WorldWideScience

Sample records for discuss problem areas

  1. The Problem of Retraction in Critical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    2001-01-01

    In many contexts a retraction of commitment is frowned upon. For instance, it is not appreciated, generally, if one withdraws a promise or denies an earlier statement. Critical discussion, too, can easily be disrupted by retractions, if these occur too frequently and at critical points. But on the

  2. Discussion on the electronic problems of straw vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of the characteristic time of the output waveform of straw vertex detector, the design of its high resolution and high counting rate readout system and the problems of the charge and time calibrations are discussed

  3. The role of qualitative discussion in problem solving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerny, V.

    1998-01-01

    The paper contributes to the methodology of problem solving in physics. We argue that the task of solving a problem does not end by obtaining the result. We claim that a question like 'Why the result came out as it did?' can be meaningfully posed and that deeper understanding of the subject comes out as a result of a discussion on possible answers to such a question (Author)

  4. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  5. Discussion of several problems in nuclear instrument scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuezhen; Zhou Sichun; Xiao Caijin

    2005-01-01

    The equipment scale is the first problem in measurement, including nuclear apparatus, otherwise there are different methods of equipment scale, then how to get the best way to seek the scale equation is the keystone of study. The article discusses several methods to get scale equation from the angle of error transformation, and compares their superiority, then gets the most precision method--Deming method, in addition, there is another simple and applied method, that is method of the mean, in the end, validates the theory through X fluorescence equipment scale. (authors)

  6. [Man, problems of values and a discussion of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straass, G

    1981-04-15

    This is a discussion on pregnancy interruption as it was carried out in the last years in the German Federal Republic, as well as in the German Democratic Republic. Ethical and moral problems and concepts concerning abortion and abortion legislation are discussed from the viewpoint of various ideas and philosophies, especially from the marxist point of view. Moral and ethical concepts result from an evaluation process of human behavior and social relationships. From the marxist insight of people it is known that this is historically concrete and not eternally existing in the nature of man. It is based on concrete people within concrete social situations. Moral values are dependent on social concepts and include human motivations. There is a close relationship between human needs and interests on the one hand and ethical values on the other hand. In abortion too, the single decision of the person does not constitute an ethical value. Abortion cannot be considered independent from the woman, nor from social reality. Reasons for legal abortion have changed through the years according to social needs; before and after World War II poverty, hardship, malnutrition; today it mainly is a question of woman's need for equality in education, profession, and family. Population policies play a role: "soldiers for Hitler" during World War II; preservation of the German race; influx of foreign people with large families. Ethical naturalism "survival of the fittest" is rejected. "Human life" cannot be separated from "developing human life"; zygote, embryo, fetus and newborn are all inseparable stages in human life. A newborn child is not purely biological, like an animal; social aspects are involved. Human nature is a product of history. The developing embryo has no significance as a primary basis for induced abortion but secondarily serves only to determine the optimal time period for abortion. To base abortion on the nature of prenatal human life means nothing more than to

  7. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  8. News Focus: NSF Director Erich Bloch Discusses Foundation's Problems, Outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Relates the comments offered in an interview with Erich Bloch, the National Science Foundation (NSF) Director. Discusses issues related to NSF and its funding, engineering research centers, involvement with industry, concern for science education, computer centers, and its affiliation with the social sciences. (ML)

  9. THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND ITS DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pasek de Pinto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Language has different functions. One of them, the communication, is fundamental for the investigation, because the textualization of its process and results is the base of the diffusion of the advance and increase of the scientific knowledge. However, most students - and those who are not already so - present difficulties in using references, in breaks in cohesion, or in logical and argumentative coherence. Such difficulties limit the generation of texts, as they constitute an obstacle to translate written ideas into an argumentative discourse, typical of science and research. The latter requires the argued presentation of an idea, whose perception, description and obvious reasons make up the problem that is wanted to know, to explain, to verify, to understand or to interpret. Therefore, this short space / time has the purpose of reflecting on the discursive construction of the problem of an inquiry. Its importance lies precisely in the disadvantages of its configuration. In this sense, the reflection is developed from a vision of language and communication; The argumentative discourse and the types of reasoning involved in order to fulfill certain guidelines that underlie the construction of the problem of inquiry and its approach in terms of a positivist-quantitative and / or qualitative study.

  10. Discussion on some problems in uranium hydrogeochemical prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Weijun.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for sampling density in uranium hydrogeochemical prospecting are discussed in this paper. The scales for regional hydrogeochemical survey, prospetcing survey and detailed prospecting survey are 1 : 200,000 - 1 : 100,000, 1 : 50,000 - 1 : 25,000 and 1 : 10,000 - 1 : 5,000 respectively. On the basis of explanation to the geological meaning of hydrogeochemical field defined in different stage, the principle, effect and technical requirements of small-medium scale hydrogeochemical prospecting are studied. The reason and advantage of the dispersion train prospecting using in the wet and rainy regions have been suggested. The key to the dispersion train prospecting is the sensitivity and precision of analytic methods. The general indications and salinity (conductivity) should be paid attention to in hydrogeochemical prospecting

  11. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  12. BES-HEP Connections: Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics, Round Table Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fradkin, Eduardo [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Maldacena, Juan [Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Chatterjee, Lali [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of High Energy Physics; Davenport, James W [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science. Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    2015-02-02

    On February 2, 2015 the Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Basic Energy Sciences (BES) convened a Round Table discussion among a group of physicists on ‘Common Problems in Condensed Matter and High Energy Physics’. This was motivated by the realization that both fields deal with quantum many body problems, share many of the same challenges, use quantum field theoretical approaches and have productively interacted in the past. The meeting brought together physicists with intersecting interests to explore recent developments and identify possible areas of collaboration.... Several topics were identified as offering great opportunity for discovery and advancement in both condensed matter physics and particle physics research. These included topological phases of matter, the use of entanglement as a tool to study nontrivial quantum systems in condensed matter and gravity, the gauge-gravity duality, non-Fermi liquids, the interplay of transport and anomalies, and strongly interacting disordered systems. Many of the condensed matter problems are realizable in laboratory experiments, where new methods beyond the usual quasi-particle approximation are needed to explain the observed exotic and anomalous results. Tools and techniques such as lattice gauge theories, numerical simulations of many-body systems, and tensor networks are seen as valuable to both communities and will likely benefit from collaborative development.

  13. PROBLEMS AND CLASSIFICATION OF FORMER MILITARY AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirezhev C.A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the Russian Federation in the international community, to find the most effective ways to implement the military and land reforms require a comprehensive study. The paper identifies the main problems that hinder the effective implementation of the reform of the conversion, the ways of their solutions, including use of the experience of the advanced countries of the European Union. Identified military objects to be conversion, shown combining them into groups according to various criteria. Proposed a typology of ex-military territories. Notes the role of the organization of effective land use conversion in the areas of land use planning, identifies the main documents required for the implementation of planned activities. The problems of land use planning conversion ex-military territories.

  14. Translation as the Cultural-Historical Problem (Domestic Discussions 1930-1950 and the Present)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shchedrina, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of the cultural-historical relativity of translation is considered in this article. The author analyses the positions of the participants of modern discussions on problems of translation in the context of the history of discussion of translation strategies in Russia (1930-1950-ies) and

  15. Can we choose evil? A discussion of the problem of radical evil as a modern and ancient problem of freedom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark; Keen, Daniel E.; Keen, Pamela Rossi

    2004-01-01

    The problem discussed in this paper emerges from work I’ve done on the modern ideal of autonomy.1 I found that autonomy is often seen as a morally neutral term. Put in terms of good and evil, this means that it is held consistent to say that a person is autonomous and chooses evil. Autonomy, by

  16. Polio roundup. Grappling with the "problem" areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    As the war against poliomyelitis continues, eradication efforts must now succeed in some countries which have been subjected to natural disasters and in others which are enduring manmade disasters. Subnational immunization days (SNIDs) were most recently conducted in northern Somalia in two 5-day rounds last November and December amid widespread popular and political support. While villages in the arid, drought-plagued country are often inaccessible, flooding from heavy rains was the only real problem encountered by the vaccination campaign. More than 90% of the estimated 375,000 children under age 5 years in the target area were vaccinated and given vitamin A. Careful advance preparations contributed to the campaign's success. A 7-day campaign in mid-February got oral polio vaccine to more than 330,000 children in southern Sudan. Maintaining the vaccine cold chain was the major operational challenge in this setting. To that end, all available means were used, including placing vaccines into running streams to keep them cool. The program in Sudan was coordinated by the UN's Operation Lifeline Sudan. Heat, armed conflict, lack of infrastructure, the need to reach more than 80% of the population by air, infectious diseases, drought, and hungry packs of hyenas were some of the obstacles to overcome. A second round of vaccination is planned for southern Sudan in mid March.

  17. Building Language Through Conflict Resolution: Discussing Problems Enriches Language While Leading to Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes how classroom group time can be "talk central" for children to discuss problems, imagine solutions, even role-play hypothetical situations. It is often in the safety and support of the large group that children develop the tools they need to learn how to resolve the inevitable conflicts that arise throughout life.…

  18. Analysis and discussion on several problems when testing the thickness of reinforcement cover of concrete component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanhua, Zhang; Guiling, Ji; Lijie; Zhaobo, Zhang; Na, Han; Jing, Zhao; Tan, Li; Zhaorui, Liu

    2018-03-01

    Reinforcement cover of concrete component plays a very important role to ensure the durability of various types of structures and the effective anchorage between steel reinforcement and concrete. This paper discusses and analyzes the problems occurred when testing the thickness of reinforcement cover of concrete component, so as to provide reference and help for related work.

  19. Classics in the Cloud : A discussion of the problems of classical music and streaming

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Tone Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Music Management MU501 - University of Agder 2017 Streaming services have become the main method of music consumption the last couple of years, and the classical audience have moved to the cloud as well. This paper aims to uncover some of the issues that classical consumers encounter while using streaming services, what the reasons may be that there are problems, and discussing possible solution to benefit either the connoisseur or the novice listener. It brings...

  20. Factors associated with advance care planning discussions by area agency on aging care managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Susan; Baughman, Kristin R; Palmisano, Barbara R; Sanders, Margaret; Ludwick, Ruth E

    2013-12-01

    Initiating advance care planning (ACP) discussions in the home may prevent avoidable hospitalizations by elucidating goals of care. Area agencies on aging care managers (AAACMs) work in the home with high-risk consumers. To determine which AAACM characteristics contribute to an increased frequency of ACP discussions. Cross-sectional investigator-generated surveys administered to AAACMs at 3 AAAs in Ohio. Of 289 AAACMs, 182 (63%) responded. The more experience and comfort AAACMs felt with ACP discussions, the more likely they were to initiate ACP discussions. It may be necessary to build interactive educational experiences where, for example, AAACMs are asked to fill out their own advance directives and/or facilitate others in ACP discussions to improve experience and comfort with ACP discussions.

  1. ESL and Content Area Teacher Responses to Discussions on English Language Learner Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawan, Faridah; Craig, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study compares the responses and statements of English as a second language (ESL) and content area teachers in discussions about the instruction of English language learners (ELLs). A study on how these two sets of teachers understand the field is important because commonalities and differences in their opinions may have an impact on…

  2. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  3. The problem with areas: Asia and Area studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor T. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of:Goh Beng Lan (ed., Decentring & diversifying Southeast Asian Studies: Perspectives from the region. Singapore: ISEAS, 2011, xiii + 304 pp. ISBN 9789814311564, price: USD 34.90 (paperback; 9789814311571, USD 45.90 (hardback.Terence Wesley-Smith and Jon Goss (eds, Remaking Area studies: Teaching and learning across Asia and the Pacific. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press, 2010, xxvii + 243 pp. ISBN 9780824833213. Price: USD 45.00 (hardback.Jacob Edmond, Henry Johnson and Jacqueline Leckie (eds, Recentring Asia: Histories, encounters, identities, xv + 339 pp. Leiden/Boston: Brill, Global Oriental: 2011. ISBN 9781906876258. Price: EUR 80.00 (hardback.

  4. Discussion method for the Wigner-Seitz model applied to plane problems; Methode de discussion du modele Wigner-Seitz appliquee a des problemes plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J

    1949-04-01

    This report discusses the approximation which consists, for the study of a waves field, in replacing a square domain by a circular domain in a square orthogonal mesh network. For this purpose, it is proposed to introduce J{sub 4}(Kr)cos(4{theta}) and Y{sub 4}(Kr)cos(4{theta}) terms and to modify the outside limits of the mesh for the calculation of the coefficients of these terms.

  5. Proposal for Land Consolidation Project Solutions for Selected Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik-Len, Justyna; Strek, Zanna

    2017-12-01

    One of the economic tools for supporting agricultural policy are the activities implemented under the Rural Development Program (RDP). By encouraging agricultural activities and creating equal opportunities for development of farms, among others in areas with unfavourable environmental conditions characterized by low productivity of soils exposed to degradation, decision makers can contribute to improving the spatial structure of rural areas. In Poland, one of the major concerns are agricultural problem areas (regions). In view of this situation, the aim of this article was to characterize the problem areas in question and propose land consolidation project solutions for selected fragments of those areas. This paper presents the results of a review of literature and an analysis of geodetic and cartographic data regarding the problem areas. The process of land consolidation, which is one of the technical and legal instruments supporting the development of rural areas, was characterized. The study allowed the present authors to establish criteria for selecting agricultural problem areas for land consolidation. To develop a proposal for rational management of the problem areas, key general criteria (location, topography, soil quality and usefulness) and specific criteria were defined and assigned weights. A conception of alternative development of the agricultural problem areas was created as part of a land consolidation project. The results were used to create a methodology for the development of agricultural problem areas to be employed during land consolidation in rural areas. Every agricultural space includes areas with unfavourable environmental and soil conditions determined by natural or anthropogenic factors. Development of agricultural problem areas through land consolidation should take into account the specific functions assigned to these areas in land use plans, as well as to comply with legal regulations.

  6. Dynamics of problem setting and framing in citizen discussions on synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betten, Afke Wieke; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kupper, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging scientific field where engineers and biologists design and build biological systems for various applications. Developing synthetic biology responsibly in the public interest necessitates a meaningful societal dialogue. In this article, we argue that facilitating such a dialogue requires an understanding of how people make sense of synthetic biology. We performed qualitative research to unravel the underlying dynamics of problem setting and framing in citizen discussions on synthetic biology. We found that most people are not inherently for or against synthetic biology as a technology or development in itself, but that their perspectives are framed by core values about our relationships with science and technology and that sensemaking is much dependent on the context and general feelings of (dis)content. Given that there are many assumptions focused on a more binary idea of the public's view, we emphasize the need for frame awareness and understanding in a meaningful dialogue.

  7. Discussion on several geological problems and uranium metallogeny on northern border of northern China block (platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong.

    1987-01-01

    According to the informations from the satellite image and the field investigation the following geological events on the northern border of the Northern China Block are recognized and confirmed, duch as suture zones between blocks, folding-reversed fault zones, back-arc collision zones (faulted zones), transitional zone between platform and geosyncline, magmatic are and the double sturcture composed of NNE trend magmatic active belt and fault-depression belts (basins) of Yenshan-Ximalaya age. On thsee bases the following problems, such as the unique structural environment of uranium mineralization related to abyssal magmatic rocks and Yenshan magmatic active zone (including volcanic belt) on the northern border of the Northern China Block, the metallogenetic modes for urnaium deposits of 'magmatic type' and 'neutralized surface type' in fault-depression zone and the classification of uranium metallogenetic belts and the criteria for such classification are studied and discussed. Several uranium deposits are given for illustrations

  8. Problems of the nuclear non-proliferation policy. Contributions to the international discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Butler, P. von; Fischer, W.; Caccia Dominioni, F.; Frick, H.; Gmelin, W.; Haeckel, E.; Lauppe, W.D.; Mueller, H.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.

    1994-01-01

    The volume assembles a number of essays wherein basic problems of nonproliferation are identified and discussed in view of recent developments and future policy requirements. What is the role of multilateral institutions in the containment of nuclear proliferation? How are Western Europe's security needs to be reconciled with the tenets of the global nonproliferation regime? How can international safeguards be upgraded so as to increase confidence among states? What kinds of disciplinary instruments are needed for the international community to prevent an unco-operative state from gaining access to nuclear weapons? What kinds of obstacles stand in the way of smooth co-operation between the European Union and the United States in the nuclear field? How does the demise of global bipolarity impinge on the need to pursue an international nuclear order? The essays in this volume seek to combine structural analysis of conceptual issues with substantive policy recommendations. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Video mediated teaching of young students in peripheral regions of the Nordic countries - a discussion of problems and potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    Modern labour market is characterized by high educational demands. However, the opportunities for young people living in peripheral regions of countries of meeting such demands are reduced. Modern technology and improvements of video technology widened the possibilities of providing young people...... in these areas with education and has given rise to an increase in the interest of using video mediated teaching. Recent years several experiments have been implemented in Denmark and in the Nordic countries in general. In a Danish region a comprehensive innovation project including video mediated simultaneous...... teaching at two locations was implemented in years 2008 - 2010 (Andreasen, 2012). Drawing on theory of Etienne Wenger (2004) about learning and communities of practice this article discusses results from the dialogue research related to the project. The article will discuss problems and potentials...

  10. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  11. Income and managing problems of the protected areas in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    n 2000, the authors collected a great quantity of relevant data by investigating more than 50 nature reserves. Based on the analysis of development and management situation of the protected areas in China, the main problems were put forward, such as, no unified management for income and managing activities, lack of special guideline and effective supervision, lack of income and investment, investing financial difference in different provinces. All these problems caused the lack of funds for construction, as well as the damage of resources and environment. Furthermore the conserving activities have to transmit to the profits in many protected areas. Combined with these problems, the primary solution programmers also were put forward.

  12. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: quench detection and energy dump, stationary normal region of conductor, current leads, electrical arcing, electrical shorts, conductor joints, forces from unequal currents, eddy current effects, cryostat rupture, vacuum failure, fringing field and instrumentation for safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  13. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Priorities among these areas are suggested

  14. Discussion in primary ecological environmental problems and relevant countermeasures in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yongfeng

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of sufficient statistical data, the primary ecological environmental problems, including water/soil loss and dissertation, water resource shortage and water pollution, deterioration of air quality and air pollution, despoilation of biodiversity, and environmental pollution, are listed in this paper. In addition, the causes of these problems are analyzed. Finally, relevant strategies and measures for environmental protection are brought forward. (authors)

  15. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  16. Plant Operations. OSHA on Campus: Campus Safety Officers Discuss Problems and Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Joseph F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The Occupation Safety and Health Act (OSHA) has presented campus safety officers with new problems, but it is also offering them new potentials, which were explored at the recent national conference on Campus Security. (Editor)

  17. Entering the Historical Problem Space: Whole-Class Text-Based Discussion in History Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisman, Abby

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: The Common Core State Standards Initiative reveals how little we understand about the components of effective discussion-based instruction in disciplinary history. Although the case for classroom discussion as a core method for subject matter learning stands on stable theoretical and empirical ground, to date, none of the…

  18. Allocation of Playing Time within Team Sports--A Problem for Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The background of the article is the recurrent discussion about allocation of playing time in team sports involving children and young athletes. The objective is to analyse "why" playing time is a topic for discussion among parents, coaches and athletes. The following question is addressed: Under which condition is it "fair" to…

  19. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  20. The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…

  1. Developing Academic Talent: A Problem of Vertical Integration and Discussant Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivelpiece, Alvin W.

    The keynote address from the proceedings of the 1988 Conference on Academic Talent is presented here. The address criticizes the current educational system for its concentration on college preparatory courses that have little or no hands-on experience. It argues that the existing system does not encourage curiosity, a problem seen as so pervasive…

  2. Counselor Educators and Students with Problems of Professional Competence: A Survey and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Furr, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A total of 370 counselor educators in CACREP-accredited [Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs] programs were surveyed to determine their knowledge of master's students' problems of professional competence (PPC) and their perception of roadblocks that affect gatekeeping practices. Findings suggest that educators…

  3. Reflective discourse techniques: From in-class discussions to out-of-classroom problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Wendi; Demaree, Dedra; Gilbert, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Instructors often give prompts that encourage students to articulate their beliefs and conceptions, as well as encourage students to understand the thoughts of their peers. This reflective discourse is used in a calculus-based introductory physics class at Lane Community College, where the instructor explicitly has discourse goals integrated into his course structure. We investigate whether students utilize this discourse when solving problems outside of the classroom context. We interviewed groups of students after the end of spring term, 2012. The students were asked to solve open-ended problems, with analysis focused on whether students applied this reflective discourse. Students were asked a series of follow-up questions to reflect upon their experiences in the course.

  4. Contribution to the actual discussion on the technological problems of nuclear fusion energy exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1982-02-01

    Recently increased criticism has been raised from many sides as to the technical realization of fusion reactors. The basic argument is continually stated whether it is really sensible to invest the enormous sums of money in order to produce a commercial fusion reactor. In this article, the principle problems facing nuclear fusion are presented and it is outlined which priorities should be set for the realization of fusion energy in the near future. (Auth.)

  5. A discussion on several problems in determination of uranium ore grade criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhixiang.

    1991-01-01

    The course of determination of uranium ore grade criteria in China is briefly introduced. The cut-off grade minimum industrial grade and allowable minimum average grade uranium ore bodies used in China are reviewed. The meanings and role of various grade criteria and their economic basis for determination in uranium exploration, mining and sorting are discussed and the author's ideas are given

  6. The Privacy Problem: Although School Librarians Seldom Discuss It, Students' Privacy Rights Are under Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2011-01-01

    Every day in school libraries nationwide, students' privacy rights are under attack, but many principals, teachers, parents, and community members do not know much about these rights. Even though school librarians are among the strongest proponents of privacy, the subject is rarely discussed, probably because state and federal laws can be…

  7. Discussion on several problems on the mineralization of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shijie

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of comprehensively analyzing paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits at home and abroad, the author discusses the division of mineralization types of paleo-channel sandstone type uranium deposits, and analyzes the metallogenic geologic conditions such as regional geologic background, climatic and geomorphological conditions, basement and sedimentary cover, characteristics of paleo-valley and paleo-channel, mineralization features as well as epigenetic metallogenic process. Future prospecting direction is also proposed

  8. Safety of superconducting fusion magnets: twelve problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1979-05-01

    Twelve problem areas of superconducting magnets for fusion reaction are described. These are: Quench Detection and Energy Dump, Stationary Normal Region of Conductor, Current Leads, Electrical Arcing, Electrical Shorts, Conductor Joints, Forces from Unequal Currents, Eddy Current Effects, Cryostat Rupture, Vacuum Failure, Fringing Field and Instrumentation for Safety. Each is described under the five categories: Identification and Definition, Possible Safety Effects, Current Practice, Adequacy of Current Practice for Fusion Magnets and Areas Requiring Further Analytical and Experimental Study. Priorities among these areas are suggested; application is made to the Large Coil Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  9. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of

  10. Discussion of Environmental Problem and Study of Environmental Impact on Steel Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The environmental conditions in steel industry were discussed in detail. It was also pointed out that it was necessary to reduce the quantity of waste generated and discharged by improving the raw material, energy structure and consumption rate, and reinforcing the waste control and management. At the same time, the relevant mathematical models of environmental impact were set up on the basis of raw material consumption, energy consumption and waste generation and discharge in different technical routes of steelmaking. The result showed that the production route of DR-iron clearly has more environmental advantages over that of BF-hot metal.

  11. Geochemical and sedimentologic problems of uranium deposits of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain: discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    Huang (1978) stated that the mobility and accumulation of uranium in host rocks are controlled by several factors, including the hydrologic factor. Some of his statements are misleading as indicated by study of ancient stream channels in Wyoming which has led to increased discoveries of uranium deposits. Because it is believed that the transportation mechanism for uranium in paleoaquifer host rocks is groundwater, the flow of the uranium-bearing solution is a function of the infiltration or recharge into the aquifer, not necessarily of the rainfall. Huang stated that the time of accumulation depends upon the dip of the host rock. The flow of a groundwater system is largely independent of the dip of the beds as stated by Daray's (1856) law: Q = KA delta h/delta l h. Dividing this equation by the area, A, will result in the flux or average velocity of a particle. Data was included for the Wind River Formation in the Gas Hills Uranium district of Wyoming. some data differs from Huang. According the Lohman equation, groundwater velocity would be three times greater in the Texas example than in the northern Wyoming area, presuming the same porosity, groundwater gradient, and flow-path length

  12. Development of a Numerical Model for Orthogonal Cutting. Discussion about the Sensitivity to Friction Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Juan, M.; de la Iglesia, J. M.; Martín, O.; Santos, F. J.

    2009-11-01

    In despite of the important progresses achieved in the knowledge of cutting processes, the study of certain aspects has undergone the very limitations of the experimental means: temperature gradients, frictions, contact, etc… Therefore, the development of numerical models is a valid tool as a first approach to study of those problems. In the present work, a calculation model under Abaqus Explicit code is developed to represent the orthogonal cutting of AISI 4140 steel. A bidimensional simulation under plane strain conditions, which is considered as adiabatic due to the high speed of the material flow, is chosen. The chip separation is defined by means of a fracture law that allows complex simulations of tool penetration in the workpiece. The strong influence of friction on cutting is proved, therefore a very good definition of materials behaviour laws could be obtained, but an erroneous value of friction coefficient could notably reduce the reliability. Considering the difficulty of checking the friction models used in the simulation, from the tests carried out habitually, the most efficacious way to characterize the friction would be to combine simulation models with cutting tests.

  13. Problems of the Murmansk Region and adjacent areas. Problemy energetiki Murmanskoy oblasti i sosednykh rayonov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    The anthology contains articles devoted to complex energy problems in the Murmansk region and neighboring areas belonging to the European USSR. The first group of problems includes centralized heating of industrial centers on the basis of atomic energy sources, study of the feasibility of improving the management of atomic power stations with VVER-440 reactors, as well as the use of thorium as a nuclear fuel. The second group of articles deals with problems of operating power installations in the Murmansk region until 2000. Five articles discuss actual problems of hydroelectric power and one -- designing the Lumbovsk Bay Power Station.

  14. Discussion on problems of terrestrial heat and moderate-hot water at an uranium deposit in Jiangxi province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiangguo

    2003-01-01

    According to scientific research and technical summing up reports, based on the field investigation, the possible problems of terrestrial heat and moderate-hot water during the exploitation of an uranium deposit in Jiangxi Province are discussed. The preliminary analysis and discussion on the distribution, distribution regularity, causes of formation and correlation of terrestrial heat and moderate-hot water at the uranium deposit are carried out

  15. [Discussion on agricultural product quality and safety problem from ecological view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Dong, Nan; Lyu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    There are many different perspectives about the sustainable agriculture, which had been proposed since the last three decades in the world. While China's ecologists and agronomists proposed a similar concept named 'ecological agriculture'. Although ecological agriculture in China has achieved substantial progress, including theory, models and supporting technologies nearly several decades of practice and development, its application guidance still is not yet clear. The organic agriculture model proposed by European Union is popular, but it is limited in the beneficiary groups and the social and ecological responsibility. In this context, the article based on an ecological point of view, analyzed the shortcomings of ecological imbalance caused by a single mode of agricultural production and the negative impact on the quality of agricultural products, and discussed the core values of ecological agriculture. On this basis, we put forward the concept of sustainable security of agricultural products. Based on this concept, an agricultural platform was established under the healthy ecosysphere environment, and from this agricultural platform, agricultural products could be safely and sustainably obtained. Around the central value of the concept, we designed the agricultural sustainable and security production model. Finally, we compared the responsibility, benefiting groups, agronomic practices selection and other aspects of sustainable agriculture with organic agriculture, and proved the advancement of sustainable agricultural model in agricultural production quality and safety.

  16. Discussing the Potential of Information and Communication Technologies’ Innovation for Environmental Problems in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Diana Radu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the role and place of information and communication technology in Romania (ICT, the interest for innovation expressed in this field and the extent to which it relates to environment protection. The concern for the state of the ecosystem is growing, nevertheless it requires the active involvement in the innovation process so as to find solutions for the replacement of the old production techniques with new ones, environmentally friendly. ICTs in their spectacular evolution play a major role in this case. Frequently, they are present in all the production stages, from design to distribution of the final product. Starting from the above mentioned facts, the introduction of this paper presents the concept of green ICT and their implication in the economic and social development, as well as statistics data elaborated by international companies which are meant to increase their importance. In this section we include the objectives and prior work. We continued our research by presenting the way in which Romania gets involved in ICT innovation and environment technology, as green ICT stands at the junction between the two fields. The main conclusions and results are drawn in the end of the article. The value and implications of our research is in the area of green ICT innovation.

  17. Optical properties of amorphous silicon: Some problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, N.M.; Chelle, F. de; Ance, C.; Ferraton, J.P.; Berger, J.M.; Coulibaly, S.P.

    1983-08-01

    In this presentation we essentially attempt to throw light on some problem areas concerning the various optical properties of amorphous silicon. The problems seem to emerge from the classical methods employed to determine the optical properties like the optical gap, urbach tail parameter and other related characteristics. Additional problems have emerged in recent years by virtue of many attempts to generalize the property-behaviour relationships for amorphous silicon without attributing any importance to the method of preparation of the films. It should be noted here that although many authors believe disorder to be the controlling parameter, we are of the opinion that at least for films containing fairly large concentrations of hydrogen, the hydrogen concentration has an equally important role to play. The present study has been carried out for films prepared by glow-discharge and chemical vapour deposition. (author)

  18. Simulation-Based Medical Education Is No Better than Problem-Based Discussions and Induces Misjudgment in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Manuel; Waurick, Rene; Schotes, David; Wenk, Melanie; Gerdes, Christina; Van Aken, Hugo K.; Popping, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based teaching (SBT) is increasingly used in medical education. As an alternative to other teaching methods there is a lack of evidence concerning its efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency of SBT in anesthesia in comparison to problem-based discussion (PBD) with students in a randomized controlled setting.…

  19. Private Protected Areas as policy instruments to tackle environmental challenges: discussing potentialities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas owned and managed by private actors are expected to have a relevant role in nature conservation policy as an additional tool to public-run protected sites. By reducing natural habitats destruction and degradation, well designed and well governed private protected areas (PPAs can have a key role in tackling two intertwined global threats: biodiversity loss and climate change. In this article we will present PPAs diffusion in Europe basing on data collected from the European Common Database on Nationally Designated Areas. In addition, an assessment framework will be proposed, with the purpose of contributing to a broader understanding of PPAs potentialities and pitfalls. The main challenges for PPAs effectiveness deal with their geographical distribution and their ability to provide strong and stable legal structures for private protection, assuring adequate and inclusive governance.

  20. Measuring Impact in Research Evaluations: A Thorough Discussion of Methods For, Effects of and Problems with Impact Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornmann, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Impact of science is one of the most important topics in scientometrics. Recent developments show a fundamental change in impact measurements from impact on science to impact on society. Since impact measurement is currently in a state of far reaching changes, this paper describes recent developments and facing problems in this area. For that, the…

  1. Laughter and Forgetting: Using Focus Groups to Discuss Smoking and Motherhood in Low-Income Areas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jude

    2009-01-01

    This article considers previously ignored aspects of verbal communication, humor and laughter, as critical components of social interaction within group discussions. Drawing on data from focus groups, Robinson uses a feminist perspective to explore how mothers living in areas of poverty in Liverpool, UK, use humor and laughter to discuss their…

  2. QPS - analysis of main problems, areas to target, possible improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Denz, R

    2012-01-01

    The fault statistics of the LHC Quench Protection System QPS for the LHC run 2011 will be presented and the various fault types explained. Starting with teething and EMC related problems, the tune feedback compatibility, hardware faults of the quench heater power supplies and spurious openings of electrical circuit breakers will be described in more details. Hereby as well the necessary and potential consolidation measures will be discussed. The role of the MPE standby service for the system availability will be addressed. Finally radiation induced faults and the respective mitigation and consolidation measures will be treated as separate subject.

  3. Problems caused by the Concentration of Nuclear Power Plants in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billman, C.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of nuclear power plants in border areas raises the problem of protection of the population and the environment in border lands. The author recalls the fundamental legal principle according to which no country may cause a prejudice to a neighbouring country due to installations harmful to the environment which are located in its own territory. Several legal systems are reviewed which provide for participation by neighbouring states in nuclear plant projects and licensing; the recourse procedure against such plants is also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to problems to be solved in order to coordinate legal and administrative measures in case of construction of nuclear plants in border areas. (NEA) [fr

  4. Mineral development prospects of the Indochina area: Potential exceeds problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, A L; Dorian, J P; Hudders, W A [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1991-02-01

    Reform is under way in several nations within the Indochina area to stimulate economic growth and foreign investment. Though once forbidden, participation by foreign companies in mining exploration and development activities in Myanmar, Kampuchea, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam is now being solicited by the respective governments. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of mineral and energy resources in the region and outlines possible development scenarios based on economic policies, financial and infrastructural constraints and industry interest. The investment climates for resource-related projects are assessed qualitatively by country. Clearly, the long-term development potential of mineral and energy resources in the Indochina area is large, and the potential gains outweigh any of today's problems. (author). 34 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  5. Problems of irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas: farmers' perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Yasin, M.; Ahmad, M.M.; Hussain, Z.; Khan, Z.; Akbar, G.

    2005-01-01

    A research study was conducted using participatory interactive dialogue in the brackish groundwater area of Mona SCARP-II, Bhalwal district Sargodha, Pakistan. The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was conducted in thirteen villages to identify macro- and micro-level issues related to irrigated agriculture in saline groundwater areas. SCARP tube wells have been abandoned or few have been handed over to farmers' organizations. Groundwater in the Indus basin contributes around 35% to the total water available for agriculture. Water quality of 60% area of the Indus basin is marginal to brackish. Minimum land holding of cultivated land in the elected villages varied from 0.10 to 4 ha. The maximum land holding of cultivated area in selected villages varied for 6 to 50 ha. However, the average size of farm was around 4 ha. The average salt-affected area per household was 17% of the total cultivated area. The salt-affected lands in 8 villages out of 13 were barren, where mainly rice crop is grown during kharif season. About 67% farms had access to conjunctive use of water, as water from both canal and private tube wells is available. In addition, 10% farms were having tube well water only. Therefore, 77% farms are having access to the groundwater. According to the farmers' perceptions, 100% villages have fresh groundwater to a depth of 7.5 m and 62% villages had depth ranging from 15-30 m. Furthermore, in all thirteen selected villages, groundwater quality beyond 30 m depth was brackish. Laboratory analysis confirmed the farmer's perception that groundwater quality is a function of depth. About 92% farmers groups indicated that non-availability and high price of inputs was a major problem. The second major issue was related to the shortage of canal water supplies and 77% villages are facing this problem. Moreover, 31% farmers' groups of selected villages indicated that water logging and salinity are the major concerns affecting agricultural productivity. This figure is

  6. [Pollution-ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas and future research prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qixing

    2005-06-01

    Environmental pollution and its solicitation in ecological problems of old industrial and mining areas have become a worldwide technological puzzle restricting sustainable economic and social development. But, the definition and category of old industrial and mining areas is still disputed as an important concept. In this paper, the concept of old industrial and mining area was discussed in theory, and, proceeded with analyzing the complexity of current situation and environmental pollution problems of old industrial and mining areas in China, more keystone attention was paid to the secondary pollution problems from old industrial and mining areas as an important frontier of science. On the basis of expounding the complexity and characters of environmental pollution in old industrial and mining areas, it was suggested that as two key scientific problems in environmental sciences and ecology, the formation mechanisms and control technology of secondary pollution in old industrial and mining areas and the responses of new-type diseases to environmental pollution based on molecular ecotoxicology should be systematically studied on the national scale, and be an important component of environmental protection strategy in China in the future.

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CASE BASED DISCUSSION AS A VALID PROBLEM BASED LEARNING METHOD IN ANAESTHESIA POSTGRADUATE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melveetil S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Anaesthesia is a branch of medicine which allows only a very narrow margin of error. Anaesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching with problem-based learning (PBL enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills among the students .Among the different problem based learning methods case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all in anaesthesia PG teaching. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An anonymous questionnaire based, crosssectional survey among 37 anaesthesia residents from two medical institutions in North Kerala, India was conducted. The present survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of case based discussions in anaesthesia PG teaching by assessing the student’s satisfaction with CBD and the suggested modifications if any to improve the current status of teaching. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The CBD as a part of PBL in anesthesia PG teaching in our set up lacks many important aspects of PBL such as formulation of objectives, facilitation skills, communication on direction of PBL and supplementation of inadequacies. A broader, strict and organized implementation of PBL incorporating the key elements of PBL needs emphasis in PG teaching curriculum. Facilitation skill development programs needs motivation and encouragement from the perspective of the academic administrators.

  8. Problems of finding production losses in smoke areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, B

    1971-01-01

    The world-wide research results obtained up to now give evidence that the injurious effects of emissions in forest stands occur in the form of the decrease of diameter increment leading to premature die-back of trees. The effects of emissions are different both in individual tree species and in stand components. The occurrence and size of increment losses are also influenced by the interaction of climate conditions and concentration of pollutants in the atmosphere. Combining original methodical procedures and laboratory equipment for production ecology with computer processing techniques bring about favorable conditions for the solution of problems concerning the emission effects on the production of forest stands. No solution has been found as yet for the problem of diameter increment decrease differentiation based on age and social position of trees. Research work should provide data necessary for the economic evaluation of losses in the main smoke areas and for the choice of suitable economic measures aimed at the mitigation of injuries. This study indicates that it is the modified increment boring method which becomes an efficient method for the control of production processes and for the evaluation of increment changes both in research work and in practice.

  9. Developing Information Technology for Vocational Education in Contiguous Destitute Areas Significance, Problems, and Countermeasures: The Case of the Wuling Mountain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    Using the Wuling Mountain area as a case study, the authors discuss the significance as well as five problems of developing information technology for vocational education in contiguous destitute areas. Recommendations are provided at the end of the article. [Translated by Michelle LeSourd.

  10. Communication. Problem learning in the communication across expert areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz Sjoeberg, B. M.

    2001-05-01

    The report presents results from a project on communication involving nuclear safety personnel and members of the safety council and personnel in administrative positions within the community of Oskarshamn. Data were collected in discussions and by questionnaires. Totally 42 persons participated in the study. The aim of the project was to pinpoint problems in communication about safety issues and thus to facilitate a development of communication between groups and in the work on nuclear safety within the local community. A number of open ended questions were included in the questionnaire together with large number of rating tasks. The participants rated items, developed primarily in the group discussions, regarding information transmission, handling of difficult situations and what could be done to improve the communication situation. The results showed e.g. that communicative ability was best predicted by the index of 'context uncertainty' in both groups, but that the groups differed with respect to the salience of other predictors. Thus, an index named 'ability to synthesize' was a good predictor in the group of nuclear personnel, whereas human and structural aspects of information transmission, as well as the ability to reach across boundaries, were additional predictors in the group of Oskarshamn community personnel. The results thus showed that the participants viewed communication problems and solutions from the perspective of their own work perspective rather than as issues to be dealt with across different expert groups. The report underlines the necessity to regard contents of communicated messages as well as the framework to which they are related within the same context for an optimal adjustment to expectations, attitudes and requirements. Suggestions for future work included clarifications of which groups that are relevant for information and their specific interests, increased clarity regarding specific roles and information paths with respect to

  11. Discussion regarding classification of sexual disorders in DSM-5 and research trends within the area of sexual disorders in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Klasa, Katarzyna; Sobański, Jerzy A.; Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The fifth version of the American Psychiatric Association’s classification, DSM, was released in May 2013. Its completion was preceded by years of intensive discussions, clinical trials and secondary data analysis, which were aimed at as best as possible reflecting of clinical reality. In the present article review of literature was presented, showing the range of work connected with the area of widely understood sexual disorders as well as the most important changes regarding it that are inc...

  12. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [de

  13. Area Deprivation Affects Behavioral Problems of Young Adolescents in Mixed Urban and Rural Areas : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Veenstra, R.; De Winter, A.F.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; de Meer, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Behavioral problems occur more frequently among adolescents in deprived areas, but most evidence concerns urbanized areas. Our aim was to assess the impact of area deprivation and urbanization on the occurrence and development of behavioral problems among adolescents in a mixed urban and

  14. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  15. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  16. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  17. Tuberculosis Lymphadenitis, A Diagnostic Problem in Areas of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. Malawi has high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates. In 1993, 32% of mothers visiting the antenatal cI inic in an urban area, and 12% in rural areas, were sero-positive for HIV (1). The HIV epidemic is associated with a marked increase in the number of cases of tuberculosis in general (2) and ...

  18. Discussion on some problems concerned the origin of hydrothermal uranium deposit from the point of remelting in situ view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ke

    2001-01-01

    The authors try to discuss some problems concerned the origin of hydrothermal uranium (U) deposit from the point of remelting in situ view about granite formation. The problems include the time differences between mineralization and country rock (granite), characteristics, differences between 'large granite bodies' and 'small granite bodies', granite discriminant that is used to judge whether or not granite produce U deposit as well as relationship of U mineralization to W(Sn), Nd, Ta mineralization, red beds and tectonic movements. According to the theory of remelting in situ, granite bodies in the same period that can be investigated are actual doming portions of the same remelting layer, which had be so stripped by erosion that granite bodies rustled. Thus the size variation of granite bodies implies only the fact of different erosion levels. Since U always moves in long distance with hydrothermal solution from its parent granite, it always deposits in outer contact zone, which, as a kind of country rock, might be sedimentary rock (including red bed), metamorphic rock, of early period granite. The two former situations indicate less erosion levels (small granite bodies) while the later situation indicates larger erosion levels (large granite bodies). Because the country rock of later is granite, an illusion of large time difference between mineralization related granite and granite might be made. Also, there is no direct and simple connection between U mineralization and discriminant which is calculated from primary chemical composition of granite and has been unsuccessfully used as an index to judge whether of not a granite body would produce U mineralization because in this situation the granite is only country rock. Besides, the U mineralization is later than the one of W(Sn), Nd, Ta in general so that it often relate to 'large granite bodies', in which 'mineralization crust' is lower than the one of W(Sn), Nd, Ta and mineral composition is relatively simple

  19. Problem Areas in Data Warehousing and Data Mining in a Surgical Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusch, Guenter; Mueller, Margarete; Rohwer-Mensching, Katrin; Heiringhoff, Karlheinz; Klempnauer, Juergen

    2001-01-01

    Hospitals and clinics have taken advantage of information systems to streamline many clinical and administrative processes. However, the potential of health care information technology as a source of data for clinical and administrative decision support has not been fully explored. In response to pressure for timely information, many hospitals are developing clinical data warehouses. This paper attempts to identify problem areas in the process of developing a data warehouse to support data mining in surgery. Based on the experience from a data warehouse in surgery several solutions are discussed.

  20. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Essl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation, however, is

  1. Discussion on Sustainable Water Technologies for Peri-Urban Areas of Mexico City: Balancing Urbanization and Environmental Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiemen A. Nanninga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Often centralized water supply, sanitation and solid waste services struggle to keep up with the rapid expansion of urban areas. The peri-urban areas are at the forefront of this expansion and it is here where decentralized technologies are increasingly being implemented. The introduction of decentralized technologies allows for the development of new opportunities that enable the recovery and reuse of resources in the form of water, nutrients and energy. This resource-oriented management of water, nutrients and energy requires a sustainable system aimed at low resource use and high recovery and reuse rates. Instead of investigating each sector separately, as has been traditionally done, this article proposes and discusses a concept that seeks to combine the in- and outflows of the different sectors, reusing water and other liberated resources where possible. This paper shows and demonstrates examples of different types of sustainable technologies that can be implemented in the peri-urban areas of Mexico City [rainwater harvesting, EcoSan and biofiltros (small constructed wetlands, and (vermi-composting]. An innovative participatory planning method, combining scenario development with a participatory planning workshop with key stakeholders, was applied and resulted in three concept scenarios. Specific technologies were then selected for each concept scenario that the technical feasibility and applicability was assessed. Following this, the resulting resource flows (nutrients, water and energy were determined and analyzed. The results show that decentralized technologies not only have the potential to deliver adequate water supply, sanitation and solid waste services in peri-urban areas and lessen environmental pollution, but also can recover significant amounts of resources thereby saving costs and providing valuable inputs in, for instance, the agricultural sector. Social acceptance of the technologies and institutional cooperation

  2. Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)

  3. Problem area descriptions : motor vehicle crashes - data analysis and IVI program analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, the IVI program focuses on the more significant safety problem categories as : indicated by statistical analyses of crash data. However, other factors were considered in setting : program priorities and schedules. For some problem areas, ...

  4. Problems of growing forests in estrangement and population relocation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudolij, V.N.; Podkur, P.N.; Davydov, N.N.; Mikhalkov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    It has been concluded that the process of growth and normal development of single-stratum pine tress at the age from 20 to 40 depends on their density. Under conditions of thick forest interspecific competition and fight for space sharpen. Within the estrangement area unfavorable trends in growth and evolution have been disclosed at the age above 30. Growing of pines without care results in suppression of growth; some morphological changes in the trunk form have been observed. Such an uncontrolled mode of growing can lead to physiological weakening of the tress. 8 refs.; 4 tabs

  5. The Social and Ecological Problems of Urbanized Areas in Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Gunin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of studies on the formation of urbanized territories and metropolitan areas in Mongolia, and the in fl uences of the industrial complex on the pollution level in urban landscapes, as well as on population health. The capital city, Ulaanbaatar, is one of the most highly polluted cities in the Central Asian region. The data on spatial distribution and the contents of toxic elements in the soils, snow cover, plants and human hair are given, according to the main ecological zones of the city. The statistical data on the dynamics of birthrate, rates of sickness and death of the population by the main groups of diseases are analyzed in accordance with the classi fi cation of the World Health Organization.

  6. 〈Articles〉Using LEGO® Serious Play® to Foster Communication in Intercultural English Problem-Solving Discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Robert; Adamson, Calum; Thorpe, Todd

    2017-01-01

    [Abstract]Many people have fond memories of playing with LEGO® in their youth. Increasingly recognised as offering significant educational advantages to young children that go far beyond enjoyable play-time, LEGO® has been claimed to boost fine motor skill development (Haga, 2008); to teach three-dimensional thinking (Welch, 1998); to foster planning, problem solving, and organizational abilities (Shakir, 2006); to improve creativity; and to teach systematization through the following of inst...

  7. Radioactive wastes in the areas adjacent to Finland. The improvement of the problem is slow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste problem in the area of Murmansk located in Northwestern Russia is analysed in the article. The radioactive wastes have accumulated from e.g. the military ships, ice-breakers and the Kola nuclear power plant. The problem is also a concern of neighboring countries and the international cooperation efforts to mitigate the problem are also described

  8. A Very Large Area Network (VLAN) knowledge-base applied to space communication problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Carol S.

    1988-01-01

    This paper first describes a hierarchical model for very large area networks (VLAN). Space communication problems whose solution could profit by the model are discussed and then an enhanced version of this model incorporating the knowledge needed for the missile detection-destruction problem is presented. A satellite network or VLAN is a network which includes at least one satellite. Due to the complexity, a compromise between fully centralized and fully distributed network management has been adopted. Network nodes are assigned to a physically localized group, called a partition. Partitions consist of groups of cell nodes with one cell node acting as the organizer or master, called the Group Master (GM). Coordinating the group masters is a Partition Master (PM). Knowledge is also distributed hierarchically existing in at least two nodes. Each satellite node has a back-up earth node. Knowledge must be distributed in such a way so as to minimize information loss when a node fails. Thus the model is hierarchical both physically and informationally.

  9. A discussion on tectonic geological evolution and the distribution pattern of uranium mineralization in Langshan mountain area, inner mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fuxin

    1994-01-01

    Langshan area is an orogenic belt which consists of two lithospheric faults, three ductile shear zones and some napped structures or thrusting napped structures, developed on palaeorift in Proterozoic Era. Uranium mineralization of ductile fault rock type and other types were with metallogenetic ages being of Middle-Late Proterozoic and Late Paleozoic. Major ore-controlling and ore-concentrating structural space are ductile fractures. Based on the above mentioned, the author points out the ore-prospecting potential and direction in this area

  10. Agricultural producers’ groups in the Czech Republic: introductory review and discussion of the problem area economic performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vavřina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Each company is surrounded by the micro- and macro-environment affecting also its economic performance. These factors are not only individual accounting entries, but also analytical inputs as the internal company processes, management of costs or short-term financial decisions and specifically in the case of agriculture within the EU also the public subsidy schemes implemented through the EU Common Agricultural Policy. Groups of agricultural producers are created as a response to current market dynamics and the opportunity for each agricultural enterprise regardless the size. In this paper, the basis for agricultural cooperation is provided, traditional economic performance measures are presented and their applicability on the sample of agricultural producers’ groups and wholesale entities is empirically verified. Wholesale entities are analysed by its business activity and performance features to consider whether they are suitable peer group for comparing economic performance of examined agricultural producers’ group. Since the economic performance of agricultural producers’ groups directly affects the economic performance of all participating entities, and vice versa, their economic performance measurement may involve specific constraints. According to the structure and characteristics of agricultural producers’ groups may be inferred that whilst the common performance measurement techniques are applicable on the majority of companies, agricultural producers’ groups represent specific entities and therefore need adjusted performance measurement approach.

  11. Reflecting on the essence of our problem-based learning discussions: the importance of faculty development and our continuous quest for applications of problem-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Engle Angela

    2009-05-01

    While problem-based learning (PBL) is a teaching strategy to promote critical thinking, creativity and self-directedness in learning is very important. It is the meaning of the learning, with a contextual understanding, that marks the significance of this approach in our healthcare education. At the 2008 Kaohsiung Medical University International Conference and Workshop on PBL, the scholarly discourse on sharing empirical findings and practical experience with various aspects of PBL brought forth the importance of the teachers' continued learning about the meaning, the dynamics of the process, and the pragmatic details of PBL. This quest for a continuous learning and understanding about PBL parallels our search to extend the classroom PBL into students' clinical experience. The development of clinical teachers in the understanding of PBL was explored as part of their experiential learning in clinical teaching after their PBL workshops. While the clinical teachers who participated in the project appreciated the merits of clinical PBL, the complex balance between patient service and student teaching--in an unpredictable clinical setting--has led to the use of a simulated clinical environment with simulated patients. We also piloted PBL for interprofessional education of undergraduate students of nursing and social work. The ways we can adopt PBL in various settings with different intents will help prepare our healthcare graduates in meeting the challenges of our ever more complex healthcare systems, and the demands of holistic patient care.

  12. Reflecting on the Essence of our Problem-Based Learning Discussions: The Importance of Faculty Development and our Continuous Quest for Applications of Problem-Based Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engle Angela Chan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available While problem-based learning (PBL is a teaching strategy to promote critical thinking, creativity and self-directedness in learning is very important. It is the meaning of the learning, with a contextual understanding, that marks the significance of this approach in our healthcare education. At the 2008 Kaohsiung Medical University International Conference and Workshop on PBL, the scholarly discourse on sharing empirical findings and practical experience with various aspects of PBL brought forth the importance of the teachers' continued learning about the meaning, the dynamics of the process, and the pragmatic details of PBL. This quest for a continuous learning and understanding about PBL parallels our search to extend the classroom PBL into students' clinical experience. The development of clinical teachers in the understanding of PBL was explored as part of their experiential learning in clinical teaching after their PBL workshops. While the clinical teachers who participated in the project appreciated the merits of clinical PBL, the complex balance between patient service and student teaching—in an unpredictable clinical setting—has led to the use of a simulated clinical environment with simulated patients. We also piloted PBL for interprofessional education of undergraduate students of nursing and social work. The ways we can adopt PBL in various settings with different intents will help prepare our healthcare graduates in meeting the challenges of our ever more complex healthcare systems, and the demands of holistic patient care.

  13. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  14. Countermeasure Research on Problems Impeding Farmers’ Successful Entrepreneurship in Minority Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Xiao-jin; Xu, Cong-wei

    2011-01-01

    By investigating the problem of farmers’ entrepreneurship in Gongcheng Yaozu Autonomous County, lying in Guilin, Guangxi, the thesis expounds the existing problems impacting farmers’ successful entrepreneurship in minority areas as follows: firstly, the musty idea of local cadre is obstacle to farmers’ successful entrepreneurship; secondly, the problems of scattered farmers’ entrepreneurship resources, waste and shortage of resources impact good effect of entrepreneurship; thirdly, fa...

  15. [Problem areas and examples of best practice in intersectoral medication treatment--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrmann, Lena; Ollenschläger, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Transitions between the outpatient and inpatient sector are a critical phase in medication treatment. This article provides an overview of published problem areas and examples of best practice in the intersectoral medication treatment. Data with regard to related problem areas and examples of best practice was collected in August 2011 by a systematic literature research. The relevant literature was identified using the following databases and search engines: MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google, and Google Scholar. Additionally, a hand search was done on the websites of SpringerLink and Thieme Connect. The initial search yielded a total of 4,409 records which were further selected in two screening steps and analysed according to their relevance. Of the remaining 63 records, 3 exclusively described problem areas, 11 of them examples of best practice, and 49 provided information on both problem areas and examples of best practice with regard to intersectoral medication treatment. Among other things, problem areas include varying legal regulations in inpatient and outpatient medication treatment, drug therapy interruptions after hospital discharge, or deficits in communication and continuity of care. Examples of best practice are projects, programmes, initiatives, recommendations, and points to consider with respect to medication reconciliation, pharmaceutical support, or transitions of care. Problem areas as well as examples of best practice are mainly focused on the transition from inpatient to outpatient care. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Urban revitalization at downtown areas: discussions on the case of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Nigro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article: refers to the recent interventions and present revitalisation projects taking place at São Paulo city centre. It deals with the importance that has been attributed to the urban central areas through the years and the way in which these particular spaces are constant targets of public interventions. The case of São Paulo is treated through the process of "urban revitalisation". The text focuses on the need to speak about the context of this process within a wider one, that of "urban reestructuraron" - which leads to "gentrification" and spatial segregation phenomenon

  17. Probabilistic Risk Analysis and Fault Trees as Tools in Improving the Delineation of Wellhead Protection Areas: An Initial Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, C. M.; Silliman, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Delineation of a wellhead protection area (WHPA) is a critical component of managing / protecting the aquifer(s) supplying potable water to a public water-supply well. While a number of previous authors have addressed questions related to uncertainties in advective capture zones, methods for assessing WHPAs in the presence of uncertainty in the chemistry of groundwater contaminants, the relationship between land-use and contaminant sources, and the impact on health risk within the receiving population are more limited. Probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) combined with fault trees (FT) addresses this latter challenge by providing a structure whereby four key WHPA issues may be addressed: (i) uncertainty in land-use practices and chemical release, (ii) uncertainty in groundwater flow, (iii) variability in natural attenuation properties (and/or remediation) of the contaminants, and (iv) estimated health risk from contaminant arrival at a well. The potential utility of PRA-FT in this application is considered through a simplified case study involving management decisions related both to regional land use planning and local land-use zoning regulation. An application-specific fault tree is constructed to visualize and identify the events required for health risk failure at the well and a Monte Carlo approach is used to create multiple realizations of groundwater flow and chemical transport to a well in a model of a simple, unconfined aquifer. Model parameters allowed to vary during this simplified case study include hydraulic conductivity, probability of a chemical spill (related to land use variation in space), and natural attenuation through variation in rate of decay of the contaminant. Numerical results are interpreted in association with multiple land-use management scenarios as well as multiple cancer risk assumptions regarding the contaminant arriving at the well. This case study shows significant variability of health risk at the well, however general trends were

  18. An Analysis of the Problems of Developing Environmental Education in Brazilian Federal Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Cristina A. R.; Filho, Walter Leal; Hale, William H. G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the problems encountered in developing environmental education in federally protected areas in Brazil. Suggests that the development of environmental education in those protected areas has several limitations including financial resources, lack of training, material resources, and lack of policy on environmental education. (Author/CCM)

  19. Students’ understanding and application of the area under the curve concept in physics problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how students understand and apply the area under the curve concept and the integral-area relation in solving introductory physics problems. We interviewed 20 students in the first semester and 15 students from the same cohort in the second semester of a calculus-based physics course sequence on several problems involving the area under the curve concept. We found that only a few students could recognize that the concept of area under the curve was applicable in physics problems. Even when students could invoke the area under the curve concept, they did not necessarily understand the relationship between the process of accumulation and the area under a curve, so they failed to apply it to novel situations. We also found that when presented with several graphs, students had difficulty in selecting the graph such that the area under the graph corresponded to a given integral, although all of them could state that “the integral equaled the area under the curve.” The findings in this study are consistent with those in previous mathematics education research and research in physics education on students’ use of the area under the curve.

  20. Changing perceptions of protected area benefits and problems around Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Catrina A; Salerno, Jonathan; Hartter, Joel; Chapman, Colin A; Reyna, Rafael; Tumusiime, David Mwesigye; Drake, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Local residents' changing perceptions of benefits and problems from living next to a protected area in western Uganda are assessed by comparing household survey data from 2006, 2009, and 2012. Findings are contextualized and supported by long-term data sources for tourism, protected area-based employment, tourism revenue sharing, resource access agreements, and problem animal abundance. We found decreasing perceived benefit and increasing perceived problems associated with the protected area over time, with both trends dominated by increased human-wildlife conflict due to recovering elephant numbers. Proportions of households claiming benefit from specific conservation strategies were increasing, but not enough to offset crop raiding. Ecosystem services mitigated perceptions of problems. As human and animal populations rise, wildlife authorities in Sub-Saharan Africa will be challenged to balance perceptions and adapt policies to ensure the continued existence of protected areas. Understanding the dynamic nature of local people's perceptions provides a tool to adapt protected area management plans, prioritize conservation resources, and engage local communities to support protected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  2. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  3. Definition and coding of surface catchment areas: problems and solutions; Ausgrenzung und Verschluesselung oberirdischer Einzugsgebiete: Probleme und Loesungsansaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, A.; Mehl, D. [biota - Institut fuer Oekologische Forschung und Planung GmbH, Guestrow (Germany); Klitzsch, S. [Landesamt fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Geologie Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guestrow (Germany). Abt. Wasser und Boden

    2000-12-01

    Due to certain hydrographic situations there are some difficulties in application of the LAWA-directive 'Coding of catchment areas and streams'. In this paper, solutions are shown by means of examples from the federal state of Mecklenburg-Pomerania. Priorities of streams influenced by lakes and the Baltic Sea, branched and linked streams, urban streams and catchment areas without surface run-off were discussed. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung der LAWA-Richtlinie zur Gebietsbezeichnung und Verschluesselung von Fliessgewaessern stoesst bei Vorliegen bestimmter hydrographischer Konstellationen auf Schwierigkeiten. Anhand von Fallbeispielen aus Mecklenburg-Vorpommern werden Loesungswege zur entsprechenden Problembehandlung aufgezeigt. Wesentliche Schwerpunkte sind daher durchflossene Seen, verzweigte und vernetzte Fliessgewaesser, Fliessgewaesser im staedtischen Bereich, die Problematik der Binnenentwaesserungsgebiete sowie Gewaesser im Ostseerueckstau. (orig.)

  4. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  5. Disentangling neighbourhood problems: Area-based interventions in Western European cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, W.P.C.; Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban policies in Western Europe have increasingly taken a territorial focus in addressing social problems through area-based initiatives (ABIs). Policy discourses emphasise the role of the residential environment in the social economic deprivation. However, a territorial focus that tackles both

  6. Interpersonal Problem Areas and Alexithymia in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high-risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI-z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants’ interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits (as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature) (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (ps ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at-risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes. PMID:24139852

  7. Fitting Irregular Shape Figures into Irregular Shape Areas for the Nesting Problem in the Leather Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guevara-Palma Luis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nesting problem of irregular shapes within irregular areas has been studied from several approaches due to their application in different industries. The particular case of cutting leather involves several restrictions that add complexity to this problem, it is necessary to generate products that comply with the quality required by customers This paper presents a methodology for the accommodation of irregular shapes in an irregular area (leather considering the constraints set by the footwear industry, and the results of this methodology when applied by a computer system. The scope of the system is to develop a working prototype that operates under the guidelines of a commercial production line of a sponsor company. Preliminary results got a reduction of 70% of processing time and improvement of 5% to 7% of the area usage when compared with manual accommodation.

  8. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS OF ELDERLY RESIDING IN URBAN AREAS, KATHMANDU: PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Archana, Joshi Sarala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, number of old age population is increasing with advancement of biomedical technology. Old age is the time associated with biological, psychological and social changes which situate elderly to acquire different health related problems. Objectives: To find out lived experiences of elderly regarding their health problems residing in homes of Kathmandu city. Methods: Qualitative hermeneutic phenomenology approach was adopted. Researcher selected purposively four elderly residing in an urban area of Kathmandu Valley as the study participants. In-depth interview was conducted by using in-depth interview guideline, as well as medical records, field notes and observation clues were recorded. Interview was conducted in Nepali Language and was audio taped. The recording was transcribed by the researcher herself, and the data were analyzed thematically. Finally, different sources of data were triangulated. Results: The four main themes identified were physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, psychological and social problems. Experienced physical health problems were joint pain, hearing and vision deficit, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, gastritis and fall injury. Impaired Functional abilities in performing activities of daily living was commonly experienced problems. Loneliness and decreased recent memory power were the psychological problems. Being neglected by family members, financial constraints for treatment and improper care during illness were the discerned social problems. Conclusion: Elderly are suffering from different physical health problems, impaired functional abilities, as well as various psycho-social problems. Thus, health promotional activities need to be promoted for decreasing morbidity of elderly. Family members need to be focused in the care of elderly through national policy.

  9. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...... fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper...

  10. ‘TB or not TB?’ Problems of differential diagnosis of cutaneous mycobacteriosis and tuberculosis – A Case Study and interdisciplinary discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szmygin-Milanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis poses a serious challenge due to many skin diseases of different etiology resembling the lesions caused by the TB (tuberculosis bacillus, and difficulties in confirming the disease. The presented case concerns skin lesions in a hobby aquarist stung in the finger of the left hand by a fish. The resulting inflammatory infiltration was to be cutaneous tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis caused by MOTT (Mycobacterium other than tuberculosis. Laboratory, pathomorphologic, genetic and microbiologic tests of samples obtained from the patient, fish and water in the aquarium gave ambiguous results. A multidisciplinary discussion is presented on the difficulties in the differential diagnosis, problems with a clear interpretation of the results of various conducted tests, and possible ways of transmission of the infection, relevant to the described example.

  11. Problems of restoration disturbed areas in the conduction uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakin, V.S.; Konev, G.V.

    1996-01-01

    State-holding company Tselinnyj Mining Chemical Company (TMCC) is headed enterprise for mining and milling uranium ore in North Kazakstan was at five main areas (ore's direction). Mining was a traditional forms. Currently, the main problems of restoration disturbed areas in the conditions of uranium mining and milling are: economic insolvency of conversion enterprises, with has not own means for exude restoration and decontamination. TMCC has urgent need of State Programme, that provides finance of restoration work. Problem of radioactive contamination shall be insolvable, if company will go bankrupt. This programme should contained an item for elaboration regulative, normative and methodological documents if low level radioactive waste in Kazakstan. Program must take into consideration progressive domestic and foreign experience

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF TRAFFIC RELATED SHORT TEXTS TO ANALYSE ROAD PROBLEMS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. M. Saldana-Perez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media’s publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  13. Classification of Traffic Related Short Texts to Analyse Road Problems in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana-Perez, A. M. M.; Moreno-Ibarra, M.; Tores-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI) can be used to understand the urban dynamics. In the classification of traffic related short texts to analyze road problems in urban areas, a VGI data analysis is done over a social media's publications, in order to classify traffic events at big cities that modify the movement of vehicles and people through the roads, such as car accidents, traffic and closures. The classification of traffic events described in short texts is done by applying a supervised machine learning algorithm. In the approach users are considered as sensors which describe their surroundings and provide their geographic position at the social network. The posts are treated by a text mining process and classified into five groups. Finally, the classified events are grouped in a data corpus and geo-visualized in the study area, to detect the places with more vehicular problems.

  14. TRANSLATION, VALIDATION AND PSYCHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF PROBLEM AREAS IN DIABETES QUESTIONNAIRE: THE URDU VERSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Haider, Marvi Baloch, Qaiser Iqbal and Fahad Saleem

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The study aims to translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Urdu version of Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) questionnaire among Type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) in Quetta, Pakistan. Method: A standard ‘‘forward–backward’’ procedure of translation was used to translate the English version of PAID into Urdu (official language of Pakistan). The translated version was then validated on a convenience sample of 120 T2DM patients attending a public hospital in Quetta, Pakis...

  15. EP BASED PSO METHOD FOR SOLVING PROFIT BASED MULTI AREA UNIT COMMITMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. VENKATESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach to solve the profit based multi area unit commitment problem (PBMAUCP using an evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization (EPPSO method. The objective of this paper is to maximize the profit of generation companies (GENCOs with considering system social benefit. The proposed method helps GENCOs to make a decision, how much power and reserve should be sold in markets, and how to schedule generators in order to receive the maximum profit. Joint operation of generation resources can result in significant operational cost savings. Power transfer between the areas through the tie lines depends upon the operating cost of generation at each hour and tie line transfer limits. The tie line transfer limits were considered as a set of constraints during optimization process to ensure the system security and reliability. The overall algorithm can be implemented on an IBM PC, which can process a fairly large system in a reasonable period of time. Case study of four areas with different load pattern each containing 7 units (NTPS and 26 units connected via tie lines have been taken for analysis. Numerical results showed comparing the profit of evolutionary programming-based particle swarm optimization method (EPPSO with conventional dynamic programming (DP, evolutionary programming (EP, and particle swarm optimization (PSO method. Experimental results shows that the application of this evolutionary programming based particle swarm optimization method have the potential to solve profit based multi area unit commitment problem with lesser computation time.

  16. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  17. Lighting of roads outside built-up areas. Paper presented at the International Road Safety Congress London 1964, Theme III 'Ways of reducing the frequency of accidents', discussed at the Seventh International Study Week in Traffic Engineering, London, 21-26 September 1964.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asmussen, E.

    1964-01-01

    Before talking about the specific problems of lighting roads outside built-up areas, I would like to discuss some general problems of fixed lighting. To answer the question of how and when the system of fixed lighting started, we have to go back far in history. In Holland, for example, in the 17th

  18. Analysis on depositional system and discussion on ore-formation conditions of channel sandstone type uranium deposit. Taking Dongsheng area, Ordos meso-cenozoic basin as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rengui; Yu Dagan; Zhu Minqiang; Zhou Wanpeng; Chen Anping

    2003-01-01

    Applying the theory of depositional system, the depositional facies and depositional systems of the Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area are systematically analysed, and the authors proposed that sediments of the Zhiluo Formation are of fluvial facies, and streams of the Zhiluo time experienced three evolution stages, namely: the early braided stream, the middle low sinuosity meandering stream and the late high sinuosity meandering stream. Based on features of paleoclimatic evolution, the Zhiluo Formation is divided into two lithological members. The lower lithological member consists of sediments of braided and low sinuosity meandering streams under humid-ward paleoclimatic conditions forming grey sedimentary formation. The upper member is composed of sediments of meandering streams under arid-hot paleoclimatic conditions representing complex-colored (mainly red) sedimentary formation. It is suggested that uranium mineralization in the study area is of channel sandstone type and controlled by braided channel sediments. Besides, the ore-formation conditions for channel sandstone type uranium deposit are preliminarily discussed

  19. Problems of teaching students to use the featured technologies in the area of semantic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, V. V.; Chernyshov, A. A.; Balandina, A. I.; Kostkina, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The following paper contains the description of up-to-date technologies in the area of web-services development, service-oriented architecture and the Semantic Web. The paper contains the analysis of the most popular and widespread technologies and methods in the semantic web area which are used in the developed educational course. In the paper, we also describe the problem of teaching students to use these technologies and specify conditions for the creation of the learning and development course. We also describe the main exercise for personal work and skills, which all the students learning this course have to gain. Moreover, in the paper we specify the problem with software which students are going to use while learning this course. In order to solve this problem, we introduce the developing system which will be used to support the laboratory works. For this moment this system supports only the fourth work execution, but our following plans contain the expansion of the system in order to support the leftover works.

  20. Past and present views in the approach to the problem of high natural background areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastino, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    High natural background areas are of great interest because they present anomalous conditions in their geological and geochemical features and consequently in the background radiation levels. High natural background areas have been recognised as representing a valid field of investigation for assessing the effects induced by low-level exposures. Such an approach represents the first attempt to draw an environmental impact evaluation, even if focussed on a single potentially harmful parameter only. Past and current studies on High Background Radiation Areas are reviewed with special emphasis on the ongoing programs and prospectives; their significance is discussed on the basis of the sectorial approach mostly used in the environmental studies. A more complete approach is suggested based on the impact evaluation and extention to all the potentially harmful environmental factors

  1. Radon in the Gulf Coast area: Potential problem or exaggerated risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duex, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from radon has been identified by the EPA as a serious health problem; estimates indicate that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer (after smoking) and that high levels of radon may cause as many as 20,000 to 40,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. Studies of the potential risk in the Gulf Coast have been sparse. This report summarizes over 7000 previously unreported radon analyses and relates them to geological information to identify possible problem areas for the Gulf Coast region of Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. High levels of indoor radon are generally associated with older open-quotes crystallineclose quotes igneous and metamorphic bedrock; thus, most areas of the Gulf Coast are of relatively low risk because they are underlain by Cenozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated deposits. However, some types of sedimentary deposits, such as open-quotes black shaleclose quotes and phosphate-rich rocks, can underlie areas of high risk. According to EPA indoor radon survey results the percentage of houses with screening levels greater than 4 pCi/1 (picocuries per liter) for given states is as follows: Alabama = 0.6%, Louisiana = 0.8%, Mississippi = 2.0%, and Texas = 4.0% (no data available for Florida). The data presented here for the percentage of houses with greater than 4 pCi/1 for given states is as follows: Alabama = 6.1 %, Louisiana = 0.6%, Mississippi = 2.0%, Texas = 1.6%, and Florida = 4.5%. The areas that appear to have the greatest risk are parts of northern Alabama and Mississippi, central Texas, and some areas in Florida

  2. Problems of teaching organisation in combined (Split classes in rural areas of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leščešen Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to negative demographic trends that primarily took hold of rural areas in the Republic of Serbia as early as at the end of the twentieth century - a decline in birth-rate and migrations from rural to urban areas, the question of ever growing number of combined classes and their organisation is being raised. Combined classes in schools do not represent a desirable model that should be aspired to in the organising of educational work in primary education. In fact it is a necessity and practical need in certain social rural areas. Combined classes are increasingly becoming a reality. Village schools make 60 percent of the total number of schools and are attended by only 8 percent of pupils. The larger number of grades a classroom teacher works with in a classroom, the more numerous teaching organisation problems there are. The Educational Strategy of the Republic of Serbia 2011-2120 says that small village schools should be saved since their number will increase in the coming years considering demographic trends. This paper depicts main didactic problems that occur in the process of simultaneous work with students of different ages, in the same room, by one class teacher, as well as the possibility of their solution. Methods used in this paper include theoretical analysis of the existing literature as well as conversations with primary school teachers who teach combined classes.

  3. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  4. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  5. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-01-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  6. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are familiar to the modern methods and approaches of teaching and lack of materials for teaching in the classroom. Primary level English curriculum implementation is essential in Bangladesh to achieve the set English language competency in the rural areas. Students in the rural areas are performing poorly in English compared to their urban counterparts. Statistics showed that there was a gulf of difference between the facilities enjoyed by rural schools and urban schools. The study explores the challenges of teaching English language in rural areas in context of Bangladesh. This study investigated the factors affecting student’s performance in English language in rural areas. Data were collected using interviews, classroom observation and questionnaire. Result of the study reveals that students were highly motivated to learn English for future expectations such as local and international communication, academic advancement and employment prospects. It also provide a scenario of English teaching system in rural areas of Bangladesh as well as the problems and prospects of English language in perspective of Bangladesh. Keywords: English language, rural areas, education, learning and teaching, competency

  7. [Problems resulting from the absorption of small towns into urban areas in major Third World cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, D L

    1985-01-01

    The tendency toward hypertrophy of large metropolitan areas in the Third World has been a subject of concern to economists and other social scientists for some time. Inability to absorb vast waves of migrants into the organized labor force or to provide adequate infrastructure and services are serious problems in many growing cities of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A different phenomenon created by perpetual urban expansion has been relatively neglected: the problems caused when preexisting urban areas are absorbed into the metropolis. The tendency of squatter settlements to constrict normal urban growth and expansion and to impede rational provision of services has been recognized, but the absorption of small cities does not necessarily produce identical problems. Small cities absorbed into a metropolis lose their identity in the successive waves of suburban proliferation. Los Angeles in the US may be considered the prototype of the phenomenon in which multiple preexisting urban zones are absorbed into the same metropolis without formation of any visible center of gravity. In some cases, small cities may be completely engulfed by the encroaching metropolis, if transit routes or availability of land makes them interesting to developers. The livelihood of residents may be threatened if they are no longer able to cultivate gardens or raise small animals. Local services may deteriorate. The youngest and most able residents are likely to abandon such places for the greater opportunities of the city, leaving the aged and less qualified to fend for themselves. Jobs may disappear and traditional commercial relations may be destroyed without being replaced. The future wellbeing of residents depends on their ability to maneuver in the new metropolitan environment, but many will be unable to adjust for lack of training, the weight of immovable property, or diverse personal considerations. Planning could help to reduce the problems that occasional survival of some small

  8. The problems of hygienic classification of radioactive waste under restoration of contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, M.; Shandala, N.; Novikova, N.; Petukhova, E.; Shishkin, V.; Egorov, B.; Ziborov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Experience on restoration of contaminated areas in the past ten years reveals a specific problem in the general problem of solid radioactive waste management as a result of decontamination of the settlements. That specific problem concerns conventionally radioactive waste (CRW), which might be to some extent dangerous for human being. In the documents of IAEA and ICRP the approaches aimed at exemption or exclusion insignificant amount of radioactive wastes from regulatory control are actively being developed. In turn, Russia does not have so far either methodic or regulatory documents on management of very low level radioactive waste. Two approaches are considered in the paper under development of derived levels for CRW in case of restoration of contaminated areas. The first one is based on restriction of individual risk at level about 10 -6 per year (negligible level). The second one accounts for global man-made background and uses acceptable factor of excess of that background as a criterion.Under the first approach (restriction of individual risk) the lowest boundary of CRW is estimated to be equal to 3 Bq kg -1 for 239 Pu; 30 Bq kg -1 for 90 Sr; and 300 Bq kg -1 for 137 Cs, respectively. Those levels of specific activity approximately correspond to the areas contaminated by the above mentioned radionuclides 0.3 kBq m -2 , 3 kBq m -2 , and 30 kBq m -2 , respectively. Under the second approach if one accepts factor of 3 of excess of global man-made background, than the levels of specific activity will be 0.05 kBq m -2 for 239 Pu; 2.5 kBq m -2 for 90 Sr, and 7.2 kBq m -2 for 137 Cs. Comparison of the levels obtained according to the second approach shows that they will be several times lower than that according to the first approach. (author)

  9. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  10. Problems of breast cancer survivors living in an urban area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abja Sapkota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main objective of this study was to identify the problems of Nepalese breast cancer survivors living in an urban area who had completed their treatment for at least 6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to assess the problems of breast cancer survivors who were registered at the Nepal Cancer Support Group. Fifty-one women who were diagnosed with breast cancer (Stage 0 to III and were currently disease-free were enrolled in the study. They were interviewed using structured interview schedule using the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial Symptom Scale. Statistical analysis was carried out with SPSS (version 16. Results: The mean age of the women at the time of enrollment was 47.3 years. The most common modality of treatment they received was the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy (84%. Top five symptoms experienced by the survivors on the basis of frequency and severity were tiredness (61%, lack of energy (57%, forgetfulness (57%, lack of interest in sex (52%, general body aches (49%, and feeling of worrisome and anxiousness about future (49%. Women with age <45 years at diagnosis had higher mean rank score in psychological (24.7 and social problems (23.9 in comparison to women aged ≥45 years. There was a significant relationship between severe psychological (34.9 vs. 19.6; P = 0.001 and social problems (29.1 vs. 21.2; P = 0.03, with the time since primary treatment completion of <1 year. Conclusions: Nepalese breast cancer survivors were found to have multiple physical, psychological, and social problems and might require special attention during follow-up visits.

  11. NOT LOCAL PROBLEM OF TYPE OF THE PROBLEM BITSADZE – SAMARSKY FOR THE EQUATION THE MIXED TYPE IN UNLIMITED AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunnunov R.T.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the nonlocal boundary value problem for the mixed type equation in unbounded domain are proved.In this paper the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the non-local boundary value problem for the mixed type equation in unbounded domain are proved.

  12. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  13. Disadvantages of using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to assess imaging tests: A discussion and proposal for an alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halligan, Steve; Altman, Douglas G.; Mallett, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are to describe the disadvantages of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC) to measure diagnostic test performance and to propose an alternative based on net benefit. We use a narrative review supplemented by data from a study of computer-assisted detection for CT colonography. We identified problems with ROC AUC. Confidence scoring by readers was highly non-normal, and score distribution was bimodal. Consequently, ROC curves were highly extrapolated with AUC mostly dependent on areas without patient data. AUC depended on the method used for curve fitting. ROC AUC does not account for prevalence or different misclassification costs arising from false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Change in ROC AUC has little direct clinical meaning for clinicians. An alternative analysis based on net benefit is proposed, based on the change in sensitivity and specificity at clinically relevant thresholds. Net benefit incorporates estimates of prevalence and misclassification costs, and it is clinically interpretable since it reflects changes in correct and incorrect diagnoses when a new diagnostic test is introduced. ROC AUC is most useful in the early stages of test assessment whereas methods based on net benefit are more useful to assess radiological tests where the clinical context is known. Net benefit is more useful for assessing clinical impact. (orig.)

  14. Multiperiod Hierarchical Location Problem of Transit Hub in Urban Agglomeration Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ting Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid urbanization in developing countries, urban agglomeration area (UAA forms. Also, transportation demand in UAA grows rapidly and presents hierarchical feature. Therefore, it is imperative to develop models for transit hubs to guide the development of UAA and better meet the time-varying and hierarchical transportation demand. In this paper, the multiperiod hierarchical location problem of transit hub in urban agglomeration area (THUAA is studied. A hierarchical service network of THUAA with a multiflow, nested, and noncoherent structure is described. Then a multiperiod hierarchical mathematical programming model is proposed, aiming at minimizing the total demand weighted travel time. Moreover, an improved adaptive clonal selection algorithm is presented to solve the model. Both the model and algorithm are verified by the application to a real-life problem of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region in China. The results of different scenarios in the case show that urban population migration has a great impact on the THUAA location scheme. Sustained and appropriate urban population migration helps to reduce travel time for urban residents.

  15. Comparison of 2 resident learning tools-interactive screen-based simulated case scenarios versus problem-based learning discussions: a prospective quasi-crossover cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Shobana; Khanna, Ashish; Argalious, Maged; Kimatian, Stephen J; Mascha, Edward J; Makarova, Natalya; Nada, Eman M; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Firoozbakhsh, Farhad; Avitsian, Rafi

    2016-02-01

    Simulation-based learning is emerging as an alternative educational tool in this era of a relative shortfall of teaching anesthesiologists. The objective of the study is to assess whether screen-based (interactive computer simulated) case scenarios are more effective than problem-based learning discussions (PBLDs) in improving test scores 4 and 8 weeks after these interventions in anesthesia residents during their first neuroanesthesia rotation. Prospective, nonblinded quasi-crossover study. Cleveland Clinic. Anesthesiology residents. Two case scenarios were delivered from the Anesoft software as screen-based sessions, and parallel scripts were developed for 2 PBLDs. Each resident underwent both types of training sessions, starting with the PBLD session, and the 2 cases were alternated each month (ie, in 1 month, the screen-based intervention used case 1 and the PBLD used case 2, and vice versa for the next month). Test scores before the rotation (baseline), immediately after the rotation (4 weeks after the start of the rotation), and 8 weeks after the start of rotation were collected on each topic from each resident. The effect of training method on improvement in test scores was assessed using a linear mixed-effects model. Compared to the departmental standard of PBLD, the simulation method did not improve either the 4- or 8-week mean test scores (P = .41 and P = .40 for training method effect on 4- and 8-week scores, respectively). Resident satisfaction with the simulation module on a 5-point Likert scale showed subjective evidence of a positive impact on resident education. Screen-based simulators were not more effective than PBLD for education during the neuroanesthesia rotation in anesthesia residency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  17. Problems and possibilities of establishing greenery within nuclear power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supuka, J.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental impacts of nuclear power plants are briefly discussed. The arrangement of the green in the area of nuclear power plants is illustrated by an example of the territorial plans of the Bohunice nuclear power plants. The green must fullfil multiple functions, such as architectonical, aesthetical, wind protection, dust protection, noise and radioactivity protection, soil improvement, psychological, soil reclamation, renaturalization, and social functions. The green zones are differentiated into the actual plant zone, the hygiene protection zone, the accompanying green zone, and the peripheral housing development green zone. (M.D.). 6 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs

  18. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  19. The discussion on the relationship between high-resolution sequence stratigraphy and uranium mineralization of Zhiluo formation in Dongsheng area, ordos basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaolin; Xiang Weidong; Li Tiangang; Fang Xiheng; Pang Yaqing

    2007-01-01

    According to the data of drill cores, outcrops and well logging, two orders base-level cycles are recognized from Zhiluo Formation in Dongsheng area, which consist of 8-14 short-term base-level cycles and 3 mid-term base-level cycles, and their structural types and stacking patterns are discussed by using principles and methods of high-resolution sequence stratigraphic theory. Based on the correlation of mid-term base-level cycles, the control of the A/S (Accommodation/Sediment supply) ratio in mid-term base-level cycles on the scale of sand bodies and physical properties of reservoir is analysed. Studies show that the sand bodies of braided stream in MSC1 of Zhiluo Formation are favourable to uranium mineralization, however, the sand bodies of meandering river in MSC2 and MSC3 are not favourable to uranium mineralization. The change of the A/S results in the difference in characters of sand body, such as physical properties, continuity and so on, which control the fluid flowing path. After discussing the immigration of uranium-bearing oxidizing ground water in the braided channel sand bodies, the paper tries to present the answers to the question of why the host orebody occurs mainly in the middle and upper sand body which the lower limb is thicker than the upper limb in the limb orebodies. (authors)

  20. Problems of Overcoming Market Failures in the Context of Economic Crisis in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Y. Pluiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the manifestations of a market failure problem revealed during the economic crisis in the euro area, namely business cycles, market inability to ensure money circulation and avoid inflation. It is shown that the cyclicity of economic development has revealed in various degrees of economic contraction and different rates of its recovery. These differences have been exacerbated by the new procyclical factors emerged from the transition to a single currency. As for money circulation the crisis has almost no impact on the single currency functioning: the euro has maintained its position on the world market and properly performed money functions in the domestic. The goal to achieve economic development without inflation in the euro area generally has been solved successfully by the European Central Bank (ECB. However, due to the fact that the ECB in its monetary policy does not pay sufficient attention to the increased inflation in small and relatively poor countries, the crisis has been more acute in them than in large countries with low inflation. The goals of ensuring money circulation and avoiding inflation can be settled more effectively in the euro area in case of more tight coherence in economic policy and strengthening of supranational mechanisms of economic governance.

  1. Transportation Problems in Special Education Programs in Rural Areas - A Specific Solution and Some Suggestions for Delivery System Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Z. H.

    The paper describes transportation problems encountered and solutions employed in delivering systems of comprehensive services to handicapped children in Anderson County, Tennessee, a predominantly rural area with considerable mountain area. Detailed are methods of transportation utilized in the four different program areas of the county special…

  2. Outline for Remediation of Problem Areas for Children with Learning Disabilities. Revised. = Bosquejo para la Correccion de Areas Problematicas para Ninos con Impedimientos del Aprendizaje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Joan L.

    The booklet outlines ways to help children with learning disabilities in specific subject areas. Characteristic behavior and remedial exercises are listed for seven areas of auditory problems: auditory reception, auditory association, auditory discrimination, auditory figure ground, auditory closure and sound blending, auditory memory, and grammar…

  3. Validation of the Turkish version of the problem areas in diabetes scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huis In 't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Makine, Ceylan; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-01-01

    was conducted among 154 patients with insulin-naïve type 2 diabetes. Participants completed the PAID, Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS), and World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5) questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses...... yielded a 2-factor structure, identifying a 15-item "diabetes distress" factor and a 5-item "support-related issues" factor. The total PAID-score and the two dimensions were associated with higher levels of depression and poor emotional well-being. In the present study, the Turkish version of the PAID had......The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale is a widely used self-report measure that can facilitate detection of diabetes-specific emotional distress in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure and validity of the Turkish version of the PAID. A validation study...

  4. WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arna Fariza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.

  5. Potential problem areas: extended storage of low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siskind, B.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. In particular, the range of storage alternatives considered and being implemented by the nuclear power plant utilities is described. The properties of the waste forms and waste containers are discussed. An overview is given of the performance of the waste package and its contents during storage (e.g., radiolytic gas generation, corrosion) and of the effects of extended storage on the performance of the waste package after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of polyethylene, the weakening of steel containers by corrosion). Additional information and actions required to address these concerns, including possible mitigative measures, are discussed. 26 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  7. Public and private in the post-soviet area: the problem of demarcation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Zaidel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of determination of public and private in the post­soviet area. Formation of these spheres should be a logical conclusion of successful transformation and modernization process in ex­soviet republics and getting all spheres of civil life out of the state control. Historical specific is underlined; it is given the determination and main characteristics of public and private. It is given two main approaches’ ways of interpretation the phenomena and formation of public sphere according to H. Arendt and Ju. Hubermas. The specific of formation and demarcation of public and private spheres in the post­soviet area is analyzed. The boundaries between public and private spheres were deformed by the soviet state and communist society. As a result it was built hierarchical relations among the state, society and ruler; it is typical for power centralized societies. The determining factor of institutional heritage in the processes of state­making is underlined. The deformation of division of state, public and private spheres is caused by combining of traditional and modern institutes and practices; as a result social practices that are against of logic of modern society slow down the development of market­oriented economy and modernization of institutions.

  8. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  9. Discussion about the use of the volume specific surface area (VSSA) as a criterion to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition. Part two: experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecloux, André J; Atluri, Rambabu; Kolen'ko, Yury V; Deepak, Francis Leonard

    2017-10-12

    The first part of this study was dedicated to the modelling of the influence of particle shape, porosity and particle size distribution on the volume specific surface area (VSSA) values in order to check the applicability of this concept to the identification of nanomaterials according to the European Commission Recommendation. In this second part, experimental VSSA values are obtained for various samples from nitrogen adsorption isotherms and these values were used as a screening tool to identify and classify nanomaterials. These identification results are compared to the identification based on the 50% of particles with a size below 100 nm criterion applied to the experimental particle size distributions obtained by analysis of electron microscopy images on the same materials. It is concluded that the experimental VSSA values are able to identify nanomaterials, without false negative identification, if they have a mono-modal particle size, if the adsorption data cover the relative pressure range from 0.001 to 0.65 and if a simple, qualitative image of the particles by transmission or scanning electron microscopy is available to define their shape. The experimental conditions to obtain reliable adsorption data as well as the way to analyze the adsorption isotherms are described and discussed in some detail in order to help the reader in using the experimental VSSA criterion. To obtain the experimental VSSA values, the BET surface area can be used for non-porous particles, but for porous, nanostructured or coated nanoparticles, only the external surface of the particles, obtained by a modified t-plot approach, should be considered to determine the experimental VSSA and to avoid false positive identification of nanomaterials, only the external surface area being related to the particle size. Finally, the availability of experimental VSSA values together with particle size distributions obtained by electron microscopy gave the opportunity to check the

  10. Family and career-conscious hospitals - problem areas and necessary steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegert, Jörg M; Liebhardt, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the wide range of compatibility issues between work in the medical profession and the family. Several topics are intertwined and overlap in some areas. Family friendliness in curative medicine, healthcare, medical studies and the training, specialisation and CPD of doctors is a key theme in the current debate on the future of health and family policies. The rising proportion of women and changes in the medical community characterise the future of medicine. Topics such as working hours and organisation of work, as well as family support and maternity leave, must be discussed further and in particular regarding employees in the health services. This overview will describe where Germany has issues, what is already being done well in the hospitals but could still be improved.

  11. Freight distribution problems in congested urban areas : fast and effective solution procedures to time-dependent vehicle routing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Congestion is a common phenomenon in all medium to large cities of the world. Reliability of freight movement in urban areas is an important : issue to manufacturing or service companies whose operation is based in just-in-time approaches. These comp...

  12. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-12-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. In this report, extended storage of LLRW is considered in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission areas of concern and actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and performance of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: (1) Performance of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. (2) Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion). A discussion is given of additional information and actions required to address these concerns

  13. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child

  14. A survey of low-level radioactive waste treatment methods and problem areas associated with commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Rodgers, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was made (June 1985) of technologies that were currently being used, those that had been discontinued, and those that were under consideration for treatment of low-level radioactive waste from the commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. The survey results included information concerning problems areas, areas needing research and development, and the use of mobile treatment facilities

  15. A study on the environmental and safety problems and their remediation around mining areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Lee, Dong Nam [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the problems such as mine drainage, mine wastes, subsidence and existence of facilities at the abandoned metallic mines and to evaluate the reactor system for acid mine drainage treatment in the field. According to the field investigation, the remediation was necessary for abandoned mines such as the Taechang, the Imcheon, the Kubong, the Cheongyang, the Cheonbo(Jungyang), the Seojeom, the Kuryong and the Ilkwang mines. Comparing analytical data with soil environmental reservation law, main components to contaminate soil environment in the vicinity of the abandoned mining areas, were As, Cd, Pb and cyanide. Results of chemical analysis for mine drainage showed that As Cd, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr{sup 6+}, Fe and pH were major pollutants to the water environment and over level of discharge, water quality environment reservation law. The reactor with cow manure removed the metals such as Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Al by 100%. It was evaluated that the metal removal in the reactor was due to sulfate reduction and hydrolysis. In addition, acid mine drainage was neutralized to over pH 5 during 100 days. (author). 12 refs., 25 tabs., 23 figs.

  16. Solving a problem of establishing a connection between post offices in the area of a city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana GRGUROVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to The General Plan of Post Network and in accordance with the criteria for opening branches of postal services for customers numerous postal offices which perform delivery services are located on the territory of every large city area. In case of using the system for combined decentralization one of the offices is assigned the role of the central deliverance post office. If the central office cannot be connected to some other unit directly, their connection is realized through one or more other units which are located in between them. Aside from the idea of the most economical management, the organization of postal offices is limited by some other actors, from the number of available vehicles, their capacity, to the question of the place and time of realizing a transaction. This paper provides information about how the money-saving algorithm for solving the problem of time interval routing can be used in a suitable way in these situations as well.

  17. Introduction to littoral erosion problem in Uraba (Arboletes-Turbo area) Colombian Caribbean Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa; Ivan D; Vernette, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Shoreline retreat has been the net dominant historical trend along the 145 km-length littoral between Arboletes and Turbo (southern Caribbean of Colombia). For the last four decades, there were identified in this littoral shoreline retreat of about 50-100 m in several places (Uveros, Damaquiel, Zapata, Turbo) and a maximum of 1.6 km in the Punta Rey-Arboletes area, where land losses were of 4.5 km 2 , at exceptional rates of 40 rn/year. The synthesis of the available information suggest that the general susceptibility to erosion between Arboletes and turbo could be related primarily to relative sea level rise, associated to tectonic movements as well as to the effects of mud diapirism and hydroisostacy. In the more critical areas (Arboletes, Turbo), the natural erosive trends were accelerated by anthropic actions, including river diversion (Turbo), beach mining and inadequate (or total absence) practices for controlling residual and natural waters. Up to august 2000, there were invested about $ Col 10.000 billions in 155 engineering defenses (groins, sea walls and rip-rap which totalize 6.2 km of total length and a volume of materials of 37.000 m 3 ). With few exceptions, groins have not been successful and are now part of the problem, accelerating shore erosion along the adjacent sectors. In the short term, the littoral erosion between Arboletes and turbo is caused both by marine and by sub aerial factors. it is facilitated by the poor lithological strengths of cliffs and marine terraces, mainly composed of highly fractured and weathered claystones and mudstones (with stratification and weakness planes dipping toward sea) and non-consolidated, easily liquefacted, fine sediments; both conditions facilitate the occurrence of rocks falls, slides and mud flows that result in high figures of cliff retreat (3 to 4 m), specially during the first 15 days of the summer-winter transition (April) and in high waves periods. The case of the littoral erosion between Arboletes

  18. Problems and Opportunities of an International Financial Reporting Standard for Small and Medium-sized Entities. The EAA FRSC's Comment on the IASB's Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Evans, Lisa; Gebhardt, Günther

    2005-01-01

    and questions arising from this. This paper briefly introduces the background to the publication of the Discussion Paper. This is followed by a review of prior litterature on SME financial reporting implications, prepared by the European Accountin Association's Financial Reporting Standards Committee...

  19. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: potential problem areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.; Dougherty, D.R.; MacKenzie, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    If a state or state compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) by 1986 as required by the Low-Level Waste Policy Act, then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The issue of extended storage of LLRW is addressed in order to determine for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission the areas of concern and the actions recommended to resolve these concerns. The focus is on the properties and behavior of the waste form and waste container. Storage alternatives are considered in order to characterize the likely storage environments for these wastes. The areas of concern about extended storage of LLRW are grouped into two categories: 1. Behavior of the waste form and/or container during storage, e.g., radiolytic gas generation, radiation-enhanced degradation of polymeric materials, and corrosion. 2. Effects of extended storage on the properties of the waste form and/or container that are important after storage (e.g., radiation-induced oxidative embrittlement of high-density polyethylene and the weakening of steel containers resulting from corrosion by the waste). The additional information and actions required to address these concerns are discussed and, in particular, it is concluded that further information is needed on the rates of corrosion of container material by Class A wastes and on the apparent dose-rate dependence of radiolytic processes in Class B and C waste packages. Modifications to the guidance for solidified wastes and high-integrity containers in NRC's Technical Position on Waste Form are recommended. 27 references

  20. Responsabilidade social corporativa: uma discussão a respeito da epistemologia subjacente aos conceitos utilizados na área Corporate social responsibility: a discussion on the epistemology underlying the concepts used in the area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca de Moraes Ribeiro de Barcellos

    2013-04-01

    e com fundamentos epistemológicos restritos e não explicitados, levantando a necessidade de proposição de pesquisas que, utilizando-se de diferentes pressupostos epistemológicos, possam descrever o fenômeno de forma mais precisa, contribuindo para uma compreensão reflexiva da atuação das organizações empresariais no campo social.Considering the importance of epistemological analysis in the production of scientific knowledge in any area in general and in administration in particular terms, this article aims to analyze the epistemological foundations of one of the themes that has been gaining importance in the context of academic research in management: Corporate Social Responsibility. Inspired by the study developed by Moretti and Campanário (2009, which mapped the primary references used to substantiate the works presented on the topic during Enanpads, we selected eight works referenced, which were specifically related to the foundations of social responsibility and analyzed the sections dealing with the reasons why companies practice social responsibility. Later, the works were analyzed from the perspective of the main epistemological thoughts in XXth century, considered relevant for understanding the phenomenon: empiricism, rationalism, utilitarianism, positivism, functionalism and dialectics. The conclusions point to the fact that, besides the existence of an intellectual comfort zone in the studies on the subject, as pointed out by Moretti and Campanário (2009, the foundation of the references used is centered on logic of the dominant paradigm in administration studies, highlighting the functionalist and utilitarian character of social responsibility's practices made by companies. Interestingly, the studies could not be classified as empiricist, rationalist or positivist due to lack of concrete evidence to substantiate the authors' conclusions, except for the work of Freeman (1999 which presents an empirical basis from which conclusions are received

  1. Discussion on resin conversion related problems in the process of using ion exchange method to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqin; Du Yuhai; Long Qing; Han Wei; Que Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange method was used to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine, lean resin was converted by sodium bicarbonate solution. Because of high sodium bicarbonate, chlorine and uranium concentration in the converted solution, it is difficult to effectively use. Combined with the production practices of the mine, the resin conversion related problems were analyzed. Some measures were taken for improving utilization rate of the converted solution, and good results were obtained. The utilization rate of the converted solution increased to about 20% from less than lO%, and the consumption of sodium bicarbonate reduced by about 30%. (authors)

  2. Problems of economic assessment of social impacts of construction anO operation of nuctear power plant in the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, F.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of nuclear power plant construction and operation are divided into economic, demographic, on town planning, historic, etc. Further subdivision is performed according to the intensity of construction impacts, to the sequence and quality of impact and to the effects in space and time. The area of environmental impacts is classified into the protective area and the areas of immediate, limited and broad impact. The methods of the evaluation of nuclear power plant construction and operation impacts are discussed. (E.S.)

  3. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  4. [Results of a structurized discussion within the framework of abortion with particular reference to problems of pregnancy, conflict and related topics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woynar, W; Schuster, E; Oberheuser, F

    1980-02-01

    Structured discussions within the framework of social counseling were held with 112 patients in connection with abortion. They were structured according to sociopsychologoical criteria in order to discover any hidden conflicts prevailing in those patients seeking abortion. It became clear that there was a discrepancy between the individual expectation and its translation into reality. Also there was a situation in which too much was demanded of the patient, resulting in an inability to cope with the factors governing her life with subsequent fear of mental and social isolation. Sociologically speaking, the group was divided between elderly socially secured patients who already had children and young patients still undergoing educational or vocational training. (Authors' modified)

  5. Philosophy of quantum physics. Introduction and discussion of the central perceptions and problem, posings of quantum theory for physicsts and philosophers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebe, Cord; Kuhlmann, Meinard; Lyre, Holger; Naeger, Paul; Passon, Oliver; Stoeckler, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to give advanced students of philosophy with interest for physics an actual and solid introduction to the quantum theory. Simultaneously the book confronts also physicists with the philosophical questions of their field. After clearance of the foundations the second chapters introduces to the minimal interpretation and the ''Copenhagen interpretation''. In the third chapter many-particle systems are introduced and their pecularities discussed. The fourth chapter deals with the theme-circle ''entangled states'' and ''nonlocality''. In the first parter of the fifth chapter the De-Broglie-Bohm theory and in the second part the many-world interpretation of the quantum theory are presented. In the sixth chapter the bow is spanned to (relativistic) quantum field theories. Finally the seventh chapter rounds the book off in the framework of a small chronology of important development steps in physical-mathematical as also interpretatorical view.

  6. Program for certification of waste from contained firing facility: Establishment of waste as non-reactive and discussion of potential waste generation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.; Garza, R.; Maienschein, J.; Pruneda, C.

    1997-01-01

    Debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is shown to be non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. This debris can then be regarded as a non-hazardous waste on the basis of reactivity, when collected and packaged in a specified manner. If it is contaminated with radioactive components (e.g. depleted uranium), it can therefore be disposed of as radioactive waste or mixed waste, as appropriate (note that debris may contain other materials that render it hazardous, such as beryllium). We also discuss potential waste generation issues in contained firing operations that are applicable to the planned new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). The goal of this program is to develop and document conditions under which shot debris from the planned Contained Firing Facility (CFF) can be handled, shipped, and accepted for waste disposal as non-reactive radioactive or mixed waste. This report fulfills the following requirements as established at the outset of the program: 1. Establish through testing the maximum level of explosive that can be in a waste and still have it certified as non-reactive. 2. Develop the procedure to confirm the acceptability of radioactive-contaminated debris as non-reactive waste at radioactive waste disposal sites. 3. Outline potential disposal protocols for different CFF scenarios (e.g. misfires with scattered explosive)

  7. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  8. 风电场分期开发中存在问题的探讨%Discussion on the Problem of Wind Farm Phased Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭秀芳; 李剑锋

    2013-01-01

      风电场分期开发中,风电场风能资源分布和场址区域开发顺序直接影响风电场装机容量和风电场发电量。本文通过分析具体工程实例,提出如何准确评估分期开发场址的风能资源。同时,对风电场不同区域的开发顺序也进行了探讨,不同区域的开发顺序对风电场尾流和发电量都有一定的影响,进而影响风电场的整体装机容量。%On the phased development of wind farm, the installed capacity and generated energy of wind farms are influenced by the wind energy distribution and the development order. Taking the engineer project as an example, the paper pointed out how to evaluate wind energy and analyzed the order of different areas which could affect the wake loss and generated energy . And then it could affect the installed capacity.

  9. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  10. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  11. The Formalization of the Problem area, Implementation and Maintenance of Business process by a group of unmanned vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Kuandykov A.A; Kassenkhan A.M; Mukazhanov N.K; Kozhamzharova D.K; Kalpeeva Zh.B; Sholpanbaev A.T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the formalization of the problem domain in which there is a business process that is similar in structure.For research and formalization selected a specific type of subject area in which at random time occurs the business processes that are close on the abstract structure.

  12. Analysis of an Interactive Technology Supported Problem-Based Learning STEM Project Using Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports an analysis of an interactive technology-supported, problem-based learning (PBL) project in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) from a Learning Sciences perspective using the Selected Learning Sciences Interest Areas (SLSIA). The SLSIA was adapted from the "What kinds of topics do ISLS [International…

  13. Discussion on age and paleo geographical environment of ore bearing strata for sandstone-type uranium deposits in Bayanwula area, Erlian basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiujun; Nie Fengjun; Chen Yiping; Wang Wei

    2008-01-01

    The sandstone-type uranium ore-bearing strata of Erlian basin is a suit of coarse crumb rocks that are mainly of river and marsh sedimentary faces, age of ore-bearing strata in this area is in dispute. By studying the palynology of ore-bearing strata in Bayanwula area, particularly the distribution of the spore and the pollen in the stratum and the comparison of domestic and the international palynology as- semblage, its age of the strata was identified belong to aptian-albian stages of the Later Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) under substropic warm humid climate with the tendency to semihumid and semi-dryhot. The paleo geography was of the low-fiat and undulating topography, a few middling and high mountains distributing around the basin. (authors)

  14. A Slicing Tree Representation and QCP-Model-Based Heuristic Algorithm for the Unequal-Area Block Facility Layout Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shiang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility layout problem is a typical combinational optimization problem. In this research, a slicing tree representation and a quadratically constrained program model are combined with harmony search to develop a heuristic method for solving the unequal-area block layout problem. Because of characteristics of slicing tree structure, we propose a regional structure of harmony memory to memorize facility layout solutions and two kinds of harmony improvisation to enhance global search ability of the proposed heuristic method. The proposed harmony search based heuristic is tested on 10 well-known unequal-area facility layout problems from the literature. The results are compared with the previously best-known solutions obtained by genetic algorithm, tabu search, and ant system as well as exact methods. For problems O7, O9, vC10Ra, M11*, and Nug12, new best solutions are found. For other problems, the proposed approach can find solutions that are very similar to previous best-known solutions.

  15. The effects of using concept mapping as an artifact to engender metacognitive thinking in first-year medical students' problem-based learning discussions: A mixed-methods investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Glenda Hostetter

    Attention in medical education is turning toward instruction that not only focuses on knowledge acquisition, but on developing the medical students' clinical problem-solving skills, and their ability to critically think through complex diseases. Metacognition is regarded as an important consideration in how we teach medical students these higher-order, critical thinking skills. This study used a mixed-methods research design to investigate if concept mapping as an artifact may engender metacognitive thinking in the medical student population. Specifically the purpose of the study is twofold: (1) to determine if concept mapping, functioning as an artifact during problem-based learning, improves learning as measured by scores on test questions; and (2) to explore if the process of concept mapping alters the problem-based learning intragroup discussion in ways that show medical students are engaged in metacognitive thinking. The results showed that students in the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups used more metacognitive thinking patterns than those in the problem-based learning discussion-only group, particularly in the monitoring component. These groups also engaged in a higher level of cognitive thinking associated with reasoning through mechanisms-of-action and breaking down complex biochemical and physiologic principals. The students disclosed in focus-group interviews that concept mapping was beneficial to help them understand how discrete pieces of information fit together in a bigger structure of knowledge. They also stated that concept mapping gave them some time to think through these concepts in a larger conceptual framework. There was no significant difference in the exam-question scores between the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups and the problem-based learning discussion-only group.

  16. Public educational policy in Rio Grande do Sul: Indicators for discussion and analysis in the area of the High Abilities/ Giftedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Joyce Wellausen Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The actions to settle the proposal of public educational policy in Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil are discussed and analyzed in this paper, based upon Prieto’s indicators (2001, 2002, 2003: legal guidelines; theoretical conception; educational organization and functioning; educational system management; investments in the educational field; and teachers’ working conditions. Finally, a new paradigm of Special Education and the relevance of proposing public policies considering this model are highlighted, as well as the importance of an articulation among the different state departments to reinforce the public policy actions.

  17. Lp-dual affine surface area forms of Busemann–Petty type problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Associated with the notion of Lp-intersection body which was defined ... Lp-dual affine surface area; Lp-intersection body; Busemann–Petty ..... [11] Schneider R, Convex Bodies: The Brunn–Minkowski Theory (1993) (Cambridge: Cam-.

  18. Economical solution for the industrial waste problem of Karachi industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubin, S.

    2005-01-01

    The increased rate of industrialization coupled with rapid urbanization in Pakistan has given rise to serious water pollution and environmental problems. A vast range of industries has been established in the country during the last twenty five years, including tanneries, fertilizers, textiles, refineries, chemicals, vegetable oils, paper am pulp, sugar and food. Little attention was paid towards a large scale release of wastewater from these industries. Presently wastewater produced from these industries has been considered a serious problem and research in being conducted to solve its associated problems. Recently, it has been realized that there is a significant threat of water borne diseases, degradation of fresh water quality, environmental depletion and soil deterioration from the effluent and toxic emission of industries. Being a developing country and having limited resources, it is hard to install treatment plants on the industrial effluent with every industry before discharging them into streams which are also creating disturbance in natural ecosystem. An effort has been made to solve wastewater problem by implementing statistical tools on data of Karachi industrial state, obtained from EPA JICA and PCRWR, Islamabad. (author)

  19. Psychological Help-Seeking Intention among College Students across Three Problem Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Timothy R.; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to understand psychological help-seeking intention for 3 common concerns: anxiety or depression, career choice concerns, and alcohol or drug use. Eight hundred eighty-nine university students completed surveys for the TPB variables plus belief in personal efficacy and control to solve the problems.…

  20. Socioeconomic analysis and problems of maize seed production in mid hill area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Sapkota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize is considered as staple food and is a way of life for the hilly region of Nepal. The production and yield of maize crop is very low which is unable to meet the current demand and is mostly affected by various insect/pests and diseases. For such a backdrop, 182 cross sectional data were collected using simple random techniques in Palpa in June, 2016. Forced scaling technique was used to rank problems based on index value. The total average landholding was 0.91 hectare with 0.32 ha under maize seed cultivation. About 90.7 and 69.8% farmers were access to extension service and had received training respectively. Infestation of insect/pests ranked at first as a major problem in maize seed production with 0.79 index value followed by infrastructure/credit, storage, unavailability of inputs and marketing problems. Similarly poor bargaining power ranked as a 1st major marketing problem. Better access to extension service as well as frequent training service to farmers should be provided to increase production and yield of maize seed. Government and other stakeholder organizations should focus to develop irrigation infrastructure for the overall development of maize sector.

  1. Discussion about the use of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecloux, André J.

    2015-01-01

    In the EU regulation, a material containing particles is considered as nano if, for 50 % or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1–100 nm. Due to the difficulty to measure in a reliable way the number particle size distribution, it is suggested to use the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) >60 m 2 /cm 3 as simple screening criterion to identify nanomaterials. This threshold corresponds to monodispersed spherical particles with a size of 100 nm. In this paper, a theoretical study is carried out to identify the effect of the particle shape, polydispersity, agglomeration and aggregation on the VSSA threshold. It appears that the VSSA approach is overprotective because a lot of samples are identified as nanomaterials even if less than 50 % of the particles have a size lower than 100 nm, this 50 % in number criterion being the main identification criterion in the EU definition. Even if the VSSA is leading to many false positive results, it can be used to identify non-nanomaterials as soon as its value is lower than the threshold at the condition to take into account the shape of the particles and their external surface area. This conclusion is true for monomodal distributions of particles but is subject to some restrictions for bimodal distributions

  2. Discussion about the use of the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) as criteria to identify nanomaterials according to the EU definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecloux, André J., E-mail: alecloux@nanocyl.com, E-mail: envicat@skynet.be [ENVICAT Consulting (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    In the EU regulation, a material containing particles is considered as nano if, for 50 % or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1–100 nm. Due to the difficulty to measure in a reliable way the number particle size distribution, it is suggested to use the volume-specific surface area (VSSA) >60 m{sup 2}/cm{sup 3} as simple screening criterion to identify nanomaterials. This threshold corresponds to monodispersed spherical particles with a size of 100 nm. In this paper, a theoretical study is carried out to identify the effect of the particle shape, polydispersity, agglomeration and aggregation on the VSSA threshold. It appears that the VSSA approach is overprotective because a lot of samples are identified as nanomaterials even if less than 50 % of the particles have a size lower than 100 nm, this 50 % in number criterion being the main identification criterion in the EU definition. Even if the VSSA is leading to many false positive results, it can be used to identify non-nanomaterials as soon as its value is lower than the threshold at the condition to take into account the shape of the particles and their external surface area. This conclusion is true for monomodal distributions of particles but is subject to some restrictions for bimodal distributions.

  3. Pope, head of UNFPA discuss problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Pope, in attempts to influence the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held a meeting at the Vatican with Dr. Sadik, Executive Director of UNFPA and Secretary General of the ICPD. At that time, the Pope strongly criticized population programs that try to impose limits on family size. Of particular concern were programs that try to persuade couples to have 1-2 children. Dr. Sadik commented that the disagreement was really over contraception, and the access to control of one's own fertility. There were also points of agreement. The Vatican had also called a meeting of all ambassadors accredited to the Holy See, which is about 120. The purpose was to explain the Church's position on population and development prior to the ICPD meetings in Cairo during September 5-13, 1994. It is a rare occasion when all ambassadors are summoned to the Vatican for a meeting. Diplomatic sources said that the meeting was a direct attempt to influence the ICPD. It was officially reported that the Pope will address the General Assembly in October. This will be the first time that Pope John Paul II has addressed the assembly since 1979. Archbishop Martino commented that the Pope would be commemorating the Year of the Family and the 50th Anniversary of the UN. The address will be directed to issues about the family.

  4. Roundtable discussion: Early labor: what's the problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Patricia; Nolan, Mary L.; Spiby, Helen; Green, Josephine; Gross, Mechthild M.; Cheyne, Helen; Hundley, Vanora; Rijnders, Marlies; de Jonge, Ank; Buitendijk, Simone

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE: In places where hospital birth is the norm, one of the major contemporary challenges to the organization of intrapartum care is posed by women who are not in established labor. In the United Kingdom, these women have been given a special name, "Category X," and they can account for a

  5. Roundtable discussion : Early labor : What's the problem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, P.; Nolan, M.L.; Spiby, H.; Green, J.; Gross, M.M.; Cheyne, H.; Hundley, V.; Rijnders, M.; Jonge, A.de; Buitendijk, S.

    2009-01-01

    PREFACE: In places where hospital birth is the norm, one of the major contemporary challenges to the organization of intrapartum care is posed by women who are not in established labor. In the United Kingdom, these women have been given a special name, "Category X," and they can account for a

  6. Problems Concerning Dose Assessments in Epidemiology of High Background Radiation Areas of Yangjiang, China (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.X.; Yuan, Y.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study on radiation levels and dose assessments in the epidemiology of a high background radiation area (HBRA) and the control area (CA) is to respond to the needs of epidemiology in these areas, where the inhabitants are continuously exposed to low dose, low dose rate ionising radiation. A brief description is given of how the research group evaluated the feasibility of the investigation by analysing the population size and the radiation levels, how simple reliable methods were used to get the individual annual dose for every cohort member, and how the cohort members were classified into various dose groups for dose-effect relationship analysis. Finally, the use of dose group classification for cancer mortality studies is described. (author)

  7. Optimization Techniques for Design Problems in Selected Areas in WSNs: A Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Alfa, Attahiru

    2017-08-01

    This paper is intended to serve as an overview of, and mostly a tutorial to illustrate, the optimization techniques used in several different key design aspects that have been considered in the literature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It targets the researchers who are new to the mathematical optimization tool, and wish to apply it to WSN design problems. We hence divide the paper into two main parts. One part is dedicated to introduce optimization theory and an overview on some of its techniques that could be helpful in design problem in WSNs. In the second part, we present a number of design aspects that we came across in the WSN literature in which mathematical optimization methods have been used in the design. For each design aspect, a key paper is selected, and for each we explain the formulation techniques and the solution methods implemented. We also provide in-depth analyses and assessments of the problem formulations, the corresponding solution techniques and experimental procedures in some of these papers. The analyses and assessments, which are provided in the form of comments, are meant to reflect the points that we believe should be taken into account when using optimization as a tool for design purposes.

  8. GIS database and discussion for the distribution, composition, and age of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2018-03-30

    A substantial part of the U.S. Pacific Northwest is underlain by Cenozoic volcanic and continental sedimentary rocks and, where widespread, these strata form important aquifers. The legacy geologic mapping presented with this report contains new thematic categorization added to state digital compilations published by the U.S. Geological Survey for Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Washington (Ludington and others, 2005). Our additional coding is designed to allow rapid characterization, mainly for hydrogeologic purposes, of similar rocks and deposits within a boundary expanded slightly beyond that of the Pacific Northwest Volcanic Aquifer System study area. To be useful for hydrogeologic analysis and to be more statistically manageable, statewide compilations from Ludington and others (2005) were mosaicked into a regional map and then reinterpreted into four main categories on the basis of (1) age, (2) composition, (3) hydrogeologic grouping, and (4) lithologic pattern. The coding scheme emphasizes Cenozoic volcanic or volcanic-related rocks and deposits, and of primary interest are the codings for composition and age.

  9. Through Human Eyes: A New Approach to the Problem of Workforces in Remote Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, W. H. C.

    The often unstable workforce in remote areas can possibly be strengthened by stabilizing adjacent human settlements with community design which works from the inside out to emphasize the human, social, cultural, and environmental aspects of the settlements. Because stresses resulting from isolation, loss of social relationships, lack of…

  10. Development of parallel GPU based algorithms for problems in nuclear area; Desenvolvimento de algoritmos paralelos baseados em GPU para solucao de problemas na area nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Adino Americo Heimlich

    2009-07-01

    Graphics Processing Units (GPU) are high performance co-processors intended, originally, to improve the use and quality of computer graphics applications. Since researchers and practitioners realized the potential of using GPU for general purpose, their application has been extended to other fields out of computer graphics scope. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of using GPU in two typical problems of Nuclear area. The neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method and solve heat equation in a bi-dimensional domain by finite differences method. To achieve this, we develop parallel algorithms for GPU and CPU in the two problems described above. The comparison showed that the GPU-based approach is faster than the CPU in a computer with two quad core processors, without precision loss. (author)

  11. A discussion on assessing climate-related hazards and uncertainties considering scenarios of climate-change: Examples and applications to some African areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Marzocchi, Warner; Uhinga, Guido

    2013-04-01

    Extreme meteorological phenomena such as heavy precipitation, extreme temperature, or strong winds, may have considerable impacts on the economy, infrastructure, health, as well as may represent a non-negligible threat for human life. A changing climate may lead to changes in the frequency, intensity, spatial extent, duration, and timing of weather and climate extremes, and can result in unprecedented extreme events. Climatological parameters, that are reference variables for the assessment of climate-related hazards, can be generally obtained from data catalogues; nevertheless, it is often the case that the time window of the observations, if available at all, is too short for a correct analysis of the most extreme and less frequent events. For this reason there is a growing interest on the use of 'synthetic' data derived from climatological models which in addition, allow the possibility to perform climate projections considering different plausible emission/concentration scenarios in the modelling. Within this context, the scenario-based climate projections can be useful to assess possible temporal variations on climatological parameters (and hence in climate-related hazards) under climate change conditions. Here we discuss the characterization of some climate-related hazards based on the analysis of climatological parameters, debating relevant issues in the use of both observed and synthetic data, the consideration of climate-change scenarios, and the quantification and communication of uncertainties. In particular, to account for possible non-stationary conditions in the analysis of extremes under climate-change conditions, we have adopted a practical covariate approach recently used in different hydrological and meteorological applications, and used a Bayesian framework for the parameter estimation and uncertainty propagation.

  12. REMARKS TO THE CURRENT DISCUSSION ABOUT BIOENERGY –BIOENERGY FOR THE PUBLIC AND/ OR FOR THE AGRICULTURAL OR RURAL AREAS ONLY ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ruckenbauer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An energy system that is based on the use of renewable energy resources must be service –oriented and should be able to cover the varying energy demands. Moreover it must be flexible and cost effective by using on optimal mix of predominantly renewable energy sources. Agriculture will play an important role in the future if an optimal mix between food/feed production and energy plant production could be found. The present examples in the world to gain agricultural land for energy plants on the expenses of forests is going into the wrong direction. The cost intensive investments at present performed in Europe for biofuel and bioenergy production will certainly influence prices for crops and biomass supply. In this paper, strategies are questioned and discussed if the goals of the EU-commission to replace substantial parts of the fossile energy demands by bioenergy supply is feasible and can be realistic. As an example for a national agricultural situation, Austria, as am member of the PBBA, has elaborated a study about the timely development how much of the arable land can be utilized in the period between 2005 and 2020 for various bioenergy sources .The results demonstrate that, at the maximum , agriculture can only supply about 22 % of the total arable land for additional bioenergy as biofuel and biogas without interfering the national self food/feed supply and the protection of the sensible environment and emission situation. Finally, recent University research studies are presented about new processes to achieve a better and more efficient use of cereal and maize straw for biogas production already performed in the present 358 local biogas plants in Austria.

  13. Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.

  14. Marine sampling in Malaysia coastal area: the challenge, problems and solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norfaizal Mohamed; Khairul Nizam Razali; Mohd Rafaie Mohd Murtadza; Muhammad Amin Abdul Ghani; Zaharudin Ahmad; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    Malaysia Marine Radioactivity Database Development Project is one of the five research contracts that was signed between MINT and AELB. Three marine sampling expeditions had been carried out using K.L. PAUS vessel owned by Malaysian Fisheries Institute, Chendering, Terengganu. The first marine sampling expedition was taken place at East Coast Peninsular Malaysia waters on August 2003, followed on February 2004 at West Coast Peninsular Malaysia waters, and lastly at Sarawak-Sabah waters on July 2004. Many challenges and problems were faced when collecting sediment, water, biota and plankton sample during this marine sampling. (Author)

  15. The problems of territory rehabilitation in the area of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshalkin, G.S.; Arkhipov, N.P.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism is considered by which the forming of fuel, fuel-condensate and condensate fallout zones (having different radionuclides contents, different physic-chemical mobility and biological accessibility of radionuclides that constitute a part of radioactive contamination) proceeds. The works aimed at rehabilitation of the ChNPP area and adjacent territories are briefly characterised. Possible practical measures on rehabilitating the agricultural and forest tracts of the exclusive zone their total area being of more than 200,000 ha, are at issue. Emphasis is put on importance of special soil treatment that ensures efficient reduction of exposure dose rate (by an order of magnitude) and considerable diminution of radionuclide transfer to agriculture products

  16. Selected Problems Of Noninvasive Ooze Dredging In The Protected Areas Of Port Docks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of the ooze dredging concepts in the protected areas of harbour docks. The proposed method and system for ooze dredging are dedicated to all types of seabed protection, but the main concern are the geotextile mattresses, not resistant to mechanical damages. Due to the large seabed areas covered with this type of protection the effective method of noninvasive ooze dredging should be based on the use of a technical vessel for underwater works. The result of the analysis is the concept of the method and system for ooze dredging including in particular the mechanism for the automatic holding of the suction-dredge head in the proper distance from the seabed protection surface - the leading wheel truck and buoyancy-ballast system.

  17. A time-dependent vehicle routing problem in the service area of intermodal terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Braekers, K.; Caris, A.; Janssens, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the operational planning of drayage operations in the service area of intermodal container terminals. Drayage operations refer to the full truckload container transpot activities that take place on a regional scale around these terminals. They involve the transport of loaded and empty containers between container terminals, container depots, consignees and shippers. Drayage operations are mostly performed by truck and constitute a large part of total costs of an intermo...

  18. Drug problems in contemporary China: a profile of Chinese drug users in a metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaicheng; Zhang, Lening; Liu, Jianhong

    2011-03-01

    Drug problems are reemerging in China since the nation implemented economic reform and an "open door" policy in the early 1980s. This is causing both national and international concern. However, knowledge and understanding of the Chinese drug problem is fairly limited because of the nation's unique social and political history. In response to this shortage of information, our study presents a profile of Chinese drug users. Data were collected from a survey of drug users attending mandatory treatment centres in a large city in 2009. We present a demographic profile of the drug users, describe their patterns of drug use, their access to drugs and their history of drug treatment. Chinese drug users, like those from the U.S., are likely to be unemployed and have a low level of education. However, they are more likely than those in the U.S. to use heroin, Bingdu (methamphetamine) and Maguo (a derivative of methamphetamine), and they pay less for their drugs. This profile of drug users is informative and valuable for drug prevention, intervention, and treatment in the Chinese setting because knowing and understanding the drug population is essential for effective control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying and evaluating high risk areas and challenges on marine drilling riser system in relation to deepwater problems

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology The main concerns during drilling operations are riser integrity and maintaining well control. This thesis has mainly been focusing on the problems and challenges faced with the marine riser system to illuminate high risk areas related to riser integrity. A marine riser system consists generally of four main elements; the upper marine riser package, riser joints, lower marine riser package, and the blowout preventer, each playing an important par...

  20. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano A Sepúlveda

    Full Text Available Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  1. Energy usage, problems and policy proposals: evidence from distinctive villages in poverty-stricken loess areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xinglong; Xue, Weixian

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine energy consumption among poverty-stricken loess areas of middle Gansu, and put forward a settlement to energy upgrading and meanwhile mitigating environmental contagion and shaking off poverty. Energy consumption of 371 households from 3 distinctive categories of landform is explored. The surveyed data investigation displays that energy consumption composition is marked by clear dissimilarity of power mix, with stalk(41%) and coal(32.3%) acting as the major form, fire grass a powerful supplement, and the remaining power resources playing a tiny part for the mountain; coal(52.45%) being the dominant power, dry grasses(20%) and stalk (17.6%) performing a supplemental part, other resources of power being at the insignificant position for the semi-mountain; beside which there being a similar energy pattern on the plain except stalk composing a tiny share of 7.5%. This energy mix is mainly attributed to economic poverty, and provokes a list of ills such as plant damage, water loss and soil erosion, ultimately posing a formidable threat to sustainable development. A fresh energy engineering mode termed quaternity-dominating pattern is introduced and addressed, which can lift the sample areas out of poverty both in economics and energy. The paper concludes with pointing out practical proposals on launching and running this energy engineering project for the sample areas. This paper contributes to the growing body of knowledge by exploring energy use among poverty-stricken regions, usually being disregarded in most studies of China.

  2. Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households.

  3. English Language Teaching in Rural Areas: A Scenario and Problems and Prospects in Context of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Md.Mahroof Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Language is one of the medium of expressing our ideas, feelings and emotions. And if we think about language in present world then English is one of the most used languages in the world and English is used as a second language in Bangladesh. English is introduced here at the primary level and its inclusion continues till the tertiary level of education. Most of the students of the primary schools in rural areas are weak in English language due to lack of skilled and trained teachers who are f...

  4. Increase in Population Density and Aggravation of Social and Psychological Problems in Areas with High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise apartment houses have technical and economic advantages in areas with dense population. Their placement in the central part of the city allows increasing the number of living space in the limited territory, to bring population to the place of employment and reduce pendular migration. But increase in population density leads to psychological problems: level of a stress, fatigue increases, the number of phobias grows, infectious diseases extend quicker. These problems can be solved at resettlement of inhabitants to the suburb. However such decision leads to aggravation of a transport problem and the pulsing increase in population density in the downtown and on its suburb. To solve a transport problem, it is necessary not to increase the square of the cities. Therefore in the suburbs is also used high-rise construction. But high-rise residential districts on the suburb of the city get own social problems which are capable to destroy all advantages of high-rise construction.

  5. The problem of defining the limits of protected areas in Ukraine regarding to the sustainable land management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Даниленко

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays all over the world new protected areas are being created. In Ukraine this process is developed within European programs. During the years of independence many new protected areas were created. Large amount of them were included in so called Ukrainian ecological network that ought to be built in 2015. This network is connected with the European ecological network. The governmental reports show high level of the execution of the programs of developing of the protected areas. But in reality we can see that many of new protected areas do not have the determined limits. This results in dangerous human occupation of such lands. Businessmen understand that occupation will be impossible soon. And they think that such protected areas are proclaimed but yet not really exist. And most of Ukrainian courts agree with this. Recent research and publications analyses. Research of management of protected areas through legal means in Ukraine was made by many Ukrainian scientists (V.I. Andreytsev, A.P. Hetman, M.V. Shulga, P.F. Kulynich, A.M. Myroshnychenko and others. At the same time the scientists have not paid enough attention to the problem of defining the limits of protected areas which is now really a great legal problem in Ukraine. Paper objective is the legal problem of defining the limits of protected areas in Ukraine regarding to the sustainable land management. Paper main body. Generally, protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited. The definition that has been widely accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN in its categorization guidelines for protected areas. The definition is as follows: "A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services

  6. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  7. Mental health problems among the survivors in the hard-hit areas of the Yushu earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On April 14, 2010, an earthquake registering 7.1 on the Richter scale shook Qinghai Province in southwest China. The earthquake caused numerous casualties and much damage. The epicenter, Yushu County, suffered the most severe damage. As a part of the psychological relief work, the present study evaluated the mental health statuses of the people affected and identified the mental disorder risk factors related to earthquakes. METHODS: Five hundred and five earthquake survivors living in Yushu County were investigated 3-4 months after the earthquake. Participant demographic data including gender, age, marital status, ethnicity, educational level, and religious beliefs were collected. The Earthquake-Specific Trauma Exposure Indicators assessed the intensity of exposure to trauma during the earthquake. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C and the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL-25 assessed the symptoms and prevalence rates of probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD as well as anxiety and depression, respectively. The Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS evaluated subjective social support. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of probable PTSD, anxiety, and depression were 33.7%, 43.8% and 38.6%, respectively. Approximately one fifth of participants suffered from all three conditions. Individuals who were female, felt initial fear during the earthquake, and had less social support were the most likely to have poor mental health. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that there are serious mental problems among the hard-hit survivors of the Yushu earthquake. Survivors at high risk for mental disorders should be specifically considered. The present study provides useful information for rebuilding and relief work.

  8. PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION OF URBAN AREAS FROM RADIONUCLIDES STRONTIUM-90 AND CAESIUM-137 AFTER TECHNOLOGICAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cheremisina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of decontamination of radionuclides from soils are considered. The literature focuses on fixing radionuclides in soils and creating geochemical barriers that it is prevent the spread of pollution. The main disadvantage of these methods is exclude the possibility of building a territory. It is need to clean up the area to the sanitary and hygienic requirements for further use and then it is desirable to fix the residual activity. Carried out an analysis of forms of radionuclides fixation in soils and mechanics of this fixation, therewith revealed that Cs-137 fixed more strongly on mineral component of soil, than Sr-90, which is mainly in the acid-soluble and exchangeable form, and, as a consequence, passes into the liquid phase during soil deactivation more easily. Contaminated soil deactivation in the urbanized territory is possible by washing it by ferric chloride solution at a concentration 0.02-0.05 M and with an equimolar addition of an ammonium chloride. Therewith most efficient methods, which used in-situ conditions, are heap and convection leaching technologies with treatment degree, which not less than 80%. At the same time, the most efficient methods which used in-situ conditions are heap and the convection leaching. The hardware-technological scheme of a convection leaching is presented. Noted that ammonium salts additions slightly rising coefficient of treatment from Sr-90. Because ammonium salts aren’t expensive, their additions allow to obtain significant economic benefits due to decreasing of ferric chloride consumption, which is more valuable, and waste water volume reduction.

  9. Discussion on the Project Financing Problems in the Process of Urban Infrastructure Construction%对城市基础设施建设过程中的项目融资问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴任澎

    2014-01-01

    在城市规划发展的过程中,基础设施建设起到了关键性的作用,城市基础设施建设的规模逐渐加大,融资问题也引起了广泛关注,本文将以此为中心,结合自身工作经验,对城市基础设施建设过程中项目的融资问题进行探讨。%In the process of urban planning and development, infrastructure construction plays a key role. With the gradual y increasing of urban infrastructure construction scale, the fin-ancing problem causes widely public concern. Surrounding th-is central task and combining with own work experience, this article discusses the project financing problems in the process of urban infrastructure construction.

  10. Mental health problems among adults in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Frits; Chakkraband, M L Somchai; Thienkrua, Warunee; Pengjuntr, Wachira; Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Tantipiwatanaskul, Prawate; Mock, Philip A; Ekassawin, Suparat; Varangrat, Anchalee; Gotway, Carol; Sabin, Miriam; Tappero, Jordan W

    2006-08-02

    On December 26, 2004, an undersea earthquake occurred off the northwestern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The tsunami that followed severely affected all 6 southwestern provinces of Thailand, where 5395 individuals died, 2991 were unaccounted for, and 8457 were injured. To assess the prevalence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression among individuals residing in areas affected by the tsunami in southern Thailand as part of a public health emergency response and rapid assessment. A multistage, cluster, population-based mental health survey was conducted from February 15 to 22, 2005, of random samples of displaced (n = 371) and nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga province (n = 322) and nondisplaced persons in the provinces of Krabi and Phuket (n = 368). Data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire on handheld computers. A surveillance follow-up survey of the displaced persons (n = 371) and nondisplaced persons (n = 322) in Phang Na was conducted in September 2005. Medical Outcomes Study-36 Short-Form Health Survey SF-36 to assess self-perceived general health, bodily pain, and social and emotional functioning; the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire to assess tsunami-specific traumatic events; and the Hopkins Checklist-25 to detect symptoms of anxiety and depression. Participation rates for displaced and nondisplaced persons in the rapid assessment survey were 69% and 58%, respectively. Symptoms of PTSD were reported by 12% of displaced and 7% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 3% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. Anxiety symptoms were reported by 37% of displaced and 30% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 22% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. Symptoms of depression were reported by 30% of displaced and 21% of nondisplaced persons in Phang Nga and 10% of nondisplaced persons in Krabi and Phuket. In multivariate analysis, loss of livelihood was independently and significantly

  11. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  12. The problems of over exploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: characteristics and proposals for mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Estrella, T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a general analysis of the problems arising from overexploited aquifers in semi-arid areas, based on research carried out in the Region of Murcia (one of the most over-exploited areas in Europe). Among the negative impacts of this over exploitation are: the drying up of springs, the continuous drawdown of water levels (up to 10 m/y), piezo metric drops (over 30 m in one year if it is a karstic aquifer), an increase in pumping costs (elevating water from a depth of more than 450 m), abandonment of wells, diminishing groundwater reserves, deteriorating water quality, presence of CO 2 , compartmentalizing of aquifers, etc. A series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the over exploitation of the region. (Author)

  13. The problems of over exploitation of aquifers in semi-arid areas: characteristics and proposals for mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Estrella, T.

    2014-06-01

    This article presents a general analysis of the problems arising from overexploited aquifers in semi-arid areas, based on research carried out in the Region of Murcia (one of the most over-exploited areas in Europe). Among the negative impacts of this over exploitation are: the drying up of springs, the continuous drawdown of water levels (up to 10 m/y), piezo metric drops (over 30 m in one year if it is a karstic aquifer), an increase in pumping costs (elevating water from a depth of more than 450 m), abandonment of wells, diminishing groundwater reserves, deteriorating water quality, presence of CO{sub 2}, compartmentalizing of aquifers, etc. A series of internal measures is proposed to alleviate the over exploitation of the region. (Author)

  14. Drone swarm with free-space optical communication to detect and make deep decisions about physical problems for area surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazher, Wamidh Jalil; Ibrahim, Hadeel T.; Ucan, Osman N.; Bayat, Oguz

    2018-03-01

    This paper aims to design a drone swarm network by employing free-space optical (FSO) communication for detecting and deep decision making of topological problems (e.g., oil pipeline leak), where deep decision making requires the highest image resolution. Drones have been widely used for monitoring and detecting problems in industrial applications during which the drone sends images from the on-air camera video stream using radio frequency (RF) signals. To obtain higher-resolution images, higher bandwidth (BW) is required. The current study proposed the use of the FSO communication system to facilitate higher BW for higher image resolution. Moreover, the number of drones required to survey a large physical area exceeded the capabilities of RF technologies. Our configuration of the drones is V-shaped swarm with one leading drone called mother drone (DM). The optical decode-and-forward (DF) technique is used to send the optical payloads of all drones in V-shaped swarm to the single ground station through DM. Furthermore, it is found that the transmitted optical power (Pt) is required for each drone based on the threshold outage probability of FSO link failure among the onboard optical-DF drones. The bit error rate of optical payload is calculated based on optical-DF onboard processing. Finally, the number of drones required for different image resolutions based on the size of the considered topological area is optimized.

  15. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  16. 浅谈RFID技术在图书馆应用方面主要存在的问题%Brief Discussion on the Main Problems of the Application of RFID Technology in the Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继周

    2015-01-01

    RFID在图书馆的应用越来越广泛.本文简要介绍了RFID技术的发展,并在此基础上阐述了RFID技术对图书馆引发的重要变化,重点探讨了RFID技术在图书馆应用中存在的问题以及解决办法.%The application of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) in the library is more and more widely.This paper briefly introduces the development of RFID technology,elaborates the important changes brought about by RFID technology,and deeply discusses the existing problems of the application of RFID technology in library.

  17. THE PROBLEM OF PROTECTING THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING IN RURAL AREAS IN SOUTH-EASTERN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusława Baran-Zgłobicka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Local planning in Poland encompasses spatial development conditions and directions study for a district (“study” and a local spatial development plan (“local plan”. The study is the only planning document that is required for the entire area of a district. It outlines directions of spatial policy and spatial development. Detailed investigations encompassed nine functionally diverse rural districts in SE Poland. The objective was to assess the description of environmental determinants and the problems of natural resources protection presented in the studies. The adequacy of the adopted approach to the subject matter and its correlation with spatial development directions were analysed. The analysed studies usually provide an exhaustive description of (a natural resources and the nature conservation system along with restrictions in environment use, and (b the problem of raw materials. Not all studies, however, highlight the local, very often unique characteristics of the natural environment. Natural hazards are marginalized in some studies. There is also a lack of concrete solutions for the protection of space and improvement of spatial order.

  18. Do medical students generate sound arguments during small group discussions in problem-based learning?: an analysis of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to a framework of hypothetico-deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Hyunjung; Choi, Ikseon; Yoon, Bo Young

    2017-06-01

    Hypothetico-deductive reasoning (HDR) is an essential learning activity and a learning outcome in problem-based learning (PBL). It is important for medical students to engage in the HDR process through argumentation during their small group discussions in PBL. This study aimed to analyze the quality of preclinical medical students' argumentation according to each phase of HDR in PBL. Participants were 15 first-year preclinical students divided into two small groups. A set of three 2-hour discussion sessions from each of the two groups during a 1-week-long PBL unit on the cardiovascular system was audio-recorded. The arguments constructed by the students were analyzed using a coding scheme, which included four types of argumentation (Type 0: incomplete, Type 1: claim only, Type 2: claim with data, and Type 3: claim with data and warrant). The mean frequency of each type of argumentation according to each HDR phase across the two small groups was calculated. During small group discussions, Type 1 arguments were generated most often (frequency=120.5, 43%), whereas the least common were Type 3 arguments (frequency=24.5, 8.7%) among the four types of arguments. The results of this study revealed that the students predominantly made claims without proper justifications; they often omitted data for supporting their claims or did not provide warrants to connect the claims and data. The findings suggest instructional interventions to enhance the quality of medical students' arguments in PBL, including promoting students' comprehension of the structure of argumentation for HDR processes and questioning.

  19. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  20. Reactor physics problems on HCPWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Yukio; Akie, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kunio; Sasaki, Makoto.

    1986-01-01

    Reactor physics problems on high conversion pressurized water reactors (HCPWRs) are discussed. Described in this report are outline of the HCPWR, expected accuracy for the various reactor physical qualities, and method for K-effective calculation in the resonance energy area. And requested further research problems are shown. The target value of the conversion ratio are also discussed. (author)

  1. The area-of-interest problem in eyetracking research: A noise-robust solution for face and sparse stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessels, Roy S; Kemner, Chantal; van den Boomen, Carlijn; Hooge, Ignace T C

    2016-12-01

    A problem in eyetracking research is choosing areas of interest (AOIs): Researchers in the same field often use widely varying AOIs for similar stimuli, making cross-study comparisons difficult or even impossible. Subjective choices while choosing AOIs cause differences in AOI shape, size, and location. On the other hand, not many guidelines for constructing AOIs, or comparisons between AOI-production methods, are available. In the present study, we addressed this gap by comparing AOI-production methods in face stimuli, using data collected with infants and adults (with autism spectrum disorder [ASD] and matched controls). Specifically, we report that the attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities of AOIs differ between AOI-production methods, and that this matters for statistical comparisons in one of three groups investigated (the ASD group). In addition, we investigated the relation between AOI size and an AOI's attention-attracting and attention-maintaining capacities, as well as the consequences for statistical analyses, and report that adopting large AOIs solves the problem of statistical differences between the AOI methods. Finally, we tested AOI-production methods for their robustness to noise, and report that large AOIs-using the Voronoi tessellation method or the limited-radius Voronoi tessellation method with large radii-are most robust to noise. We conclude that large AOIs are a noise-robust solution in face stimuli and, when implemented using the Voronoi method, are the most objective of the researcher-defined AOIs. Adopting Voronoi AOIs in face-scanning research should allow better between-group and cross-study comparisons.

  2. Developing Critical Thinking of Middle School Students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridza, R.; E Irving, K.

    2017-02-01

    Traditional methods such as rote learning and memorization in teaching science create passive students in science classrooms. The impact of this continuous action for many decades is inactive learners who cannot develop higher order thinking skills. Based on the performance test, students’ critical thinking skill in Public Middle School 3 Pontianak was in low level although their achievement score were higher than school standards. The purpose of this study is to develop critical thinking skills of middle school students using Problem Based Learning 4 Core Areas (PBL4C). The design of this research is classroom action research with two cycles. Data has been collected using observation checklist, rating scale, self and peer assessment. Research findings reveal that students experience development from 11.11% to 88.45% in identifying the problem correctly, 37.03% to 76.92% for sub skills distinguish knowledge and opinion, 18.51% to 65.38% for sub skills providing possible solution, 22.22% to 69.23% for sub skills making decision, and 11.11% to 69.23% for sub skills identifying the impact of the implementation of their solution. In conclusion, the findings indicate that development of students’ critical thinking skills occurs when PBL4C model applied in science classroom. These findings suggest that teachers should act as facilitator in a classroom as well as should provide meaningful learning resources that can benefit students’ critical thinking skills. On the other hand, students should practice constantly to offer a sharp, accurate and appropriate solution.

  3. Final plenary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    The subject of this seminar was 'Strategy Selection for Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities' and it was clear throughout that safety of D and D operations continues to be of importance in that selection, particularly in regard to the condition of the site and the risk it represents. In this context, it was specifically noted that a safety case for D and D needs to be kept under continuous review and needs to be flexible enough to accommodate appropriate modification as the work progresses and the nature of the risk changes. It was also noted that the hazard presented by a facility in decommissioning is normally significantly less than during the operating phase (for a reactor, for example, the fuel has been removed, there are no pressurised systems and no high operating temperatures). The changing plant configuration and the reduced hazard potential lead to the observation that the safety management arrangements also need appropriate adjustment from those employed during the operating phase. It was recalled that a Task Group of the WPDD is addressing safety issues on an ongoing basis. It was also clear from the detailed presentations that techniques for D and D are already available and that they have been successfully demonstrated in practice. Nevertheless, because the costs of dismantling nuclear facilities make up at least a third of the overall D and D costs, there seemed to be a strong case for continuing R and D in this area in order to improve the cost effectiveness of such techniques. It was noted, however, that the extent of such R and D is now somewhat limited and that further work is first required to identify the most effective areas for future R and D projects. Also, throughout the seminar, it was emphasised that strategy selection must remain flexible since it is highly dependent on financing, societal input, technical feasibility, waste management options, and regulatory processes. Against this well-established background, Allan Duncan, as

  4. Problems of new processes in coking industry discussed at the Scientific Council of the GKNT and the Section of Coking Industry of the Scientific and Technological Council of the Ministry of Iron and Steel Industry of the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolova, V.P.

    1983-03-01

    A report is given from the conference on new processes in the Soviet coking industry held in Moscow on 28-29 October 1982. The following papers were delivered: implementing research programs on new coking processes, new trends in coking plant design and construction in the 11th 5 year plan and in the time period until 1990, increasing efficiency of coking industry, research program of the Scientific Council in 1983. The report concentrates on new trends in coking plant design. Considering that the raw material basis of the Eastern regions of the USSR is poor in high quality coking coal the new coking processes and technologies should use weakly coking coal. The following schemes are discussed: heat treatments (especially useful in the case of black coal from the Kuzbass characterized by intensive fluctuations of petrology), selective crushing (schemes developed by the VUKhIN Institute), partial briquetting of coal mixtures (experiments carried out by the UKhIN in the Donbass in 1982). Other problems of coking such as development of new systems of smokeless fuel feeding to coke ovens, dry coke quenching, increasing capacity of coke chambers to 41.6 m/sup 3/, environmental protection in coking industry and production of special coke types from poor quality coal for metallurgy are also described.

  5. The Human Mind As General Problem Solver, Is Observed To Find ``Best'' Solutions, That Correspond To Highest Mental Coherence: Will Discuss ``sing Glass Type Theory'' of Princeton Physicist J J Hopfield, Points To How Best Use Our Own Human Mind!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurr, Henry

    2014-03-01

    Princeton Physicist J. J. Hopfield's Mathematical Model of the Mammalian Brain, (Similar To Ising Glass Model of a crystal of magnetic spin particles) says our Brain-Work for Memory, Perception, Language, Thinking, etc, (Even the AHA-EUREKA-Flash Of Insight Type Problem Solving), is achieved by our massively inter-connected CNS Neurons ... working together ... MINIMIZING an analog of physical energy ... thus yielding Optimal Solutions: These ``best'' answers, correspond to highest mental coherence, for most facets organism response, beit mental (eg: perception, memory, ideas, thinking, etc) or physical-muscular-actions (eg speaking, tool using, trail following, etc). Our brain is this way, because living creature, MUST be evolved, so they will find & use the best actions, for survival!!! Our human heritage, is to instantly compute near optimal future plans, (mental & physical-muscular), and be able to accomplish plans reliably & efficiently. If you know of book or articles in these topic areas, please email to HenryG--USCA.edu How to work well, with your own ``self'', called mind-body, will follow!! Conjectures: Who is the ``I'' that appears to make decisions? Am ``I'' the master of my domain? Is there an ``I'' or am ``I'' merely an illusion of reality.

  6. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  7. General discussion of feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  8. Critical human-factors issues in nuclear-power regulation and a recommended comprehensive human-factors long-range plan. Critical discussion of human factors areas of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, C.O.; Snyder, H.L.; Price, H.E.; Hornick, R.J.; Mackie, R.R.; Smillie, R.J.; Sugarman, R.C.

    1982-08-01

    This comprehensive long-range human factors plan for nuclear reactor regulation was developed by a Study Group of the Human Factors Society, Inc. This Study Group was selected by the Executive Council of the Society to provide a balanced, experienced human factors perspective to the applications of human factors scientific and engineering knowledge to nuclear power generation. The report is presented in three volumes. Volume 1 contains an Executive Summary of the 18-month effort and its conclusions. Volume 2 summarizes all known nuclear-related human factors activities, evaluates these activities wherever adequate information is available, and describes the recommended long-range (10-year) plan for human factors in regulation. Volume 3 elaborates upon each of the human factors issues and areas of recommended human factors involvement contained in the plan, and discusses the logic that led to the recommendations

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  10. Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policy. The discussion in Germany and the Netherlands by comparison; Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik. Die Diskussion in Deutschland und den Niederlanden im Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontny, Kerstin

    2016-11-01

    The shale gas production using the so-called fracking method represents for opponents the use of a high-risk technology. Proponents see it, however a technological advance, and the answer to current energy issues. For the citizens of a country, the debate involves mainly uncertainties, the technology is still associated with risks that are not only difficult to assess for the layman. Due to these uncertainties, there is a danger that scientific evidence for political purposes are exploited. Particularly exciting is therefore the question of how the subject is discussed in different countries. In Fracking in the conflict area between energy and environmental policies are the debates in natural gas country Netherlands and the country of energy transition, Germany are compared. Kerstin Kontry's research put emphasis on the parties to the debate actors, the course of the debate and the issues are discussed. The main question is to what extent the discussions are shaped by national factors. [German] Die Schiefergasfoerderung mit Hilfe der sogenannten Fracking-Methode stellt fuer Gegner die Anwendung einer Hochrisikotechnologie dar, Befuerworter sehen darin hingegen einen technologischen Fortschritt und die Antwort auf derzeitige Energiefragen. Fuer die Buerger eines Landes birgt die Debatte vor allem Unsicherheiten, ist die Technologie doch mit Risiken verbunden, die nicht nur fuer den Laien schwer einzuschaetzen sind. Aufgrund dieser Unsicherheiten droht die Gefahr, dass wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fuer politische Zwecke instrumentalisiert werden. Besonders spannend ist daher die Frage, wie die Thematik in unterschiedlichen Laendern diskutiert wird. In Fracking im Spannungsfeld zwischen Energie- und Umweltpolitik werden die Debatten im Erdgasland Niederlande und dem Land der Energiewende, Deutschland, verglichen. Den Schwerpunkt legt Kerstin Kontny dabei auf die an der Debatte beteiligten Akteure, den Verlauf der Debatte sowie die behandelten Themen. Dabei

  11. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  12. Area-wide pest management of locusts and grasshoppers: The striking similarities of problems and solutions in Africa and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    Grasshoppers and locusts are among the most devastating pests of human agriculture. These insects cause serious damage to crops and forage on every arable continent, and their depredations have become the basis for legends, myths, and (in recent times) complex political and economic programmes. No pest problem spans such immense areas, with up to 8 million ha treated for rangeland grasshoppers during outbreaks in the US and 16 million km 2 prone to outbreaks of the Desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria Forskal, alone. The traditional management approach has involved extensive, regionalised control programmes, but recent trends suggest a decentralised future for grasshopper and locust management. Hence, we have a dynamic situation that presents the opportunity for a comparative analysis of the costs and benefits of an area-wide approach to pest management at different scales. As political, cultural, and communication barriers between scientists dissolve, the possibility of learning from one another's experiences (both failures and successes) promises to dramatically accelerate the rate of innovation, progress and discovery in pest management. For example, the recent advances in Reduced Agent-Area Treatments (RAAT, in which insecticide is applied to swaths, separated by untreated swaths or buffers) for management of rangeland grasshoppers in the US (Lockwood and Schell 1997) are based on the adaptation of tactics developed by African, Australian, Asian, and European scientists (Rachadi and Foucart 1996, Musuna and Mugisha 1997, Scherer and Celestin 1997, Wilps and Diop 1997, Launois and Rachadi 1997). The key to successful adaptation of management methods must begin with intellectual modesty and nationalistic humility so that the insights of non-scientists and experts from outside one's country are given respect and serious consideration. It is subsequently necessary to recognise the essential similarities and differences between land use systems and understand the

  13. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  14. WASTE OF LOCAL RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS IN THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT – AN ATTEMPT OF THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to explore the real problem of wasting local resources, which is in opposition to the principles of sustainable development, understood as avoiding waste of any resources. The article highlights the key manifestations of this problem and its implication for rural development. Some actions realised in the world are also mentioned – their implementation contributes to the prevention of this phenomenon.

  15. Study on utilization of shallow sea area by building an alga field. Discussions on its utilization for cultivating Ulvales; Sojo zosei ni yoru senkaiiki riyo no kenkyu. Anaaosa no baiyo to sono riyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, M.; Maebayashi, M. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-03-25

    Discussions were given on mass cultivation in a water tank using sea water of an alga Ulvales used as feed for sea urchins and abalone. A fertilizer composed of ammonium sulfate and superphosphate of lime was used, and a water temperature was set as the environmental condition. Two kinds of Ulvales produced in different areas were used. One of the two kinds had full growth periodical and weight increasing rate low, but the other Ulvales had high weight increasing rate and no blights in alga bodies, and was found suitable for mass production. The result of a test on stocks of the latter species may be described as follows: multiple regression formulas for harvest, water temperature and illumination intensity were introduced for each cultivating condition for four cases regarding accommodation density and harvest frequency; and if a cultivating condition by which the harvest is maximized is adopted, a one cubic meter water tank placed on a place with good sunlight may be expected of producing as much harvest as 2181 grams at water temperature of 15{degree}C and 4899 grams at 25{degree}C. The cultivation requires the following precautions: aeration is required; sea water should be introduced into the tank; a mixed fertilizer with ratio of ammonium sulfate at 100 to superphosphate of lime at 15 may be used; water temperatures suitable for mass cultivation are 13 to 15{degree}C or higher; and light must be irradiated evenly. 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. The Effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration Strategy on the Ability of Students with Learning Disabilities to Multiply Linear Expressions within Area Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Integration strategy on the ability of secondary students with learning disabilities to multiply linear algebraic expressions embedded within contextualized area problems. A multiple-probe design across three participants was used. Results indicated that the integration of the…

  17. Diabetes-related emotional distress in Dutch and U.S. diabetic patients: cross-cultural validity of the problem areas in diabetes scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, F. J.; Pouwer, F.; Welch, G. W.; Polonsky, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    To examine the cross-cultural validity of the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID) in Dutch and U.S. diabetic patients. A total of 1,472 Dutch people with diabetes completed the PAID along with other self-report measures of affect. Statistics covered Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis

  18. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  19. Self-esteem and illness self-concept in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes: Long-term associations with problem areas in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Aujoulat, Isabelle; Goubert, Liesbet; Weets, Ilse

    2016-04-01

    This long-term prospective study examined whether illness self-concept (or the degree to which chronic illness becomes integrated in the self) mediated the pathway from self-esteem to problem areas in diabetes in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes. Having a central illness self-concept (i.e. feeling overwhelmed by diabetes) was found to relate to lower self-esteem, and more treatment, food, emotional, and social support problems. Furthermore, path analyses indicated that self-esteem was negatively related to both levels and relative changes in these problem areas in diabetes over a period of 5 years. Illness self-concept fully mediated these associations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Familien- und karrierebewusstes Krankenhaus – Problembereiche und nötige Schritte [Family and Career-conscious Hospitals – Problem Areas and Necessary Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegert, Jörg M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] This paper aims to describe the wide range of compatibility issues between work in the medical profession and the family. Several topics are intertwined and overlap in some areas.Family friendliness in curative medicine, healthcare, medical studies and the training, specialisation and CPD of doctors is a key theme in the current debate on the future of health and family policies. The rising proportion of women and changes in the medical community characterise the future of medicine. Topics such as working hours and organisation of work, as well as family support and maternity leave, must be discussed further and in particular regarding employees in the health services. This overview will describe where Germany has issues, what is already being done well in the hospitals but could still be improved.[german] Der hier vorliegende Beitrag versucht das umfassende Spektrum der Vereinbarkeitsfragen von Arztberuf und Familie zu beschreiben. Viele Themen greifen ineinander und überlappen sich an einigen Stellen. Familienfreundlichkeit in der kurativen Medizin, im Gesundheitswesen, im Medizinstudium und in der Ärzte Aus-, Fort- und Weiterbildung ist ein zukunftsweisendes Schlüsselthema der aktuellen Gesundheits- und Familienpolitik. Der steigende Frauenanteil und der Wandel in der Ärzteschaft charakterisieren die Medizin der Zukunft. Dabei müssen die Themen Arbeitszeit und Arbeitsorganisation ebenso wie Familienförderung und Mutterschutz stärker insbesondere für Beschäftigte im Gesundheitswesen diskutiert werden. In dieser Überblicksarbeit wird beschrieben, an welchen Stellen in Deutschland die Probleme liegen, was im Krankenhauswesen bereits gut gemacht wird, aber auch verbessert werden könnte.

  1. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  2. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  3. The Problem of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Francis; Koch, Christof

    1992-01-01

    Discusses approaches to the problem presented in understanding consciousness as a yet undiscovered process of interacting neuron activity. Presents the historical context of research in the area of human awareness and identifies research necessary to scientifically explain how the brain relates to the mind. (MCO)

  4. Panel discussion. Session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify problems that need research and development work in order to advance low-level radioactive waste technology and to put the industry in a better position in five to ten years, or even twenty-five years from now. Attention is focused on disposal methods, operating procedures, the effects of the establishment of the state compact, and de minimis criteria

  5. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  6. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  7. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  8. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  9. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  10. Discussion on Papers 14 - 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  11. Study Of Orthopaedic Problems In A Rural Area In Relation To Their Effect On Economy Of the Patients & Availability Of the Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sandu Hardas Singh; Sudesh Arora; Manmohar Singh; Varinder Mohan

    1988-01-01

    A door-to-door survey of 10,000 populations was carried out in a rural area. Four hundred sixty one (46.1/1000) persons had orthopedic problems. Three hundred sixty three (78.74%) patients continued the same job in spite of the orthopedic problem. Eight (1.73%) patients modified the job and 2 (0.43%) had to change the job. It affected the earning capacity of 19(4.12%) patients. Seventy-five (16.26%)patients sought treatment from Hospital/qualified doctors. ...

  12. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  13. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  14. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  15. Problem Solving and Creativity and Design: What Influence Do They Have on Girls' Interest in STEM Subject Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol

    2013-01-01

    For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…

  16. Legal Developments and Problems of the Bologna Process within the European Higher Education Area and European Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and…

  17. Reproductive health problems and health seeking behavior of female sex workers in Sabon Gari Local Government Area, Zaria, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L O Omokanye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of sex workers have been neglected both in research and public health interventions. Among the reasons for this are the condemnation, stigma and ambiguous legal status of sex work in Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the reproductive health problems and health-seeking behavior of brothel-based female sex workers (FSW. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based FSW in Sabon-Gari Local Government in Zaria, Nigeria between 1 st January 2011 and 31 st June 2011. A total of 208 FSW were randomly selected and information was obtained with the use of the semi-structured questionnaire. Data entry was done with the help of structured codes in Microsoft Excel. Descriptive analysis was carried out using the statistical package (SSPS 16-University of Bristol. Results: Majority 90.7% of the respondents had experienced reproductive morbidity in the last 3 months. Frequently experienced symptoms were vaginal discharge (63.8%, acute lower abdominal pain (57.5%, menstrual irregularities (37% and genital ulcer (32.3%. Genital tear occurred in only 25 (9.8% respondents. Furthermore, 178 (63.6% had a termination of unwanted pregnancies. Most (32.3% sought care for their reproductive health problems from chemist shops; followed by the private hospitals in 23.6% of respondents. Others took self-medication for their ailments. Post-treatment success was the most frequently mentioned reason for the choice of place of treatment, followed by finance. Conclusion: The most commonly reported reproductive health problem among FSW was vaginal discharge and many of them have poor health seeking behavior. Health promotion and client sensitive health care services specifically targeting FSW should be developed, packaged and delivered to improve reproductive health of FSW. There should be concerted efforts by the government and other stakeholders in reproductive health to

  18. What is the best measure for assessing diabetes distress? A comparison of the Problem Areas in Diabetes and Diabetes Distress Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenwick, Eva K.; Rees, Gwyn; Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    This study used Rasch analysis to examine the psychometric validity of the Diabetes Distress Scale and the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale to assess diabetes distress in 3338 adults with diabetes (1609 completed the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (n = 675 type 1 diabetes; n = 934 type 2 diabetes......) and 1705 completed the Diabetes Distress Scale (n = 693 type 1 diabetes; n = 1012 type 2 diabetes)). While criterion and convergent validity were good, Rasch analysis revealed suboptimal precision and targeting, and item misfit. Unresolvable multidimensionality within the Diabetes Distress Scale suggests...... a total score should be avoided, while suboptimal precision suggests that the Physician-related and Interpersonal distress subscales should be used cautiously....

  19. Legal developments and problems of the Bologna process within the European higher education area and European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cippitani, Roberto; Gatt, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    2010 sees the end of the process of establishing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Although not all countries may have achieved all the objectives, many are those countries and universities who have implemented many of the targets set. Within the Bologna Process, there have been many developments such as: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) for the transfer of period of study abroad; joint degrees; and quality assurance aspects among others. Guidelines for Quality...

  20. [Perceptions on healthcare in people with self-identified mental health problems in the rural areas of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Javier E; Uchofen-Herrera, Verousckha

    2016-01-01

    Person-centered health and community health perspectives on its needs and resources are mandatory in healthcare policies in highly cultural diverse contexts. From this point of view, epidemiology needs to be centered not only on the disease, but also on the health diagnosis and its context, including the points of view of people and the community about their problems and needs. This article describes and qualitatively analyzes the views of adults with self-identified mental health disorders (MHD) in rural regions on the coast, highlands, and jungle of Peru, as causal factors, personal resources, and healthcare expectations from health facilities, using the narrative approach of ideographic formulation proposed by the World Psychiatric Association. The database of mental health epidemiological studies from the National Mental Health Institute was used. The qualitative analysis on answers from 235 people reveals that a large part of MHD is linked to the dynamics of troubled families and to the loss of loved ones. The presence of scarce community resources that help overcome these problems is noted. Counseling is stressed among the expectations of healthcare at facilities; nevertheless, many people do not know what to expect from such healthcare. We believe that the narrative approach is an important tool as regards to community- and person-centered medicine and intervention strategy planning.

  1. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  2. Summary of panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alang Md Rashid, Nahrul Khair [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Durante, R W [American Nuclear Society (United States); Hagiwara, Miyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Gupta, M; Nitschke, R L [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Basfar, A A [Inst. of Atomic Energy Research, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Osman, Mohamad [National Univ. of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia). Dept. of Genetics

    1997-12-01

    The chairman noted that the main item raised is still public acceptance. other items being safety, financial, and the economics of technology. On public acceptance the chairman commented that the weight of the `displeasure` of the public is not uniform across the spectrum of applications of nuclear science and technology thus the nuclear science and technology should capitalise on the areas in which the public has little apprehension. Further, since public acceptance is a crucial factor, then it must be strengthened. One of the means by which this could be achieved is by exploiting the non-power applications of the technology in various other sectors. sectors.

  3. Summary of panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrul Khair Alang Md Rashid; Durante, R.W.; Miyuki Hagiwara; Basfar, A. A.; Mohamad Osman

    1997-01-01

    The chairman noted that the main item raised is still public acceptance. other items being safety, financial, and the economics of technology. On public acceptance the chairman commented that the weight of the 'displeasure' of the public is not uniform across the spectrum of applications of nuclear science and technology thus the nuclear science and technology should capitalise on the areas in which the public has little apprehension. Further, since public acceptance is a crucial factor, then it must be strengthened. One of the means by which this could be achieved is by exploiting the non-power applications of the technology in various other sectors. sectors

  4. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  5. Problems and Tasks of TRAINING at Courses for Enhancement of Qualification in the Radioactive Waste Management Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I. A.; Dmitriev, S. A.; Batyukhnova, O. G.; Shcherbatova, T. D.; Ojovan, M. I.; Arustamov, A. E.

    2002-01-01

    Requirements to the professional competence of the personnel engaged in the area of the radioactive waste management are increased. Higher school cannot supply the branch with the qualified personnel; therefore special attention should be given to the system of staff retraining and to the increase of their qualification. In that paper the analysis of SIA ''Radon'' experience on the organization and carrying out training at courses of qualification improvement is represented. The main criterion of the analysis is the research of an education efficiency. Also here the basic directions of the training process improving are submitted as well as the requirements that should be considered when forming the teaching staff and trainees groups

  6. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  7. Care Seeking Behaviour and Barriers to Accessing Services for Sexual Health Problems among Women in Rural Areas of Tamilnadu State in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthuchira Ravi, Rejoice; Athimulam Kulasekaran, Ravishankar

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Regardless of the presence or absence of symptoms all STIs can lead to major complications if left untreated. Objective. To assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting 605 women in the age group of 15-24 years during July 2010-April 2011. Results. The prevalence rate of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and STIs was observed to be 14.5% and 8.8%, respectively, among the study population. Itching/irritation over vulva, thick white discharge, discharge with unpleasant odor, and frequent and uncomfortable urination were most commonly experienced symptoms of sexual health problems. Around three-fourth of the women received treatment for sexual health problems. Perception of symptoms as normal, feeling shy, lack of female health workers, distance to health facility, and lack of availability of treatment were identified as major barriers for not seeking treatment for RTIs/STIs. Conclusion. Family tradition and poor socioeconomic conditions of the family appear to be the main reasons for not utilizing the health facility for sexual health problems. Integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating awareness to control the spread of sexual health problems among young people.

  8. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  9. Characteristics of health problems in returned overseas travelers at a tertiary teaching hospital in a suburban area in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Kazuki; Ogawa, Taku; Fujikura, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Nakagawa-Onishi, Tomoko; Uno, Kenji; Takeyama, Masahiro; Kasahara, Kei; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Konishi, Mitsuru; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the characteristics of patients who develop physical disorders after overseas travel. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 183 patients who visited Nara Medical University Hospital from 2008 to 2016 because of physical problems after traveling abroad. The main travel destinations were Southeast Asia (n = 100), Africa (n = 27), and South Asia (n = 23). The main reasons for the travel were leisure (n = 96), business (n = 51), and volunteer work (n = 19). The most common final diagnosis was gastrointestinal disease (n = 72), followed by febrile disease (n = 59) and respiratory disease (n = 19). There were eight malaria cases, including one patient who was infected after travel. Additionally, 61 of 71 cases of travelers' diarrhea and 15 of 21 cases of dengue fever occurred after travel. 26 cases of vaccine preventable diseases, such as hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and influenza, were observed. Consequently, healthcare providers should notify Japanese overseas travelers that there is a non-negligible health risk inherent to short-term travel, while stressing on the importance of pre-travel medical consultation. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Safety and Efficacy of a Sustainable Marine Extract for the Treatment of Thinning Hair: A Summary of New Clinical Research and Results from a Panel Discussion on the Problem of Thinning Hair and Current Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornfeldt, Carl S; Holland, Mark; Bucay, Vivian W; Roberts, Wendy E; Waldorf, Heidi A; Dayan, Steven H

    2015-09-01

    Alopecia and thinning hair are highly prevalent conditions affecting a large proportion of men and women. Diffused hair loss is often more difficult to diagnose in women, mostly due to over-reliance on the assumption of hormonal influences, and it is commonly treated with a multi-therapy approach. Clinical studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of a nutraceutical supplement to provide essential nutrients that aid in stimulating existing hair growth and reducing hair shedding. The supplement Viviscal® contains a proprietary blend of proteins, lipids, and glycosaminoglycans derived from sustainable marine sources. We present here a summary of studies that have examined the safety and efficacy of this nutraceutical; as well as discussions on hair loss and current therapies from a recently convened expert panel in dermatology and plastic surgery.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AT THE AREA OF MUNIM RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN AT THE TOWN OF CHAPADINHA – MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Pereira Lima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is discussed the necessity of preservation of the hydro resources availablefor consumption. Once the human beings have the consumption of water as somethingessencial for the life, since early they valued water near their houses. This preocupationcontinue, although during the last decade, the progressive destructions of nature waterreservoirs are observated. Among the depredating actions are: polution, contaminated riversand deforestation of ciliary woods near the rivers that become easy and fast the erosiveprocesses.The state of Maranhão, besides is in Northeast, has different physical characteristicsfrom the rest of the region. The drainage basins that are distributed through the Maranhão arecomposed of principal perennial rivers and tributaries that are sometimes perennial andtemporary. In the Munin river basin, the growing urbane evolution results in seriousenvironmental consequences in its way. The stretch studied, in Chapadinha-Maranhão, hassuffered quick erosive process and consequently the silting on the riverbanks.So in this work we intend to identify the principal agents and processes that spoil thefluvial environment provoking the erosion on the banks and the silting of the watercourse.

  12. Electrical Resistivity Studies Between Subarnarekha And Kansabati Rivers, Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India: Implication To Groundwater Problems In The Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K. P.; Jha, M. K.; Sharma, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Various parts of the world face acute shortage of groundwater. To solve groundwater problems various approaches are followed. Interlinking of the river is one of the approaches. The southern part of the West Bengal province of India receives huge amount of rainfall (annual 1200mm). Instead of huge amount of rainfall some parts of the area are problematic for groundwater occurrence. Characterization of aquifer in this area is very important for sustainable development of water supply and artificial recharge schemes. Electrical resistivity survey was performed at regular interval from Kharagpur (north) to Subarnrekha River (south) to map the lithological variations in this area. It covers around 25 kilometers distance from Kharagpur with latitude and longitude (22°19'7.3"N 87°18'40"E) to Subarnrekha River (22°15'49.4" N 87°16'45.1" E). To locating a suitable area for artificial recharge and for the characterization of aquifers vertical electrical sounding is a robust method. Resistivity soundings were carried out with an interval of 2 to 3 kilometers. Subsurface resistivity distribution has been interpreted by using very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) global optimization technique. The study reveals that northern part of the area is problematic and does not have suitable aquifer systems. Resistivity distribution is suitable in the southern part of area and corresponds to clayey sand. Interpreted resistivity in the northern part of the area is relatively high and reveals impervious laterite layer. In southern part of the area resistivity varies between 5-10 Ohm-m at depth below 80 m. Based on the resistivity model different types of geologic units are classified and the zone of interests for aquifer has been demarcated.

  13. Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems in Johor Bahru District school children--comparing three geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Y C; Kadir, A B; Jeyarajah, S

    1997-06-01

    This is a cross sectional community study in Johor Bahru District. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of emotional and behavioural deviance among the school children in three different geographical areas, and to identify their correlates. This paper presents the findings of phase one of a two-stage procedure involving a total of 589 children aged 10-12 years. Using the cut-off point validated locally, the prevalence of deviance on the parental scale was 40% in the rural school, 30.2% in the agricultural resettlement (Felda) school and 32.3% in the urban school. On the teachers' assessment, the prevalence of deviance was 40.8% in the rural school, 10.8% in the Felda School and 8.9% in the urban school. There was significantly higher prevalence of deviance in the rural school on the teachers' scale. In the rural school, significantly higher prevalence of deviance was found among boys.

  14. Discussion on the Core Problems of Integrated Development in Urban and Rural Compulsory Education in China%当前我国城乡义务教育一体化发展的核心问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬志辉

    2012-01-01

    To establish integrated development mechanisms of urban and rural compulsory education is a strategical mission put forward by the government in "Outline of the National Program for Long and Medium Term Education Reform and Development (2010-2020)". Currently, the integrated development of urban and rural compulsory education in China faces many challenges. The core problems need to be solved now is to curb the decline of rural education, to reconstruct the con- figuration of rural education, and to innovate educational systems and mechanisms. Therefore, we need to form new ideas, such as the integration of urban and rural education is not equal to the urbanization of rural education, rural school is a community, and the key point of integration mechanism of urban and rural education is self-organization and incentive compatibility, etc.%建立城乡一体化义务教育发展机制是《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020年)》提出的战略性任务。现阶段,我国城乡义务教育一体化发展面临诸多挑战,当下要解决的核心问题是遏制乡村教育衰败、重建乡村教育形态和创新教育体制机制,为此要确立城乡教育一体化不等于农村教育城镇化、农村学校是一个社区组织、城乡教育一体化发展机制的关键在于自组织和激励相容等新观念。

  15. Eye problems in mountain and remote areas: prevention and onsite treatment--official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine ICAR MEDCOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerton, John A; Zuljan, Igor; Agazzi, Giancelso; Boyd, Jeffrey J

    2009-01-01

    Although eyes are not frequently injured in the mountains, they are exposed to many adverse factors from the environment. This article, intended for first responders, paramedics, physicians, and mountaineers, is the consensus opinion of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR-MEDCOM). Its aim is to give practical advice on the management of eye problems in mountainous and remote areas. Snow blindness and minor injuries, such as conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies, could immobilize a person and put him or her at risk of other injuries. Blunt or penetrating trauma can result in the loss of sight in the eye; this may be preventable if the injury is managed properly. In almost all cases of severe eye trauma, protecting the eye and arranging an immediate evacuation are necessary. The most common eye problems, however, are due to ultraviolet light and high altitude. People wearing contact lenses and with previous history of eye diseases are more vulnerable. Any sight-threatening eye problem or unexplained visual loss at high altitude necessitates descent. Wearing appropriate eye protection, such as sunglasses with sidepieces and goggles with polarized or photochromic lenses, could prevent most of the common eye problems in mountaineering.

  16. The Goodness of Covariance Selection Problem from AUC Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Khajavi, Navid Tafaghodi; Kuh, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    We conduct a study of graphical models and discuss the quality of model selection approximation by formulating the problem as a detection problem and examining the area under the curve (AUC). We are specifically looking at the model selection problem for jointly Gaussian random vectors. For Gaussian random vectors, this problem simplifies to the covariance selection problem which is widely discussed in literature by Dempster [1]. In this paper, we give the definition for the correlation appro...

  17. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics

  18. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  19. Discussão epistemológica da produção científica de programas de pós-graduação na área da saúde reprodutiva Epistemological discussion of scientific production for post-graduation programs in the reproductive health area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato G. Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta resultados preliminares de pesquisa, que entende que as conseqüências da complexa relação "produção" (pesquisa / "divulgação" (ensino / "utilização" (consumo reproduzem o modelo de pensamento newtoniano-cartesiano dominante no contexto acadêmico. Objetiva-se identificar o nível de discussão epistemológica existente nas teses de programas de pós-graduação das universidades estaduais paulistas (até o momento, analisaram-se teses da UNICAMP, com eleição da produção em Ginecologia, Obstetrícia e Mastologia. A seleção foi feita a partir do critério cronológico (as mais atuais, optando-se pela aleatoriedade quanto ao tipo metodológico das pesquisas. Através da análise hermenêutica e do critério de saturação, investigaram-se quatro categorias hipoteticamente demarcadas - visão de "pessoa", "saúde", "ciência" e "ética". Constatou-se que os trabalhos apresentam reduzida ou inexistente preocupação com reflexões epistemológicas. Os aspectos metodológicos são estruturados mantendo, quase que exclusivamente, preocupações protocolares numa perspectiva disciplinar e racionalista, o que inviabiliza a concretização de dinâmicas acadêmicas valorizadoras do enfoque transdisciplinar.The article presents preliminary research results, which understand that the consequences of the complex relation "production" (research/"spreading" (education/"use" (consumption reproduce the dominant Newtonian-Cartesian thought in the academic context. The aim is to identify the level of epistemological discussion in theses of post-graduation programs in São Paulo universities (only theses from Unicamp have been analyzed so far, electing the production in Gynecology, Obstetrics and Mastology. The selection was based on chronology (the most updated, and randomized choice of methodological research type. Through hermeneutic analysis and saturation criteria, four categories were hypothetically searched - view of

  20. Discussion on Soft Computing at FLINS '96

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This is a report on the discussion about soft computing (SC) during FLINS'96. The discussion is based on the five questions formulated by X. Li, viz. (1) What is SC? (2) What are the characteristics of SC? (3) What are the principal achievements of SC? (4) What are the typical problems of SC and

  1. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  2. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  3. Dose distribution in the area of the operative cicatrice and the problem of local reccurences during postoperative external beam gamma therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, Y.; Ivanova, K.; Penchev, V.

    1982-01-01

    Five-year experience is recorded with treatment of 503 patients with breast cancer, who received postoperative external beam gamma therapy, and the developement of local reccurences. Results are reported of dosimetric studies in the irradiated area, especially the thoracic wall, where total focal doses of 50 had been realized. The clinical results of treatment are discussed on this basis. Comparison is made with data available in the literature on the incidence, localization and time of development of local reccurences and the methods of treatment of the basic disease. The need of postoperative radiation treatment, particularly in the later stages of the disease, is pointed out. (authors)

  4. Risk assessment for civil engineering facilities: critical overview and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, M.H.; Stewart, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper should be seen as a basis for discussion of important aspects of risk analysis and assessment, as well as attempting to describe risk assessment in accordance with the present state of the art. Risk assessment is thus presented in an overview form from the viewpoint of being a means for decision-making and thus within the formal framework of decision theory. First the motivation for risk analysis is given and the theoretical basis together with the practical aspects, methodologies and techniques for the implementation of risk assessment in civil engineering applications are explained and discussed. The paper furthermore addresses the problems associated with risk acceptance criteria, risk aversion and value of human life and attempts to provide suggestions for the rational treatment of these aspects. Finally a number of problem areas are highlighted and the needs for further education, research and dissemination are stressed

  5. Deformational and erosional history for the Abiquiu and contiguous area, north-central New Mexico: Implications for formation of the Abiquiu embayment and a discussion of new geochronological and geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahm, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, age determinations, and geochemistry of rocks exposed in the Abiquiu area of the Abiquiu embayment of the Rio Grande rift, north-central New Mexico, provide data to determine fault-slip and incision rates. Vertical-slip rates for faults in the area range from 16 m/m.y. to 42 m/m.y., and generally appear to decrease from the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau to the Abiquiu embayment. Incision rates calculated for the period ca. 10 to ca. 3 Ma indicate rapid incision with rates that range from 139 m/m.y. on the eastern edge of the Colorado Plateau to 41 m/m.y. on the western part of the Abiquiu embayment.The Abiquiu area is located along the margin of the Colorado Plateau–Rio Grande rift and lies within the Abiquiu embayment, a shallow, early extensional basin of the Rio Grande rift. Cenozoic rocks include the Eocene El Rito Formation, Oligocene Ritito Conglomerate, Oligocene–Miocene Abiquiu Formation, and Miocene Chama–El Rito and Ojo Caliente Sandstone Members of the Tesuque Formation (Santa Fe Group). Volcanic rocks include the Lobato Basalt (Miocene; ca. 15–8 Ma), El Alto Basalt (Pliocene; ca. 3 Ma), and dacite of the Tschicoma Formation (Pliocene; ca. 2 Ma). Quaternary deposits consist of inset axial and side-stream deposits of the ancestral Rio Chama (Pleistocene in age), landslide and pediment alluvium and colluvium, and Holocene main and side-stream channel and floodplain deposits of the modern Rio Chama. The predominant faults are Tertiary normal high-angle faults that displace rocks basinward.A low-angle fault, referred to as the Abiquiu fault, locally separates an upper plate composed of the transitional zone of the Ojo Caliente Sandstone and Chama–El Rito Members from a lower plate consisting of the Abiquiu Formation or the Ritito Conglomerate. The upper plate is distended into blocks that range from about 0.1 km to 3.5 km long that may represent a larger sheet that has been broken up and partly eroded.Geochronology (40Ar/39

  6. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  7. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  8. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  9. Ethical Problems Facing Teachers in Online Discussion Forums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sincar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out with the participation of teachers working in Gaziantep and was a qualitative study with a maximum variation sample. The data were obtained by focus group interviews. According to the analysis of the data, the issues experienced by the participants on the forum pages are collected under four categories: character, aggression, obsession and disrespect. In character category, the participants reported that they had encountered irresponsibility, selfishness, lie, causticity; in aggression category, the participants reported they had encountered violation of private life, provocation, sexual harassment, defamation and bullying; in obsession category, the participants reported they had encountered monomania, dependency and trap; in disrespect category the participants reported that they had encountered violation of the right to speak and illegal file sharing

  10. Discussion of difficult problems of early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Xiaozhong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a common malignant neoplasm of the pancreas with an extremely high mortality. Currently, the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is still not ideal. Attention should be paid to some clinical warning symptoms, such as unexplained abdominal and back pain, jaundice, and unexpected diabetes. Additionally, the combined use of CA19-9, CEA, and other tumor markers, the attention to biochemical indicators, the detection of mutation in KAI1 or p53 gene, and the exploration of the value of miRNA in clinical diagnosis are of great significance. On the other hand, ultrasound, CT, MRCP, ERCP, PET-CT, and other imaging methods, as well as effective collection of cytology specimens, should be performed. Thus, there is hope for the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Noise problems in coal mining complex- a case discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Y.; Mitra, H.; Ghosh, S.; Pal, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    Noise monitoring study was conducted at Moonidih mining complex of Jharia coal-field. The study included monitoring and analysis of ambient as well as workplace noise levels. An attempt has been made to critically analyse the noise situation through octave band analysis, thereby identifying alarming noise frequencies for each noise generating equipment having Leq level more than 90 dBA. A noise model has also been developed to draw noise contours of the entire mining complex. Based on these studies, suitable control measures have been suggested. (author). 6 refs., 3 figs

  12. Discussion on some problems in evolution of radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    2003-01-01

    In radiation protection practice in China, the appropriate simplification and better coordination for the existing radiation protection system are necessary. The human-based protective measures alone could not meet the requirements of the environmental protection in many circumstances. Protecting the environment from ionizing radiation would be implicated in radiation protection. Collective dose is an useful index, its applicable scope should be well defined. Using such an quantity can help increase radiation protection level, but applicable conditions should be defined, such as time and space. Natural radiation is the largest contributor of the radiation exposure to human. Occupational exposure from natural radiation should be controlled, such as to underground miners and air crew. Controlling both man-made and natural radiation exposure to pregnant women and children needs to be enhanced, especially radiological diagnosis and therapy

  13. Discussion on several problems in evolution of radiation protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziqiang, P.

    2004-01-01

    As viewed from the standpoint of radiation protection practice, it is necessary that the current system of radiological protection should be made more simple and coherent. The human-based protective measures alone are far from having met the requirements of environmental protection in many circumstances. Protecting the environment from ionising radiation would be implicated in radiation protection. Collective dose is an useful indicator, of which applicable extent should be defined. Using such an quantity could help improve radiation protection level, but applicable conditions should be indicated, temporal or spatial. Natural radiation is the largest contributor to the radiation exposure of human. Occupational exposure from natural radiation should be controlled, for occupations such as underground miners and air crew. Controlling both man-made and natural radiation exposure of pregnant women and children needs to be enhanced, especially radiological diagnosis and treatment. China radiation protection community, as a whole, is paying considerable attention to the ICRP's new Recommendations. Prof. Clarke's article 'A Report on Progress towards New Recommendations', a communication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, has been translated into Chinese and published on Radiation Protection, the Official Journal of China Radiation Protection Society with a view of intensifying awareness of the new Recommendations within more radiation protection workers and people concerned. In addition, a special meeting was convened in early 2002 to address the comments on the new Recommendations. (author)

  14. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission.

  15. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  16. Remediation of contaminated areas in the aftermath of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Overview, analysis and lessons learned. Part 2. Recent developments, supporting R and D and international discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Shinichi; Kawase, Keiichi; Iijima, Kazuki; Miyahara, Kaname; Hardie, Susan; McKinley, Ian; Klein, Liza; Yashio, Shoko

    2015-03-01

    audience. In this Part 2, the subsequent application of output from these projects to regional remediation now being conducted by the MOE and municipalities, is discussed, along with a status update on such work (including radioactivity monitoring), an overview of associated JAEA's R and D and international input to / review of regional environmental decontamination in Fukushima. (author)

  17. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  18. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  19. The metal failure cases discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, P

    1978-06-05

    The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.

  20. Discussion of entanglement entropy in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Chen-Te

    2018-01-01

    We study entanglement entropy in gravity theory with quantum effects. A simplest model is a two dimensional Einstein gravity theory. We use an n-sheet manifold to obtain an area term of entanglement entropy by summing over all background fields. Based on AdS/CFT correspondence, strongly coupled conformal field theory is expected to describe perturbative quantum gravity theory. An ultraviolet complete quantum gravity theory should not depend on a choice of an entangling surface. To analysis the problem explicitly, we analyze two dimensional conformal field theory. We find that a coefficient of a universal term of entanglement entropy is independent of a choice of an entangling surface in two dimensional conformal field theory for one interval to show a tentative evidence. Finally, we discuss that translational invariance in a quantum system at zero temperature, size goes to infinity and no mass scales, except for cut-off, possibly be a necessary condition in quantum gravity theory by ruing out a volume law of entanglement entropy. (copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Problems and Guidelines of Strategy Implementation in Basic Educational Institutions under the Supervision of KhonKaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasiwan Tonkanya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to 1 study problems of strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 ; and 2 propose the guidelines for strategy implementation in basic educational institutions under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The study was carried out in 2 phases. In phase 1, it focused on the study and analysis of the strategic implementation problems and phase 2 studied the best practice schools. The informants for the interview in phase 1 comprised 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools. They were selected by the use of purposive sampling technique. The population in the study of the strategic implementation problems in basic educational institutions in phase 1 consisted of 543 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from 181 schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4 in academic year 2014. The study samples were 217 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized schools under Khonkaen Primary Educational Service Area Office 4. The samples were selected by the use of stratified sampling technique. The informants of the phase 2 study were 6 school administrators and teachers who were involved in strategy implementation from small-sized, medium-sized, and large-sized best practice schools obtained from purposive sampling technique. The research instruments used for data collection consisted of 2 sets of questionnaires. The Set 1 questionnaire was the 5-point Likert scale on the levels of the problems in implementation with item discrimination at 0.60 – 1.00 and reliability of the whole questionnaire at .9359. The questionnaire contained 3 parts with 65 items. The Set 2 questionnaire comprised 2 parts with 10 items regarding

  2. Mental health problems among survivors in hard-hit areas of the 5.12 Wenchuan and 4.20 Lushan earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zongtang; Xu, Jiuping; Wu, Zhibin

    2017-02-01

    Earthquake exposure has often been associated with psychological distress. However, little is known about the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on psychological distress and in particular, the effect on the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression disorders. This study explored the effect of exposure on mental health outcomes after a first earthquake and again after a second earthquake. A population-based mental health survey using self-report questionnaires was conducted on 278 people in the hard-hit areas of Lushan and Baoxing Counties 13-16 months after the Wenchuan earthquake (Sample 1). 191 of these respondents were evaluated again 8-9 months after the Lushan earthquake (Sample 2), which struck almost 5 years after the Wenchuan earthquake. In Sample 1, the prevalence rates for PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders were 44.53, 54.25 and 51.82%, respectively, and in Sample 2 the corresponding rates were 27.27, 38.63 and 36.93%. Females, the middle-aged, those of Tibetan nationality, and people who reported fear during the earthquake were at an increased risk of experiencing post-traumatic symptoms. Although the incidence of PTSD, anxiety and depression disorders decreased from Sample 1 to Sample 2, the cumulative effect of exposure to two earthquakes on mental health problems was serious in the hard-hit areas. Therefore, it is important that psychological counseling be provided for earthquake victims, and especially those exposed to multiple earthquakes.

  3. The steady-state tangential contact problem for a falling drop type of contact area on corrugated rail by simplified theory of rolling contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Jerzy

    1991-10-01

    Investigation of contact mechanical nonlinearities of a mathematical model of corrugation revealed that the typical shape of contact patch resembles a falling drop of water. A contact patch of that shape was approximated with a figure composed of two parts of ellipses with different eccentricities. The contact pressure distribution was assumed as a smoothing ensemble of two paraboloidal distributions. The description of a general case of double half elliptical contact area was given but a special case of double half elliptical contact is more interesting as it possesses some Hertzian properties. It was shown how three geometrical parameters of double half elliptical contact can be chosen when actual, non-Hertzian contact is known. A linear theory was written which indicates that the lateral vibrations of the rail may be excited only due to shape variation on corrugation even if any other cause for these vibrations does not exist. For nonlinear theory a computer program, based on FASTSIM algorithm by Kalker, was written. The aim is to calculate the creep forces and frictional power density distribution over the contact area. Also, a graphic program visualizing the solution was written. Numerical results are not provided; unattended and unsolved problems relevant for this type of contact are listed.

  4. EARTH RESOURCE PROBLEMS AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlitová Erika

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses some of the problems of geology and earth resources management in relation to environmental problems of the technosphere. It deals also with some aspects of environmental monitoring of areas where surveying or mining operations are planned or in progress.

  5. Demonstration of a Novel Synchrophasor-based Situational Awareness System: Wide Area Power System Visualization, On-line Event Replay and Early Warning of Grid Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, A.

    2012-12-31

    Since the large North Eastern power system blackout on August 14, 2003, U.S. electric utilities have spent lot of effort on preventing power system cascading outages. Two of the main causes of the August 14, 2003 blackout were inadequate situational awareness and inadequate operator training In addition to the enhancements of the infrastructure of the interconnected power systems, more research and development of advanced power system applications are required for improving the wide-area security monitoring, operation and planning in order to prevent large- scale cascading outages of interconnected power systems. It is critically important for improving the wide-area situation awareness of the operators or operational engineers and regional reliability coordinators of large interconnected systems. With the installation of large number of phasor measurement units (PMU) and the related communication infrastructure, it will be possible to improve the operators’ situation awareness and to quickly identify the sequence of events during a large system disturbance for the post-event analysis using the real-time or historical synchrophasor data. The purpose of this project was to develop and demonstrate a novel synchrophasor-based comprehensive situational awareness system for control centers of power transmission systems. The developed system named WASA (Wide Area Situation Awareness) is intended to improve situational awareness at control centers of the power system operators and regional reliability coordinators. It consists of following main software modules: • Wide-area visualizations of real-time frequency, voltage, and phase angle measurements and their contour displays for security monitoring. • Online detection and location of a major event (location, time, size, and type, such as generator or line outage). • Near-real-time event replay (in seconds) after a major event occurs. • Early warning of potential wide-area stability problems. The system has been

  6. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  7. Fluorescent lamp and ballast disposal-efficiency and the environment: Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bleasby, P.

    1996-01-01

    This panel discussion looked at the present state of problems related to the disposal of fluorescent lamps and ballasts. EPA has not issued a ruling defining what is to be done, and as a result different areas of the country, and different users are treating the products differently. The authors review the history of the problem, where the environmental concerns are, possible alternatives for disposal, be it landfill, recycling, incineration, or treatment as hazardous wastes, and policy concerns with regard to this issue.

  8. Emerging mitigation needs and sustainable options for solving the arsenic problems of rural and isolated urban areas in Latin America - a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Litter, Marta; Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Morgada, María Eugenia; Cornejo, Lorena; Hoyos, Sofia Garrido; Hoinkis, Jan; Alarcón-Herrera, Ma Teresa; Armienta, María Aurora; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2010-11-01

    In this work, current information about the contamination of ground- and surface-water resources by arsenic from geogenic sources in Latin America is presented together with possible emerging mitigation solutions. The problem is of the same order of magnitude as other world regions, such as SE Asia, but it is often not described in English. Despite the studies undertaken by numerous local researchers, and the identification of proven treatment methods for the specific water conditions encountered, no technologies have been commercialized due to a current lack of funding and technical assistance. Emerging, low-cost technologies to mitigate the problem of arsenic in drinking water resources that are suitable for rural and urban areas lacking centralized water supplies have been evaluated. The technologies generally use simple and low-cost equipment that can easily be handled and maintained by the local population. Experiences comprise (i) coagulation/filtration with iron and aluminum salts, scaled-down for small community- and household-scale-applications, (ii) adsorption techniques using low-cost arsenic sorbents, such as geological materials (clays, laterites, soils, limestones), natural organic-based sorbents (natural biomass), and synthetic materials. TiO(2)-heterogeneous photocatalysis and zerovalent iron, especially using nanoscale particles, appear to be promising emergent technologies. Another promising innovative method for rural communities is the use of constructed wetlands using native perennial plants for arsenic rhizofiltration. Small-scale simple reverse osmosis equipment (which can be powered by wind or solar energy) that is suitable for small communities can also be utilized. The individual benefits of the different methods have been evaluated in terms of (i) size of the treatment device, (ii) arsenic concentration and distribution of species, chemical composition and grade of mineralization in the raw water, (iii) guidelines for the remaining As

  9. Women in the workplace: a panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, E.V.; Hunt, V.R.; Murray, F.J.; Krekel, S.; Allan, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: problems of women in the workplace; public policy concerning human reproduction; toxic effects of lead in human populations; health hazards of occupational radiation exposure; reproductive hazards on the job; considerations for protecting the unborn; and legal implications

  10. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  11. Problem of landfilling environments pollution by heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilenina, V. G.; Ulanova, O. V.; Begunova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article discusses the problems of snow and soil pollution by heavy metals. The results of physical and chemical special features of the deposit environment are given. Also, the results of snow mantle research in Irkutsk are described. The problem of manganese degradation from electrochemical cells disposed in the SMW areas is being discussed.

  12. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  13. Socio-economic effect on socially-deprived communities of developing drinking water quality problems in arid and semi-arid area of central Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Husain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan is well known for its Great Thar desert. Central Rajasthan has an arid to semi-arid environment. The area faces either scarcity of water or poor quality of drinking water. In some areas water is transported 2 km or more, which uses time, energy and money. Rich people have their own sources, which is restricted for use by others. Such conditions are affecting socially-deprived communities, both socially and economically. Groundwater is a major source of drinking water due to the unavailability of surface water. There is a lack of groundwater quality knowledge in the community and the data available is hard to understand by consumers. The CCME Water Quality Index is a tool to simplify the water quality report by rating the water on quality standards. It provides meaningful summaries of overall water quality and trends, which is accessible to non-technical lay people. In the present study the objective is to examine the groundwater quality of six districts (Ajmer, Bhilwara, Pali, Rajasamand, Nagaur and Jodhpur, centrally located in Rajasthan, with arid and semi-arid conditions. CCME WQI is also evaluated to produce quality data in a form to be understood by the community. A total of 4369 groundwater sources in 1680 villages from six districts (76 546 km2 were collected and examined. Results are outlined in the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS: 10500, 2012 and 2952 sources are unsafe for drinking. According to CCME WQI groundwater of 93 villages is poor, 343 villages are marginal, and 369 villages are fair in quality. Toxicological studies of unsafe drinking water and their remedial measures are also discussed. A tentative correlation between prevailing water-borne diseases and quality parameter has also been shown

  14. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  15. A research for environmental problems in the vicinity of mining area. Investigation into the impact of metallic mining on the environment and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jeong Sik; Cheong, Young Wook; Lee, Hyun Joo; Song, Duk Young [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on the impacts of metalliferous mines on the environment in the vicinity of the abandoned and active mines and establishment of abatements of mining environmental problems. Total number of metalliferous mines surveyed were 40 in which samples of waters, mine wastes and soil were taken. Water parameters such as the pH, Eh, TDS, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the field. Elements such as As, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Al, Mn, sulfate and cyanide were analyzed. Significant concentrations of heavy metals, mainly Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Al, were found in mine waters from adit and in leachates extracted from mine wastes. The mine waters flowing out from the Dalsung and Ilgwang mines were the typical acid mine drainage(AMD) contaminated by the heavy metals. Passive biological systems(Anoxic wetland) to treat AMD for metals were designed and monitored for effluents from the reactors with 4 types of composts, cow manure and limestones, Results showed that the mushroom compost with cow manure and limestone was the best substrates in metal removing efficiencies. Results from leaching of mine wastes showed that As, Cd and Cu were extracted from some of mine wastes. AMD from the mine waste dump of the Daduk mine was found. These mean that mine wastes can contaminate the soil, surface water and ground waters in vicinity of mines. Therefore cover systems or liner system for containments of mine wastes were suggested to preserve the environment. Cu and As concentrations in soils surveyed were below the heavy metal concentrations in soils of Korean standard preventing plant of the crops. However, most of the acid mine waters are drained untreated, and mine wastes with heavy metals are distributed near soil environment. Therefore efforts to reduce possibilities of soil contamination in the vicinity of mining areas is required. (author). 33 refs.

  16. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  17. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  18. Knapsack problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Hans; Pisinger, David

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen years have passed since the seminal book on knapsack problems by Martello and Toth appeared. On this occasion a former colleague exclaimed back in 1990: "How can you write 250 pages on the knapsack problem?" Indeed, the definition of the knapsack problem is easily understood even by a non-expert who will not suspect the presence of challenging research topics in this area at the first glance. However, in the last decade a large number of research publications contributed new results for the knapsack problem in all areas of interest such as exact algorithms, heuristics and approximation schemes. Moreover, the extension of the knapsack problem to higher dimensions both in the number of constraints and in the num­ ber of knapsacks, as well as the modification of the problem structure concerning the available item set and the objective function, leads to a number of interesting variations of practical relevance which were the subject of intensive research during the last few years. Hence, two years ago ...

  19. Popular Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Thomsen, Rie

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a method to critical reviews and explores the ways in which problems have been formulated in knowledge production on career guidance in Denmark over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. The method draws upon the work of Bacchi focussing on the ‘What's the problem represented...... to be’ (WPR) approach. Forty-nine empirical studies on Danish youth career guidance were included in the study. An analysis of the issues in focus resulted in nine problem categories. One of these, ‘targeting’, is analysed using the WPR approach. Finally, the article concludes that the WPR approach...... provides a constructive basis for a critical analysis and discussion of the collective empirical knowledge production on career guidance, stimulating awareness of problems and potential solutions among the career guidance community....

  20. Discussion on data access services of WAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aigui; Wang Lu; Wu Wenjing; Chen Gang

    2007-01-01

    Traditional storage system has been unable to meet the demand of computing. WAN storage systems face many problems since the complexity of WAN. This paper in-depth discusses on data interoperability, data prediction, active data service and semantic-based data access according to the characteristics of high energy physics applications. To eliminate isolated island, improve performance and simplify usage, it will be better to meet the demands of high energy physics applications. (authors)

  1. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  2. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  3. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  4. Discussion on Papers 5 - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  5. Open Education Week Panel Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...

  6. Discussion record of the workshop on nonlocal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Stroth, U.; Iwasaki, T.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1997-06-01

    The discussion on the problem of the transient response and nonlocal transport is reported. Problem of the transient response is surveyed, and several approaches are reviewed. The formulation based on the nonlocal transport is discussed. Example of the analysis is presented. Future study is identified. (author)

  7. Discussion on Papers 8 - 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  8. Discussion of Proper Area for Introducing Plantation ofLepidiummeyeni Walp in Ningxia Region Using Grey Correlation Method%应用灰色关联法探讨玛咖在宁夏地区适宜的引种区域

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海萍; 王春良; 谢华; 雍纬基; 丁自强; 马八十

    2015-01-01

    In order to discuss the proper areas in Ningxia region for introducing plantation ofLepidiummeyenii Walp, ac-cording to climatic similarity theory, in combination with the ecological and climatic conditions of various municipalities and counties in Ningxia andLepidiummeyenii Walp origin, an analysis was made on the temperature, the hottest month average temperature, the coldest month average temperature, humidity, rainfall, sunshine hours and other factors affecting the intro-duction ofLepidiummeyenii Walp using grey correlation analysis method. The results showed that by grey correlation analy-sis method, the introduction areas could be divided into unsuitable areas, relatively suitable area, suitable area and the most suitable areas, and Guyuan, Jingyuan, Longde and Xiji in Ningxia region are suitable areas for introducing the plantation of Lepidiummeyenii Walp.%为探讨玛咖在宁夏地区的适宜引种区域。根据气候相似性理论,结合宁夏各个市县及玛咖原产地气候生态环境条件,采用灰色关联度分析方法对影响玛咖引种的温度、最热月平均温度、最冷月平均温度、湿度、降雨量、日照时数等因素进行分析。结果表明,灰色关联分析法可把引种区域划分为不适宜区、较适宜区、适宜区、最适宜区4种类型,固原、泾源、隆德、西吉地区为玛咖在宁夏的适宜引种区。

  9. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  10. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  11. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  12. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  13. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  14. O erro médico e a violação às normas e prescrições em saúde: uma discussão teórica na área de segurança do paciente Medical errors and violation of rules and standards in health: a theoretical discussion in the area of patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Bomfim do Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1999, o relatório do Instituto de Medicina (IOM, ao apontar que há significativa ocorrência de eventos adversos e que mais da metade dessas ocorrências eram ocasionadas por erro médico, suscitou inúmeras ações e pesquisas na área de Segurança do Paciente. As infecções relacionadas à assistência à saúde (IRAS, um dos problemas enfrentados na área, é alvo de pesquisas que intentam criar procedimentos e estratégias no sentido de prevenir tais eventos. A higienização de mãos, por ser a medida mais simples no controle das IRAS e, paradoxalmente, a que possui mais baixo índice de adesão entre os médicos, é alvo de inúmeros programas e campanhas. A necessidade de reversão do quadro apontado tem gerado extensa literatura que, entre outros, identifica barreiras e fatores de risco para a baixa adesão a normas e procedimentos de higienização de mãos, como também busca compreender os aspectos comportamentais envolvidos. Este artigo apresenta alguns modelos teóricos explicativos voltados para a compreensão da dinâmica comportamental que envolve a consecução do erro e da violação e realiza uma análise com possibilidades à depreensão do processo. Por fim, considera-se que os modelos explicativos apresentados, conjuntamente, trazem contribuições passíveis de aplicação na prática e que a identificação e compreensão dos mecanismos de defesa coletivos levariam aos fatores que se encontram em jogo na baixa adesão aos procedimentos de higienização de mãos por parte dos médicos, a despeito das evidências existentes.In 1999, the report by the Institute of Medicine (IOM, pointed that there are significant adverse events and that more than half of these occurrences were caused by medical errors, provoking numerous actions and research on Patient Safety. Infections related to health care (IRAS, one of the problems faced in the area, are the subject of research that attempt to create procedures and strategies to

  15. Ethical issues in health-care inquiry: a discussion paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Jeanette J; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    2013-02-01

    This paper is a discussion of the possible ethical dilemmas that may arise in both qualitative and quantitative research despite stringent methodological protocols. Three categories of ethical issues will be elaborated on, namely, researcher-participant relations, informed consent and confidentiality and privacy. These are of note because ethical dilemmas most often arise in these areas. Both qualitative and quantitative research types may thus present with problems associated with any, or a combination, of these categories. Methodological rigour will also be discussed as a vital component of any research study. Critics of the qualitative approach have often suggested that the innate lack of methodological rigour has resulted in the preponderance of ethical issues in qualitative studies. Qualitative studies, similar to quantitative studies, have mechanisms that guarantee rigour, quality and trustworthiness. These checks are at par with those of quantitative research but based on different criteria. Both types of research, then, can be considered equal in terms of methodological rigour, regardless of the nature. As no research approach can be perfectly free from threats of ethical issues, it is the researcher's responsibility to address these in ways that will be less harmful to the participants, bearing in mind ethical problems can arise at any time during the research endeavour. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  17. Uranium, fuel for thought - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the arguments in a paper by R. Phillips on the safety of the nuclear industry are criticised. Areas covered include reactor safety and radiation hazards. The author considers that a choice should be made on economic grounds which point to coal and nuclear being used as complimentary energy sources

  18. Summary of presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  19. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  20. Study the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Joyce S.

    1990-01-01

    The initial step of a strategic process for solving mathematical problems, "studying the question," is discussed. A lesson plan for teaching students to identify and revise arithmetic problems is presented, involving directed instruction and supervised practice. (JDD)

  1. The importance of community trust in advancing solutions to the low-level radioactive waste problem in the port hope Ontario area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, B.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the author gave a personal account from an ''Eldorado kid'' whose father worked at the local plant of Port Hope, to a small businessman concerned by the stigma attached nationally to his home place. Starting inn 1976, nightly news reports of contaminated houses, schools and ravines transformed the town into ''the radioactive hotbed of the country''. The management of the conflict situation is then analyzed. The author recalled the multi-phased process of resolving the waste issue. The issue was felt to represent a stigma problem more than a health problem. (A.L.B.)

  2. Contribution to the discussion on the criminalization of stalking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović-Stefanović Dušica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The serious and complex nature of stalking, as a social phenomenon, is reflected in diverse forms of this illicit act, the severity of consequences caused by its commission, and the likelihood of being turned into violence. Whereas it may be observed from different perspectives, in this paper stalking is examined from the aspect of substantive criminal law. In the first part of this article, the author provides an overview of legal provisions on the crime of stalking as envisaged in selected European legislations. In the second part of the paper, the author re-examines the capacity of the existing Serbian criminal legislation to respond to this problem, especially through the envisaged criminal offence of endangering safety of another. In conclusion, the author discusses the inadequacy of the existing legislation and the need for further legislative intervention in this area.

  3. The Framing Discussion: Connecting Student Experience with Mathematical Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, John E.; Balong, Megan

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the framing discussion, an informal discussion of a mathematical problem that takes place at the beginning of a lesson or unit. The purpose of the framing discussion is to assess student knowledge, motivate student interest, and to serve as a basis for guiding students to more formal mathematical knowledge. The article…

  4. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  5. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  6. Promoting Self-Directed Learning in Developing or Poorly Defined Subject Areas: A Problem-Based Course in Molecular Biology, Genetics, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Katherine M.

    A new problem-based course in molecular biology, genetics, and cancer for first-year veterinary students was developed at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University (New York). The course was developed out of a desire to foster student-centered and lifelong learning and to integrate basic and clinical science knowledge despite a lack…

  7. Management Strategies of Perceived Challenges and Problems of Old People in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.; Woko, S. I.

    2016-01-01

    It has been revealed that over the years, the number of the aged in the world has been on a steady increase. This rising number has great implications for government, researchers, families, youth and the society at large. There is therefore, the proper need for the understanding of the nature problems and challenges as well as the management…

  8. Discussion of participation possibilities at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    A group of physicists at TRIUMF have been meeting regularly to discuss options for involvement in experiments that relate closely to the physics that would be undertaken at the KAON Factory. At a meeting held to discuss possibilities for work at KEK in the light of the new facilities that are under construction or proposed as part of the JHP, the topics considered ranged from the ion source to kaon beams. They included measurements of kaon-nucleon elastic and inelastic scattering in the 1600 to 2000 MeV range; transport of polarized proton beams through synchrotrons; the development of laser pumped polarized ion sources and volume cusp H - sources; studies of the problems that high intensity beams will present for the maintenance of H - stripping foils; collaboration on radioactive beam facilities; production of hypernuclei; low energy kaon scattering; and new types of detectors

  9. Discussion: the supply price control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.

    1993-01-01

    Following the paper given by the Director General of the Office of Electricity Regulation (OFFER) at the Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries (CRI) seminar on Regulatory Policy and the Energy Sector held in November 1992, the issue of Supply Price Controls is debated. The role of OFFER as standing between Government and the Regional Electricity Companies is explored in a question and answer session, covering areas such as pool versus, contract prices, market forces, regulatory arrangements for the electricity supply, price discrimination and franchise markets. (UK)

  10. Algorithms for solving common fixed point problems

    CERN Document Server

    Zaslavski, Alexander J

    2018-01-01

    This book details approximate solutions to common fixed point problems and convex feasibility problems in the presence of perturbations. Convex feasibility problems search for a common point of a finite collection of subsets in a Hilbert space; common fixed point problems pursue a common fixed point of a finite collection of self-mappings in a Hilbert space. A variety of algorithms are considered in this book for solving both types of problems, the study of which has fueled a rapidly growing area of research. This monograph is timely and highlights the numerous applications to engineering, computed tomography, and radiation therapy planning. Totaling eight chapters, this book begins with an introduction to foundational material and moves on to examine iterative methods in metric spaces. The dynamic string-averaging methods for common fixed point problems in normed space are analyzed in Chapter 3. Dynamic string methods, for common fixed point problems in a metric space are introduced and discussed in Chapter ...

  11. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  12. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  13. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  14. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  15. Two problems in thermal field theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this talk, I review recent progress made in two areas of thermal field theory. In par- ticular, I discuss various approaches for the calculation of the quark gluon plasma thermodynamical properties, and the problem of its photon production rate. Keywords. Thermal field theory; quark-gluon plasma. PACS Nos 11.10.Wx; 12.38.

  16. Environmental risk of oil production in sensitive areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, Salve; Larsen, Lars-Henrik

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses sensitive areas in the Arctic regions with focus on the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various ecosystem problems related to oil and gas production are pointed out. Characteristics of particularly sensitive areas are mentioned and some examples of vulnerable areas are discussed (tk)

  17. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  18. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  19. Vicarious learning through capturing taskdirected discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dineen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The research programme on vicarious learning, part of which we report in this paper, has been aimed at exploring the idea that learning can be facilitated by providing learners with access to the experiences of other learners. We use Bandura's term vicarious learning to describe this (Bandura, 1986, and we believe it to be a paradigm that offers particular promise when seen as an innovative way of exploiting recent technical advances in multimedia and distance learning technologies. It offers the prospect of a real alternative to the building of intelligent tutors (which directly address the problem of allowing learners access to dialogue, but which have proved largely intractable in practice or to the direct support of live dialogues (which do not offer a solution to the problem of providing 'live' tutors - unless they are between peer learners. In the research reported here our main objectives were to develop techniques to facilitate learners' access to, especially, dialogues and discussions which have arisen when other learners were faced with similar issues or problems in understanding the material. This required us to investigate means of indexing and retrieving appropriate dialogues and build on these to create an advanced prototype system for use in educational settings.

  20. 3D electric resistivity tomography (ERT) methodologies applied on selected heavily urbanized areas of the basin of Mexico to detect buried fractures and subsidence problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez Segura, R. E.; Cifuentes-Nava, G.; Tejero, A.; Hernandez, E.

    2012-12-01

    Urban development in modern cities require of a more integral knowledge of the subsurface, mainly on those areas, where human concentrations increase. Mexico City is one of such an example, where it constitutes one of the largest concentrations of human activities in the world. Most of the urban area is underlain by lacustrine sediments of the former lakes, and confined by important volcanic ranges. Such sediments offer poor foundation conditions for constructive purposes. Therefore, high risk areas have to be identified to prevent accidents and disastrous events. Geophysical techniques can be employed to understand the physical characteristics of the subsurface. Two examples are presented in this investigation. A residential complex named La Concordia is located towards the central portion of the basin that consists of six four storey buildings in an area of 33x80 m2. Finally, a block of small houses (50x50 m2) is found to the southern limit of the basin; close to the Chichinautzin range within the town of Tecomitl. Both zones suffer of strong damage in their structures due to fractures and subsidence within the subsoil. Therefore, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was carried out to characterize the subsoil beneath these urban complexes. A special array ('horse-shoe' geometry) 'L' employing Wenner-Schlumberger techniques, in addition to equatorial-dipole and minimum-coupling arrays were carried out to fully 'illuminate' beneath the constructions. Computed resistivity models for both examples depicted the buried fracture pattern affecting the urban complexes. Such patterns seem to extend beyond the limits of the surveyed areas, and are probably part of a more complex fracture system. It is very likely that fractures have been produced due to the poorly consolidated clays that cover most of the central part of the Valley of Mexico; the intense water extraction, that form 'voids' in the subsoil causing subsidence effects and finally the existence of regional

  1. NASTRAN thermal analyzer: Theory and application including a guide to modeling engineering problems, volume 2. [sample problem library guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.

  2. Hydrogen problems in reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casper, H.

    1984-01-01

    The BMFT and BMI have initiated a workshop 'Hydrogen Problems in Reactor Safety Research' that took place October 3./4., 1983. The objective of this workshop was to present the state of the art in the main areas - Hydrogen-Production - Hydrogen-Distribution - Hydrogen-Ignition - Hydrogen-Burning and Containment Behaviour - Mitigation Measures. The lectures on the different areas are compiled. The most important results of the final discussion are summarized as well. (orig.) [de

  3. Axial nonimaging characteristics of imaging lenses: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Ronian

    2016-05-01

    At observation planes away from the image plane, an imaging lens is a nonimaging optic. We examine the variation of axial irradiance with distance in image space and highlight the following little-known observation for discussion: On a per-unit-area basis, the position of the highest concentration in image space is generally not at the focal plane. This characteristic is contrary to common experience, and it offers an additional degree of freedom for the design of detection systems. Additionally, it would also apply to lenses with negative refractive index. The position of peak concentration and its irradiance is dependent upon the location and irradiance of the image. As such, this discussion also includes a close examination of expressions for image irradiance and explains how they are related to irradiance calculations beyond the image plane. This study is restricted to rotationally symmetric refractive imaging systems with incoherent extended Lambertian sources.

  4. CERN in discussions with its neighbours

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    CERN recently invited local partners, elected representatives, and representatives of local administrations and associations to an information and discussion evening, giving those invited an opportunity to raise various topics linked to CERN’s presence in the local area. On Tuesday, 20 October the Globe of Science and Innovation took on a distinctly regional flavour when some 60 representatives of local administrations and public bodies in Switzerland and France as well as teachers, heads of local schools and chairs of local associations attended an information and discussion evening at the invitation of the Director-General. In his opening address, the Director-General underlined CERN’s commitment to transparency and the desire to enhance its communication with the local community. This address was followed by four presentations. Philippe Bloch, head of the Physics Department, explained the scientific goals of the LHC and the L...

  5. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  6. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted

  7. Performance-based regulation. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert; Bier, Vicki M.; Bukowski, Richard W.; Prasad Kadambi, N.; Koonce, James F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Performance-based regulation is a part of the NRC's Strategic Plan and is realizing steady progress in conceptual development for actual applications. For example, high-level, conceptual guidelines have been proposed that would apply to reactors, materials, and waste areas. Performance-based approaches are also being applied in other regulated industries such as FAA and OSHA. The discussion will include comments from speakers from different parts of the nuclear industry and other industries regarding benefits and weaknesses of performance-based regulation. (authors)

  8. The debate about death: an imperishable discussion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX BACIGALUPO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review we discuss some of the complex edges of the concept of death that arose after the notorious advances in science and medicine over the last 50 years, in which the classical cardio-pulmonary criteria have led to the neurological criteria of death. New complicated questions like the definition of death and the operational criteria for diagnosing it have arisen and we think that they are far from being adequately and satisfactorily solved. A number of important issues -like the reliability and differences between cardio-pulmonary versus brain based criteria of death, if death is an event or a process, the meaning of integration and irreversibility- have not yet received sufficient attention. Here we have approached the death problem from two (biological complex system perspectives: the organism level and the cellular-molecular level. We also discuss issues from a third systemic approach, that is, the entire society, thus involving legal, religious, bioethical and political aspects of death. Our aim is to integrate new perspectives in order to promote further discussion on these critical yet frequently neglected issues

  9. Using Context Variety and Students' Discussions in Recognizing Statistical Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José Luis Ángel Rodríguez; Aguilar, Mario Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    We present a proposal for helping students to cope with statistical word problems related to the classification of different cases of confidence intervals. The proposal promotes an environment where students can explicitly discuss the reasons underlying their classification of cases.

  10. Panel discussion on the future of particle physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Perkins, Donald Hill; Veltman, Martinus J G; Okun, Lev Borisovich; Aymar, Robert; Weinberg, Steven; Darriulat, Pierre; Glashow, Sheldon Lee; van der Meer, S; Gianotti, F; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Telegdi, Valentine Louis; Bellettini, Giorgio; Soergel, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The projects that are to be undertaken by CERN in future are discussed in this paper. The discovery of Higgs at LHC and R&D at CLIC are reported. The introduction of Higgs bosons gave rise to new problems such as mass hierarchy and electroweak symmetry breaking. Solutions to the above problems using physics beyond standard model are also reported in this paper. The paper also discusses about the long-time scale associated to the projects.

  11. Cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1989-01-01

    Cosmological constant problem is discussed. History of the problem is briefly considered. Five different approaches to solution of the problem are described: supersymmetry, supergravity, superstring; anthropic approach; mechamism of lagrangian alignment; modification of gravitation theory and quantum cosmology. It is noted that approach, based on quantum cosmology is the most promising one

  12. The Complete Problem Solver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R.

    This book, designed for a college course on general problem-solving skills, focuses on skills that can be used by anyone in solving problems that occur in everyday life. Part I considers theory and practice: understanding problems, search, and protocol analysis. Part II discusses memory and knowledge acquisition: the structure of human memory,…

  13. Pollution problems plague Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajsarowicz, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Poland's environmental problems are said to stem from investments in heavy industries that require enormous quantities of power and from the exploitation of two key natural resources: coal and sulfur. Air and water pollution problems and related public health problems are discussed

  14. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  15. Moderated discussion: Are we addressing the ``real`` issue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Session 5 a was moderated discussion on the topic of ``Are we addressing the `real` issue?`` The Moderator opened the session with the following questions areas to stimulate discussion. Questions Part 1: Is the concept of alarms and alarm systems still valid? Are we designing for physical features rather than information that has to be conveyed? Are we addressing the essential annunciation needs or are attempting to implement patch-work solutions to solve specific problems? Is the design process so firmly established in organizations that a major change is required to result in different and improved approaches? Will the cost of increasing scrutinity for Software QA make advancement impossible or too costly? What is the role of overview display in accident management and how do imbedded alarms play a role? Is the need for reliable signals adequately addressed (or can it be)? Questions Part 2: Should we include automated diagnosis and decision making with annunciation? What is the role of the operator? Is the operator someone who only follows fixed procedures, or is he/she a responsible authority, or both? Does the focus on safety-first divert the attention away from other important issues, such as operational efficiency? Does the concept of ``hard-wired`` annunciation still apply given advancements in reliability of computer systems? How do we shorten the design and implementation time period cost effectively while still improving the performance?.

  16. Moderated discussion: Are we addressing the ''real'' issue?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, M.

    1997-01-01

    Session 5 a was moderated discussion on the topic of ''Are we addressing the 'real' issue?'' The Moderator opened the session with the following questions areas to stimulate discussion. Questions Part 1: Is the concept of alarms and alarm systems still valid? Are we designing for physical features rather than information that has to be conveyed? Are we addressing the essential annunciation needs or are attempting to implement patch-work solutions to solve specific problems? Is the design process so firmly established in organizations that a major change is required to result in different and improved approaches? Will the cost of increasing scrutinity for Software QA make advancement impossible or too costly? What is the role of overview display in accident management and how do imbedded alarms play a role? Is the need for reliable signals adequately addressed (or can it be)? Questions Part 2: Should we include automated diagnosis and decision making with annunciation? What is the role of the operator? Is the operator someone who only follows fixed procedures, or is he/she a responsible authority, or both? Does the focus on safety-first divert the attention away from other important issues, such as operational efficiency? Does the concept of ''hard-wired'' annunciation still apply given advancements in reliability of computer systems? How do we shorten the design and implementation time period cost effectively while still improving the performance?

  17. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs)

  18. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  19. Is rational discussion of open access possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Anderson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Open Access (OA, like any other model or strategy for the dissemination of knowledge, carries with it clear benefits as well as costs and downsides. These vary depending on the OA strategy in question, and in order for OA to bring maximum benefit to the world of scholarship, its costs and benefits need be examined carefully and dispassionately so that the former can be maximized and the latter minimized. Unfortunately, the OA advocacy community tends to resist all attempts to examine OA in this way, to the point that those who approach OA in a spirit of critical analysis (rather than celebration and evangelism are attacked and punished. This article describes the problem, provides examples of it, and proposes strategies for promoting a more rigorous and analytical discussion of OA.

  20. Untangling the Complex Needs of People Experiencing Gambling Problems and Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Louise; Tiyce, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    People with gambling problems are now recognised among those at increased risk of homelessness, and the link between housing and gambling problems has been identified as an area requiring further research. This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study that explored the relationship between gambling problems and homelessness. Interviews…

  1. Rapid growth, maturity, current problems, future prospects of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    The early rapid growth, the attainment of maturity, current problems, and future prospects of NAA (neutron activation analysis) are discussed, each in reasonable detail. In particular, the nature and causes of its current problems are examined, and suggestions are presented for the solution of these problems. The author believes that vigorous action in suggested areas of concentration can reinvigorate the status of NAA as an important method of elemental analysis. (author)

  2. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  3. Nuclear waste under glass, further discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, J. A.; Barkatt, A.; Glass, B. P.; Alterescu, S.

    J. J. Crovisier and J. Honnorez [1988] discuss an article by W. W. Maggs, “Mg May Protect Waste Under Glass” [Maggs, 1988] summarizing work by A. Barkatt (Catholic University, Washington, D.C.), B. P. Glass (University of Delaware, Newark), and S. Alterescu and J. A. O'Keefe (NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Md.). We found that seawater is orders of magnitude less corrosive t h an fresh water in attacking tektite glass; traced the protective effect to the presence of magnesium, at a level of about 1.3 g/L in seawater; and suggested that the effect might be useful in protecting nuclear waste glasses from corrosion.Crovisier and Honnorez first make the point that the rate of corrosion of glass is, in principle, a function of the ratio of surface area 5 to the effective volume V. This concept, which is usually discussed in American literature under the name of S/V effects, is discussed by Crovisier and Honnorez in terms of the “permeability of the environment.” These effects have been carefully considered throughout our work (see, for example, Barkatt et al. [19867rsqb;). It turns out that in the sea the effective S/V is so small that the effects referred to by Crovisier and Honnorez can be ignored.

  4. Round-table discussion on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    The possibilities of using radiation for food preservation as a way of alleviating the food deficiency problem in a large part of the world has been studied for some 20 years. Since the idea was recognized as a viable one, scientists had to develop it along three levels: firstly, the technological problems and economic viability had to be faced; at the same time tests had to be initiated to prove the wholesomeness of the irradiated foodstuffs, and then public acceptance and confidence in the end product had to be established. Work is proceeding along these three lines and in some cases, success has been won on all fronts. In others, it is continuing. As a FLASHBACK to the situation TWO YEARS AGO, we thought it interesting to reprint excerpts from a round-table discussion at which scientists from five countries sat down to discuss the pros and cons of food irradiation. ost at the gathering was Dr. Rocco Basson, Director of Chemistry at Pelindaba, South Africa, and the man responsible for directing radiation processing in that country. With him were Dr. Lapidot, Head of the Radiation and Engineering and Processing Section of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission at Soreq; Dr. Saint-Lebe of the Radioagronomy Service, French Atomic Energy Commission, at Cadarache; Dr. Ulmann, then Director of the Food Irradiation Pilot Plant at Wageningen in Holland; and Mr. Roy Hickman, leader of the International Project in the Field of Irradiation, sponsored by the FAO, IAEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, centred at Karlsruhe in Germany. (author)

  5. A simple and low-cost Internet-based teleconsultation system that could effectively solve the health care access problems in underserved areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntalp, Mehmet; Akar, Orkun

    2004-08-01

    In many developing countries including Turkey, telemedicine systems are not in wide use due to the high cost and complexity of the required technology. Lack of these systems however has serious implications on patients who live in rural areas. The objective of this paper is to present a simple and economically affordable alternative to the current systems that would allow experts to easily access the medical data of their remote patients over the Internet. The system is developed in client-server architecture with a user-friendly graphical interface and various services are implemented as dynamic web pages based on PHP. The other key features of the system are its powerful security features and platform independency. An academic prototype is implemented and presented to the evaluation of a group of physicians. The results reveal that the system could find acceptance from the medical community and it could be an effective means of providing quality health care in developing countries.

  6. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  7. 公示语英译现状分析及应对策略探讨--以南通濠河风景区为例%Analysis and Discussion on the Current Situation of Eng-lish Translation for Public Signs and the Coping Strategy:Taking the Scenic Area of Moat Hao in Nantong as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      公示语的英译就如同一张名片,向外国友人介绍我们的城市。景区公示语的英译水平更代表着一个旅游景区的形象。本文结合实例,从南通濠河风景区公示语英译的现状出发,指出存在的问题,分析造成错误的原因,同时探讨提高公示语英译水平的相关策略。%English translation of public signs sends information of a city to foreigners just like a business card. The level of transla-tion of the public signs in a scenic spot will affect its image as well. The scenic area of Moat Hao in Nantong is taken as an ex-ample. According to the current situation and analysis of given examples, existing problems are pointed out together with the causes of them. And coping strategies for improving the level of translation are explored.

  8. The pattern of moderate acute malnutrition in a rural area of Sri Lanka: Integrated approach is needed to address the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, Dilka; Nandasena, Sumal

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Sri Lanka has a well-established preventive health care system. Irrespective of well-established preventive health care system, malnutrition of children is yet a public health challenge in Sri Lanka. Aims: To assess the current nutritional status and associated factors with the malnutrition in Nawagaththegama area, Sri Lanka. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of children under 5 years (total population = 1434). Twenty five clusters were selected by probability proportionate to the size of the under five children in 19 Gramasewa Niladari Divisions (the smallest administrative division in the area). Height and weight of children under 5 years were measured according to the WHO protocol, and an interviewer administered questionnaires was used to ascertain socio demographic characteristics, feeding practices, common morbidities of children and health service utilization pattern. WHO Standards were used to assess the nutritional status. Hemoglobin levels were assessed in a subsample. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 493 children. Weight, height, hemoglobin was measured among 442, 419, 120 children respectively. Out of weight measured children, 24.7% (confidence interval (CI) = 19.4 – 30.8) had weight for age <-2SD and 4.8% (CI = 2.5 - 8.8) had weight for age < -3SD. Out of height measured children, 16.5% (CI = 13.1 – 20.5) had height for age < -2SD and 4.1% (CI = 2.2 - 7.4) had height for age < -3SD. Global acute malnutrition (GAM) was 18.5% (CI= 2.3% -26.9%) and Moderate Acute malnutrition is 15.6% where as Severe Acute Malnutrition is (SAM) was 2.9% (CI = 1.3% - 5.9%) . Lowest percentage having the weight for age <-2SD and weight for height/length was reported from the age group of 1 – 6 months (11.8 % (CI = 4.6 -27.1))and 12.9% (CI = (3.4% - 38.1%)). Over 99% of children were continue to have the breast milk at the completed 6 months while 4.2 % gives the formula milk and

  9. Islamic Education Research Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Muthalib

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper will discuss Islamic educational studies that is reviewing how to find, limit and define problems and problem-solving concepts. The central question of this paper is to describe how to solve the problem in Islamic educational research. A researcher or educator who has the knowledge, expertise, or special interest on education for example is usually having a sensitivity to issues relating to educational research. In the research dimension of religious education, there are three types of problems, namely: Problems foundation, structural problems and operational issues. In doing research in Islamic education someone should understand research problem, limiting and formulating the problem, how to solve the problem, other problem relating to the point of research, and research approach.

  10. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  11. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria; Dall'Olio, Enrico; Modenese, Alberto; De Maria, Michele; Campi, Luca; Cavallini, Gian Maria

    2017-06-06

    The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED) of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰) was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰), and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  12. Work-Related Eye Injuries: A Relevant Health Problem. Main Epidemiological Data from a Highly-Industrialized Area of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabriziomaria Gobba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The province of Modena is one of the most industrialized areas of Northern Italy. The medical records of the Ophthalmological Emergency Department (OED of Modena University Hospital were studied: there were 13,470 OED accesses in 2014 and in 754 cases that an occupational eye injury occurred. The frequency of work-related eye injuries (3‰ was lower compared to other published studies, but the absolute number is still relevant, showing the need for more adequate prevention, especially in metal work, construction work, and agriculture, where the worst prognoses were observed. Intervention programs must be implemented as early as possible in the working life, considering that the frequency in younger workers is about double that of the oldest age class (3.5‰ vs. 1.8‰, and special attention should also be given to foreigners, who have a 50% higher injury risk. Furthermore, the planning of specific interventions for eye-injured workers may be useful, considering that a previous injury does not appear to encourage the adoption of preventive interventions, and a subgroup of eye-injured workers have a potential risk for new injuries. Finally, the data presented here indicates how OED records, integrated with specific occupational information, can be applied for studies on work-related eye injuries.

  13. The Formation of Imperial Institutes of Governance in Trans-Baikal Transborder Area:Problems of Development of New Territories(XVIII – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Malygina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of Imperial institutes of governance in Trans-Baikal region in XVIII – early XX centuries. The territory is chosen by the authors is very important for creation of the project of ideal administrative-territorial structure of government and its embodiment in reality in terms transborder area, geostrategic position and recognition of military and economic importance of the region. The authors were able to create governance models in accordance with the phased tasks of the development of the territory, as well as fill some gaps in the process. The information is taken from historical sources and from central and regional archives. The study allowed to conclude that the administrative-territorial transformation of XVIII – early XX centuries can be considered an experiment for the development of the Plurinational state. This experiment is caused by the consolidation of the national periphery and to neutralize the threat of separatism and the need to protect the territories from external enemies.

  14. Applications of decision analysis and related techniques to industrial engineering problems at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides: (1) a discussion of the origination of decision analysis problems (well-structured problems) from ill-structured problems; (2) a review of the various methodologies and software packages for decision analysis and related problem areas; (3) a discussion of how the characteristics of a decision analysis problem affect the choice of modeling methodologies, thus providing a guide as to when to choose a particular methodology; and (4) examples of applications of decision analysis to particular problems encountered by the IE Group at KSC. With respect to the specific applications at KSC, particular emphasis is placed on the use of the Demos software package (Lumina Decision Systems, 1993).

  15. General practitioner views about discussing sexual issues with patients with coronary heart disease: a national survey in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Molly

    2010-05-25

    Abstract Background Sexual problems are common among people with coronary heart disease and can adversely affect patients\\' quality of life. GPs are ideally placed to deal with these problems. Research suggests that GPs are reluctant to address sexual problems but little is known about what currently takes place in practice. The aim of this study was to examine GPs\\' self-reported behaviour and attitudes to discussing sexual problems with people with coronary heart disease. Method Design: A cross-sectional survey which administered 230 postal questionnaires to a nationally representative, stratified random sample of GPs in the Republic of Ireland. GPs were asked about current practice, knowledge, awareness and confidence in dealing with sexual problems, barriers to addressing sexual problems, and about improving services in this area. Results Responses were available for 61 GPs (27% response rate). Seventy percent of GPs reported that they rarely or never discussed sexual problems with coronary patients. While all GPs believed addressing sexual problems was important, many GPs reported lacking awareness, knowledge and confidence in addressing sexual problems. The main barriers were lack of time, feeling the patient wasn\\'t ready and lack of training in the area. GPs wanted more training and guidelines for practice. Conclusions There is currently no standardised protocol for GPs for dealing with sexual problems among coronary patients. Awareness of these issues appears to be low among GPs. Services could be improved by developing practice guidelines for brief, effective actions or assessments, providing training in the area and improving information resources and support services for referral.

  16. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  17. [The Javanese countryside and the problem of overpopulation based on examples of villages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanadet, R

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses ways to avoid problems of overpopulation in rural areas of Java. "Three solutions are taken into consideration: the reduction of the birth rate,...transmigration and the industrialisation of the island." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  18. [Information and Communication Technology in medicine in Italy: problems and perspectives. A document by the "e-cardio" area of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, Antonio; Posteraro, Alfredo; Giordano, Guido; Tonti, Gianni; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    In Italy, health protection is an individual right protected by the article 32 of the Constitution, granted to everyone since 1978 by the foundation of the National Health Service. However, regionalization of the healthcare system has caused noticeable discrepancies among the different areas of the country. The use of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) may be useful to solve them. The purpose of this document is to analyze the implementation of ICT in Italy, on the basis of the suggestions given by the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO). In 2010, the Italian government introduced the electronic health record (EHR), which includes a minimum core of essential documents that should be created and updated by general practitioners. The obvious limitations of this methodology become clear in the urgency-emergency clinical setting, where the availability of particular clinical data may influence both patient prognosis and cost reduction. Also the privacy rules, currently very restrictive, cause a drawback in reliability of the data reported in the EHR, thus arising the need for a balance shift from privacy to health rights at the level of both the individual and the community. A minimum core of mandatory clinical data to be included in the EHR should be defined. No formal indications for filling out the medical records are available and most few experiences concern "bureaucratic documents" on the diagnostic and therapeutic process. Conversely, we believe that medical records should become a diagnostic and therapeutic tool that makes health rights uniform across the country. Each medical record form should include the following features: a simple interface, a mandatory association of clinical findings and reports, data portability and accessibility, and adherence of the information to a minimal dataset. Additionally, medical records data should merge into a modified EHR available at any time and place through network access points with

  19. Some problems on target-area selection for searching interstratified infiltration sandstone-type uranium deposits suitable to in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Shaokang

    2005-01-01

    its eastern and western parts. These two structure belts are of global significance and have a control to the uranium ore formation. So, it should be paid more attention to their characteristics, processes and the scope of their influences in strategic prospection area selection. (authors)

  20. [Demand for abortion. Pre-abortion discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiol, L

    1994-03-01

    The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.

  1. Developing the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. Applications of Calculus to Work, Area, and Distance Problems. [and] Atmospheric Pressure in Relation to Height and Temperature. Applications of Calculus to Atmospheric Pressure. [and] The Gradient and Some of Its Applications. Applications of Multivariate Calculus to Physics. [and] Kepler's Laws and the Inverse Square Law. Applications of Calculus to Physics. UMAP Units 323, 426, 431, 473.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Peter A.; And Others

    This document consists of four units. The first of these views calculus applications to work, area, and distance problems. It is designed to help students gain experience in: 1) computing limits of Riemann sums; 2) computing definite integrals; and 3) solving elementary area, distance, and work problems by integration. The second module views…

  2. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  3. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  4. Language-Rich Discussions for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim

    2013-01-01

    A study involving 75 Spanish-speaking fifth graders from a school in the Chicago area investigated whether a peer-led, open-format discussion approach, known as Collaborative Reasoning, would accelerate the students' English language development. Results showed that, after participating in eight discussions over a four-week period, the CR group…

  5. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  6. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  7. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  8. Quantum first passage problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, N.

    1984-07-01

    Quantum first passage problem (QUIPP) is formulated and solved in terms of a constrained Feynman path integral. The related paradox of blocking of unitary evolution by continuous observation on the system implicit in QUIPP is briefly discussed. (author)

  9. The internal percolation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezsudnov, I.V.; Snarskii, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    The internal percolation problem (IP) as a new type of the percolation problem is introduced and investigated. In spite of the usual (or external) percolation problem (EP) when the percolation current flows from the top to the bottom of the system, in IP case the voltage is applied through bars which are present in the hole located within the system. The EP problem has two major parameters: M-size of the system and a 0 -size of inclusions, bond size, etc. The IP problem holds one parameter more: size of the hole L. Numerical simulation shows that the critical indexes of conductance for the IP problem are very close to those in the EP problem. On the contrary, the indexes of the relative spectral noise density of 1/f noise and higher moments differ from those in the EP problem. The basics of these facts is discussed.

  10. The Problems of Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Pat

    1997-01-01

    Describes some problems of classroom dissection including the cruelty that animals destined for the laboratory suffer. Discusses the multilevel approach that the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) has developed to address the problems of animal dissection such as offering a dissection hotline, exhibiting at science teacher conferences, and…

  11. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  12. [Current problems of deontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, A S

    2010-01-01

    The scope of knowledge in medical ethics continues to extend. Deontology as a science needs systematization of the accumulated data. This review may give impetus to classification of problems pertaining to this important area of medical activity.

  13. Challenging problems in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Posamentier, Alfred S

    1996-01-01

    Collection of nearly 200 unusual problems dealing with congruence and parallelism, the Pythagorean theorem, circles, area relationships, Ptolemy and the cyclic quadrilateral, collinearity and concurrency and more. Arranged in order of difficulty. Detailed solutions.

  14. A discussion of some aspects of the MCSCF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, R.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief overview of the MCSCF (Multi-Configuration Self- Consistent-Field) method, a more detailed examination of the underlying model is undertaken. The problem of ''multiple solutions'' is examined with reference to the ''symmetry-breaking'' problem and with emphasis on single-state cases. It is argued that the most appropriate resolution of such problems is usually case-specific, and depends on the details of how the MCSCF wave function is being used to model the chemical system rather than on features characteristic of the MCSCF wave function itself. Finally, a recently introduced MCSCF wave function optimization method based on multidimensional trigonometric interpolation is briefly discussed

  15. International Science Education: A Study of UNESCO Science Education Improvement Projects in Selected Anglophone Countries of Africa: Project Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems faced by technical advisors implementing projects for the improvement of science education in Africa and reasons for these problems. Problem areas considered include underdevelopment, underestimating the process, finances, personality conflict and motivation, and opposition from key groups. (A list of major UNESCO…

  16. Integrating Multimedia and Physics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Aaron P.

    1997-11-01

    Although expert problem solvers typically use pictorial representations when solving problems, novices tend to proceed from the given problem statement to a mathematical solution without first developing a visual representation of the problem. For this reason, multimedia may be an effective tool to enhance students' success at solving problems. However, merely presenting a video of motion described in a problem is not necessarily the most effective method as was found in a recent study of students' responses on Web-based homework questions. Rather, multimedia-focused problems, where data relevant to solving the problem is embedded in a video or animation, may be the best use of multimedia in problem solving. Examples of multimedia-enhanced problems and multimedia-focused problems will be demonstrated, and their differences from "traditional" problems will be highlighted. Recommendations on the use of multimedia with problem solving and preliminary data on students' success at solving these problems will be discussed.

  17. Traditional Chinese medicine information digitalization discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Cui, Meng; Wu, Zhen-Dou; Zhao, Hong

    2010-11-01

    With the rapid development of information science, the ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine is combining with it rapidly, and forming a new discipline: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Informatics. TCM information digitalization is the process of digital processing, which uses modern information technology to obtain, process, store, and analyze TCM-related data, information, and knowledge. It gathers research, application development, and service in an integrated whole. This article systematically analyzes the key research issues of TCM informatics (e.g., on data resources, data standard, data system construction). Also, the methodology and technology of TCM information digitalization research are thoroughly discussed. The starting point of the research on traditional Chinese medical information digitalization was in question. The research from the current study research was drawn from collected information that was stored, transferred, and utilized. This process helped to place an emphasis on the topic, as well as extending its research areas. In addition, an innovative TCM information virtual study center was set up to support a great deal of fundamental work.

  18. Discussion on posting and labeling for radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio F.

    2009-01-01

    The radioprotection aims the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation or radioactive substances as well as the safety of radiation sources. As ionizing radiation is not perceived by human senses, the warning signs and labels on radiation sources and the safety posters in controlled and supervised areas have an important role to keep the doses and risks as low as reasonably achievable, to prevent radiological accidents and to mitigate their consequences. In Brazil, several technical regulations require such safety labels and posters, however, despite their importance, there is quite few guidance about their format or contents. In this paper the posting and labeling requirements for radiological control existing in Brazilian technical regulations are discussed, confronting them with national, foreign and international technical standards and by drawing up a parallel with requirements of technical regulations from other countries. Changes are suggested in some parts of the national regulations, to prevent some differences in the current guidance, allowing the optimization of posting and labeling programs of radiological facilities. (author)

  19. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  20. Word Problem Wizardry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jack

    1991-01-01

    Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)

  1. Target reactor development problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.D.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Target-blanket design studies are discussed for an accelerator-breeder concept employing a linear accelerator in conjunction with a modified conventional power reactor to produce both fissile fuel and power. The following problems in target and blanket system design are discussed: radiation damage, heat removal, neutronic design, and economics

  2. Problems of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyshevskij, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    Some problems of high energy physics are discussed. The main attention is paid to describibg the standard model. The model comprises quantum chromodynamics and electroweak interaction theory. The problem of CP breaking is considered as well. 8 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  4. Cosmology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Information discussed at the 18th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union and Symposium on ''Early Universe Evolution and Its Modern Structure'' on the problems of relic radiation, Hubble expansion, spatial structure and physics of the early Universe is presented. The spectrum of relic radioemission differs but slightly from the equilibrium one in the maximum range. In G. Smith (USA) opinion such difference may be caused by any radiosources radiating in the same wave range. The absence of unanimous opinion of astronomers on Hubble constant value is pointed out. G.Tam-man (Switzerland) estimates the Hubble constant 50+-7 km/s. J. Voculer (USA) gives a twice greater value. Such divergence is ca sed by various methods of determining distances up to remote galaxies and galaxy clusters. Many reports deal with large-scale Universe structure. For the first time considered are the processes which occurred in the epoch at times about 10 -35 c from the beginning of the Universe expansion. Such possibility is presented by the theory of ''great unification'' which permits to explain some fundamental properties of the Universe: spatial uniformity of isotropic expansion, existence of small primary density perturbations

  5. Medical problems of survivors of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, H.L.; Von Kaenel, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of the medical problems that may confront survivors of a nuclear war are discussed with emphasis on infection and the spread of communicable disease. Factors which will increase the risk and severity of infection include: radiation, trauma and burns, malnutrition and starvation, dehydration, exposure, and hardship. Factors which will increase the spread of disease include: crowded shelter conditions, poor sanitation, insects, corpses, free-roaming diseased animals. Shortages of physicians, the destruction of laboratories, and the general disorganization sure to follow the attack will also contribute to the problems. The authors recommend further study in this area

  6. Improving Argumentation through Goal Instructions in Asynchronous Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudchenko, Yekaterina

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation incorporated into class discussions can improve students' problem solving skills and enhance their epistemic and conceptual understanding. Research indicates students sometimes need scaffolding such as goal instructions to improve their argumentation skills. This study examined the effectiveness of different types of goal…

  7. Original and cumulative prospect theory: a discussion of empirical differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Fennema, H.

    1997-01-01

    This note discusses differences between prospect theory and cumulative prospect theory. It shows that cumulative prospect theory is not merely a formal correction of some theoretical problems in prospect theory, but it also gives different predictions. Experiments are described that favor cumulative

  8. The support for a purification of water contaminated with radioactivity, and problems of the radioactivity standard in an emergency situation at the stricken area 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Yoshiaki

    2011-01-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Station of Tokyo Electric Power Company associated with the Great East Japan Earthquake incurred severe situation, where lifeline was cut off due to the discharge of a large amount of radioactive substances. In particular, the supply of safe foods and drinking water in radiation-polluted areas is urgently required. The authors have been developing up to now Crystal Valley water purifier and CV-Rescue water purifier that can purify well-water unsuitable for drinking due to contamination with toxic substances and produce drinkable water with safety without anxiety. This paper introduces the processes, in which verification test was performed to confirm that the above purifiers can be used for the removal of radioactivity discharged from the Great East Japan Earthquake this time, the validity of these purifiers was clarified, and these purifiers have actually been used for supporting water supply. This paper especially points out that a problem exists in the various standards on radioactivity that were temporarily determined in face of emergency of radiation pollution due to the nuclear power station accident this time. In these standards, the temporary standard on radioactive iodine 131 in drinking water is too high compared with the standards of WHO and those of advanced countries like U.S.A. It also points out the problem that radioactive substances in drinking water have not been removed yet. (O.A.)

  9. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  10. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  11. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf

    2006-03-01

    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  12. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  13. Six problems in frame theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role.......We discuss various problems in frame theory that have been open for some years. A short discussion of frame theory is also provided, but it only contains the information that is necessary in order to understand the open problems and their role....

  14. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  15. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  16. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  17. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  18. Climate Prediction Center: ENSO Diagnostic Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go Expert Assessments ENSO Diagnostic Discussion Archive About Us Our Assessments > ENSO Diagnostic Discussion El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion PDF : English Version Spanish Version Adobe PDF Reader (Click icon for Adobe PDF Reader) Word: English Version

  19. The Problem of Evil

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    The Problem of Evil has been discussed as one of the major problems in monotheism. “Why does Almighty God allow evil to exist?” Various solutions to this problem have been proposed, including the Free Will Defence. But none of them is convincing. The Problem of Evil has an assumption, which is that God exists. One of the proofs of God’s existence is René Descartes’s Ontological Argument. But none of them is persuasive. Every logic has its own assumption, which needs to be verified. So this pr...

  20. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  1. Women's occupational health: a critical review and discussion of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, K

    1997-01-01

    Action to improve women's occupational health has been slowed by a notion that women's jobs are safe and that any health problems identified among women workers can be attributed to unfitness for the job or unnecessary complaining. With increasing numbers of women in the labor force, the effects of work on women's health have recently started to interest health care providers, health and safety representatives and researchers. We begin our summary of their discoveries with a discussion of women's place in the workplace and its implications for occupational health, followed by a brief review of some gender-insensitive data-gathering techniques. We have then chosen to concentrate on the following four areas: methods and data collection; directing attention to women's occupational health problems; musculoskeletal disease; mental and emotional stress. We conclude by pointing out some neglected occupational groups and health issues.

  2. Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, S P

    2013-01-01

    Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of

  3. A Methodological Approach for Training Analysts of Small Business Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackness, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Steps in a small business analysis are discussed: understand how company activities interact internally and with markets and suppliers; know the relative importance of controllable management variables; understand the social atmosphere within the company; analyze the operations of the company; define main problem areas; identify possible actions…

  4. Capacity Building for School Development: Current Problems and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dora; Lee, Moosung

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a theoretical discussion on the current problems and future challenges of school capacity building in early childhood education (ECE), aiming to highlight some key areas for future research. In recent years, there has been a notable policy shift from monitoring quality through inspection to improving quality through school…

  5. Problems associated with modelling future biomass use in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkson, J.; Fenhann, J.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main objectives of modelling biomass consumption is to obtain accurate assessment of current and future biomass supply and demand patterns. Some problems associated with biomass modelling in the developing countries are discussed, the focus is put on Africa. The wood fuel and charcoal consumption in households are investigated. Differences between rural and urban areas are pointed out. (K.A.)

  6. Social Issues and Problem-Based Learning in Sociology: Opportunities and Challenges in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglitis, Daina S.; Buntman, Fran L.; Alexander, Dameon V.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in the undergraduate sociology classroom. PBL shifts students from the role of passive listeners and learners to active knowledge builders and communicators through the use of concise and engaging social problem cases. PBL creates opportunities for building substantive area knowledge,…

  7. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  8. Southwest British Columbia natural gas supply and deliverability: Discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    A review is presented of energy in British Columbia, the role of natural gas, and options available to enhance gas supply security in the province's most densely populated area, the southwest. British Columbia has abundant natural gas supplies, and production exceeds domestic demand. In 1992, natural gas supplied ca 25% of total provincial end-use energy requirements, but this share is expected to rise to 30% by 2015. Although some say that the province's natural gas production and transmission system should serve only domestic needs, this would have significant negative impacts. Domestic gas supply policy allows gas consumers to contract their own supplies, but contract security is required. Provincial guidelines allow demand-side programs to compete with supply sources to ensure that the resource profile is achieved at least cost. In the southwest, natural gas demand is projected to increase from 189 PJ in 1991 to 262 PJ by 2005. Most gas supplied to this region comes from northeast British Columbia through pipelines that are generally fully contracted. Short-term deliverability can be a problem, especially in peak winter demand periods. The gas industry's contingency plans for shortages are outlined and alternatives to enhance deliverability to the southwest are assessed, including storage, expansion of the pipeline system, supply curtailment, and peaking supply contracts. Aspects of provincial natural gas planning are discussed, including security of supply and deliverability, economic and environmental impacts, consumer costs, safety, and the public interest. A least-cost option for enhancing deliverability (underground storage and an additional liquefied natural gas plant) is estimated to cost consumers $3.69/GJ over 20 years. 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. Eddy current inspection on heat exchanger tubes - problems and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz; Zainal Abidin Mohamed; Hairul Hasmoni Khairul Anuar; Mohd Salleh; Mahmood Dollah

    2005-01-01

    This paper focus on problems associated to eddy current inspection of heat exchanger tubes. A brief review on heat exchanger design and operation is presented. Eddy current technique in identifying inhomogeneity in tested tubes is discussed, highlighting its limitation in distinguishing between real pit type defects and other mundane anomalies. The limitation of the eddy current probe and equipment pertinent to the inspection are identified and areas of improvement are discussed. (Author)

  10. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  11. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  12. Case Method Instruction: 25 Minutes of Discussion Can Make a Difference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zbylut, Michelle L; Brunner, Jason M; Vowels, Christopher L; Kim, Julia M

    2007-01-01

    .... Findings indicated that students produced better quality answers and were better able to diagnose leadership problems in the scenario after participating in discussion, even though the time allotted...

  13. Discussion on radiation protection system from ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xutong; Guo, Qiuju

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the relationship between radiation protection system and ethical principle, viz. equity and efficiency. According to the authors' opinions, the main problem that the system of radiation protection facing now is the dose-limitation principle cannot incarnate the equity principle completely. Even though the distinguishing between practice and intervention is no other than solving the problem, but the scheme is not perfect still. Ethical issues should be given more attention and be more researched when we try to modify the radiation protection system today

  14. School Education | Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the management of education rather than teachers who do actual classroom teaching ... there is the problem of improving the quality of the existing human resources. ... study engineering or medicine which will assure them of well-paid jobs.

  15. Urgent problems of radioecology concerned with the problems of the Atomic Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakhin, R.M.; Polikarpov, G.G.

    1982-11-01

    Fundamentals tasks of contemporary radioecology concerning migration of natural and artificial radionuclides and the effect of ionizing radiation on natural biogeocenosis are expounded which arose from the developing production and uses of atomic energy. The authors discuss the problems of ecological control over radiation affection of ecosystems and present the classification of natural areas according to their ecological condition. The authors also stress the urgency of studies of migration in the biosphere of radionuclides of the complete nuclear fuel turnover [fr

  16. The Use of Dream Discussions in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical underpinnings of dream theories and suggests that discussions of dreams in counseling can aid in setting up and maintaining therapeutic contact with clients. A number of theoretical positions on the function of dreams are discussed. Specific dream counseling techniques are also delineated. (JAC)

  17. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  18. Online discussion: Enhancing students' critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling

    2017-10-01

    Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.

  19. 33 CFR 240.5 - Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.5 Discussion. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the Conference Report, H.R. Rpt. No. 99-1013, which accompanies H.R. 6. The House passed version of the bill... compatible work completed by local interests. The Senate passed version authorized crediting of compatible...

  20. Three discussions on object-oriented typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors.......This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors....

  1. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  2. Summaries of discussion groups and closeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Workshop registrants selected the following topics for group discussions: Commercial technology and beam instrumentation, 4th generation light source instrumentation, feedback systems, beam loss monitors, calibration methods, high resolution and highly stable BPM methods, challenges in beam profiling. Summaries of these discussion sessions are listed in the article that follows

  3. Intertextuality in Text-Based Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamidah Mohd; Majid, Faizah Abd

    2011-01-01

    One of the main issues often discussed among academics is how to encourage active participation by students during classroom discussions. This applies particularly to students at the tertiary level who are expected to possess creative and critical thinking skills. Hence, this paper reports on a study that examined how these skills were…

  4. Dynamical problem of micropolar viscoelasticity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    gen (1964) and Tomar and Kumar (1999) discussed different types of problems in micropolar elastic medium. Eringen (1967) extended the theory of micropolar elasticity to obtain linear constitutive theory for micropolar material possessing inter- nal friction. A problem on micropolar viscoelastic waves has been discussed by ...

  5. Panel discussion on exploitation of geothermal resources in thermal zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viramonte, J G; Mange, J; Stefani, G

    1978-03-01

    The topics discussed include the major known geothermal resources, varying ways of exploiting geothermal resources, technical and economic difficulties in the exploitation, the place of geothermal energy in the total energy policy of a given country, advanced exploration techniques, and indications of needed areas of study. The panelists represented most of the South American countries, Mexico, and Italy. (JSR)

  6. Solving radwaste problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyen, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The combination of regulatory changes and increased waste volume has resulted in design changes in waste processing systems. Problems resulting from waste segregation as a basis for design philosophy are considered, and solutions to the problems are suggested. The importance of operator training, maintenance procedures, good housekeeping, water management, and offsite shipment of solids is discussed. Flowsheets for radioactive waste processing systems for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are included

  7. The gauge hierarchy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.; Shellard, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of gauge hierarchy in Grand Unified Theories using a toy model with O(N) symmetry is discussed. It is shown that there is no escape to the unnatural adjustment of coupling constants, made only after the computation of several orders in perturbation theory is performed. The propositions of some authors on ways to overcome the gauge hierarchy problem are commented. (Author) [pt

  8. Problems of Forecast

    OpenAIRE

    Kucharavy , Dmitry; De Guio , Roland

    2005-01-01

    International audience; The ability to foresee future technology is a key task of Innovative Design. The paper focuses on the obstacles to reliable prediction of technological evolution for the purpose of Innovative Design. First, a brief analysis of problems for existing forecasting methods is presented. The causes for the complexity of technology prediction are discussed in the context of reduction of the forecast errors. Second, using a contradiction analysis, a set of problems related to ...

  9. Smart work centres in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    This paper discusses the establishment of telework centres as an element in local development strategies in rural areas, with a particular view to two new telework centres in region North Denmark. The paper argues that telework centres do not represent an easy solution to problems of local...... development and environmental sustainability, and further, that technology may not even be the most important feature needed to make them function as such....

  10. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User's Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User's Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model

  11. Discussion as media and tool in PBL project-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Claus Monrad

    2013-01-01

    on the discussions which groups undertake in their pursuit of problem-solutions fulfilling assessed real-world needs as well as meeting the requirements of the educational program, it is concluded that discussions serve as a media for achieving learning and as a tool for developing skills essential for professional......The Aalborg PBL Model encourages project-management as a way for students to achieve efficiency and effectiveness in their study-projects. This paper looks into how the development of conversation skills relates to project-management as well as other factors. Through analysis of interviews focusing...

  12. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  13. Hearing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Hearing ProblemsLoss in the ability to hear or discriminate ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a ...

  14. Factual Summary of Papers, Presentations and Discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    , amongst other things, the ability of future generations to meet their needs and aspirations. This session covered many of the issues relative to protection in long time frames. Session 4 - Optimisation, BAT and Related Topics: As disposal programmes approach their industrial implementation, the concept of 'optimisation' and related requirements are receiving increased attention. The guidance is, however, generic at this stage. Exchanges within NEA groups have shown that both regulators and implementers would benefit from a review of the relevant concepts and available guidance and experience, both at the national and international level and there is already strong interest shown in this area by the NEA RWMC Regulators' Forum (RWMC-RF) and the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC). Session 5 - Regulatory R and D Activities: The role of R and D carried out by and on behalf of the regulator is to contribute to transparent and effective regulation by equipping the regulator with the knowledge to test the arguments presented by an applicant. The session at this workshop was intended to prepare the ground for a wider-ranging discussion on the role of regulatory research within the RF. Session 6 - Human Actions: A variety of approaches to deal with human actions is presented in the responses to the questionnaire, both as regards the analysis of this scenario and as regards ways to reduce human activities. There was a broad consensus that regulation for site selection, repository designing, construction and closure should require measures aiming at reduction of the likelihood and the consequences of intrusion. In detail, documentation on the repository position and its radiological potential, the application of markers, disposal in deep geological formations as well as keeping distance from resources which could be of potential interest for future generations were regarded as appropriate measures. Session 7 - What Was Heard so Far: the View from Outside: Following the NEA

  15. Obstacle problems in mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, J-F

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this research monograph is to present a general account of the applicability of elliptic variational inequalities to the important class of free boundary problems of obstacle type from a unifying point of view of classical Mathematical Physics.The first part of the volume introduces some obstacle type problems which can be reduced to variational inequalities. Part II presents some of the main aspects of the theory of elliptic variational inequalities, from the abstract hilbertian framework to the smoothness of the variational solution, discussing in general the properties of the free boundary and including some results on the obstacle Plateau problem. The last part examines the application to free boundary problems, namely the lubrication-cavitation problem, the elastoplastic problem, the Signorini (or the boundary obstacle) problem, the dam problem, the continuous casting problem, the electrochemical machining problem and the problem of the flow with wake in a channel past a profile.

  16. Discussion of high brightness rf linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental aspects of high-brightness rf linacs are outlined, showing the breadth and complexity of the technology and indicating that synergism with advancements in other areas is important. Areas of technology reviewed include ion sources, injectors, rf accelerator structures, beam dynamics, rf power, and automatic control

  17. About the 'scientification' of politics by way of scientific expertise by advisory bodies. Social science expertise and desicion-making in social problem areas in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1985-01-01

    Taking the examples of the Council of Economic Advisors, the Education Council and the Federal Parliament's Commission of Inquiry on Future Nuclear Energy Policy, this paper analyses political situations in the Federal Republic of Germany in which social science expertise entered public debate and decision-making in certain social problem areas in a very pronounced way. By considering the social context in which these advisory bodies were created, an attempt is made to link an analysis of different social actors' interests to a review of existing knowledge and patterns of interpretation in the social sciences. It is shown that by using social science findings some actors achieved advantages in justifying and legitimating their political positions and that subsequently the relations of actors in some arenas of conflict changed-without, however, allowing to relate this causally only to the use of scientific knowledge. If, however, the use of scientific arguments is rapidly generalized, the confrontation of expertise and counter-expertise by opposing actors becomes usual practice. This, in turn, provides for questions concerning their 'scientificity', which the social sciences are asked to take up in reflections of their relation to social practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Synthesis of the working group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop was an important step in the establishment of a strategy to review the part of SKB's safety case that is devoted to the demonstration of the isolation function of a future spent fuel repository. The emphasis was on identification rather than resolution of issues in this workshop synthesis. Subsequent steps therefore have to be taken within the Swedish regulatory bodies to follow up on this report and suggest activities within the regulators research programmes, as well as organise more detailed issue evaluation for different experts group. Ongoing and planned activities within the SKB programme that are related to the issues identified in this report would have to be reviewed in detail. The great emphasis of isolation of spent nuclear fuel rather than, e.g., radionuclide retardation and dilution, featured in the SR97 performance assessment, suggests that the Swedish regulators have to be prepared to review this part of the coming PAs in greater detail. The specific features of the workshop that contributed to the rather comprehensive description of issues relevant for future licensing activities are: The combined consideration of the areas of the copper canister and bentonite buffer, the assessment of both chemical and mechanical aspects of EBS and canister integrity, the use of a published comprehensive performance assessment (SR-97) as a basis for discussions, the active participation by SKB providing additional information on recent developments. There is an educational value for external consultants and researchers, as well as SKI staff, in addressing the broad subject areas relevant for the EBS isolation function. However, a broad coverage to some extent necessitates rather superficial view of the various issues under consideration. It should be noted that the descriptions in this synthesis can by no means be regarded as fully comprehensive, and that additional key issues may be identified in the SKB programme as well as future regulatory

  19. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  20. Supporting collaborative discussions on asynchronous time: a technological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Caballé, Santi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report on an experience of using an innovative on-line learning tool to support real, collaborative learning through discussion in asynchronous time. While asynchronous interaction gives rise to unique opportunities that support active, collaborative learning, unique problems also arise, such as frustration, caused by waiting for other peoples' reactions and feedback and the consequent loss of motivation, which has a negative impact on learning outcomes. In order t...

  1. Discussion on mass concrete construction of wind turbine generator foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liang; Wu, Chaoxiang; Yin, Xiaoyong

    2018-04-01

    Wind power is one of the main power sources currently. China has rich wind power resources, wind power plants are developed faster and faster. However, China wind power construction started late, which is lack of relevant experience technology. It is easy to produce quality problems. The key to the construction quality of wind power plant is the construction quality of mass concrete construction. Therefore, construction technology and quality control of wind turbine generator foundation mass concrete are discussed and analyzed in the paper.

  2. Supporting Teacher Reflection through Online Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiening Ruan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to investigate online discussion as a means to promote critical reflection. The study was conducted during a semester-long graduate course on issues related to literacy instructional strategies. The participants in the study were four reading education candidates. During the semester they participated in online discussion about course readings and reflected on their own teaching experiences. The data sources were the online discussion postings, responses to questionnaires, and interviews. The results suggest that technology-mediated discussion strengthens the learning community, facilitates sharing of professional experience among participants, and enhances teacher reflection. The results also point to the multi-faceted nature of teacher reflection.

  3. Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Academy supports discussion meetings of small groups of scientists from within India and outside organized by a ... Conference on Physics and Chemistry of Spintronic Materials ... Recent advances in operator theory and operator algebras

  4. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  5. Management's discussion and analysis | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-02

    Nov 2, 2010 ... As discussed later, the variance from budget relates to accounting ... projects or programs (see Note 10 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, page 76). ... is based on generally accepted management accounting principles ...

  6. vhv supply networks, problems of network structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbault, J

    1966-04-01

    The present and future power requirements of the Paris area and the structure of the existing networks are discussed. The various limitations that will have to be allowed for to lay down the structure of a regional transmission network leading in the power of the large national transmission network to within the Paris built up area are described. The theoretical solution that has been adopted, and the features of its final achievement, which is planned for about the year 2000, and the intermediate stages are given. The problem of the structure of the National Power Transmission network which is to supply the regional network was studied. To solve this problem, a 730 kV voltage network will have to be introduced.

  7. Discussion on Papers 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.; Haigh, G.W.R.; Jenkins, E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in the discussion covered: the accuracy of the cost estimates for the project; the number of sluices to be used; factors controlling the selection of steel or concrete for caisson construction and the design life of the caissons; the type of gates and lock mechanism; shipping traffic forecasts; and the effect of the barrage on port operations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the two papers under discussion. (UK)

  8. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  9. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  10. Problem Posing

    OpenAIRE

    Šilhavá, Marie

    2009-01-01

    This diploma thesis concentrates on problem posing from the students' point of view. Problem posing can be either seen as a teaching method which can be used in the class, or it can be used as a tool for researchers or teachers to assess the level of students' understanding of the topic. In my research, I compare three classes, one mathematics specialist class and two generalist classes, in their ability of problem posing. As an assessment tool it seemed that mathemathics specialists were abl...

  11. European Geothermal Drilling Experience. Problem Areas and Case Studies L'expérience du forage géothermique en Europe. Nature des problèmes et études de cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baron G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal drilling has long been restricted in Western Europe solely to the dry steam field of Larderello in Italy. In the last few years wider experience has been gained as the consequence of intensified exploration and development programs carried out for evaluation and production of both low- and high-enthalpy geothermal resources. A sample of some 40 boreholes indicates the following problem areas. 1 Low-enthalpy drilling Due to similar settings -hot water system f lowing in sedi-mentary units at temperatures and depths ranging from 40° to 140°C (104° to 284°F and from 1,000 to 3,500 metres (3,281 to 11,484 feet, respectively - the technology here is strongly dependent on oil and gas drilling practice. Still, specific problems remain in the areas of multiple-reservoir reconnaissance and well completion at production and reinjection levels, particularly in poorly consolidated fluvio-deltaic sequences leading to sand control and clay swelling problems. Expertise needs to be developed to minimize costs, secure high production capacities, long lifetimes, and minimum maintenance compatible with the economics and the lack of suitable workover facilities. 2 High-enthalpy drilling Exploratory drilling is currently combining wildcatting and deeper investigations of known fields. Lost circulation, drill string corrosion, tubulars, mud, cementing, and deviation control are the most frequently encountered difficulties while drilling in hostile water-dominated environments. Formation temperatures in excess of 300°C (572°F are often the rule, and recent drilling conducted in voleanic areas have hit fluids approaching the supercritical state. Whenever these problems do not remain under control, they result in rig standby and extra costs which severely penalize an industry which needs sharp improve-ments to be fully reliable and cost effective. Geothermal well stimulation is therefore a field of growing interest, but it lacks adequate procedures

  12. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  13. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  14. The uncertain geographic context problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Any study that examines the effects of area-based attributes on individual behaviors or outcomes faces another fundamental methodological problem besides the modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP). It is the problem that results about these effects can be affected by how contextual units or

  15. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  16. Mouth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults. ... cancers. See your dentist if sharp or rough teeth or dental work are causing irritation. Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  17. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  18. Discussing Global Issues through Contemporary Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Sarah M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.; Cruz, Bárbara C.

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary global issues can be examined through the lens of modern photographic art. In an effort to prepare global-ready graduates, this article explores the pressing problems of environmental degradation, urbanization, and homelessness through the work of three contemporary artists. Illustrative works, suggested approaches, and curriculum…

  19. National library associations: websites and electronic discussion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the state of national library association websites in Africa based on an examination and analysis of the Botswana, Namibia, Nigeria, Swaziland, Tanzania and Zambia sites. Problems identified include lack of regular updates, technical errors, lack of funds to acquire quality website editing tools and ...

  20. [Computer mediated discussion and attitude polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Endo, Kimihisa; Yoshida, Fujio

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that computer mediated discussions lead to more extreme decisions than face-to-face (FTF) meeting. Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire (1984) claimed that computer mediated communication (CMC) tended to be relatively uninhibited, as seen in 'flaming', and that group decisions under CMC using Choice Dilemma Questionnaire tended to be more extreme and riskier than FTF meetings. However, for the same reason, CMC discussions on controversial social issues for which participants initially hold strongly opposing views, might be less likely to reach a consensus, and no polarization should occur. Fifteen 4-member groups discussed a controversial social issue under one of three conditions: FTF, CMC, and partition. After discussion, participants rated their position as a group on a 9-point bipolar scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. A stronger polarization effect was observed for FTF groups than those where members were separated with partitions. However, no extreme shift from their original, individual positions was found for CMC participants. There results were discussed in terms of 'expertise and status equalization' and 'absence of social context cues' under CMC.