Discussion on nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    For over one year there was a discussion about the problems of nuclear energy in the trade union journal 'Metall'. Invited by the editors, scientists from the university of Bremen also participated in this contoversy. In early 1977, an article with the title, Blessing or curse of the future' written by Bremen scientists was published in 5 parts. A reply was written by nine scientists, all but one from the Nuclear Research Centre in Juelich. This criticism caused the reaction of 17 persons from the university of Bremen. This document contains the articles which appeared in vanious numbers of the journal 'Metall', including the readers letters written by colleagues from the Union. (orig./GL) [de

  5. Rethinking Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskas, Kęstutis

    2005-01-01

    The article argues that the period of “high” politics in the ever-problematic relations between Lithuania and Russia is over. At the same time, it is agued that tensions remain at the level of “low” politics, when the agenda of bilateral relations is dominated by the security interests related to Kaliningrad Oblast and Russia’s energy policy. The author claims that Lithuania should take a more pragmatic approach in her day-to-day relations with Russia and follow a more flexible policy towards...

  6. Some critical environmental issues of the energy discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    There are two complementary approaches to studying the environmental effects of fuel use and energy conversion. The first is to be completely systematic and to follow through each technology in great detail, and itemise each impact, whether large or small. The second, followed here, is to pick out those items that either dominate the risk or impact, or dominate the public perception therefore, and try to understand them in some detail. I pick the following that I believe are the most important environmental issues today: 1 What is the effect of particulate air pollution on today's levels? 2 What is the probability that carbon dioxide emissions will cause global warming? 3 Can we use this energy source in a sustainable fashion over several millennia? I will spend much of the space on a discussion of these three. However, there are a number of other items that some group or another think are important. They must also be considered to sufficient extent to persuade everyone involved that indeed they are less important. These include: 4 What is the probability and effect of a severe nuclear power accident? 5 Why is there public concern about nuclear waste although it is not justified by the calculations? 6 Why are hydroelectric dams not as universally popular as they were? 7 Can we avoid the proliferation of bombs using plutonium if we have a nuclear power program? 8 Can we reduce the cost of electricity from nuclear power to what is was 25 years ago? (Author)

  7. The economic theory contribution to the energy discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1999-01-01

    How useful is the energy theory to manage and to forecast the energy policy? The author answers this question in words of energy and development, energy tariffs, energy transportation and distribution and relation with the government policy. (A.L.B.)

  8. AHP-based risk analysis of energy performance contracting projects in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuzova-Schlifter, Maria; Madlener, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and properly managing risks that could potentially affect the target- and performance-based profits of energy performance contracting (EPC) projects are essential. It is particularly important for the establishment and success of energy service companies (ESCOs) acting in the vulnerable environment of the vast but highly energy-inefficient Russian market. This study systematically explores common risk factors and causes of risk associated with EPC projects executed in three Russian sectors: (1) industrial; (2) housing and communal services; and (3) public. Several interviews with the Russian EPC experts were accomplished and a qualitative risk assessment by using an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach. The data were obtained from a web-based questionnaire survey conducted among Russian EPC project executors. For each focus sector, a specific preference-based ranking of the identified risk factors and causes of risk was derived. The AHP results show that causes of risk related to the financial and regulatory aspects contribute most to the riskiness of EPC projects performed in all three focus sectors in Russia, calling for the special attention of EPC policy- and business-makers. Due to sectorial particularities and different actors involved, we conclude that there is a need for elaboration of sector-specific contractual schemes for EPC projects. - Highlights: • AHP- and survey-based study of energy performance contracting (EPC) projects in Russia. • Main risk factors and causes of risk associated with EPC projects are investigated. • In practice, lack of a feasible risk management approach in EPC projects. • Regulatory and financial risks contribute most to the EPC projects’ riskiness. • Elaboration of the sector-specific EPC project contractual scheme is required.

  9. Russia's Eastern Energy Policy: A Chinese Puzzle for Rosneft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poussenkova, Nina

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade Russia set a strategic goal: to develop the Eastern vector of its energy policy and strengthen oil and gas cooperation with the Asia-Pacific countries. While dialogue on gas with China was stalled, Rosneft, the country's number-one oil company, made a breakthrough in petroleum relations. Rosneft received credits from Chinese banks against guaranteed supplies of oil; lobbied for the construction of a spur to China from the Eastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean pipeline system; dramatically increased oil exports to China; let CNPC and Sinopec enter the Russian upstream; cooperated with them abroad; sold some of its shares to CNPC, and consolidated its position in China's downstream. The state company is fulfilling the government's strategic plans on the diversification of markets for hydrocarbons and the development of the East of the country, while simultaneously influencing state energy policy. Rosneft has its own long-term plans to become an international energy corporation and it is pursuing the internationalization of its business, including in the Asia-Pacific markets. Yet thanks to China, Rosneft is also supporting its short-term corporate interests: the first two loans were used to pay for the acquisition of Yukos, and now it plans to attract the Chinese money to buy TNK-BP. Therefore, the key question remains: Do its corporate interests correspond to the long-term goals of Russia, in so far as they place the country in a position of dependence on China? (author)

  10. The condition and prospects of nuclear industry development in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricenko, A. M.

    2006-01-01

    In this presentation author analyses perspectives of nuclear industry development in Russian Federation. State of NPPs in Russia on 2005 year is presented. NPP output, NPP capacity factor as well as NPP operation events in Russia in the period of 1992-2010 are analysed. The energy strategy of Russia and scenario for electricity production development as well as main challenges of 'Rosenergoatom' including life extension of NPP power units in Russian Federation are discussed

  11. Estimation of solar energy resources for low salinity water desalination in several regions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, A. B.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Shakun, V. P.; Gabderakhmanova, T. S.

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimation of demanded photovoltaic (PV) array areas and capital expenses to feed a reverse osmosis desalination unit (1 m3/day fresh water production rate). The investigation have been made for different climatic conditions of Russia using regional data on ground water salinity from different sources and empirical dependence of specific energy consumption on salinity and temperature. The most optimal results were obtained for Krasnodar, Volgograd, Crimea Republic and some other southern regions. Combination of salinity, temperature and solar radiation level there makes reverse osmosis coupled with photovoltaics very attractive to solve infrastructure problems in rural areas. Estimation results are represented as maps showing PV array areas and capital expenses for selected regions.

  12. Status of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Government to Government Program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olascoaga, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The US-Russian Government-to-Government Program of Cooperation on Nuclear Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) evolved from the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. In 1995, the US Department of Energy (DOE) assumed responsibility as the executive agent for implementation of the Government-to-Government MPC ampersand A Program, followed by the programmatic responsibility for funding. The Russian Program initially emphasized limited exchanges, demonstrations, and upgrades at low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel fabrication facility at Elektrostal in 1994. The program has expanded to include upgrades at nuclear facilities across Russia, development of the Russian Methodological Training Center (RMTC) in Obninsk; and cooperation with Gosatomnadzor, the Russian Federal Nuclear Radiation and Safety Authority. This paper describes the overall program including program objectives, approach, and US-Russian participation, with an emphasis on DOE-GAN cooperation

  13. Nuclear industry and production of energy: arguments for a discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the advantages of nuclear energy (nuclear energy increases the energy autonomy of France, provides cheap energy, does not generate greenhouse effect gases and concerns an exporting high-tech industry that generates qualified jobs and added-value to French industry) and highlights its ability to fill the gap before renewable energies are efficient and reliable to produce large amounts of electric power and to face the present and future challenges like the progressive running dry of fossil energy sources or the compliance with the Kyoto agreement. The 2 controversial issues: the consequences of a terrorist attack on a nuclear facility and what to do with radioactive wastes are for the first one exaggerated in public opinion (some figures and facts concerning the resistance of the concrete containment that encloses a PWR type reactor are given in this article) and for the second the disposal in deep underground storage sites appears to be a solution. (A.C.)

  14. Comparative efficiency of technologies for conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's eastern regions to NEA countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, Aleksandr; Tyurina, Elina; Mednikov, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents perspective technologies for combined conversion of fossil fuels into synthetic liquid fuels and electricity. The comparative efficiency of various process flows of conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's east that are aimed at supplying electricity to remote consumers is presented. These also include process flows based on production of synthetic liquid fuel.

  15. Utilization of tidal power in Russia in overcoming the global energy and ecological crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernshtein, L.B.; Usachev, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The 30 years of the exploitation of the TPP Rance in France and Kyslogubskaya TPP in Russia had proved the energy expedience economical and ecological effectiveness and a high performance of the tidal energy. The possibility of such utilizing could be proved thanks to the application of the theoretical cycles of Gibrat, of the bulb units and the russian model of the tidal utilizing and application of the floating methods of creating the TPP. The investigations at TPP Kislaya Guba helped to solve the row of problems of marine power building with the high exploitation performance and ecological safety. Thus the TPP of Mezen with a capacity of 17 million kW can transfer to the united power system of Europe 50 TWh/year and the Tugur TPP with a capacity 8 million kW can produce 20 TWh/year of energy for the power system of seaside of Russian and Japan. Penzinskaya TPP with the capacity of 87 million kW can be promoted in 21. century in connection to the advanced in USA proposition of construction of the combining transport-power tunnel across the Bering Strait. (authors)

  16. He who has the pipeline calls the tune? Russia's energy power against the background of the shale “revolutions”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropatcheva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Russian energy policy is usually considered in the regional context – in terms of its energy power capability and strength vis-à-vis the EU and the post-Soviet states. This study shows that in order to understand Russia's energy power, even in the regional context of its relations with the EU, it is necessary to consider the impact of international changes in the energy sector. The oil and gas shale “revolutions” represent such a global factor of influence. Even if their consequences are not yet clear, they have already become an important challenge for Russian energy policy and power. This policy-oriented article, guided by neoclassical realism, analyzes what the shale “revolutions” mean for Russia's energy policy and its power capabilities vis-à-vis the EU, how the Russian political elite perceive this development and how Russia reacts to it. In this context, Russian power capabilities look more moderate. - Highlights: • The shale “revolutions” have become a challenge for Russian energy policy and power. • Russia's ability to exert influence over the EU is declining. • Russia's self-confidence, based on the old perception of power, made it blind to long-term developments. • Russia will be inclined to cooperate more with different energy actors. • Russia's foreign policy may become less assertive

  17. Promoting Safe, Secure, and Peaceful Growth of Nuclear Energy: Next Steps for Russia and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bunn, Matthew G.; Vyacheslav P. Kuznetzov

    2010-01-01

    Russia, the United States and other countries must cooperate to enable large-scale growth of nuclear energy around the world while achieving even higher standards of safety, security, and nonproliferation than are in place today. This will require building a new global framework for nuclear energy, including new or strengthened global institutions. The Belfer Center's Managing the Atom (MTA) Project and the Russian Research Center's Kurchatov Institute developed these and additional recommend...

  18. Toward an energy security strategy for Canada : a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Energy security strategies for Canada were presented in this paper. Article 6.05 of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) prohibits Canada from reducing the proportion of energy exported to the United States or Mexico. Between 1982 and 2002, natural gas consumption in Canada rose by 96 per cent while exports increased by 396 per cent. Crude oil consumption increased by 29 per cent, while exports rose by 595 per cent. Government practices have tended towards extracting and exporting resources as quickly as possible with no consideration to resource availability for future generations. In addition, much of the value of Canadian resources has been given to private corporations. The environment has been damaged in order to enable faster extraction, and First Nations, employees, and communities have been placed at the mercy of corporations and international markets. Canada's unique cultural and societal arrangements have not been protected. Four principles to address these concerns were presented: (1) managing non-renewable resources as responsible stewards and conserving their economic availability for future generations; (2) ensuring that the benefits from fossil fuels are invested in other forms of capital that will ensure the future prosperity and energy security of Canada; (3) ensuring that the extraction and use of resources has minimal impacts on the planet and (4) a re-direction of the proceeds from resource exploitation towards education, social and health services, land claims and land use settlements, and the elimination of poverty among First Nations people. It was suggested that energy-related jobs and workers should be protected through the development of an industrial strategy which includes investment in renewable energy development and re-training programs for workers. Consistent depoliticized policies are needed to reduce the impact on low-income Canadians of free-market price swings and the unavoidable costs of environmental protection. It was

  19. Evaluating Fenestration Products for Zero-Energy Buildings: Issuesfor Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arasteh, Dariush; Curcija, Charlie; Huang, Joe; Huizenga,Charlie; Kohler, Christian

    2006-07-25

    Computer modeling to determine fenestration product energy properties (U-factor, SHGC, VT) has emerged as the most cost-effective and accurate means to quantify them. Fenestration product simulation tools have been effective in increasing the use of low-e coatings and gas fills in insulating glass and in the widespread use of insulating frame designs and materials. However, for more efficient fenestration products (low heat loss products, dynamic products, products with non-specular optical characteristics, light re-directing products) to achieve widespread use, fenestration modeling software needs to be improved. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Are the current properties (U, SHGC, VT) calculated sufficient to compare and distinguish between windows suitable for Zero Energy Buildings and conventional window products? If not, what data on the thermal and optical performance, on comfort, and on peak demand of windows is needed. (2) Are the algorithms in the tools sufficient to model the thermal and optical processes? Are specific heat transfer and optical effects not accounted for? Is the existing level of accuracy enough to distinguish between products designed for Zero Energy Buildings? Is the current input data adequate?

  20. Development of renewable energy in China: Studying the experience and making recommendations for Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanshina, T. A.; Kulakov, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    The article reviews a state policy of China, due to which the country has managed to develop the world's largest sector of renewable energy sources (RES). Basic aspects of the formation and development of a comprehensive system of state support for the sector, i.e., the creation of scientific and technological advancement, stimulation of renewable energy equipment manufacturing, and support for RES electricity generation, are studied. Key programs implemented in specific stages are analyzed. Considerable attention is paid to the role and characteristics of foreign technology transfers. The dynamics of China's RES sector and the results of its rapid growth with the active participation of the state are researched. On the basis of the analysis, it is concluded that, in general, China's experience in development of RES is successful. Using the example of China, it is safe to say that, in the presence of a balanced state policy, a country is able to create in a decade a strong renewable energy equipment industry and to become a leader in the area of RES electricity generation. Specific features and main problems of the Russian RES sector are considered. On the basis of China's experience, recommendations for improving the state policy in RES are made for Russia. According to the authors, first of all, a sharp increase in state support for scientific research and development (R&D), pilot and demonstration projects, recognition of RES as a part of the fuel and energy sector at all tiers of authority, guarantees of state support for RES in the long run, ensuring access to long-term funds, and the creation of state programs supporting households participation in the distributed power generation are needed.

  1. The Influence of Climate Change Considerations on Energy Policy. The Case of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2003-10-01

    To those working on climate change it is obvious that energy policy should be influenced by climate change considerations. The question that this paper seeks to answer is, to what extent do they influence policy and what contribution can a careful analysis of the costs and benefits of climate change options have on the formulation of that policy. We seek to understand this by looking in some detail at energy policy formulation in Russia. To do so it is necessary to look at the whole set of issues that determine energy policy. These include energy security, macroeconomic and uncertainty factors, local environmental issues and social issues. The analysis has been carried out for a specific case - that of the RF, where energy policy is currently under formulation to 2010. Two options have been looked at: a 'High Coal' option, where there would be a substantial change in fuel mix away from gas to coal; and a 'High Gas' option where the current fuel mix is retained and the increase in demand is met from all sources in proportion to current use. The analysis shows that, at international prices for fuels, the 'High Coal' option is attractive. However, when we include the potential decline of price for natural gas in the European market, the relative preference for this option drops dramatically but it still remains the preferred option. When, account is also taken of the carbon benefits of the High Gas option, using plausible values for carbon, the attraction of the High Coal option is further reduced but not altered. When finally account is taken of the health associated with the lower use of coal in the High Gas option, the preference can be reversed but it requires a critical value for the health benefits. This critical value - at around USD 3,000 for a life year lost - is plausible for the RF, if anything the actual value is probably higher. What the analysis shows is the need for a careful evaluation of the different factors determining energy policy. Among these is

  2. The Outlook of China-Russia Energy Cooperation in The Light of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping initially proposed the building of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt. Against this background, the involved countries will achieve joint development and co-prosperity by carrying out all-round regional cooperation. As close neighbors, both China and Russia have very important political and economic positions in the world; meanwhile, energy cooperation is one of most significant and influential fields in the China-Russia relationship. This paper tries to analyze some concrete issues in the process of the China-Russia energy cooperation, illustrate the outlook of the cooperation between the two countries in terms of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and finally raise policy references to deepen the China-Russia energy cooperation in the future.

  3. Why have China and Russia become Uzbekistan’s biggest energy partners? Exploring the role of exogenous and endogenous factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oybek Madiyev

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, there was an expectation that Uzbekistan, along with other countries in Central Asia, would gradually move towards the West by distancing itself from the sphere of Russian influence. However, in spite of the West’s significant investment in the region’s economies and attempts to enter the local markets through both bilateral and multilateral channels, this shift never materialised. In fact, since the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR, Uzbekistan’s trade cooperation with Russia has remained robust, and only in 2014 did China overtook Russia as Uzbekistan’s biggest trading partner. This article aims to understand why Russia and China have become Uzbekistan’s biggest economic partners, especially in the energy sector. To understand this, I believe that it is important to analyse the nature of both domestic and international factors and their interaction. First of all, there are international factors: globalisation, the rise of China and an increase in global demand for natural resources; the role of the China-initiated the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation and the Silk Road Economic Belt; and Russia’s attempt to reclaim its “great power” status since 2000 and Putin’s attempt to build and expand the Eurasian Economic Union. Second, there are domestic factors: understanding Russia’s and China’s foreign trade policy linked not only with economic growth but also with the structure of foreign economic policy decision-making, or “power vertical,” among other domestic elements. This article will draw on Critical International Political Economy (CIPE to argue that this tradition is well equipped and offers an important framework to understand foreign economic policy of powers such as Russia and China. The CIPE does not simply combine the domestic and international factors but also insists on their indivisibility and engages with cultural, ideological and social elements in their historical

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy production in Russia: Current status and possible scenarios for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the framework Convention on Climate Change that was signed and ratified by Russian Federation, periodical reports about the actions of Russia are published. An inventory of human origin sources of greenhouse gas was prepared. Carbondioxide represented 72% of total greenhouse das emissions. Policy and action plans for limiting of greenhouse gas emissions are developing

  5. ICSC – Policy for energy saving and increase of efficiency in Russia in the spheres of construction, housing and community amenities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyarinov Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s GDP energy intensity today is approximately 2.5–3.5 times higher than that of economically developed countries. To increase its economic competitive ability, Russia needs to achieve energy efficiency in different spheres, including construction, housing and community amenities. Close examination of implemented management measures and world experience revealed that in order to achieve a further energy efficiency increase Russia needs to boost economic interest of the participants concerned and to form effective mechanisms of economic management, and this should be done along with improvement of administrative governance. The paper focuses on the barriers that hamper economic motivation and provides recommendations for energy efficiency increase. Even partial implementation of suggested measures, in our opinion, will increase energy efficiency in the spheres of construction and housing accommodation, which is illustrated through the example of a residential building located in Yekaterinburg (Russia, Middle Urals.

  6. Joint implementation in energy between the EU and Russia Out look and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroui, F.; Tellegen, E.; Tourilova, K.

    2004-01-01

    At the seventh Conference of Parties in Marrakech (COP 7) a consensus was reached on the rules, the modalities and the guidelines of the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. In this paper we assess the outlook and potential of one of the flexibility mechanisms, viz. joint implementation (JI) between the European Union and Russia. We show that both parties have all the incentives to start working on JI and we assess the biggest obstacle for implementing JI

  7. Energy institutional and organisational changes in EU and Russia: Revisiting gas relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    This article tries to shed light on why gas relations between the EU and Russia, which were previously stable, have deteriorated since the introduction of institutional changes in the two regions. After identifying the areas of divergence in the context of European gas market liberalization, we then attempt to examine them in the context of the differing approaches to structuring this sector. The model of vertically unbundled network industries promoted by the EU is no longer the one that Russia intends to implement in its gas sector, despite the big changes taking place in its domestic market. All this is happening in a context where the economic stakes are very high. For the EU and its gas companies, access to Russia’s hydrocarbon resources is a key question. For Gazprom, the question is whether or not it can define strategies that are flexible enough to adapt to the changing conditions in the European gas market. - Highlights: ► In this study, we analyse the evolution of EU–Russia gas relation since the 1990s. ► The problems of defining new gas relations between the EU and Russia stem from a clash of values. ► The problem: Russia’s rejection of the EU’s power to enact rules for the gas industries and markets. ► For the EU and its gas companies, access to Russia’s hydrocarbon resources is a key question. ► For Gazprom, the question is whether it can define flexible strategies on the European gas market

  8. Background discussion document on energy in New Brunswick, 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    Outline of the role of governments and the private sector in energy development and detailed discussion of energy supply and demand, including indigenous and imported energy supplies and projections of electrical energy demand to 2000. Energy efficiency and conservation is presented as a cornerstone and major initiative to help meet the expected energy needs of the future. A number of major projects being considered in the electrical energy development area are outlined for the 1990s. Details are given on environmental effects and the need for sustainable development. The report concludes with a discussion of transportion and the need for R D. This document is the initial step in the development of a provincial energy policy and is intended to serve as a background discussion paper for the public consultation process.

  9. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdillon, Y.

    2005-01-01

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  10. Mercantilist Development in Russia: The Legitimacy of State Power, State Identity, and the Energy Charter Regime (1990--2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruynooghe, Daniel; Wynn, Henry P.

    This dissertation investigates the creation, adaptation, and demise of international regimes. Specifically, I ask why international regimes sometimes fail to fulfill their original purpose. Empirically, I examine the evolution and eventual failure of the Energy Charter (ECH), a multilateral regime that governs the Eurasian energy economy. Modeled after the European Steel and Coal Community, the original goal of the regime was to capitalize on economic complementarities in energy to integrate Gorbachev's reforming USSR (later Russia) with Europe and promote pan-European cooperation and peace. By 2010, integration had failed, and the regime itself had become a source of conflict. To understand this outcome, I focus on the foreign energy policy of Russia, a central state within the ECH, which actively participated in designing the regime in the 1990s but two decades later decided that it was no longer in its interest. Using data collected from interviews and archival searches during field research in Russia, Brussels, and Paris, I find that under President Yeltsin, low domestic sovereignty meant the state could not integrate key domestic players into ECH policy-making. This led Russia to conclude a bargain that it could not implement domestically. Under President Putin, high domestic sovereignty meant the state had sufficient capacity to corral these recalcitrant actors. However, the new policy that emerged compelled Russia to attempt to modify the ECH in ways that violated previously accepted norms, thereby alienating its European partners and undermining the regime. This study supports Hegemonic Stability theory which suggests that we can expect regime failure after major shifts in the distribution of power produce changes in the interests and policies of key states. I extend this finding by showing that Russian state power increased due to changes in elite conceptions about the legitimacy of state power. I demonstrate this by using over time comparisons between

  11. Energetic dialog EU and Russia slows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    European Union maintains an individual dialog with Russia about cooperation in energy sphere since joint summit in Paris in October 2000. Both sides agreed there to create four export groups: for energy strategy, investments, infrastructure and technologies, efficiency and ecology. European Union expects that Russia will unequivocally take over the obligations by creation of suitable climate for investors. European Union considers as key preconditions the restructuring of the largest national monopoles. These conditions are also the important component of asking strategy of EU by the discussions about integration of Russia to WTO. One of the most important requests of Brussels is the restructuring of Gazprom concern, what means its division to mining and transport part. Russian part refuses all steps in this sphere. Author analyses the strategic interests of Russian government and of president Putin by planning and mining of oil and gas as like as by investments to the pipelines and gas lines. International Energetic Agency (IEA) assumes that the investments to oil and gas mining in Russia will be around 330 million USD till 2030. The similar situation is also in oil sector. More than half of huge oil deposits with the highest output are already mined. The oil mining in Russia reached 421 million tons in 2003. According to pessimistic estimations the gas mining will reach from 550 to 560 billion m 3 in the following decades, according to optimistic scenario it can reach up to 730 billion m 3 per year. In this case the netto export of oil from Russia could rise from present around 175 billion m 3 to 280 billion m 3 in 2030. IEA warns that these plans should be fulfilled only if massive foreign investments enter this sector. IEA also warns before concerns of investors about Russian legislation, property protection, cooperative regulation and transparentness of undertaking. Proposed pipelines among Russia, Near East, Africa and European Union are shown

  12. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1997-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  13. Nuclear Energy in Western Europe: At the End of its Business Cycle? A review of policies in selected West European countries and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangen, Kristian

    1998-12-31

    A series of seminars were held in Norway in 1995-97 focusing on nuclear energy policies, mainly in Europe. The key questions were: (1) What are the major driving forces behind the development of the nuclear industry?, and (2) Are we seeing the end of the nuclear energy era, or will we actually discover that the nuclear energy is moving towards its second blossom? This report summarizes the discussions at the seminars and discusses the above questions. The nature of the driving forces depends on the country in question. In France and Russia the nuclear sectors are large and prestigious and the course is difficult to change. In Germany and Sweden, political parties have adopted an anti-nuclear attitude and the issue is controversial, involving arguments both pro and con. The British nuclear sector has come to the end of the road. The main driving force has been the deregulation of the electricity market. In all countries, climate issues, independence from energy import, prestige and low costs have been arguments against close-downs. Massive expansion of nuclear power in Europe is unlikely. However, new plants might appear in Finland, Turkey or France. It is likely that technological development of the nuclear power sector, if any, will come in Asia. It is unclear whether this sector will benefit from climate issues. Renewable energy could become an important competitor if enough electricity could be produced. A state has been reached in which nuclear energy is both difficult to expand and to phase out. The nuclear energy issues are unlikely to affect the European gas market significantly. 53 refs., 10 refs., 13 tabs.

  14. Estimated and forecasted trends in domain specific time-use and energy expenditure among adults in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Popkin, Barry M; Ng, Shu Wen

    2014-01-30

    Examination of historical trends and projections in estimated energy expenditure in Russia is important given the country's economic downturns and growth. Nationally representative data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) from 1995-2011 was used to determine the metabolic equivalents of task (MET)-hours per week from occupational, domestic, travel, and active leisure physical activity (PA) domains, as well as sedentary leisure time (hours per week) among adults 18-60 years. Additionally, we projected what these values would be like in 2020 and 2030 if observed trends continue. Among male adults, the largest contributor to total PA was occupational PA followed by travel PA. In contrast, domestic PA followed by occupational PA contributed most to total PA among female adults. Total PA was 282.9 MET-hours per week in 1995 and declined to 231.7 in 2011. Total PA is projected to decrease to 216.5 MET-hours per week in 2020 and to 193.0 MET-hours per week in 2030. The greatest relative declines are occurring in travel PA. Female adults are also exhibiting significant declines in domestic PA. Changes in occupational and active leisure PA are less distinct. Policies and initiatives are needed to counteract the long-term decline of overall physical activity linked with a modernizing lifestyle and economy among Russian adults.

  15. Rosneft, Gazprom and the Government: the Decision-Making Triangle on Russia's Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baev, Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Russia finds itself exposed to many risks in the fast-moving global revolution in energy affairs, and cannot avail of its opportunities despite its unique combination of natural resources and experience in their exploitation. It has entered the phase of economic stagnation, and the under-performance of the energy sector is one of the key determinants of the durability of this trend. Energy export can no longer be wielded as a heavy-impact instrument of foreign policy, and the squabbles for shrinking oil and gas revenues form a key driver of the evolving crisis of the petro-authoritarian regime built by President Vladimir Putin. Escalating problems in the Russian energy sector are caused by the system of decision-making on oil and gas matters, in which Putin acts as a supreme arbiter in the flexible triangle formed by the government and two super-large state companies-Gazprom and Rosneft. It is the imperative of checking the decline of budget revenues that determines the priority in government policy of greater confiscation of profits and heavier taxation of the energy business. This squeeze on the interests of energy 'oligarchs' provokes them to appeal to Putin for tax breaks, which he is increasingly reluctant to grant, given the need to pursue an active social policy. The constant flow of insoluble issues makes Putin irritable and generally less engaged with the energy business than he used to be. Gazprom's notorious inefficiency in its core business emboldens competitors to capture greater shares of the domestic market and to demand exemptions from its export monopoly. Putin is loath to carry this political liability but remains reluctant to contemplate reforms that would amount to un-bundling of this conglomerate. Rosneft under the control of Igor Sechin has become the champion of the Russian oil industry, executing a series of acquisitions and signing a series of deals with Western 'majors'. Putin's benevolence is the key to the

  16. Egypt--United States cooperative energy assessment: report on preliminary discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Egyptian and U.S. Government representatives met in Cairo during the period of February 14-22, 1978 to discuss a cooperative Egypt-U.S. assessment of the energy demand and supply options available to Egypt. This report summarizes those preliminary discussions. The discussions accomplished the following: the background and objectives of the U.S. initiative for a cooperative energy assessment with Egypt were explained; Egyptian electric energy activities and their priorities were presented; methods under consideration for the systematic identification and assessment of energy options available to Egypt were explained; the cooperation of Egyptian energy resource and planning organizations was assured; and arrangements to carry out the cooperative assessment were planned.

  17. Energy and the environment. Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore. Buildings and plants. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The Danish Ministry for Foreign Affairs has employed ten experts to help Danish exporters to penetrate the foreign markets. The experts working in the field identify sales potentials, stimulate prospective customers' interest in Danish products and services, and establish contacts to Danish suppliers, in this case within the field of energy and the environment. They work in close cooperation with the commercial/business/industrial sector and organizations and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The publication comprises the experts' descriptions of market conditions and potentials in Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Germany, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom (in this latter case within the field of buildings). On this basis it is expected that Danish exporters will be able to evaluate possibilities for selling their products and services on these markets. (AB)

  18. Energy and society in 2050. The Netherlands in different worlds. Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordhoek, J.

    2000-01-01

    This publication is intended to stimulate ideas and discussion about the Netherlands energy supply in the long term. The text is in two parts: (1) the central section: Energy and society in 2050: the Netherlands in Different Worlds; and (2) the factual background in Annexes 1 and 2

  19. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  20. Discussion on the hard or soft way in future energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelis, H

    1981-06-01

    The soft ideology of energy supply is discussed in a condensed form in this volume presented to Hans K. Schneider on the occasion of his 60th birthday. After having assessed all arguments, the author comes to the conclusion that problems involved in future energy supply may be solved in a better way by a well-functioning market economy than by means of dirigistic measures required for realizing the soft path of energy supply.

  1. North American energy relationships : clean energy and climate action : a North American collaboration : draft paper for discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D.

    2009-12-01

    This paper discussed energy and climate policies and programs aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in North America. The aim of the study was to determine how energy production and use will impact policy responses to climate change and the development of clean energy technologies. Energy sectors in Canada, the United States and Mexico were outlined, and the relationships between the different countries and their energy systems were discussed. Energy policy drivers and infrastructure in each of the 3 countries were also discussed. The influence of energy security on energy trading, clean energy technology, and climate change policy was also investigated in order to identify barriers to future cooperation between the countries. Emerging areas of cooperation were outlined. Potential climate policy scenarios were reviewed, and the implications of a more highly integrated North American energy and climate policy were discussed. The study indicated that increased linkages between the Canadian and United States systems are likely in the future. 62 refs., 11 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. The need and necessity of an EU-wide renewable energy target for 2030. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, R.; Winkel, T.; Klessmann, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    In 2020, some leading EU energy and climate policies will expire. At present, the EU and its Member States are discussing the design of a post-2020 policy portfolio. In a discussion paper commissioned by the European Copper Institute, Ecofys shows that an EU-wide renewable energy target is a necessary part of a 2030 portfolio. The paper analyses, in detail, two realistic policy portfolio options for renewable energy, target-setting in particular: one 'decarbonisation-only' EU target with voluntary national targets for renewable energy, and one that includes an EU-wide renewable energy target, broken down into binding national targets. The analysis shows that the latter option, when supported by appropriate and improved EU and Member States' policies and measures, is most suitable in facilitating a European low-carbon economy.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy's 'initiatives for proliferation prevention' program: solidification technologies for radioactive waste treatment in Russia - 16037

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, Yuri; Kelley, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of liquid radioactive waste have existed in the U.S. and Russia since the 1950's as a result of the Cold War. Comprehensive action to treat and dispose of waste products has been lacking due to insufficient funding, ineffective technologies or no proven technologies, low priority by governments among others. Today the U.S. and Russian governments seek new, more reliable methods to treat liquid waste, in particular the legacy waste streams. A primary objective of waste generators and regulators is to find economical and proven technologies that can provide long-term stability for repository storage. In 2001, the V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute (Khlopin), St. Petersburg, Russia, and Pacific Nuclear Solutions (PNS), Indianapolis, Indiana, began extensive research and test programs to determine the validity of polymer technology for the absorption and immobilization of standard and complex waste streams. Over 60 liquid compositions have been tested including extensive irradiation tests to verify polymer stability and possible degradation. With conclusive scientific evidence of the polymer's effectiveness in treating liquid waste, both parties have decided to enter the Russian market and offer the solidification technology to nuclear sites for waste treatment and disposal. In conjunction with these efforts, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will join Khlopin and PNS to explore opportunities for direct application of the polymers at predetermined sites and to conduct research for new product development. Under DOE's 'Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention' (IPP) program, funding will be provided to the Russian participants over a three year period to implement the program plan. This paper will present updated details of U.S. DOE's IPP program, the project structure and its objectives both short and long-term, polymer tests and applications for LLW, ILW and HLW, and new product development initiatives. (authors)

  4. China-Russia relations in Central Asia. Energy policy, Beijing's new assertiveness and 21{sup st} century geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, Thomas Stephan [Wien Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Ostasienwissenschaften

    2014-07-01

    Publication in the field of social sciences. As China rises to global power status, its relations with other major powers, including Russia, are constantly renegotiated. Energy figures prominently in both countries' foreign policy. An extensive analysis of Chinese language sources - academic debate 1997-2012 - confirms a collision of interests over Central Asian reserves. While unanimous appeals to compromise render previous predictions of impending confrontation unconvincing, descriptions of Sino-Central Asian energy relations as ''central to energy security'', and the explicit rejection of a Russian ''sphere of influence'', also exclude a retreat. In the long term, China will likely replace Russia as the dominant force in Central Asia's energy sector, causing the Kremlin to perceive another ''encroachment''. The current notion of a ''strategic partnership'' will inevitably be challenged.

  5. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezroukikh, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  6. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  7. The role of wind energy in the programme of power supply of northern Russia territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezroukikh, P. [Ministry for Fuel and Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In this article examined technical, management and economic problems has been arising during working out of above mentioned Power Supply Programm based on the renewable energy sources usage and proved the leading role of wind energy in this Programm. (author)

  8. Similar goals, divergent motives. The enabling and constraining factors of Russia's capacity-based renewable energy support scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeets, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In 2009, the Russian government set its first quantitative renewable energy target at 4.5% of the total electricity produced and consumed by 2020. In 2013, the Government launched its capacity-based renewable energy support scheme (CRESS), however, the expects it will merely add 0.3% to the current 0.67% share of renewables (Ministry of Energy, 2016c). This raises the question what factors might explain this implementation gap. On the basis of field research in Moscow, the article offers an in-depth policy analysis of resource-geographic, financial, institutional and ecologic enabling and constraining factors of Russia's CRESS between 2009 and 2015. To avoid the trap that policy intentions remain on paper, the entire policy cycle – from goal setting to implementation – has been covered. The article concludes that wind energy, which would have contributed the lion's share of new renewable energy capacity, lags behind, jeopardizing the quantitative renewable energy target. The depreciation of the rouble decreased return on investment, and the Local Content Requirement discouraged investors given the lack of Russian wind production facilities. Contrary to resource-geographic and financial expectations, solar projects have been commissioned more accurately, benefitting from access to major business groups and existing production facilities. - Highlights: • The support scheme is focused on the oversupplied integrated electricity market. • The scheme disregards the technical and economic potential in isolated areas. • The solar industry develops at the fastest rate, wind and small hydro lag behind. • Access to business groups and production facilities condition implementation. • The devaluation of the rouble necessitated a revision of the policy design.

  9. A shift in the paradigm of energy cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asia countries facing new global and regional challenges: from predominant sale of energy resources to innovation and technology cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saneev, Boris; Sokolov, Alexander; Lagerev, Anatoly; Popov, Sergei; Ivanova, Irina; Izbuldin, Alexander; Korneyev, Anatoly; Muzychuk, Svetlana; Sokolov, Dmitry

    2018-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the specific features of Russia's economic development in a new economic environment that caused the need to revise the priorities of energy policy. The research presents the initial conditions, targets and strategic directions of energy development in the East of the country. The focus is made on the priority lines of innovation and technology cooperation between Russia and Northeast Asian countries in the field of energy, and recommendations on necessary conditions and initiatives for their successful implementation are given.

  10. The discussion about classical and Real education in Russia: the debate on D. Tolstoy`s «Educational reform» in State Council (1871-1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Всеволод Евгеньевич Воронин

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the important event in the Russian political history of the Great reforms epoch. It's the discussion about the role of classical and real education led in Governmental circles in the beginning of 1870s. Special attention is paid to the consideration of reform projects of gymnasium education occurred in State Council, the highest legislative institution of Empire, and to the positions elaboration of supporters and opponents of Public Education Minister D. Tolstoy.

  11. Russia and Global Climate Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynkkynen, Nina

    2014-09-01

    Russia, as the fourth largest greenhouse-gas emitter in the world, and a major supplier of fossil fuels causing these emissions, played a decisive role in the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol, the main instrument of global climate policy so far. Domestically, serious political measures to combat climate change have yet to be taken. Thus, Russia's performance in global climate politics indicates that goals other than genuinely environmental ones, such as political or economic benefits, are the main motivation of Russia's participation. Also, Russia's national pride and its status as a great power are at stake here. This paper scrutinizes Russia's stance in global climate politics, offering an overview of Russia's engagement in international climate politics and its domestic climate policy. In the second part of the paper, Russia's engagement in global environmental politics is discussed in the context of Russia's world status and the great-power concept. Accordingly, the paper aims to shed light on how and why Russia behaves in global climate politics in the way it does. This may be of interest to actors in international environmental politics in general, and relevant to future climate negotiations in particular. (author)

  12. SOME LEGAL ASPECTS OF ENERGY SECURITY IN THE RELATIONS BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia Maican

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for a sustainable, secure and competitive energy supply has long been recognized within the Community, and has been addressed on numerous occasions, notably in the Green Papers elaborated by the Commission in 2000 and 2006. Recent supply crises and rapidly escalating fuel prices have focused the minds of leaders across the European Union, as well as those of businesses and individual energy consumers. Energy policy transcends a range of different policy areas, including competition, transport, environment and energy itself. Decisions relating to energy policy in Europe are primarily within the remit of individual Member State governments, with the European Commission’s powers limited to two specific areas (creation of the European single market and matters relating to nuclear safety and security under the EURATOM Treaty. The extent of the transfer of powers towards Europe is clearly a critical decision point and in practice a sensitive balance is likely to be required between those matters for which the Commission should have responsibility and those where Member State governments retain sole authority. European officials are putting into evidence their belief that Europe’s energy predicament is acute and mention energy security as a priority issue for the Common Foreign and Security Policy. Policy commitments say that energy strategy must move beyond the internal sphere and become systematically a part of EU external relations. The Commission’s 2006 Energy Green Paper promised “a better integration of energy objectives into broader relations with third countries”.

  13. Record of the Japan - U.S. Energy Discussions / Maui Meeting. March 25-27, 1996; Nichibei energy kyogi Maui kaigi. 1996 nen 3 gatsu 25 nichi - 27 nichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-25

    The paper summarized the status of the Japan-U.S. Energy Discussions held in the Maui Island during March 25-27, 1996. With relation to the energy supply, reported and discussed were the present situation in the Middle East, Russia, Ukraine, and the former U.S.S.R. and effects of the political situation on the world. The paper also described effects of the intergovernmental resolutions on climate change on the energy issue. In addition to comprehensive prospects in the energy field, reported and discussed were issues related to coal, electric power, nuclear power, petroleum, gas and renewable energy. The following were generally commented on: There are uncertainties and unclearability in the future energy field in terms of politics, technology and environment, and in order to quickly respond these, dialogue of a global scale is necessary. In the energy industry, it is important to pursue effectiveness by the price mechanism, the market, and governmental policies. The international cooperation is much more needed, and the Japan-U.S. cooperation is desirable especially in the fields of stabilization of international politics, promotion of technical innovation, assistance for environmental orientation in developing countries, proposal of politics, etc.

  14. How to be smart and energy efficient: A general discussion on thermochromic windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A window is a unique element in a building because of its simultaneous properties of being “opaque” to inclement weather yet transparent to the observer. However, these unique features make the window an element that can reduce the energy efficiency of buildings. A thermochromic window is a type of smart window whose solar radiation properties vary with temperature. It is thought that the solar radiation gain of a room can be intelligently regulated through the use of thermochromic windows, resulting in lower energy consumption than with standard windows. Materials scientists have made many efforts to improve the performance of thermochromic materials. Despite these efforts, fundamental problems continue to confront us. How should a “smart” window behave? Is a “smart” window really the best candidate for energy-efficient applications? What is the relationship between smartness and energy performance? To answer these questions, a general discussion of smartness and energy performance is provided. PMID:25233891

  15. Water supply of the population as a problem of energy efficiency on the example of the Tyumen region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezier, Victoria; Gusarova, Miroslava; Kopytova, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to draw public attention to the problems of water supply in the city of Tyumen, the capital of the oil region and one of the most important objects in Russia from the point of view of strategic water supply, located in the region with vast freshwater resources. The article outlines main water supply problems related to the quality of drinking water, its chemical composition, and risks of water contamination by industrial effluents, problems of water transport to the consumers, problems of energy efficiency. The issues raised are part of the energy efficiency not only of the Tyumen region, but also of the Sverdlovsk region, from which the waters of the drinking basin are transited, being a sewage channel for many industrial enterprises. The article touches the issues of water protection, conservation and quality of water coming from the Velizhansky water intake, as well as the possibilities of using alternative sources of drinking water. The article analyzes legal measures, and proposals for improving work with increasing the quality of drinking water, combating melt water and pollution with oil.

  16. Validating Intelligent Power and Energy Systems { A Discussion of Educational Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsampopoulos, P.; Hatziargyriou, N.; Strasser, T. I.

    2017-01-01

    /future researchers and engineers is becoming more and more necessary. This paper identifies educational and training needs addressing the higher complexity of intelligent energy systems. Education needs and requirements are discussed, such as the development of systems-oriented skills and cross-disciplinary learning...

  17. Radioactive waste management and plutonium recovery within the context of the development of nuclear energy in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnikov, V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The Russian strategy for radioactive waste and plutonium management is based on the concept of the closed fuel cycle that has been adopted in Russia, and, to a great degree, falls under the jurisdiction of the existing Russian nuclear energy structures. From its very beginning, Russian atomic energy policy was based on finding the most effective method of developing the new fuel direction with the maximum possible utilization of the energy potential from the fission of heavy atoms and the achievement of fuel self-sufficiency through the recycling of secondary fuel. Although there can be no doubt about the importance of economic considerations (for the future), concerns for the safety of the environment are currently of the utmost importance. In this context, spent NPP fuel can be viewed as a waste to be buried only if there is persuasive evidence that such an approach is both economically and environmentally sound. The production of I GW of energy per year is accompanied by the accumulation of up to 800-1000 kg of highly radioactive fission products and approximately 250 kg of plutonium. Currently, spent fuel from the VVER 100 and the RBNK reactors contains approximately 25 tons of plutonium. There is an additional 30 tons of fuel-grade plutonium in the form of purified oxide, separated from spent fuels used in VVER440 reactors and other power production facilities, as well as approximately 100 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from dismantled warheads. The spent fuel accumulates significant amounts of small actinoids - neptunium americium, and curium. Science and technology have not yet found technical solutions for safe and secure burial of non-reprocessed spent fuel with such a broad range of products, which are typically highly radioactive and will continue to pose a threat for hundreds of thousands of years.

  18. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T.G. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S. [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S.V. [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  19. Russia air management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, T.G.; Markin, S.; Kosenkova, S.V.

    1995-01-01

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  20. Russia air management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, T G [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NC (United States); Markin, S [Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Moscow (Sweden); Kosenkova, S V [Volgograd Environmental Services Administration, Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The Russia Air Management Program is in the second year of a four-year cooperative program between the Russian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources (MEPNR) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to improve national institutions, policies, and practices for air quality management in Russia. This program is part of the Environmental Policy and Technology project being conducted by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The Russia Air Management Program will pilot the application of potential air program improvements in the important industrial City of Volgograd which will enable the development, practical demonstration and evaluation of alternative approaches for improving AQM policies and practices in Russia. Volgograd has a progressive and environmentally enlightened local government, a diverse industrial base and a relatively healthy economy. It is located south of Moscow on the Volga River and was proposed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Natural Resources. It was selected after a site visit and a series of discussions with the Ministry, Volgograd officials, the World Bank and the EPA. Following the pilot, RAMP will work to facilitate implementation of selected parts of the pilot in other areas of Russia using training, technology transfer, and public awareness. (author)

  1. Russia report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with cementing the joint Shuttle-Mir Program in late June with a $400 million contract, the U.S. and Russia signed a deal to team up on global environmental issues. Under the agreement, U.S. and Russian scientists will establish modern facilities for petroleum research, including advanced geographic systems technology, petroleum geochemistry, and seismic processing to help Russia transition to a “market” economy, Interior Secreary Bruce Babbitt reports. The program, to be funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, will produce maps, technical reports, and other data for investment decisions.

  2. Defining energy vulnerability in mobility. Measuring energy vulnerability in mobility. Acting against energy vulnerability in mobility. Discussing energy vulnerability in mobility. Task no. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouffe, Yves; Massot, Marie-Helene; Noble, Cyprien

    2015-01-01

    Extensive expansion of urban areas generates transportation needs and energy expenses for mobility. Households already impacted by fuel poverty also suffer from energy vulnerability in their mobility. This report was prepared in the framework of the study of fuel poverty in France in the light of several indicators from existing inquiries, databases and modeling tools. The report is organised in 4 parts dealing with: the definition of energy vulnerability in mobility, its measurement, the possible remedial actions, and the discussions about energy vulnerability in mobility through working group meetings, respectively

  3. Results of Gamma-Ray Imaging with High-Energy Radiation Visualizer HERV at Nuclear Reactor in Russia and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Sudarkin, A.N.; Urutskoev, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    HER V-high energy radiation visualizer is a system for imaging in X-and gamma-ray regions developed by RECOM during recent years. Its later version provides the real industrial prototype that has been already tested under the complex gamma-field conditions of highly contaminated nuclear facilities in Russia and Germany. New special options for initial CCD camera frames processing (CCD camera operates in slow repetition mode) allow one to perform imaging without heavy shielding during a long exposure time. Image processing options allowing one to take into account background radiation, noise and drift of electronics are described. The contaminated pipelines and vessels HER V imagery results are presented. Background does rate in rooms with contaminated equipment appeared to be up to 1 R/hour and from 1m R/hour up to 50 m R/hour at detector's head location. The major contaminating nuclides proved to be Co-60 and Cs-137. Imaging time was chosen to be 0.2-1 hour. Data acquisition and processing procedures enabled to avoid the high background dose rate influence at the device measuring head location. Superposition of gamma images over optical images indicates that the major contaminated parts of the pipelines were their bends, places of their connection, and their valves

  4. Relative abundance of PcP energy in explosion seismic signals from Eastern Kazakh and South Western Russia recorded at Eskdalemuir, Yellowknife and Gauribidanur arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, T.K.; Arora, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    In this study further evidence of relative abundance of PcP (core reflected P) energy in explosion seismic records is gathered. It is based on the analysis of temporal and spectral characteristics of P and PcP digital seismograms of twenty-three underground nuclear explosions in Eastern Kazakh and Southern Russia recorded at Eskdalemuir (EKA) and Yellowkinfe (YKA) arrays. The results are compared with those obtained earlier using Gauribidanur array (GBA) data. It is found that seismic sources in Southwestern Russia give consistently large values of the PcP identifier when both EKA and YKA data are used thus corroborating authors' earlier finding with regard to this Soviet region of typical Q-structure inferred from GBA data. As regards relative levels of PcP energy in explosion generated seismic waves, it is found to be substantially large at GBA, moderate at YKA and least at EKA. (author). 8 figs., 3 tabs

  5. SaskEnergy small volume customers - direct gas purchase stakeholder discussion and public input report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    With the approval of the Provincial Government of Saskatchewan, SaskEnergy, the provincial utility decided to extend the premise of natural gas deregulation to all sizes of customers by opening the core market for natural gas commodity sales to private sector natural gas agents, brokers and marketers (ABMs). SaskEnergy will continue to provide natural gas transportation and storage related services. Before doing so, the Utility sought to discuss with various stakeholders the terms and conditions that would need to be met by industry to enter into the Saskatchewan market. To assure a balanced interest during the discussions that would include a perspective on consumer protection requirements, the Utility contracted KPMG Regina to chair the stakeholders discussion table and facilitate a public input process for interested individuals to channel comments and seek responses to questions. This report contains the edited summary of the four meetings held by stakeholders. The stakeholders were successful in providing SaskEnergy with insight and suggestions to ensure that a direct purchase market will be developed in Saskatchewan, and that consumers will have objective information to make informed choices about their natural gas purchase options. The meetings also produced an ABMs Code of Conduct, a Direct Purchase 'Enrollment Agreement' and a 'Disclosure Agreement' and delivery terms and conditions for the core market that are similar to industry requirements in the rest of Canada. Copies of the draft forms are included in appendices to this summary report

  6. Novel approach to the exploitation of the tidal energy. Volume 1: Summary and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, A. M.

    1981-12-01

    The hydropneumatic concept in the approach to harnessing low tidal hydropower is discussed. The energy of water flow is converted into the energy of an air jet by a specialized air chamber which is placed on the ocean floor across a flowing watercourse. Water passes through the chamber where it works as a natural piston compressing air in the upper part of the closure. Compressed air is used as a new working plenum to drive air turbines. The kinetic energy of an air jet provided by the air chamber is sufficient for stable operation of industrial air turbines. It is possible to use light plastic barriers instead of conventional rigid dams (the water sail concept). It is confirmed that the concept can result in a less expensive and more effective tidal power plant project than the conventional hydroturbine approach.

  7. Carbon taxation in Russia: Prospects for a double dividend and improved energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Anton; Grethe, Harald; McDonald, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the sectoral and macroeconomic impact of carbon taxes on the Russian economy, one of the world's most energy- and carbon-intensive economies, while assessing the hypothesis of a double dividend. Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can reduce GHG emissions and enhance welfare by improving the efficiency of the tax system — a strong double dividend. The analyses confirm, when capital is not internationally mobile, that a double dividend is likely to occur under (i) a high elasticity of labour supply, (ii) high elasticities of substitution between labour and the capital-energy aggregate, (iii) low elasticities of substitution between capital and energy. It is the tax-shifting effect between capital and labour that is crucial. In contrast, welfare losses resulting from the environmental tax reform may be substantial if capital is internationally mobile. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes may result in a double dividend. ► The tax-shifting effect between capital and labour is crucial. ► The less elastic supply of capital, the more pronounced the tax-shifting effect. ► The more elastic supply of labour, the more pronounced the tax-shifting effect. ► The more elastic demand for labour, the more pronounced the tax-shifting effect

  8. Which way to go. Observations based on discussion on global perspectives and energy strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassin, W; Lovins, A; Meadows, D; Penczynski, P

    1977-09-01

    One of the most controversial topics of the present time seems to be the world's future energy supply and demand. To establish a balanced view, the IIASA Energy Systems Program has sought periodically to compare its own work with that of other groups researching similar areas. At the beginning of 1977, Dennis Meadows, co-author of the Club-of-Rome study ''Limits to Growth'', and Amory Lovins of ''Friends of the Earth'' joined IIASA for a limited time. Both of them favor a ''soft technology'' path for the world's future energy system. Their stay at IIASA was an opportunity to check whether or not their results provide for a deeper understanding of a complex global future. This short note summarizes some conclusions that emerged from discussions of D. Meadows, A. Lovins, and members of the Energy Systems Program. In searching for the sources of opposing conclusions with respect to nuclear, large-scale solar, coal, renewable sources in a local or regional context (like wind, wave power, biomass utilization, and small-scale solar heat) and energy conservation measures such as better insulation or the co-generation of electricity and process heat, it turned out to be helpful to address the following questions: (1) Which long-term fundamental problems other than energy questions have to be faced by mankind within the coming 50 years. (2) Is the appropriate scale for analyzing these problems global, regional, or local. (3) In which subsectors should the economy be disaggregated in order to tackle the problem of self-reliance and resilience. (4) How can one define a technological solution for the energy supply with respect to the anticipated state of affairs in terms of do's and not in terms of don'ts. (5) How can one specify an energy strategy leading from today's situation into a long-term future when the goals to be achieved vary with time and in principle are subject to revision. (MCW)

  9. A systemic approach to the discussion of sustainability of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, Irene

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 the four Swiss Scientific Academies formed a working group to study sustainability of electricity production. Having been a member of this group since the beginning I witnessed the evolution of the discussion that led to a consensus. The group found the criteria of sustainability to be special for nuclear energy. While the resource uranium is not needed for any other purpose and thus the use of uranium is sustainable, the possible harm to future generations by nuclear reactors is difficult to evaluate: the potential damage can be large but the probability of its occurrence is very small. Therefore some people judge nuclear power as an environmentally friendly source of electricity production and an important contribution towards a sustainable energy future whereas others look at the potential damage and value nuclear power as not sustainable. The discussion of alternatives then reveals that it is definitely not sustainable to replace nuclear power by fossil fuels. This was a consensus reached by the members of the working group, which consists of the pro and anti nuclear camp. Sustainable energy production is a complex topic and not easy to tackle with our everyday methods. The group decided to solve the problem with a systemic approach to get to know the hidden and indirect effects of electricity production and usage. A system approach brings a new concept into the often blocked discussion of proponents and antinuclear people. In order to assure that a holistic evaluation results which reaches a high degree of consensus, several subgroups were formed representing divergent views on the issues analysed. These groups do not communicate their findings while work on their cross impact matrices (CIMs) is under way. The results are compared and discrepancies are discussed. Usually this shows that once the wording of the variables is corrected and their interpretations are shared by the parties involved, consensus concerning evaluations is achieved

  10. Intermittent energy restriction in type 2 diabetes: A short discussion of medication management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sharayah; Clifton, Peter M; Keogh, Jennifer B

    2016-12-15

    To discuss type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medication changes required during the popular 5:2 intermittent energy restriction (IER) diet. A search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL and Cochrane library for original research articles investigating the use of very low calorie diets (VLCD) in people with T2DM. The search terms used included "VLCD" or "very low energy diet" or "very low energy restriction" or "IER" or "intermittent fasting" or "calorie restriction" or "diabetes mellitus type 2" and "type 2 diabetes". Reference lists of selected articles were also screened for relevant publications. Only research articles written in English, which also included an explanation of medication changes were included. A recent pilot trial using the 5:2 IER method, conducted by our research group, will also be summarized. A total of 8 studies were found that investigated the use of VLCD in T2DM and discussed medication management. Overall these studies indicate that the use of a VLCD for people with T2DM usually require the cessation of medication to prevent hypoglycemia. Therefore, the 5:2 IER method will also require medication changes, but as seen in our pilot trial, may not require total cessation of medication, rather a cessation on the 2 IER days only. Guidelines outlined here can be used in the initial stages of a 2-d IER diet, but extensive blood glucose monitoring is still required to make the necessary individual reductions to medications in response to weight loss.

  11. Review of energy policy. Vol. 1. A discussion paper; Vol. 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II.

  12. Geopolitical warm spots : Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2004-01-01

    Oil production in Russia has increased by 50 per cent since 1999 and future growth appears to be promising. Major companies are being encouraged to re-invest in Russia's upstream sector due to high oil prices and a stable domestic business environment. The Centre for Global Energy Studies has conducted a study which reveals that in the next 10 years, Russian oil production could exceed the levels reached in the last years of the Soviet era. Oil production could reach 10 million barrels per day (mbpd) within 3 years, and 13 mbpd by 2015. All excess oil produced will be exported. The factors that may limit the expansion of the oil industry in Russia include political interference from Moscow, insufficient pipeline capacity to transport the oil to export terminals, and lower international oil prices. The greatest potential for increased oil production lies in West Siberia. Although West Siberia will continue to dominate Russia's oil production, companies will also need to focus on less mature regions such as East Siberia, the North Caspian and the Far East. tabs., figs

  13. Safety philiosophies in technology-related law discussed for the example of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1993-01-01

    In practice, legal ruling and its technical implementation stand isolated side by side. Taking the example of atomic energy law, the reasons for this situation and the significance of the deficit in the legal control of technology are examined. It is discussed how the controlling capacity of the law can be increased through the legal implementation of safety philosophies for technology. The paper deals with the problematic realtionship between technical and legal norms, with safety philosophies in the sense of mental approaches, safety concepts or safety postulates and their legal significance, and with the safety philosophy adhered to by the authorities and courts. The following learning processes in safety philosophy are described: new concepts of protection within the field of determinism, probabilistic safety concepts as well as concepts for the reduction of damage potential. Altogether it can be stated that the safety philosophy currently adhered to in Federal German licensing practice is not the only possible one; rather, that there are many different ways of conceptualizing, stipulating and checking technical safety. At least in the field of atomic energy law, this insight has a twofold significance: de lege lata there are several ways of operationalizing the licence requirements laid down in Article 7 of the Atomic Energy Law and the legally defined requirements for a licence withdrawal with the aid of technical licensing criteria. In all cases the legal wording is indeterminate and does not prescribe any specific safety philosophy. De lege ferenda it must be noted that amendments to the Atomic Energy Law entail a regularization of safety philosophy. This is a political necessity if the Atomic Energy Law is to be developed further and thus maintained as a modern security law. (orig.) [de

  14. Jelektrojenergeticheskaja kooperacija v Baltijskom regione i rol' v nej Rossii [Electric energy cooperation in the Baltic Sea region and the role of Russia in it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines cooperation in the electric energy sector in the Baltic region. The author explores the existing undersea HVDC power exchange projects. It is emphasised that cooperation in the electric energy sector is concentrated largely in the EU member states despite earlier plans to establish the Baltic energy ring, which would also include Russia and Belarus. The author stresses that one of the most acute problems for the EU today is overcoming isolation of the energy systems of the Baltic States (Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia from that of the major part of the EU. This task has become especially relevant after the closing of the Ignalina NPP (Lithuania, which used to be the primary energy source for the three Baltic States. The article examines key projects of the construction of new international power transmission lines in the framework of the Baltic Energy Market Interconnection Plan (BEMIP and the prospects of the Visaginas NPP (Lithuania in solving energy problems of the Baltic States. The author analyses Russia’s role in the electric energy market and focuses on a possible increase of the country’s energy market share following the construction of the Baltic NPP and the export of generated electric energy to Poland, Lithuania, Germany, and Sweden. The author concludes that the prospects of Russia’s energy export to the Baltic Sea region will be determined not only by technological, economic and market factors, but rather by the general state of relations between Russia and the EU. Moreover, a lot depends on Lithuania’s decision on the construction of the Visaginas NPP, as well as the way the EU and the Baltic States solve the problem of energy supply in case the NPP project is terminated.

  15. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  16. Nova Scotia electricity market : frameworks for renewable energy contracting and cogeneration contracting : discussion document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The recent Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee of Nova Scotia report issued a number of recommendations regarding renewable and cogeneration sales to retail consumers, as well as recommendations for top-up, spill rates and back-up rates to complement the operation of independent generating facilities. This discussion paper examined issues which need to be addressed in order to implement the recommendations. The discussion paper also included recommendations relating to the purchase of cogeneration output by the Nova Scotia Power Inc. (NSPI) under long term power purchase agreements. The aim of the paper was to provide a basis for the further discussion of issues in preparation for the development of future rules and regulations. The first part of the document identified ways for buyers and sellers to arrange contracts, as well as issues that need to be addressed at the institutional level to enable arrangements. Options for financial contracts and physical contracts were reviewed.The second part of the document examined pricing issues in the context of both financial and physical contract arrangements. Resolutions for both sets of options were proposed. Energy pricing principles were reviewed, as well as various pricing options and issues related to the analysis of price requirements. It was concluded that in order to support the safe, reliable and economic supply of electricity, the design of the electricity market should enable maximum flexibility in contractual arrangements and facilitate competition in ways that do not harm other parties

  17. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  18. The use of geoinformation technologies for renewable energy and regional aspects of developing renewable energy in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikova Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of development of the geoinformation system “Renewable Energy Sources of Russia”. Regional maps of installations and resources are presented. The problem of determination of small hydropower potential connected with the shortage of hydrological data is stated. Assessment of efficiency of techno-economic analysis of simulation-based autonomous solar lighting systems is described. Overview of regional experience, policies and targets is included.

  19. Summary of discussion points and further deliberations in the special committee on the ITER project in the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion points and further deliberations in the Special Committee, which was established in December 1996 on the ITER Project were: 'Global environment problem and energy problem', 'Promotion of the fusion energy development' and 'ITER Project'

  20. Contribution to the european discussion on the energy strategy; Contribution au debat europeen sur la strategie energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H.; Valade, J

    2001-07-01

    If no change occurs, the European Union will cover in 2020, 70% of its energy need by importation, for 50% today. This situation leads to a discussion on the energy dependence. In this context the European Commission provoked a discussion by publishing a ''green book'' on the european strategy concerning the energy supply. This document presents the point of view of the Senate Energy Study Group. (A.L.B.)

  1. Focus on Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Koningsbrugge, H.

    2008-01-01

    A few articles in this magazine focus on the developments and policies in Russia. The titles of some of the articles are 'Between state power and liberal reform' on the task of the new Russian president to find a new balance between government interference and market economy; 'Green light for green energy' on the willingness of the Russian government to stimulate renewable energy; 'Russian power play' on the role of Gazprom in the liberalization of the Russian power market; 'Gazprom's risky strategy' on it's pricing strategy

  2. Report on the state of the energy discussion 1984/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, F.; Schulz, W.; Steinkamm, A.

    1987-01-01

    This research project was carried through before Chernobyl, in a time where things were normal. Thus it is concerned with determining basic notions and relationships of the energy industry, with problems related to the national economy and to law in individual sectors of energy supply. Possible and useful alternatives are presented and are verified as to their feasibility. The lines of argument are as follows: Line-transmitted energy sources electricity and gas - basic considerations - power plants - environmental protection - energy concepts; Legal problems - licensing procedure - procedural law; Questions relating to the national economy - energy forecasts - prices - substitution; Energy conservation; Alternative energy technologies. (HSCH) [de

  3. Russia and the BRICS:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia.......Russia's role as driver behind the BRICS is critically examined via the original RIC concept of Primakov. Today, there are mixed feelings about the BRICS in Russia....

  4. 78 FR 38028 - Duke Energy Progress, Inc.; Notice of Video Conference To Discuss Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2206-030] Duke Energy Progress, Inc.; Notice of Video Conference To Discuss Yadkin-Pee Dee Hydroelectric Project Biological Opinion On April 29, 2013, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) of the National Oceanic and...

  5. Energy research and development in the United Kingdom: a discussion document. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for the future planning of United Kingdom research and development in energy technologies. It contains the first steps in the formulation of a national energy R and D strategy. Decision on energy R and D must be taken in the light of the overall aims of energy policies. The main objectives of energy policy are to meet the energy needs of the country at minimum cost in real resources over time, while paying due regard to security of supply, to public safety, to protection of the environment and, where major change is in prospect, to the social consequences of change.

  6. Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes: A Summary of Workshop Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arble, Deanna M.; Bass, Joseph; Behn, Cecilia Diniz; Butler, Matthew P.; Challet, Etienne; Czeisler, Charles; Depner, Christopher M.; Elmquist, Joel; Franken, Paul; Grandner, Michael A.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Keene, Alex C.; Joyner, Michael J.; Karatsoreos, Ilia; Kern, Philip A.; Klein, Samuel; Morris, Christopher J.; Pack, Allan I.; Panda, Satchidananda; Ptacek, Louis J.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Scheer, Frank A.; Saxena, Richa; Seaquest, Elizabeth R.; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Van Cauter, Eve; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    circadian disruption on energy balance and diabetes: a summary of workshop discussions. SLEEP 2015;38(12):1849–1860. PMID:26564131

  7. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them.

  8. Renewables in Russia. From opportunity to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Russia is rich not only in oil, gas and coal, but also in wind, hydro, geothermal, biomass and solar energy - the resources of renewable energy. However, fossil fuels dominate Russia's current energy mix, while its abundant and diverse renewable energy resources play little role. What are the near- and medium-term opportunities for renewables in Russia? What preconditions are necessary to draw renewables into the energy mix to complement Russia's other ample energy resources? Russia's renewables can cost-effectively provide energy services where conventional forms are expensive. Whether it is geothermal resources in the Far East or North Caucasus, bio-energy resources from the vast territories, or hydro from the many watersheds, established renewable technologies can cost effectively supplement energy from fossil fuels. At the same time, new renewables such as wind and solar energy can serve remote populations and in the right circumstances, provide energy at competitive prices on the grid. This report demonstrates that renewable energy can offer a real means to address some of Russia's energy and economic challenges. It identifies the first steps toward creating a Russian renewables market and will contribute to a better understanding by both Russian and international industry, of the potential for profitable renewables projects, and the incentive to start undertake them

  9. Gazprom: Russia's strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.M.; Zeisler, N.

    2007-01-01

    Seventeen years after the splitting up of the Soviet empire, Russia is looking again for huge international ambitions. Its main advantage in this power search will is its energy resources. Production area, but also transit area between Asia, central Asia, Caucasus and Europe, Russia is an inevitable partner and wishes to take advantage of this strategic position. Gazprom, the hugest gas company in the world, is totally under the control of the government. Therefore, the Kremlin has made gas its main political and diplomatic weapon. Such an energetic imperialisms has strong economical and political consequences on the rest of Europe as illustrated by the recent Ukrainian crisis. The reconstruction of an energy empire similar to the one of the hottest days of the cold war worries also the USA. This study is a collective work carried out by students of the Sciences Po school of Paris in the framework of the 'international organizations' seminar given by by A.M Lizin, president of the Belgium senate and chairwoman of the human rights commission of the organization for European security and cooperation. Content: Gazprom's international strategy, Gazprom: an omnipotent gas company, Gazprom's international strategy at the service of the Russian foreign policy, Gazprom's energy stake and strategies, Gazprom and Armenia, Gazprom and Azerbaijan, Gazprom and Belgium, Gazprom and Bielorussia, Gazprom and Iberia, French position in energy stakes and in front of Gazprom, Gazprom's difficulties in Hungary, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in front of Gazprom, Gazprom and the US strategy. (J.S.)

  10. US Department of Energy (DOE)/Gosatomnadzor (GAN) of Russia project at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, I.A.; Konoplev, K.A.; Hauser, G.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of work accomplished within the scope of the DOE-Gosatomnadzor (GAN) Agreement to reduce vulnerability to theft of direct-use nuclear materials in Russia. The DOE-GAN agreement concerns the Russian Academy of Science B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), located 45 kilometers from St. Petersburg. The PNPI operates facilities to research basic nuclear physics. Current world conditions require particular attention to the issue of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) of nuclear materials. The long-term plan to increase security at the facility is outlined, including training, physical protection upgrades, and material control and accountability. 4 figs

  11. Restless Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wilson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate how and why after a twelve-years period of stability Putinist social contract seemingly broke down and Russia stepped into a new period of uncertainty and crisis. The author underlines that, unwillingly, Medvedev’s presidency paved the way for the protests from the winter of 2011-2012 and fostered the regime’s crisis of legitimacy. Specifically, Medvedev’s relatively liberal rhetoric led to rising expectations among the ‘winners’ of first Putin-Medvedev era and to a growing gap between rhetoric and delivery. Moreover, the ‘Putin consensus’ was also fraying from below during the 2000s, given the population’s fading memory about the 1990s, flourishing of corruption, and migration becoming a hot issue in a booming economy and collapsing native demographics of Russian society. Finally, Putin made several crucial tactical mistakes in the run-up to the Duma elections of the 2011, failing to provide a coherent narrative for the elections, loosing some leading manipulators of the political system, and ousting some powerful regional bosses that ran powerful local machines which traditionally delivered the vote.

  12. The national laboratory business role in energy technology research and development. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, John; Sullivan, Charles J.; Aumeier, Steve; Sanders, Tom; Johnson, Shane; Bennett, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Energy issues will play a pivotal role in the economic and political future of the United States. For reasons of both available supply and environmental concerns, development and deployment of new energy technologies is critical. Nuclear technology is important, but economic, political, and technical challenges must be overcome if it is to play a significant role. This session will address business opportunities for national laboratories to contribute to the development and implementation of a national energy strategy, concentrating on the role of nuclear technology. Panelists have been selected from the national laboratories, the U.S. Department of Energy, and state regulators. (authors)

  13. Nuclear facilities and activities in Russia - Yesterday, today,tomorrow. A seminar for journalists held in March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Schmid, B.; Wiedemann, M.

    1995-01-01

    The papers of this seminar were presented by Russian experts who discussed a number of selected topics from the Russian angle, as for instance: The Non-Proliferation Treaty; Illicit trafficking with uranium and plutonium; The future of the nuclear weapons industry and the people working in this sector; Psycho-social problems arising in the former secret science cities; The future of nuclear energy in Russia; Can radiological protection in Russia be compared with Western standards? The seminar was the first of its kind and was organised for Western journalists as a platform for first-hand, comprehensive information about the situation in Russia. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  15. Energy efficient elevators. Guideline VDI 4707, Worldwide discussions are suggested; Energieeffiziente Aufzuege. Richtlinie VDI 4707. Weltweite Diskussionen werden angeregt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meermann, Friedhelm [AC GmbH - Anlagen-Contracting fuer Foerdertechnik, Herbolzheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The discussion to measures in the area of energy efficiency with elevators has a long tradition. With the publication of the Swiss regulation SIA 380/4, the German guideline VDI 4707 and the ISO 25745 it is now indisputable to measure the energy consumption values with elevators under material conditions. The savings of an energy-efficient elevator can amount to 25 to 60 %.

  16. Carbon Based Energy Taxes in Developing Countries. Feasibility and effects of a tax restructuring in China, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report is part of a study of the effects of converting the existing energy tax structure to one based on the carbon content of the fuel. The countries considered are China, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia. They contribute 28% of the worlds energy related carbon emission and are expected to have the greatest increase in carbon emissions over the next decades. Restructuring the energy taxes could play a role in reducing global carbon emissions. But this is difficult to achieve in non-OECD countries because of existing energy market distortions and policy barriers. The report first maps the present tax structure of the energy, power, and transport sectors, then redistributes the tax burden among the fuels based on their carbon content. Three scenarios are then studied, confining the tax structure to: (1) the industrial sector, (2) the industrial and power sectors, (3) industrial, power and transport sectors. Some important conclusions are: (1) reduced energy prices are the result of subsidies rather than of reduced taxes, (2) moving towards a carbon-based tax system requires major changes in the overall structure of energy pricing and government policy, (3) substantial institutional barriers exist to any reform of energy taxes, (4) among the fuel types, coal would have by far the largest price increase as it is now subsidized, (5) confining the carbon tax restructuring to the industry and power sectors would have minor effects, (6) including the transport sector with the other two does impact carbon emissions. Reducing the energy subsidies is probably the most urgent issue in reforming the energy sector and would bring substantial benefits in terms of reduced carbon emissions and improved overall energy efficiency of the economy. 25 refs., 20 figs., 41 tabs.

  17. Discussion of electron capture theories for ion-atom collisions at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, J E [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Piacentini, R D [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rivarola, R D [Rosario Univ. Nacional (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica; Salin, A [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France)

    1981-03-14

    Different theories of charge exchange processes in ion-atom collisions at high energies for the H/sup +/-H system are considered. Large discrepancies are found in the differential cross sections obtained from the various models. The validity of Dettmann's peaking approximation is analysed by comparison with exact values for the first- and second-order Oppenheimer-Brinkman-Kramers (OBK 1 and OBK 2) theories. It is also shown that for energies up to a few MeV the OBK 2 differential cross sections are higher than the corresponding OBK 1 ones. Total cross sections in the OBK 2 approximation are given.

  18. FY1998 research report on the energy saving research for Magnitogorsk steelworks in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia Magnitogorsk seitetsusho shoenen chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    In order to find out promising projects for the joint research, basic research was made on energy saving for Magnitogorsk steelworks in Russia. It was confirmed that introduction of a large waste heat recovery system and energy saving equipment could be met effectively by reduction of natural gas consumption by the 3 in-house power plants installed in the steelworks, and there is no problem for promotion of the project from the viewpoint of energy structure. Feasibility study was made on energy saving measures every process. The study results for the following are presented: (1) Coking process: CDQ, CMC, ACC, (2) Sintering process: reduction of ignition fuel by remodeling the ignition furnace, (3) Blast furnace process: TRT equipment, (4) BOF process: exhaust gas recovery system, (5) Hot rolling process: reduction of heating unit consumption by remodeling the reheating furnace and power saving measures for the reheating furnace blower and exhauster, and (6) Energy process: renewal of the oxygen plant. Annual CO{sub 2} emission reduction by complete implementation of these measures is estimated to be nearly 750,000t. (NEDO)

  19. The energy debate in France. A discussion focussed on nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.; Pavageau, M.; Schneider, M

    1999-03-01

    France has placed itself in a very peculiar, unprecedented situation regarding its energy policy, for it is now at the same time: part of a minority of countries in the world that have developed to a great extent a nuclear industry for the production of electricity - and indeed France has gone further than any country in that direction, reaching an almost 80% share of nuclear energy in the national production of electricity (second world-wide behind Lithuania) and a total 62,4 G We installed capacity of nuclear power plants (second behind the United-States); part of a minority of countries among democratic nations that is governed by a coalition including strong opponents to the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity with participation of the French main Green Party (called Les Verts) in the Government. This produces important changes, if not yet in all decisions over French energy policy, at least in the declarations of the different players and the orientations of the political and public debates. Also some policy implementation measures have had profound impact on the long term nuclear policy making. (author)

  20. Focus on Russia. Russia versus Gazprom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdiyeva, N.

    2008-01-01

    Rising domestic demand and the depletion of traditional natural gas fields mean that Russia will have to make choices as to where to send its gas. But the priorities of Gazprom and the Russian government often conflict, a trend likely exacerbated by the deteriorating relationship between Russia and the West

  1. Solutions for Remote Island Microgrids: Discussion and analysis of Indonesia’s remote island energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Santos, Athila Quaresma

    2018-01-01

    to mitigate this issue. This paper uses Indonesia as an example to investigate, develop and evaluate the potential microgrid solutions for the remote islands. There are six potential microgrid solutions are discussed, and two solutions (photovoltaic cells and storage; diesel generator, photovoltaic cells...

  2. On the determination of the energy of antiprotonic X-rays by critical absorption and the theoretical discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joedicke, B.

    1985-06-01

    This work examines the possibility of measuring the energies of antiprotonic X-rays by critical absorption. Scanning the periodic table many isotopes are found where the energy of an antiprotonic X-ray coincides with a K-absorption-edge of a chemical element. Those candidates where the energy can be measured with high accuracy are discussed here. Also a computer program which calculates transition energies of antiprotonic atoms is examined. Necessary additions are listed and the corrections are shown. In combination with this program the candidates are the basis for a precise determination of the mass of the antiproton. (orig.) [de

  3. Russia at GHG Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the first Kyoto commitment period Russia could be the major supplier for the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions market. Potential Russian supply depends on the ability of Russia to keep GHG emissions lower than the Kyoto target. In the literature there is no common understanding of the total trading potential of Russia at the international carbon market. In this paper we focus on CO2 emission, which constituted nearly 80% of Russian GHG emission. We compare different projections of Russian CO2 emission and analyze the most important factors, which predetermine the CO2 emission growth. In a transition economy these factors are: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) dynamic, changes of GDP structure, innovation activity, transformation of export-import flows and response to the market signals. The input-output macroeconomic model with the two different input-output tables representing old and new production technologies has been applied for the analysis to simulate technological innovations and structural changes in the Russian economy during transition period. The Russian supply at the international GHG market without forest sector may be up to 3 billion metric ton of CO2 equivalent. Earlier actions to reduce CO2 emission are critical to insure the Russian supply at the international carbon market. With regard to the current status of the Russian capital market, the forward trading with OECD countries is only the possibility to raise initial investments to roll no-regret and low-cost GHG reduction. This paper discusses uncertainties of Russian CO2 emission dynamics and analyzes the different incentives to lower the emission pathway

  4. Russia ends pact to curb uranium use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The Russian government has terminated an agreement between the country's nuclear body, Rosatom, and the US Department of Energy (DOE) into the feasibility of converting research reactors in Russia to low-enriched uranium (LEU).

  5. Contribution to the actual discussion on the technological problems of nuclear fusion energy exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1982-02-01

    Recently increased criticism has been raised from many sides as to the technical realization of fusion reactors. The basic argument is continually stated whether it is really sensible to invest the enormous sums of money in order to produce a commercial fusion reactor. In this article, the principle problems facing nuclear fusion are presented and it is outlined which priorities should be set for the realization of fusion energy in the near future. (Auth.)

  6. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '92. Technical session 'Nuclear energy discussion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The report contains the six special papers red at the 1992 annual conference on nuclear engineering at Karlsruhe, all of which are individually retrievable from the database. They deal with the following subjects: historical development of the basic trends of technology criticism; communication problems in connection with the conveying of technical facts; psycho-sociological patterns of technology anxiety-mental infection or risk consciousness; field of tension between technology and journalism; handling of insecurities; ethical justifiability of nuclear energy use. (HSCH) [de

  7. Overview of internet development in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronskaya-Palesh, O

    1999-01-01

    Internet use in Russia has been growing steadily. In the last four years the number of Russian Internet users grew from a few hundred thousand to over one million. Russian websites are diverse, and range from educational-informative to purely entertaining. This paper discusses several interesting and controversial Russian websites and possible implications associated with their use. It aims to understand and analyze a typical Internet user in Russia, by answering questions about their interests and demographics. The paper also discusses several other studies that were conducted in Russia on Internet use and looks at the currently available psychological resources on the Russian Internet.

  8. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [de

  9. A critical discussion of the extraction of the {rho} - parameter at high energy hadron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1996-12-31

    A new and general method is proposed for the extraction of the semi theoretical {rho}-parameter from the raw dN/dt data. By using this method it is shown that the exponential form of the hadron amplitude in the diffraction peak at high energy is doubtful and that the value {rho} = 0.135 {+-} 0.015, extracted from the very precise UA4/2 dN/dt data at {radical}s 541 GeV, is probably wrong. (author) 4 refs.

  10. Application and Discussion of Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor in Biomass Energy Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Haibin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Baofeng; Yang, Liguo; Sun, Rongfeng

    2018-01-01

    As an important clean and renewable energy, biomass has a broad market prospect. The dual fluidized bed is widely used in biomass gasification technology, and has become an important way of biomass high-value utilization. This paper describes the basic principle of dual fluidized bed gasification, from the gas composition, tar content and thermal efficiency of the system point of view, analyzes and summarizes several typical dual fluidized bed biomass gasification technologies, points out the existence of gas mixing, the external heat source, catalyst development problems on gas. Finally, it is clear that the gasification of biomass in dual fluidized bed is of great industrial application and development prospect.

  11. The FSU/Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.

    2006-01-01

    The London-based Centre for Global Energy Studies claims that geopolitics has played a significant role in determining the current level of global oil production. It estimates that geopolitical events in a small group of countries have deprived the world of about 2 mbpd and nearly 8 mbpd of potential oil production since 2000. In particular, growth in oil production in 2005 in the Former Soviet Union (FSU)/Russia was at a standstill following 3 years of a steady growth rate of almost 10 per cent per year. Although a slowdown in the rate of output was anticipated, the near suspension of Russian output was mostly due to administrative intervention which discouraged the Russian oil industry from investing in new upstream capacity. The administrative conflicts included large tax hikes to the oil industry, resulting in fears of losing licences, ownership changes, and rising costs of new developments and transportation. It was concluded that while Russia has the resources to improve oil production, the incentive for the oil industry to grow will depend greatly on the actions of the federal government and the policies it puts forward to regulate its oil industry. tabs., figs

  12. Research document no. 19. The transposition conditions of the market institutions in transition economies (Russia). The energy case; Cahier de recherche no. 19. Les conditions de transposition des institutions de marche dans les economies en transition (Russie). Le cas de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    2000-07-01

    The majority of the institutions of the market economy exist today in Russia but they do not take on with the russian economic framework. One assists in fact with particular appropriation modes of these institutions, defining behaviors directed by logics of survival. To analyze the situation, the author presents the standard approaches of the economic transition in the case of the energy in russia and the institutional and organization models failure. (A.L.B.)

  13. Energy and cost total cost management discussion: The global gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas has emerged as one of the most desirable fuels for a wide range of applications that previously have been supplied by oil, coal, or nuclear energy. Compared to these, it is environmentally clean and burns at efficiencies far in excess of competitive fuels. The penetration of gas as the fuel of choice in most parts of the world is still modest. This is particularly true in newly-developed countries that are engaged in rapid industrialization and where rates of growth in the gross domestic products are two or three times greater than in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. I will not attempt here to survey the world gas scene comprehensively. I will, however, attempt to focus on some aspects of the industry that could be the trigger points for global development. These triggers are occurring all along the gas chain, by which I mean the entire process of bringing gas to the customer from discovery through delivery. The chain includes exploration and production, power generation, transmission, and distribution. I describe an industry that is on the verge of truly global status, which is fast overcoming the remaining obstacles to transnational trade, and which has unusually exciting long-term prospects. It does have a good way to go before it achieves the maturity of the international oil industry, but in the last few years there has been a tremendous growth of confidence among both investors and users. The global gas industry is certainly developing at a fast pace, and the world can only benefit from the wider availability of this clean, economic, and efficient hydrocarbon

  14. Experience of the use of comparative evaluations of risks in the public discussion about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsch, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the nuclear controversy the risks of nuclear facilities play a major role. An evaluation of these risks is possible only by comparison with other risks to which people are exposed. For this purpose the selection of suitable comparative risk sources is important. But even if appropriate risk sources have been chosen, there will always be some rest dimensions which are difficult to encompass into the comparison. Among these problems are: the maximum damage, the time frame, the practical experience with a risk source, the different composition of the risk (death, injuries, cancers etc.), the uncertainty of risk assessment results, especially for chronic and late effects. One has to pay attention to these obstacles of comparing risks in the public discussion. Experience shows that risk comparison will be easier accepted if one explicitly refers to this difficulty. Also the different components of risks have to be presented, at least from its basic concept. An interesting possibility is the comparison of different risks with regard to their shortening of life expectancy. This common delimiter has to be used with care, since some comparisons decrease the probability of public acceptance for this method. Nevertheless this method provides a good illustration, of how small e.g. the risk of low doses of ionizing radiation is in comparison to smoking cigarettes. In any case it has to be pointed out that risk is not the only criterion for decisions about a technology, but that other factors like economics, fuel supply, degree of technical development have to be taken into account

  15. Energy policy in the EU and in Russia. Positions, potential conflicts, approaches for cooperation.; Energiepolitik in der EU und Russland. Interessenlagen, Konfliktpotenziale, Kooperationsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebing, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    The paper under the above mentioned title tries to develop an understanding of the question why energy relations and cooperation between the European Union and Russia in energy matters haven't been very successful over the last decade and why relations are affected by crises frequently. In order to answer these questions meaningfully, several steps need to be made: First, the paper offers a summary of recent policy debate on energy questions on the EU side. It identifies relevant participants in the ''political arena'' and describes their positioning and interaction, based on a multi-level-governance approach. Following a look at history of European energy policy developments, the paper concludes that a complex European policy field has developed recently, although there is no direct responsibility for energy matters with European institutions so far, but that the justification for any law-making in the said areas is deducted from secondary EU level responsibilities such as common market, competition law or environmental matters. However, there is a huge bandwidth of positions between political actors, civil service, parliaments, industry associations, consumers - organizations etc as well as between community and national level organizations. Not only a battle for power and competence between these levels hinders a straight and consistent energy policy across the EU, there is also significantly different focus with different players on where to put effort between conflicting objectives of the ''European Energy Triangle'', demanding (1) secure and reliable, (2) cheap and competitive as well as (3) environmentally friendly energy supplies. Despite all these differences, within the EU, a strong and well-regarded new area of policy debate has developed in the energy sector and a lot has been achieved. Observers frequently demand the EU to ''speak with one voice'' towards third parties, eg gas producing

  16. Enterprise systems in Russia: 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Michael Yu; Bulysheva, Larisa A.; Emelyanenko, Alexander A.; Emelyanenko, Vladimir A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces the enterprise systems (ES) development and implementation in Russia in the past three decades. Historic analysis shows that, in terms of time frame, the development of ACS (Automated Control Systems) in the former Soviet Union and the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the West was almost parallel. In this paper, the current status and the major trend of ES in Russia is discussed.

  17. Russia's atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia's nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia's vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia's nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia's nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia's decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia's nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia

  18. Strengthening Strategic Stability with Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    political stabil - ity. From the current Russian perspective, both of these compo- nents were thrown out of balance in the 1990s, creating instability ...part of the United States in the early 2000s, stra- tegic stability was replaced with instability and military- political defeats for Russia.27...overall strategic balance of the world political system.8 (As discussed later, the official Russian definition of strategic stability is broadening in

  19. Fiscal 1999 research report. Basic research for promotion of joint implementation programs (Basic energy efficiency survey at Russia's Severstal Steelworks); 1999 nendo Russia Severstal seitetsusho sho energy kihon chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the Kyoto Protocol adopted at COP3 (The 3rd Conference of the Parties), a framework was created of international cooperative efforts for greenhouse gas reduction, such as joint implementation with advanced countries and clean development mechanism construction with developing countries. As part of the above-named NEDO-sponsored project, a survey is conducted at the Severstal Steelworks in the effort to explore projects that will lead to joint implementation. It is then found, concerning the feasibility of introducing large waste heat recovery and energy-saving facilities into the steelworks, that there will be sufficient room if natural gas for the domestic power generators installed at two sites in the steelworks is reduced and that in the energy profile no problems are detected that will impede project implementation. Energy efficiency measure introduction feasibility is examined and the results are shown, which involve sintering furnace modification, sintering cooler waste heat recovery, converter exhaust gas recovery, and TRT (top-pressure recovery turbine) installation. In case all these measure are fully implemented, CO2 emissions will be reduced by 370,000 tons/year. (NEDO)

  20. Fiscal 1998 joint promotion basic research report. Energy saving project for Achinsk refinery in Russia; 1998 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa. Roshia Achinsuku seiyujo shoene project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For prevention of global warming by greenhouse effect gas, study was made on energy saving measures for Achinsk refinery in Russia. Achinsk refinery is a relatively new plant put into operation in 1983, however, because of no various equipment for use combustion heat effectively, its average thermal efficiency is as low as 60%-70%, resulting in fuel consumption more than necessary one. Based on the study result, the following remodeling designs were made: Improvement of a heat exchange efficiency by relocation of heat exchangers to reduce fuel consumption of a heating furnace as much as possible, conversion of an existing heating furnace based on an old design concept to an advanced one, installation of a waste heat recovery system including a preheating convection unit and air preheater, reinforcement of heating furnace wall insulator, installation of an optimum control system for furnace operation, and improvement of a fuel supply system efficiency. This design showed possible reduction of heating furnace load, and possible furnace thermal efficiency of 90%. (NEDO)

  1. Latest results of the international discussion on the social costs of energy - how does wind compare today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmeyer, O.H.

    1990-01-01

    A first analysis of the social costs of competing technologies for electric power generation published in 1988 has induced a rather controversial scientific discussion about the magnitude of and the possible ways to incorporate cost elements not included in energy prices into decisions on energy systems. Different research projects following up a number of controversial or unanswered questions in the field of social costs have been started in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), in Europe and overseas. A first ''counter-study'' has been published in the FRG in 1989. The paper summarizes the latest results of international scientific discussion and research and sketches possible future trends in this field and the practical and political implementation of its results. A first estimate of the consideration of global warming effects due to conventional electricity generation is included in addition to recalculated results on topics addressed by the author in 1988. It concludes that the figures calculated in 1988 have been underestimating the magnitude of the costs not included in the energy prices and that new calculations including further results on CO 2 lead to significantly higher figures. The difference of the costs not included in the price of conventional electricity and wind energy rises from 8.4 to 14 Pf/kWh on average with an estimated range of 4.7 to 25.4 Pf/kWh (1 DM = 100 pf = 0.5 ECU). Considering the full costs of electricity generation it can be concluded that wind energy is one of the most economical ways to produce electricity today. Political considerations on how to take social costs of electricity generation into account have reached some definite conclusions in some states of the USA. The paper gives a short sketch of these activities. (Author)

  2. Legacy of Cold War still plagues Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popova, L. [Socio-Ecological Union`s Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    Seventy years of communist rule and a half-century of nuclear-arms development have left Russia the world`s most polluted country, reports Lydia Popova, director of the Center for Nuclear Ecology and Energy Policy in Moscow. {open_quotes}Russia`s communist government invested enormous sums of money in the military but paid scant attention to environmental protection,{close_quotes} Popova writes. Most of Russia`s radioactive pollution has resulted from poor reprocessing technology, inadequate waste management, nuclear testing, and accidents in the nuclear-power sector. Though the end of the Cold War has been accompanied by disarmament programs, Popova insists that these initiatives will create an additional burden on the environment of the former Soviet Union in the form of nuclear waste products.

  3. Russia And East Asia: New Opportunities And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  4. RUSSIA AND EAST ASIA: NEW OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Kireeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on major dimensions, achievements, challenges and prospects of relations between Russia and East Asia. Strategic importance of the region is shaped by East Asia's increasing role in world politics and economy as well as by its appeal for Russia's modernization agenda. Russia's great power status rests upon the effectiveness of its East Asian policy and development model of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Russia's positions in East Asia have improved substantially over the 2000s. However, its involvement in regional economic interaction is still insignificant and Russia cannot be regarded as a full-fledged regional player in this domain. Russian-Chinese strategic partnership has been the axis of Russia's East Asian foreign policy, though overdependence on China threatens Russia's independent policy in the region and encourages Russia to search for ways to diversify its ties. Russia's national interests reside in multivector policy, aimed at developing substantive relations not only with China but also with Japan, South Korea, ASEAN (Vietnam in the first place and India along with Russia's involvement in the resolution of Korean nuclear crisis. The rise of China and the US counter-offensive have resulted in a changing strategic environment in East Asia. A need for balancing between the US and China has brought about ASEAN countries' desire to welcome Russia as a "balancer" or an "honest player" in the region. It corresponds with Russia's course on playing a greater role in regional cooperation and integration. Russia's improving ties in political, economic, energy and security dimensions have the potential to contribute to the stability of the emerging polycentric regional order in East Asia and development of Russia's regions of Siberia and the Far East.

  5. Final Technical Report, 30 SEPTEMBER 2002 - 31 JANUARY 2006; ENERGY PARTIONING FOR SEISMIC EVENTS IN FENNOSCANDIA AND NW RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bungum, H.; Kvaerna, T.; Larsen, S.

    2006-01-31

    In this project we have addressed the problem of energy partitioning at distances ranging from very local to regional for various kinds of seismic sources. On the local and regional scale (20-220 km) we have targeted events from the region offshore Western Norway where we have both natural earthquake activity as well as frequent occurrence of underwater explosions carried out by the Norwegian Navy. On the small scale we have focused on analysis of observations from an in-mine network of 16-18 sensors in the Pyhasalmi mine in central Finland. This analysis has been supplemented with 3-D finite difference wave propagation simulations in a realistic mine model to investigate the physical mechanisms that partition seismic energy in the near source region in and around the underground mine. The results from modeling and analysis of local and regional data show that mean S/P amplitude ratios for explosions and natural events differ at individual stations and are in general higher for natural events and frequency bands above 3 Hz. However, the distributions of S/P ratios for explosions and natural events overlap in all analyzed frequency bands. Thus, for individual events in our study area, S/P amplitude ratios can only assist the discrimination between an explosion or a natural event. This observation is supported by synthetic seismograms calculated for simple 1-D models which demonstrate that explosions also generate shear-wave energy if they are fired close to an interface with a strong material contrast (as is the case for most explosions), e.g., free surface or the ocean bottom. The larger difference in S/P ratios between earthquakes and explosions for higher frequencies can be explained by the fact that at low frequencies (larger wavelengths), discontinuities and structural heterogeneities in the explosion source region are stronger generators of converted S energy. The S*-phase, for example, is most efficiently generated whenever an explosion source is located

  6. Technical framework to facilitate foreign spent fuel storage and geologic disposal in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.; Halsey, W.G.; Cmith, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    The option of storage and eventual geologic disposal in Russia of spent fuel of US origin used in Taiwan provides a unique opportunity that can benefit many parties. Taiwan has a near term need for a spent fuel storage and geologic disposal solution, available financial resources, but limited prospect for a timely domestic solution. Russia has significant spent fuel storage and transportation management experience, candidate storage and repository sites, but limited financial resources available for their development. The US has interest in Taiwan energy security, national security and nonproliferation interests in Russian spent fuel storage and disposal and interest in the US origin fuel. While it is understood that such a project includes complex policy and international political issues as well as technical issues, the goal of this paper is to begin the discussion by presenting a technical path forward to establish the feasibility of this concept for Russia

  7. Why Russia is not a state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  8. Policy in Transition. New Framework for Russia's Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, V.

    2002-07-01

    In 2000, Russia entered the second round of radical reforms of its economic and political system. These changes affect the institutions of the macro- and microeconomic policy, of the energy policy, as well as the institutions of the climate policy. Thus, the framework is currently being built in Russia within which the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol are being and will be implemented. Success, or failure, in Russia's interactions with the international community in implementation of the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol would depend, particularly, on whether it would be able to establish renovated climate policy institutions in the nearest future. Main provisions of the Kyoto Protocol open good perspectives for the climate policy of Russia. For these favourable perspectives to become a reality, Russia will have to accomplish quite a lot at the domestic, national level. Here, Russia is facing some serious problems. Among them are recently emerged problems with ratification of Kyoto Protocol

  9. RUSSIA DOESN’T SUPPORT «SHALE REVOLUTION»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Zhiltsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of volumes of production of shale gas in the USA compelled Russia to pay attention to this type of resourses. The interest to shale gas in Russia was limited to discussions at the level of experts and reflection of importance of this problem in statements of politicians. In the next years in Russia don't plan production of shale gas commercially. It is connected with existence in Russia of considerable reserves of traditional natural gas, absence of exact data of reserves of shale gas, high costs of production, and also environmental risks which accompany development of fields of shale gas.

  10. Russia - Nato. The military balance

    OpenAIRE

    Daugaard, Søren Bech; Jacobsen, Karen Vestergård; Aigro, Signe; Skarequist, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neoclassical realist framework. The project consists in three analytical parts of respectively, 1: The military capabilities balance between NATO and Russia; 2: How the international system puts pressure on Russia; and 3: How the strategic culture of Russia can explain its balancing. This project aims to explain how the military balancing of Russia against NATO can be explained from a neo...

  11. Radcure developments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rot, A.; Zaks-rot, I.

    1995-01-01

    The survey dwells on three main parts: 1. Insight into the state of radiation curing technology in Russia. 2. Scope of the scientific potential. 3. Certain regard on forecasts, opportunities and prospects for Russian RadTech market

  12. Where is Russia heading?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the proceedings from the collection Where is Russia Heading? (= Куда идёт Россия?, published between 1994 and 1998 in connection with the international symposium held under this name each year in Moscow. The symposia and their proceeding, involving leading Russian and foreign experts, were significant in that they encompassed a wide range of themes – social, economic, political, legislative, cultural and other transformations that have been occurring in Russia during the past decades. The author, however, limits her review to contributions dealing with ethno-political and socio-cultural transformations in Russia. She concludes that the question – “Where is Russia heading?” – still remains open to answers.

  13. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  14. The Economic Effects of a Russia-EU FTA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Manchin (Miriam)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the effects of Russia joining the WTO taking into account energy sector reform and the impact of a future Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the enlarged EU and Russia. The paper uses Computable General Equilibrium Modelling techniques for quantifying the different

  15. The German energy policy as a consequence of Fukushima. The scientific discussion between nuclear phase-out and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The book on the German energy policy as a consequence includes the following contributions: The German energy turnaround - scientific contributions. The energy turnaround in Germany - issue of interdisciplinary science. The transformation of the energy systems as social and technical challenge, - on the need of integrating energy research. Transformations and transformation blockades in the German energy system. The German energy turnaround in the context of international best practice. Energy turnaround also in Japan? - The chances of a nuclear phase-out. Possibilities and limits of public participation for the realization of an energy turnaround. Public energy in Germany - a model for participation? A plea for a comprehensive analysis of the energy turnaround in relation to the omnipresent crisis. Challenges and development in the German energy industry - consequences of the increasing percentage of renewable energies on the costs and the security of supply. Research funding and innovation promotion in the area of selected renewable energies. The economic chances of an energy turnaround. The need of appropriate monetary boundary conditions for the energy turnaround and the possibilities of an organization. The human factor in the context of the energy turnaround - environmental-psychological research approaches. The legal contribution to the energy turnaround. Vulnerability and resilience of energy systems. Geography of renewable energies -spatial constraints of a sustainable energy system. Critics and alternatives: The German energy turnaround that is no turnaround.

  16. Economical and Energy Efficiency of Iron and Steel Industry Reindustrialisation in Russia Based on Implementation of Breakthrough Energy-Saving Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates were given of economical and energy efficiency of breakthrough energy-saving technologies, which increase competitive advantages and provide energy efficiency of production while reducing negative impact on the environment through reduction of emissions of harmful substances and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among these technologies, preference is given to the following: pulverized coal fuel, blast-furnace gas recycling, gasification of non-coking coal in bubble-type gas-generators, iron-ore concentrate briquetting with steam coal with further use of ore-coal briquettes in electric furnace steel making. Implementation of these technologies at iron and steel works will significantly reduce the energy intensity of production through reduction of expensive coking coal consumption by means of their substitution by less expensive non-coking (steam) coal, and natural gas substitution by own secondary energy resource, which is the reducing gas. As the result, plants will get an opportunity to become self-sufficient in energy-resources and free themselves entirely from expensive purchased energy resources (natural gas, electric power, and partially coking coals), and cross over to low-carbon development.

  17. [The demographic potential of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskii, A

    1998-05-01

    This is a general review of current demographic trends in Russia. The author analyzes the decline in population size that is taking place at the end of the twentieth century, and traces its origins as far back as the disturbances associated with World War I, the Communist revolution, and the civil war that followed it. Political repression during the Stalinist period and the tribulations experienced during World War II also contributed to the current demographic crisis. The author discusses the changes in migration patterns and the declining fertility and increasing mortality rates. The decline in life expectancy is also addressed. Some comparisons are made with the demographic situation in other European countries.

  18. Energy reconstruction of Russia economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnyakova, O.N.

    2001-01-01

    How to make the energetics economically efficient and ecologically safe - is the main question that worries many people today. The credit-monetary policy is considered. Development of the system for the control and management of the power engineering enterprises is proposed [ru

  19. Techno-economical study of solar energy technologies in Russia and in Israel and development of conceptions for the use of solar energy in various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.; Saksonov, G.; Kiselman, U.; Shpielrain, E.

    1993-01-01

    A techno-economical study was made on the Russian and Israeli solar energy research and development and application. The main objective were to evaluate the present state of art in both countries and to identify topics of mutual interest for cooperation on research and development and application including commercialization. The Israeli and Russian teams have visited many institutions and have consulted with many people involved in solar energy work, and have analyzed the following main topics: Low potential solar heat, electricity production via thermodynamic cycles, electricity production via photovoltaic cells and solar energy for technological processes. A wide variety of subjects were identified to have potential for cooperation, and a number of institutes and scientists and engineers have expressed interest in joint work. In the proposed course of action we gave higher priorities for cooperation on photovoltaic cells, parabolic troughs and DSG development, solar tower and high temperature technology, solar collectors and heating and cooling systems. Except perhaps for water heating, the economic analysis shows marginal to poor economics for solar energy utilization. Depending on fuel costs and additional restrictions planned on fuels combustion, the economics may change in some cases, for example for solar ponds. (authors)

  20. A contractor report to the Department of Energy on environmental management baseline programs and integration opportunities (discussion draft)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    In July 1996, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) chartered a government contractor led effort to develop a suite of technically defensible, integrated alternatives which meet the EM mission. The contractor team was challenged to ''think outside-the-box'' for solutions that cross traditional site boundaries and enable the programs to get the job done at an earlier date and at a lower cost. This report documents baseline programs current plans for material disposition and presents the opportunities for additional acceleration of cleanup and cost savings. A graphical depiction of the disposition of EM-owned waste and material from current state to final disposition is shown as disposition maps in Attachments 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. These disposition maps detail the material disposition at eleven major DOE sites as planned in the current discussion draft plan, Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Maps reflecting material disposition at additional sites will be added in the future. Opportunities to further accelerate the cleanup of DOE-EM sites and reduce the overall cost of cleanup are depicted in the alternative disposition maps shown in Attachments 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. These integration opportunities bring nation-wide resources to bear on common problems facing the DOE sites

  1. Development of NPP safety regulation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnevsky, Y.G.; Gutsalov, A.T.; Bukrinsky, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    The presentation describes the organisation scheme of Russian safety regulatory bodies, their tasks and responsibilities. Legislative and regulatory basis of NPP safety regulations rely on the federal laws: Law on the Use of Nuclear Energy and Law on Radiation Safety of the Population. Role of international cooperation and Improvement of regulatory activities in Russia are emphasised

  2. Safety of political communication in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozov Ilya Leonidovich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes transformation of the new threat in the information area. The author requests for discussion the various models of information security of Russia in the modern world. The article includes recommendations and proposals aimed at strengthening the security of the democratic state.

  3. Why Russia still wants nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, J.

    1993-01-01

    Despite a recent explosion at the Tomsk uranium reprocessing plant in Siberia, and the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, support for nuclear power is still firm in Russia. The Russian nuclear industry employs around two million people and their employment security is one of the chief factors in support of the nuclear power industry despite its safety record. The other major reason is energy shortages. Despite huge natural deposits of petroleum and gas, electric power shortages are widespread. Eighty per cent of Russia's electric power comes from oil-fired power stations, but oil supplies are unreliable. Production is dropping and, at the same time, an increasing proportion of the oil produced is exported to earn foreign currency. The concerns of environmental groups may have to be shelved, until Russia's infrastructure is efficient enough to maintain power supplies reliably. (UK)

  4. Intermediate report. Base for the Broad Public Discussion on Energy Policy in the Netherlands. Het tussenrapport. Basis voor de Brede Maatschappelijke Discussie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The Broad Public Djiscussion on Energy Policy (BMD) in the Netherlands is subdivided in an informative and a discussion stage. This intermediate report gives a summary of the first stage. In Ch. 2 the concept of energy and the utilized unities are discussed. Ch. 3 gives information about the actual energy consumption in the world and in the Netherlands and about the varying estimations for the future energy consumption. In Ch. 4 various possibilities for economization of energy in the Netherlands are discussed. Ch. 5 to 7 give the necessary information about the various energy sources. By source respectively the storages, applications, costs, effects on men and environment and public consequences are under discussion. Ch. 8 presents a comparative summary of the advantages and the drawbacks of various energy sources, the estimations for the future use and possibilities for energy economization. Also some attention is paid to the question on which grounds a choice from the policy possibilities may be based. Ch. 9 and 10 deal with the actual energy policy: how it is realized and what it holds. In Ch. 11 the results are discussed of four scenario-studies: how does the future energy consumption look like under different economical circumstances. What could be the effects of this on the environment at different applications of coal, natural gas, nuclear energy etc.. Furthermore the alternatives, which anounce themselves on the ground of the scenario studies, for the future energy policy are discussed. Finally the discussion questions are presented which following the coordination group will be the centre of interest in the second stage of the BMD. 427 refs.; figs.; tabs.

  5. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  6. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  7. Long-term concepts for the energy supply of developing countries, with a detailed discussion of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, C.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities of meeting the energy requirements by nuclear energy are scrutinized after giving a survey about today's energy situation in Brazil and the beginnings of an eventual development until the year 2000. An analysis of energy-intensive industry branches and of the electro-energy economy shows a primary need of energy until the year 2000 which can substantially be met using nuclear energy. Especially the use of high-temperature reactors appears an optimal solution. The effects of HTR application on the structure of primary energy sources, on the pollution of the environment, and on the balance of foreign exchange payments are examined in detail. The nuclear power plants should be constructed in such a way that a number of additional products (fuel gases, reduction gases, synthesis gas, hydrocarbons) should be produced besides current generation by utilizing process heat. (UA) [de

  8. The baseline in bottom-up energy efficiency and saving calculations - A concept for its formalisation and a discussion of relevant options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichl, Johannes; Kollmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    One of the central variables in bottom-up energy efficiency and saving calculations is the energy consumption baseline. In the evaluation of energy efficiency measures, developing this baseline is a challenging task, which may involve serious problems, especially if the energy service of the analysed subject has changed while the energy efficiency measure was being implemented. In this paper we present a formalised concept of the process of developing the baseline that is flexible enough to deal with various difficulties, such as changes in the levels of the energy services involved. We also discuss the most relevant options for deriving the necessary variables.

  9. Gazprom, Russia's weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniouchkine, V.; Zigar, M.

    2008-01-01

    World number one producer of natural gas, Russia owns a third of the proven reserves. Gazprom company, under the control of the government and with a capital close to Microsoft's or Exxon Mobil's one, exploits this fabulous richness. Some highlights of its recent history show the dimension of the stakes: on January 1, 2006, Russia interrupts its gas supplies towards Ukraine. The immediate consequence is a voltage drop in Italy and France: the European Union is dependent at 26% of the Russian gas, Finland at 100%, France at 25%.. In May 2008, Dmitri Medvedev, president of Gazprom's supervisory board becomes the President of the Russian Federations and in August 2008, Russia seizes the opportunity of the Georgian conflict to solve the problem of the gas paths in the Caspian area. Several anecdotes are presented in this book which aim at demonstrating the tight links between the history of Gazprom, who aspires to become one of the very first World companies, and the foreign policy of Russia. (J.S.)

  10. European and Russian interests between the poles of rapprochement and alienation. The energy policy relations between the European Union and Russia from 2000 to 2007; Die energiepolitischen Beziehungen zwischen der Europaeischen Union und Russland 2000-2007. Europaeische und russische Interessen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Annaeherung und Entfremdung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippert, Sebastian

    2008-07-01

    Energy mix, security of supply, climate change, renewable energies, Nabucco project and North Stream pipeline are all buzzwords that have only recently gained public currency. Russia is an important partner to the European Union in its energy strategy. On the one hand it has abundant energy raw material resources, while on the other it needs foreign capital and external investors for their development. Different intents thus stand face to face in this strategic partnership. The EU stands for market economy principles and economic efficiency, while Russia relies on governmental control extending also into the energy economy and the management of its energy resources. This book, which was submitted as a master thesis of the Rhenish Friedrich-Wilhelm University of Bonn, offers a detailed description of the energy political relations between the EU and Russia at the start of the 21st century, analysing the different interests of the players involved. It gives a comprehensive factual overview, accompanied by an assessment from the viewpoint of political science, of European energy policy, developments in Russia under Vladimir Putin and the already existing instruments of cooperation.

  11. Discussion of “Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics and Energy Conversion” (Chen, X., Xu, B., and Liu, L., 2014, ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 66(5), p. 050803)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of the paper “Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics and Energy Conversion” have presented an overview of recent applications of nanofluidic phenomena for energy conversion and storage. The discussion given here aims to place this paper in a broader context of literature and theory.

  12. Using Graphs of Gibbs Energy versus Temperature in General Chemistry Discussions of Phase Changes and Colligative Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.; Riley, Patrick; Schwinefus, Jeff; Fischer, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative graphs of Gibbs energy versus temperature is described in the context of chemical demonstrations involving phase changes and colligative properties at the general chemistry level. (Contains 5 figures and 1 note.)

  13. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  14. Path towards achieving of China's 2020 carbon emission reduction target-A discussion of low-carbon energy policies at province level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Run; Liu Wenjuan; Xiao Lishan; Liu Jian; Kao, William

    2011-01-01

    Following the announcement of the China's 2020 national target for the reduction of the intensity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% compared with 2005 levels, Chinese provincial governments prepared to restructure provincial energy policy and plan their contribution to realizing the State reduction target. Focusing on Fujian and Anhui provinces as case studies, this paper reviews two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target. That of the coastal province of Fujian proposes to do so largely through the development of nuclear power, whilst the coal-rich province of Anhui proposes to do so through its energy consumption rate rising at a lower rate than that of the rise in GDP. In both cases renewable energy makes up a small proportion of their proposed 2020 energy structures. The conclusion discusses in depth concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy. - Research Highlights: → We review two contrasting policies as a means for meeting the national reduction target of carbon emission in two provinces. → Scenario review of energy structure in Fujian and Anhui Provinces to 2020. → We discuss concerns about nuclear power policy, energy efficiency, energy consumption strategy and problems in developing renewable energy.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy's initiatives for proliferation prevention in Russia: results of radioactive liquid waste treatment project, year 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Kamachev, V.; Kelley, D.

    2010-10-01

    The objective of the project is to engage weapons scientists with training and research programs at selected nuclear sites in Russia and apply high technology polymers to immobilize legacy ILW and HLW liquids that have posed environmental challenges over the years. One compelling advantage of the projects is that V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute and Pacific Nuclear Solutions have been engaged in applied research for seven years to validate the performance and effectiveness of the polymer technology for use with radioactive liquids. With conclusive results of the research work on sixty active and simulant waste streams, the project can focus on actual applications of the technology at Ozersk (Mayak), Sever sk (SCC) Zheleznogorsk (MCC) and Gatchyna rather that on pure research. The long term objective of the project is find viable waste management solutions for serious radioactive and chemical contamination that has existed in Russia and the U. S. for several decades. The polymer technologies may be applied to all radioactive liquid. This paper summarizes the experimental work of the immobilization process and data definition of the most effective polymer compositions in addition to determining the optimum polymer to liquid ratios for economic considerations. (Author)

  16. European Hydrogen Energy Road-map (HyWays) - First Results from Simulation, Stakeholder Discussion and Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhold Wurster; Ulrich Bunger; Jean-Marc Agator; Martin Wietschel; Harm Jeeninga

    2006-01-01

    HyWays is an integrated project, co-funded by research institutes, industry, national agencies and by the European Commission under the 6. Framework Programme. HyWays aims to develop a validated and well accepted Road-map for the introduction of hydrogen in the European energy system. The main characteristic of this Road-map is that it reflects real life conditions by taking into account not only technological but also country specific institutional, geographic and socio/economic barriers and opportunities. Both stationary and mobile applications are addressed, including possible synergies ('spill over effects') between these applications. HyWays will systematically describe the future steps to be taken for large-scale introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the power market and transport sector and as a storage medium for renewable energy. An Action Plan for the support of the introduction of hydrogen technologies will be derived from this Road-map. (authors)

  17. German Business in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irakliy D. Gvazava

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Perestroika German-Russian relationships have been steadily developing fueled by close contacts between the leaders of both countries. Boris Yeltsin and Helmut Kohl, Vladimir Putin and Gerhard Schröder, Dmitry Medvedev and Angela Merkel had friendly relations resulted in some fruitful business projects, intergovernmental economic forums etc. In my article I will consider the activities of German companies in Russia, advantages, barriers and expectations

  18. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Antsyferova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  19. Aging in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizhitskaya, Olga

    2016-10-01

    Russia has always been at an intersection of Western and Eastern cultures, with its dozens of ethnic groups and different religions. The federal structure of the country also encompasses a variety of differences in socioeconomic status across its regions. This diversity yields complexity in aging research; aging people in Russia differ in terms of nationality, religion, political beliefs, social and economic status, access to health care, income, living conditions, etc. Thus, it is difficult to control for all these factors or to draw a picture of an "average" Russian older adult. Nevertheless, there is a great deal of research on aging in Russia, mainly focusing on biomedical and social aspects of aging. Most such research is based in the Central and Western regions, whereas the Siberian and Far East regions are underrepresented. There is also a lack of secondary databases and representative nationwide studies. Social policy and legislation address the needs of older adults by providing social services, support, and protection. The retirement system in Russia enables adults to retire at relatively young ages-55 and 60 years for women and men, respectively-but also to maintain the option of continuing their professional career or re-establishing a career after a "vocation" period. Though in recent years the government has faced a range of political issues, affecting the country's economy in general, budget funds for support of aging people have been maintained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. National aspects of food security of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanina Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Instability of a foreign policy situation and deepening of financial crisis actualize need of monitoring of food security’s condition as objective condition of economic sovereignty of Russia. Modern approaches to definition of food security of the state are considered in article. Critical evaluation of separate provisions of the Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation is given. The analysis of a condition of food security of Russia in the directions of independence, economic and physical availability of the food is carried out on the basis of statistical data. Food security in Russia was reflected in the political decisions that defined the new economic policy of the state in the foreign market. modern import substitution program has shown its effectiveness, which is based on the absence of alternative paths of development. An important condition is the slow pace of development of the internal economy of Russia in conditions when domestic markets competition is virtually nonexistent. Food is a priority in the development of society, ensuring political and social balance, therefore, organizational solutions discussed in this material has a transdisciplinary character. The author’s conclusions can be useful to researchers who are trying to decide how macroeconomic objectives, and conducting research for innovative solutions in many sectors of the economy.

  1. First discussion for fostering the photovoltaic energy in Mexico; Primer coloquio para el fomento de la energia fotovoltaica en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    The varied spheres (political, environmental, economic, scientific and social) day by day are looking for the key issues, which are going to make them to preserve or disappear either in the present or in the future. Therefore, it was carried out the first conversation in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico. Here there were shown different advances related to the renewable energies by those spheres. Generally speaking, it was in this event where there were gather together private and government organs in order to present every issue related to the use and to the promotion of the renewable energies. By these means, it was probed that the renewable energies are: the current market, the groundbreaking technology, the best option friendly-environment, the panacea for the society and for the improvement of the economy of many countries both developing countries and developed countries. The renewable energy topic is seen from different point of views. [Spanish] Las diferentes esferas que rigen el dia a dia; es decir, la politica, el medio ambiente, la economia, las ciencias y la sociedad, siempre estan en busca de cuestiones que las hagan crecer y evolucionar para asi seguir ocupando un espacio no solo en el presente sino tambien en el futuro. En esta ocasion fue en el primer coloquio, realizado en el Estado de Zacatecas, Mexico, donde dichas esferas se reunieron con el fin de mostrar sus diversos avances acerca de las energias fotovoltaicas. En otras palabras, fue en este coloquio donde se reunieron organos privados y gubernamentales con el fin de mostrar todo lo relacionado con el uso y la promocion de las energias renovables. Comprobando que las energias renovables son tanto: el mercado de hoy, la tecnologia de punta, la mejor opcion ambiental, la panacea para la sociedad y para la mejora de la economia de muchos paises en vias de desarrollo y de primer mundo. En estas ponencias no solo se habla de las energias renovables desde un aspecto cientifico, sino tambien financiero

  2. Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis: Quantitative Estimates Used to Facilitate Working Group Discussions (2008-2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccio, R.; Finch, P.; Frazier, R.

    2012-03-01

    This report provides details on the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) Scenario Analysis to identify potential policy options and evaluate their impact on reaching the 70% HECI goal, present possible pathways to attain the goal based on currently available technology, with an eye to initiatives under way in Hawaii, and provide an 'order-of-magnitude' cost estimate and a jump-start to action that would be adjusted with a better understanding of the technologies and market.

  3. Religious Europe, Russia and Serbia past and present: Arguments of empirical evidence: The case of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the sequel to the author's text in the previous issue of the magazine 'Philosophy and Society'. The author discusses the evolution of religious consciousness among the population of Russia and the mutual relationship between society, religion and church describing it as a sort of religious balance. By examining the motion of the balance, the author analyzes the religious situation and the confessional structure of tzarist, soviet and modern Russia. Three types of confessional structure may be postulated during the period in question: a stable confessional structure of pre-revolutionary Russia, a destabilized confessional structure in soviet time, a restabilized structure during the nineties of the previous century, and a new stabilized confessional structure in recent years.

  4. Ensuring energy security in ASEAN countries: Current trends and major challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderov, Sergey; Vorobev, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The paper discusses the issues of formation of future challenges to energy security of the ASEAN countries in the period up to 2035. The article gives examples of strategic threats to the energy security of Russia. The opportunities to meet future demand for primary energy for individual countries of ASEAN and the whole region are discussed.

  5. Russia pushes ahead with new pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-05-15

    The start of the construction of an oil export pipeline from Eastern Siberia to the Pacific Ocean marks an important new phase in Russia's policy of diversifying its exports away from Europe. Sales to the former Comecon nations of Eastern Europe have been eroded over the last decade-and-a-half since the countries there have tried to import crude oil from the North Sea and elsewhere, following the collapse of the Soviet economic bloc with its barter system of trade in oil and major commodities. Recently, Western Europeans have expressed concerns about the share of Russian supplies in their energy balances, particularly since the argument between Russia and Ukraine over gas supplies at the beginning of 2006 (see 'Gas and Power', February 2006). Since then, the European Commission has been warning of the danger of the European Union's becoming over-reliant on Russian energy. (author)

  6. Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdillon, Y

    2005-01-15

    First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

  7. The regulatory system of nuclear safety in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Shuhei

    2013-01-01

    This article explains what type of mechanism the nuclear system has and how nuclear safety is regulated in Russia. There are two main organizations in this system : ROSATOM and ROSTEKHADZOR. ROSATOM, which was founded in 2007, incorporates all the nuclear industries in Russia, including civil nuclear companies as well as nuclear weapons complex facilities. ROSTEKHNADZOR is the federal body that secures and supervises the safety in using atomic energy. This article also reviews three laws on regulating nuclear safety. (author)

  8. Features of the closure of the nuclear fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, A.P.; Klushin, A.V.; Baranaev, Yu.D.

    2014-01-01

    The strategy for the development of nuclear energy and a closed fuel cycle (CFC) in such foreign countries as China, France, India, Japan, Korea, as well as the features of the development of nuclear energy and CFC in Russia is discussed. When using the BN and BREST reactors are not solved all the problems with CFC. The introduction of the WWER-SCP reactor will help solve problems with CFC. Improving the economy, the implementation of a deep burning of minor actinides, a significant reduction in nuclear hazardous work, the use of the produced during the processing of spent nuclear fuel (U+Pu) - prospects for using WWER-SCP [ru

  9. Exchange Rate Regime in Russia, Evaluation and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Olga, Vasilevskaya

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies exchange rate choice in Russia with respect to social, economic and political determinants. The study deliberately narrowed the scope of the discussion to two extreme cases, i.e. fixed and floating exchange rate. Today Russia applies managed floating exchange rate arrangement and it is important to determine the direction of the further monetary policy development either towards fixed or floating exchange rate. The paper argues that the logical extension of the historical t...

  10. Russia’s Next Revolution: Reclaiming Lost Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Western partnerships with Russia to promote stability while recognizing legitimate security, political, economic , and domestic concerns as well as its... economic trouble, which could lead to unrest and even revolution. This paper reviews Russia’s historical propensity for revolutionary change, discusses...their rights back through a revolution and regime change. If this happens, it could lead to political instability in Russia, which would create

  11. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  12. Russia and Poland: Problems of Inevitable Coexistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy V. Ofitserov-Belskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last quarter of the century relations between Russia and Poland are balancing between trying to understand the burden of mutual guilt and a desire to construct non-emotional pragmatic relations. Sources of tension vary. In particular, it is the desire of Poland to position itself as a valued player in NATO and the EU and the role distance between the two countries in IR system, which does not allow Russia to maintain an equal political dialogue with Poland. In fact, Poland is not afraid of a direct threat from Russia, but the worst scenario is the one in which Russia without changing the content of its imperial policy can be accepted as a full partner in the international community. The evolution of Russian statehood and national specifics of democracy is largely determined the assessment of the prospects of Russian politics in Poland. The mistake of Polish diplomacy last years was that it took no direct efforts to improve relations with Russia, but only tried to impose the dialogue on Russian authorities. Diplomatic methods were designed to hurt Russian interests and to create a topic for discussion. In response, after 2006 Russia chose the tactic of ignoring Poland. But, ignoring Polish authorities, Russian politicians acted similarly with other political forces. In Poland among influential political forces, there was and there is still no loyalty to Russia. For Russian interests it is no matter who are or will be in power in Poland. However as a rule, it is an important factor that foreign policy decisions are de facto within the competences of the President and the government, as well as experiencing a significant influence of the parliamentary forces. Recent trends show no tangible innovations in bilateral programme. But innovations appear in multilateral and conflict enough issues, such as deployment of US missile defense system in Poland or Polish supervision of "Eastern Partnership" programme. The main problem is low self

  13. Proceedings of 16th Forum: Energy Day in Croatia: Energy Future in the Light of the Relations and Integration Processes in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.; Jelavic, B.

    2007-01-01

    The 16th Forum discussed the following topics: possible scenarios of development of political, economic and energy relations; technological development in the production, transmission, distribution and consumption of energy; renewable energy sources and energy efficiency and scientific, technological, organisational and economic challenges; climate change and greenhouse gases emission reduction; objectives, possibilities and effects; reform of energy sector in the context of institutional, legislative, organisational, and ownership needs and changes in the EU, country members of the Energy Community, Russia and other countries; relations EU - Russia; politics, interests and possible solutions; supranational energy projects; problems and possible solutions

  14. A new context for cooperation between Russia an the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    The energy issue is assuming a strategic importance in relations between Russia and the European Union. Among other things, this is characterised by the debates concerning the energy Charter Treaty, by negotiations concerning Russia's application to join the WTO as well as by establishment of a dialogue between Europe and Russia concerning energy. This article analyses the new factors of this energy partnership which explain the potential for cooperation and at the same time its limits. These factors are: (1) the peripherization of Russia in the international labour market, (2) the enlargement of the European Union to take in countries dependent on Russia for imports of gas and oil, (3) the liberalization of the gas and electricity markets within the European Union which constitutes a challenge for short and long-term energy security and (4) the inclusion of sustainable development within the definition of energy security. (authors)

  15. Russia's population sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T

    1996-01-01

    Russia's public health problems, which are a result in part of uncontrolled development, are a lesson for developing countries. Trends in births and deaths in Russia indicate that as socioeconomic conditions declined in recent years, the death rate increased. During 1992-93 the death rate increased from 12.1 per 1000 population to 14.5, with 75% of the increase due to cardiovascular disease, accidents, murder, suicide, and alcohol poisoning. Quality of health care was given as one reason for the high cardiovascular disease rate that included deaths due to even mild heart attacks. 20-30% of deaths are attributed to pollution. 75% of rivers and lakes in the former Soviet Union are considered unfit for drinking, and 50% of tap water is unsanitary. An estimated 15% of Russia's land area is considered to be an ecological disaster zone. Births declined from a peak of 2.5 million in 1987 to 1.4 million in 1994. During this same period deaths increased from 1.5 million to 2.3 million. In 1994 deaths exceeded births by 880,000. Life expectancy declined from 65 to 57 years for men and from 75 years to 71 years for women. Infant mortality is rising. 11% of newborns had birth defects, and 60% showed evidence of allergies or vitamin D deficiencies. The death rate during pregnancy was 50 per 1000 births, and 75% of Russian women experienced complications during pregnancy. Women's health in the reproductive years was compromised by gynecological infections. A survey in 1992 revealed that 75% of Russian women gave insufficient income as a reason for reduced childbearing. The social conditions in Russia and the former Soviet republics reflect a lack of confidence in the future. Demographic trends are affected by a complex set of factors including economic collapse, economic change and uncertainty, inadequate health care, and poor environmental conditions. These changes occurred during the mid-1980s and before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

  16. Exporting to Russia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    the aspects of territoriality and institutional context, and suggests their integration into one concept, or rather a process of contextualizing territories. In doing so, the article argues for a methodology that not only examines current events, but also captures change as particularly important in what we......This article draws on extensive fieldwork conducted in Central Asia to explore food exports to Russia. It takes its theoretical starting point in global value chain theory and pinpoints chain entry barriers relating to financing, transportation and standards. The article also proposes rethinking...

  17. Assessing gas transit risks: Russia vs. the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coq, Chloé; Paltseva, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a Transit Risk Index (TRI) designed to assess the riskiness of pipeline gas imports and to study the effect of introducing new gas routes. TRI controls for gas dependency, transit route diversification, political risks of transit, pipeline rupture probability, and the balance of power between supplying and consuming countries along the transit route. Evaluating TRI for the EU-Russia gas trade, we show that the introduction of the Nord Stream pipeline would further widen already large disparities in gas risk exposure across the EU Member States. The gas risk exposure of the Member States served by Nord Stream would decline. In contrast, EU countries not connected to Nord Stream, but sharing other Russian gas transit routes with the Nord Stream countries, would face greater gas risk exposure. We discuss the implications of our analysis for the design of the common energy policy in the EU.

  18. History of auditing in Russia. Periodization and challenges of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurii N. GUZOV

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the recent history of auditing in Russia from 1987 to the present time. This kind of research, such as any inquiry into history, calls for a well-grounded periodization. For the purposes of this study, factors were determined which influence the regulatory and methodological support of auditing; in accordance with the results of the analysis of their time intersections – the logical addition – qualitative leaps in the development of auditing in Russia were identified, which are represented as stages of its evolution. Through the application of this method, four stages in the recent history of auditing in Russia were identified: pre-history (the birth of the Russian auditing, the “wild” auditing; establishment of auditing in Russia; government regulation and licensing; self-regulation of audit activity.

  19. More natural gas from Russia, but when?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gelder, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The fourth article in a series about changes in the European natural gas market focuses on Russia, a country with gigantic potential reserves (216,000 billion m 3 ) and a production unequalled in the world (780.4 billion m 3 in 1992 in the Russian Federation), but also with enormous economic and technical problems. The question is what role Russia is able to play in the European natural gas supply. Attention is paid to the organizational structure in former Soviet Union regarding the natural gas industry, the environmental effects of exploration and exploitation, the need for foreign capital, and the disappointing progress of the 1991 Energy Charter. On a short term the infrastructure must be improved. Also the conflicts on the price of natural gas transport between the transfer countries Ukraine, Slovenia and Czechoslovakia and the West-European clients must be solved. 1 fig., 7 ills., 2 tabs

  20. Developments of nuclear power in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konowalow, V.; Tytschkow, J.; Terentjew, W.

    1994-01-01

    Since the disintegration of the Soviet Union the economy, and thus also the nuclear industry in Russia, which is supervised by the Ministry for Atomic Energy, is in a process of structural change. The process is to result in a diversification of the products manufactured for use in the power industry and the nuclear fuel cycle, and also in enhanced productivity. Science and research, which enjoy a high reputation worldwide, must be preserved and expanded. Nuclear technology in Russia is to be developed further in three stages. In the renewal phase up until 2000, older nuclear power stations will be phased out and a new generation of reactors will be developed, which will be built and connected to the power grid in the second stage, which will extend until 2010. In the third phase, after 2010, the installed capacity of the nuclear generating units equipped with new reactors is to rise to 30 or 40 million kW. (orig.) [de

  1. The Energy Story. A Key Common Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Few countries confront the European Union with its own divisiveness and limitations as much as the Russian Federation does. Shared interests do not easily translate into harmonious relations. Russia and the European Union may depend on each other, but it proves extremely difficult to agree on the policies that serve these interests. Their asymmetric dependence generates uneasiness and discomfort rather than trust and security.This publication discusses the patterns of agreement and conflict, of continuities as well as the sudden twists that seem so characteristic of relations between 'Europe' and Russia. It focuses on the three issues that continue to be most prominent in these relations: security; energy; and human rights. It argues that, based on recent experience, 'more' may not necessarily be 'better' in the European Union's approach towards Russia. We argue for a Russia strategy that may seem less ambitious and comprehensive, but that may ultimately be more productive

  2. On the phenomenon of the fast release of energy in irradiated solid methane: discussion of models considering the local space distribution of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    A general idea of the phenomenon, so-called 'a burp', is provided. It is concluded that no justified and consistent theory of the burp phenomenon is proposed. The paper expresses criticism on the application of the classic theory of homogeneous chemical reactions and of thermal explosion to analyze burps as it was in common usage up to now. Two hypotheses to explain features burps display are presented instead. Both of them have to do with mechanism of storing and releasing energy accounting for local non-uniformity of temperature end energy deposition. 11 refs., 4 figs

  3. Discussion on muon collider parameters at center of mass energies from 0.1 TeV to 100 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The main motivation for research and development efforts on muon collider technology is the assertion that affordably priced muon colliders might provide lepton-lepton collisions at much higher center of mass (CoM) energies than is feasible for electron colliders, and perhaps eventually explore the spectrum of elementary particles at mass scales inaccessible even to hadron colliders. This paper attempts to present some justification for these assertions through discussion and evaluation of the self-consistent muon collider parameter sets given in table 1 at CoM energies ranging from 0.1 to 100 TeV. The parameter set at 0.1 TeV CoM energy was included as a lower energy reference point and was constrained to essentially reproduce one of the sets of parameters currently under study by the Muon Collider Collaboration (MCC). In contrast, the other parameter sets represent speculation by the author on how the parameters might evolve with CoM energy and they have not been studied or discussed in detail within the MCC

  4. CERN: From Russia with krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Arecent arrival at CERN is a cryostat built under the auspices of thelnternational Science and Technology Center (ISTC), a programme funded by the European Union, Japan, Russia, and the US which aims to promote the integration of former Soviet Union scientists and industry into global research and development activities. The new cryostat, built by Moscowbased Krunichev Enterprises, better known for its involvement in the ''Proton'' space rocket and the ''Mir'' space station, will form a vital part of the NA48 experiment at the SPS synchrotron. NA48, a Cagliari/Cambridge/CERN/ Dubna/Edinburgh/Ferrara/Mainz/Orsay/Perugia/Pisa/Saclay/Siegen/ Turin/Vienna collaboration, aims to study the small asymmetry in the properties of matter and antimatter known as CP violation, and should be fully ready to collect data next year. Through its links with Dubna's Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (JINR), near Moscow, NA48 has launched a number of initiatives designed to involve Russian physicists and industry in the experiment. The bargain 22 tonnes of krypton for NA48's energy-measuring calorimeter were manufactured at a specially- built factory in Russia. INTAS, the European Union-backed scheme for the promotion of cooperation with former Soviet Union scientists, provides funds for Dubna physicists to visit Western Europe. INTAS will also provide computing and networking infrastructure allowing the Russian physicists to participate fully in NA48's programme. As well as the cryostat, NA48's collaborating institutes have placed other orders with Russian suppliers. INFN Pisa has ordered 14,000 electrical feed-though contacts from the Budker Institute in Novosibirsk, whilst Saclay has placed contracts elsewhere for vacuum and other equipment. The new cryostat forms part of a joint project of INFN Pisa and CERN, involving scientists from Dubna, Edinburgh, and Saclay. The Russian part was built by Krunichev

  5. Development of a system for academic training of the personnel engaged in nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onykiy, B.N.; Kryuchkov, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    The main attention in the present paper is focused on discussing the educational problems in the area of nuclear materials physical protection, control and accountability (MPC and A) in Russia. Currently, only the Master of Science Graduate Program has been completely developed for students training. This is taking place at Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University, MEPhI), where the sixth generation of Masters has graduated in May 2004. The MPC and A Engineer Degree Program, currently under development at MEPhI, is considered in the paper. This paper discusses specific features of the Engineer Degree training required by the Russian educational legislation and the Russian quality control system as applied to the training process. The paper summarises the main joint actions undertaken during the past three years by MEPhI in collaboration with the US Department of Energy and US National Laboratories for developing the MPC and A Engineer Degree Program in Russia. (author)

  6. Strategic prospects of the electric power industry of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A. A.; Veselov, F. V.; Makarova, A. S.; Novikova, T. V.; Pankrushina, T. G.

    2017-11-01

    The prospects for the development of the electric power industry of Russia adopted at a regular stage of working out the Energy Strategy and the General Plan of Distribution of the Electric Power Facilities are discussed. The monitoring of the progress in the implementation of the Energy Strategies for the periods until 2020 and 2030 adopted in 2003 and 2009 has, in general, validated the correctness of the estimated volumes of the energy resource production under overestimation of the expected domestic demand owing to an excessively optimistic forecast of the real development of the economy. The priority lines of the national energy policy in electric power and allied industries proposed in the Energy Strategy for the period until 2035 are considered. The tools for implementation of most of the proposals and the effectiveness of their implementation have yet to be defined more concretely. The development of the energy sector and the electric power industry under the conservative and optimistic scenarios of the development of the country's economy has been predicted using the SCANER modeling and information system, viz., the dynamics of the domestic consumption, export, and production of the primary energy and the electric power has been determined and the commissioning and structure of the required generating capacities and the consumption of the basic types of the energy resources by the electric power industry and the centralized heat supply systems has been optimized. Changes in the economic efficiency of the nuclear and thermal power plants under the expected improvements on their cost and performance characteristics and an increase in the domestic fuel prices are presented. The competitiveness of the wind and solar power production under Russian conditions has been evaluated considering the necessity of reservation and partial duplication of their capacities when operated in the power supply systems. When optimizing the electric power industry as a subsystem

  7. EU-Russia Cultural Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sidorova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the link between culture and diplomacy between Russia and the European Union, and shows the importance of cultural relations. It examines the common space of science, education and culture introduced at the 2003 EU-Russia Summit in St. Petersburg and the application of the principles of this concept that were established at the 2005 EU-Russia Summit in Moscow. It then considers EU-Russia collaboration on humanitarian action and the challenges that both parties face in this sphere. It also explains the formation of EU domestic and foreign cultural policy, and the role of European institutions and states in cultural affairs and diplomacy, as well as key elements and mechanisms of contemporary Russian foreign cultural policy. In addition, the article focuses on the European side of post-Soviet EU-Russia cultural relations. This cultural collaboration is defined as a competitive neighbourhood. EU and Russian interests collide: while Europeans try to promote their values, norms and standards within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy, Russia seeks to culturally influence and engage in this region for geostrategic and historical reasons. Finally, the article assesses the prospects for the EU-Russia cultural relations and emphasizes the role of ideology in improving such relations.

  8. LEGAL NIHILISM AS A THREAT TO RUSSIA'S MODERNIZATION (SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Krasilnikova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nihilistic attitude to Law is discussed as one of most serious threats to modernization currently carried out in Russia. «Law nihilism» term is defined, its social forms and influence on political and social development is discussed.

  9. The interdependence of European–Russian energy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsem, Øistein; Harald Claes, Dag

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore this dynamic interdependent relationship between Russia and Europe in the field of energy. Based on the concept of interdependence and perspectives on the political aspects of trade relations we discuss how Russia can exercise power based on its energy resources and how the EU can compensate for its lack of power in the energy game with other trade related capabilities. In particular we explore the implications of the lack of a full-fledged EU foreign energy policy towards Russia, with the somewhat counter-intuitive conclusion that the EU countries, on average, not necessarily are better off with a common foreign energy policy. - Highlights: • We examine Russian–European gas (inter)dependence. • East-European countries are most dependent on Russian gas in Europe. • EU countries, on average, are not better off with a common foreign energy policy

  10. Russian gas price reform and the EU-Russia gas relationship: Incentives, consequences and European security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanjer, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    In order to provide a comprehensive picture on the relationship between Russia and the EU, the focus should be on both the external energy relationship as well as Russia's internal organization. This paper sets out to do this by combining both strands of research in order to arrive at recommendations for Europe on the way to adjust its energy policy towards Russia. The emphasis is on whether or not Russia should impose unified gas pricing. Main conclusions are that the perceived advantages of unified Russian gas pricing to Russia as well as Europe are in fact overstated and that EU security of supply might worsen under unified gas prices. Three policy recommendations are that EU policy should (1) more explicitly acknowledge the interdependence between Russia and Europe; (2) not push Russia towards unified gas pricing; and (3) not take for granted any increase in Russian exports flowing to Europe

  11. What is Russia trying to defend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Yakovlev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to the focus on the events of the last two years (2014–2015 associated with the accession of Crimea to Russia and military conflict in Eastern Ukraine, in this study, I stress that serious changes in Russian domestic policy (with strong pressure on political opposition, state propaganda and sharp anti-Western rhetoric, as well as the fight against “foreign agents’ became visible in 2012. Geopolitical ambitions to revise the “global order” (introduced by the USA after the collapse of the USSR and the increased role of Russia in “global governance” were declared by leaders of the country much earlier, with Vladimir Putin's famous Munich speech in 2007. These ambitions were based on the robust economic growth of the mid-2000s, which encouraged the Russian ruling elite to adopt the view that Russia (with its huge energy resources is a new economic superpower. In this paper, I will show that the concept of “Militant Russia” in a proper sense can be attributed rather to the period of the mid-2000s. After 2008–2009, the global financial crisis and, especially, the Arab Spring and mass political protests against electoral fraud in Moscow in December 2011, the Russian ruling elite made mostly “militant” attempts to defend its power and assets.

  12. Life sciences research at JINR, Dubna, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontasyeva, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Within the broad spectrum of activities in the Life Sciences at JINR such as nuclear medicine and pharmacy, radiation biology, radioecology, radioisotope production radioanalytical investigations play a special role due to the long-term experience in multi-element instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at the reactor IBR-2 of FLNP, JINR. INAA is presently being used in several projects on air pollution studies using bio monitors (moss, lichens, tree bark). The results for some selected areas of Central Russia, South Urals, and countries of Europe (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro, Macedonia, Slovakia, Western Ukraine) are reported to the European Atlas of Heavy Metal Atmospheric Deposition edited under the auspices of the Environmental Commission of the United Nations. Battering-ram studies using NAA were initiated also in Turkey, China and South Korea. Applied to the analysis of air filters, INAA is successfully used in assessing quality of London underground air, Sahara desert impact on the Greater Cairo Area. Epithermal activation analysis in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry and energy-disperse X-ray fluorescence allowed source evaluation of metals in soil from some industrial and metropolitan areas of Russia (South Urals, Cola Peninsula) and the USA (Minneapolis). The analytical possibilities of NAA are favorably used in biotechnology, (i) for investigation of bacterial leaching of metals, including uranium and thorium from low-grade ores, rocks and industrial wastes; (i i) in the development of new pharmaceuticals based on the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. Occupational health studies are carried out at several fertilizer plants in Russia, Uzbekistan, Poland, Romania, Denmark and the Netherlands in the framework of the 5th Programme Copernicus. The quality of foodstuffs grown in some contaminated areas of Russia is investigated in the framework of IAEA Coordinated Research Programme. In

  13. Ukraine and Russia in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklosa, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    In order to comprehend Poland’s support for its Ukrainian neighbour in the Ukraine-Russia conflict, it is important to go back to the difficult Polish-Ukrainian neighbouring relations following the Second World War....

  14. Medical exposure in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnisky, S.A.; Bazukin, A.B.; Ivanov, E.V.; Jakubovskiy-Lipsky, Y.O.; Vlasova, M.M.; Gontsov, A.A.; Ivanov, S.I.

    2001-01-01

    Recently there have been considerable changes in radiology, which is because of coming to a new form of property, reforms of health services and crisis in the society. Big area, bad means of communication and low density of population in most regions of the country should be also mentioned among the factors influencing the level of both health protection and radiology services. All these factors don't allow to create an effective radiology system in a short time. Meanwhile the main nearest task of radiology is the integration and optimization of all means of visualization on the basis of solving fundamental problems of health protection according to the Federal program, normative acts and decrees of the government. In this connection it seemed to be an urgent task to estimate various aspects of radiology activity of Russian health in the dynamics for the recent period of time. The data of the state statistics are to be used to cope with this task. These data on the basis of the computer program 'Region', the quantity indices of various visualization methods used in Russia and the doses of exposure of the population have been estimated and the reference book 'Medical irradiation of the population in Russia. 1980-1997 years' has been published. It turned out that the average annual number of X-ray examinations per thousand population in Russia before 1988 year was constantly up to 1600. And only then because of Chernobyl accident its increase stopped and its gradual decline began (table 1). Such high frequency of the examinations was caused mainly by the large scales of mass preventive photofluorography (more than 40%), held for early tuberculosis exposure. It was as a result of reorganization of fluorographic examination system started in the late 80s and early 90s that this pernicious tendency was overcome and the number of fluorography was reduced almost twice from 90 to 56 millions a year, which considerably contributed to reducing the exposure. Unfortunately as

  15. Report made on behalf of the parity mixed commission in charge of proposing a text about the dispositions of the project of energy orientation law remaining to be discussed; Rapport fait au nom de la commission mixte paritaire (1) chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The project of energy orientation law aims at fixing the main principles of the French energy policy for the next decades. It foresees: the re-launching of the French nuclear program (building of an experimental European pressurized reactor (EPR)), the reinforcement of the mastery of energy demand (3% per year, creation of energy saving certificates and reinforcement of buildings energy efficiency rules), and the sustain of renewable energies development. This document presents, first, a direct comparison, article by article, of the text adopted in second lecture by the House of Commons, with the text adopted in second lecture by the Senate. Then, a text is proposed for the last dispositions that remained to be discussed and is presented in the second part of the report. (J.S.)

  16. Russia skyshine experiment analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsubosaka, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kawabe, Toshiaki [The Japan Research Institute, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueki, Kohtaro [National Maritime Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    Experimental studies of neutron and gamma-radiation skyshine at nuclear reactor are proceeding in cooperation with Russia, Kazakhstan and Japan as a project of international science technology center (ISTC). Fast neutron streaming from the vertical experimental hole of IVG.1M reactor which has a cylindrical core are analyzed by a monte carlo n-particle transport code (MCNP) with variance reduction methods, in which a weight window method and a cell importance method can be selected. Calculation results on radial distribution of fast neutron flux at 100 cm above the reactor is compared with the experimental values. The calculated values of neutron flux by using the cell importance method, however, is very different from the experimental values at close distance of 10 cm from the center. Skyshine analysis of neutron radiation streaming from the reactor are also carried out by the equivalent source model in which a point source and the detectors are located at 10 cm and 1 m above the ground, respectively. The calculated values of total neutron flux distribution are very close to the experimental values. The effects of the air composition on neutron flux calculation are also investigated. (M. Suetake)

  17. SCWR Concept in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-08-15

    An increase in the efficiency of NPPs with light-water reactors through ‘nuclear’ steam superheating was one of the problems solved in the field of nuclear power industry. The commissioning of the Beloyarsk NPP, Units 1&2 with the channel-type reactor in the sixties of the 20th century showed the potential of realization of this idea and the necessity to solve a series of problems in technology and materials science. The NPP operation experience, elaboration and operational experience of steam superheating channels are extremely important in choosing the ways of design development of Generation IV reactors with supercritical pressure coolant water. The first technical proposal on a supercritical water cooled reactor of vessel type made in Russia in 1986 was the design of a two-circuit reactor plant (RP). The concept of the two-circuit RP of integrated type VVER-SCP-I with electric power of 500 MW was proposed in 1990. The design activities on these projects were performed at OKB GIDROPRESS and the analyses were carried out at the RRC Kurchatov Institute. The State Science Center of the Russian Federation Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (SSC RF IPPE) has been performing the computational studies of a single-circuit RP VVER-SCP since 2001. In 2006 OKB GIDROPRESS launched the design effort and computational analyses to corroborate the design of a single loop RP.

  18. Integrated resource planning for the rational use of energy in Slovenia. Overview of analysis with discussion of the role of WASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbancic, A.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) for the regional use of energy in Slovenia is presented in this paper. The main objective of the analysis is the improvement of the overall energy efficiency in Slovenia. Emphasis of the IRP analysis is given on: 1) comparison of demand and supply options and 2) embedding of the planning procedure into a structured analysis procedure to make the planning process more transparent. The Wien Automatic System Planning package (WASP) will be sued in the modeling framework for determining the optimal expansion plan for different demand patterns. This paper provides an overview of the IRP project for Slovenia. The paper consists of three sections. The first section aims at giving an insight on the motivations for the analysis; the second section describes the case studies in structured analysis steps. The role of WASP is discussed in the third part. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  19. Integrated resource planning for the rational use of energy in Slovenia. Overview of analysis with discussion of the role of WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbancic, A [Energy Efficiency Centre, Jozef Stefan Inst., Ljubjana (Slovenia)

    1997-09-01

    Integrated resource planning (IRP) for the regional use of energy in Slovenia is presented in this paper. The main objective of the analysis is the improvement of the overall energy efficiency in Slovenia. Emphasis of the IRP analysis is given on: 1) comparison of demand and supply options and 2) embedding of the planning procedure into a structured analysis procedure to make the planning process more transparent. The Wien Automatic System Planning package (WASP) will be sued in the modeling framework for determining the optimal expansion plan for different demand patterns. This paper provides an overview of the IRP project for Slovenia. The paper consists of three sections. The first section aims at giving an insight on the motivations for the analysis; the second section describes the case studies in structured analysis steps. The role of WASP is discussed in the third part. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Russia/Asia-Pacific: rising gas and oil production in the Russian Far East will recast Asia-Pacific energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.

    1994-01-01

    The next few years will see the emergence of the Russian Far East (RFE) as a major new source of hydrocarbons. Expansion of the production of crude oil and refined products will substantially improve the region's degree of energy self-sufficiency. The development of the large gas reserves is likely to have the greatest impact however. Three scenario's for this development are examined. Even under the most pessimistic the region's gas balance will show an exportable surplus by 2000. The energy future of the RFE, especially export plans for gas, depends on foreign investment, though. A radical improvement in the investment climate is needed to promote international co-operation. Political factors and strains within the Russian Federation and dwindling supplies of the crude oil and refined products from Siberia which the RFE still needs, tend to favour the development of economic links between the RFE and its Pacific Rim neighbours. The RFE would then be involved in Pacific energy flows, exporting gas and importing crude oil and refined products to make up its domestic shortfall rather than being dependent on Moscow controlled supplies. Should the RFE take this independent course and open its doors to foreign investors, solutions to the region's energy security problems would be made easier. There would almost certainly, though, be rivalry between the USA, Japan and Korea for influence with the RFE. (3 tables) (UK)

  1. Internalized homophobia in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  2. How can results from macro economic analyses of the energy consumption of households be used in macro models? A discussion of theoretical and empirical literature about aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Bente; Larsen, Bodil M.; Nesbakken, Runa

    2001-01-01

    The literature on energy demand shows that there are systematic differences in income- and price elasticity from analyses based on macro data and micro data. Even if one estimates models with the same explanatory variables, the results may differ with respect to estimated price- and income sensitivity. These differences may be caused by problems involved in transferring micro properties to macro properties, or the estimated macro relationships have failed to adequately consideration the fact that households behave differently in their energy demand. Political goals are often directed towards the entire household sector. Partial equilibrium models do not capture important equilibrium effects and feedback through the energy markets and the economy in general. Thus, it is very interesting, politically and scientifically, to do macro economic model analyses of different political measures that affect the energy consumption. The results of behavioural analyses, in which one investigates the heterogeneity of the energy demand, must be based on information about individual households. When the demand is studied based on micro data, it is difficult to aggregate its properties to a total demand function for the entire household sector if different household sectors have different behaviour. Such heterogeneity of behaviour may for instance arise when households in different regions have different heating equipment because of regional differences in the price of electricity. The subject of aggregation arises immediately when one wants to draw conclusions about the household sector based on information about individual households, whether the discussion is about the whole population or a selection of households. Thus, aggregation is a topic of interest in a wide range of problems

  3. Russia's natural gas policy toward Northeast Asia: Rationales, objectives and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the institutional dimensions of Russia's gas policy toward Northeast Asia (NEA During the liberal economic reforms of the 1990s, development of natural gas deposits in the Russian Far East was made possible under the scheme of production sharing agreements (PSA). However, new PSAs were banned in Russia even before the advent of state capitalism in the early 2000s. This was, to a large extent, the result of strong anti-PSA lobbying led by the domestic energy business elite. Consequently, Russia's gas policy in the east began evolving from being project-specific toward being region-specific. Contemporary Russian gas policy toward NEA relies upon domestic (national and regional) and external institutions. In 2009, following the completion of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Sakhalin, Russia entered NEA gas markets. Transformations in the international gas markets facilitated the establishment of a two-pattern gas export policy in Russia in 2013. Under this policy, Russia's EU-oriented pipeline gas export remains monopolised by Gazprom, while Asia-oriented LNG export is partially liberalised. Russia has not been experiencing institutional discrepancy in NEA gas markets. However, as the markets evolve toward greater coordination, a rational option for Russia is to genuinely liberalise its gas policy. - Highlights: • Russia–EU institutional inconsistency has accelerated Russia's gas export diversification. • Institutions for regional development are an important component of Russia's gas policy in Asia. • Transformations in globalising gas markets induced Russia's limited gas export liberalisation. • Genuine gas policy liberalisation can facilitate the attainment of Russia's goals in Asia

  4. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  5. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  6. Meeting of Energy Needs During the Period of Raw Materials Insufficiency in the 21st Century (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and Slovakia cooperation - draft of project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.; Apostolov, T.; Petrov, B.; Chwaszcewski, S.; Andrzejewski, K.; Subbotin, S.; Tsibulskij, V.; Darilek, P.; Zajac, R.; Breza, J.

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of the work is to give into the mutual harmony long term planning of nuclear energy (contemporary power station has supposed lifetime 70 years and will need at least ten years from the decision to full realization) with the possibility of raw materials supply during the whole lifetime. But situation is not so uniquely directed only to nuclear energy - classical sources (coal, gas and oil) are supposed to be exhausted surely in this century (coal could be regionally dependent) and specially Europe will be practically net consumer of energy raw materials. Ways to stabilize market could be production of hydrogen and use of U238 and Th232 in the new reactors. But developments needed to influence practical industrial demand is about 30 years to be able to start to build up industrial new type nuclear power-stations and money of the order of several billion dollars. At the same time political unification has consequence on local raw material resources, which could hardly be interpreted only as the local or national ownership. Their price could sharply rise and there will be pressure to use it not only for energy production, but also as the chemical raw material. Moreover it is expected that in the half of this century the price of natural uranium will be limiting factor for the contemporary PWR reactors use and that there will be necessary to start fast breeders or use thorium fuel to cover demands. Last estimations about the oil peaking and its consequences are included. Armenia, Lithuania and Ukraine representatives expressed will to join the project. Common will is expressed in the presentation to try to understand commonly the future development and to find common solution to the future challenges (Authors)

  7. Energy research and development in the United Kingdom. Report of the Group set up by the Council of the Royal Society to examine, discuss and report on the Department of Energy Paper 'Energy R and D in the United Kingdom - A discussion document' (Energy Paper no. 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Following an Introduction and Summary, the report is in sections, entitled: energy supply and demand, and possible economic futures in the United Kingdom; energy sources available to the United Kingdom (coal; offshore oil; nuclear fission power; nuclear fusion power; alternative power sources, e.g. wave power, solar energy, tidal power); energy conservation; consequential energy R and D strategy. In connection with nuclear fission power it is the opinion of the group that sufficient approval for the UK single commercial fast breeder reactor project should be given so that all the necessary planning and practical studies can be started immediately. Safety and environmental problems should be intensively studied. The group would like to see a much stronger R and D programme concerned with the disposal of nuclear wastes. (U.K.)

  8. Space Biology in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the

  9. Ukraine, Russia and the EU: linked by gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furfari, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    The Ukrainian crisis serves as a reminder just how much Ukraine plays a determining role for the European Union in energy matters, being the funnel through which most of Russian gas has to pass to reach Western Europe. One inevitable conclusion is already obvious: Russia and the EU are intimately linked and Moscow is as dependent on the EU for foreign exchange as is the EU on Russia for its gas. Nevertheless, the absence of stability in Ukraine constitutes a permanent threat to supplies to member states of the EU, especially Germany. (author)

  10. Will the world SNF be reprocessed in Russia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.

    2000-01-01

    Russia's possibilities in nuclear fuel reprocessing are well known. RT-1 plant with 400 tons/year in the Chelyabinsk region can provide reprocessing of fuel from Russian and Central European WWER-440 reactors, as well as from transport and research reactors. Former military complex Krasnoyarsk-26 with unique underground installations situated in rock galleries, already has an aqueous facility for storage of 6000 tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), half-built plant RT-2 for nuclear fuel reprocessing with 1500 tons/year capacity, as well as the projects of dry storage facility for 30000 tons of SNF and of MOX fuel production plant. Russian nuclear specialists understand well, that the economic efficiency of nuclear fuel reprocessing industry is shown only in case of large-scale production, which would require consolidation of the countries, which develop nuclear energy. They also understand, that Russia has all the possibilities to become one of the centers of such a consolidation and to use these possibilities for the benefit of the country. The idea of foreign nuclear fuel reprocessing (for a long time realized for East and Central European countries, which operate Soviet-design reactors) has existed in the specialists' minds, and sometimes has appeared in the mass media. On the other hand, rehabilitation of territories of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises in Russia continues, including the Karachai lake, which contains 120 million Curie of radioactivity. Unfortunately, Russia simply has no money for complete solution of the problems of radiation military legacy. During discussion of the budget for 2000, the Russian Minatom has made a daring step. A real program, how to find money needed for solving the 'radiation legacy' problem, was proposed. With this purpose, it was proposed to permit storage and further reprocessing of other countries' SNF on Russian territory. It is well known, that another countries' SNF is accepted for reprocessing by UK and France, and Russia

  11. America and Russia in International Communications: Stereotypes and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga; Beadle, Mary

    1999-01-01

    One barrier to international communication is cultural stereotypes. Based on a literature review and on personal experience and research, this paper explores several prevalent stereotypes about Russia and the United States, noting the influence they may have on business communication. It also discusses the opportunities for and threats to…

  12. On Models of the University in Today's Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    In current discussions of the problems that affect the development of higher education in Russia, two dimensions dominate, in which opinions diverge and positions clash. In the "first" ("the political and economic" dimension) the extreme poles are the "liberal approach" (according to which higher educational…

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  14. RISK MANAGEMENT AS TRANSPORTATION SAFETY PROVISION INSTRUMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikolayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety of transportation in Russia is subject to a variety of threats. Discussed in the article are characteristics of major threats to transportation security. State transportation policy directions that make it possible to ensure the security of cargo and passenger transportation are shown. A listof activities and innovative risk management tools that provide for improved safety of railway transportation is proposed.

  15. FROM PONDS TO MAN-MADE SEAS IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gorshkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia has more than 2200 reservoirs and large ponds. As time went by, ponds lost their importance in some aspects of human life, while newly created man-made seas impacted the nature and the people in two ways. The costs involved in designing, constructing, and operating the artificial seas, especially on the plains, have been too high to consider them as an undisputed achievement of the Soviet scientists transforming the nature. This paper discusses the problem of ponds and man-made seas in Russia.

  16. FACADES OF RUSSIA: THE STATE OF THE MARKET AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlook of the facades market in its most important segments: translucent facades, hinged ventilated facades, plaster facades with insulation, fire safety of facades, has become the subject of the discussion on The Second Congress of the Facades Market Facades of Russia+ 2015, which took place in September 2015. The Congress was attended by the leading experts of the facades market from sectoral institutions, higher education institutions, oversight bodies, leaders of manufacturers of facade materials and installation companies from different regions of Russia, from the near and far abroad

  17. Russia-India: New Horizons For Historical Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ivashentsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia’s relations with India have been close to those of an alliance. However the changes that have taken place in Russia and in the general global situation as well as India’s mighty economic upswing and the rise of its geopolitical ambitions on that basis have introduced new accents and nuances to these relations. With the coming to power in 2014 of Bharatiya Janata or Indian People’s Party whose ideology is Hindutwa, the nationalism, based on Hindu religious traditions, India’s foreign policy has acquired a new assertiveness. The present Prime Minister N.Modi has declared his plan to make India a leading power on the international arena. An important feature of India’s foreign policy of recent years is its active building bridges with the US which it view first of all as a potential counterweight to China. The Indian diaspora in the US of 3Million has played its role in that process. However New Delhi maintains the line of the privileged strategic partnership with Russia. India’s global and regional interests coincide more often with those of Russia than witch othegreat powers. As for Russia, it never had any conflict with India in the past. Three main pillars of our partnership beyond the foreign affairs framework are those of cooperation in energy, including nuclear power, military technologies and space exploration. Russia-India partnership has proved its viability and efficiency. It helps to promote global peace and security.

  18. The White Sea, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  19. Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Bellwether of Russia's Investment climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellecker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), a shipper-owned oil pipeline carrying Caspian oil to Russia's Black Sea port of Novorossyisk, remains to this day the only oil export pipeline on Russian territory that is not under the control of the state company Transneft. Completed in 2001, the CPC was, from the start, the product of a fragile balance of power between states eager to maintain control of hydrocarbon flows and private companies able to finance the necessary infrastructure. Despite its economic success, the future of the CPC currently hinges on a share-holding dispute pitting Russia against private shareholders. This essay places the CPC dossier in the broader context of Russia's investment climate and argues that the dispute's dynamic is an important bellwether of the Russian energy policy. (author)

  20. UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS DURING ECONOMY CRISIS 2014-2015 IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostikova E. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article lists factors affecting the socio-economic situation and questions concerning unemployment in Russia are discussed specifically. The purpose is to identify weak points in the labor market. Visual support reflects the dynamics of unemployment in Russia during economy crisis. Unemployment trends by federal districts, the causes of regional unemployment imbalances are examined. The novelty of the author’s approach is to forecast the unemployment rate for future periods with expert assessments to determine the risk of deviation of unemployment from trend. Data were analyzed in terms of unemployment level in Europe and comparison with Russian indicators was conducted. Based on the research, causes of unemployment in Russia and ways of its decline were discovered. Appropriate conclusions were made.

  1. Recent energy situation in the U.S. and Europe. Trend of discussions on energy safety security and energy policies in the E.U. and CIS (commonwealth of independent states) countries; Obei ni okeru saikin no energy jijo. Energy anzen hosho ni kansuru giron no doko to EU oyobi CIS shokoku no energy seisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The E.U. intends to establish the stabilized new partnership and economic area, based on free trades and tighter economic cooperation with Mediterranean countries. For the purpose of establishing the effective cooperative relationship in the energy field, the E.U. committee taking the short- and medium-term initiative prepares as follows: The establishment of the European/Mediterranean Energy Forum is thought of. This is for the joint management of cooperation in the energy field and the organization of the conferences and meetings of information exchanges between partners. The discussion is started for the final joining in the organization of partners of Mediterranean countries who do not participate in the Pan-European Energy Charter conference. They study options adoptable for easing investments. They cooperate with the related countries for carrying out the project having common interest in the TENs (Trans-European energy networks) field. The working-out of plans and projects is promoted for coordinating energy projects according to the purposes and procedures of MEDA. 59 refs.

  2. Safety Regulation Implemented by Gosatomnadzor of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsalov, A.T.; Bukrinsky, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The principles and approaches used by Gosatomnadzor of Russia in establishing safety goals are described. The link between safety goals and safety culture is demonstrated. Information on nuclear regulatory activities in Russia is also presented

  3. The petroleum dilemma of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubinski, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is confronted with major choices in the research of an optimum petroleum strategy. Now the first world exporter, Russia takes advantage of the Usa policy, first importer, which aim to diversify their supply sources since the 11 september 2001, to decrease their dependence from the Saudi Arabia and more generally from the instable Middle East. In another hand, Moscow wants to minimize the dependence of the petroleum benefit and the oils prices fluctuations, by a diversification of its economy structure. These choices define a part of the russian policy in the context of the presidential elections of march 2004. (A.L.B.)

  4. National energy cost optimization and project implementation: Two different worlds?. Discussion paper in the framework of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Harmelen, T.

    1994-08-01

    One of the main targets of the UNEP Greenhouse Gas Abatement Costing Study is combining the techno-economic and purely economic modelling approaches into one overall modelling methodology for greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. This type of models can be categorized as bottom-up models, since technology data on a very detailed level result in costs and emissions on a national level. In contrast with, but not necessarily in conflict with these models, macro-economists rely in general on macro-economic models which derive economic projections from aggregated national and sectorial economic data. These so called top-down models describe the complete national economy. Therefore the energy sector is modelled in a very aggregated way. Since the micro-economic and techno-economic approaches can be classified both as bottom-up approaches, it could be expected that mutual understanding exists. However, this is not true for all issues in this field. Techno-economical views and micro-economic views differ for instance on the implementation of options. This topic drew attention during the UNEP study, next to other items as techno-economic and macro-economic model assessments of the costs of CO 2 abatement. One of the most important implementation issues is the so-called negative cost (benefit) potential of energy saving options, which exists in the techno-economic view at this very moment, but which is not implemented yet. In the view of micro-economic analysis this potential does not exist, since options which are profitable would have been implemented according to presently adopted cost-benefit theory. Several aspects of this controversy have been discussed extensively elsewhere. In this paper the two visions are summarized and it is discussed whether it is fruitful to combine techno-economic and micro-economic approaches in an overall methodological framework. 1 tabs., 8 refs

  5. Avalanche risk assessment in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarov, Anton; Seliverstov, Yury; Sokratov, Sergey; Glazovskaya, Tatiana; Turchaniniva, Alla

    2017-04-01

    The avalanche prone area covers about 3 million square kilometers or 18% of total area of Russia and pose a significant problem in most mountain regions of the country. The constant growth of economic activity, especially in the North Caucasus region and therefore the increased avalanche hazard lead to the demand of the large-scale avalanche risk assessment methods development. Such methods are needed for the determination of appropriate avalanche protection measures as well as for economic assessments during all stages of spatial planning of the territory. The requirement of natural hazard risk assessments is determined by the Federal Law of Russian Federation. However, Russian Guidelines (SP 11-103-97; SP 47.13330.2012) are not clearly presented concerning avalanche risk assessment calculations. A great size of Russia territory, vast diversity of natural conditions and large variations in type and level of economic development of different regions cause significant variations in avalanche risk values. At the first stage of research the small scale avalanche risk assessment was performed in order to identify the most common patterns of risk situations and to calculate full social risk and individual risk. The full social avalanche risk for the territory of country was estimated at 91 victims. The area of territory with individual risk values lesser then 1×10(-6) covers more than 92 % of mountain areas of the country. Within these territories the safety of population can be achieved mainly by organizational activities. Approximately 7% of mountain areas have 1×10(-6) - 1×10(-4) individual risk values and require specific mitigation measures to protect people and infrastructure. Territories with individual risk values 1×10(-4) and above covers about 0,1 % of the territory and include the most severe and hazardous mountain areas. The whole specter of mitigation measures is required in order to minimize risk. The future development of such areas is not recommended

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions from Russia's electricity sector: future scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenhof, Paul A.; Hill, Malcolm R.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates future greenhouse gas emission scenarios for Russia's electricity sector, a topic of importance since Russia's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol in November 2004. Eleven scenarios are constructed to the year 2020 considering economic and technological details in both the demand and supply sides of the sector. The scenarios are based upon a thorough review of the different factors controlling carbon dioxide emissions, including potential economic growth, changes in energy efficiency and technological development, and that Russia may export large amounts of natural gas to European and Asian markets. The most likely scenario is that Russia will double industrial output over the next 10 years, increase energy efficiency in the demand sector, will remain consistent to the goals of the Energy Strategy 2020 and will implement more efficient technology in the electricity supply sector. Consequently, carbon dioxide emissions will still be 102 million tonnes below 1990 levels in 2010, representing a significant source for emission reduction credits available to be sold on international markets or transferred to the next crediting period. (Author)

  7. European Union-Russia Oil and Gas Relationship and the Chinese Prospect. Geopolitics before Trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongrenier, Jean-Sylvestre

    2014-01-01

    The geopolitical conflict around Ukraine, risks and threats about Russia's gas exports toward Europe and the new Russian-Chinese gas contract (Shanghai, 20 may 2014) draw attention to the triangular relationship between Russia, Europe and China. Initially, EU's authorities wanted to make apolitical the energy issue but Russia's rulers have a strategic and geopolitical approach of it. Due to this interdependency, Vladimir Putin wants to open new markets in Asia in order to gain room for maneuver in Europe. If China's diplomacy is mainly determined by the energy needs of its economy, Moscow gives priority to power and its stakes

  8. Economic Study of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage and Reprocessing Practices in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Miley, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes a study of nuclear power economics in Russia. It addresses political and institutional background factors which constrain Russia's energy choices in the short and intermediate run. In the approach developed here, political and institutional factors might dominate short-term decisions, but the comparative costs of Russia's fuel-cycle options are likely to constrain her long-term energy strategy. To this end, the authors have also formulated a set of policy questions which should be addressed using a quantitative decision modeling which analyzes economic costs for all major components of different fuel cycle options, including the evolution of uranium prices

  9. Economic Study of Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage and Reprocessing Practices in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. E. Singer; G. H. Miley

    1997-10-01

    This report describes a study of nuclear power economics in Russia. It addresses political and institutional background factors which constrain Russia's energy choices in the short and intermediate run. In the approach developed here, political and institutional factors might dominate short-term decisions, but the comparative costs of Russia's fuel-cycle options are likely to constrain her long-term energy strategy. To this end, the authors have also formulated a set of policy questions which should be addressed using a quantitative decision modeling which analyzes economic costs for all major components of different fuel cycle options, including the evolution of uranium prices.

  10. Oil industry of Russia and foreign investments: main directions and ways of external finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyanik, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Problem of financing oil industry of Russia is discussed. Basic ways of attracting foreign investments into the oil industry are considered. The main attention is paid to technical assistance and foreign credits

  11. Towards a New Russia Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Johnson’s Russia List, February 27, 2006, available at www.cdi.org. On Korea, see C. Kenneth Quinones, “ Dualism in the Bush Administration’s North... Foster -Carter, “Pyongyang Watch: Six-Party Glacier: Did the US Melt?” Asia Times Online, June 28, 2004, www.atimes.com. The author can attest to

  12. PARALLEL IMPORT: REALITY FOR RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. А. Сухопарова

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem of parallel import is urgent question at now. Parallel import legalization in Russia is expedient. Such statement based on opposite experts opinion analysis. At the same time it’s necessary to negative consequences consider of this decision and to apply remedies to its minimization.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  13. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  14. Scenarios for Russia's natural gas exports to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltsev, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world's largest natural gas reserves and it is the world's largest exporter of natural gas. Despite a recent reduction in Russia's exports to Europe, it plans to build new pipelines. We explore the long-term (up to 2050) scenarios of Russian natural gas exports to Europe and Asia using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. We found that over the next 20–40 years natural gas can still play a substantial role in Russian exports and there are substantial reserves to support a development of the gas-oriented energy system both in Russia and in its current and potential gas importers. Based on the considered scenarios, Russia does not need any new pipeline capacity to the EU unless it wants to diversify its export routes to supply the EU without any gas transit via Ukraine and Belarus. Asian markets are attractive to Russian gas and substantial volumes may be exported there. Relatively cheap shale gas in China may sufficiently alter the prospects of Russian gas, especially in Asian markets. In the Reference scenario, exports of natural gas grow from Russia's current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. Alternative scenarios provide a wider range of projections, with a share of Russian gas exports shipped to Asian markets rising to more than 30% by 2030 and almost 50% in 2050. Europe's reliance on LNG imports increases, while it still maintains sizable imports from Russia. - Highlights: • In the Reference scenario exports of natural gas grow from Russia’s current 7 Tcf to 11–12 Tcf in 2030 and 13–14 Tcf in 2050. • In alternative scenarios a share of Russian exports to Asian markets is rising to about 30% by 2030 and 50 % in 2050. • Cheap shale gas in China can sufficiently alter Russian natural gas export. • Reduction in nuclear generation in Europe can lead to increased exports of natural gas from

  15. Direct conversion of nuclear energy into radiation: New direction in thermonuclear laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaev, Yu.N.; Vedenov, A.A.; Filyukov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    In investigations dealing with thermonuclear fusion, a radical new direction appeared some time ago, namely the direct conversion of nuclear and thermonuclear energy into radiation energy. This paper reviews early work on this topic in Russia and the United States and discusses some recent new directions

  16. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  17. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  18. Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS

    2011-01-01

    The Joint US-CERN-Russia-Japan School recently organised a course on Synchrotron Radiation & Free Electron Lasers, held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy from 6 to 15 April, 2011.   The school attracted 65 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Russia, Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 15 lectures each of 90 minutes, 9 hours of parallel sessions, and 6 hours of discussion/student presentation sessions. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity during the traditional one-day excursion to visit two archeological sites at the Temples of Segesta and Selinunte. The success of the school has encouraged the organisers to re-launch the Joint School, which ran on a roughly t...

  19. METHOD OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH OF PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. Rubinchik

    2015-01-01

    The article suggests a methodology of historical research of preschool education. The analysis of theoretical and methodical provisions for the education of preschool children. Discusses the importance of the achievements of the Soviet system of preschool upbringing and education. Shows the principles, directions, methods and conditions for their implementation when working with children of preschool age. Discusses the state of childhood in modern Russia, problems of development of preschool ...

  20. INPRO results and future tasks. A look from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.; Velikhov, E.P.; Kuznetsov, V.P.; Zrodnikov, A.V.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    Russia is supporting the INPRO Innovative Project, being driven by the IAEA in the field of innovative nuclear energy. The participation of Russia in the INPRO is a part of the realization process of Russia's President Initiative, presented at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, on the creation of a new generation of nuclear energy systems, meeting the requirements of sustainable development and excluding using the nuclear weapons technologies and materials. In 2003 the draft INPRO Methodology for assessment of the innovative nuclear energy systems correspondence to the requirements of sustainable development has been developed. At present time the Methodology's approbation on the examples of national nuclear power technologies is being completed. It is supposed that the Methodology will be used as a navigator for the world nuclear energy development process. The INPRO stresses the timeliness of nuclear energy development problems. The International Organization on nuclear fuel cycle is the key decision of non-proliferation problem. Important are the questions of interaction and particularities of the INPRO and Generation IV programs. State support and international cooperation are conditions for effective development of nuclear energy. (authors)

  1. Cleantech in Russia 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipatov, Anton [IAA Cleandex, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bakhareva, Olga [Techart Marketing Group, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15

    The aim of this report is to provide foreign investors and interested parties with information about characteristics of Russian clean technologies ('cleantech') industry and market development. The term 'cleantech' according to our definition breaks down into five groups of technologies: alternative energy and renewables: wind power, photovoltaics, solar hot water and CSP, biofuel, biomass, biogas, mini hydro power plant, tidal and wave power, hydrogen power; energy management systems: smart power systems, advanced batteries, power efficiency; green transport: electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, alternative fuel; waste and emission management, water and air resources: waste collection and transportation, recycling, disposal; water treatment, air treatment; environment recovery; innovative technologies and materials: nanotechnologies, bio technologies, eco-friendly materials.

  2. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, Mert

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  3. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand: Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert, E-mail: mert.bilgin@bahcesehir.edu.t [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system.

  4. Geopolitics of European natural gas demand. Supplies from Russia, Caspian and the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilgin, Mert [Bahcesehir University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Political Science and International Relations Department, Ciragan Caddesi Besiktas, 34353 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-11-15

    This paper addresses issues of natural gas which raise questions about European energy security. It first focuses on the rising gas demand of the EU27 and elaborates alleged risks of dependence on Russia such as Gazprom's disagreement with Ukraine, which became an international gas crisis in January 2006 and also more recently in January 2009. Incentives and barriers of Europe's further cooperation with selected Caspian (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan) and Middle Eastern (Iran, Iraq and Egypt) countries are discussed. Supplies from Caspian are analyzed with a particular focus on Russia's role and the vested interests in the region. Supplies from the Middle East are elaborated with regard to Iran's huge and Iraq's emerging potentials in terms of natural gas reserves and foreign direct investments in the energy sector. The geopolitical analysis leads to a conclusion that the best strategy, and what seems more likely, for the EU is to include at least two countries from Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran and Iraq within its natural gas supply system. (author)

  5. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison; Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik. Die Diskussion in Deutschland und den Niederlanden im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-11-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [German] Die Schiefergasfoerderung mit Hilfe der sogenannten Fracking-Methode stellt fuer Gegner die Anwendung einer Hochrisikotechnologie dar, Befuerworter sehen darin hingegen einen technologischen Fortschritt und die Antwort auf derzeitige Energiefragen. Fuer die Buerger eines Landes birgt die Debatte vor allem Unsicherheiten, ist die Technologie doch mit Risiken verbunden, die nicht nur fuer den Laien schwer einzuschaetzen sind. Aufgrund dieser Unsicherheiten droht die Gefahr, dass wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fuer politische Zwecke instrumentalisiert werden. Besonders spannend ist daher die Frage, wie die Thematik in unterschiedlichen Laendern diskutiert wird. In Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik werden die Debatten im Erdgasland Niederlande und dem Land der Energiewende, Deutschland, verglichen. Den Schwerpunkt legt Kerstin Kontny dabei auf die an der Debatte beteiligten Akteure, den Verlauf der Debatte sowie die behandelten Themen. Dabei

  6. Carbon taxation and market structure: A CGE analysis for Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, Anton; Grethe, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Russia is one of the world's major sources of carbon based energy as well as one its most intensive users. Introducing carbon taxes can lead to a reduction in emissions and encourage investment in energy efficiency. We investigate the economic effects of carbon taxes on the Russian economy under perfect competition and a Cournot oligopoly in output markets. The main findings are: (i) substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes can yield a strong double dividend in Russia; however, welfare gains strongly depend on the labour supply elasticity and elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, and energy. (ii) Under the assumption of a Cournot oligopoly with homogenous products and symmetric firms in the markets for natural gas, petroleum and chemical products, metals, and minerals, welfare costs of the environmental tax reform can be higher than under perfect competition. This is because introducing carbon taxes leads to a reduction in already sub-optimal output, thereby exacerbating pre-existing distortions arising from imperfect competition. (iii) Furthermore, increases in energy costs can result in higher mark-ups in some markets because of less competition resulting from firms' exit. - Highlights: ► Substituting carbon taxes for labour taxes in Russia can yield a double dividend. ► The labour supply elasticity and substitution possibilities between factors are crucial. ► Introducing carbon taxes can exacerbate distortions from imperfect competition. ► Increases in energy costs result in higher mark-ups because of less competition.

  7. Russia's strategy in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staun, Jørgen Meedom

    2017-01-01

    Russia's strategy in the Arctic is dominated by two overriding international relations (IR) discourses – or foreign policy directions. On the one hand, there is an IR-realism/geopolitical discourse that puts security first and often has a clear patriotic character, dealing with ‘exploring......’, ‘winning’ or ‘conquering’ the Arctic and putting power, including military power, behind Russia's national interests in the area. Opposed to this is an IR-liberalism, international law-inspired and modernisation-focused discourse, which puts cooperation first and emphasises ‘respect for international law......’, ‘negotiation’ and ‘cooperation’, and labels the Arctic as a ‘territory of dialogue’, arguing that the Arctic states all benefit the most if they cooperate peacefully. After a short but very visible media stunt in 2007 and subsequent public debate by proponents of the IR realism/geopolitical side, the IR...

  8. Islamic Fundamentalism in Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena F. Parubochaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Islam takes the stage of recovery associated with the peculiar issues associated with the Muslim society. These characteristics are expressed in the spread of ideas of Islamic fundamentalism and its supporters’ confrontation with the rest of the world. This process has affected the Russian Muslims as well, the trend developed after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the post soviet muslims began to realize themselves as part of one of the Muslim Ummah, coming into conflict with the secular law of the Russian Federation. After the Soviet Union’s disintegration, the radical Islamic ideas have begun to appear in Russia, in the conditions of the growth of nationalism these thoughts found a fertile ground. One of these ideas was associated with the construction of Sharia state in the Muslim autonomous republics of the Russian Federation and their subsequent withdrawal from Russian’s membership. The situation for the Russian state in the Muslim republics aggravated the war in Chechnya. Through Chechnya mercenaries from Arab countries started to penetrate to the Russian territory, they also brought the money for the destabilization of the internal situation in Russia. Nevertheless, separatism did not find the mass support in neighboring regions such as Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Ingushetia. It is evidently that international Jihad ideas were supported financially from abroad. The issue of funding is a key part of the development of Islamic fundamentalism in Russia, the international Islamic funds and organizations gave huge financial assistance to them. At the present moment Russian authorities lead a fruitful and a successful fight against terrorism. In the future, after the completion of the antiterrorist operation in the Middle East hundreds of terrorists may return to Russia with huge experience that can threaten the security of the Russian state.

  9. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    OpenAIRE

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-01-01

    Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10%) that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many gover...

  10. Technical challenges in support of the plutonium materials conversion program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, C.F.V.; Zygmunt, S.J.; Hahn, W.K.; James, C.A.; Costa, D.A.; Smith, W.H.; Yarbro, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Plutonium Materials Conversion Program for Russia is designed to assist Russia in defining a path for the destruction of weapons grade plutonium. A similar program is currently defining a program for destruction of US weapons grade plutonium. These two sister programs arose from the September 1998 meeting between President Yeltsin and President Clinton, after which they issued a 'Joint statement of principles for management and disposition of plutonium designated as no longer required for defense purposes'. The US and Russia have each committed to convert 50 metric tons of plutonium from nuclear weapons programs to forms which are unusable for weapons

  11. Which Russia, twenty years later?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Claudín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Russia is proud of its position among the emerging powers, of the strength provided by its ample energetic resources and its nuclear potential with which it can influence the world and always be taken into account. Nevertheless, the perception within the country is that stagnation has become Russia’s dominant characteristic at present. The objective of this article is to explore how this situation came about, analysing the evolution of domestic processes in Russia during both of its most defining periods: Yeltsin and Putin’s leadership, since the ephemeral presidency of Medvedev proved to be basically a continuation of the latter. During the eight years of Boris Yeltsin’s tenure, the state of crisis, latent or open, developed into the way that political processes are carried out in Russia. With Putin’s arrival, however, stability and State control are imposed, against the backdrop of economic growth, and they become values in themselves, far from the democratic discourse of the first years.

  12. Islamic factor in contemporary Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Shalenna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Russian Federation, a Eurasian multinational state, has a significant number of indigenous Muslim population (about 10% that continues to increase not only due to natural growth and conversion of non-Muslims to Islam, but also as a result of intensive immigration from the Central Asian countries and Azerbaijan. Islamic factor significantly predetermined policy of Russia during its historical development. The importance of Islam in contemporary political life has been underlined by many government representatives and by the leaders of social and religious organizations and movements. Russian Muslim Ummah nowadays is far from being homogeneous and integrated, that predisposes some groups to radicalization of sentiments, ideas and activities and inevitably causes significant destabilization in the religious, social and political spheres within certain subjects of the Russian Federation and at the national level. The article focuses on the complex investigation of the influence of Islam on the social and political processes in contemporary Russia. It reveals the main principles of the Russian administration policy in the field of religion in general and towards Muslims in particular. Specific features of Muslim communities’ formation and factors of their institutionalization are determined. This research covers the reasons of major contradictions existing within the Russian Ummah. The article stresses on the importance of this study in the context of Ukrainian-Russian conflict in Crimea and in eastern regions of Ukraine. Current policy of Russia towards the Crimean Tatar population is analyzed.

  13. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  14. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  15. Russia: New stage in nuclear policy and in the struggle for winning public trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, Andrei; Kushnarev, Sergei

    2001-01-01

    nuclear unit was commissioned in Russia in 1993), has begun to show great interest to it again, especially after the nuclear specialists have 'passed from words to deeds' and launched intensive works in order to start the Rostov NPP, the construction of which had been suspended in 1990. The struggle for Rostov NPP commissioning, going on with considerable antagonism of various forces (including such a specific Russian public force, as the Cossacks), has become the beginning of a principally new stage in Russian nuclear specialists' relations with the public. The key principle of this new approach was to refuse from 'defending position'. A good example of Minatom's 'attack action' was shown by the proposal concerning Russia's going out to the world market of nuclear fuel reprocessing, supported by a portfolio of legislative initiatives, which include the draft law on environmental programs for rehabilitation of the country's radiation contaminated areas, financed from foreign trade operations with irradiated nuclear fuel. It should be noted, that the first attack of the 'greens' in connection with this Minatom's initiative - in form of collecting the signatures in support of all-Russia antinuclear referendum - has petered out in the Central Election Commission. Further steps of Russian nuclear leaders - active position in the open discussion of the structural reform in the energy sector and proposals on nuclear branch's consolidation - continue the course aimed at changing the role of Russia's nuclear development opponents to that of 'running after'. In these conditions Minatom, with active support of the Nuclear Society of Russia, has adopted a decision to reconsider its very organisation of PR activities. Its main features - adequate financing and appropriate material support, establishment of a 'brain centre' - a public council supported by a team of the best national and international experts, as well as creation of a structure of public information centres on regional

  16. Bioethics in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishchenko, P D

    2005-01-01

    Ten years of development in Russian bioethics presents significant progress. At the beginning of the 90s bioethics was practically unknown for Russian medical doctors, philosophers and the public. Since the year 2000 bioethics has become an obligatory course for all medical students. The Russian Orthodox Church published the same year "The Social Doctrine" that included a special part "The Church and Problems of Bioethics." Different bioethical problems are often discussed in the mass media. The development of Russian bioethics proves the basic understanding of ethics presented by John Dewey--ethics is a function of the moral life of the community. Norms are good or bad mostly as instruments that could be used in everyday life to solve real problems people meet.

  17. Excess Weapons Plutonium Immobilization in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.; Borisov, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    The joint goal of the Russian work is to establish a full-scale plutonium immobilization facility at a Russian industrial site by 2005. To achieve this requires that the necessary engineering and technical basis be developed in these Russian projects and the needed Russian approvals be obtained to conduct industrial-scale immobilization of plutonium-containing materials at a Russian industrial site by the 2005 date. This meeting and future work will provide the basis for joint decisions. Supporting R and D projects are being carried out at Russian Institutes that directly support the technical needs of Russian industrial sites to immobilize plutonium-containing materials. Special R and D on plutonium materials is also being carried out to support excess weapons disposition in Russia and the US, including nonproliferation studies of plutonium recovery from immobilization forms and accelerated radiation damage studies of the US-specified plutonium ceramic for immobilizing plutonium. This intriguing and extraordinary cooperation on certain aspects of the weapons plutonium problem is now progressing well and much work with plutonium has been completed in the past two years. Because much excellent and unique scientific and engineering technical work has now been completed in Russia in many aspects of plutonium immobilization, this meeting in St. Petersburg was both timely and necessary to summarize, review, and discuss these efforts among those who performed the actual work. The results of this meeting will help the US and Russia jointly define the future direction of the Russian plutonium immobilization program, and make it an even stronger and more integrated Russian program. The two objectives for the meeting were to: (1) Bring together the Russian organizations, experts, and managers performing the work into one place for four days to review and discuss their work with each other; and (2) Publish a meeting summary and a proceedings to compile reports of all the

  18. Redefining Hybrid Warfare: Russia's Non-linear War against the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tad Schnaufer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The term hybrid warfare fails to properly describe Russian operations in Ukraine and elsewhere. Russia has undertaken unconventional techniques to build its influence and test the boundaries of a shaken international system. Notably, Russia’s actions in Ukraine display an evolved style of warfare that goes beyond its initial label of hybrid warfare. The term non-linear war (NLW will be defined in this article to encompass Russia’s actions and allow policymakers the correct framework to discuss and respond to Russia. NLW plays to the advantage of countries like Russia and constitute the future of warfare.

  19. Safeguarding nuclear weapon: Usable materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, T.

    1998-01-01

    Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials

  20. Youth and nuclear industry in Russia: Tasks and problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippoff, S.; Soldatov, A.; Kovalevskiy, A.; Porokhina, E.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper activities of the Youth Department of Russian Nuclear Society (YDRNS) department at Moscow State Engineering-Physical Institute (MEPhI) are reviewed. The purposes of growing organization were pointed at the international conference P olar Lights'99 . First of all, the revealing and all-level support of active youth, including speciality discussion among pupils. Secondly, propagating the concepts of modern power engineering and creating the positive image of nuclear field among public. And, thirdly, the development of international relationships. May 1999 started with foundation of the YDRNS department at MEPhI and the following scientific trends were announced: Arrangement and conducting of scientific conferences and seminars on the current problems in nuclear field; Assistance in publication of scientific works and articles in scientific editions; Arrangement of the period of trainee and acquaintance of youth with energy enterprises; Reflecting the YDRNS and talented youth activities in mass media; Cooperation with YDRNS departments in other regions of Russia and similar foreign organizations; Creation of data base of participants and their participation in YDRNS activities. This thesis formed the basis of YDRNS of MEPhI activities for year 1999. (authors)

  1. German energy agency founded - the first step has been taken. Contribution to a discussion on the occasion of the foundation of the DEnA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyseghem, G. van; Semke, S.

    2000-01-01

    Politicians as well as part of the general public in Germany interested in the matter have expressed for some time the need for a national energy agency as a body of support and coordination of Germany's energy policy and international commitments and national programmes for protection of the global climate. Generally speaking, there is agreement that the basic tasks for the future and the turn for transition to a sustainable energy industry require a novel quality of energy policy, in terms of concentrated efforts, coordination, and bundling of actions. Aspects addressed in this article are: Future domains of action of German energy policy, outline of organizational structure of a national energy agency, assignment of competences for subject areas and functions. (orig./CB) [de

  2. Letter to Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Below is the referee report. It is not as bad as it seems at first. The manuscript has not been rejected. Instead, the referee is 'not recommending publication.' On the APS website, the status is 'with authors,' instead of 'not under consideration.' Thus, this manuscript is still alive, but we will need to work on it. Please take a look at what the referee says below and let me know how you would respond. I will do the same. Hopefully, we will be able to respond well and find a way for this manuscript to get into PRB. According to the introduction of their manuscript, the authors intend to study the electronic structure of clusters of Pu atoms and, among other things, to illustrate how the properties of the cluster's central region approach those of the bulk Pu metal as the cluster size increases. It is then somewhat surprising to find out that all the 'cluster' calculations discussed in the paper are in fact set up in such a way that they model the bulk properties - the clusters are embedded in a kind of mean field that is designed to approximate the rest of an infinite lattice (the authors call it the extended cluster scheme). Consequently, all the observed finite-size effects are essentially artificial since they represent the inaccuracies of the embedding procedure. The results for the finite clusters themselves do not carry a direct physical meaning (which contradicts authors statements from the introduction), only the extrapolation to the infinite cluster would, if done properly. The authors propose that the number of 5f electrons n( ) 5f is a linear function of the cubic root of N, where N is the number of atoms in the cluster. This function fits the calculated data well (Fig. 8), but, as the authors indeed note, it cannot hold for very large N where n( ) 5f must saturate at a finite value. The calculated data show no sign of such saturation (Fig. 8), which indicates that the considered clusters are too small to draw conclusions about the bulk properties. I

  3. Disputes between Russia and its neighbours concern also transit through Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirman, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the problems with transit of natural gas from Russia to European Union and the possibilities of its solution are presented. Main problems are in Ukraine and Belarus and they are discussed. These disputes concern natural gas transit through Slovakia. Gazprom considers a construction of new pipelines from Russia to Germany under Baltic Sea. The investments for its realisation are estimated to 5 billion USD

  4. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    OpenAIRE

    Jokull Johannesson

    2017-01-01

    The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to ...

  5. Hyped up. Energy policy in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapper, Manfred; Weichsel, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The volume covers the following issues: Russia's promotion to an energy super power - history of a European interlocking; the large uncertainty - The US shale gas boom, EU and Russia; natural gas in central Asia and the Caspian area; natural gas - price and modernization, price policy and energy efficiency in Russia; the partners Winterhall - Gazprom; the regulation of the petroleum boom in the post -Soviet region; nuclear energy in Eastern and Western Europe, reactions following Chernobyl and Fukushima; renewable energies in Russia; Hiroshima from the Soviet view; debate: cooperation is required, German policy concerning Russia.

  6. Nuclear liability legislation in Russia - current status and expected developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, A. E.; Borisov, D. G.

    2000-01-01

    Present report is provided by the experts of the Russian insurance business, a company member of the Russian Nuclear Pool, and not the experts of the Ministry of Atomic Energy of Russian Federation (RF Minatom). Considering the above, the following document will outline the current status of nuclear liability legislation and insurance in Russia from a viewpoint of the insurance companies and not RF Minatom. (author)

  7. Dynamic Energy Balance: An Integrated Framework for Discussing Diet and Physical Activity in Obesity Prevention-Is it More than Eating Less and Exercising More?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manore, Melinda M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Houtkooper, Linda

    2017-08-19

    Understanding the dynamic nature of energy balance, and the interrelated and synergistic roles of diet and physical activity (PA) on body weight, will enable nutrition educators to be more effective in implementing obesity prevention education. Although most educators recognize that diet and PA are important for weight management, they may not fully understand their impact on energy flux and how diet alters energy expenditure and energy expenditure alters diet. Many nutrition educators have little training in exercise science; thus, they may not have the knowledge essential to understanding the benefits of PA for health or weight management beyond burning calories. This paper highlights the importance of advancing nutrition educators' understanding about PA, and its synergistic role with diet, and the value of incorporating a dynamic energy balance approach into obesity-prevention programs. Five key points are highlighted: (1) the concept of dynamic vs. static energy balance; (2) the role of PA in weight management; (3) the role of PA in appetite regulation; (4) the concept of energy flux; and (5) the integration of dynamic energy balance into obesity prevention programs. The rationale for the importance of understanding the physiological relationship between PA and diet for effective obesity prevention programming is also reviewed.

  8. [AIDS in Russia. It is still possible to stop the epidemic. Interview with Dr. A.P. Koslov].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, P

    1996-01-01

    According to A.P. Koslov, president of the Fourth International Conference on AIDS, Cancer, and Associated Diseases held in Russia in 1996, the conference represents the first high level discussion of AIDS risk management in Russia. Russia has a strong potential for development of a vaccine, having been a key player in the smallpox eradication program in the late 1950s. Conditions are difficult at present, but it is possible that Russia will be able to develop a practical vaccine for distribution in the Third World. Efforts to develop an HIV vaccine underway in different countries have been examined, and a list has been compiled of Russian institutions able to participate in HIV vaccine development. International assistance for vaccine development in Russia would help both the medical establishment in Russia, which has suffered because of the economic and social crisis, and the international community. A meeting is planned for December 1996 in St. Petersburg to organize an AIDS control organization for all of Russia. Mobilization of support for AIDS prevention activities is necessary but very difficult. If nothing is done, the epidemic in Ukraine will soon spread to Russia. But Russia and China are among the few countries where an HIV epidemic could still be prevented or stopped. The association in St. Petersburg cooperates with other former Soviet republics in AIDS control activities, although attendance at international meetings and conferences is frequently curtailed for financial reasons.

  9. High-level radioactive waste disposal problem in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation on radioactive waste management in Russia discusses criteria for the selection of disposal sites, how the various types of waste should be contained and stored, and gives a list showing the liable owner, type, volume, activity and storage place of the present amount of radioactive waste. The bulk of this waste, in volume and radioactivity, is at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation

  10. Genetically modified organisms authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V Matveeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In July 2016 the State Duma adopted the Federal Law “On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation in terms of improving the state regulation in the field of genetic engineering” (03.07.2016 N 358-FL. This review is devoted to the analysis of Article 4 of the Act, namely the discussion of what GMOs may be authorized for cultivation and breeding in Russia.

  11. Cyber Operations Between Russia and Ukraine During Ukrainian Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Pavlíková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When the Ukraine crisis started in 2013, discussions about possible cyber warfare appeared. Debates about the usage of cyber tools in war conflicts have already been considered for the last few years and conflicts where actors possess these capacities emphasize the importance to analyze this phenomenon. This article examines cyber warfare between Russia and Ukraine during the Ukraine crisis and aims to analyze incidents in the cyber domain with considerations cyber war on a theoretical background.

  12. Energy Parodoxes in Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the energy situation in the world and in the Post-Soviet area was carried out. The main focus was on the energy problems in Ukraine. The current paper presents existing energy sector paradoxes. Issues of the comfort level and of the natural environment dependence on the energy resources consumption are being discussed. The relationship between the human life quality level and the level of energy consumption is shown. The analysis of the energy resources distribution in the world is provided. The likely review of the energy re-sources market is forecasted. State energy policies and strategies are being compared. The high profitability of the centralized energy supply management in municipalities is being underlined. Issues regarding the scientific poten-tial and the energy management development are considered. The compliance of energy resource prices with the level of thermal protection of buildings and with energy projects investment principles is being analyzed. The importance of the market-based choice of energy resources considering energy company mergers and decision power concentration is presented. The compliance between the energy policy of Ukraine and the obligations resulting from gas contract with Russia is being discussed. The role of energy in the agricultural processing chain is analyzed.

  13. RUSSIA RETURNS TO AFGHANISTAN: PROSPECTS OF BILATERAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н Асеф

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available He article discusses the dynamics of the development of the economic situation in the Is-lamic Republic of Afghanistan after the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, and the current state and prospects of development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic relations. Russia and Afghanistan have a long history of cooperation. In the XX century, the Soviet Union provided economic assistance to Afghanistan, including the financing and construction of objects of industry and infrastructure, which are now in need of rehabili-tation and modernization. The accumulated experience of cooperation makes Russia may be one of the major players in Afghani-stan and participate in reconstruction of the country. The relevance of this article stems from the fact that at the present time in conditions of economic sanctions and the deterioration of relations with countries of the West, Russia intends to renew and develop relationships with long-term partners. Today Afghanistan is trying to recover from the devastating effects of years of civil war, and invite Russia to join this process. This means that Russia had a unique chance to return and gain a foothold in the market of Afghanistan, which will be an advantage for the development of cooperation between the two countries. The task of the article is analysis of the economic situation in Afghanistan, in order to study the possibilities of deepening and development of Russian-Afghan trade and economic cooperation. The analysis of Russian-Afghan relations showed that to date, despite the existence of certain problems faced by our country, the development of trade and economic relations is a promising direction of bilateral cooperation.

  14. Russian space meets western business practices: Understanding the law in the petroleum sector in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Goes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between the private international oil company (IOC Royal Dutch Shell and Russia as an oil producing and oil exporting state during a period when oil prices were moving towards unforeseen heights (2005-2007. By examining this dynamic relationship, this study aims to contribute to an understanding of Russia’s discursive and culturally produced history. The history of a state-oil company interaction has shown that the use of legal instruments is a good indicator to determine the nature of the relationship between oil-producing states and IOCs – a relationship that often has been characterized by periods of cooperation or conflict.At the centre of inquiry is how the oil major understands the law in Russia, and in particular the enforcement of the country’s formal written rules during legal conflicts over the development of the Sakhalin-II oil and gas fields (in which Shell until December 2006 controlled a majority stake. After identifying the violations of formal laws, I conclude that Shell understands that the formal rules of the game are subordinate to the unwritten laws of energy politics and in particular the informal demands of contemporary Russian society. The article also illustrates that oil-producing states have the upper hand in conflicts over the development of oil and gas resources.

  15. The 'second nuclear era': A perspective from Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Orlov, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    As are many other countries, Russia is working on the development of new nuclear power plants that incorporate enhanced safety features. At the same time, it is realized that over the next 20 years the expansion of nuclear power can hardly be expected in a country suffering a deep crisis, with a low standard of living yet with per capita energy production higher than in Germany or France. Even doubling the nuclear capacity would influence less than 3% of Russia's fuel balance, making it incommensurate with the extent of problems now facing the country and its fuel and energy economy. The main goals of nuclear power and arguments in favour of its development in Russia as in most other countries with nuclear programmes - are lying ahead in the century to come. The objectives of the next stage - the 'second nuclear era' should be to provide a radical solution to the looming problems of environment, resources, and transportation, as well as social and international problems associated with the inevitable growth of energy demands

  16. FEATURES OF MICROFINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina B. Makarova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Small business is the basis for the development of the modern economy of Russia. In modern conditions, small enterprises can be credited in various credit institutions, the most significant and popular among which are banks and microfinance organizations. The volume of the microfinance market is many times smaller than the banking one, although the number of registered microfinance organizations exceeds the number of banking credit institutions by more than 3 times. Microfinance institutions are actively developing, although in recent years, due to the economic and political situation, there has been a slowdown in their growth rates. To date, microfinance organizations are becoming a more significant element of the financial infrastructure that supports and stimulates the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises, which in turn serves as an effective tool for combating poverty and improving the living standards of the country’s population. Microfinance in the narrow interpretation is understood only as the provision of small monetary loans (loans, and in a broader context, “microfinance” includes, in addition to direct lending, operations to attract savings, payments, insurance, leasing and a number of other financial services. This article is devoted to the specifics of microfinance in Russia. On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the domestic microfinance system with the systems of a developed and a developing country, namely, the USA and India, the features of providing microfinance services for small and medium businesses, as well as for nonprotected sections of the population, are revealed. The analysis of foreign experience is very important for Russia since the mechanisms of microfinance in this country are only being formed.

  17. Equal chances are necessary. Political expert Bruno Frick discusses the competitive situation of the various energy sources; Wir fordern gleichlange Spiesse. Politiker Bruno Frick zur Wettbewerbssituation der Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, J.

    1997-11-01

    Swiss politician Bruno Frick is in favour of renewable energy sources. In his opinion, future generations should not pay for our faults. HAUSTECH interviewed him about the Federal investment programme and on renewable energy sources in general. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bruno Frick, CVP-Staenderat aus dem Kanton Schwyz, gehoehrt im eidgenoessischen Parlament zu den dezidierten Befuerwortern erneuerbarer Energien. Der Grund: Die Konzequenzen davon, wie wir heute mit der Energie umgehen, haben nach seiner Ueberzeugung kommende Generationen zu tragen. `HAUS TECH` hat sich deshalb mit dem engagierten Politiker ueber das vom Bund initiierte Investitionsprogramm und generell ueber die erneuerbaren Energien unterhalten. (orig.)

  18. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  19. 谈供热系统中的节能问题%Discussion on the energy saving problem in heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旗

    2016-01-01

    基于供热节能的现状,分析了供热节能的必要性,并从化石燃料梯级利用、工业余热利用、分户计量收费、变频调速等方面,提出了实现供热节能的措施,从而提高能源的利用率。%Based on the current situation of heating energy,this paper analyzed the necessity of heating energy,and from the fossil fuels cascade utilization,industrial waste heat utilization,household metering and charging,variable frequency speed regulation and other aspects,proposed the measures to achieve energy saving heating,in order to improve the efficiency of energy use.

  20. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2...

  1. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be... within a reasonably foreseeable time.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec. 207.2(f) of the Commission's...

  2. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  3. National RAM transport regulations implementation in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubanov, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    A brief review is given of the main provisions of the state regulation and safety assurance of RAM transport in Russia. This appears to be useful to various persons and organisations abroad, concerned with such transport in Russia. Two aspects of the system are presented - regulatory documents (normative-technical documentation) and regulatory and control activities of state organisations. (Author)

  4. African Swine Fever Virus, Siberia, Russia, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, Denis; Titov, Ilya; Tsybanov, Sodnom; Gogin, Andrey; Malogolovkin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is arguably the most dangerous and emerging swine disease worldwide. ASF is a serious problem for the swine industry. The first case of ASF in Russia was reported in 2007. We report an outbreak of ASF in Siberia, Russia, in 2017.

  5. Institutional Determinants of International Production in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses institutional determinants of foreign direct investment that substantially influences international production in Russia. Author pays special attention on the following determinants as legal infrastructure, protection property rights, including intellectual property, effectiveness of enforcement mechanisms, and corruption. Author comes to a conclusion that without development of proper institutions Russia would hardly expect dynamic development of international production.

  6. Analysis and discussion of the most recent forecasts on energy demand for major industrial nations with a view to the avoidance of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochem, E.; Herz, H.; Mannsbart, W.

    1993-09-01

    In the future, when individual governments in their negotiations within the framework convention on climate change refer to their national energy demand assessments, any resulting energy forecasts are likely to be criticized in the scientific public because to date most of these energy demand assessments vary greatly in their essential basic assumptions (e.g., the future economic development, the oil price, the development of transportation, and so forth). For this reason the last ''official'' energy demand estimates for each country have been evaluated by a network of competent energy economy institutes in the countries having the highest emissions of climate-relevant gases (USA, Japan, the former Soviet Union, the EC). The work of this network had the following aim: to compare these most recent demand estimates and analyse their differences, to match each other's understanding of the most important basic assumptions and forecasting methods, and to agree on a reference skeleton for demand estimates, by means of which the assessments of different countries could be compared with each other. (orig.) [de

  7. Analysis of Oil and Gas Cooperation between China and Russia in the Belt and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the deepening of economic globalization and regional economic integration and the “One Belt and One Road” strategic layout, China and Russia in the field of regional energy cooperation has been expanded to deepen. This paper analyzed the present situation of energy cooperation between China and Russia from the field of oil, coal and natural gas, and concludes that Sino-Russian energy cooperation is the following factors: strong cooperation and strong energy complementarities, and then analyzed the way to the Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation. However, there are some problems in the energy cooperation between the two countries: the energy infrastructure in China and Russia is not perfect, the difference between Russia and Northeast China is poor, and there are some hidden dangers of energy security. The cultural dilemma hinders the exchange between the two countries. Finally, from the “One Belt and One Road” strategy for the Sino-Russian energy cooperation provides an opportunity to put forward the establishment and strengthening of energy infrastructure, relying on “One Belt and One Road” Orientation to ensure energy security, strengthen cultural cooperation and adhere to the “One Belt and One Road” uphold the principle of mutual benefit and other countermeasures.

  8. Russia-Ukraine balance of military power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokull Johannesson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Russia-Ukraine conflict is the most serious test of European security in the 21st century and the forgone conclusion is that Russia can easily prevail in the conflict, but this has not been the case. This article uses balance of military power analysis to report findings on the plausible outcome of a war between Ukraine and Russia. I report findings based on realist theoretical perspectives that indicate Russian victory is unlikely because of relative balance of power where Russia has to face multiple threats diverting its military power while Ukraine can concentrate its military power for a single purpose. The findings suggest implication for policy in Russia, Ukraine, EU and the United States of America.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EU AND RUSSIA: SYMBIOSIS OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Corduneanu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation and trust between Russia and the European Union (EU, two of the most important international actors, have reached the lowest level since the Cold War. The main bone of contention has been the future of countries situated in Eastern Europe, in the so-called ‘in-between’/’buffer’ region. On the one hand, the EU aims at strengthening links with the six Eastern European partners – Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine – by encouraging reforms and by luring them to embrace European core values. However, Russia’s counteractions have mitigated the EU’s plans towards its vicinity - as the case of Ukraine best points out. Apart from the geopolitical competition over the ‘shared’ neighbourhood, the EU-Russia relation has started to depend heavily on the energy issues further complicating the already complex background. Russia uses the energy card as tool to influence the shape of the regional context, whereas the EU responds with a superior technological advantage and a more attractive economic and political agenda. Having this a backdrop, this paper aims to underline that a clear competition between the two players exists, fomented by a fundamental ideological difference in perceiving the outside world.

  10. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  11. The US plutonium materials conversion program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zygmunt, S.J.; Mason, C.F.V.; Hahn, W.K.

    2000-01-01

    Progress has been made in Russia towards the conversion of weapons-grade plutonium (w-Pu) into plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) suitable for further manufacture into mixed oxide (MOX) fuels. This program was started in 1998 in response to US proliferation concerns and the acknowledged international need to decrease the available weapons-grade Pu. A similar agenda is being followed in the US to address disposition of US surplus weapons-grade Pu. In Russia a conversion process has been selected and a site proposed. This paper discusses the present state of the program in support of this future operating facility that will process up to 5 metric tons of plutonium a year. (authors)

  12. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  13. US-Russia Conflicts of Interests on the European Gas Market: Economic and Geopolitical Implications of the Crimea Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to reduce the influence of Russia as a main energy supplier to Europe, several members of the US Congress have increased pressure on the US government so as to urgently obtain permits to liberalize US exports of natural gas, mainly to Europe. Russia has recently cancelled an important gas price discount, previously granted to Ukraine, in order to exert pressures related to the situation in Crimea. This movement was a new attempt of Russia to exercise its "power" as a big energy exporter, seriously threatened in the future by the growth of US exports of natural gas. While having a certain interest in countering Russian influence in Europe, the US are limited, for the short term, in their ability to strategically deploy their energy exports for geopolitical purposes. Instead, the United States can support projects to diversify energy sources of the neighbouring countries of Russia, including Ukraine, in order to diminish their dependence on energy imports from Russia. While US is the leading provider of security for Europe, Russia has chosen to be the main supplier of energy. Nevertheless, the latter one has used energy, rather frequently, as a "political weapon" in relationship with its neighbours and as psychological pressure instrument on the European Union, in order to limit its price negotiation force.

  14. Annual meeting on nuclear technology '92. Technical session 'Nuclear energy discussion'. Proceedings. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik '92. Fachsitzung 'Kernenergie-Diskussion'. Berichtsheft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The report contains the six special papers red at the 1992 annual conference on nuclear engineering at Karlsruhe, all of which are individually retrievable from the database. They deal with the following subjects: historical development of the basic trends of technology criticism; communication problems in connection with the conveying of technical facts; psycho-sociological patterns of technology anxiety-mental infection or risk consciousness; field of tension between technology and journalism; handling of insecurities; ethical justifiability of nuclear energy use. (HSCH).

  15. Establishment of bases for joint study and cooperation on long-lived radionuclides transmutation between Korea and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Jik; Shim, Joon Bo; Choi, Chang Joo; Park, Won Seok; Song, Tae Young; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kil, Choong Sup

    2003-02-01

    The most important technical fields related to transmutation are partitioning of long-lived radionuclides and transmutation system to be used for converting them into short-lived or stable radionuclides. Technical cooperation between Korea and Russia is needed because Russia has an unequalled position in the fields of development of the fast reactors and pyrochemical processes around the world. The aim of this project is an establishment of bases for coordination on transmutation technology between Korea and Russia. State of the art of domestic and foreign countries upon partitioning of long-lived radionuclides, transmutation system and Gen IV development was summarized. Also, the 7th Korea-Russia joint coordination committee meeting and the 1st joint workshop were held as a result of this project. Technical fields and scheme on future cooperation between Korea and Russia were discussed and agreed in the course of the meetings

  16. FURTHER IMPROVEMENT OF THE INVESTMENT CLIMATE IN RUSSIA AS A RESULT OF MODERNIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Musin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the history, and discusses some of the recent changes in the Russian Federation Civil Code, which result in a more favorable business climate inRussia. In particular, it discusses the development of changes related to the documentation of contracts, expansion in the durations and uses of powers of attorney, and the modernization of the statute of limitations period for bringing an action.">Russia >

  17. The Arctic tourism in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury F. Lukin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new book "Arctic tourism in Russia" the basic concepts, resource potential, attractiveness (from Lat. Attrahere: to attract, opportunities and threats of environmental, cruise, international, and other types of tourism in the Arctic are system-based analyzed, for the first time in the literature. The sphere of tourism has becoming an integral sector of the economy, having a multiplicative effect for the development of infrastructure, social services, employment. Reference materials about the tourism products in the Russian Arctic and Far North regions are published, including the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk regions; Republic of Karelia, Komi, Sakha (Yakutia; Nenets, the Yamalo-Nenets, Khanty-Mansiysk, the Chukotka Autonomous Districts; Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets Municipal District, Turukhansk district, the city of Norilsk of the Krasnoyarsk region; Magadan region, Kamchatka region.

  18. Report made on behalf of the parity mixed commission in charge of proposing a text about the dispositions of the project of energy orientation law remaining to be discussed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The project of energy orientation law aims at fixing the main principles of the French energy policy for the next decades. It foresees: the re-launching of the French nuclear program (building of an experimental European pressurized reactor (EPR)), the reinforcement of the mastery of energy demand (3% per year, creation of energy saving certificates and reinforcement of buildings energy efficiency rules), and the sustain of renewable energies development. This document presents, first, a direct comparison, article by article, of the text adopted in second lecture by the House of Commons, with the text adopted in second lecture by the Senate. Then, a text is proposed for the last dispositions that remained to be discussed and is presented in the second part of the report. (J.S.)

  19. Azerbaijan-Russia Borderline Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina V. Arkhipova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Azerbaijan-Russia borderline mainly goes by the Caucasian mountain range and close to the Samur riverbed. Main border posts are situated close to the Caspian seashore while the locals living in the Upper Dagestan area have difficulties with crossing borderline. The locals are represented by the so called “divided peoples” whose living area was divided with the state border after 1991. The former inner borders ignored ethnic areas but now they became the lines crossing the ethnic groups of Legins, Avars, Tzakhurs and Rutuls. Certainly, those peoples are interested in specific rules for crossing the border. At the same time, their areas have not got the equipped border offices and they have to spend a lot of time and money for travelling to the neighboring districts via Baku or Vladikavkaz. Such problems arouse the radical demands among locals. The Lezgin movement for an independent Lezgistan is the most famous among them. Its supporters were involved in a terrorist attack in Baku in 1990-s and now they collect files about any problems connected with border issues, including the results of a demarcation process. They attract attention to the facts of all assignments made by Russian representatives. The activity of other ethnic groups was comparatively lower and they could make an agreement with local authorities about division of powers. Obviously, any solution about development of the border infrastructure may stabilize the separatism activity in the area. The author determines the key challenges and threats to cross-border security at Azerbaijan-Russia borderline on the basis of analysis of Federal and regional media, declarations made by representatives of the local and borderline authorities, as well as online activities of national movements. The author reveals the infrastructure factors of ensuring cross-border activity, social and economic conditions of borderline districts development. The suggestion is made on the need to develop

  20. Radioactive waste problems in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, O.; Bridges, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The collapse of the former Soviet Union, with the consequent shift to a market driven economy and demilitarisation, has had a profound effect on the nuclear and associated industries. The introduction of tighter legislation to control the disposal of radioactive wastes has been delayed and the power and willingness of the various government bodies responsible for its regulation is in doubt. Previously secret information is becoming more accessible and it is apparent that substantial areas of Russian land and surface waters are contaminated with radioactive material. The main sources of radioactive pollution in Russia are similar to those in many western countries. The existing atomic power stations already face problems in the storage and safe disposal of their wastes. These arise because of limited on site capacity for storage and the paucity of waste processing facilities. Many Russian military nuclear facilities also have had a sequence of problems with their radioactive wastes. Attempts to ameliorate the impacts of discharges to important water sources have had variable success. Some of the procedures used have been technically unsound. The Russian navy has traditionally dealt with virtually all of its radioactive wastes by disposal to sea. Many areas of the Barents, Kola and the Sea of Japan are heavily contaminated. To deal with radioactive wastes 34 large and 257 small disposal sites are available. However, the controls at these sites are often inadequate and illegal dumps of radioactive waste abound. Substantial funding will be required to introduce the necessary technologies to achieve acceptable standards for the storage and disposal of radioactive wastes in Russia. (author)

  1. Indian Defense Procurements: Advantage Russia or USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    premiers of both the countries. The recent visit of President Obama saw Mr. Modi breaking the protocol to greet him with a bear hug on his arrival at New...between Russia and US. 56 Ritesh Srivastava, India caught between Russia and US. 57 Ankit Panda , “Pakistan Courts Both US and Russia on Defense...www.indiatvnews.com/business/india/-india-invites-japan-to-join-rs-50000-crore- submarine-project-17058.html (accessed 3 February 2015). Panda , Ankit. “Pakistan

  2. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  3. Situation and development trend of nuclear power and uranium industry in the united states and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the situation, trend of nuclear electrical and uranium industry in the United States and Russia. The United States and Russia are the two biggest countries in the world which generated nuclear power earliest. After 40 years' development, nuclear power in the United States and Russia are approximately 20%, 11% respectively of the total generation capacity in 2001. In the United States, only 6% of the nuclear power consumed uranium resource is domestic, in Russia about half of its uranium production is for export. Due to the collision between the energy development and environment protection, nuclear power in USA is still strong, but the uranium industry declines. In the future, uranium production for nuclear power in the United States will depend on the international market and the uranium storage of different levels. On the basis of pacifying people and making the country prosper, Russia has established their great plans for nuclear power with their substantial uranium resources. The author considers the supply and demand of uranium industry will remain balanced in the future decade on the whole, despite the United States and Russia's trend of uranium industry could take a major effect on uranium industry to the world. (authors)

  4. A discussion on the interpretation of the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for the transport of NORM associated with the South African mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichsen, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    South Africa has an extensive mining industry, with total mineral sales in 2002 being R140 billion and total mineral exports being R110 billion. In this same year, the industry employed over 400 000 workers. When the International Atomic Energy Agency Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (TS-R-1 [ST-1 Revised]) (the Regulations), was adopted by the regulatory body, the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR), in June 2001, the Industry requested the drafting of a guide on the interpretation of these regulations for NORM. This paper has arisen from the drafting of such a guide, drafted with the end-user in mind, giving an interpretation of the application of the Regulations to NORM. The paper is more ''Qualitative'' than ''Quantitative'' and raises a number of ''peculiar'' aspects of the application of the Regulations to NORM

  5. Isotope products manufacture in Russia and its prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, S.V.; Okhotina, I.A.; Kalelin, E.A.; Krasnov, N.N.; Kuzin, V.V.; Malykh, J.A.; Makarovsky, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    At the present stage of the world economy development, stable and radioactive isotopes,preparations and products on their base are widely used in many fields of the national economy, medicine and scientific researches. The Russian Federation is one of the largest worldwide producers of a variety of nuclide products on the base of more than 350 isotopes, as follows: stable isotopes reactor, cyclotron, fission product radioactive isotopes, ion-radiation sources compounds, labelled with stable and radioactive isotopes, radionuclide short-lived isotope generators, radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide light and heat sources; luminous paints on base of isotopes. The Russian Ministry for Atomic Energy coordinates activity for development and organization of manufacture and isotope products supply in Russia as well as for export. Within many years of isotope industry development, there have appeared some manufacturing centres in Russia, dealing with a variety of isotope products. The report presents the production potentialities of these centres and also an outlook on isotope production development in Russia in the next years

  6. THE EUROPEAN UNION AND RUSSIA, COOPERATION OR COMPETITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Maria SIMIONOV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The unfolding events in the Ukraine remind us of Georgia 2008 and make us wonder whether their impact and implications on the EU – Russia relations will be as deep and long-lasting. Although it is too soon to ponder on the implications of these events, we can already perceive the wave of tensions and disagreements that is spreading all around the European continent; tensions that once more prove that proper economic cooperation between the two actors is merely impossible to consider without taking into account the political ties between them. How can the EU enhance greater cooperation with Russia and solve Churchill’s "riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma"? Is the European Union vulnerable politically due to its energy dependence on Russia? Is the Russian economy dependent solely on its European consumers? Whose behaviour is more rational? Who holds the upper hand? This paper will focus on answering all these questions by analysing both actors in terms of power and will particularly highlight their paradigms, perceptions, needs and expectations from one another.

  7. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  8. Fusion safety studies in Russia in 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbasov, B.N. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kolbasov@nfi.kiae.ru; Guseva, M.I. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Khripunov, B.I. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Martynenko, Yu.V. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zimin, A.M. [N.E. Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2nd Bauman ul. 5, 107005 Moscow (Russian Federation); Stankevich, V.G. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Svechnikov, N.Yu. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Pl. Kurchatova 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bartenev, S.A. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, 2nd Murinskij Prospect 28, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2005-11-15

    The paper presents a review of the fusion safety studies performed in Russia in 2003. Among the findings is the effect of tungsten sputtering by subthreshold energy ions at high temperature, which tends to decrease with irradiation dose. The size distribution of W-erosion products (spherical droplets or flakes) depends on the positioning of the collector. Studies of Be + D(H) films revealed that D/Be ratio in co-deposited Be-D films decreases from 0.15 at 375 K to 0.05 at 575 K. Hydrogen concentration in Be + C films, exposed to acetylene ion flux at 670 K, decreased from 20-24 to 6 at.% with increase in irradiation dose from 10{sup 23} to 10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The analysis of spectroscopic characteristics of C-D films deposited inside the T-10 tokamak vacuum chamber provides qualitative insight into the physical and chemical reasons behind the preferential retention of the heavier hydrogen isotope in the tokamak erosion films. An extraction scheme for radiochemical reprocessing of activated V-Cr-Ti alloy after a fusion reactor decommissioning was developed and checked experimentally. It takes 48 extraction steps to recover V, Cr and Ti down to an effective dose rate <12.5 {mu}Sv/h, permitting the refabrication of these metals without any biological shielding from ionizing radiation.

  9. Prospects of Cooperation between Russia and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvin Aghayev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russian – Turkish relations go deep into the past. From the Cold War and the relations between the Soviet Union and the United States certainly there has not been a more complicated relationship in international relations. Both countries have different strategic positions, a different dominant religion, a different past, but their relationship largely depends on the future of Eurasia. This paper will deal with relations between the two countries since the establishment of the first diplomatic contacts in the 15th century, through the relationship during the time of Peter the Great, and will mention the periods of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Cold War era. Special attention will be focused on the current relations between the two countries, especially after the conflict in 2015, when Turkey shot down a Russian plane over Syria. Special attention will be focused on energy policy and the potential for building a nuclear power plant in Mersin, and the continuation of Turkish stream. The paper will deal with economics and trade exchange, which have almost disappeared following the 2015 incident, security cooperation and Turkey’s plans to buy the defense system S-400 from Russia, as well as relations between the two countries towards NATO. The paper will end with the projection of the prospects for the economic relations between the two countries.

  10. Upgrading nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravelli, Jack; Behan, Chris; Fishbone, Les

    2001-01-01

    Full text: I. Program goal and organization - In this paper we review the Cooperative US-Russia Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A), whose goal is to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of MPC and A; thereby the Program enhances US national security. Based on this goal, the technical objective is to enhance, through US technical cooperation, the effectiveness of MPC and A systems at Russian sites with weapons-usable nuclear material, i.e. plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Program exists because the extensive social, political and economic changes in Russia arising from the dissolution of the Soviet Union have increased the risk that these materials would be subject to theft or other misuse, with potentially grave consequences. On the US side, the MPC and A Program is administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration through the DOE national laboratories and other contractors. On the Russian side, the Program is administered by the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) through its nuclear sites, by the regulatory agency Gosatomnadzor, and by nuclear sites not under Minatom. To carry out the Program objective, the DOE national laboratories consummate contracts with the Russian sites to implement agreed MPC and A upgrades. Deciding on what upgrades to perform depends on a cooperative analysis of site characteristics, materials, and vulnerabilities by joint US and Russian teams. Once the upgrades are agreed, the DOE laboratories supply technical and financial support and equipment to the Russian sites. The staff of the Russian sites do the work, and the US team members monitor the work through some combination - according to contract - of direct observation and reports, photographs and videotape supplied by the staff of the Russian sites. II. MPC and A task areas - Information in this review covers a selection of topical areas, with a

  11. Primorskii Borderland on the "Map of Russia" Aguk-yeojido

    OpenAIRE

    Vradiy, Sergey Yu.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes a rare manuscript that is of considerable interest to those who study the nineteenth century history of border interactions between Russia, Korea and China, or the history of the Korean community in the Primorskii region of Russia. Aguk-yeojido (or "Map of Russia") is the first attempt to represent nineteenth century Russia by Koreans, and it could be evidence of a strengthening relationship between Russia and a Korean royal court striving to break out of Chinese guardians...

  12. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group

  13. Financial Crisis in Russia: Cuases and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungweon Suh

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Although we cannot exclude the reason for financial crisis in Russia's foreign exchange is the depreciation of Rupees and a loss for foreign investment caused the currency crisis in Asia, but most people predicted that by the support of the Russian government and the deflation efforts it will soon go back to stable. And other people said that there is no possibility of causing the world economic chaos but also no possibility for this situation to evolve into a situation where old policy replaced by new one and where there is Country moratorium. At the time when the prediction was made, since the Korea-Russia relationship is still weak, this Russian Crisis caused small influence on Korean Economy. But some section like exporting electronic products and food which rely Russia quite a lot, should analyze the situation carefully in order to face the shrinkage of market demand of Russia.

  14. Russia-CERN: the solid collaboration continues

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN and Russia have recently signed an extension to the 1996 protocol defining the Russian contribution to LHC construction. Russian scientists are taking part in the construction of the accelerator and are also extensively involved in building the detectors.

  15. Features of formation of philosophy of Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    in article the main content of problems and achievements of philosophy of Russia on initial stage of its history is researched; urgent achievements of the Russian philosophy in their value for modern humanitarian culture are characterized.

  16. Emissions trading and green investments in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, A.; Tangen, K.; Berdin, V.; Pluzhnikov, O.

    2003-01-01

    In simple terms a Green Investment Scheme entails connecting revenues from emissions trading to investments in environmental activities in Russia. This article presents insights derived from an international project on the GIS, focusing on issues that must be addressed if the concept is to become operational, on the background of the domestic, as well as international interests connected to a GIS. GIS is a worthwhile concept with the potential to bring real environmental benefits and meet profound concerns from several of the key actors in the Kyoto regime. However, establishing a well-functioning GIS means removing many of the current barriers that hold back investments in Russia. At the time of writing, Russia has still not decided whether it will ratify Kyoto Protocol. GIS illustrates that there will be substantial benefits for Russia from ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, which is a prerequisite for its entering into force. (Author)

  17. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  18. Russia and China in the 21st century. Moving towards cooperative behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Political and economic rapprochement is taking place between Russia and China in a number of fields: energy, arms production, trade in national currencies and strategic projects in transport and supporting infrastructure. This development, fostered by Western policies and actions, including sanctions related to Ukraine, appears to be strengthening despite reservations related to uneasy precedents, contrasting visions and uncertain economic projections. Chinese policies aiming at European markets via the revival of the Silk Road assist this development. The One Belt-One Road is projected as an alternative, or supplement, to the maritime routes made unsafe by contiguous countries' unrest, criminality and the assertive control of the seas by the United States. While Russia, promoting friendly investment structures, moves eastwards to develop the Russian Far East bordering China, the latter expands westwards engaging in laborious negotiations with Central Asian countries and costly investments in infrastructure and logistics. In each area, the article maintains that both countries, despite economic and political competition and fear of losing control, have interest in cooperation and discusses the areas where this is taking place, albeit slowly and with difficulty. Whether economic cooperation can develop into a strategic alliance including defence is discussed in the light of joint military exercises, arms trade and plans to broaden the scope of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (of which India and Pakistan have recently become members, and the Common ASEAN Community. This path is difficult and marred by members' conflicting interests. But some positive outcomes should not be ruled out.

  19. Outreach and educational activities in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsevich, M.; Kartashova, A.

    2012-09-01

    We present an overview of the major internal as well as international meetings and events held in Russia and dedicated to the integration, development and expanding of knowledge in Planetary Research. The report is complemented by the Europlanet activities in Russia over the last year, achieved goals and lessons learned. Additionally, we highlight current problems and possible future improvements to the present educational and outreach techniques.

  20. Recent Vegetation Fire Incidence in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    MODIS hotspot data from NASA have now become a standard means of evaluating vegetation fires worldwide. Remote sensing is the most effective tool for large countries like Russia because it is hard to obtain exact, detailed forest fire data. Accumulated MODIS hotspot data of the nine years from 2002 to 2010 may allow us to assess recent changes in the vegetation fire incidence in Russia. This kind of analysis using various satellites is useful in estimating fire intensity and sever...

  1. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  2. There is Still a Chance For Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors study the sociological grounds of Georgia's foreign policy based on the long-term researches conducted by American and Georgian NGOs, yet applying a critical approach to the provided data and figures. Despite the aggressive rhetoric of Georgian politicians towards Russia and apparent social consensus as regards EU and NATO integration, the article concludes that Russia has not completely "lost" Georgia. The results of the sociological surveys show that up to one third of the population of Georgia are ready to consider Russia as main partner of their country, and this figure depends to a certain extent on the Georgian authorities' policy. In addition, the potential of the Eurasian integration of Georgia is not equal to zero, and it is supported by around one fifth of the population. In the authors' view, Georgia may appreciate help with solving its domestic economic problems far more than being called "a beacon of democracy" or "a truly European state". Although according to the results of the most surveys Russia takes the first place in the list of the threats to Georgia, exceeding even the figures for the banned "Islamic State", around one third of the population of Georgia consistently consider Russian threat exaggerated. Together with those who do not regard Russia as a threat at all, these citizens of Georgia almost equal the number of people who believe that "Russia poses a threat to Georgia". Even if Russia does not change its position on the recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and the West remains the goalpost of Georgia's foreign policy, the ties between the people, cultures, and economies of the two countries will not be severed. However, negligence towards the potential of developing the bilateral relations with no efforts taken on a mutual basis may significantly weaken the ties between Russia and Georgia by undermining the chances of strengthening them.

  3. The Media and Democracy in Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deppe, Kendra M

    2005-01-01

    ... freedoms. These include laws that restrict coverage of elections, terror events and the Chechen region. The lack of freedom has resulted in the inability for the media to serve their purpose in civil society. This has contributed to civil society's lack of ability to ensure that Russia's government remains democratic. If present trends continue the future does not look good for Russian democracy or the freedom of Russia's media.

  4. Politics and Economics in Putins Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    from 28.9 to 42.2 between 1992 and 2009. Social stresses have been similarly magnified. Given that federal spending on social services in 2007-2008...demonstration that supreme power in Russia will be undivided and unaccount- able. With Medvedev humiliated, previously heated speculation over who...that Russia has come to look like a modern society. It is true that the townscapes of major cities like Mos- cow and St. Petersburg are presently

  5. A Wims E analysis of the zero energy experiments of Dragon prior to charge IV - Addendum to Part 1: The spectrum calculations. A note for discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancefield, M J

    1973-09-15

    The original paper contained a section describing two possible schemes for condensing channel averaged cross-section data from 32 to 3 groups. Each scheme envisaged a two stage process involving a condensation to an intermediate number of groups based on a relatively crude spectrum calculation followed by a second condensation to 3 groups using condensing spectra from a more refined calculation. The original purpose of the intermediate condensation was to remove redundant groups (e.g. groups around the Pu resonance that are of little importance in this analysis) as cheaply as possible. A crude 32 group 1-D or R-Z SNAP calculation would be used to provide spectra for a condensation to about 15 groups. This would be followed by a condensation from 15 to 3 groups using spectra from a refined multi cell WIMS calculation. An alternative, preferred approach enlarges the role of the intermediate condensation by performing a condensation to fewer groups, perhaps 9, using a better spectrum calculation than the SNAP scheme proposed above. The second condensation would then be from 9 to 3 groups. For this approach it is intended that the same type of spectrum calculation be performed at each stage, based on a multi cell WIMS model and differing only in the coarseness of the mesh. Possible mesh layouts for the multi cell WIMS calculations will be discussed in section 3. There is a consistency in this approach since the first multi cell WIMS mesh layout can be set up as a sub-set of the second multi cell WIMS map; consequently a good flux guess from the first calculation should be easily associated with the second calculation for re-start purposes. The method is also expected to be easier to execute than one based on two different models (i.e. SNAP and multi cell WIMS).

  6. The radiation legacy of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear weapons making and testing, operation of enterprises of the nuclear industry, of military and civilian nuclear fleet, as well as peaceful nuclear explosions -- all that led in the USSR to release of radioactive products into the environment. In some parts of the FSU radioactive contamination exceeded permissible levels. The necessity of remediation of such territories became evident. The most part of the contamination resulted from major radiation accidents in Kyshtym (19570 and Chernobyl (1986). Today those objects, as well as some sites of radwaste storage and disposal, written-off nuclear submarines with non-unloaded spent nuclear fuel, some floating and on-shore repositories of nuclear fleet's radwaste and spent nuclear fuel, pose a potential hazard to the biosphere. Appropriate measures aimed at decreasing their impact on the population and environment are needed. Such measures should include both restoration of contaminated lands and social support programs for the population affected by radiation. The main task of the rehabilitation is reduction of consequences of internal and external exposure of the people, creation of necessary conditions for efficient and safe economical activities. Concrete objectives should be determined, as well as principles and standards to ensure radiation safety when conducting remediation works, and also -- specifications for evaluation of the lands condition prior to their remediation, criteria of decision making, rehabilitation planning, techniques of the lands' restoration and recommendations for their future uses. The Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' envisages studies on Russia's radiation legacy's assessment on the basis of up-to-date information technologies of computer-based systems for data collection, storage and processing for accounting and analysis of information on availability, origin, physical and chemical

  7. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus.

  8. The control of Russia's oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khartukov, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past several years, Russia's oil industry has undergone its radical transformation from a wholly state-run and generously subsidized oil distribution system toward a substantially privatized, cash-strapped, and quasi-market ''petropreneurship''. As this drama privatization process was poorly masterminded, evidently misguided, hardly transparent and highly controversial, its early fruits are difficult to digest. Indeed, the rapid and controversial privatization of Russian oil is far from completion and its current ownership and management patterns leave too much room for questioning and speculation. Not surprisingly, few Western analysts are able to properly determine a scope and degree of the remaining state control over the industry. Russian observers too are badly informed. Consequently, assessments of currents state stake in, say, the country's largest oil company LUKoil typically oscillate from zero to 51% whereas, in fact, excluding 24.5% of its shares put aside for new holders, at present the State definitely owns just under 11.6% of the company equity. (author)

  9. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  10. Preliminary Calculation of the EROI for the Production of Gas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Nogovitsyn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Russia is one of the world’s largest producers of energy resources. Production of energy resources in Russia is profitable, both economically and in terms of the energy produced (as measured by EROI. At the present time, Russian oil and gas companies have a policy of energy saving, and data on energy consumption is given in annual reports. Based on these data, we can make the EROI calculation. In 2013, the EROI for the production, transportation and processing of gas for Open joint stock company (OJSC “Gazprom” was 79:1; for OJSC “NOVATEK”, 76:1; for OJSC “Yakutsk Fuel and Energy Company (YATEC”, only for production, 116:1. Currently, the situation in the oil and gas industry has come to a point when there is a need for the introduction of an energy audit.

  11. Here we go again: the january 2007 transit crisis between russia and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, Varro

    2007-01-01

    In January 2007 Russia interrupted oil deliveries in the Druzhba (Friendship) pipeline due to a transit dispute with Belarus. Although the issue was resolved quickly and existing commercial and strategic stockpiles proved adequate, the episode had the potential to develop into a serious energy security crisis. The crux of the problem was the allocation of rents generated by Russia's oil export tax system. Because of the customs union between the two countries, this created an artificially high profitability for re- exports of oil products from Belarus. Although Belarus is generally regarded as a political ally of Russia and certainly lacks the western orientation of Ukraine's orange revolution, the accumulating transit and rent sharing revenues became sufficient to trigger a forceful action from Russia. The main significance of the Belarus episode is that it highlighted the energy security risks associated with excessive reliance of a single pipeline system. It also dispelled any hope that the January 2006 Ukraine gas crisis was a once off event. Consequently both Russia and the importing regions are expected to raise their priorities in diversifying transit routes and sources. (author)

  12. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  13. Iran: a (re)emerging energy power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauchard, D.; Therme, C.

    2007-01-01

    This document first describes the energy situation in Iran: the energy sector is insufficiently developed due to a lack of investments and the prudence of foreign groups, while ambitious gas pipeline projects take place; however, the important domestic consumption reduces the country's exportation capacity. The second part discusses about the domestic and international political context that is not propitious for energy development (internal tensions that paralyse decision making, international sanctions, etc.) while Iran try to by-pass these difficulties through its relations with Russia and Asia. Several scenarios are then proposed, linked to the possible evolutions of the nuclear litigation

  14. Brussels without Muscles? Exploring the EU's Management of its Gas Relationship with Russia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriman, David

    2010-03-15

    In many respects, the EU is a strong player on the world stage, for example, in trade, climate change issues and crisis management. In its relationship with Russia over gas supply, however, the EU's political capacity remains limited. Part of the problem lies in the lack of EU unity, but this is more a symptom than an actual cause. A key explanation is the interplay between external and internal factors. The external factors - that is the EU's and Russia's conflicting interests and the structure of the political system - reinforce the EU's internal problems. This is an effect of that the gas issue falls under different policy areas (energy, foreign relations and security policy) within which the European Commission and the member states have different responsibilities. Another problem is that energy is the Commission's responsibility, but the real competence lies with the member states. The current multipolar structure of European politics reduces the scope for cooperation that favours the EU as a whole - in this case its energy security. The fact that the Commission and member states, and the member states among themselves, have different views on energy policy vis-a-vis Russia exacerbates these circumstances. Other key factors are the lack of transparency and competition in the gas sector (which suits both the Russian company Gazprom and large EU companies) and the unbalanced dependence of EU countries on Russian gas. Relations between France, Germany and Russia are also important. Germany and France are key players for the EU's energy security, and their support for the gas pipeline Nord Stream, their resistance to unbundling in the gas sector and their relatively warm relations with Russia have not strengthened the EU's position in its gas relationship with Russia. Besides, the Lisbon Treaty increases France's and Germany's powers inside the EU. Combined with the conflicting interests of the EU nd Russia, the

  15. Brussels without Muscles? Exploring the EU's Management of its Gas Relationship with Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriman, David

    2010-03-01

    In many respects, the EU is a strong player on the world stage, for example, in trade, climate change issues and crisis management. In its relationship with Russia over gas supply, however, the EU's political capacity remains limited. Part of the problem lies in the lack of EU unity, but this is more a symptom than an actual cause. A key explanation is the interplay between external and internal factors. The external factors - that is the EU's and Russia's conflicting interests and the structure of the political system - reinforce the EU's internal problems. This is an effect of that the gas issue falls under different policy areas (energy, foreign relations and security policy) within which the European Commission and the member states have different responsibilities. Another problem is that energy is the Commission's responsibility, but the real competence lies with the member states. The current multipolar structure of European politics reduces the scope for cooperation that favours the EU as a whole - in this case its energy security. The fact that the Commission and member states, and the member states among themselves, have different views on energy policy vis-a-vis Russia exacerbates these circumstances. Other key factors are the lack of transparency and competition in the gas sector (which suits both the Russian company Gazprom and large EU companies) and the unbalanced dependence of EU countries on Russian gas. Relations between France, Germany and Russia are also important. Germany and France are key players for the EU's energy security, and their support for the gas pipeline Nord Stream, their resistance to unbundling in the gas sector and their relatively warm relations with Russia have not strengthened the EU's position in its gas relationship with Russia. Besides, the Lisbon Treaty increases France's and Germany's powers inside the EU. Combined with the conflicting interests of the EU nd Russia, the structure of European politics, and different views

  16. Using the geothermal resources in the power engineering of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrokhotov, V.I.; Povarov, O.A.

    2003-01-01

    The areas of the geothermal heat application in various regions of Russia are considered. Expansion of applying the local nontraditional renewable sources of energy, primarily the earth geothermal heat, should be considered one of the basic directions of improving and developing the heat supply systems. Already in the nearest 7-10 years it is possible to save significant sources of organic heat due to the geothermal heat through application of the modern heat supply technologies. The proposals for organization of the financial schemes for realization of new power projects are considered by the example of the GeoPP construction on the Kamchatka [ru

  17. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-01-01

    In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed,...

  18. Toward a More Efficient and Innovative Electricity Sector in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Russia is in the process of one of the most ambitious electricity sector reforms ever undertaken, reflecting the importance of an efficient and reliable electricity sector for promoting economic activity, growth and community prosperity. The outcome of this process will have a substantial impact on Russia’s energy sector and longer-term economic performance. It will help to determine the nature and pace of investment and modernisation of the sector and will help to shape incentives for efficient, flexible and innovative operation and end-use.

  19. Nuclear education in Russia. Status, peculiarities, perspectives and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuchkov, Eduard F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper is devoted to analysis of Russian nuclear education system: its current status, specific features, difficulties and prospects. Russian higher education system in nuclear engineering has been created simultaneously with development of nuclear industry, and the system completely satisfied all industrial demands for the specialists of different qualification level. The specific features of PhD level (doctoral program) of education in Russia are discussed. The paper underlines particularly a special role of international collaboration in the field of nuclear education for further development of nuclear education all over the world. Some examples of international cooperation in the frames of new educational programs development are considered. (author)

  20. Social and economic development of Russia: Finding new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Medvedev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses Russian economic development and economic policy in 2015–2016. The analysis focuses on external and domestic challenges as well as the anti-crisis policy of the Russian government. Special attention is paid to key elements of the new model of economic growth in Russia. The paper discusses economic policy priorities for sustainable growth that include budget efficiency, structural reforms and import substitution, the encouragement of entrepreneurship, the efficiency of public administration, and the modernization of the welfare state.

  1. The raw material and waste activity balance in the projected nuclear power of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, E.O.; Ganev, I.Kh.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Muratov, V.G.; Orlov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Under discussion is the management of long-lived high-level wastes in the nuclear energy sector of Russia, the development of which on a large scale in the next century is motivated by the need for arresting the increasing consumption of fossil fuels. The prerequisites for the nuclear power growth consists in the design of naturally safe reactors and development of a transmutational nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology. The choice of operations in such a cycle and of their quantitative characteristics, is aimed at minimizing the wastes to approach the radiation balance with the natural uranium extracted and put to use. The paper discusses the way the approximation to the balance between the raw material and waste activity is influenced by introduction of the transmutational NFC (in case 2), inclusion of transmutation reactors into the energy mix (case 1), partial disposal of actinide wastes into outer space, and by recycling of protactinium (case 3). It is shown that such a balance can be sustained for a considerable time in cases 2 and 3 or throughout the operation stage of the future nuclear power (case 1). (orig.)

  2. Report on the behalf of the Joint Parliamentary Committee tasked with the proposition of a draft on issues which are still to be discussed in the bill project related to energy transition and green growth. Nr 2624, Nr 331

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Plisson, Philippe; Poniatowski, Ladislas; Negre, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This document first reports the discussion of the Joint Parliamentary Committee on the proposition made by the French Senate and the French National Assembly about the bill project on energy transition and green growth. The second part contains a table which proposes a comparison between the text adopted by the National Assembly in first reading and the text adopted by the Senate in first reading. The bill project addresses: 1) the definition of common objectives for a successful energy transition, for a stronger energy independence for France, and for the struggle against climate change; 2) a better renovation of buildings to save energy, to lower energy bills, and to create jobs; 3) the development of clean transports to improve air quality and to protect health; 4) the struggle against wastage and the promotion of circular economy from product design to product recycling; 5) the promotion of renewable energies to diversify energies and to valorise territorial resources; 6) the strengthening of nuclear safety and citizen information; 7) the simplification and clarification of procedures for improved efficiency and competitiveness; 8) the possibility for citizen, enterprises, territories and State to act together

  3. The EU and Russia Shifting Away from the Economic Logic of Interdependence – an Explanation through the Complex Interdependence Theory

    OpenAIRE

    SIMIONOV, LOREDANA MARIA; PASCARIU, GABRIELA CARMEN

    2017-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis, the ongoing debate concerning the best course of action that the West should take in order to better handle Russia still sparks the academia and the decision-makers. Thus, the European continent is once again divided, bringing back chills from the Cold War era. Although the current adopted measures, namely the economic sanctions on Russia's energy and financial sectors, have undoubtedly exerted considerable pressure on the Russian economy, isolating it ...

  4. Contemporary Russia Policy for the Southern Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen P. Marabyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bilateral relations between Russia on the one hand, and the countries of the Southern Caucasus region on the other hand are examined in the article. The main directions of Russian policy in the Southern Caucasus region are examined there. The article focusses attention to the value of the Southern Caucasus region for Russia and also to the key role of Russia in the Southern Caucasus region. The overview of Russian-Azerbaijani, Russian-Armenian and Russian- Georgian relations is given in the article. Russian relations with unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic and with partially recognized Abkhazia and South Ossetia are examined in the context of above-mentioned bilateral relations. The Caucasian direction of Russian foreign policy is of great importance in questions of ensuring Russian national security. The Caucasian crisis of2008 showed potential conflictness of the region and safety hazard of Russia. Now other processes proceed already in the region. Armenian intention to join the Customs union, the change of Georgian leadership and signing of the agreement on association with EU by Georgia start new mechanisms of interaction between the region countries on the one hand and Russia on the other hand. The relation format between region republics can be changed. The main purpose of the article is to show Russian role in questions of the South Caucasus regional security. The region has the conflict territories, from which the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, the Abkhazian Republic and the South Ossetia Republic are distinguished especially. And Russia won't be able to keep aloof in case of escalation of the conflicts around above-mentioned subjects. The vital questions for the region are peace and stability. And Russia plays a key role in these questions.

  5. Discussion on life cycle assessment on automobiles. 2. From a viewpoint of saving energy in the stage of their use; Jidosha no life cycle assessment ni kansuru ichikento. 2. Shiyo dankai no sho energy no shiten kara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeishi, T.; Kobayashi, N. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Analysis was made by using the life cycle assessment method for the purpose of saving energy in the use stage of automobiles. Life cycle energy was calculated for cases of adopting direct fuel injection and non-stage transmission (CVT) in the currently used gasoline fueled cars. The calculation was performed with respect to each stage of raw material manufacturing, car fabrication, internal energy manufacturing, driving and disposal. Adoption of direct fuel injection and CVT technologies results in reducing the life cycle energy to about 30% in the use stage and little less than 30% on the whole. Stopping the idling operation will reduce the energy in the use stage by about 40%. Adoption of electric vehicles will result in energy reduction of 30% to 35% as compared with gasoline fueled cars. Since fuel consumption improves with increasing average car speed, energy consumption will be improved by about 30% if the current average car speed in the Tokyo Metropolitan area of 19 km/h is improved to the national average level. Improving the driving environments is important. Driving methods with less often quick starting and quick acceleration can save energy. Combinations of policies are desired, such as improvements in the currently used gasoline fueled vehicles, introduction of substitution fuel driven vehicles, and improvements in driving environments. 4 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  7. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadasina, A

    1997-01-01

    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work.

  8. Power market restructuring in Asia : Russia, China, India, and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammons, T.J.; Zhong, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kurihara, I.

    2008-01-01

    Many countries are now in the process of deregulating their power industries in order to promote growth and competitiveness. This paper discussed power market restructuring activities in Russia, China, India and Japan. Economic convergence points in Russian and Asian power markets were reviewed. The state of Russia and China's power industry after the implementation of recent power restructuring initiatives was discussed. Technical characteristics of the industries were evaluated, and market development plans were outlined. Regional electricity markets in Asia were discussed, as well as issues related to domestic and foreign investment. Institutional reforms were reviewed, and individual outlines of revisions for the power industries of the 4 countries were presented. The study demonstrated that structuring processes vary from country to country. Differences in restructuring patterns were attributed to economic differences; country-specific features established within the electric power industry; and attitudes towards deregulation. It was concluded that the reforms adopted by the countries will lead to the expansion of national electric power systems. 23 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Discussing nuclear energy / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    Venemaa ja Valgevene allkirjastasid peaminister Vladimir Putini visiidi ajal kokkuleppe uue tuumajaama ehitamiseks Valgevene ja Leedu piiri lähistele. Mõeldes Jaapanis hiljuti juhtunud tuumaõnnetusele ei ole Leedu selle otsusega rahul

  10. Adamkus, Yushchenko discuss energy cooperation / Kimberly Kweder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kweder, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Leedu president Valdas Adamkus ja Ukraina president Viktor Jushtshenko kohtusid Krimmis. Peateemaks olid energiaküsimused. Ukraina plaanib ehitada energiakoridori, mis ühendaks Kaspia merd ja Euroopat. Ukraina võib liituda tuumaelektrijaama projektiga Leedus

  11. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  12. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  13. Inflation in Modern Russia: Theoretical Foundations, Specific Features of Manifestation and Regional Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vladimirovich Ilyashenko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to characterize the development and specific features of inflation in Russia on the basis of its theoretical justification and practical analysis. The article discusses the monetarist and Keynesian approaches to the characterization of inflation. The paper shows that the equation of exchange from the quantity theory of money, which is the basis of the monetarist theory of inflation, does not allow to make an unambiguous conclusion about the direct relationship between money supply and price level in the economy. The authors give the theoretical substantiation of cost-push inflation from the position of microeconomic theory, which is denied by the representatives of the monetarist school. We characterize the specific features of inflation in the period of market transformations in Russia. The article shows the considerable role of the cost factors of cost-push inflation: the monopolization of the economy, rise in the prices of energy and raw materials. There is an absence of the direct relationship between inflation and money supply growth in large part of the period of the 2000. The authors determine the dependence between the exchange rate and inflation in the Russian economy, which is most evident during periods of significant devaluation of the national currency, as a rule, associated with a significant increase in world oil prices. The paper notes that the significant decline in aggregate demand that occurred in Russia in recent years have reduced the level of inflation in 2016. Despite this, the reduction of inflation and its transformation to slow cost-push inflation was combined with negative consequences for the economy: the decrease of investments and production development, reduction of the living standards of the population. The authors conducted the analysis of inflation on the level of the subjects of the Russian Federation, which has confirmed the significant role of causes of cost-push inflation in

  14. Russia: a new capitalism by state's recapitalization. The hydrocarbons example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, Viviane du

    2010-01-01

    The Russian government sought to protect its national interests takes for himself the power of strategic enterprises. His new diplomacy place energy at the heart of its foreign policy in the face of Western plans to mitigate its interest. The recent financial crisis pushed Russia to structure its economic and financial system with the aim of becoming a key player in the international arena

  15. Estimation of the economical and ecological efficiency of the solar heat supply in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.; Solomin, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    One carried out numerical study of application efficiency of solar heat supply systems in the climatic conditions of Russia with regard to their economical competitiveness with organic fuel heat conventional sources and role in reduction of greenhouse gas releases. One defined the regions where (under certain conditions) application of solar energy to generate low-potential heat may be reasonable [ru

  16. Spiritually Ours, Factually Yours: Karelia and Russia in Finnish Public Consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, J.; Velde, B.M.R. van der

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the leading Finnish newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, this paper explores Finnish attitudes towards and understandings of Russia. It pays special attention to the so-called Karelia Question and the way it has shaped public discussion in Finland. The article seeks to investigate

  17. Role and capabilities of financial structures in development of fuel-power complex in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzlin, L.B.; Kukin, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problems of financing the enterprises of the fuel-power complex (FPC) in Russia nowadays are discussed. The causes of the FPC hard financial situation are analyzed. The forms and methods of investing activity financing and participation of financial structures in stock-holding of FPC enterprises, which can improve the present situation, are shown

  18. Some conditions and prospects of going to a closed fuel cycle in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lependin, A.V.; Oussanov, V.; Lependina, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear policy in Russia is based on the necessity of closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. At the same time, the schedule of such a move is not yet defined. In this study, some conditions and possible time frames of taking the nuclear fuel cycle of Russia to closure are discussed. Naturally, the main condition is the revival of the Russian economy wherein nuclear power will turn out to be necessary in a number of Russian regions. The question is whether the closure of nuclear cycle strategy will be implemented in the near future or nuclear power will develop based on the open fuel cycle over a long period of time? (authors)

  19. Did the Taliban's opium eradication campaign cause a decline in HIV infections in Russia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Jones, Maggie

    2013-04-01

    We offer a new hypothesis for why HIV infections fell rapidly after 2001 in Russia: the Taliban's opium eradication campaign in Afghanistan reduced the supply of heroin, causing use to fall and, thus, transmission of HIV to fall. We present evidence of the impact of the eradication campaign on the heroin market and show that the fall in HIV infections happened simultaneously in Russia and surrounding countries soon after the eradication campaign. We also show that the decline in HIV infections only occurred in injecting drug users, while other risk groups were unaffected. Limitations to our analysis are discussed.

  20. Security of fissile materials in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of security of huge stocks of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia against theft or diversion remains a serious nonproliferation concern. During the Cold War, the security of Soviet nuclear materials was based on centralization and discipline, protection by the military, and intrusive political oversight of the people. The recent fundamental societal changes have rendered these arrangements inadequate, and the security of nuclear materials has decreased. Safeguarding nuclear materials in Russia is particularly difficult because of their very large inventories and the size and complexity of the nation's nuclear infrastructure. Russia needs a reliable and more objective technology-based system of nuclear safeguards designed to control nuclear materials. The Russian government and the international community are working towards this goal

  1. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom

  2. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  3. Encyclopedic approach to Marine History of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Ishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine direction of foreign policy is for Russia one of key. It is determined geographical position of the Russian state banks of which is washed plenty of Maureies. Also it is related to that considerable part of population lives on the coast of Russian Maureies, and industry, located in an off-shore bar brings, in a large contribution to the economy.Many Russian marine travelers were the discoverers of «new» earths. The contribution of the Russian scientists to the hydrophysical, geological and biological study of Maureies and Oceans is great. Russia possesses a navy, to the constituents approximately one-third of total tonnage of world VMF and one of large in the world a rybopromyslovym fleet. Transport ships under the flag of Russian Federation it is possible to meet planets in the remotest corners. In a number of areas of military shipbuilding and civil shipbuilding Russia had and continues to save priority.Enhanceable interest to the Seas and Oceans found the reflection in the fundamental Russian documents, including, in the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation, ratified Russia President in 2015. In it the value of marine spaces for the Russian state is marked. In the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation is writtenin: «The skilled providing, marine teaching and education play an important role in the increase of efficiency of marine activity. They are directed on preparation, bringing in and maintainance of skilled shots of all levels, maintenance of professionalism, marine traditions and not indifferent relation of citizens to marine history of country, serve positive presentation, propaganda and support of national marine policy, to marine activity and marine service in society».Marine direction, marine science about regions found a reflection in the publications of row of the Russian authors, devoted research of policy of Russia in such regions, as: Black Sea region, Caspian region, Arctic, and also in the series of Encyclopaedias

  4. Russia is on brink of AIDS epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M

    1996-08-03

    Russia, and in particular Moscow, is on the brink of an AIDS epidemic, the president of the Russian Medical Academy told doctors gathered in Moscow for a national AIDS seminar. Although Russia has officially registered only 1269 cases of HIV infection, a quarter of them in Moscow, and 193 deaths since the first case appeared in Russia in 1987, health officials are alarmed by the recent rise in the rate of infection. In 1995, 200 new cases were registered, but 205 cases had already been registered in the first 6 months of 1996. The rapid spread of intravenous drug use is the main factor contributing to the rise in HIV infection. According to the head of the Russian AIDS Center, the real number of people infected with HIV in Russia is 3-4 times higher than official numbers, while AIDS activists believe that the real figure is 10-20 times higher. Russia has traditionally blamed its AIDS problem on foreigners and introduced an obligatory HIV test as a visa requirement for long-term visitors. Now neighboring Ukraine and Belarus are being blamed for the latest crisis. Of 1000 known intravenous drug users tested in Svetlogorsk, Belarus, 158 are HIV positive, with 20 results still outstanding. Previously, only 130 people in Belarus were known to be infected with HIV. In the Ukraine, where HIV testing has shown that over 5000 people are HIV positive and where a further 20,000 are estimated to be infected, a special subtype of HIV-1 has been discovered. In 1995 there were 1021 new cases of HIV infection, but in the first 4 months of this year there were 1805 new cases. Although the chief AIDS specialist at Russia's health ministry agrees that health education is more important than scare tactics against foreigners, in 1995 the health ministry received only 49% of the funds allocated for national AIDS education.

  5. Reinsurance Market in Russia Requires a Restart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Voronin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: main objective of this article is to analyze dynamics and structure of the reinsurance market in Russia. Market research is conducted to understand the main trends in Russian reinsurance during period of economic sanctions. As these sanctions, affect incoming and outgoing reinsurance, as well as the development of the industry in the whole country. To achieve this goal, the article needs to address the following objectives: conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the reinsurance market; to identify the current structure of the reinsurance market in Russia; to evaluate the influence of the Russian national reinsurance company in the insurance market of the Russian Federation. Methods: this article is based on the Central Bank of Russia consolidated data on the insurance market. Results: in the period imposed against our country economic sanctions by Western countries, the topic of import substitution is relevant not only in the productive sectors of the economy and the financial markets. In particular, in the present period it is necessary to obtain additional capacity with the market of international capital loans and improve the domestic investment climate in the country. Current international practice shows that the development of any financial industry would be impossible without effective sharing of different kinds of risks and their maximum leveling. Conclusions and Relevance: analysis conducted in the article allows to identify current trends in the insurance market in Russia from both internal and external players perspectives. The data demonstrates the main problem areas of the reinsurance community in Russia and ways of solving them. In addition, the article makes predictions about the development of the reinsurance market in Russia with the imposition of a new player – the national reinsurance company. 

  6. Environmental security: The problems of Northwestern Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    The review of main existing environmental problems of North-West Russia covers the radioactive pollution, atmospheric pollution, destroying of the tundra and forest ecosystems, inland and water pollution, consequences of space activities. This region includes: Karelia and Komi republics; Yamalo-Nenetzk autonomous region; Murmansk; Leningrad and Vologda regions; White Sea; Southern and eastern parts of Barents Sea; eastern part of Kara Sea; and eastern part of the Baltic (Finnish Bay). The environmental situation in northwestern Russia is extremely unsafe. The fundamental reason for this situation is Soviet over-militarization in the past. There is an urgent need now to tackle the international environmental security in the Arctic and Scandinavian regions at least in two fields: 1. The existing radioactive pollution (mostly connected with military activities), and even more dangerous - the potential radioactive pollution of the Arctic and Scandinavia. 2. Atmospheric pollution (long distance transportation of pollutant, mostly sulphur dioxide and heavy metals, from melting factories on Kola Peninsula). Several other problems relating to the environmental security of the region (among them deforestation, oil/gas pollution of the ocean, development of the diamond industry) need international attention in the nearest future. It is unrealistic to think that Russia alone can overcome these long-standing problems in the foreseeable future: we need international support for this. But foreign money for solving our environmental problems is not the solution, firstly, because for environmental restoration and recovery Russia needs much more than the international community can allocate; secondly, because there is much money inside Russia (every month, during 1993-1996, up to two billions US dollars were flowing out from Russia to western banks). To utilize this money in a proper way, we drastically need international help to awaken the Russian public environmental awareness

  7. Russia After Yeltsin: Implications for U.S. National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Charles

    1997-01-01

    With the recent health problems of Russia's President Yeltsin it becomes prudent to ask who would assume control of Russia if Yeltsin were suddenly to die, or become incapacitated for a lengthy period of time...

  8. Seismicity Characterization and Velocity Structure of Northeast Russia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackey, Kevin G; Fujita, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    A seismicity catalog and associated list of phases for many events has been compiled for northeast Russia using published and unpublished data from the regional networks operating in eastern Russia...

  9. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear weapons have traditionally occupied an important place in Russia's national security strategy. This tradition goes back to the Soviet times, when the country invested considerable efforts into building its nuclear arsenal and achieving strategic parity with the United States. As Russia and the United States have been reducing their nuclear arsenals since the end of the Cold War, their relationship has undergone a complex transformation toward cooperation and partnership mixed with suspicion and rivalry. The focus of Russia's nuclear policy, however, has remained essentially unchanged - it still considers strategic balance with the United States to be an important element of national security and pays considerable attention to maintaining the deterrent potential of its strategic forces. Russia does recognize the emergence of new threats - it cannot ignore the threats related to regional instabilities and conflicts on its own territory and in bordering states, such as the tensions in the Caucasus or the war in Afghanistan, the terrorist activity that is associated with these conflicts, as well as the problems that stem from nuclear and missile proliferation. These, however, are not given a high priority in Russia's security policy. For example, the new military doctrine adopted in February 2010, opens the list of military threats with the expansion of geographical and political reach of NATO, which is followed by the threat to strategic stability and then by deployment of missile defense. Nuclear proliferation, terrorism, and destabilizing local conflicts are placed much further down the list. Even when it comes to confronting the issues of local instabilities and terrorism, Russia's leadership tends to see these issues through the prism of its strategic strength, alleging that terrorist attacks are a reaction to Russia's perceived weakness. This way of looking at the issues effectively redefines national security problems to conform to the traditional view

  10. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  11. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  12. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  13. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  14. Political elite of modern Russia: crisis of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail A. Burda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Author analyzes the practice of functioning of political elite of modern Russia, the phenomenon of high rating of one of its actors and the crisis of alternative political leaders. The article pays special attention to the existing, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the breadth of presidential powers. Separately discusses the features of current and in General closed for the controlled companies to the private process of formation of the Russian political elite. According to the author, this process takes the form of selection of candidates by a narrow circle of senior officials for subjective reasons, in connection with which the political elite even more segregated from the controlled companies and rising to a new, unattainable level of elitism. Referring to the existing practice of the presidential elections in Russia in the early 90-ies of XX century to the present focuses on the stagnation of the political opposition, lack of political competition among major political parties and their low electoral support in view of the existing political absenteeism. In the article the author considers the historical context of the formation of elite groups and privileged minorities, and draws attention to features of "technocratic parliamentarism", which is inherent in States with a parliamentary form of government and does not implement at present in Russia, with its prevailing system of governance by public authorities. In conclusion, the special attention of author is turned on the existing in society political absenteeism, latent protest potential and, as a consequence, the request for the renewal of political elites, particularly in the framework of the upcoming presidential elections of the Russian Federation in 2018, the participation of new candidates. According to the author of the inventory of such social demand companies will allow to stop the risks enhance the destructive part of economic and regional political

  15. Russia's nuclear policy in the 21. century environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenin, D.

    2005-01-01

    While little noticed by the public, the nuclear standoff that had long been associated with the Soviet-U.S. confrontation continues to exist even a decade and a half after the official end of the Cold War. Nuclear weapons, developed and perfected in the environment of the U.S.-Soviet politico-military confrontation, which they soon came to epitomize, continue to play a prominent role in Washington's and Moscow's defense and security policies. Nuclear deterrence has not been abolished by official zero targeting of missiles and warheads. Even as arsenals are being reduced, modernization and research go ahead. Moreover, in the 21. century's strategic environment, whose principal features include the spread of weapons of mass destruction and catastrophic terrorism; the rise of China as America's future competitor, and the nuclearization of India; and, finally, a general politico-strategic uncertainty, the usability of nuclear weapons, both political and military, is being subtly reconsidered. In the opinion of some experts, a second nuclear age has come. This paper discusses the official nuclear policy of the Russian Federation and the evolution of Russian thinking on the role of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. It seeks to explain the importance of nuclear weapons for post-Soviet Russia; the post-Cold War deterrence strategy; the development of the nuclear forces structure and their missions; as well as Russia's approaches to nuclear arms control and nuclear proliferation. Finally, the paper examines the place and role of Russia in the multipolar nuclear constellation of this new century. (author)

  16. Macroeconomic determinants of remittance flows from russia to tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzosaid Sultonov

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the macroeconomic determinants of remittance flows from Russia to Tajikistan. Applying quarterly time series and an econometric model with regression analyses, we find that Russia's economic growth and Tajikistan's inflation have positive and statistically significant effects on remittances, and Russia's unemployment has negative and statistically significant effects.

  17. 76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... urea from Russia and Ukraine. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

  18. Russia wants to supply gas to both East and West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Russia's plans of distributing gas to both Europe and Asia are analysed. In Russia the main oil and gas assets have been put back under state control, and there is a fear that Russia will use its massive oil and gas reserves as a political tool to strengthen its national security interests

  19. 75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of full five-year... from Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of full reviews pursuant to... Russia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably...

  20. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission... and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to...

  1. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  2. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  3. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  4. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  5. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  6. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  7. Fast reactor development program in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachkov, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The large-scale NP can be developed on the basis of new generation of CNFC and FR technologies being in compliance with “natural safety” criteria. Within the FTP we are planning to develop alternative technologies with the goal to select by 2020 the best technological option for the large-scale nuclear power development in Russia in 21 century

  8. Formation of tax culture in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikova Je.A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the mechanism of the formation of tax culture in Russia, moral and ethical principles, on which based the work of the tax authorities, given the author's idea of the formation of tax culture. We consider the institution of tax advice, its interaction with the tax authorities and its impact on the formation of tax culture.

  9. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  10. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

  11. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  12. Who pays for the sanctions on Russia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The EU’s sanctions on Russia mark the low point in relations between Brussels and Moscow since the end of the Cold War. Though there is a fierce debate over the impact of these sanctions on the Russian economy, much less attention is paid to their cost to EU Europe.

  13. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  14. Legal reality of Russia: constants and variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp

  15. STS-71 astronauts training in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Norman E. Thagard and Bonnie J. Dunbar in cosmonaut space suits in the Training Simulator Facility at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City), near Moscow, Russia. In March 1995, astronaut Thagard is scheduled to be launched in a Russ

  16. Hydroelectric power generation assessment for Russia: Cooperation in a mutual transfer of technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, M.F. [Harza Engineering Co., Chicago, IL (United States); Meloy, G.R. [Army Corps of Engineers, Lake Oswego, OR (United States); Semenkov, A.V. [Energopromtechnika Group Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    In September 1993, Russian Federation Prime Minister Chernomyrdin and United States Vice President Gore agreed on a joint study to examine options for Russia`s energy future. The objective of the study would be to develop a long-term, comprehensive program for the Russian power sector. A joint Russian-American program was established by the United States government. This program was charged to assess all aspects of the Russian energy sector, including conservation, thermal energy, nuclear energy, transmission line systems, and hydropower energy. The objective of the hydropower energy assessment aspect of the study was to prepare a time-phased investment plan for the period 1995 to 2000 for expansion of the existing hydroelectric energy production. The Hydropower Assessment Project required a close working relationship between engineers from the United States and the Russian Federation. The Project Team was given unprecedented access to design and economic data of existing and planned hydropower projects in the Russian Federation. This paper presents the methodology of the hydropower generation assessment for Russia, focusing on the partnering of American and Russian engineers, which led to a mutual transfer of technology and a successful project.

  17. Choice of fuels, generating and distribution technologies for remote regions in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolyarevski, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper gives a very brief description of the various regional concepts of energy supply to remote settlements being under consideration in Russia. In Russia, nuclear power is used almost exclusively in central regions with high density of population. The use of small capacity nuclear power plants (SCNPP) for decentralized energy users is technically feasible, but has only been applied in Bilibino NPP (4x12 MWe) constructed during 1974-1976 in Chucot region (north of Russian Far East). The feedback from an equivalent of 80 reactor-years of good operating experience Bilibino NPP as well as the acquired knowledge from the construction and operation of test and ship nuclear reactors has been an integral part of the modern concepts for energy supply of separate energy users located in remote regions

  18. 浅谈清洁能源 LNG在天津港基层单位中的应用%Brief Discussion on the Application of Clean Energy LNG in Tianjin Port Basic Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何靖

    2015-01-01

    Energy is the material basis of human activities, the development of human society can't do without the emergence of high-quality energy and advanced energy technologies.In this paper,based on clean energy LNG as a starting point,the implementation of LNG dump truck in the practical is discussed.The Tianjin port is committed to green and low-carbon development,guarantees the good economic and social benefits at the same time.%能源是人类活动的物质基础,人类社会的发展离不开优质能源的出现和先进能源技术的使用。文中以清洁能源LNG为出发点,以天津港基层单位推行LNG项目为背景,针对LNG自卸汽车在实际应用中需要注意的问题展开讨论,在坚持天津港绿色低碳港口发展的同时,也保证了企业良好的经济效益和社会效益。

  19. Researches at organizations of minatom of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beljaev, I.A.

    1994-01-01

    The brief information about the major scientific research institute of the Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation such as the 'Kurchatov Institute' of Atomic Energy, the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, the Institute of High Energy Physics, the Institute of Innovation and Thermonuclear Research, etc., and their outstanding research achievements have been discussed. The activity of applied research organizations has also been written. Informations about the installations such as TOKAMAK, TOPAZ, the unique 3000 GeV proton accelerator in Protvino are presented too. The scientific problems of nuclear weapons and disarmament, aspects of conversation of the enterprises of nuclear weapons complex have been spoken about. The main fields of international scientific cooperation are also discussed. (author)

  20. What is Needed in the EU's 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. Interim Discussion Paper and Results from a Research Project Led by IDDRI and Climate Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, Oliver; Spencer, Thomas IDDRI; Colombier, Michel; Bart, Istvan; Cochran, Ian; Neuhoff, Karsten; Szpor, Aleksander; Tuerk, Andreas; Wyns, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    The EU 2030 Climate and Energy Framework presents a number of technical challenges whose solution will be essential to its effectiveness. These include: the question of the role and reform of the ETS, the approach to decarbonization of non-ETS sectors, and the mechanisms that exist for governing the package of policies at EU and Member State level. This discussion paper presents preliminary results from an analysis of these challenges, as well as proposals that could be included in the package of post- 2020 climate policies. (authors)