WorldWideScience

Sample records for discrete fourier transform

  1. Approximating the Analytic Fourier Transform with the Discrete Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Axelrod, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The Fourier transform is approximated over a finite domain using a Riemann sum. This Riemann sum is then expressed in terms of the discrete Fourier transform, which allows the sum to be computed with a fast Fourier transform algorithm more rapidly than via a direct matrix multiplication. Advantages and limitations of using this method to approximate the Fourier transform are discussed, and prototypical MATLAB codes implementing the method are presented.

  2. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools. PMID:27006089

  3. Implementation of quantum and classical discrete fractional Fourier transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimann, Steffen; Perez-Leija, Armando; Lebugle, Maxime; Keil, Robert; Tichy, Malte; Gräfe, Markus; Heilmann, René; Nolte, Stefan; Moya-Cessa, Hector; Weihs, Gregor; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-03-23

    Fourier transforms, integer and fractional, are ubiquitous mathematical tools in basic and applied science. Certainly, since the ordinary Fourier transform is merely a particular case of a continuous set of fractional Fourier domains, every property and application of the ordinary Fourier transform becomes a special case of the fractional Fourier transform. Despite the great practical importance of the discrete Fourier transform, implementation of fractional orders of the corresponding discrete operation has been elusive. Here we report classical and quantum optical realizations of the discrete fractional Fourier transform. In the context of classical optics, we implement discrete fractional Fourier transforms of exemplary wave functions and experimentally demonstrate the shift theorem. Moreover, we apply this approach in the quantum realm to Fourier transform separable and path-entangled biphoton wave functions. The proposed approach is versatile and could find applications in various fields where Fourier transforms are essential tools.

  4. Geometric Representations for Discrete Fourier Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Simple geometric representations show symmetry and periodicity of discrete Fourier transforms (DFT's). Help in visualizing requirements for storing and manipulating transform value in computations. Representations useful in any number of dimensions, but particularly in one-, two-, and three-dimensional cases often encountered in practice.

  5. A discrete Fourier transform for virtual memory machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galant, David C.

    1992-01-01

    An algebraic theory of the Discrete Fourier Transform is developed in great detail. Examination of the details of the theory leads to a computationally efficient fast Fourier transform for the use on computers with virtual memory. Such an algorithm is of great use on modern desktop machines. A FORTRAN coded version of the algorithm is given for the case when the sequence of numbers to be transformed is a power of two.

  6. Optical movie encryption based on a discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yujie; Shan, Mingguang; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yabin; Xie, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A movie encryption scheme is proposed using a discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform and theta modulation. After being modulated by sinusoidal amplitude grating, each frame of the movie is transformed by a filtering procedure and then multiplexed into a complex signal. The complex signal is multiplied by a pixel scrambling operation and random phase mask, and then encrypted by a discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform. The movie can be retrieved by using the correct keys, such as a random phase mask, a pixel scrambling operation, the parameters in a discrete multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform and a time sequence. Numerical simulations have been performed to demonstrate the validity and the security of the proposed method. (paper)

  7. Properties of the Simpson discrete fourier transform | Singh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Simpson discrete Fourier transform (SDFT) and its inverse are transformations relating the time and frequency domains. In this paper we state and prove the important properties of shift, circular convolution, conjugation, time reversal and Plancherel's theorem. In addition, we provide an alternative representation of the ...

  8. Discrete fourier transform (DFT) analysis for applications using iterative transform methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    According to various embodiments, a method is provided for determining aberration data for an optical system. The method comprises collecting a data signal, and generating a pre-transformation algorithm. The data is pre-transformed by multiplying the data with the pre-transformation algorithm. A discrete Fourier transform of the pre-transformed data is performed in an iterative loop. The method further comprises back-transforming the data to generate aberration data.

  9. The su(2)α Hahn oscillator and a discrete Fourier-Hahn transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, E I; Stoilova, N I; Van der Jeugt, J

    2011-01-01

    We define the quadratic algebra su(2) α which is a one-parameter deformation of the Lie algebra su(2) extended by a parity operator. The odd-dimensional representations of su(2) (with representation label j, a positive integer) can be extended to representations of su(2) α . We investigate a model of the finite one-dimensional harmonic oscillator based upon this algebra su(2) α . It turns out that in this model the spectrum of the position and momentum operator can be computed explicitly, and that the corresponding (discrete) wavefunctions can be determined in terms of Hahn polynomials. The operation mapping position wavefunctions into momentum wavefunctions is studied, and this so-called discrete Fourier-Hahn transform is computed explicitly. The matrix of this discrete Fourier-Hahn transform has many interesting properties, similar to those of the traditional discrete Fourier transform. (paper)

  10. Discrete Fourier transform in nanostructures using scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, Michael N.; Flatte, Michael E.; Loss, Daniel; Awschalom, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we show that the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) can be performed by scattering a coherent particle or laser beam off an electrically controllable two-dimensional (2D) potential that has the shape of rings or peaks. After encoding the initial vector into the two-dimensional potential by means of electric gates, the Fourier-transformed vector can be read out by detectors surrounding the potential. The wavelength of the laser beam determines the necessary accuracy of the 2D potential, which makes our method very fault-tolerant. Since the time to perform the DFT is much smaller than the clock cycle of today's computers, our proposed device performs DFTs at the frequency of the computer clock speed

  11. On the physical relevance of the discrete Fourier transform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, JM

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper originated from the author's dissatisfaction with the way the discrete Fourier transform is usually presented in the literature. Although mathematically correct, the physical meaning of the common representation is unsatisfactory...

  12. Discrete Fourier Transform Analysis in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative computational strategies for the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) have been developed using analysis of geometric manifolds. This approach provides a general framework for performing DFT calculations, and suggests a more efficient implementation of the DFT for applications using iterative transform methods, particularly phase retrieval. The DFT can thus be implemented using fewer operations when compared to the usual DFT counterpart. The software decreases the run time of the DFT in certain applications such as phase retrieval that iteratively call the DFT function. The algorithm exploits a special computational approach based on analysis of the DFT as a transformation in a complex vector space. As such, this approach has the potential to realize a DFT computation that approaches N operations versus Nlog(N) operations for the equivalent Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation.

  13. Discrete Fourier Transform in a Complex Vector Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An image-based phase retrieval technique has been developed that can be used on board a space based iterative transformation system. Image-based wavefront sensing is computationally demanding due to the floating-point nature of the process. The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) calculation is presented in "diagonal" form. By diagonal we mean that a transformation of basis is introduced by an application of the similarity transform of linear algebra. The current method exploits the diagonal structure of the DFT in a special way, particularly when parts of the calculation do not have to be repeated at each iteration to converge to an acceptable solution in order to focus an image.

  14. Fourier transformation for engineering and natural science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingen, B.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics are covered: functions, Dirac delta function, Fourier operators, Fourier integrals, Fourier transformation and periodic functions, discrete Fourier transformations and discrete filters, applications. (WL)

  15. The Pegg–Barnett phase operator and the discrete Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Leija, Armando; Szameit, Alexander; Andrade-Morales, Luis A; Soto-Eguibar, Francisco; Moya-Cessa, Héctor M

    2016-01-01

    In quantum mechanics the position and momentum operators are related to each other via the Fourier transform. In the same way, here we show that the so-called Pegg–Barnett phase operator can be obtained by the application of the discrete Fourier transform to the number operators defined in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. Furthermore, we show that the structure of the London–Susskind–Glogower phase operator, whose natural logarithm gives rise to the Pegg–Barnett phase operator, is contained in the Hamiltonian of circular waveguide arrays. Our results may find applications in the development of new finite-dimensional photonic systems with interesting phase-dependent properties. (invited comment)

  16. Discrete Fourier and wavelet transforms an introduction through linear algebra with applications to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Roe W

    2016-01-01

    This textbook for undergraduate mathematics, science, and engineering students introduces the theory and applications of discrete Fourier and wavelet transforms using elementary linear algebra, without assuming prior knowledge of signal processing or advanced analysis.It explains how to use the Fourier matrix to extract frequency information from a digital signal and how to use circulant matrices to emphasize selected frequency ranges. It introduces discrete wavelet transforms for digital signals through the lifting method and illustrates through examples and computer explorations how these transforms are used in signal and image processing. Then the general theory of discrete wavelet transforms is developed via the matrix algebra of two-channel filter banks. Finally, wavelet transforms for analog signals are constructed based on filter bank results already presented, and the mathematical framework of multiresolution analysis is examined.

  17. Discrete quantum Fourier transform in coupled semiconductor double quantum dot molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ping; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we present a physical scheme for implementing the discrete quantum Fourier transform in a coupled semiconductor double quantum dot system. The main controlled-R gate operation can be decomposed into many simple and feasible unitary transformations. The current scheme would be a useful step towards the realization of complex quantum algorithms in the quantum dot system

  18. Time dependent and asymptotic neutron number probability distribution calculation using discrete Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the probability distribution of neutrons in a multiplying assembly. The problem is studied using a space independent one group neutron point reactor model without delayed neutrons. We recall the generating function methodology and analytical results obtained by G.I. Bell when the c 2 approximation is used and we present numerical solutions in the general case, without this approximation. The neutron source induced distribution is calculated using the single initial neutron distribution which satisfies a master (Kolmogorov backward) equation. This equation is solved using the generating function method. The generating function satisfies a differential equation and the probability distribution is derived by inversion of the generating function. Numerical results are obtained using the same methodology where the generating function is the Fourier transform of the probability distribution. Discrete Fourier transforms are used to calculate the discrete time dependent distributions and continuous Fourier transforms are used to calculate the asymptotic continuous probability distributions. Numerical applications are presented to illustrate the method. (author)

  19. The discrete Fourier transform theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sundaraajan, D

    2001-01-01

    This authoritative book provides comprehensive coverage of practical Fourier analysis. It develops the concepts right from the basics and gradually guides the reader to the advanced topics. It presents the latest and practically efficient DFT algorithms, as well as the computation of discrete cosine and Walsh-Hadamard transforms. The large number of visual aids such as figures, flow graphs and flow charts makes the mathematical topic easy to understand. In addition, the numerous examples and the set of C-language programs (a supplement to the book) help greatly in understanding the theory and

  20. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  1. Experimental demonstration of an OFDM receiver based on a silicon-nanophot onic discrete Fourier transform filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Nolle, Markus; Meuer, C.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the demultiplexing of 8×13.4 Gbaud OFDM-QPSK subcarriers using a silicon nanophotonic-based discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter. All eight subcarriers showed less than 1.5 dB OSNR penalty compared to the theoretical limit.......We experimentally demonstrate the demultiplexing of 8×13.4 Gbaud OFDM-QPSK subcarriers using a silicon nanophotonic-based discrete Fourier transform (DFT) filter. All eight subcarriers showed less than 1.5 dB OSNR penalty compared to the theoretical limit....

  2. Fourier transforms principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Eric W

    2014-01-01

    Fourier Transforms: Principles and Applications explains transform methods and their applications to electrical systems from circuits, antennas, and signal processors-ably guiding readers from vector space concepts through the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), Fourier series, and Fourier transform to other related transform methods.  Featuring chapter end summaries of key results, over two hundred examples and four hundred homework problems, and a Solutions Manual this book is perfect for graduate students in signal processing and communications as well as practicing engineers.

  3. A novel method for computation of the discrete Fourier transform over characteristic two finite field of even extension degree

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorenko, Sergei V.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for computation of the discrete Fourier transform over a finite field with reduced multiplicative complexity is described. If the number of multiplications is to be minimized, then the novel method for the finite field of even extension degree is the best known method of the discrete Fourier transform computation. A constructive method of constructing for a cyclic convolution over a finite field is introduced.

  4. An optical Fourier transform coprocessor with direct phase determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfaden, Alexander J; Gordon, George S D; Wilkinson, Timothy D

    2017-10-20

    The Fourier transform is a ubiquitous mathematical operation which arises naturally in optics. We propose and demonstrate a practical method to optically evaluate a complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transform. By implementing the Fourier transform optically we can overcome the limiting O(nlogn) complexity of fast Fourier transform algorithms. Efficiently extracting the phase from the well-known optical Fourier transform is challenging. By appropriately decomposing the input and exploiting symmetries of the Fourier transform we are able to determine the phase directly from straightforward intensity measurements, creating an optical Fourier transform with O(n) apparent complexity. Performing larger optical Fourier transforms requires higher resolution spatial light modulators, but the execution time remains unchanged. This method could unlock the potential of the optical Fourier transform to permit 2D complex-to-complex discrete Fourier transforms with a performance that is currently untenable, with applications across information processing and computational physics.

  5. A new twist to fourier transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Meikle, Hamish D

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the inherent helix in the Fourier transform expression, this book illustrates both Fourier transforms and their properties in the round. The author draws on elementary complex algebra to manipulate the transforms, presenting the ideas in such a way as to avoid pages of complicated mathematics. Similarly, abbreviations are not used throughout and the language is kept deliberately clear so that the result is a text that is accessible to a much wider readership.The treatment is extended with the use of sampled data to finite and discrete transforms, the fast Fourier transform, or FFT, being a special case of a discrete transform. The application of Fourier transforms in statistics is illustrated for the first time using the examples operational research and later radar detection. In addition, a whole chapter on tapering or weighting functions is added for reference. The whole is rounded off by a glossary and examples of diagrams in three dimensions made possible by today's mathematics programs

  6. Numerical computation of the discrete Fourier transform and its applications in the statistic processing of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, D.C.; Radulescu, T.G.

    1977-06-01

    The Integral Fourier Transform has a large range of applications in such areas as communication theory, circuit theory, physics, etc. In order to perform discrete Fourier Transform the Finite Fourier Transform is defined; it operates upon N samples of a uniformely sampled continuous function. All the properties known in the continuous case can be found in the discrete case also. The first part of the paper presents the relationship between the Finite Fourier Transform and the Integral one. The computing of a Finite Fourier Transform is a problem in itself since in order to transform a set of N data we have to perform N 2 ''operations'' if the transformation relations are used directly. An algorithm known as the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) reduces this figure from N 2 to a more reasonable Nlog 2 N, when N is a power of two. The original Cooley and Tuckey algorithm for FFT can be further improved when higher basis are used. The price to be paid in this case is the increase in complexity of such algorithms. The recurrence relations and a comparation among such algorithms are presented. The key point in understanding the application of FFT resides in the convolution theorem which states that the convolution (an N 2 type procedure) of the primitive functions is equivalent to the ordinar multiplication of their transforms. Since filtering is actually a convolution process we present several procedures to perform digital filtering by means of FFT. The best is the one using the segmentation of records and the transformation of pairs of records. In the digital processing of signals, besides digital filtering a special attention is paid to the estimation of various statistical characteristics of a signal as: autocorrelation and correlation functions, periodiograms, density power sepctrum, etc. We give several algorithms for the consistent and unbiased estimation of such functions, by means of FFT. (author)

  7. Review of finite fields: Applications to discrete Fourier, transforms and Reed-Solomon coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J. S. L.; Truong, T. K.; Benjauthrit, B.; Mulhall, B. D. L.; Reed, I. S.

    1977-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a step-by-step approach to the subject of finite fields. Rigorous proofs and highly theoretical materials are avoided. The simple concepts of groups, rings, and fields are discussed and developed more or less heuristically. Examples are used liberally to illustrate the meaning of definitions and theories. Applications include discrete Fourier transforms and Reed-Solomon coding.

  8. The fractional Fourier transform and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Swarztrauber, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the 'fractional Fourier transform', which admits computation by an algorithm that has complexity proportional to the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Whereas the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is based on integral roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i/n, the fractional Fourier transform is based on fractional roots of unity e exp -2(pi)i(alpha), where alpha is arbitrary. The fractional Fourier transform and the corresponding fast algorithm are useful for such applications as computing DFTs of sequences with prime lengths, computing DFTs of sparse sequences, analyzing sequences with noninteger periodicities, performing high-resolution trigonometric interpolation, detecting lines in noisy images, and detecting signals with linearly drifting frequencies. In many cases, the resulting algorithms are faster by arbitrarily large factors than conventional techniques.

  9. Estimation of Interchannel Time Difference in Frequency Subbands Based on Nonuniform Discrete Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Bo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Binaural cue coding (BCC is an efficient technique for spatial audio rendering by using the side information such as interchannel level difference (ICLD, interchannel time difference (ICTD, and interchannel correlation (ICC. Of the side information, the ICTD plays an important role to the auditory spatial image. However, inaccurate estimation of the ICTD may lead to the audio quality degradation. In this paper, we develop a novel ICTD estimation algorithm based on the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT and integrate it with the BCC approach to improve the decoded auditory image. Furthermore, a new subjective assessment method is proposed for the evaluation of auditory image widths of decoded signals. The test results demonstrate that the NDFT-based scheme can achieve much wider and more externalized auditory image than the existing BCC scheme based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT. It is found that the present technique, regardless of the image width, does not deteriorate the sound quality at the decoder compared to the traditional scheme without ICTD estimation.

  10. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  11. Study on the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete fourier transform measurement matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong; Li, Bei; Kang, Yi; Pan, Zilan; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Xiumin; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of analyzing the cosine light field with determined analytic expression and the pseudo-inverse method, the object is illuminated by a presetting light field with a determined discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix, and the object image is reconstructed by the pseudo-inverse method. The analytic expression of the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix is deduced theoretically, and compared with the algorithm of compressive computational ghost imaging based on random measurement matrix. The reconstruction process and the reconstruction error are analyzed. On this basis, the simulation is done to verify the theoretical analysis. When the sampling measurement number is similar to the number of object pixel, the rank of discrete Fourier transform matrix is the same as the one of the random measurement matrix, the PSNR of the reconstruction image of FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm are similar, the reconstruction error of the traditional CGI algorithm is lower than that of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm. As the decreasing of the number of sampling measurement, the PSNR of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm decreases slowly, and the PSNR of reconstruction image based on PGI algorithm and CGI algorithm decreases sharply. The reconstruction time of FGI algorithm is lower than that of other algorithms and is not affected by the number of sampling measurement. The FGI algorithm can effectively filter out the random white noise through a low-pass filter and realize the reconstruction denoising which has a higher denoising capability than that of the CGI algorithm. The FGI algorithm can improve the reconstruction accuracy and the reconstruction speed of computational ghost imaging.

  12. A Parallel Framework with Block Matrices of a Discrete Fourier Transform for Vector-Valued Discrete-Time Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Soto-Quiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel implementation of a kind of discrete Fourier transform (DFT: the vector-valued DFT. The vector-valued DFT is a novel tool to analyze the spectra of vector-valued discrete-time signals. This parallel implementation is developed in terms of a mathematical framework with a set of block matrix operations. These block matrix operations contribute to analysis, design, and implementation of parallel algorithms in multicore processors. In this work, an implementation and experimental investigation of the mathematical framework are performed using MATLAB with the Parallel Computing Toolbox. We found that there is advantage to use multicore processors and a parallel computing environment to minimize the high execution time. Additionally, speedup increases when the number of logical processors and length of the signal increase.

  13. Large quantum Fourier transforms are never exactly realized by braiding conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Michael H.; Wang, Zhenghan

    2007-01-01

    Fourier transform is an essential ingredient in Shor's factoring algorithm. In the standard quantum circuit model with the gate set {U(2), controlled-NOT}, the discrete Fourier transforms F N =(ω ij ) NxN , i,j=0,1,...,N-1, ω=e 2πi at ∼sol∼ at N , can be realized exactly by quantum circuits of size O(n 2 ), n=ln N, and so can the discrete sine or cosine transforms. In topological quantum computing, the simplest universal topological quantum computer is based on the Fibonacci (2+1)-topological quantum field theory (TQFT), where the standard quantum circuits are replaced by unitary transformations realized by braiding conformal blocks. We report here that the large Fourier transforms F N and the discrete sine or cosine transforms can never be realized exactly by braiding conformal blocks for a fixed TQFT. It follows that an approximation is unavoidable in the implementation of Fourier transforms by braiding conformal blocks

  14. Application of Discrete Fourier Transform in solving the inverse problem in gamma-ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorski, T.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach to the solution of inverse problem in gamma-ray logging is presented. The equation: I(z) = ∫sup(+infinite)sub(-infinite) phi (z-z')Isub(infinite)(z')dz', which relates the measured intensity I(z) with the intensity Isub(infinite)(z) not disturbed by finite thickness of an elementary layer, is solved for Isub(infinite)(z). Discrete Fourier Transform and convolution theorem are used. As a result of our solution discrete values of Isub(infinite)(z) given at a step of Δh are obtained. Examples of application of this method for Δh <= 4.5 cm and for the curves I(z) theoretically calculated are also discussed. (author)

  15. Post-processing of EPR spectrum from dosimetric substances through filtering of Discrete Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Fabio P.B.; Bevilacqua, Joyce S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometers - EPR - in radiation dosimetry is known for more than four decades. It is an important tool in the retrospective determination of doses absorbed. To estimate the dose absorbed by the sample, it is necessary to know the amplitude of the peak to peak signature of the substance in its EPR spectrum. This information can be compromised by the presence of spurious information: noise - of random and low intensity nature; and the behavior of the baseline - coming from the coupling between the resonator tube and the sample analyzed. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of the three main components of the signal, i.e. signature, noise, and baseline - the analysis in the frequency domain allows, through post-processing techniques to filter spurious information. In this work, an algorithm that retrieves the signature of a substance has been implemented. The Discrete Fourier Transform is applied to the signal and without user intervention, the noise is filtered. From the filtered signal, recovers the signature by Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform. The peak to peak amplitude, and the absorbed dose is calculated with an error of less than 1% for signals wherein the base line is linearized. Some more general cases are under investigation and with little user intervention, you can get the same error

  16. Replica Fourier Transform: Properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisanti, A.; De Dominicis, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Replica Fourier Transform is the generalization of the discrete Fourier Transform to quantities defined on an ultrametric tree. It finds use in conjunction of the replica method used to study thermodynamics properties of disordered systems such as spin glasses. Its definition is presented in a systematic and simple form and its use illustrated with some representative examples. In particular we give a detailed discussion of the diagonalization in the Replica Fourier Space of the Hessian matrix of the Gaussian fluctuations about the mean field saddle point of spin glass theory. The general results are finally discussed for a generic spherical spin glass model, where the Hessian can be computed analytically

  17. Fourier transformations for difference analogs of the harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askey, R.; Atakishiyev, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    The relation between the Mehler bilinear generating function for the Hermite polynomials and the kernel of the Fourier transformation that connect the spaces of coordinate and momentum is discussed. On the base of the relation the discrete analogs of the Fourier transformation for the Kravchuk and Charlier functions are considered. 6 refs

  18. Precise and fast spatial-frequency analysis using the iterative local Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukmock; Choi, Heejoo; Kim, Dae Wook

    2016-09-19

    The use of the discrete Fourier transform has decreased since the introduction of the fast Fourier transform (fFT), which is a numerically efficient computing process. This paper presents the iterative local Fourier transform (ilFT), a set of new processing algorithms that iteratively apply the discrete Fourier transform within a local and optimal frequency domain. The new technique achieves 210 times higher frequency resolution than the fFT within a comparable computation time. The method's superb computing efficiency, high resolution, spectrum zoom-in capability, and overall performance are evaluated and compared to other advanced high-resolution Fourier transform techniques, such as the fFT combined with several fitting methods. The effectiveness of the ilFT is demonstrated through the data analysis of a set of Talbot self-images (1280 × 1024 pixels) obtained with an experimental setup using grating in a diverging beam produced by a coherent point source.

  19. Fourier series, Fourier transform and their applications to mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Serov, Valery

    2017-01-01

    This text serves as an introduction to the modern theory of analysis and differential equations with applications in mathematical physics and engineering sciences.  Having outgrown from a series of half-semester courses given at University of Oulu, this book consists of four self-contained parts. The first part, Fourier Series and the Discrete Fourier Transform, is devoted to the classical one-dimensional trigonometric Fourier series with some applications to PDEs and signal processing.  The second part, Fourier Transform and Distributions, is concerned with distribution theory of L. Schwartz and its applications to the Schrödinger and magnetic Schrödinger operations.  The third part, Operator Theory and Integral Equations, is devoted mostly to the self-adjoint but unbounded operators in Hilbert spaces and their applications to integral equations in such spaces. The fourth and final part, Introduction to Partial Differential Equations, serves as an introduction to modern methods for classical theory o...

  20. Causal Correlation Functions and Fourier Transforms: Application in Calculating Pressure Induced Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.; Lavrentieva, N. N.

    2012-01-01

    By adopting a concept from signal processing, instead of starting from the correlation functions which are even, one considers the causal correlation functions whose Fourier transforms become complex. Their real and imaginary parts multiplied by 2 are the Fourier transforms of the original correlations and the subsequent Hilbert transforms, respectively. Thus, by taking this step one can complete the two previously needed transforms. However, to obviate performing the Cauchy principal integrations required in the Hilbert transforms is the greatest advantage. Meanwhile, because the causal correlations are well-bounded within the time domain and band limited in the frequency domain, one can replace their Fourier transforms by the discrete Fourier transforms and the latter can be carried out with the FFT algorithm. This replacement is justified by sampling theory because the Fourier transforms can be derived from the discrete Fourier transforms with the Nyquis rate without any distortions. We apply this method in calculating pressure induced shifts of H2O lines and obtain more reliable values. By comparing the calculated shifts with those in HITRAN 2008 and by screening both of them with the pair identity and the smooth variation rules, one can conclude many of shift values in HITRAN are not correct.

  1. Pipeline Analyzer using the Fractional Fourier Transform for Engine Control and Satellites Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darian M. Onchiș

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an algorithm for computing the fractional Fourier transform integrated into the pipeline of processing multi-variate and distributed data recorded by the engine control unit (ECU of a car and its satellites. The role of this transform is vital in establishing a time-variant filter and therefore it must be computed in a fast way. But for large scale time series, the application of the discrete fractional Fourier transform involves the computations of a large number of Hermite polynomials of increasingly order. The parallel algorithm presented will optimally compute the discrete Fourier-type transform for any given angle.

  2. The geometric phase analysis method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform for deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Huaixi; Li, Chuanwei; Wu, Lifu; Liu, Zhanwei

    2014-01-01

    The geometric phase analysis (GPA) method based on the local high resolution discrete Fourier transform (LHR-DFT) for deformation measurement, defined as LHR-DFT GPA, is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy. In the general GPA method, the fundamental frequency of the image plays a crucial role. However, the fast Fourier transform, which is generally employed in the general GPA method, could make it difficult to locate the fundamental frequency accurately when the fundamental frequency is not located at an integer pixel position in the Fourier spectrum. This study focuses on this issue and presents a LHR-DFT algorithm that can locate the fundamental frequency with sub-pixel precision in a specific frequency region for the GPA method. An error analysis is offered and simulation is conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method; both results show that the LHR-DFT algorithm can accurately locate the fundamental frequency and improve the measurement accuracy of the GPA method. Furthermore, typical tensile and bending tests are carried out and the experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)

  3. A quantum search algorithm of two entangled registers to realize quantum discrete Fourier transform of signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Chaoyang; Hu Benqiong

    2008-01-01

    The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is the base of modern signal processing. 1-dimensional fast Fourier transform (ID FFT) and 2D FFT have time complexity O (N log N) and O (N 2 log N) respectively. Since 1965, there has been no more essential breakthrough for the design of fast DFT algorithm. DFT has two properties. One property is that DFT is energy conservation transform. The other property is that many DFT coefficients are close to zero. The basic idea of this paper is that the generalized Grover's iteration can perform the computation of DFT which acts on the entangled states to search the big DFT coefficients until these big coefficients contain nearly all energy. One-dimensional quantum DFT (ID QDFT) and two-dimensional quantum DFT (2D QDFT) are presented in this paper. The quantum algorithm for convolution estimation is also presented in this paper. Compared with FFT, ID and 2D QDFT have time complexity O(√N) and O (N) respectively. QDFT and quantum convolution demonstrate that quantum computation to process classical signal is possible. (general)

  4. Introduction to the discrete Fourier series considering both mathematical and engineering aspects - A linear-algebra approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kohaupt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discrete Fourier series is a valuable tool developed and used by mathematicians and engineers alike. One of the most prominent applications is signal processing. Usually, it is important that the signals be transmitted fast, for example, when transmitting images over large distances such as between the moon and the earth or when generating images in computer tomography. In order to achieve this, appropriate algorithms are necessary. In this context, the fast Fourier transform (FFT plays a key role which is an algorithm for calculating the discrete Fourier transform (DFT; this, in turn, is tightly connected with the discrete Fourier series. The last one itself is the discrete analog of the common (continuous-time Fourier series and is usually learned by mathematics students from a theoretical point of view. The aim of this expository/pedagogical paper is to give an introduction to the discrete Fourier series for both mathematics and engineering students. It is intended to expand the purely mathematical view; the engineering aspect is taken into account by applying the FFT to an example from signal processing that is small enough to be used in class-room teaching and elementary enough to be understood also by mathematics students. The MATLAB program is employed to do the computations.

  5. The short time Fourier transform and local signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Shuhei

    In this thesis, I examine the theoretical properties of the short time discrete Fourier transform (STFT). The STFT is obtained by applying the Fourier transform by a fixed-sized, moving window to input series. We move the window by one time point at a time, so we have overlapping windows. I present several theoretical properties of the STFT, applied to various types of complex-valued, univariate time series inputs, and their outputs in closed forms. In particular, just like the discrete Fourier transform, the STFT's modulus time series takes large positive values when the input is a periodic signal. One main point is that a white noise time series input results in the STFT output being a complex-valued stationary time series and we can derive the time and time-frequency dependency structure such as the cross-covariance functions. Our primary focus is the detection of local periodic signals. I present a method to detect local signals by computing the probability that the squared modulus STFT time series has consecutive large values exceeding some threshold after one exceeding observation following one observation less than the threshold. We discuss a method to reduce the computation of such probabilities by the Box-Cox transformation and the delta method, and show that it works well in comparison to the Monte Carlo simulation method.

  6. Approximation for discrete Fourier transform and application in study of three-dimensional interacting electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xin-Zhong

    2011-07-01

    The discrete Fourier transform is approximated by summing over part of the terms with corresponding weights. The approximation reduces significantly the requirement for computer memory storage and enhances the numerical computation efficiency with several orders without losing accuracy. As an example, we apply the algorithm to study the three-dimensional interacting electron gas under the renormalized-ring-diagram approximation where the Green's function needs to be self-consistently solved. We present the results for the chemical potential, compressibility, free energy, entropy, and specific heat of the system. The ground-state energy obtained by the present calculation is compared with the existing results of Monte Carlo simulation and random-phase approximation.

  7. The Fourier U(2 Group and Separation of Discrete Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Bernardo Wolf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The linear canonical transformations of geometric optics on two-dimensional screens form the group Sp(4,R, whose maximal compact subgroup is the Fourier group U(2_F; this includes isotropic and anisotropic Fourier transforms, screen rotations and gyrations in the phase space of ray positions and optical momenta. Deforming classical optics into a Hamiltonian system whose positions and momenta range over a finite set of values, leads us to the finite oscillator model, which is ruled by the Lie algebra so(4. Two distinct subalgebra chains are used to model arrays of N^2 points placed along Cartesian or polar (radius and angle coordinates, thus realizing one case of separation in two discrete coordinates. The N^2-vectors in this space are digital (pixellated images on either of these two grids, related by a unitary transformation. Here we examine the unitary action of the analogue Fourier group on such images, whose rotations are particularly visible.

  8. Spectrums Transform Operators in Bases of Fourier and Walsh Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Syuzev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems of synthesis of the efficient algorithms for digital processing of discrete signals require transforming the signal spectra from one basis system into other. The rational solution to this problem is to construct the Fourier kernel, which is a spectrum of some basis functions, according to the system of functions of the other basis. However, Fourier kernel properties are not equally studied and described for all basis systems of practical importance. The article sets a task and presents an original way to solve the problem of mutual transformation of trigonometric Fourier spectrum into Walsh spectrum of different basis systems.The relevance of this theoretical and applied problem is stipulated, on the one hand, by the prevalence of trigonometric Fourier basis for harmonic representation of digital signals, and, on the other hand, by the fact that Walsh basis systems allow us to have efficient algorithms to simulate signals. The problem solution is achieved through building the Fourier kernel of a special structure that allows us to establish independent groups of Fourier and Walsh spectrum coefficients for further reducing the computational complexity of the transform algorithms.The article analyzes the properties of the system of trigonometric Fourier functions and shows its completeness. Considers the Walsh function basis systems in three versions, namely those of Hadamard, Paley, and Hartmut giving different ordering and analytical descriptions of the functions that make up the basis. Proves a completeness of these systems.Sequentially, for each of the three Walsh systems the analytical curves for the Fourier kernel components are obtained, and Fourier kernel themselves are built with binary rational number of samples of basis functions. The kernels are presented in matrix form and, as an example, recorded for a particular value of the discrete interval of N, equal to 8. The analysis spectral coefficients of the Fourier kernel

  9. Iterative normalization technique for reference sequence generation for zero-tail discrete fourier transform spread orthogonal frequency division multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Systems, methods, apparatuses, and computer program products for generating sequences for zero-tail discrete fourier transform (DFT)-spread-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) (ZT DFT-s-OFDM) reference signals. One method includes adding a zero vector to an input sequence...... of each of the elements, converting the sequence to time domain, generating a zero-padded sequence by forcing a zero head and tail of the sequence, and repeating the steps until a final sequence with zero-tail and flat frequency response is obtained....

  10. Fourier transform NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenga, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of Fourier transformation one of the many precious legacies of the French mathematician Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier, essential for understanding the link between continuous-wave (CW) and Fourier transform (FT) NMR. Although in modern FT NMR the methods used to obtain a frequency spectrum from the time-domain signal may vary greatly, from the efficient Cooley-Tukey algorithm to very elaborate iterative least-square methods based other maximum entropy method or on linear prediction, the principles for Fourier transformation are unchanged and give invaluable insight into the interconnection of many pairs of physical entities called Fourier pairs

  11. App. 1. Fourier series and Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Definitions, formulas and practical properties in quantum mechanics are presented: Fourier series (development of periodic function, Bessel-Parseval equality); Fourier transform (Parseval-Plancherel formula, Fourier transform in three-dimensional space) [fr

  12. Multi-Beam Radio Frequency (RF) Aperture Arrays Using Multiplierless Approximate Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Fourier transform, discrete Fourier transform, digital array processing , antenna beamformers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...125 3.7 Simulation of 2-D Beams Cross Sections .................................................................... 125 3.7.1 8...unlimited. List of Figures Figure Page Figure 1: N-beam Array Processing System using a Linear Array

  13. Some Notes on the Use of theWindowed Fourier Transform for Spectral Analysis of Discretely Sampled Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Johnson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the Gabor and Morlet transforms are examined with respect to the Fourier analysis of discretely sampled data. Forward and inverse transform pairs based on a fixed window with uniform sampling of the frequency axis can satisfy numerically the energy and reconstruction theorems; however, transform pairs based on a variable window or nonuniform frequency sampling in general do not. Instead of selecting the shape of the window as some function of the central frequency, we propose constructing a single window with unit energy from an arbitrary set of windows that is applied over the entire frequency axis. By virtue of using a fixed window with uniform frequency sampling, such a transform satisfies the energy and reconstruction theorems. The shape of the window can be tailored to meet the requirements of the investigator in terms of time/frequency resolution. The algorithm extends naturally to the case of nonuniform signal sampling without modification beyond identification of the Nyquist interval.

  14. Techniques for computing the discrete Fourier transform using the quadratic residue Fermat number systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.; Reed, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    The complex integer multiplier and adder over the direct sum of two copies of finite field developed by Cozzens and Finkelstein (1985) is specialized to the direct sum of the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers. Such multiplication over the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers can be performed by means of two integer multiplications, whereas the complex integer multiplication requires three integer multiplications. Such multiplications and additions can be used in the implementation of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence of complex numbers. The advantage of the present approach is that the number of multiplications needed to compute a systolic array of the DFT can be reduced substantially. The architectural designs using this approach are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  15. Fast Fourier and discrete wavelet transforms applied to sensorless vector control induction motor for rotor bar faults diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhaoui, Hicham; Menacer, Arezki; Kessal, Abdelhalim; Kechida, Ridha

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents new techniques to evaluate faults in case of broken rotor bars of induction motors. Procedures are applied with closed-loop control. Electrical and mechanical variables are treated using fast Fourier transform (FFT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) at start-up and steady state. The wavelet transform has proven to be an excellent mathematical tool for the detection of the faults particularly broken rotor bars type. As a performance, DWT can provide a local representation of the non-stationary current signals for the healthy machine and with fault. For sensorless control, a Luenberger observer is applied; the estimation rotor speed is analyzed; the effect of the faults in the speed pulsation is compensated; a quadratic current appears and used for fault detection. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A planar waveguide optical discrete Fourier transformer design for 160 Gb/s all-optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaojun; Ma, Weidong; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Benxiong; Liu, Deming

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effective all-optical discrete Fourier transformer (ODFT) is designed based on a silicon planar lightwave circuit (PLC), which can be applied to all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems and can be achieved by current techniques. It consists of 2 × 2 directional couplers, phase shifters and optical delay lines. Metal-film heaters are used as phase shifters, according to the thermooptic effect of SiO 2. Based on the ODFT, a 160 Gb/s OFDM system is set up. Simulation results show excellent bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performances after 400 km transmission.

  17. TMS320C25 Digital Signal Processor For 2-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    1996-01-01

    The Fourier transform is one of the most important mathematical tool in signal processing and analysis, which converts information from the time/spatial domain into the frequency domain. Even with implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithms in imaging data, the discrete Fourier transform execution consume a lot of time. Digital signal processors are designed specifically to perform computation intensive digital signal processing algorithms. By taking advantage of the advanced architecture. parallel processing, and dedicated digital signal processing (DSP) instruction sets. This device can execute million of DSP operations per second. The device architecture, characteristics and feature suitable for fast Fourier transform application and speed-up are discussed

  18. Fractional finite Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Kedar; George, Nicholas

    2004-07-01

    We show that a fractional version of the finite Fourier transform may be defined by using prolate spheroidal wave functions of order zero. The transform is linear and additive in its index and asymptotically goes over to Namias's definition of the fractional Fourier transform. As a special case of this definition, it is shown that the finite Fourier transform may be inverted by using information over a finite range of frequencies in Fourier space, the inversion being sensitive to noise. Numerical illustrations for both forward (fractional) and inverse finite transforms are provided.

  19. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  20. Polyphase-discrete Fourier transform spectrum analysis for the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence sky survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, G. A.; Gulkis, S.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of a matched filter-detection system to a finite-duration continuous wave (CW) tone is compared with the sensitivities of a windowed discrete Fourier transform (DFT) system and an ideal bandpass filter-bank system. These comparisons are made in the context of the NASA Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) microwave observing project (MOP) sky survey. A review of the theory of polyphase-DFT filter banks and its relationship to the well-known windowed-DFT process is presented. The polyphase-DFT system approximates the ideal bandpass filter bank by using as few as eight filter taps per polyphase branch. An improvement in sensitivity of approx. 3 dB over a windowed-DFT system can be obtained by using the polyphase-DFT approach. Sidelobe rejection of the polyphase-DFT system is vastly superior to the windowed-DFT system, thereby improving its performance in the presence of radio frequency interference (RFI).

  1. Digital double random amplitude image encryption method based on the symmetry property of the parametric discrete Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkouche, Toufik; Bouguezel, Saad

    2018-03-01

    We propose a real-to-real image encryption method. It is a double random amplitude encryption method based on the parametric discrete Fourier transform coupled with chaotic maps to perform the scrambling. The main idea behind this method is the introduction of a complex-to-real conversion by exploiting the inherent symmetry property of the transform in the case of real-valued sequences. This conversion allows the encrypted image to be real-valued instead of being a complex-valued image as in all existing double random phase encryption methods. The advantage is to store or transmit only one image instead of two images (real and imaginary parts). Computer simulation results and comparisons with the existing double random amplitude encryption methods are provided for peak signal-to-noise ratio, correlation coefficient, histogram analysis, and key sensitivity.

  2. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  3. Study on sampling of continuous linear system based on generalized Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiguang

    2003-09-01

    In the research of signal and system, the signal's spectrum and the system's frequency characteristic can be discussed through Fourier Transform (FT) and Laplace Transform (LT). However, some singular signals such as impulse function and signum signal don't satisfy Riemann integration and Lebesgue integration. They are called generalized functions in Maths. This paper will introduce a new definition -- Generalized Fourier Transform (GFT) and will discuss generalized function, Fourier Transform and Laplace Transform under a unified frame. When the continuous linear system is sampled, this paper will propose a new method to judge whether the spectrum will overlap after generalized Fourier transform (GFT). Causal and non-causal systems are studied, and sampling method to maintain system's dynamic performance is presented. The results can be used on ordinary sampling and non-Nyquist sampling. The results also have practical meaning on research of "discretization of continuous linear system" and "non-Nyquist sampling of signal and system." Particularly, condition for ensuring controllability and observability of MIMO continuous systems in references 13 and 14 is just an applicable example of this paper.

  4. Discrete Fourier analysis of multigrid algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Rhebergen, Sander

    2011-01-01

    The main topic of this report is a detailed discussion of the discrete Fourier multilevel analysis of multigrid algorithms. First, a brief overview of multigrid methods is given for discretizations of both linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. Special attention is given to the

  5. Scaled nonuniform Fourier transform for image reconstruction in swept source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezgebo, Biniyam; Nagib, Karim; Fernando, Namal; Kordi, Behzad; Sherif, Sherif

    2018-02-01

    Swept Source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) is an important imaging modality for both medical and industrial diagnostic applications. A cross-sectional SS-OCT image is obtained by applying an inverse discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to axial interferograms measured in the frequency domain (k-space). This inverse DFT is typically implemented as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) that requires the data samples to be equidistant in k-space. As the frequency of light produced by a typical wavelength-swept laser is nonlinear in time, the recorded interferogram samples will not be uniformly spaced in k-space. Many image reconstruction methods have been proposed to overcome this problem. Most such methods rely on oversampling the measured interferogram then use either hardware, e.g., Mach-Zhender interferometer as a frequency clock module, or software, e.g., interpolation in k-space, to obtain equally spaced samples that are suitable for the FFT. To overcome the problem of nonuniform sampling in k-space without any need for interferogram oversampling, an earlier method demonstrated the use of the nonuniform discrete Fourier transform (NDFT) for image reconstruction in SS-OCT. In this paper, we present a more accurate method for SS-OCT image reconstruction from nonuniform samples in k-space using a scaled nonuniform Fourier transform. The result is demonstrated using SS-OCT images of Axolotl salamander eggs.

  6. Discrete Fourier transformation processor based on complex radix (−1 + j number system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anidaphi Shadap

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex radix (−1 + j allows the arithmetic operations of complex numbers to be done without treating the divide and conquer rules, which offers the significant speed improvement of complex numbers computation circuitry. Design and hardware implementation of complex radix (−1 + j converter has been introduced in this paper. Extensive simulation results have been incorporated and an application of this converter towards the implementation of discrete Fourier transformation (DFT processor has been presented. The functionality of the DFT processor have been verified in Xilinx ISE design suite version 14.7 and performance parameters like propagation delay and dynamic switching power consumption have been calculated by Virtuoso platform in Cadence. The proposed DFT processor has been implemented through conversion, multiplication and addition. The performance parameter matrix in terms of delay and power consumption offered a significant improvement over other traditional implementation of DFT processor.

  7. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  8. Symmetrized neutron transport equation and the fast Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinh, N.Q.; Kisynski, J.; Mika, J.

    1978-01-01

    The differential equation obtained from the neutron transport equation by the application of the source iteration method in two-dimensional rectangular geometry is transformed into a symmetrized form with respect to one of the angular variables. The discretization of the symmetrized equation leads to finite difference equations based on the five-point scheme and solved by use of the fast Fourier transform method. Possible advantages of the approach are shown on test calculations

  9. Tunable fractional-order Fourier transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyutin, A A

    2006-01-01

    A fractional two-dimensional Fourier transformer whose orders are tuned by means of optical quadrupoles is described. It is shown that in the optical scheme considered, the Fourier-transform order a element of [0,1] in one of the mutually orthogonal planes corresponds to the transform order (2-a) in another plane, i.e., to inversion and inverse Fourier transform of the order a. (laser modes and beams)

  10. On the finite Fourier transforms of functions with infinite discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Saric

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The introductory part of the paper is provided to give a brief review of the stability theory of a matrix pencil for discrete linear time-invariant singular control systems, based on the causal relationship between Jordan's theorem from the theory of Fourier series and Laurent's theorem from the calculus of residues. The main part is concerned with the theory of the integral transforms, which has proved to be a powerful tool in the control systems theory. On the basis of a newly defined notion of the total value of improper integrals, throughout the main part of the paper, an attempt has been made to present the global theory of the integral transforms, which are slightly more general with respect to the Laplace and Fourier transforms. The paper ends with examples by which the results of the theory are verified.

  11. The use of Fourier eigen transform to the boundary element method for transient elastodynamic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, X.; Chen, Y.M.

    1989-01-01

    The boundary element method (BEM) is developed from the boundary integral equation method and the discretization techniques. Compared with other numerical method, BEM has been shown to be a versatile and efficient method for a wide variety of engineering problems, including the wave propagation in elastic media. The first formulation and solution of the transient elastodynamic problem by combining BEM and Laplace transform is due to Cruse. Further improvement was achieved by introducing Durbin's method instead of Papoulis method of numerical Laplace inverse transform. However, a great deal of computer time is still needed for the inverse transformation. The alternative integral transform approach is BEM combining with Fourier transform. The numerical Fourier inverse transformation is also computer time consuming, even if the fast Fourier transform is used. In the present paper, the authors use BEM combining with Fourier transform and Fourier eigen transform (FET). The new approach is very attractive in saving on computer time. This paper illustrates the application of FET to BEM of 2-dimensional transient elastodynamic problem. The example of a half plane subjected to a discontinuous boundary load is solved on ELXSI 6400 computer. The CPU time is less than one minute. If Laplace or Fourier transform is adopted, the CPU time will be more than 10 minutes

  12. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  13. Analog fourier transform channelizer and OFDM receiver

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An OFDM receiver having an analog multiplier based I-Q channelizing filter, samples and holds consecutive analog I-Q samples of an I-Q baseband, the I-Q basebands having OFDM sub-channels. A lattice of analog I-Q multipliers and analog I-Q summers concurrently receives the held analog I-Q samples, performs analog I-Q multiplications and analog I-Q additions to concurrently generate a plurality of analog I-Q output signals, representing an N-point discrete Fourier transform of the held analog ...

  14. Discrete Fourier Transform-Based Multivariate Image Analysis: Application to Modeling of Aromatase Inhibitory Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigye, Stephen J; Freitas, Matheus P; Ausina, Priscila; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Castillo-Garit, Juan A

    2018-02-12

    We recently generalized the formerly alignment-dependent multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure-activity relationships (MIA-QSAR) method through the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), allowing for its application to noncongruent and structurally diverse chemical compound data sets. Here we report the first practical application of this method in the screening of molecular entities of therapeutic interest, with human aromatase inhibitory activity as the case study. We developed an ensemble classification model based on the two-dimensional (2D) DFT MIA-QSAR descriptors, with which we screened the NCI Diversity Set V (1593 compounds) and obtained 34 chemical compounds with possible aromatase inhibitory activity. These compounds were docked into the aromatase active site, and the 10 most promising compounds were selected for in vitro experimental validation. Of these compounds, 7419 (nonsteroidal) and 89 201 (steroidal) demonstrated satisfactory antiproliferative and aromatase inhibitory activities. The obtained results suggest that the 2D-DFT MIA-QSAR method may be useful in ligand-based virtual screening of new molecular entities of therapeutic utility.

  15. Simulating first order optical systems—algorithms for and composition of discrete linear canonical transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, John J.

    2018-01-01

    The linear canonical transforms (LCTs) are a parameterised group of linear integral transforms. The LCTs encompass a number of well-known transformations as special cases, including the Fourier transform, fractional Fourier transform, and the Fresnel integral. They relate the scalar wave fields at the input and output of systems composed of thin lenses and free space, along with other quadratic phase systems. In this paper, we perform a systematic search of all algorithms based on up to five stages of magnification, chirp multiplication and Fourier transforms. Based on that search, we propose a novel algorithm, for which we present numerical results. We compare the sampling requirements of three algorithms. Finally, we discuss some issues surrounding the composition of discrete LCTs.

  16. The gridding method for image reconstruction by Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomberg, H.; Timmer, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores a computational method for reconstructing an n-dimensional signal f from a sampled version of its Fourier transform f. The method involves a window function w and proceeds in three steps. First, the convolution g = w * f is computed numerically on a Cartesian grid, using the available samples of f. Then, g = wf is computed via the inverse discrete Fourier transform, and finally f is obtained as g/w. Due to the smoothing effect of the convolution, evaluating w * f is much less error prone than merely interpolating f. The method was originally devised for image reconstruction in radio astronomy, but is actually applicable to a broad range of reconstructive imaging methods, including magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. In particular, it provides a fast and accurate alternative to the filtered backprojection. The basic method has several variants with other applications, such as the equidistant resampling of arbitrarily sampled signals or the fast computation of the Radon (Hough) transform

  17. On the raising and lowering difference operators for eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakishiyeva, M K; Atakishiyev, N M

    2015-01-01

    We construct explicit forms of raising and lowering difference operators that govern eigenvectors of the finite (discrete) Fourier transform. Some of the algebraic properties of these operators are also examined. (paper)

  18. Matrix-Vector Based Fast Fourier Transformations on SDR Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. He

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Today Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFTs are applied in various radio standards based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex. It is important to gain a fast computational speed for the DFT, which is usually achieved by using specialized Fast Fourier Transform (FFT engines. However, in face of the Software Defined Radio (SDR development, more general (parallel processor architectures are often desirable, which are not tailored to FFT computations. Therefore, alternative approaches are required to reduce the complexity of the DFT. Starting from a matrix-vector based description of the FFT idea, we will present different factorizations of the DFT matrix, which allow a reduction of the complexity that lies between the original DFT and the minimum FFT complexity. The computational complexities of these factorizations and their suitability for implementation on different processor architectures are investigated.

  19. General Correlation Theorem for Trinion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2017-01-01

    - The trinion Fourier transform is an extension of the Fourier transform in the trinion numbers setting. In this work we derive the correlation theorem for the trinion Fourier transform by using the relation between trinion convolution and correlation definitions in the trinion Fourier transform domains.

  20. Nonuniform fast Fourier transform method for numerical diffraction simulation on tilted planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Tang, Xiahui; Qin, Yingxiong; Peng, Hao; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Lijing

    2016-10-01

    The method, based on the rotation of the angular spectrum in the frequency domain, is generally used for the diffraction simulation between the tilted planes. Due to the rotation of the angular spectrum, the interval between the sampling points in the Fourier domain is not even. For the conventional fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based methods, a spectrum interpolation is needed to get the approximate sampling value on the equidistant sampling points. However, due to the numerical error caused by the spectrum interpolation, the calculation accuracy degrades very quickly as the rotation angle increases. Here, the diffraction propagation between the tilted planes is transformed into a problem about the discrete Fourier transform on the uneven sampling points, which can be evaluated effectively and precisely through the nonuniform fast Fourier transform method (NUFFT). The most important advantage of this method is that the conventional spectrum interpolation is avoided and the high calculation accuracy can be guaranteed for different rotation angles, even when the rotation angle is close to π/2. Also, its calculation efficiency is comparable with that of the conventional FFT-based methods. Numerical examples as well as a discussion about the calculation accuracy and the sampling method are presented.

  1. A Short Biography of Joseph Fourier and Historical Development of Fourier Series and Fourier Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with a brief biographical sketch of Joseph Fourier, his first celebrated work on analytical theory of heat, his first great discovery of Fourier series and Fourier transforms. Included is a historical development of Fourier series and Fourier transforms with their properties, importance and applications. Special emphasis is made…

  2. A simple approach to Fourier aliasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foadi, James

    2007-01-01

    In the context of discrete Fourier transforms the idea of aliasing as due to approximation errors in the integral defining Fourier coefficients is introduced and explained. This has the positive pedagogical effect of getting to the heart of sampling and the discrete Fourier transform without having to delve into effective, but otherwise long and structured, introductions to the topic, commonly met in advanced, specialized books

  3. High-order modulation on a single discrete eigenvalue for optical communications based on nonlinear Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Tao; Lu, Chao; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Wai, P K A

    2017-08-21

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate high-order modulation over a single discrete eigenvalue under the nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT) framework and exploit all degrees of freedom for encoding information. For a fixed eigenvalue, we compare different 4 bit/symbol modulation formats on the spectral amplitude and show that a 2-ring 16-APSK constellation achieves optimal performance. We then study joint spectral phase, spectral magnitude and eigenvalue modulation and found that while modulation on the real part of the eigenvalue induces pulse timing drift and leads to neighboring pulse interactions and nonlinear inter-symbol interference (ISI), it is more bandwidth efficient than modulation on the imaginary part of the eigenvalue in practical settings. We propose a spectral amplitude scaling method to mitigate such nonlinear ISI and demonstrate a record 4 GBaud 16-APSK on the spectral amplitude plus 2-bit eigenvalue modulation (total 6 bit/symbol at 24 Gb/s) transmission over 1000 km.

  4. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  5. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  6. On fractional Fourier transform moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their

  7. Baecklund transformations for discrete Painleve equations: Discrete PII-PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, A.; Mugan, U.

    2006-01-01

    Transformation properties of discrete Painleve equations are investigated by using an algorithmic method. This method yields explicit transformations which relates the solutions of discrete Painleve equations, discrete P II -P V , with different values of parameters. The particular solutions which are expressible in terms of the discrete analogue of the classical special functions of discrete Painleve equations can also be obtained from these transformations

  8. Electro-Optical Imaging Fourier-Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optical (E-O) imaging Fourier-transform spectrometer (IFTS), now under development, is a prototype of improved imaging spectrometers to be used for hyperspectral imaging, especially in the infrared spectral region. Unlike both imaging and non-imaging traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers, the E-O IFTS does not contain any moving parts. Elimination of the moving parts and the associated actuator mechanisms and supporting structures would increase reliability while enabling reductions in size and mass, relative to traditional Fourier-transform spectrometers that offer equivalent capabilities. Elimination of moving parts would also eliminate the vibrations caused by the motions of those parts. Figure 1 schematically depicts a traditional Fourier-transform spectrometer, wherein a critical time delay is varied by translating one the mirrors of a Michelson interferometer. The time-dependent optical output is a periodic representation of the input spectrum. Data characterizing the input spectrum are generated through fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) post-processing of the output in conjunction with the varying time delay.

  9. Vehicle Classification Using the Discrete Fourier Transform with Traffic Inductive Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas-Seco, José J; Castro, Paula M; Dapena, Adriana; Vazquez-Araujo, Francisco J

    2015-10-26

    Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs) are the most commonly used sensors in traffic management systems. This paper shows that some spectral features extracted from the Fourier Transform (FT) of inductive signatures do not depend on the vehicle speed. Such a property is used to propose a novel method for vehicle classification based on only one signature acquired from a sensor single-loop, in contrast to standard methods using two sensor loops. Our proposal will be evaluated by means of real inductive signatures captured with our hardware prototype.

  10. A novel recursive Fourier transform for nonuniform sampled signals: application to heart rate variability spectrum estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alexander; Aboy, Mateo

    2009-07-01

    We present a novel method to iteratively calculate discrete Fourier transforms for discrete time signals with sample time intervals that may be widely nonuniform. The proposed recursive Fourier transform (RFT) does not require interpolation of the samples to uniform time intervals, and each iterative transform update of N frequencies has computational order N. Because of the inherent non-uniformity in the time between successive heart beats, an application particularly well suited for this transform is power spectral density (PSD) estimation for heart rate variability. We compare RFT based spectrum estimation with Lomb-Scargle Transform (LST) based estimation. PSD estimation based on the LST also does not require uniform time samples, but the LST has a computational order greater than Nlog(N). We conducted an assessment study involving the analysis of quasi-stationary signals with various levels of randomly missing heart beats. Our results indicate that the RFT leads to comparable estimation performance to the LST with significantly less computational overhead and complexity for applications requiring iterative spectrum estimations.

  11. Secure Hashing of Dynamic Hand Signatures Using Wavelet-Fourier Compression with BioPhasor Mixing and Discretization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Kuan Yip

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel method for secure computation of biometric hash on dynamic hand signatures using BioPhasor mixing and discretization. The use of BioPhasor as the mixing process provides a one-way transformation that precludes exact recovery of the biometric vector from compromised hashes and stolen tokens. In addition, our user-specific discretization acts both as an error correction step as well as a real-to-binary space converter. We also propose a new method of extracting compressed representation of dynamic hand signatures using discrete wavelet transform (DWT and discrete fourier transform (DFT. Without the conventional use of dynamic time warping, the proposed method avoids storage of user's hand signature template. This is an important consideration for protecting the privacy of the biometric owner. Our results show that the proposed method could produce stable and distinguishable bit strings with equal error rates (EERs of and for random and skilled forgeries for stolen token (worst case scenario, and for both forgeries in the genuine token (optimal scenario.

  12. Fourier techniques in X-ray timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klis, M.

    1988-01-01

    Basic principles of Fourier techniques often used in X-ray time series analysis are reviewed. The relation between the discrete Fourier transform and the continuous Fourier transform is discussed to introduce the concepts of windowing and aliasing. The relation is derived between the power spectrum

  13. Applications of Fourier transforms to generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M

    2011-01-01

    This book explains how Fourier transforms can be applied to generalized functions. The generalized function is one of the important branches of mathematics and is applicable in many practical fields. Its applications to the theory of distribution and signal processing are especially important. The Fourier transform is a mathematical procedure that can be thought of as transforming a function from its time domain to the frequency domain.The book contains six chapters and three appendices. Chapter 1 deals with preliminary remarks on Fourier series from a general point of view and also contains an introduction to the first generalized function. Chapter 2 is concerned with the generalized functions and their Fourier transforms. Chapter 3 contains the Fourier transforms of particular generalized functions. The author has stated and proved 18 formulas dealing with the Fourier transforms of generalized functions, and demonstrated some important problems of practical interest. Chapter 4 deals with the asymptotic esti...

  14. Adaptive synchrosqueezing based on a quilted short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrian, Alexander; Saito, Naoki

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, the synchrosqueezing transform (SST) has gained popularity as a method for the analysis of signals that can be broken down into multiple components determined by instantaneous amplitudes and phases. One such version of SST, based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), enables the sharpening of instantaneous frequency (IF) information derived from the STFT, as well as the separation of amplitude-phase components corresponding to distinct IF curves. However, this SST is limited by the time-frequency resolution of the underlying window function, and may not resolve signals exhibiting diverse time-frequency behaviors with sufficient accuracy. In this work, we develop a framework for an SST based on a "quilted" short-time Fourier transform (SST-QSTFT), which allows adaptation to signal behavior in separate time-frequency regions through the use of multiple windows. This motivates us to introduce a discrete reassignment frequency formula based on a finite difference of the phase spectrum, ensuring computational accuracy for a wider variety of windows. We develop a theoretical framework for the SST-QSTFT in both the continuous and the discrete settings, and describe an algorithm for the automatic selection of optimal windows depending on the region of interest. Using synthetic data, we demonstrate the superior numerical performance of SST-QSTFT relative to other SST methods in a noisy context. Finally, we apply SST-QSTFT to audio recordings of animal calls to demonstrate the potential of our method for the analysis of real bioacoustic signals.

  15. Vehicle Classification Using the Discrete Fourier Transform with Traffic Inductive Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Lamas-Seco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs are the most commonly used sensors in traffic management systems. This paper shows that some spectral features extracted from the Fourier Transform (FT of inductive signatures do not depend on the vehicle speed. Such a property is used to propose a novel method for vehicle classification based on only one signature acquired from a sensor single-loop, in contrast to standard methods using two sensor loops. Our proposal will be evaluated by means of real inductive signatures captured with our hardware prototype.

  16. Fast Algorithm for Computing the Discrete Hartley Transform of Type-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Taha Hamood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The generalized discrete Hartley transforms (GDHTs have proved to be an efficient alternative to the generalized discrete Fourier transforms (GDFTs for real-valued data applications. In this paper, the development of direct computation of radix-2 decimation-in-time (DIT algorithm for the fast calculation of the GDHT of type-II (DHT-II is presented. The mathematical analysis and the implementation of the developed algorithm are derived, showing that this algorithm possesses a regular structure and can be implemented in-place for efficient memory utilization.The performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed and the computational complexity is calculated for different transform lengths. A comparison between this algorithm and existing DHT-II algorithms shows that it can be considered as a good compromise between the structural and computational complexities.

  17. Alternating multivariate trigonometric functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2008-01-01

    We define and study multivariate sine and cosine functions, symmetric with respect to the alternating group A n , which is a subgroup of the permutation (symmetric) group S n . These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator. They determine Fourier-type transforms. There exist three types of such transforms: expansions into corresponding sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier series, integral sine-Fourier and cosine-Fourier transforms, and multivariate finite sine and cosine transforms. In all these transforms, alternating multivariate sine and cosine functions are used as a kernel

  18. Properties of the distributional finite Fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Richard D.

    2016-01-01

    The analytic functions in tubes which obtain the distributional finite Fourier transform as boundary value are shown to have a strong boundedness property and to be recoverable as a Fourier-Laplace transform, a distributional finite Fourier transform, and as a Cauchy integral of a distribution associated with the boundary value.

  19. Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geick, R.

    1981-01-01

    This review starts with the basic principles of resonance phenomena in physical systems. Especially, the connection is shown between the properties of these systems and Fourier transforms. Next, we discuss the principles of nuclear magnetic resonance. Starting from the general properties of physical systems showing resonance phenomena and from the special properties of nuclear spin systems, the main part of this paper reviews pulse and Fourier methods in nuclear magnetic resonance. Among pulse methods, an introduction will be given to spin echoes, and, apart from the principle of Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, an introduction to the technical problems of this method, e.g. resolution in the frequency domain, aliasing, phase and intensity errors, stationary state of the spin systems for repetitive measurements, proton decoupling, and application of Fourier methods to systems in a nonequilibrium state. The last section is devoted to special applications of Fourier methods and recent developments, e.g. measurement of relaxation times, solvent peak suppression, 'rapid scan'-method, methods for suppressing the effects of dipolar coupling in solids, two-dimensional Fourier transform nuclear magnetic resonance, and spin mapping or zeugmatography. (author)

  20. Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Boashash, B.

    2003-01-01

    We have described the relationship between the fractional Fourier transform and the Wigner distribution by using the Radon-Wigner transform, which is a set of projections of the Wigner distribution as well as a set of squared moduli of the fractional Fourier transform. We have introduced the concept

  1. Cell shape characterization and classification with discrete Fourier transforms and self-organizing maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Fabian L; Köhler, Ralf; Bayat-Sarmadi, Jannike; Bayerl, Simon; Hauser, Anja E; Niesner, Raluca; Luch, Andreas; Cseresnyes, Zoltan

    2018-03-01

    Cells in their natural environment often exhibit complex kinetic behavior and radical adjustments of their shapes. This enables them to accommodate to short- and long-term changes in their surroundings under physiological and pathological conditions. Intravital multi-photon microscopy is a powerful tool to record this complex behavior. Traditionally, cell behavior is characterized by tracking the cells' movements, which yields numerous parameters describing the spatiotemporal characteristics of cells. Cells can be classified according to their tracking behavior using all or a subset of these kinetic parameters. This categorization can be supported by the a priori knowledge of experts. While such an approach provides an excellent starting point for analyzing complex intravital imaging data, faster methods are required for automated and unbiased characterization. In addition to their kinetic behavior, the 3D shape of these cells also provide essential clues about the cells' status and functionality. New approaches that include the study of cell shapes as well may also allow the discovery of correlations amongst the track- and shape-describing parameters. In the current study, we examine the applicability of a set of Fourier components produced by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) as a tool for more efficient and less biased classification of complex cell shapes. By carrying out a number of 3D-to-2D projections of surface-rendered cells, the applied method reduces the more complex 3D shape characterization to a series of 2D DFTs. The resulting shape factors are used to train a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), which provides an unbiased estimate for the best clustering of the data, thereby characterizing groups of cells according to their shape. We propose and demonstrate that such shape characterization is a powerful addition to, or a replacement for kinetic analysis. This would make it especially useful in situations where live kinetic imaging is less practical or not

  2. Alternatives to the discrete cosine transform for irreversible tomographic image compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Full-frame irreversible compression of medical images is currently being performed using the discrete cosine transform (DCT). Although the DCT is the optimum fast transform for video compression applications, the authors show here that it is out-performed by the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and discrete Hartley transform (DHT) for images obtained using positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and possibly for certain types of digitized radiographs. The difference occurs because PET and MRI images are characterized by a roughly circular region D of non-zero intensity bounded by a region R in which the Image intensity is essentially zero. Clipping R to its minimum extent can reduce the number of low-intensity pixels but the practical requirement that images be stored on a rectangular grid means that a significant region of zero intensity must remain an integral part of the image to be compressed. With this constraint imposed, the DCT loses its advantage over the DFT because neither transform introduces significant artificial discontinuities. The DFT and DHT have the further important advantage of requiring less computation time than the DCT

  3. Connection between Fourier coefficient and Discretized Cartesian path integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coalson, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between so-called Discretized and Fourier coefficient formulations of Cartesian path integration is examined. In particular, an intimate connection between the two is established by rewriting the Discretized formulation in a manifestly Fourier-like way. This leads to improved understanding of both the limit behavior and the convergence properties of computational prescriptions based on the two formalisms. The performance of various prescriptions is compared with regard to calculation of on-diagonal statistical density matrix elements for a number of prototypical 1-d potentials. A consistent convergence order among these prescriptions is established

  4. Application of Fourier transform to MHD flow over an accelerated plate with partial-slippage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Magneto-Hydrodynamic (MHD flow over an accelerated plate is investigated with partial slip conditions. Generalized Fourier Transform is used to get the exact solution not only for uniform acceleration but also for variable acceleration. The numerical solution is obtained by using linear finite element method in space and One-Step-θ-scheme in time. The resulting discretized algebraic systems are solved by applying geometric-multigrid approach. Numerical solutions are compared with the obtained Fourier transform results. Many interesting results related with slippage and MHD effects are discussed in detail through graphical sketches and tables. Application of Dirac-Delta function is one of the main features of present work.

  5. Automatic Fourier transform and self-Fourier beams due to parabolic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yiqi, E-mail: zhangyiqi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Xing [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Belić, Milivoj R., E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Science Program, Texas A& M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23874 Doha (Qatar); Zhong, Weiping [Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Shunde Polytechnic, Shunde 528300 (China); Petrović, Milan S. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 68, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Zhang, Yanpeng, E-mail: ypzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education & Shaanxi Key Lab of Information Photonic Technique, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate the propagation of light beams including Hermite–Gauss, Bessel–Gauss and finite energy Airy beams in a linear medium with parabolic potential. Expectedly, the beams undergo oscillation during propagation, but quite unexpectedly they also perform automatic Fourier transform, that is, periodic change from the beam to its Fourier transform and back. In addition to oscillation, the finite-energy Airy beams exhibit periodic inversion during propagation. The oscillating period of parity-asymmetric beams is twice that of the parity-symmetric beams. Based on the propagation in parabolic potential, we introduce a class of optically-interesting beams that are self-Fourier beams—that is, the beams whose Fourier transforms are the beams themselves.

  6. Discrete Ramanujan transform for distinguishing the protein coding regions from other regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Wang, Jiasong; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the study of Ramanujan sum and Ramanujan coefficient, this paper suggests the concepts of discrete Ramanujan transform and spectrum. Using Voss numerical representation, one maps a symbolic DNA strand as a numerical DNA sequence, and deduces the discrete Ramanujan spectrum of the numerical DNA sequence. It is well known that of discrete Fourier power spectrum of protein coding sequence has an important feature of 3-base periodicity, which is widely used for DNA sequence analysis by the technique of discrete Fourier transform. It is performed by testing the signal-to-noise ratio at frequency N/3 as a criterion for the analysis, where N is the length of the sequence. The results presented in this paper show that the property of 3-base periodicity can be only identified as a prominent spike of the discrete Ramanujan spectrum at period 3 for the protein coding regions. The signal-to-noise ratio for discrete Ramanujan spectrum is defined for numerical measurement. Therefore, the discrete Ramanujan spectrum and the signal-to-noise ratio of a DNA sequence can be used for distinguishing the protein coding regions from the noncoding regions. All the exon and intron sequences in whole chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Caenorhabditis elegans have been tested and the histograms and tables from the computational results illustrate the reliability of our method. In addition, we have analyzed theoretically and gotten the conclusion that the algorithm for calculating discrete Ramanujan spectrum owns the lower computational complexity and higher computational accuracy. The computational experiments show that the technique by using discrete Ramanujan spectrum for classifying different DNA sequences is a fast and effective method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Computing exact Fourier series coefficients of IC rectilinear polygons from low-resolution fast Fourier coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibler, Robin; Hurley, Paul

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel, accurate and fast algorithm to obtain Fourier series coefficients from an IC layer whose description consists of rectilinear polygons on a plane, and how to implement it using off-the-shelf hardware components. Based on properties of Fourier calculus, we derive a relationship between the Discrete Fourier Transforms of the sampled mask transmission function and its continuous Fourier series coefficients. The relationship leads to a straightforward algorithm for computing the continuous Fourier series coefficients where one samples the mask transmission function, compute its discrete Fourier transform and applies a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. The algorithm is guaranteed to yield the exact continuous Fourier series coefficients for any sampling representing the mask function exactly. Computationally, this leads to significant saving by allowing to choose the maximal such pixel size and reducing the fast Fourier transform size by as much, without compromising accuracy. In addition, the continuous Fourier series is free from aliasing and follows closely the physical model of Fourier optics. We show that in some cases this can make a significant difference, especially in modern very low pitch technology nodes.

  8. Group-invariant finite Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenefelt, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The computation of the finite Fourier transform of functions is one of the most used computations in crystallography. Since the Fourier transform involved in 3-dimensional, the size of the computation becomes very large even for relatively few sample points along each edge. In this thesis, there is a family of algorithms that reduce the computation of Fourier transform of functions respecting the symmetries. Some properties of these algorithms are: (1) The algorithms make full use of the group of symmetries of a crystal. (2) The algorithms can be factored and combined according to the prime factorization of the number of points in the sample space. (3) The algorithms are organized into a family using the group structure of the crystallographic groups to make iterative procedures possible

  9. On the inverse windowed Fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rebollo Neira, Laura; Fernández Rubio, Juan Antonio

    1999-01-01

    The inversion problem concerning the windowed Fourier transform is considered. It is shown that, out of the infinite solutions that the problem admits, the windowed Fourier transform is the "optimal" solution according to a maximum-entropy selection criterion. Peer Reviewed

  10. (Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2007-01-01

    We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found

  11. The spectral transform as a tool for solving nonlinear discrete evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levi, D.

    1979-01-01

    In this contribution we study nonlinear differential difference equations which became important to the description of an increasing number of problems in natural science. Difference equations arise for instance in the study of electrical networks, in statistical problems, in queueing problems, in ecological problems, as computer models for differential equations and as models for wave excitation in plasma or vibrations of particles in an anharmonic lattice. We shall first review the passages necessary to solve linear discrete evolution equations by the discrete Fourier transfrom, then, starting from the Zakharov-Shabat discretized eigenvalue, problem, we shall introduce the spectral transform. In the following part we obtain the correlation between the evolution of the potentials and scattering data through the Wronskian technique, giving at the same time many other properties as, for example, the Baecklund transformations. Finally we recover some of the important equations belonging to this class of nonlinear discrete evolution equations and extend the method to equations with n-dependent coefficients. (HJ)

  12. On the windowed Fourier transform as an interpolation of the Gabor transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Prochßzka, A.; Uhlør, J.; Sovka, P.

    1997-01-01

    The windowed Fourier transform and its sampled version - the Gabor transform - are introduced. With the help of Gabor's signal expansion, an interpolation function is derived with which the windowed Fourier transform can be constructed from the Gabor transform. Using the Zak transform, it is shown

  13. Study on time-varying velocity measurement with self-mixing laser diode based on Discrete Chirp-Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhaoyun; Gao Yang; Zhao Xinghai; Zhao Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Laser's optical output power and frequency are modulated when the optical beam is back-scattered into the active cavity of the laser. By signal processing, the Doppler frequency can be acquired, and the target's velocity can be calculated. Based on these properties, an interferometry velocity sensor can be designed. When target move in time-varying velocity mode, it is difficult to extract the target's velocity. Time-varying velocity measurement by self-mixing laser diode is explored. A mathematics model was proposed for the time-varying velocity (invariable acceleration) measurement by self-mixing laser diode. Based on this model, a Discrete Chirp-Fourier Transform (DCFT) method was applied, DCFT is analogous to DFT. We show that when the signal length N is prime, the magnitudes of all the side lobes are 1, whereas the magnitudes of the main lobe is √N, And the coordinates of the main lobe shows the target's velocity and acceleration information. The simulation results prove the validity of the algorithm even in the situation of low SNR when N is prime.

  14. Surface Fourier-transform lens using a metasurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yun Bo; Cai, Ben Geng; Cheng, Qiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a surface (or 2D) Fourier-transform lens using a gradient refractive index (GRIN) metasurface in the microwave band, which is composed of sub-wavelength quasi-periodical metallic patches on a grounded dielectric substrate. Such a metasurface supports the transverse magnetic (TM) modes of surface waves. To gradually change the size of textures, we obtain different surface refractive indices, which can be tailored to fit the required refractive-index profile of a surface Fourier-transform lens. According to the theory of spatial Fourier transformation, we make use of the proposed lens to realize surface plane-wave scanning under different feeding locations. The simulation and experimental results jointly confirm the validity of the surface Fourier-transform lens. The proposed method can also be extended to the terahertz frequency. (paper)

  15. Beyond Fourier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Jeffrey C.

    2017-10-01

    Non-Fourier methods of spectrum analysis are gaining traction in NMR spectroscopy, driven by their utility for processing nonuniformly sampled data. These methods afford new opportunities for optimizing experiment time, resolution, and sensitivity of multidimensional NMR experiments, but they also pose significant challenges not encountered with the discrete Fourier transform. A brief history of non-Fourier methods in NMR serves to place different approaches in context. Non-Fourier methods reflect broader trends in the growing importance of computation in NMR, and offer insights for future software development.

  16. Large-scale chromosome folding versus genomic DNA sequences: A discrete double Fourier transform technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechetkin, V R; Lobzin, V V

    2017-08-07

    Using state-of-the-art techniques combining imaging methods and high-throughput genomic mapping tools leaded to the significant progress in detailing chromosome architecture of various organisms. However, a gap still remains between the rapidly growing structural data on the chromosome folding and the large-scale genome organization. Could a part of information on the chromosome folding be obtained directly from underlying genomic DNA sequences abundantly stored in the databanks? To answer this question, we developed an original discrete double Fourier transform (DDFT). DDFT serves for the detection of large-scale genome regularities associated with domains/units at the different levels of hierarchical chromosome folding. The method is versatile and can be applied to both genomic DNA sequences and corresponding physico-chemical parameters such as base-pairing free energy. The latter characteristic is closely related to the replication and transcription and can also be used for the assessment of temperature or supercoiling effects on the chromosome folding. We tested the method on the genome of E. coli K-12 and found good correspondence with the annotated domains/units established experimentally. As a brief illustration of further abilities of DDFT, the study of large-scale genome organization for bacteriophage PHIX174 and bacterium Caulobacter crescentus was also added. The combined experimental, modeling, and bioinformatic DDFT analysis should yield more complete knowledge on the chromosome architecture and genome organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fourier transforms in radar and signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Brandwood, David

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely, and are of particular value in the analysis of single functions and combinations of functions found in radar and signal processing. Still, many problems that could have been tackled by using Fourier transforms may have gone unsolved because they require integration that is difficult and tedious. This newly revised and expanded edition of a classic Artech House book provides you with an up-to-date, coordinated system for performing Fourier transforms on a wide variety of functions. Along numerous updates throughout the book, the Second Edition includes a crit

  18. Quantum arithmetic with the Quantum Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Perez, Lidia; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Quantum Fourier Transform offers an interesting way to perform arithmetic operations on a quantum computer. We review existing Quantum Fourier Transform adders and multipliers and propose some modifications that extend their capabilities. Among the new circuits, we propose a quantum method to compute the weighted average of a series of inputs in the transform domain.

  19. Clifford Fourier transform on vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Julia; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2005-01-01

    Image processing and computer vision have robust methods for feature extraction and the computation of derivatives of scalar fields. Furthermore, interpolation and the effects of applying a filter can be analyzed in detail and can be advantages when applying these methods to vector fields to obtain a solid theoretical basis for feature extraction. We recently introduced the Clifford convolution, which is an extension of the classical convolution on scalar fields and provides a unified notation for the convolution of scalar and vector fields. It has attractive geometric properties that allow pattern matching on vector fields. In image processing, the convolution and the Fourier transform operators are closely related by the convolution theorem and, in this paper, we extend the Fourier transform to include general elements of Clifford Algebra, called multivectors, including scalars and vectors. The resulting convolution and derivative theorems are extensions of those for convolution and the Fourier transform on scalar fields. The Clifford Fourier transform allows a frequency analysis of vector fields and the behavior of vector-valued filters. In frequency space, vectors are transformed into general multivectors of the Clifford Algebra. Many basic vector-valued patterns, such as source, sink, saddle points, and potential vortices, can be described by a few multivectors in frequency space.

  20. Digital Watermarks Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Spectrum Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryousuke Takai

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent tears, digital media makes rapid progress through the development of digital technology. Digital media normally assures fairly high quality, nevertheless can be easily reproduced in a perfect form. This perfect reproducibility takes and advantage from a certain point of view, while it produces an essential disadvantage, since digital media is frequently copied illegally. Thus the problem of the copyright protection becomes a very important issue. A solution of this problem is to embed digital watermarks that is not perceived clearly by usual people, but represents the proper right of original product. In our method, the images data in the frequency domain are transformed by the Discrete Wavelet Transform and analyzed by the multi resolution approximation, [1]. Further, the spectrum spreading is executed by using PN-sequences. Choi and Aizawa [7] embed watermarks by using block correlation of DCT coefficients. Thus, we apply Discrete Cosine Transformation, abbreviated to DCT, instead of the Fourier transformation in order to embed watermarks.If the value of this variance is high then we decide that the block has bigger magnitude for visual fluctuations. Henceforth, we may embed stronger watermarks, which gives resistance for images processing, such as attacks and/or compressions.

  1. Discrete frequency identification using the HP 5451B Fourier analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.; Barry, P.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency analysis by the HP5451B discrete frequency Fourier analyser is studied. The advantages of cross correlation analysis to identify discrete frequencies in a background noise are discussed in conjuction with the elimination of aliasing and wraparound error. Discrete frequency identification is illustrated by a series of graphs giving the results of analysing 'electrical' and 'acoustical' white noise and sinusoidal signals [pt

  2. Fourier transforms in NMR, optical, and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, A.G.; Verdun, F.R.; Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH

    1990-01-01

    This book is a teaching and reference text for Fourier transform methods as they are applied in spectroscopy. It offers a unified treatment of the three most popular types of FT/spectroscopy. Non-ideal effects are treated in detail: noise (source- and detector-limited); non-linear response; limits to spectrometer performance based on finite detection period, finite data size, mis-phasing, etc. Common puzzles and paradoxes are explained: e.g., use of mathematically complex variables to represent physically real quantities; interpretation of negative frequency signals; on-resonance versus off-resonance response; interpolation; ultimate accuracy of discrete representation of an analog signal; differences between linearly- and circularly-polarized radiation; multiplex advantage or disadvantage, etc. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. q-Generalization of the inverse Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jauregui, M.; Tsallis, C.

    2011-01-01

    A wide class of physical distributions appears to follow the q-Gaussian form, which plays the role of attractor according to a q-generalized Central Limit Theorem, where a q-generalized Fourier transform plays an important role. We introduce here a method which determines a distribution from the knowledge of its q-Fourier transform and some supplementary information. This procedure involves a recently q-generalized representation of the Dirac delta and the class of functions on which it acts. The present method conveniently extends the inverse of the standard Fourier transform, and is therefore expected to be very useful in the study of many complex systems. - Highlights: → We present a method to invert the q-Fourier transform of a distribution. → We illustrate when Dirac delta can be represented using q-exponentials. → We describe a family of functions for which this new representation works.

  4. Beyond Fourier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2017-10-01

    Non-Fourier methods of spectrum analysis are gaining traction in NMR spectroscopy, driven by their utility for processing nonuniformly sampled data. These methods afford new opportunities for optimizing experiment time, resolution, and sensitivity of multidimensional NMR experiments, but they also pose significant challenges not encountered with the discrete Fourier transform. A brief history of non-Fourier methods in NMR serves to place different approaches in context. Non-Fourier methods reflect broader trends in the growing importance of computation in NMR, and offer insights for future software development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fourier Series, the DFT and Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, Karl

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to Fourier series, the discrete Fourier transform, complex geometry and Fourier descriptors for shape analysis. The content is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students who wish to learn about Fourier analysis in general, as well as its application to shape...

  6. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  7. Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

  8. Discretization of four types of Weyl group orbit functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrivnák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The discrete Fourier calculus of the four families of special functions, called C–, S–, S s – and S l -functions, is summarized. Functions from each of the four families of special functions are discretely orthogonal over a certain finite set of points. The generalizations of discrete cosine and sine transforms of one variable — the discrete S s – and S l -transforms of the group F 4 — are considered in detail required for their exploitation in discrete Fourier spectral methods. The continuous interpolations, induced by the discrete expansions, are presented

  9. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  10. On the Cooley-Turkey Fast Fourier algorithm for arbitrary factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atonuje and Okonta in [1] developed the Cooley-Turkey Fast Fourier transform algorithm and its application to the Fourier transform of discretely sampled data points N, expressed in terms of a power y of 2. In this paper, we extend the formalism of [1] Cookey-Turkey Fast Fourier transform algorithm. The method is developed ...

  11. Fourier transform and its application to 1D and 2D NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canet, D.

    1988-01-01

    In this review article, the following points are developed: Pulsed NMR and Fourier transform; Fourier transform and two-dimensional spectroscopy; Mathematical properties of Fourier transform; Fourier transform of a sine function- one dimensional NMR; Fourier transform of a product of sine functions - two-dimensional NMR; Data manipulations in the time domain; Numerical Fourier transform [fr

  12. Seismic Shear Energy Reflection By Radon-Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Umairia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic waves split in an anisotropic medium, instead of rotating horizontal component to principal direction, Radon-Fourier is derived to observe the signature of shear wave reflection. Synthetic model with fracture is built and discretized using finite difference scheme for spatial and time domain. Common depth point (CDP with single shot gives traces and automatic gain is preprocessed before Radon Transform (RT, a filtering technique gives radon domain. It makes easier to observe fractures at specific incidence and improves its quality in some way by removing the noise. A comparison of synthetic data and BF-data is performed on the basis of root means square error (RMS values. The RMS error is minimum at the 10th trace in radon domain.

  13. Adaptive Filtering to Enhance Noise Immunity of Impedance and Admittance Spectroscopy: Comparison with Fourier Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupin, Daniil D.; Koniakhin, Sergei V.; Verlov, Nikolay A.; Dubina, Michael V.

    2017-05-01

    The time-domain technique for impedance spectroscopy consists of computing the excitation voltage and current response Fourier images by fast or discrete Fourier transformation and calculating their relation. Here we propose an alternative method for excitation voltage and current response processing for deriving a system impedance spectrum based on a fast and flexible adaptive filtering method. We show the equivalence between the problem of adaptive filter learning and deriving the system impedance spectrum. To be specific, we express the impedance via the adaptive filter weight coefficients. The noise-canceling property of adaptive filtering is also justified. Using the RLC circuit as a model system, we experimentally show that adaptive filtering yields correct admittance spectra and elements ratings in the high-noise conditions when the Fourier-transform technique fails. Providing the additional sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy, adaptive filtering can be applied to otherwise impossible-to-interpret time-domain impedance data. The advantages of adaptive filtering are justified with practical living-cell impedance measurements.

  14. The morphing of geographical features by Fourier transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingzhong; Liu, Pengcheng; Yu, Wenhao; Cheng, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a morphing model of vector geographical data based on Fourier transformation. This model involves three main steps. They are conversion from vector data to Fourier series, generation of intermediate function by combination of the two Fourier series concerning a large scale and a small scale, and reverse conversion from combination function to vector data. By mirror processing, the model can also be used for morphing of linear features. Experimental results show that this method is sensitive to scale variations and it can be used for vector map features' continuous scale transformation. The efficiency of this model is linearly related to the point number of shape boundary and the interceptive value n of Fourier expansion. The effect of morphing by Fourier transformation is plausible and the efficiency of the algorithm is acceptable.

  15. Application of Local Fourier Transform to Mathematical Simulation of Synchronous Machines with Valve Excitation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotov A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a method of mathematical simulation of electrical machines with thyristor exciters on the basis of the local Fourier transform. The present research demonstrates that this method allows switching from a variable structure model to a constant structure model. Transition from the continuous variables to the discrete variables is used. The numerical example is given in the paper.

  16. Fast inverse nonlinear Fourier transformation using exponential one-step methods : Darboux transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaibhav, V.K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the non-Hermitian Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scattering problem which forms the basis for defining the SU(2) nonlinear Fourier transformation (NFT). The theoretical underpinnings of this generalization of the conventional Fourier transformation are quite well established in the

  17. 3-D spherical harmonics code FFT3 by the finite Fourier transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1997-01-01

    In the odd order spherical harmonics method, the rigorous boundary condition at the material interfaces is that the even moments of the angular flux and the normal components of the even order moments of current vectors must be continuous. However, it is difficult to derive spatial discretized equations by the finite difference or finite element methods, which satisfy this material interface condition. It is shown that using the finite Fourier transformation method, space discretized equations which satisfy this interface condition can be easily derived. The discrepancies of the flux distribution near void region between spherical harmonics method codes may be due to the difference of application of the material interface condition. (author)

  18. Universal discrete Fourier optics RF photonic integrated circuit architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Trevor J; Hasan, Mehedi

    2016-04-04

    This paper describes a coherent electro-optic circuit architecture that generates a frequency comb consisting of N spatially separated orders using a generalised Mach-Zenhder interferometer (MZI) with its N × 1 combiner replaced by an optical N × N Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Advantage may be taken of the tight optical path-length control, component and circuit symmetries and emerging trimming algorithms offered by photonic integration in any platform that offers linear electro-optic phase modulation such as LiNbO3, silicon, III-V or hybrid technology. The circuit architecture subsumes all MZI-based RF photonic circuit architectures in the prior art given an appropriate choice of output port(s) and dimension N although the principal application envisaged is phase correlated subcarrier generation for all optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. A transfer matrix approach is used to model the operation of the architecture. The predictions of the model are validated by simulations performed using an industry standard software tool. Implementation is found to be practical.

  19. Image reconstruction from pairs of Fourier-transform magnitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.R.; Overman, T.L.; Gough, P.

    1998-01-01

    The retrieval of phase information from only the magnitude of the Fourier transform of a signal remains an important problem for many applications. We present an algorithm for phase retrieval when there exist two related sets of Fourier-transform magnitude data. The data are assumed to come from a single object observed in two different polarizations through a distorting medium, so the phase component of the Fourier transform of the object is corrupted. Phase retrieval is accomplished by minimization of a suitable criterion function, which can take three different forms. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  20. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  1. Vector Radix 2 × 2 Sliding Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Yung Byun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional (2D discrete Fourier transform (DFT in the sliding window scenario has been successfully used for numerous applications requiring consecutive spectrum analysis of input signals. However, the results of conventional sliding DFT algorithms are potentially unstable because of the accumulated numerical errors caused by recursive strategy. In this letter, a stable 2D sliding fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm based on the vector radix (VR 2 × 2 FFT is presented. In the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, each 2D DFT bin is hierarchically decomposed into four sub-DFT bins until the size of the sub-DFT bins is reduced to 2 × 2; the output DFT bins are calculated using the linear combination of the sub-DFT bins. Because the sub-DFT bins for the overlapped input signals between the previous and current window are the same, the proposed algorithm reduces the computational complexity of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm by reusing previously calculated sub-DFT bins in the sliding window scenario. Moreover, because the resultant DFT bins are identical to those of the VR-2 × 2 FFT algorithm, numerical errors do not arise; therefore, unconditional stability is guaranteed. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed algorithm has the lowest computational requirements among the existing stable sliding DFT algorithms.

  2. The relationship between shock response spectrum and fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zola, Maurizio

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the basic relationship between response spectrum and fast Fourier transform is laid down. Since a long time the response spectrum has been used by structural engineers in the seismic domain and nowadays it is going to be used to define transient motions. This way to define the excitation is more general and more real than the use of classical shape pulses for the reproduction of real environment. Nevertheless the response spectrum of a real excitation represents a loss of some information with respect to the Fourier transform. A useful discussion could arise from these observations. Appendix A gives the relationship between the mathematic Fourier transform and the digital Fourier transform given by computers, while Appendix B gives some examples of response spectra and Fourier transforms of simple functions. (author)

  3. Algorithm, applications and evaluation for protein comparison by Ramanujan Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Wang, Jiasong; Hua, Wei; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2015-12-01

    The amino acid sequence of a protein determines its chemical properties, chain conformation and biological functions. Protein sequence comparison is of great importance to identify similarities of protein structures and infer their functions. Many properties of a protein correspond to the low-frequency signals within the sequence. Low frequency modes in protein sequences are linked to the secondary structures, membrane protein types, and sub-cellular localizations of the proteins. In this paper, we present Ramanujan Fourier transform (RFT) with a fast algorithm to analyze the low-frequency signals of protein sequences. The RFT method is applied to similarity analysis of protein sequences with the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM). The results show that the proposed fast RFT method on protein comparison is more efficient than commonly used discrete Fourier transform (DFT). RFT can detect common frequencies as significant feature for specific protein families, and the RFT spectrum heat-map of protein sequences demonstrates the information conservation in the sequence comparison. The proposed method offers a new tool for pattern recognition, feature extraction and structural analysis on protein sequences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discrete Multiwavelet Critical-Sampling Transform-Based OFDM System over Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A. Dawood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete multiwavelet critical-sampling transform (DMWCST has been proposed instead of fast Fourier transform (FFT in the realization of the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system. The proposed structure further reduces the level of interference and improves the bandwidth efficiency through the elimination of the cyclic prefix due to the good orthogonality and time-frequency localization properties of the multiwavelet transform. The proposed system was simulated using MATLAB to allow various parameters of the system to be varied and tested. The performance of DMWCST-based OFDM (DMWCST-OFDM was compared with that of the discrete wavelet transform-based OFDM (DWT-OFDM and the traditional FFT-based OFDM (FFT-OFDM over flat fading and frequency-selective fading channels. Results obtained indicate that the performance of the proposed DMWCST-OFDM system achieves significant improvement compared to those of DWT-OFDM and FFT-OFDM systems. DMWCST improves the performance of the OFDM system by a factor of 1.5–2.5 dB and 13–15.5 dB compared with the DWT and FFT, respectively. Therefore the proposed system offers higher data rate in wireless mobile communications.

  5. Improved FHT Algorithms for Fast Computation of the Discrete Hartley Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Hamood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, by using the symmetrical properties of the discrete Hartley transform (DHT, an improved radix-2 fast Hartley transform (FHT algorithm with arithmetic complexity comparable to that of the real-valued fast Fourier transform (RFFT is developed. It has a simple and regular butterfly structure and possesses the in-place computation property. Furthermore, using the same principles, the development can be extended to more efficient radix-based FHT algorithms. An example for the improved radix-4 FHT algorithm is given to show the validity of the presented method. The arithmetic complexity for the new algorithms are computed and then compared with the existing FHT algorithms. The results of these comparisons have shown that the developed algorithms reduce the number of multiplications and additions considerably.

  6. Iterative algorithm of discrete Fourier transform for processing randomly sampled NMR data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanek, Jan; Kozminski, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    Spectra obtained by application of multidimensional Fourier Transformation (MFT) to sparsely sampled nD NMR signals are usually corrupted due to missing data. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated on simulations and experiments. An effective iterative algorithm for artifact suppression for sparse on-grid NMR data sets is discussed in detail. It includes automated peak recognition based on statistical methods. The results enable one to study NMR spectra of high dynamic range of peak intensities preserving benefits of random sampling, namely the superior resolution in indirectly measured dimensions. Experimental examples include 3D 15 N- and 13 C-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of human ubiquitin.

  7. Multi-layer thickness determination using differential-based enhanced Fourier transforms of X-ray reflectivity data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poust, Benjamin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Sandhu, Rajinder [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA (United States); Goorsky, Mark [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Layer thickness determination of single and multi-layer structures is achieved using a new method for generating Fourier transforms (FTs) of X-ray reflectivity data. This enhanced Fourier analysis is compared to other techniques in the determination of AlN layer thickness deposited on sapphire. In addition to demonstrably improved results, the results also agree with thicknesses determined using simulations and TEM measurements. The effectiveness of the technique is further demonstrated using the more complicated metamorphic epitaxial multi-layer AlSb/InAs structures deposited on GaAs. The approach reported here is based upon differentiating the specular intensity with respect to the vertical reciprocal space coordinate Q{sub Z}. In general, differentiation is far more effective at removing the sloping background present in reflectivity scans than logarithmic compression alone, average subtraction alone, or other methods. When combined with any of the other enhancement techniques, however, differentiation yields distinguishable discrete Fourier transform (DFT) power spectrum peaks for even the weakest and most truncated of sloping oscillations that are present in many reflectivity scans from multi-layer structures. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Direct fourier method reconstruction based on unequally spaced fast fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Liu Li

    2003-01-01

    First, We give an Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) method, which is more exact and theoretically more comprehensible than its former counterpart. Then, with an interesting interpolation scheme, we discusse how to apply USFFT to Direct Fourier Method (DFM) reconstruction of parallel projection data. At last, an emulation experiment result is given. (authors)

  9. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P. [Area de Procesamiento Digital de Senales e Imagenes Biomedicas. Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa. Mexico D.F. 09340 Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  10. Comparison of Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform to study echo-planar imaging flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez G, A.; Bowtell, R.; Mansfield, P.

    1998-01-01

    Velocity maps were studied combining Doyle and Mansfield method (1986) with each of the following transforms: Fourier, window Fourier and wavelet (Mexican hat). Continuous wavelet transform was compared against the two Fourier transform to determine which technique is best suited to study blood maps generated by Half Fourier Echo-Planar Imaging. Coefficient images were calculated and plots of the pixel intensity variation are presented. Finally, contour maps are shown to visualize the behavior of the blood flow in the cardiac chambers for the wavelet technique. (Author)

  11. Wigner distribution and fractional Fourier transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    The connection between the Wigner distribution and the squared modulus of the fractional Fourier transform - which are both well-known time-frequency representations of a signal - is established. In particular the Radon-Wigner transform is used, which relates projections of the Wigner distribution

  12. Convolution Theorem of Fractional Fourier Transformation Derived by Representation Transformation in Quantum Mechancis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Hao Ren; Lu Hailiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on our previous paper (Commun. Theor. Phys. 39 (2003) 417) we derive the convolution theorem of fractional Fourier transformation in the context of quantum mechanics, which seems a convenient and neat way. Generalization of this method to the complex fractional Fourier transformation case is also possible

  13. The application and improvement of Fourier transform spectrometer experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-min; Gao, En-duo; Zhou, Feng-qi; Wang, Lan-lan; Feng, Xiao-hua; Qi, Jin-quan; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Luning

    2017-08-01

    According to teaching and experimental requirements of Optoelectronic information science and Engineering, in order to consolidate theoretical knowledge and improve the students practical ability, the Fourier transform spectrometer ( FTS) experiment, its design, application and improvement are discussed in this paper. The measurement principle and instrument structure of Fourier transform spectrometer are introduced, and the spectrums of several common Laser devices are measured. Based on the analysis of spectrum and test, several possible improvement methods are proposed. It also helps students to understand the application of Fourier transform in physics.

  14. SU(2 and SU(1,1 Approaches to Phase Operators and Temporally Stable Phase States: Applications to Mutually Unbiased Bases and Discrete Fourier Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice R. Kibler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a group-theoretical approach to the generalized oscillator algebra Aκ recently investigated in J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 2010, 43, 115303. The case κ ≥ 0 corresponds to the noncompact group SU(1,1 (as for the harmonic oscillator and the Pöschl-Teller systems while the case κ < 0 is described by the compact group SU(2 (as for the Morse system. We construct the phase operators and the corresponding temporally stable phase eigenstates for Aκ in this group-theoretical context. The SU(2 case is exploited for deriving families of mutually unbiased bases used in quantum information. Along this vein, we examine some characteristics of a quadratic discrete Fourier transform in connection with generalized quadratic Gauss sums and generalized Hadamard matrices.

  15. Application of fast Fourier transforms to the direct solution of a class of two-dimensional separable elliptic equations on the sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Higgins, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    An efficient, direct, second-order solver for the discrete solution of a class of two-dimensional separable elliptic equations on the sphere (which generally arise in implicit and semi-implicit atmospheric models) is presented. The method involves a Fourier transformation in longitude and a direct solution of the resulting coupled second-order finite-difference equations in latitude. The solver is made efficient by vectorizing over longitudinal wave-number and by using a vectorized fast Fourier transform routine. It is evaluated using a prescribed solution method and compared with a multigrid solver and the standard direct solver from FISHPAK.

  16. Fourier Transforms Simplified: Computing an Infrared Spectrum from an Interferogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Quentin S.

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transforms are used widely in chemistry and allied sciences. Examples include infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopies. A thorough understanding of Fourier methods assists the understanding of microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and diffraction gratings. The theory of Fourier transforms has been presented in this "Journal",…

  17. Effective Approach to Calculate Analysis Window in Infinite Discrete Gabor Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-periodic/infinite discrete Gabor transform (DGT is more effective than the periodic/finite one in many applications. In this paper, a fast and effective approach is presented to efficiently compute the Gabor analysis window for arbitrary given synthesis window in DGT of long-periodic/infinite sequences, in which the new orthogonality constraint between analysis window and synthesis window in DGT for long-periodic/infinite sequences is derived and proved to be equivalent to the completeness condition of the long-periodic/infinite DGT. By using the property of delta function, the original orthogonality can be expressed as a certain number of linear equation sets in both the critical sampling case and the oversampling case, which can be fast and efficiently calculated by fast discrete Fourier transform (FFT. The computational complexity of the proposed approach is analyzed and compared with that of the existing canonical algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the proposed approach is efficient and fast for computing Gabor analysis window in both the critical sampling case and the oversampling case in comparison to existing algorithms.

  18. On integral and finite Fourier transforms of continuous q-Hermite polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakishiyeva, M. K.; Atakishiyev, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    We give an overview of the remarkably simple transformation properties of the continuous q-Hermite polynomials H n (x vertical bar q) of Rogers with respect to the classical Fourier integral transform. The behavior of the q-Hermite polynomials under the finite Fourier transform and an explicit form of the q-extended eigenfunctions of the finite Fourier transform, defined in terms of these polynomials, are also discussed.

  19. Limited-angle three-dimensional reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero has been calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms has been analyzed in detail. it was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect which tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time

  20. Limited-angle 3-D reconstructions using Fourier transform iterations and Radon transform iterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.C.; Perez-Mendez, V.

    1979-12-01

    The principles of limited-angle reconstruction of space-limited objects using the concepts of allowed cone and missing cone in Fourier space are discussed. The distortion of a point source resulting from setting the Fourier components in the missing cone to zero was calculated mathematically, and its bearing on the convergence of an iteration scheme involving Fourier transforms was analyzed in detail. It was found that the convergence rate is fairly insensitive to the position of the point source within the boundary of the object, apart from an edge effect that tends to enhance some parts of the boundary in reconstructing the object. Another iteration scheme involving Radon transforms was introduced and compared to the Fourier transform method in such areas as root mean square error, stability with respect to noise, and computer reconstruction time. 8 figures, 2 tables

  1. Discrete integrable systems and hodograph transformations arising from motions of discrete plane curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    We consider integrable discretizations of some soliton equations associated with the motions of plane curves: the Wadati-Konno-Ichikawa elastic beam equation, the complex Dym equation and the short pulse equation. They are related to the modified KdV or the sine-Gordon equations by the hodograph transformations. Based on the observation that the hodograph transformations are regarded as the Euler-Lagrange transformations of the curve motions, we construct the discrete analogues of the hodograph transformations, which yield integrable discretizations of those soliton equations. (paper)

  2. Reducing aberration effect of Fourier transform lens by modifying Fourier spectrum of diffractive optical element in beam shaping optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie

    2015-10-20

    In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.

  3. Generalized Fourier transforms Fk,a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Ben Said; Kobayashi, Toshiyuki; Ørsted, Bent

    2009-01-01

    We construct a two-parameter family of actions ωk,a of the Lie algebra by differential-difference operators on . Here, k is a multiplicity-function for the Dunkl operators, and a>0 arises from the interpolation of the Weil representation and the minimal unitary representation of the conformal gro...... of our semigroup Ωk,a provides us with (k,a) -generalized Fourier transforms , which includes the Dunkl transform ( a=2 ) and a new unitary operator ( a=1 ) as a Dunkl-type generalization of the classical Hankel transform....

  4. An Exact Method to Determine the Photonic Resonances of Quasicrystals Based on Discrete Fourier Harmonics of Higher-Dimensional Atomic Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad A. Namin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous method for obtaining the diffraction patterns of quasicrystals is presented. Diffraction patterns are an essential analytical tool in the study of quasicrystals, since they can be used to determine their photonic resonances. Previous methods for approximating the diffraction patterns of quasicrystals have relied on evaluating the Fourier transform of finite-sized super-lattices. Our approach, on the other hand, is exact in the sense that it is based on a technique that embeds quasicrystals into higher dimensional periodic hyper-lattices, thereby completely capturing the properties of the infinite structure. The periodicity of the unit cell in the higher dimensional space can be exploited to obtain the Fourier series expansion in closed-form of the corresponding atomic surfaces. The utility of the method is demonstrated by applying it to one-dimensional Fibonacci and two-dimensional Penrose quasicrystals. The results are verified by comparing them to those obtained by using the conventional super-lattice method. It is shown that the conventional super-cell approach can lead to inaccurate results due to the continuous nature of the Fourier transform, since quasicrystals have a discrete spectrum, whereas the approach introduced in this paper generates discrete Fourier harmonics. Furthermore, the conventional approach requires very large super-cells and high-resolution sampling of the reciprocal space in order to produce accurate results leading to a very large computational burden, whereas the proposed method generates accurate results with a relatively small number of terms. Finally, we propose how this approach can be generalized from the vertex model, which assumes identical particles at all vertices, to a more realistic case where the quasicrystal is composed of different atoms.

  5. The Fourier Transform for Certain HyperKähler Fourfolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, M.; Vial, C.

    2016-01-01

    Using a codimension-1 algebraic cycle obtained from the Poincaré line bundle, Beauville defined the Fourier transform on the Chow groups of an abelian variety A and showed that the Fourier transform induces a decomposition of the Chow ring CH∗(A). By using a codimension-2 algebraic cycle

  6. On the discrete Gabor transform and the discrete Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Geilen, M.C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal (or synthesis window) and the inverse operation -- the Gabor transform -- with which Gabor's expansion coefficients can be determined, are introduced. It is shown how, in the case of a

  7. Application of discrete Fourier inter-coefficient difference for assessing genetic sequence similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian R; Aburdene, Maurice; Thompson, Alex; Warres, Zach

    2014-01-01

    Digital signal processing (DSP) techniques for biological sequence analysis continue to grow in popularity due to the inherent digital nature of these sequences. DSP methods have demonstrated early success for detection of coding regions in a gene. Recently, these methods are being used to establish DNA gene similarity. We present the inter-coefficient difference (ICD) transformation, a novel extension of the discrete Fourier transformation, which can be applied to any DNA sequence. The ICD method is a mathematical, alignment-free DNA comparison method that generates a genetic signature for any DNA sequence that is used to generate relative measures of similarity among DNA sequences. We demonstrate our method on a set of insulin genes obtained from an evolutionarily wide range of species, and on a set of avian influenza viral sequences, which represents a set of highly similar sequences. We compare phylogenetic trees generated using our technique against trees generated using traditional alignment techniques for similarity and demonstrate that the ICD method produces a highly accurate tree without requiring an alignment prior to establishing sequence similarity.

  8. From Fourier Transforms to Singular Eigenfunctions for Multigroup Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    2001-01-01

    A new Fourier transform approach to the solution of the multigroup transport equation with anisotropic scattering and isotropic source is presented. Through routine analytical continuation, the inversion contour is shifted from the real line to produce contributions from the poles and cuts in the complex plane. The integrand along the branch cut is then recast in terms of matrix continuum singular eigenfunctions, demonstrating equivalence of Fourier transform inversion and the singular eigenfunction expansion. The significance of this paper is that it represents the initial step in revealing the intimate connection between the Fourier transform and singular eigenfunction approaches as well as serves as a basis for a numerical algorithm

  9. Comparative study on γ energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dongsheng; Di Yuming; Zhou Chunlin

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise γ energy spectrum of 60 Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for γ energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to γ energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

  10. On the Scaled Fractional Fourier Transformation Operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong-Yi, Fan; Li-Yun, Hu

    2008-01-01

    Based on our previous study [Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2238] in which the Fresnel operator corresponding to classical Fresnel transform was introduced, we derive the fractional Fourier transformation operator, and the optical operator method is then enriched

  11. The finite Fourier transform of classical polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Atul; Jiu, Lin; Moll, Victor H.; Vignat, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The finite Fourier transform of a family of orthogonal polynomials $A_{n}(x)$, is the usual transform of the polynomial extended by $0$ outside their natural domain. Explicit expressions are given for the Legendre, Jacobi, Gegenbauer and Chebyshev families.

  12. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-01-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog 2 N rather than N 2 ) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  13. The PROSAIC Laplace and Fourier Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting

  14. Fourier transforms and convolutions for the experimentalist

    CERN Document Server

    Jennison, RC

    1961-01-01

    Fourier Transforms and Convolutions for the Experimentalist provides the experimentalist with a guide to the principles and practical uses of the Fourier transformation. It aims to bridge the gap between the more abstract account of a purely mathematical approach and the rule of thumb calculation and intuition of the practical worker. The monograph springs from a lecture course which the author has given in recent years and for which he has drawn upon a number of sources, including a set of notes compiled by the late Dr. I. C. Browne from a series of lectures given by Mr. J . A. Ratcliffe of t

  15. From Fourier analysis to wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Gomes, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This text introduces the basic concepts of function spaces and operators, both from the continuous and discrete viewpoints.  Fourier and Window Fourier Transforms are introduced and used as a guide to arrive at the concept of Wavelet transform.  The fundamental aspects of multiresolution representation, and its importance to function discretization and to the construction of wavelets is also discussed. Emphasis is given on ideas and intuition, avoiding the heavy computations which are usually involved in the study of wavelets.  Readers should have a basic knowledge of linear algebra, calculus, and some familiarity with complex analysis.  Basic knowledge of signal and image processing is desirable. This text originated from a set of notes in Portuguese that the authors wrote for a wavelet course on the Brazilian Mathematical Colloquium in 1997 at IMPA, Rio de Janeiro.

  16. Sparse-matrix factorizations for fast symmetric Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work proposes new fast algorithms computing the discrete Fourier transform of certain families of symmetric sequences. Sequences commonly found in problems of structure determination by x-ray crystallography and in numerical solutions of boundary-value problems in partial differential equations are dealt with. In the algorithms presented, the redundancies in the input and output data, due to the presence of symmetries in the input data sequence, were eliminated. Using ring-theoretical methods a matrix representation is obtained for the remaining calculations; which factors as the product of a complex block-diagonal matrix times as integral matrix. A basic two-step algorithm scheme arises from this factorization with a first step consisting of pre-additions and a second step containing the calculations involved in computing with the blocks in the block-diagonal factor. These blocks are structured as block-Hankel matrices, and two sparse-matrix factoring formulas are developed in order to diminish their arithmetic complexity

  17. Fast fourier algorithms in spectral computation and analysis of vibrating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, U.; Hafeez, T.; Khan, M.Z.; Amir, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this work we have discussed Fourier and its history series, relationships among various Fourier mappings, Fourier coefficients, transforms, inverse transforms, integrals, analyses, discrete and fast algorithms for data processing and analysis of vibrating systems. The evaluation of magnitude of the source signal at transmission time, related coefficient matrix, intensity, and magnitude at the receiving end (stations). Matrix computation of Fourier transform has been explained, and applications are presented. The fast Fourier transforms, new computational scheme. have been tested with an example. The work also includes digital programs for obtaining the frequency contents of time function. It has been explained that how the fast Fourier algorithms (FFT) has decreased computational work by several order of magnitudes and split the spectrum of a signal into two (even and odd modes) at every successive step. That fast quantitative processing for discrete Fourier transforms' computations as well as signal splitting and combination provides an efficient. and reliable tool for spectral analyses. Fourier series decompose the given variable into a sum of oscillatory functions each having a specific frequency. These frequencies, with their corresponding amplitude and phase angles, constitute the frequency contents of the original time functions. These fast processing achievements, signals decomposition and combination may be carried out by the principle of superposition and convolution for, even, signals of different frequencies. Considerable information about a machine or a structure can be derived from variable speed and frequency tests. (author)

  18. Fourier transform resampling: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in medical imaging is the development of reconstruction algorithms for nonstandard geometries. This work focuses on the application of Fourier analysis to the problem of resampling or rebinning. Conventional resampling methods utilizing some form of interpolation almost always result in a loss of resolution in the tomographic image. Fourier Transform Resampling (FTRS) offers potential improvement because the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the process behaves like an ideal low pass filter. The MTF, however, is nonstationary if the coordinate transformation is nonlinear. FTRS may be viewed as a generalization of the linear coordinate transformations of standard Fourier analysis. Simulated MTF's were obtained by projecting point sources at different transverse positions in the flat fan beam detector geometry. These MTF's were compared to the closed form expression for FIRS. Excellent agreement was obtained for frequencies at or below the estimated cutoff frequency. The resulting FTRS algorithm is applied to simulations with symmetric fan beam geometry, an elliptical orbit and uniform attenuation, with a normalized root mean square error (NRME) of 0.036. Also, a Tc-99m point source study (1 cm dia., placed in air 10 cm from the COR) for a circular fan beam acquisition was reconstructed with a hybrid resampling method. The FWHM of the hybrid resampling method was 11.28 mm and compares favorably with a direct reconstruction (FWHM: 11.03 mm)

  19. FOURIER SERIES MODELS THROUGH TRANSFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT

    monthly temperature data (1996 – 2005) collected from the National Root ... KEY WORDS: Fourier series, square transformation, multiplicative model, ... fluctuations or movements are often periodic(Ekpeyong,2005). .... significant trend or not, if the trend is not significant, the grand mean may be used as an estimate of trend.

  20. Fourier transform in multimode systems in the Bargmann representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, C; Vourdas, A

    2007-01-01

    A Fourier transform in a multimode system is studied, using the Bargmann representation. The growth of a Bargmann function is shown to be related to the second-order correlation of the corresponding state. Both the total growth and the total second-order correlation remain unchanged under the Fourier transform. Examples with coherent states, squeezed states and Mittag-Leffler states are discussed

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1978-01-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical Systems presents the chemical applications of the Fourier transform interferometry (FT-IR).The book contains discussions on the applications of FT-IR in the fields of chromatography FT-IR, polymers and biological macromolecules, emission spectroscopy, matrix isolation, high-pressure interferometry, and far infrared interferometry. The final chapter is devoted to the presentation of the use of FT-IR in solving national technical problems such as air pollution, space exploration, and energy related subjects.Researc

  2. Fourier transform infrared spectra applications to chemical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, John R

    1985-01-01

    The final and largest volume to complete this four-volume treatise is published in response to the intense commercial and research interest in Fourier Transform Interferometry.Presenting current information from leading experts in the field, Volume 4 introduces new information on, for example, applications of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Far-Infrared Region. The editors place emphasis on surface studies and address advances in Capillary Gas Chromatography - Fourier Transform Interferometry.Volume 4 especially benefits spectroscopists and physicists, as well as researchers

  3. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  4. Fast numerical algorithm for the linear canonical transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, Bryan M; Sheridan, John T

    2005-05-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) describes the effect of any quadratic phase system (QPS) on an input optical wave field. Special cases of the LCT include the fractional Fourier transform (FRT), the Fourier transform (FT), and the Fresnel transform (FST) describing free-space propagation. Currently there are numerous efficient algorithms used (for purposes of numerical simulation in the area of optical signal processing) to calculate the discrete FT, FRT, and FST. All of these algorithms are based on the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT). In this paper we develop theory for the discrete linear canonical transform (DLCT), which is to the LCT what the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is to the FT. We then derive the fast linear canonical transform (FLCT), an N log N algorithm for its numerical implementation by an approach similar to that used in deriving the FFT from the DFT. Our algorithm is significantly different from the FFT, is based purely on the properties of the LCT, and can be used for FFT, FRT, and FST calculations and, in the most general case, for the rapid calculation of the effect of any QPS.

  5. A discrete dislocation–transformation model for austenitic single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J; Turteltaub, S; Remmers, J J C; Van der Giessen, E

    2008-01-01

    A discrete model for analyzing the interaction between plastic flow and martensitic phase transformations is developed. The model is intended for simulating the microstructure evolution in a single crystal of austenite that transforms non-homogeneously into martensite. The plastic flow in the untransformed austenite is simulated using a plane-strain discrete dislocation model. The phase transformation is modeled via the nucleation and growth of discrete martensitic regions embedded in the austenitic single crystal. At each instant during loading, the coupled elasto-plasto-transformation problem is solved using the superposition of analytical solutions for the discrete dislocations and discrete transformation regions embedded in an infinite homogeneous medium and the numerical solution of a complementary problem used to enforce the actual boundary conditions and the heterogeneities in the medium. In order to describe the nucleation and growth of martensitic regions, a nucleation criterion and a kinetic law suitable for discrete regions are specified. The constitutive rules used in discrete dislocation simulations are supplemented with additional evolution rules to account for the phase transformation. To illustrate the basic features of the model, simulations of specimens under plane-strain uniaxial extension and contraction are analyzed. The simulations indicate that plastic flow reduces the average stress at which transformation begins, but it also reduces the transformation rate when compared with benchmark simulations without plasticity. Furthermore, due to local stress fluctuations caused by dislocations, martensitic systems can be activated even though transformation would not appear to be favorable based on the average stress. Conversely, the simulations indicate that the plastic hardening behavior is influenced by the reduction in the effective austenitic grain size due to the evolution of transformation. During cyclic simulations, the coupled plasticity-transformation

  6. Solution of 3-dimensional diffusion equation by finite Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnani, P.D.

    1978-01-01

    Three dimensional diffusion equation in Cartesian co-ordinates is solved by using the finite Fourier transformation. This method is different from the usual Fourier transformation method in the sense that the solutions are obtained without performing the inverse Fourier transformation. The advantage has been taken of the fact that the flux is finite and integrable in the finite region. By applying this condition, a two-dimensional integral equation, involving flux and its normal derivative at the boundary, is obtained. By solving this equation with given boundary conditions, all of the boundary values are determined. In order to calculate the flux inside the region, flux is expanded into three-dimensional Fourier series. The Fourier coefficients of the flux in the region are calculated from the boundary values. The advantage of this method is that the integrated flux is obtained without knowing the fluxes inside the region as in the case of finite difference method. (author)

  7. The prosaic Laplace and Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    Integral Transform methods play an extremely important role in many branches of science and engineering. The ease with which many problems may be solved using these techniques is well known. In Electrical Engineering especially, Laplace and Fourier Transforms have been used for a long time as a way to change the solution of differential equations into trivial algebraic manipulations or to provide alternate representations of signals and data. These techniques, while seemingly overshadowed by today's emphasis on digital analysis, still form an invaluable basis in the understanding of systems and circuits. A firm grasp of the practical aspects of these subjects provides valuable conceptual tools. This tutorial paper is a review of Laplace and Fourier Transforms from an applied perspective with an emphasis on engineering applications. The interrelationship of the time and frequency domains will be stressed, in an attempt to comfort those who, after living so much of their lives in the time domain, find thinking in the frequency domain disquieting. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  8. Image Retrieval Algorithm Based on Discrete Fractional Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Neeru; Singh, Kulbir

    2013-06-01

    The discrete fractional transforms is a signal processing tool which suggests computational algorithms and solutions to various sophisticated applications. In this paper, a new technique to retrieve the encrypted and scrambled image based on discrete fractional transforms has been proposed. Two-dimensional image was encrypted using discrete fractional transforms with three fractional orders and two random phase masks placed in the two intermediate planes. The significant feature of discrete fractional transforms benefits from its extra degree of freedom that is provided by its fractional orders. Security strength was enhanced (1024!)4 times by scrambling the encrypted image. In decryption process, image retrieval is sensitive for both correct fractional order keys and scrambling algorithm. The proposed approach make the brute force attack infeasible. Mean square error and relative error are the recital parameters to verify validity of proposed method.

  9. Simple optical setup implementation for digital Fourier transform holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Oliveira, G N [Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica, TEM/PGMEC, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Passo da Patria, 156, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.: 24.210-240 (Brazil); Rodrigues, D M C; Dos Santos, P A M, E-mail: pams@if.uff.br [Instituto de Fisica, Laboratorio de Optica Nao-linear e Aplicada, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Nilton Tavares de Souza, s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, R.J., Cep.:24.210-346 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    In the present work a simple implementation of Digital Fourier Transform Holography (DFTH) setup is discussed. This is obtained making a very simple modification in the classical setup arquiteture of the Fourier Transform holography. It is also demonstrated the easy and practical viability of the setup in an interferometric application for mechanical parameters determination. The work is also proposed as an interesting advanced introductory training for graduated students in digital holography.

  10. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B; Goriely, A

    2012-01-01

    molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one

  11. An analogue of a theorem of Titchmarsh for Walsh-Fourier transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, B I

    1998-01-01

    Let f-hat c be the Fourier cosine transform of f. Then, as proved for functions of class L p (R + ) in Titchmarsh's book 'Introduction to the theory of Fourier integrals' (1937), the Hardy operator and the Hardy-Littlewood operator can be defined. In the present paper similar equalities are proved for functions of class L p (R + ), 1< p≤2, and the Walsh-Fourier transformation

  12. Implementation of Period-Finding Algorithm by Means of Simulating Quantum Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghareh Abed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce quantum fourier transform as a key ingredient for many useful algorithms. These algorithms make a solution for problems which is considered to be intractable problems on a classical computer. Quantum Fourier transform is propounded as a key for quantum phase estimation algorithm. In this paper our aim is the implementation of period-finding algorithm.Quantum computer solves this problem, exponentially faster than classical one. Quantum phase estimation algorithm is the key for the period-finding problem .Therefore, by means of simulating quantum Fourier transform, we are able to implement the period-finding algorithm. In this paper, the simulation of quantum Fourier transform is carried out by Matlab software.

  13. Electro-optic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Znod, Hanying (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An Electro-Optic Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EOIFTS) for Hyperspectral Imaging is described. The EOIFTS includes an input polarizer, an output polarizer, and a plurality of birefringent phase elements. The relative orientations of the polarizers and birefringent phase elements can be changed mechanically or via a controller, using ferroelectric liquid crystals, to substantially measure the spectral Fourier components of light propagating through the EIOFTS. When achromatic switches are used as an integral part of the birefringent phase elements, the EIOFTS becomes suitable for broadband applications, with over 1 micron infrared bandwidth.

  14. A Baecklund transformation between two integrable discrete hungry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Akiko; Yamamoto, Yusaku; Iwasaki, Masashi; Ishiwata, Emiko; Nakamura, Yoshimasa

    2011-01-01

    The discrete hungry Toda (dhToda) equation and the discrete hungry Lotka-Volterra (dhLV) system are known as integrable discrete hungry systems. In this Letter, through finding the LR transformations associated with the dhToda equation and the dhLV system, we present a Baecklund transformation between these integrable systems.

  15. A Baecklund transformation between two integrable discrete hungry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Akiko, E-mail: j1409704@ed.kagu.tus.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Information Science, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yusaku [Graduate School of System Informatics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Masashi [Department of Informatics and Environmental Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, 1-5, Nakaragi-cho, Shimogamo, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8522 (Japan); Ishiwata, Emiko [Department of Mathematical Information Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Nakamura, Yoshimasa [Graduate School of Informatics, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2011-01-17

    The discrete hungry Toda (dhToda) equation and the discrete hungry Lotka-Volterra (dhLV) system are known as integrable discrete hungry systems. In this Letter, through finding the LR transformations associated with the dhToda equation and the dhLV system, we present a Baecklund transformation between these integrable systems.

  16. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms In this article ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    CLASSROOM. Mitrajyoti Ghosh. 83, Mitrapara 2nd Lane, Harinavi,. Kolkata 700148, West Bengal,. India. Email: mijospeakingnow@gmail.com. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. In this article we shall mathematically analyse the Resistor-. Capacitor (RC) circuit with the help of Fourier transforms. (FT).

  17. Fourier transform of delayed fluorescence as an indicator of herbicide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya; Tan, Jinglu

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that delayed fluorescence (DF) from Photosystem II (PSII) of plant leaves can be potentially used to sense herbicide pollution and evaluate the effect of herbicides on plant leaves. The research of using DF as a measure of herbicides in the literature was mainly conducted in time domain and qualitative correlation was often obtained. Fourier transform is often used to analyze signals. Viewing DF signal in frequency domain through Fourier transform may allow separation of signal components and provide a quantitative method for sensing herbicides. However, there is a lack of an attempt to use Fourier transform of DF as an indicator of herbicide. In this work, the relationship between the Fourier transform of DF and herbicide concentration was theoretically modelled and analyzed, which immediately yielded a quantitative method to measure herbicide concentration in frequency domain. Experiments were performed to validate the developed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Limitations on continuous variable quantum algorithms with Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, Mark R A; Hoeyer, Peter; Sanders, Barry C

    2009-01-01

    We study quantum algorithms implemented within a single harmonic oscillator, or equivalently within a single mode of the electromagnetic field. Logical states correspond to functions of the canonical position, and the Fourier transform to canonical momentum serves as the analogue of the Hadamard transform for this implementation. This continuous variable version of quantum information processing has widespread appeal because of advanced quantum optics technology that can create, manipulate and read Gaussian states of light. We show that, contrary to a previous claim, this implementation of quantum information processing has limitations due to a position-momentum trade-off of the Fourier transform, analogous to the famous time-bandwidth theorem of signal processing.

  19. HEART ABNORMALITY CLASSIFICATIONS USING FOURIER TRANSFORMS METHOD AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Purwanti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Health problems with cardiovascular system disorder are still ranked high globally. One way to detect abnormalities in the cardiovascular system especially in the heart is through the electrocardiogram (ECG reading. However, reading ECG recording needs experience and expertise, software-based neural networks has designed to help identify any abnormalities ofthe heart through electrocardiogram digital image. This image is processed using image processing methods to obtain ordinate chart which representing the heart’s electrical potential. Feature extraction using Fourier transforms which are divided into several numbers of coefficients. As the software input, Fourier transforms coefficient have been normalized. Output of this software is divided into three classes, namely heart with atrial fibrillation, coronary heart disease and normal. Maximum accuracy rate ofthis software is 95.45%, with the distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/8 and number of nodes 5, while minimum accuracy rate of this software at least 68.18% by distribution of the Fourier transform coefficients 1/32 and the number of nodes 32. Overall result accuracy rate of this software has an average of86.05% and standard deviation of7.82.

  20. Fourier transform spectra of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, V.; Ardelean, I.; Armăşelu, Anca; Apostol, D.

    2010-05-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are nanometer-sized crystals with unique photochemical and photophysical properties that are not available from either isolated molecules or bulk solids. These nanocrystals absorb light over a very broad spectral range as compared to molecular fluorophores which have very narrow excitation spectra. High-quality QDs are proper to be use in different biological and medical applications (as fluorescent labels, the cancer treatment and the drug delivery). In this article, we discuss Fourier transform visible spectroscopy of commercial quantum dots. We reveal that QDs produced by Evident Technologies when are enlightened by laser or luminescent diode light provides a spectral shift of their fluorescence spectra correlated to exciting emission wavelengths, as shown by the ARCspectroNIR Fourier Transform Spectrometer. In the final part of this paper we show an important biological application of CdSe/ZnS core-shell ODs as microbial labeling both for pure cultures of cyanobacteria (Synechocystis PCC 6803) and for mixed cultures of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms.

  1. The discrete Painleve II equations: Miura and auto-Baecklund transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstea, A S; Ramani, A; Willox, R; Grammaticos, B

    2003-01-01

    We present Miura transformations for all discrete Painleve II equations known to date. We then use these Miuras to derive special solutions in terms of discrete Airy functions and to construct auto-Baecklund transformations for the discrete Painleve equations. These transformations are then used to generate rational solutions. Some new forms of d-P II and d-P 34 are obtained as well

  2. Fourier-transform optical microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  3. Complex nonlinear Fourier transform and its inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksida, Pavle

    2015-01-01

    We study the nonlinear Fourier transform associated to the integrable systems of AKNS-ZS type. Two versions of this transform appear in connection with the AKNS-ZS systems. These two versions can be considered as two real forms of a single complex transform F c . We construct an explicit algorithm for the calculation of the inverse transform (F c ) -1 (h) for an arbitrary argument h. The result is given in the form of a convergent series of functions in the domain space and the terms of this series can be computed explicitly by means of finitely many integrations. (paper)

  4. Fourier transforms in spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kauppinen, Jyrki

    2000-01-01

    This modern approach to the subject is clearly and logically structured, and gives readers an understanding of the essence of Fourier transforms and their applications. All important aspects are included with respect to their use with optical spectroscopic data. Based on popular lectures, the authors provide the mathematical fundamentals and numerical applications which are essential in practical use. The main part of the book is dedicated to applications of FT in signal processing and spectroscopy, with IR and NIR, NMR and mass spectrometry dealt with both from a theoretical and practical poi

  5. Darboux and binary Darboux transformations for discrete integrable systems I. Discrete potential KdV equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ying; Zhang, Da-jun; Nimmo, Jonathan J C

    2014-01-01

    The Hirota–Miwa equation can be written in ‘nonlinear’ form in two ways: the discrete KP equation and, by using a compatible continuous variable, the discrete potential KP equation. For both systems, we consider the Darboux and binary Darboux transformations, expressed in terms of the continuous variable, and obtain exact solutions in Wronskian and Grammian form. We discuss reductions of both systems to the discrete KdV and discrete potential KdV equation, respectively, and exploit this connection to find the Darboux and binary Darboux transformations and exact solutions of these equations. (paper)

  6. Decay of the Fourier transform analytic and geometric aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Iosevich, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The Plancherel formula says that the L2 norm of the function is equal to the L2 norm of its Fourier transform. This implies that at least on average, the Fourier transform of an L2 function decays at infinity. This book is dedicated to the study of the rate of this decay under various assumptions and circumstances, far beyond the original L2 setting. Analytic and geometric properties of the underlying functions interact in a seamless symbiosis which underlines the wide range influences and applications of the concepts under consideration.

  7. Accelerating the Non-equispaced Fast Fourier Transform on Commodity Graphics Hardware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Schaeffter, Tobias; Noe, Karsten Østergaard

    2008-01-01

    We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe the performa......We present a fast parallel algorithm to compute the Non-equispaced fast Fourier transform on commodity graphics hardware (the GPU). We focus particularly on a novel implementation of the convolution step in the transform, which was previously its most time consuming part. We describe...

  8. Functional differential equations for the q-Fourier transform of q-Gaussians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umarov, S; Queiros, S M Duarte

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the question 'is the q-Fourier transform of a q-Gaussian a q'-Gaussian (with some q') up to a constant factor?' is studied for the whole range of q in (- infty, 3). This question is connected with applicability of the q-Fourier transform in the study of limit processes in nonextensive statistical mechanics. Using the functional differential equation approach we prove that the answer is affirmative if and only if 1 ≤ q < 3, excluding two particular cases of q < 1, namely q=1/2 and q=2/3. Complementarily, we discuss some applications of the q-Fourier transform to nonlinear partial differential equations such as the porous medium equation.

  9. Functional differential equations for the q-Fourier transform of q-Gaussians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umarov, S [Department of Mathematics, Tufts University, Medford, MA (United States); Queiros, S M Duarte, E-mail: sdqueiro@gmail.co [Unilever R and D Port Sunlight, Quarry Road East, Wirral, CH63 3JW (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-05

    In this paper the question 'is the q-Fourier transform of a q-Gaussian a q'-Gaussian (with some q') up to a constant factor?' is studied for the whole range of q in (- infty, 3). This question is connected with applicability of the q-Fourier transform in the study of limit processes in nonextensive statistical mechanics. Using the functional differential equation approach we prove that the answer is affirmative if and only if 1 <= q < 3, excluding two particular cases of q < 1, namely q=1/2 and q=2/3. Complementarily, we discuss some applications of the q-Fourier transform to nonlinear partial differential equations such as the porous medium equation.

  10. Transport methods: general. 7. Formulation of a Fourier-Boltzmann Transformation to Solve the Three-Dimensional Transport Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancic, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents some elements of a new approach to solve analytically the linearized three-dimensional (3-D) transport equation of neutral particles. Since this task is of such special importance, we present some results of a paper that is still in progress. The most important is that using this transformation, an integro-differential equation with an analytical solution is obtained. For this purpose, a simplest 3-D equation is being considered which describes the transport process in an infinite medium. Until now, this equation has been analytically considered either using the Laplace transform with respect to time parameter t or applying the Fourier transform over the space coordinate. Both of them reduce the number of differential terms in the equation; however, evaluation of the inverse transformation is complicated. In this paper, we introduce for the first time a Fourier transform induced by the Boltzmann operator. For this, we use a complete set of 3-D eigenfunctions of the Boltzmann transport operator defined in a similar way as those that have been already used in 3-D transport theory as a basic set to transform the transport equation. This set consists of a continuous part and a discrete one with spectral measure. The density distribution equation shows the known form asymptotic behavior. Several applications are to be performed using this equation and compared to the benchmark one. Such an analysis certainly would be out of the available space

  11. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  12. An introduction to Laplace transforms and Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Dyke, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Laplace transforms continue to be a very important tool for the engineer, physicist and applied mathematician. They are also now useful to financial, economic and biological modellers as these disciplines become more quantitative. Any problem that has underlying linearity and with solution based on initial values can be expressed as an appropriate differential equation and hence be solved using Laplace transforms. In this book, there is a strong emphasis on application with the necessary mathematical grounding. There are plenty of worked examples with all solutions provided. This enlarged new edition includes generalised Fourier series and a completely new chapter on wavelets. Only knowledge of elementary trigonometry and calculus are required as prerequisites. An Introduction to Laplace Transforms and Fourier Series will be useful for second and third year undergraduate students in engineering, physics or mathematics, as well as for graduates in any discipline such as financial mathematics, econometrics and ...

  13. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, C B; Goriely, A

    2012-01-01

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. (paper)

  14. The Fourier transform of tubular densities

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, C B

    2012-05-18

    We consider the Fourier transform of tubular volume densities, with arbitrary axial geometry and (possibly) twisted internal structure. This density can be used to represent, among others, magnetic flux or the electron density of biopolymer molecules. We consider tubes of both finite radii and unrestricted radius. When there is overlap of the tube structure the net density is calculated using the super-position principle. The Fourier transform of this density is composed of two expressions, one for which the radius of the tube is less than the curvature of the axis and one for which the radius is greater (which must have density overlap). This expression can accommodate an asymmetric density distribution and a tube structure which has non-uniform twisting. In addition we give several simpler expressions for isotropic densities, densities of finite radius, densities which decay at a rate sufficient to minimize local overlap and finally individual surfaces of the tube manifold. These simplified cases can often be expressed as arclength integrals and can be evaluated using a system of first-order ODEs. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. On the moments of the Wigner distribution and the fractional Fourier transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Veen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    A Fourier transformation maps a one-dimensional time signal into a one-dimensional frequency function, the signal spectrum. Although the Fourier transform provides the signal's spectral content, it fails to indicate the time location of the spectral components, which is important, for example, when

  16. Fourier-Based Transmit Beampattern Design Using MIMO Radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    a constant-envelope or drawing from a finite alphabet. In this paper, a closed-form method to design for a uniform linear array is proposed that utilizes the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients and Toeplitz matrices. The resulting

  17. Using the fast fourier transform in binding free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hai; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Minh, David D L

    2018-04-30

    According to implicit ligand theory, the standard binding free energy is an exponential average of the binding potential of mean force (BPMF), an exponential average of the interaction energy between the unbound ligand ensemble and a rigid receptor. Here, we use the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to efficiently evaluate BPMFs by calculating interaction energies when rigid ligand configurations from the unbound ensemble are discretely translated across rigid receptor conformations. Results for standard binding free energies between T4 lysozyme and 141 small organic molecules are in good agreement with previous alchemical calculations based on (1) a flexible complex ( R≈0.9 for 24 systems) and (2) flexible ligand with multiple rigid receptor configurations ( R≈0.8 for 141 systems). While the FFT is routinely used for molecular docking, to our knowledge this is the first time that the algorithm has been used for rigorous binding free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ANNSVM: A Novel Method for Graph-Type Classification by Utilization of Fourier Transformation, Wavelet Transformation, and Hough Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Kanjanawattana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Image classification plays a vital role in many areas of study, such as data mining and image processing; however, serious problems collectively referred to as the course of dimensionality have been encountered in previous studies as factors that reduce system performance. Furthermore, we also confront the problem of different graph characteristics even if graphs belong to same types. In this study, we propose a novel method of graph-type classification. Using our approach, we open up a new solution of high-dimensional images and address problems of different characteristics by converting graph images to one dimension with a discrete Fourier transformation and creating numeric datasets using wavelet and Hough transformations. Moreover, we introduce a new classifier, which is a combination between artificial neuron networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVMs, which we call ANNSVM, to enhance accuracy. The objectives of our study are to propose an effective graph-type classification method that includes finding a new data representative used for classification instead of two-dimensional images and to investigate what features make our data separable. To evaluate the method of our study, we conducted five experiments with different methods and datasets. The input dataset we focused on was a numeric dataset containing wavelet coefficients and outputs of a Hough transformation. From our experimental results, we observed that the highest accuracy was provided using our method with Coiflet 1, which achieved a 0.91 accuracy.

  19. A Fast Mellin and Scale Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rocchesso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast algorithm for the discrete-scale (and β-Mellin transform is proposed. It performs a discrete-time discrete-scale approximation of the continuous-time transform, with subquadratic asymptotic complexity. The algorithm is based on a well-known relation between the Mellin and Fourier transforms, and it is practical and accurate. The paper gives some theoretical background on the Mellin, β-Mellin, and scale transforms. Then the algorithm is presented and analyzed in terms of computational complexity and precision. The effects of different interpolation procedures used in the algorithm are discussed.

  20. A Fast Mellin and Scale Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchesso Davide

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast algorithm for the discrete-scale (and -Mellin transform is proposed. It performs a discrete-time discrete-scale approximation of the continuous-time transform, with subquadratic asymptotic complexity. The algorithm is based on a well-known relation between the Mellin and Fourier transforms, and it is practical and accurate. The paper gives some theoretical background on the Mellin, -Mellin, and scale transforms. Then the algorithm is presented and analyzed in terms of computational complexity and precision. The effects of different interpolation procedures used in the algorithm are discussed.

  1. Reduction and coding of synthetic aperture radar data with Fourier transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, David G.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, aboard the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL), the two roles of Fourier Transforms for ocean image synthesis and surface wave analysis have been implemented with a dedicated radar processor to significantly reduce Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ocean data before transmission to the ground. The object was to archive the SAR image spectrum, rather than the SAR image itself, to reduce data volume and capture the essential descriptors of the surface wave field. SAR signal data are usually sampled and coded in the time domain for transmission to the ground where Fourier Transforms are applied both to individual radar pulses and to long sequences of radar pulses to form two-dimensional images. High resolution images of the ocean often contain no striking features and subtle image modulations by wind generated surface waves are only apparent when large ocean regions are studied, with Fourier transforms, to reveal periodic patterns created by wind stress over the surface wave field. Major ocean currents and atmospheric instability in coastal environments are apparent as large scale modulations of SAR imagery. This paper explores the possibility of computing complex Fourier spectrum codes representing SAR images, transmitting the coded spectra to Earth for data archives and creating scenes of surface wave signatures and air-sea interactions via inverse Fourier transformations with ground station processors.

  2. Radial artery pulse waveform analysis based on curve fitting using discrete Fourier series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhixing; Zhang, David; Lu, Guangming

    2018-04-19

    Radial artery pulse diagnosis has been playing an important role in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). For its non-invasion and convenience, the pulse diagnosis has great significance in diseases analysis of modern medicine. The practitioners sense the pulse waveforms in patients' wrist to make diagnoses based on their non-objective personal experience. With the researches of pulse acquisition platforms and computerized analysis methods, the objective study on pulse diagnosis can help the TCM to keep up with the development of modern medicine. In this paper, we propose a new method to extract feature from pulse waveform based on discrete Fourier series (DFS). It regards the waveform as one kind of signal that consists of a series of sub-components represented by sine and cosine (SC) signals with different frequencies and amplitudes. After the pulse signals are collected and preprocessed, we fit the average waveform for each sample using discrete Fourier series by least squares. The feature vector is comprised by the coefficients of discrete Fourier series function. Compared with the fitting method using Gaussian mixture function, the fitting errors of proposed method are smaller, which indicate that our method can represent the original signal better. The classification performance of proposed feature is superior to the other features extracted from waveform, liking auto-regression model and Gaussian mixture model. The coefficients of optimized DFS function, who is used to fit the arterial pressure waveforms, can obtain better performance in modeling the waveforms and holds more potential information for distinguishing different psychological states. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging properties of the mesooptical Fourier transform microscope for nuclear research emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, Gy.L.; Soroko, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    The optical signal transformation in the Mesooptical Fourier Transform Microscope (MFTM) for nuclear emulsion is treated in terms of Fourier Optics. A continuous conversion of the traditional optical microscope into the MFTM is followed. The images of dot-like and straight line objects given by the MFTM are discussed

  4. Application of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.; Truman, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is solved. Fourier transform techniques are used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system are included. The instability of the ill-posed Fredholm equation is examined and a restoration procedure is included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data.

  5. Realization of quantum Fourier transform over ZN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Xiang-Qun; Bao Wan-Su; Li Fa-Da; Zhang Yu-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Since the difficulty in preparing the equal superposition state of amplitude is 1/√N, we construct a quantile transform of quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Z N based on the elementary transforms, such as Hadamard transform and Pauli transform. The QFT over Z N can then be realized by the quantile transform, and used to further design its quantum circuit and analyze the requirements for the quantum register and quantum gates. However, the transform needs considerable quantum computational resources and it is difficult to construct a high-dimensional quantum register. Hence, we investigate the design of t-bit quantile transform, and introduce the definition of t-bit semiclassical QFT over Z N . According to probability amplitude, we prove that the transform can be used to realize QFT over Z N and further design its quantum circuit. For this transform, the requirements for the quantum register, the one-qubit gate, and two-qubit gate reduce obviously when compared with those for the QFT over Z N . (general)

  6. Nonuniform sampling and non-Fourier signal processing methods in multidimensional NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobli, Mehdi; Hoch, Jeffrey C

    2014-11-01

    Beginning with the introduction of Fourier Transform NMR by Ernst and Anderson in 1966, time domain measurement of the impulse response (the free induction decay, FID) consisted of sampling the signal at a series of discrete intervals. For compatibility with the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the intervals are kept uniform, and the Nyquist theorem dictates the largest value of the interval sufficient to avoid aliasing. With the proposal by Jeener of parametric sampling along an indirect time dimension, extension to multidimensional experiments employed the same sampling techniques used in one dimension, similarly subject to the Nyquist condition and suitable for processing via the discrete Fourier transform. The challenges of obtaining high-resolution spectral estimates from short data records using the DFT were already well understood, however. Despite techniques such as linear prediction extrapolation, the achievable resolution in the indirect dimensions is limited by practical constraints on measuring time. The advent of non-Fourier methods of spectrum analysis capable of processing nonuniformly sampled data has led to an explosion in the development of novel sampling strategies that avoid the limits on resolution and measurement time imposed by uniform sampling. The first part of this review discusses the many approaches to data sampling in multidimensional NMR, the second part highlights commonly used methods for signal processing of such data, and the review concludes with a discussion of other approaches to speeding up data acquisition in NMR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rectangular-to-quincunx Gabor lattice conversion via fractional Fourier transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Leest, van A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Transformations of Gabor lattices are associated with operations on the window functions that arise in Gabor theory. In particular it is shown that transformation from a rectangular to a quincunx lattice can be associated with fractional Fourier transformation. Since a Gaussian function, which plays

  8. Reconstruction of on-axis lensless Fourier transform digital hologram with the screen division method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongzhen; Liu, Xu; Liu, Yong; Li, Dong; Chen, Zhu; Zheng, Fanglan; Yu, Deqiang

    2017-10-01

    An effective approach for reconstructing on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital hologram by using the screen division method is proposed. Firstly, the on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram is divided into sub-holograms. Then the reconstruction result of every sub-hologram is obtained according to the position of corresponding sub-hologram in the hologram reconstruction plane with Fourier transform operation. Finally, the reconstruction image of on-axis Fourier Transform digital hologram can be acquired by the superposition of the reconstruction result of sub-holograms. Compared with the traditional reconstruction method with the phase shifting technology, in which multiple digital holograms are required to record for obtaining the reconstruction image, this method can obtain the reconstruction image with only one digital hologram and therefore greatly simplify the recording and reconstruction process of on-axis lensless Fourier Transform digital holography. The effectiveness of the proposed method is well proved with the experimental results and it will have potential application foreground in the holographic measurement and display field.

  9. Missing texture reconstruction method based on error reduction algorithm using Fourier transform magnitude estimation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki

    2013-03-01

    A missing texture reconstruction method based on an error reduction (ER) algorithm, including a novel estimation scheme of Fourier transform magnitudes is presented in this brief. In our method, Fourier transform magnitude is estimated for a target patch including missing areas, and the missing intensities are estimated by retrieving its phase based on the ER algorithm. Specifically, by monitoring errors converged in the ER algorithm, known patches whose Fourier transform magnitudes are similar to that of the target patch are selected from the target image. In the second approach, the Fourier transform magnitude of the target patch is estimated from those of the selected known patches and their corresponding errors. Consequently, by using the ER algorithm, we can estimate both the Fourier transform magnitudes and phases to reconstruct the missing areas.

  10. Discrete linear canonical transform computation by adaptive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Tao, Ran; Wang, Yue

    2013-07-29

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) describes the effect of quadratic phase systems on a wavefield and generalizes many optical transforms. In this paper, the computation method for the discrete LCT using the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm is presented. The computation approaches of the block-based discrete LCT and the stream-based discrete LCT using the LMS algorithm are derived, and the implementation structures of these approaches by the adaptive filter system are considered. The proposed computation approaches have the inherent parallel structures which make them suitable for efficient VLSI implementations, and are robust to the propagation of possible errors in the computation process.

  11. Nonlinear Fourier transforms for the sine-Gordon equation in the quarter plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lenells, Jonatan

    2018-03-01

    Using the Unified Transform, also known as the Fokas method, the solution of the sine-Gordon equation in the quarter plane can be expressed in terms of the solution of a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem whose definition involves four spectral functions a , b , A , B. The functions a (k) and b (k) are defined via a nonlinear Fourier transform of the initial data, whereas A (k) and B (k) are defined via a nonlinear Fourier transform of the boundary values. In this paper, we provide an extensive study of these nonlinear Fourier transforms and the associated eigenfunctions under weak regularity and decay assumptions on the initial and boundary values. The results can be used to determine the long-time asymptotics of the sine-Gordon quarter-plane solution via nonlinear steepest descent techniques.

  12. Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform A New Variant to Fractional Signal Processing Definition and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new variant to fractional signal processing is proposed known as the Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform. Various properties satisfied by its transformation kernel is derived. The properties associated with the proposed Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform like shift, modulation, time-frequency shift property are also derived and it is shown mathematically that when the rotation angle of Reduced Order Fractional Fourier Transform approaches 90 degrees, the propos...

  13. Revisiting the quantum harmonic oscillator via unilateral Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Pedro H F; Castro, Antonio S de

    2016-01-01

    The literature on the exponential Fourier approach to the one-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator problem is revised and criticized. It is shown that the solution of this problem has been built on faulty premises. The problem is revisited via the Fourier sine and cosine transform method and the stationary states are properly determined by requiring definite parity and square-integrable eigenfunctions. (paper)

  14. Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, J.; Sayre, D.; Chapman, H.N.

    1998-01-01

    It is suggested that, given the magnitude of Fourier transforms sampled at the Bragg density, the phase problem is underdetermined by a factor of 2 for 1D, 2D, and 3D objects. It is therefore unnecessary to oversample the magnitude of Fourier transforms by 2x in each dimension (i.e., oversampling by 4x for 2D and 8x for 3D) in retrieving the phase of 2D and 3D objects. Our computer phasing experiments accurately retrieved the phase from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of 2D and 3D complex-valued objects by using positivity constraints on the imaginary part of the objects and loose supports, with the oversampling factor much less than 4 for 2D and 8 for 3D objects. Under the same conditions we also obtained reasonably good reconstructions of 2D and 3D complex-valued objects from the magnitude of their Fourier transforms with added noise and a central stop. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America

  15. Meso-optical Fourier transform microscope with double focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Soroko, L.M.; Tereshchenko, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The meso-optical Fourier transform microscope (MFTM) with double focusing for particle tracks of low ionization level in the nuclear emulsion is described. It is shown experimentally that this device enables one to get high concentration of information about the position of the particle track in the nuclear emulsion and thus to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that spreading of the meso-optical image of the particle track in the sagittal section of the MFTM can be eliminated completely in the frame of the diffraction limit. The number of the additional degrees of freedom in this new MFTM system along depth coordinate is equal to 20 in comparison to single degree of freedom in the Fourier transform microscope of the direct observation. 10 refs.; 15 figs

  16. Improved Fourier-transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianfu; Chen Wenjing; Su Xianyu

    2007-01-01

    An improved optical geometry of the projected-fringe profilometry technique, in which the exit pupil of the projecting lens and the entrance pupil of the imaging lens are neither at the same height above the reference plane nor coplanar, is discussed and used in Fourier-transform profilometry. Furthermore, an improved fringe-pattern description and phase-height mapping formula based on the improved geometrical generalization is deduced. Employing the new optical geometry, it is easier for us to obtain the full-field fringe by moving either the projector or the imaging device. Therefore the new method offers a flexible way to obtain reliable height distribution of a measured object

  17. Pi, Fourier Transform and Ludolph van Ceulen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vajta, Miklos

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes an interesting (and unexpected) application of the Fast Fourier transform in number theory. Calculating more and more decimals of p (first by hand and then from the mid-20th century, by digital computers) not only fascinated mathematicians from ancient times but kept them busy as

  18. Innovative design method of automobile profile based on Fourier descriptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shuyong; Fu, Chaoxing; Xia, Fan; Shen, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the innovation of the contours of automobile side, this paper presents an innovative design method of vehicle side profile based on Fourier descriptor. The design flow of this design method is: pre-processing, coordinate extraction, standardization, discrete Fourier transform, simplified Fourier descriptor, exchange descriptor innovation, inverse Fourier transform to get the outline of innovative design. Innovative concepts of the innovative methods of gene exchange among species and the innovative methods of gene exchange among different species are presented, and the contours of the innovative design are obtained separately. A three-dimensional model of a car is obtained by referring to the profile curve which is obtained by exchanging xenogeneic genes. The feasibility of the method proposed in this paper is verified by various aspects.

  19. DWDM-TO-OTDM Conversion by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Hu, Hao; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated.......We propose DWDM-OTDM conversion by time-domain optical Fourier transformation. Error-free conversion of a 16×10 Gbit/s 50 GHz-spacing DWDM data signal to a 160 Gbit/s OTDM signal with a 2.1 dB average penalty is demonstrated....

  20. Application of finite Fourier transformation for the solution of the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    1991-01-01

    The application of the finite Fourier transformation to the solution of the neutron diffusion equation in one dimension, two dimensional x-y and triangular geometries is discussed. It can be shown that the equation obtained by the Nodal Green's function method in Cartesian coordinates can be derived as a special case of the finite Fourier transformation method. (author)

  1. Methods for performing fast discrete curvelet transforms of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candes, Emmanuel; Donoho, David; Demanet, Laurent

    2010-11-23

    Fast digital implementations of the second generation curvelet transform for use in data processing are disclosed. One such digital transformation is based on unequally-spaced fast Fourier transforms (USFFT) while another is based on the wrapping of specially selected Fourier samples. Both digital transformations return a table of digital curvelet coefficients indexed by a scale parameter, an orientation parameter, and a spatial location parameter. Both implementations are fast in the sense that they run in about O(n.sup.2 log n) flops for n by n Cartesian arrays or about O(N log N) flops for Cartesian arrays of size N=n.sup.3; in addition, they are also invertible, with rapid inversion algorithms of about the same complexity.

  2. Analysis and application of Fourier transform spectroscopy in atmospheric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis method for Fourier transform spectroscopy is summarized with applications to various types of distortion in atmospheric absorption spectra. This analysis method includes the fast Fourier transform method for simulating the interferometric spectrum and the nonlinear least-squares method for retrieving the information from a measured spectrum. It is shown that spectral distortions can be simulated quite well and that the correct information can be retrieved from a distorted spectrum by this analysis technique.

  3. Fourier Deconvolution Methods for Resolution Enhancement in Continuous-Wave EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, George H; Poyner, Russell R

    2015-01-01

    An overview of resolution enhancement of conventional, field-swept, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra using Fourier transform-based deconvolution methods is presented. Basic steps that are involved in resolution enhancement of calculated spectra using an implementation based on complex discrete Fourier transform algorithms are illustrated. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. An application to an experimentally obtained spectrum is provided to illustrate the power of the method for resolving overlapped transitions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High Accuracy Evaluation of the Finite Fourier Transform Using Sampled Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    Many system identification and signal processing procedures can be done advantageously in the frequency domain. A required preliminary step for this approach is the transformation of sampled time domain data into the frequency domain. The analytical tool used for this transformation is the finite Fourier transform. Inaccuracy in the transformation can degrade system identification and signal processing results. This work presents a method for evaluating the finite Fourier transform using cubic interpolation of sampled time domain data for high accuracy, and the chirp Zeta-transform for arbitrary frequency resolution. The accuracy of the technique is demonstrated in example cases where the transformation can be evaluated analytically. Arbitrary frequency resolution is shown to be important for capturing details of the data in the frequency domain. The technique is demonstrated using flight test data from a longitudinal maneuver of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle.

  5. Closed form fourier-based transmit beamforming for MIMO radar

    KAUST Repository

    Lipor, John J.; Ahmed, Sajid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    -pattern, current research uses iterative algorithms, first to synthesize the waveform covariance matrix, R, then to design the actual waveforms to realize R. In contrast to this, we present a closed form method to design R that exploits discrete Fourier transform

  6. Method of local pointed function reduction of original shape in Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosch, H.; Slavyanov, S.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    The method for analytical reduction of the original shape in the one-dimensional Fourier transformation by the fourier image modulus is proposed. The basic concept of the method consists in the presentation of the model shape in the form of the local peak functions sum. The eigenfunctions, generated by the linear differential equations with the polynomial coefficients, are selected as the latter ones. This provides for the possibility of managing the Fourier transformation without numerical integration. This reduces the reverse task to the nonlinear regression with a small number of the evaluated parameters and to the numerical or asymptotic study on the model peak functions - the eigenfunctions of the differential tasks and their fourier images [ru

  7. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  8. Fourier transform of momentum distribution in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Manuel, A.A.; Peter, M.; Singru, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Compton profile and 2D-angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation data from vanadium are analyzed by the mean of their Fourier transform. They are compared with the functions calculated with the help of both the linear muffin-tin orbital and the Hubbard-Mijnarends band structure methods. The results show that the functions are influenced by the positron wave function, by the e + -e - many-body correlations and by the differences in the electron wave functions used for the band structure calculations. It is concluded that Fourier analysis is a sensitive approach to investigate the momentum distributions in transition metals and to understnad the effects of the positron. (Auth.)

  9. Application and sensitivity investigation of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature equation, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind was solved. Fast Fourier Transform techniques were used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross-correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system were included. The instability of the Fredholm equation was then demonstrated and a restoration procedure was included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of Fast Fourier Transform techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data. Actual radiometric measurements of sea water are inverted using the restoration method, incorporating the advantages of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm for computations.

  10. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...

  11. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  12. Properly used ''aliasing'' can give better resolution from fewer points in Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Astous, Y.; Blanchard, M.

    1982-05-01

    In the past years, the Journal has published a number of articles1-5 devoted to the introduction of Fourier transform spectroscopy in the undergraduate labs. In most papers, the proposed experimental setup consists of a Michelson interferometer, a light source, a light detector, and a chart recorder. The student uses this setup to record an interferogram which is then Fourier transformed to obtain the spectrogram of the light source. Although attempts have been made to ease the task of performing the required Fourier transform,6 the use of computers and Cooley-Tukey's fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm7 is by far the simplest method to use. However, to be able to use FFT, one has to get a number of samples of the interferogram, a tedious job which should be kept to a minimum. (AIP)

  13. On E-discretization of tori of compact simple Lie groups. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrivnák, Jiří; Juránek, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Ten types of discrete Fourier transforms of Weyl orbit functions are developed. Generalizing one-dimensional cosine, sine, and exponential, each type of the Weyl orbit function represents an exponential symmetrized with respect to a subgroup of the Weyl group. Fundamental domains of even affine and dual even affine Weyl groups, governing the argument and label symmetries of the even orbit functions, are determined. The discrete orthogonality relations are formulated on finite sets of points from the refinements of the dual weight lattices. Explicit counting formulas for the number of points of the discrete transforms are deduced. Real-valued Hartley orbit functions are introduced, and all ten types of the corresponding discrete Hartley transforms are detailed.

  14. Lax Pairs for Discrete Integrable Equations via Darboux Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ce-Wen; Zhang Guang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    A method is developed to construct discrete Lax pairs using Darboux transformations. More kinds of Lax pairs are found for some newly appeared discrete integrable equations, including the H1, the special H3 and the Q1 models in the Adler—Bobenko—Suris list and the closely related discrete and semi-discrete pKdV, pMKdV, SG and Liouville equations. (general)

  15. Dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform security ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes a simple method for making dual beam encoded extended fractional Fourier transform (EFRT) security holograms. The hologram possesses different stages of encoding so that security features are concealed and remain invisible to the counterfeiter. These concealed and encoded anticounterfeit ...

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, L

    2016-01-01

    Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory. (paper)

  17. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    1994-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  18. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.

    1997-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and X-ray powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at demonstrating complementary roles offered by both Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) techniques in characterizing clay size fraction of kaolins. The clay size fraction of kaolin samples obtained from Kgwakgwe, Makoro, Lobatse and Serule kaolin ...

  20. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1890 and Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing 1833. Two cultures were grown in a chemically-defined media under photoautotrophic culture conditions isolated from eutrophic ...

  1. S-duality as Fourier transform for arbitrary ϵ1, ϵ2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N Nemkov

    2014-01-01

    The Alday–Gaiotto–Tachikawa relations reduce S-duality to the modular transformations of conformal blocks. It was recently conjectured that, for the four-point conformal block, the modular transform up to the non-perturbative contributions can be written in the form of the ordinary Fourier transform when β ≡ −ϵ 1 /ϵ 2 = 1. Here I extend this conjecture to general values of ϵ 1 , ϵ 2 . Namely, I argue that, for a properly normalized four-point conformal block the S-duality is perturbatively given by the Fourier transform for arbitrary values of the deformation parameters ϵ 1 , ϵ 2 . The conjecture is based on explicit perturbative computations in the first few orders of the string coupling constant g 2 ≡ −ϵ 1 ϵ 2 and hypermultiplet masses. (paper)

  2. An improved model for whole genome phylogenetic analysis by Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Changchuan; Yau, Stephen S-T

    2015-10-07

    DNA sequence similarity comparison is one of the major steps in computational phylogenetic studies. The sequence comparison of closely related DNA sequences and genomes is usually performed by multiple sequence alignments (MSA). While the MSA method is accurate for some types of sequences, it may produce incorrect results when DNA sequences undergone rearrangements as in many bacterial and viral genomes. It is also limited by its computational complexity for comparing large volumes of data. Previously, we proposed an alignment-free method that exploits the full information contents of DNA sequences by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), but still with some limitations. Here, we present a significantly improved method for the similarity comparison of DNA sequences by DFT. In this method, we map DNA sequences into 2-dimensional (2D) numerical sequences and then apply DFT to transform the 2D numerical sequences into frequency domain. In the 2D mapping, the nucleotide composition of a DNA sequence is a determinant factor and the 2D mapping reduces the nucleotide composition bias in distance measure, and thus improving the similarity measure of DNA sequences. To compare the DFT power spectra of DNA sequences with different lengths, we propose an improved even scaling algorithm to extend shorter DFT power spectra to the longest length of the underlying sequences. After the DFT power spectra are evenly scaled, the spectra are in the same dimensionality of the Fourier frequency space, then the Euclidean distances of full Fourier power spectra of the DNA sequences are used as the dissimilarity metrics. The improved DFT method, with increased computational performance by 2D numerical representation, can be applicable to any DNA sequences of different length ranges. We assess the accuracy of the improved DFT similarity measure in hierarchical clustering of different DNA sequences including simulated and real datasets. The method yields accurate and reliable phylogenetic trees

  3. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  4. [Continuum based fast Fourier transform processing of infrared spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing-Jie; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Qin-Jun; Li, Hui; Li, Shuai

    2009-12-01

    To recognize ground objects with infrared spectrum, high frequency noise removing is one of the most important phases in spectrum feature analysis and extraction. A new method for infrared spectrum preprocessing was given combining spectrum continuum processing and Fast Fourier Transform (CFFT). Continuum was firstly removed from the noise polluted infrared spectrum to standardize hyper-spectra. Then the spectrum was transformed into frequency domain (FD) with fast Fourier transform (FFT), separating noise information from target information After noise eliminating from useful information with a low-pass filter, the filtered FD spectrum was transformed into time domain (TD) with fast Fourier inverse transform. Finally the continuum was recovered to the spectrum, and the filtered infrared spectrum was achieved. Experiment was performed for chlorite spectrum in USGS polluted with two kinds of simulated white noise to validate the filtering ability of CFFT by contrast with cubic function of five point (CFFP) in time domain and traditional FFT in frequency domain. A circle of CFFP has limited filtering effect, so it should work much with more circles and consume more time to achieve better filtering result. As for conventional FFT, Gibbs phenomenon has great effect on preprocessing result at edge bands because of special character of rock or mineral spectra, while works well at middle bands. Mean squared error of CFFT is 0. 000 012 336 with cut-off frequency of 150, while that of FFT and CFFP is 0. 000 061 074 with cut-off frequency of 150 and 0.000 022 963 with 150 working circles respectively. Besides the filtering result of CFFT can be improved by adjusting the filter cut-off frequency, and has little effect on working time. The CFFT method overcomes the Gibbs problem of FFT in spectrum filtering, and can be more convenient, dependable, and effective than traditional TD filter methods.

  5. Quantum Fourier Transform Over Galois Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Galois rings are regarded as "building blocks" of a finite commutative ring with identity. There have been many papers on classical error correction codes over Galois rings published. As an important warm-up before exploring quantum algorithms and quantum error correction codes over Galois rings, we study the quantum Fourier transform (QFT) over Galois rings and prove it can be efficiently preformed on a quantum computer. The properties of the QFT over Galois rings lead to the quantum algorit...

  6. Fourier Transform Methods. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Simon G.; Quijada, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) for accurate spectrophotometry over a wide spectral range. After a brief exposition of the basic concepts of FTS operation, we discuss instrument designs and their advantages and disadvantages relative to dispersive spectrometers. We then examine how common sources of error in spectrophotometry manifest themselves when using an FTS and ways to reduce the magnitude of these errors. Examples are given of applications to both basic and derived spectrophotometric quantities. Finally, we give recommendations for choosing the right instrument for a specific application, and how to ensure the accuracy of the measurement results..

  7. Application of the fractional Fourier transform to image reconstruction in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parot, Vicente; Sing-Long, Carlos; Lizama, Carlos; Tejos, Cristian; Uribe, Sergio; Irarrazaval, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    The classic paradigm for MRI requires a homogeneous B(0) field in combination with linear encoding gradients. Distortions are produced when the B(0) is not homogeneous, and several postprocessing techniques have been developed to correct them. Field homogeneity is difficult to achieve, particularly for short-bore magnets and higher B(0) fields. Nonlinear magnetic components can also arise from concomitant fields, particularly in low-field imaging, or intentionally used for nonlinear encoding. In any of these situations, the second-order component is key, because it constitutes the first step to approximate higher-order fields. We propose to use the fractional Fourier transform for analyzing and reconstructing the object's magnetization under the presence of quadratic fields. The fractional fourier transform provides a precise theoretical framework for this. We show how it can be used for reconstruction and for gaining a better understanding of the quadratic field-induced distortions, including examples of reconstruction for simulated and in vivo data. The obtained images have improved quality compared with standard Fourier reconstructions. The fractional fourier transform opens a new paradigm for understanding the MR signal generated by an object under a quadratic main field or nonlinear encoding. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation for OTDM-DWDM and DWDM-OTDM Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats.......Applications of time-domain optical Fourier transformation (OFT) in ultra-high-speed optical time-division multiplexed systems (OTDM) are reviewed, with emphasis on the recent demonstrations of OFT-based conversion between the OTDM and DWDM formats....

  9. Ultrafast and versatile spectroscopy by temporal Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Wei, Xiaoming; Marhic, Michel E.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2014-06-01

    One of the most remarkable and useful properties of a spatially converging lens system is its inherent ability to perform the Fourier transform; the same applies for the time-lens system. At the back focal plane of the time-lens, the spectral information can be instantaneously obtained in the time axis. By implementing temporal Fourier transform for spectroscopy applications, this time-lens-based architecture can provide orders of magnitude improvement over the state-of-art spatial-dispersion-based spectroscopy in terms of the frame rate. On the other hand, in addition to the single-lens structure, the multi-lens structures (e.g. telescope or wide-angle scope) will provide very versatile operating conditions. Leveraging the merit of instantaneous response, as well as the flexible lens structure, here we present a 100-MHz frame rate spectroscopy system - the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA), which achieves 17 times zoom in/out ratio for different observation ranges.

  10. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  11. The Fourier transform for certain hyperkähler fourfolds

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Mingmin

    2016-01-01

    Using a codimension-1 algebraic cycle obtained from the Poincaré line bundle, Beauville defined the Fourier transform on the Chow groups of an abelian variety A and showed that the Fourier transform induces a decomposition of the Chow ring \\mathrm{CH}^*(A). By using a codimension-2 algebraic cycle representing the Beauvilleâe"Bogomolov class, the authors give evidence for the existence of a similar decomposition for the Chow ring of Hyperkähler varieties deformation equivalent to the Hilbert scheme of length-2 subschemes on a K3 surface. They indeed establish the existence of such a decomposition for the Hilbert scheme of length-2 subschemes on a K3 surface and for the variety of lines on a very general cubic fourfold.

  12. Designing Fresnel microlenses for focusing astigmatic multi-Gaussian beams by using fractional order Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, A; Durand, P-E; Fogret, E; Pellat-Finet, P

    2011-01-01

    According to a scalar theory of diffraction, light propagation can be expressed by two-dimensional fractional order Fourier transforms. Since the fractional Fourier transform of a chirp function is a Dirac distribution, focusing a light beam is optically achieved by using a diffractive screen whose transmission function is a two-dimensional chirp function. This property is applied to designing Fresnel microlenses, and the orders of the involved Fourier fractional transforms depend on diffraction distances as well as on emitter and receiver radii of curvature. If the emitter is astigmatic (with two principal radii of curvature), the diffraction phenomenon involves two one-dimensional fractional Fourier transforms whose orders are different. This degree of freedom allows us to design microlenses that can focus astigmatic Gaussian beams, as produced by a line-shaped laser diode source.

  13. SPICA/SAFARI fourier transform spectrometer mechanism evolutionary design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dool, T.C. van den; Kruizinga, B.; Braam, B.C.; Hamelinck, R.F.M.M.; Loix, N.; Loon, D. van; Dams, J.

    2012-01-01

    TNO, together with its partners, have designed a cryogenic scanning mechanism for use in the SAFARI Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board of the SPICA mission. SPICA is one of the M-class missions competing to be launched in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme in 2022. JAXA leads the development

  14. Solution of two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation for triangular region by finite Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Hideo

    1978-01-01

    A two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation for a triangular region is shown to be solved by the finite Fourier transformation. An application of the Fourier transformation to the diffusion equation for triangular region yields equations whose unknowns are the expansion coefficients of the neutron flux and current in Fourier series or Legendre polynomials expansions only at the region boundary. Some numerical calculations have revealed that the present technique gives accurate results. It is shown also that the solution using the expansion in Legendre polynomials converges with relatively few terms even if the solution in Fourier series exhibits the Gibbs' phenomenon. (auth.)

  15. Solution of two-dimensional diffusion equation for hexagonal cells by the finite Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    1975-01-01

    A method of solution is presented for a monoenergetic diffusion equation in two-dimensional hexagonal cells by a finite Fourier transformation. Up to the present, the solution by the finite Fourier transformation has been developed for x-y, r-z and x-y-z geometries, and the flux and current at the boundary are obtained in terms of Fourier series. It is shown here that the method can be applied to hexagonal cells and the expansion of boundary values in a Legendre polynomials gives numerically a higher accuracy than is obtained by a Fourier series. (orig.) [de

  16. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan G.

    1998-06-01

    As for Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) interferometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, the introduction of pulsed Fourier transform techniques revolutionized ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: increased speed (factor of 10,000), increased sensitivity (factor of 100), increased mass resolution (factor of 10,000-an improvement not shared by the introduction of FT techniques to IR or NMR spectroscopy), increased mass range (factor of 500), and automated operation. FT-ICR mass spectrometry is the most versatile technique for unscrambling and quantifying ion-molecule reaction kinetics and equilibria in the absence of solvent (i.e., the gas phase). In addition, FT-ICR MS has the following analytically important features: speed (~1 second per spectrum); ultrahigh mass resolution and ultrahigh mass accuracy for analysis of mixtures and polymers; attomole sensitivity; MSn with one spectrometer, including two-dimensional FT/FT-ICR/MS; positive and/or negative ions; multiple ion sources (especially MALDI and electrospray); biomolecular molecular weight and sequencing; LC/MS; and single-molecule detection up to 108 Dalton. Here, some basic features and recent developments of FT-ICR mass spectrometry are reviewed, with applications ranging from crude oil to molecular biology.

  17. Search for the periodicity of the prime Indian and American stock exchange indices using date-compensated discrete Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadder, Swetadri; Ghosh, Koushik; Basu, Tapasendra

    2015-01-01

    The behaviour of Indian stock markets has a persistent close association with the behaviour of American stock exchange. The present work is an effort in this direction and the purpose of the present work is to investigate the periodicity of the two prime Indian stock market indices viz. SENSEX and NIFTY and the prime American stock market indices viz. DOW-JONES and S&P500. To serve the present purpose we have here used SENSEX logarithmic daily close data during the period from 1st January, 1990 to 31st December, 2013, NIFTY logarithmic daily close data during the period from 3rd July, 1990 to 31st December, 2013, DOW-JONES logarithmic daily close data during the period from 10th January, 1928 to 31st December, 2013 and S&P500 logarithmic daily close data during the period 3rd January, 1950 to 31st December, 2013. For the present analysis we have first used double exponential smoothing on all the four time series in order to remove the trend and next we have generated monthly averages of the smoothed time series in order to remove the irregular fluctuations. At the final stage Ferraz-Mello method of date-compensated discrete Fourier transform (DCDFT) has been applied on the present four double-smoothed monthly averaged time series. Study reveals periods for SENSEX of 11, 53 and 142 months; for NIFTY periods of 22, 38, 52 and 139 months; for DOW-JONES periods of 23, 25, 27, 30, 59, 107, 138, 194 and 494 months and for S&P500 periods of 28, 66, 74, 149 and 384 months. With this specific periodic behaviour we have also observed some pseudo-periods in the present four financial time series which certainly adds to the uncertainty in the process of prediction for the same

  18. Building a symbolic computer algebra toolbox to compute 2D Fourier transforms in polar coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Edem; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The development of a symbolic computer algebra toolbox for the computation of two dimensional (2D) Fourier transforms in polar coordinates is presented. Multidimensional Fourier transforms are widely used in image processing, tomographic reconstructions and in fact any application that requires a multidimensional convolution. By examining a function in the frequency domain, additional information and insights may be obtained. The advantages of our method include: •The implementation of the 2D Fourier transform in polar coordinates within the toolbox via the combination of two significantly simpler transforms.•The modular approach along with the idea of lookup tables implemented help avoid the issue of indeterminate results which may occur when attempting to directly evaluate the transform.•The concept also helps prevent unnecessary computation of already known transforms thereby saving memory and processing time.

  19. Generalized formulation of an encryption system based on a joint transform correlator and fractional Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilardy, Juan M; Millán, María S; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Torres, Yezid

    2014-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the encryption system based on double random phase encoding (DRPE) and a joint transform correlator (JTC), from the Fourier domain to the fractional Fourier domain (FrFD) by using the fractional Fourier operators, such as the fractional Fourier transform (FrFT), fractional traslation, fractional convolution and fractional correlation. Image encryption systems based on a JTC architecture in the FrFD usually produce low quality decrypted images. In this work, we present two approaches to improve the quality of the decrypted images, which are based on nonlinear processing applied to the encrypted function (that contains the joint fractional power spectrum, JFPS) and the nonzero-order JTC in the FrFD. When the two approaches are combined, the quality of the decrypted image is higher. In addition to the advantages introduced by the implementation of the DRPE using a JTC, we demonstrate that the proposed encryption system in the FrFD preserves the shift-invariance property of the JTC-based encryption system in the Fourier domain, with respect to the lateral displacement of both the key random mask in the decryption process and the retrieval of the primary image. The feasibility of this encryption system is verified and analyzed by computer simulations. (paper)

  20. The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The RC Circuit: An Approach with Fourier Transforms. Classroom Volume 21 Issue 11 November 2016 pp 1029-1042 ... But a lot of things, (including the complex impedanceitself, and some insight into complex analysis) can be understoodbetter if we use the FT approach to solve the differentialequations that come up in ...

  1. Novel Polynomial Basis with Fast Fourier Transform and Its Application to Reed-Solomon Erasure Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian-Jheng; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Han, Yunghsiang S.; Chung, Wei-Ho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over extension binary fields, where the polynomial is represented in a non-standard basis. The proposed Fourier-like transform requires O(h lg(h)) field operations, where h

  2. Deficiencies of the cryptography based on multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Qiwen; Zhang, Haiying; Zhang, Jin; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing

    2009-06-01

    Methods of image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform have an incipient flaw in security. We show that the schemes have the deficiency that one group of encryption keys has many groups of keys to decrypt the encrypted image correctly for several reasons. In some schemes, many factors result in the deficiencies, such as the encryption scheme based on multiple-parameter fractional Fourier transform [Opt. Lett.33, 581 (2008)]. A modified method is proposed to avoid all the deficiencies. Security and reliability are greatly improved without increasing the complexity of the encryption process. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America.

  3. Fourier transform wavefront control with adaptive prediction of the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa A; Macintosh, Bruce A; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2007-09-01

    Predictive Fourier control is a temporal power spectral density-based adaptive method for adaptive optics that predicts the atmosphere under the assumption of frozen flow. The predictive controller is based on Kalman filtering and a Fourier decomposition of atmospheric turbulence using the Fourier transform reconstructor. It provides a stable way to compensate for arbitrary numbers of atmospheric layers. For each Fourier mode, efficient and accurate algorithms estimate the necessary atmospheric parameters from closed-loop telemetry and determine the predictive filter, adjusting as conditions change. This prediction improves atmospheric rejection, leading to significant improvements in system performance. For a 48x48 actuator system operating at 2 kHz, five-layer prediction for all modes is achievable in under 2x10(9) floating-point operations/s.

  4. A novel least-square Fourier algorithm for decomposition of discrete, non-equidistant acquisition data

    CERN Document Server

    Bouthéon, M; Potier, J P

    1977-01-01

    A novel procedure for evaluating directly the Fourier series coefficients of a function described by unequally spaced but symmetrically disposed interval discrete points is given and an example illustrated. The procedure's simplicity enables it to be used for harmonic analyses of non-equidistant interval data without using the intermediate curve-fitting techniques. (2 refs).

  5. Fourier-transforming with quantum annealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay eHen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a set of quantum adiabatic evolutions that we argue may be used as `building blocks', or subroutines, in the onstruction of an adiabatic algorithm that executes Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT with the same complexity and resources as its gate-model counterpart. One implication of the above construction is the theoretical feasibility of implementing Shor's algorithm for integer factorization in an optimal manner, and any other algorithm that makes use of QFT, on quantum annealing devices. We discuss the possible advantages, as well as the limitations, of the proposed approach as well as its relation to traditional adiabatic quantum computation.

  6. Transformation of a Free-Wilson matrix into Fourier coefficients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holík, M.; Halámek, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2002), s. 422 - 428 ISSN 0931-8771 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : Free-Wilson matrix * Fourier transform * multivariate regression Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2002

  7. A new discrete dipole kernel for quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic, Carlos; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Pinto, José Miguel; Mattern, Hendrik; Andia, Marcelo; Uribe, Sergio; Tejos, Cristian

    2018-09-01

    Most approaches for quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) are based on a forward model approximation that employs a continuous Fourier transform operator to solve a differential equation system. Such formulation, however, is prone to high-frequency aliasing. The aim of this study was to reduce such errors using an alternative dipole kernel formulation based on the discrete Fourier transform and discrete operators. The impact of such an approach on forward model calculation and susceptibility inversion was evaluated in contrast to the continuous formulation both with synthetic phantoms and in vivo MRI data. The discrete kernel demonstrated systematically better fits to analytic field solutions, and showed less over-oscillations and aliasing artifacts while preserving low- and medium-frequency responses relative to those obtained with the continuous kernel. In the context of QSM estimation, the use of the proposed discrete kernel resulted in error reduction and increased sharpness. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that discretizing the dipole kernel is advantageous for QSM. The impact on small or narrow structures such as the venous vasculature might by particularly relevant to high-resolution QSM applications with ultra-high field MRI - a topic for future investigations. The proposed dipole kernel has a straightforward implementation to existing QSM routines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. From the rectangular to the quincunx Gabor lattice via fractional Fourier transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Leest, van A.J.

    1998-01-01

    Transformations of Gabor lattices have been associated with operations on the window functions that arise in Gabor theory. In particular it has been shown that transformation from a rectangular to a quincunx lattice can be associated with fractional Fourier transformation. Since a Gaussian function,

  9. Non-stationary component extraction in noisy multicomponent signal using polynomial chirping Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenlong; Xie, Junwei; Wang, Heming; Sheng, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by track-before-detection technology in radar, a novel time-frequency transform, namely polynomial chirping Fourier transform (PCFT), is exploited to extract components from noisy multicomponent signal. The PCFT combines advantages of Fourier transform and polynomial chirplet transform to accumulate component energy along a polynomial chirping curve in the time-frequency plane. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to search optimal polynomial parameters with which the PCFT will achieve a most concentrated energy ridge in the time-frequency plane for the target component. The component can be well separated in the polynomial chirping Fourier domain with a narrow-band filter and then reconstructed by inverse PCFT. Furthermore, an iterative procedure, involving parameter estimation, PCFT, filtering and recovery, is introduced to extract components from a noisy multicomponent signal successively. The Simulations and experiments show that the proposed method has better performance in component extraction from noisy multicomponent signal as well as provides more time-frequency details about the analyzed signal than conventional methods.

  10. q-Extension of Mehta's eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform for q, a root of unity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atakishiyeva, M.K.; Atakishiyev, N.M.; Koornwinder, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the continuous q-Hermite polynomials for q, a root of unity, have simple transformation properties with respect to the classical Fourier transform. This result is then used to construct q-extended eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform in terms of these polynomials.

  11. Hochauflösende Fourier-Transform-Emissionsspektroskopie

    OpenAIRE

    Uibel, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Mittels hochauflösender Fourier-Transform-Infrarot-Emissionsspektroskopie wurden tiefliegende elektronische Anregungszustände der mittelschweren zweiatomigen Radikale As2, Sb2 und TeF untersucht. Dabei lag das Interesse vor allem bei den Emissionen nicht voll erlaubter Übergänge wie beispielsweise der 3Σ +u →  1Σ +g- bzw. (1u) →  (0+g)-Übergänge bei den Stickstoff-Homologen. Dieses besondere Interesse an der genauen Analyse der 3Σ +u-Zustände liegt in ihrem metastab...

  12. Application of Migration Velocity Using Fourier Transform Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of velocity by Fourier transform to process 3-D unmigrated seismic sections has been carried out in Fabi Field, Niger Delta – Nigeria. Usually, all seismic events (sections) are characterized by spikes or noise (random or coherent), multiples and shear waves so that when a seismic bed is dipping, the apparent ...

  13. FREQUENCY COMPONENT EXTRACTION OF HEARTBEAT CUES WITH SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (STFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna Sumarna

    2017-01-01

      Electro-acoustic human heartbeat detector have been made with the main parts : (a stetoscope (piece chest, (b mic condenser, (c transistor amplifier, and (d cues analysis program with MATLAB. The frequency components that contained in heartbeat. cues have also been extracted with Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT from 9 volunteers. The results of the analysis showed that heart rate appeared in every cue frequency spectrum with their harmony. The steps of the research were including detector instrument design, test and instrument repair, cues heartbeat recording with Sound Forge 10 program and stored in wav file ; cues breaking at the start and the end, and extraction/cues analysis using MATLAB. The MATLAB program included filter (bandpass filter with bandwidth between 0.01 – 110 Hz, cues breaking with hamming window and every part was calculated using Fourier Transform (STFT mechanism and the result were shown in frequency spectrum graph.   Keywords: frequency components extraction, heartbeat cues, Short Time Fourier Transform

  14. Novel properties of the Fourier decomposition of the sinogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.; Lewitt, R.M.; Lindholm, B.

    1986-01-01

    The double Fourier decomposition of the sinogram is obtained by first taking the Fourier transform of each parallel-ray projection and then calculating the coefficients of a Fourier series with respect to angle for each frequency component of the transformed projections. The values of these coefficients may be plotted on a two-dimensional map whose coordinates are spatial frequency ω (continuous) and angular harmonic number n (discrete). For absolute value of ω large, the Fourier coefficients on the line n=kω of slope k through the origin of the coefficient space are found to depend strongly on the contributions to the projection data that, for each view, come from a certain distance to the detector plane, where the distance is a linear function of k. The values of these coefficients depend only weakly on contributions from other distances from the detector. The theoretical basis of this property is presented in this paper and a potential application to emission computerized tomography is discussed

  15. Discrete cosine and sine transforms general properties, fast algorithms and integer approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Britanak, Vladimir; Rao, K R; Rao, K R

    2006-01-01

    The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in many applications by the scientific, engineering and research communities and in data compression in particular. Fast algorithms and applications of the DCT Type II (DCT-II) have become the heart of many established international image/video coding standards. Since then other forms of the DCT and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been investigated in detail. This new edition presents the complete set of DCT and DST discrete trigonometric transforms, including their definitions, general mathematical properties, and relations to the optimal Karhune

  16. Manifestly gauge invariant discretizations of the Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, Tore Gunnar; Kvaal, Simen

    2012-01-01

    Grid-based discretizations of the time dependent Schrödinger equation coupled to an external magnetic field are converted to manifest gauge invariant discretizations. This is done using generalizations of ideas used in classical lattice gauge theory, and the process defined is applicable to a large class of discretized differential operators. In particular, popular discretizations such as pseudospectral discretizations using the fast Fourier transform can be transformed to gauge invariant schemes. Also generic gauge invariant versions of generic time integration methods are considered, enabling completely gauge invariant calculations of the time dependent Schrödinger equation. Numerical examples illuminating the differences between a gauge invariant discretization and conventional discretization procedures are also presented. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the Schrödinger equation coupled to an external magnetic field. ► Any grid-based discretization is made trivially gauge invariant. ► An extension of classical lattice gauge theory.

  17. Error analysis in Fourier methods for option pricing for exponential Lévy processes

    KAUST Repository

    Crocce, Fabian; Hä ppö lä , Juho; Keissling, Jonas; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We derive an error bound for utilising the discrete Fourier transform method for solving Partial Integro-Differential Equations (PIDE) that describe european option prices for exponential Lévy driven asset prices. We give sufficient conditions

  18. Soft x-ray microscope using Fourier transform holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, I.; Kirz, J.; Jacobsen, C.; Anderson, E.; Howells, M.R.; Rarback, H.

    1989-01-01

    A Fourier transform holographic microscope with an anticipated resolution of better than 100 nm has been built. Extensive testing of the apparatus has begun. Preliminary results include the recording of interference fringes using 3.6 nm x-rays. The microscope employs a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array of 576 x 384 elements. The system is illuminated by soft x-rays from a high brightness undulator. The reference point source is formed by a Fresnel zone plate with a finest outer zone width of 50 nm. Sufficient temporal coherence for hologram formation is obtained by a spherical grating monochromator. The x-ray hologram intensities at the recording plane are to be collected, digitized and reconstructed by computer. Data acquisition is under CAMAC control, while image display and off-line processing takes place on a VAX graphics workstation. Computational models of Fourier transform hologram synthesis, and reconstruction in the presence of noise, have demonstrated the feasibility of numerical methods in two dimensions, and that three-dimensional information is potentially recoverable. 13 refs., 3 figs

  19. Gas Measurement Using Static Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Michael H; Schardt, Michael; Rauscher, Markus S; Koch, Alexander W

    2017-11-13

    Online monitoring of gases in industrial processes is an ambitious task due to adverse conditions such as mechanical vibrations and temperature fluctuations. Whereas conventional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers use rather complex optical and mechanical designs to ensure stable operation, static FTIR spectrometers do not require moving parts and thus offer inherent stability at comparatively low costs. Therefore, we present a novel, compact gas measurement system using a static single-mirror Fourier transform spectrometer (sSMFTS). The system works in the mid-infrared range from 650 cm - 1 to 1250 cm - 1 and can be operated with a customized White cell, yielding optical path lengths of up to 120 cm for highly sensitive quantification of gas concentrations. To validate the system, we measure different concentrations of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (R134a) and perform a PLS regression analysis of the acquired infrared spectra. Thereby, the measured absorption spectra show good agreement with reference data. Since the system additionally permits measurement rates of up to 200 Hz and high signal-to-noise ratios, an application in process analysis appears promising.

  20. Comparison of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and principal component analysis/DFT as forecasting tools for absorbance time series received by UV-visible probes installed in urban sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plazas-Nossa, Leonardo; Torres, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to introduce a forecasting method for UV-Vis spectrometry time series that combines principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete Fourier transform (DFT), and to compare the results obtained with those obtained by using DFT. Three time series for three different study sites were used: (i) Salitre wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Bogotá; (ii) Gibraltar pumping station in Bogotá; and (iii) San Fernando WWTP in Itagüí (in the south part of Medellín). Each of these time series had an equal number of samples (1051). In general terms, the results obtained are hardly generalizable, as they seem to be highly dependent on specific water system dynamics; however, some trends can be outlined: (i) for UV range, DFT and PCA/DFT forecasting accuracy were almost the same; (ii) for visible range, the PCA/DFT forecasting procedure proposed gives systematically lower forecasting errors and variability than those obtained with the DFT procedure; and (iii) for short forecasting times the PCA/DFT procedure proposed is more suitable than the DFT procedure, according to processing times obtained.

  1. Fourier transform spectroscopy of six stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza V, E E [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    This paper outlines results from a digital analysis of the Fourier transform spectroscopy of six stars: ..sigma.. Aur, rho Ori, ..cap alpha.. Lyr, zeta Aql and ..cap alpha.. Cyg. Nearly 1200 different spectral lines have been identified in the spectra of these six stars in the wavelength interval 4800-10200 A where the spectra are of very high quality, less than the one per cent level of noise versus signal. ..cap alpha.. Lyr and ..cap alpha.. Cyg show spectral line and profile variations easily seen in their spectra.

  2. Fourier transform zero field NMR and NQR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zax, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    In many systems the chemical shifts measured by traditional high resolution solid state NMR methods are insufficiently sensitive, or the information contained in the dipole-dipole couplings is more important. In these cases, Fourier transform zero field magnetic resonance may make an important contribution. Zero field NMR and NQR is the subject of this thesis. Chapter I presents the quantum mechanical background and notational formalism for what follows. Chapter II gives a brief review of high resolution magnetic resonance methods, with particular emphasis on techniques applicable to dipole-dipole and quadrupolar couplings. Level crossings between spin-1/2 and quadrupolar spins during demagnetization transfer polarization from high to low λ nuclei. This is the basis of very high sensitivity zero field NQR measurements by field cycling. Chapter III provides a formal presentation of the high resolution Fourier transform zero field NMR method. Theoretical signal functions are calculated for common spin systems, and examples of typical spectra are presented. Chapters IV and V review the experimental progress in zero field NMR of dipole-dipole coupled spin-1/2 nuclei and for quadrupolar spin systems. Variations of the simple experiment describe in earlier chapters that use pulsed dc fields are presented in Chapter VI

  3. Application of the fourier and wavelet transforms in noise reduction of the out of the ordinary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafreshi, M. A.; Sadeghi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the noise reduction of the experimental data by the Fourier and the wavelet transforms has been investigated. Using both simulated and experimental data (from the plasma focus facility, Dena), the sensitive features of the application of the Fourier transform are visualized and discussed. Then, the main idea of the wavelet transform and the results of the noise reduction with this transform are presented. Due to this investigation, for the cases such as the current derivative of the Dena facility, where the reliability of the Fourier transform can be doubtful, the wavelet transform can be considered as a more accurate alternative approach

  4. Generalized prolate spheroidal wave functions for optical finite fractional Fourier and linear canonical transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun

    2005-03-01

    Prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) are known to be useful for analyzing the properties of the finite-extension Fourier transform (fi-FT). We extend the theory of PSWFs for the finite-extension fractional Fourier transform, the finite-extension linear canonical transform, and the finite-extension offset linear canonical transform. These finite transforms are more flexible than the fi-FT and can model much more generalized optical systems. We also illustrate how to use the generalized prolate spheroidal functions we derive to analyze the energy-preservation ratio, the self-imaging phenomenon, and the resonance phenomenon of the finite-sized one-stage or multiple-stage optical systems.

  5. Iterative wave-front reconstruction in the Fourier domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charlotte Z; Correia, Carlos M; Sauvage, Jean-François; Neichel, Benoit; Fusco, Thierry

    2017-05-15

    The use of Fourier methods in wave-front reconstruction can significantly reduce the computation time for large telescopes with a high number of degrees of freedom. However, Fourier algorithms for discrete data require a rectangular data set which conform to specific boundary requirements, whereas wave-front sensor data is typically defined over a circular domain (the telescope pupil). Here we present an iterative Gerchberg routine modified for the purposes of discrete wave-front reconstruction which adapts the measurement data (wave-front sensor slopes) for Fourier analysis, fulfilling the requirements of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and providing accurate reconstruction. The routine is used in the adaptation step only and can be coupled to any other Wiener-like or least-squares method. We compare simulations using this method with previous Fourier methods and show an increase in performance in terms of Strehl ratio and a reduction in noise propagation for a 40×40 SPHERE-like adaptive optics system. For closed loop operation with minimal iterations the Gerchberg method provides an improvement in Strehl, from 95.4% to 96.9% in K-band. This corresponds to ~ 40 nm improvement in rms, and avoids the high spatial frequency errors present in other methods, providing an increase in contrast towards the edge of the correctable band.

  6. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....

  7. Fourier transformation methods in the field of gamma spectrometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The basic principles of a new version of Fourier transformation is presented. This new version was applied to solve some main problems such as smoothing, and denoising in gamma spectroscopy. The mathematical procedures were first tested by simulated data and then by actual experimental data.

  8. Image compression-encryption algorithms by combining hyper-chaotic system with discrete fractional random transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lihua; Deng, Chengzhi; Pan, Shumin; Zhou, Nanrun

    2018-07-01

    Based on hyper-chaotic system and discrete fractional random transform, an image compression-encryption algorithm is designed. The original image is first transformed into a spectrum by the discrete cosine transform and the resulting spectrum is compressed according to the method of spectrum cutting. The random matrix of the discrete fractional random transform is controlled by a chaotic sequence originated from the high dimensional hyper-chaotic system. Then the compressed spectrum is encrypted by the discrete fractional random transform. The order of DFrRT and the parameters of the hyper-chaotic system are the main keys of this image compression and encryption algorithm. The proposed algorithm can compress and encrypt image signal, especially can encrypt multiple images once. To achieve the compression of multiple images, the images are transformed into spectra by the discrete cosine transform, and then the spectra are incised and spliced into a composite spectrum by Zigzag scanning. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed image compression and encryption algorithm is of high security and good compression performance.

  9. The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ter Morsche Hennie G

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the -dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.

  10. The De-Noising of Sonic Echo Test Data through Wavelet Transform Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.N. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of feasibility study into the application of the wavelet transform signal processing method to sonic based non-destructive testing techniques. Finite element generated data from cast in situ foundation piles were collated and processed using both continuous and discrete wavelet transform techniques. Results were compared with conventional Fourier based methods. The discrete Daubechies wavelets and the continuous Mexican hat wavelet were used and their relative merits investigated. It was found that both the continuous Mexican hat and discrete Daubechies D8 wavelets were significantly better at locating the pile toe compared than the Fourier filtered case. The wavelet transform method was then applied to field test data and found to be successful in facilitating the detection of the pile toe.

  11. OTDM-WDM Conversion Based on Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation with Spectral Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown.......We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown....

  12. Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone

    communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering transform” or “nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT)” to exploit the “hidden” linearity of the nonlinear Schrödinger...

  13. Pulse shaping using the optical Fourier transform technique - for ultra-high-speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment.......This paper reports on the generation of a 1.6 ps FWHM flat-top pulse using the optical Fourier transform technique. The pulse is validated in a 320 Gbit/s demultiplexing experiment....

  14. Quaternion Fourier transforms for signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Ell, Todd A; Sangwine, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Based on updates to signal and image processing technology made in the last two decades, this text examines the most recent research results pertaining to Quaternion Fourier Transforms. QFT is a central component of processing color images and complex valued signals. The book's attention to mathematical concepts, imaging applications, and Matlab compatibility render it an irreplaceable resource for students, scientists, researchers, and engineers.

  15. Formal degrees of unipotent discrete series representations and the exotic Fourier transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciubotaru, D.; Opdam, E.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a notion of elliptic fake degrees for unipotent elliptic representations of a semisimple p-adic group. We conjecture, and verify in some cases, that the relation between the formal degrees of unipotent discrete series representations of a semisimple p-adic group and the elliptic fake

  16. Simple surface structure determination from Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shirley, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The authors show by Fourier analyses of experimental data, with no further treatment, that the positions of all the strong peaks in Fourier transforms of angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure (ARPEFS) from adsorbed surfaces can be explicitly predicted from a trial structure with an accuracy of about {+-} 0.3 {angstrom} based on a single-scattering cluster model together with the concept of a strong backscattering cone, and without any additional analysis. This characteristic of ARPEFS Fourier transforms can be developed as a simple method for determining the structures of adsorbed surfaces to an accuracy of about {+-} 0.1 {angstrom}.

  17. An analysis of the Simpson Discrete Hartley transform | Ramsunder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relatively new Simpson Discrete Hartley Transform (SDHT) has interesting mathematical properties, which are crucial for applications. These are developed and proved in this paper. This analysis gives one a comprehensive understanding of the transform. Mathematics Subject Classication (2010): 43A32. Key words: ...

  18. Dual-polarization nonlinear Fourier transform-based optical communication system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Perego, A. M.; da Silva, Edson Porto

    2018-01-01

    communication could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “nonlinear Fourier transform (NFT)” to exploit the “hidden” linearity of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation as the master model for signal propagation in an optical fiber. We present here the theoretical...

  19. Fourier transforms on Cantor sets: A study in non-Diophantine arithmetic and calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Kuna, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fractal arithmetic allows to define Fourier transforms on Cantor-like sets. • General construction is illustrated on the example of a sawtooth signal. • The formalism is much simpler than the approaches discussed so far in the literature. - Abstract: Fractals equipped with intrinsic arithmetic lead to a natural definition of differentiation, integration, and complex structure. Applying the formalism to the problem of a Fourier transform on fractals we show that the resulting transform has all the required basic properties. As an example we discuss a sawtooth signal on the ternary middle-third Cantor set. The formalism works also for fractals that are not self-similar.

  20. Local structure information by EXAFS analysis using two algorithms for Fourier transform calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldea, N; Pintea, S; Rednic, V; Matei, F; Hu Tiandou; Xie Yaning

    2009-01-01

    The present work is a comparison study between different algorithms of Fourier transform for obtaining very accurate local structure results using Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure technique. In this paper we focus on the local structural characteristics of supported nickel catalysts and Fe 3 O 4 core-shell nanocomposites. The radial distribution function could be efficiently calculated by the fast Fourier transform when the coordination shells are well separated while the Filon quadrature gave remarkable results for close-shell coordination.

  1. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopic imaging classification based on spatial-spectral features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lian; Yang, Xiukun; Zhong, Mingliang; Liu, Yao; Jing, Xiaojun; Yang, Qin

    2018-04-01

    The discrete fractional Brownian incremental random (DFBIR) field is used to describe the irregular, random, and highly complex shapes of natural objects such as coastlines and biological tissues, for which traditional Euclidean geometry cannot be used. In this paper, an anisotropic variable window (AVW) directional operator based on the DFBIR field model is proposed for extracting spatial characteristics of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopic imaging. Probabilistic principal component analysis first extracts spectral features, and then the spatial features of the proposed AVW directional operator are combined with the former to construct a spatial-spectral structure, which increases feature-related information and helps a support vector machine classifier to obtain more efficient distribution-related information. Compared to Haralick’s grey-level co-occurrence matrix, Gabor filters, and local binary patterns (e.g. uniform LBPs, rotation-invariant LBPs, uniform rotation-invariant LBPs), experiments on three FTIR spectroscopy microscopic imaging datasets show that the proposed AVW directional operator is more advantageous in terms of classification accuracy, particularly for low-dimensional spaces of spatial characteristics.

  2. Fourier transforms in the complex domain

    CERN Document Server

    Wiener, N

    1934-01-01

    With the aid of Fourier-Mellin transforms as a tool in analysis, the authors were able to attack such diverse analytic questions as those of quasi-analytic functions, Mercer's theorem on summability, Milne's integral equation of radiative equilibrium, the theorems of Münz and Szász concerning the closure of sets of powers of an argument, Titchmarsh's theory of entire functions of semi-exponential type with real negative zeros, trigonometric interpolation and developments in polynomials of the form \\sum^N_1A_ne^{i\\lambda_nx}, lacunary series, generalized harmonic analysis in the complex domain,

  3. Eliminating the zero spectrum in Fourier transform profilometry using empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sikun; Su, Xianyu; Chen, Wenjing; Xiang, Liqun

    2009-05-01

    Empirical mode decomposition is introduced into Fourier transform profilometry to extract the zero spectrum included in the deformed fringe pattern without the need for capturing two fringe patterns with pi phase difference. The fringe pattern is subsequently demodulated using a standard Fourier transform profilometry algorithm. With this method, the deformed fringe pattern is adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions that vary from high frequency to low frequency by means of an algorithm referred to as a sifting process. Then the zero spectrum is separated from the high-frequency components effectively. Experiments validate the feasibility of this method.

  4. Closed contour fractal dimension estimation by the Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florindo, J.B.; Bruno, O.M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A novel fractal dimension concept, based on Fourier spectrum, is proposed. → Computationally simple. Computational time smaller than conventional fractal methods. → Results are closer to Hausdorff-Besicovitch than conventional methods. → The method is more accurate and robustness to geometric operations and noise addition. - Abstract: This work proposes a novel technique for the numerical calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal objects which can be represented as a closed contour. The proposed method maps the fractal contour onto a complex signal and calculates its fractal dimension using the Fourier transform. The Fourier power spectrum is obtained and an exponential relation is verified between the power and the frequency. From the parameter (exponent) of the relation, is obtained the fractal dimension. The method is compared to other classical fractal dimension estimation methods in the literature, e.g., Bouligand-Minkowski, box-counting and classical Fourier. The comparison is achieved by the calculus of the fractal dimension of fractal contours whose dimensions are well-known analytically. The results showed the high precision and robustness of the proposed technique.

  5. Principle and analysis of a rotational motion Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qisheng; Min, Huang; Han, Wei; Liu, Yixuan; Qian, Lulu; Lu, Xiangning

    2017-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is an important technique in studying molecular energy levels, analyzing material compositions, and environmental pollutants detection. A novel rotational motion Fourier transform infrared spectrometer with high stability and ultra-rapid scanning characteristics is proposed in this paper. The basic principle, the optical path difference (OPD) calculations, and some tolerance analysis are elaborated. The OPD of this spectrometer is obtained by the continuously rotational motion of a pair of parallel mirrors instead of the translational motion in traditional Michelson interferometer. Because of the rotational motion, it avoids the tilt problems occurred in the translational motion Michelson interferometer. There is a cosine function relationship between the OPD and the rotating angle of the parallel mirrors. An optical model is setup in non-sequential mode of the ZEMAX software, and the interferogram of a monochromatic light is simulated using ray tracing method. The simulated interferogram is consistent with the theoretically calculated interferogram. As the rotating mirrors are the only moving elements in this spectrometer, the parallelism of the rotating mirrors and the vibration during the scan are analyzed. The vibration of the parallel mirrors is the main error during the rotation. This high stability and ultra-rapid scanning Fourier transform infrared spectrometer is a suitable candidate for airborne and space-borne remote sensing spectrometer.

  6. A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hui; Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu; Dillenseger, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time

  7. A new stationary gridline artifact suppression method based on the 2D discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hui, E-mail: corinna@seu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Network and Information Integration (Southeast University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210000 (China); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China); Tong, Dan; Dong Bao, Xu [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Dillenseger, Jean-Louis [INSERM, U1099, Rennes F-35000 (France); Université de Rennes 1, LTSI, Rennes F-35000 (France); Centre de Recherche en Information Biomédicale sino-français, Laboratoire International Associé, Inserm, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35000 (France); Southeast University, Nanjing 210000 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: In digital x-ray radiography, an antiscatter grid is inserted between the patient and the image receptor to reduce scattered radiation. If the antiscatter grid is used in a stationary way, gridline artifacts will appear in the final image. In most of the gridline removal image processing methods, the useful information with spatial frequencies close to that of the gridline is usually lost or degraded. In this study, a new stationary gridline suppression method is designed to preserve more of the useful information. Methods: The method is as follows. The input image is first recursively decomposed into several smaller subimages using a multiscale 2D discrete wavelet transform. The decomposition process stops when the gridline signal is found to be greater than a threshold in one or several of these subimages using a gridline detection module. An automatic Gaussian band-stop filter is then applied to the detected subimages to remove the gridline signal. Finally, the restored image is achieved using the corresponding 2D inverse discrete wavelet transform. Results: The processed images show that the proposed method can remove the gridline signal efficiently while maintaining the image details. The spectra of a 1D Fourier transform of the processed images demonstrate that, compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method has better information preservation after the removal of the gridline artifacts. Additionally, the performance speed is relatively high. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Compared with some existing gridline removal methods, the proposed method can preserve more information within an acceptable execution time.

  8. High-resolution magnetic-domain imaging by Fourier transform holography at 21 nm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffert, Stefan; Pfau, Bastian; Günther, Christian M; Schneider, Michael; Korff Schmising, Clemens von; Eisebitt, Stefan; Geilhufe, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Exploiting x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the L-edges of 3d transition metals, Fourier transform holography has become a standard technique to investigate magnetic samples with sub-100 nm spatial resolution. Here, magnetic imaging in the 21 nm wavelength regime using M-edge circular dichroism is demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses in this wavelength regime are increasingly available from both laser- and accelerator-driven soft x-ray sources. We explain the adaptations concerning sample preparation and data evaluation compared to conventional holography in the 1 nm wavelength range. We find the correction of the Fourier transform hologram to in-plane Fourier components to be critical for high-quality reconstruction and demonstrate 70 nm spatial resolution in magnetization imaging with this approach. (paper)

  9. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R., E-mail: Jeffrey.D.Scargle@nasa.gov, E-mail: Michael.J.Way@nasa.gov, E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net [NASA Ames Research Center, Astrobiology and Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  10. Structure in the 3D Galaxy Distribution. III. Fourier Transforming the Universe: Phase and Power Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the effectiveness of a relatively straightforward analysis of the complex 3D Fourier transform of galaxy coordinates derived from redshift surveys. Numerical demonstrations of this approach are carried out on a volume-limited sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey redshift survey. The direct unbinned transform yields a complex 3D data cube quite similar to that from the Fast Fourier Transform of finely binned galaxy positions. In both cases, deconvolution of the sampling window function yields estimates of the true transform. Simple power spectrum estimates from these transforms are roughly consistent with those using more elaborate methods. The complex Fourier transform characterizes spatial distributional properties beyond the power spectrum in a manner different from (and we argue is more easily interpreted than) the conventional multipoint hierarchy. We identify some threads of modern large-scale inference methodology that will presumably yield detections in new wider and deeper surveys.

  11. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Guan, Pengyu; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2014-01-01

    All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented.......All-optical time-domain Optical Fourier Transformation utilised for signal processing of ultra-high-speed OTDM signals and OFDM signals will be presented....

  12. Discrete linear canonical transforms based on dilated Hermite functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Lai, Yun-Chiu

    2011-08-01

    Linear canonical transform (LCT) is very useful and powerful in signal processing and optics. In this paper, discrete LCT (DLCT) is proposed to approximate LCT by utilizing the discrete dilated Hermite functions. The Wigner distribution function is also used to investigate DLCT performances in the time-frequency domain. Compared with the existing digital computation of LCT, our proposed DLCT possess additivity and reversibility properties with no oversampling involved. In addition, the length of input/output signals will not be changed before and after the DLCT transformations, which is consistent with the time-frequency area-preserving nature of LCT; meanwhile, the proposed DLCT has very good approximation of continuous LCT.

  13. Analysis of gamma-ray spectra by using fast Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nagata, Shojiro; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Isamu; Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1977-01-01

    In order to simplify the mass data processing in a response matrix method for γ-ray spectral analysis, a method using a Fast Fourier Transform devised. The validity of the method was confirmed by a computer simulation for spectra of a NaI detector. The method uses the fact that spectral data can be represented by Fourier series with reduced number of terms. The estimation of intensities of γ-ray components is performed by a matrix operation using the compressed data of an observation spectrum and standard spectra in Fourier coefficients. The identification of γ-ray energies is also easy. Several features in the method and a general problem to be solved in a response matrix method are described. (auth.)

  14. Use of fast Fourier transform in gamma-ray spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Shojiro; Sasaki, Takashi; Ueda, Isamu.

    1978-01-01

    In order to simplify the mass data processing in a response matrix method for γ-ray spectral analysis, a method using a Fast Fourier Transform has been devised. The validity of the method has been confirmed by computer simulation for spectra of a NaI detector. First, it is shown that spectral data can be represented by Fourier series with a reduced number of terms. Then the estimation of intensities of γ-ray components is performed by a matrix operation using the compressed data of an observation spectrum and standard spectra in Fourier coefficients. The identification of γ-ray energies is also easy. Several features of the method and a general problem to be solved in relation to a response matrix method are described. (author)

  15. A transformada de Fourier em basic The Fourier transform (FFT in basic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Gomes Constantino

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe three computer programs in Basic language about the Fourier transform (FFT which are available in the Internet site http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/SoftwareE.htm (in English or http://artemis.ffclrp.usp.br/softwareP.htm (in Portuguese since October 1998. Those are addresses to the Web Page of our Laboratory of Organic Synthesis. The programs can be downloaded and used by anyone who is interested on the subject. The texts, menus and captions in the programs are written in English.

  16. Fast ghost imaging and ghost encryption based on the discrete cosine transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanha, Mehrdad; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab; Kheradmand, Reza

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the discrete cosine transform as an advanced compression tool for images in computational ghost imaging. A novel approach to fast imaging and encryption, the discrete cosine transform, promotes the security level of ghost images and reduces the image retrieval time. To discuss the advantages of this technique we compare experimental outcomes with simulated ones. (paper)

  17. On Analog of Fourier Transform in Interior of the Light Cone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Shtepina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an analog of Fourier transform Fhρ in interior of light cone that commutes with the action of the Lorentz group. We describe some properties of Fhρ, namely, its action on pseudoradial functions and functions being products of pseudoradial function and space hyperbolic harmonics. We prove that Fhρ-transform gives a one-to-one correspondence on each of the irreducible components of quasiregular representation. We calculate the inverse transform too.

  18. Physiological response of Arundo donax to cadmium stress by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shunhui; Sheng, Li; Zhang, Chunyan; Deng, Hongping

    2018-06-05

    The present paper deals with the physiological response of the changes in chemical contents of the root, stem and leaf of Arundo donax seedlings stressed by excess cadmium using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique, cadmium accumulation in plant by atomic absorption spectroscopy were tested after different concentrations cadmium stress. The results showed that low cadmium concentrations (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique for the non-invasive and rapid monitoring of the plants stressed with heavy metals, Arundo donax is suitable for phytoremediation of cadmium -contaminated wetland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Fourier transform as a signature for chaos in nuclear energy levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bybee, C.R.; Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function is an alternative test to characterize level statistics. For GOE statistics there is a suppression of the Fourier transform near the origin; this correlation hole is absent for Poisson statistics. Numerical modeling has been used to quantify the method and determine the dependence of the correlation-hole area on number, density, sampling interval, and fraction of missing or spurious levels. For large N the normalized correlation-hole area is a nearly universal constant and insensitive to missing and spurious levels. However, for the smaller sample sizes typical of nuclear data, application of the FT method yields ambiguous results. (orig.)

  20. The Fourier transform as a signature for chaos in nuclear energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function is an alternative test to characterize level statistics. For GOE statistics there is a suppression of the Fourier transform near the origin; this correlation hole is absent for Poisson statistics. Numerical modeling has been used to quantify the method and determine the dependence of the correlation-hole area on number, density, sampling interval, and fraction of missing or spurious levels. For large N the normalized correlation-hole area is a nearly universal constant and insensitive to missing and spurious levels. However, for the smaller sample sizes typical of nuclear data, application of the FT method yields ambiguous results. (orig.)

  1. PARTICULATE MATTER MEASUREMENTS USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FT1R) spectroscopy is an accepted technology for measuring gaseous air contaminants. OP-FT1R absorbance spectra acquired during changing aerosols conditions reveal related changes in very broad baseline features. Usually, this shearing of ...

  2. Nuclear data compression and reconstruction via discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ryong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) are recent mathematics, and begin to be used in various fields. The wavelet transform can be used to compress the signal and image due to its inherent properties. We applied the wavelet transform compression and reconstruction to the neutron cross section data. Numerical tests illustrate that the signal compression using wavelet is very effective to reduce the data saving spaces. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  3. Nuclear data compression and reconstruction via discrete wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Ryong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWTs) are recent mathematics, and begin to be used in various fields. The wavelet transform can be used to compress the signal and image due to its inherent properties. We applied the wavelet transform compression and reconstruction to the neutron cross section data. Numerical tests illustrate that the signal compression using wavelet is very effective to reduce the data saving spaces. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  4. Directional short-time Fourier transform of distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Hadzi-Velkova Saneva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we consider the directional short-time Fourier transform (DSTFT that was introduced and investigated in (Giv in J. Math. Anal. Appl. 399:100-107, 2013. We analyze the DSTFT and its transpose on test function spaces S ( R n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {R}^{n}$ and S ( Y 2 n $\\mathcal {S}(\\mathbb {Y}^{2n}$ , respectively, and prove the continuity theorems on these spaces. Then the obtained results are used to extend the DSTFT to spaces of distributions.

  5. Fourier transform inequalities for phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen, Frederick A

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic invariants are not the only constraints on site-pattern frequency vectors for phylogenetic trees. A mutation matrix, by its definition, is the exponential of a matrix with non-negative off-diagonal entries; this positivity requirement implies non-trivial constraints on the site-pattern frequency vectors. We call these additional constraints "edge-parameter inequalities". In this paper, we first motivate the edge-parameter inequalities by considering a pathological site-pattern frequency vector corresponding to a quartet tree with a negative internal edge. This site-pattern frequency vector nevertheless satisfies all of the constraints described up to now in the literature. We next describe two complete sets of edge-parameter inequalities for the group-based models; these constraints are square-free monomial inequalities in the Fourier transformed coordinates. These inequalities, along with the phylogenetic invariants, form a complete description of the set of site-pattern frequency vectors corresponding to bona fide trees. Said in mathematical language, this paper explicitly presents two finite lists of inequalities in Fourier coordinates of the form "monomial < or = 1", each list characterizing the phylogenetically relevant semialgebraic subsets of the phylogenetic varieties.

  6. Progress report of a static Fourier transform spectrometer breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosak, A.; Tintó, F.

    2017-11-01

    MOLI instrument -for MOtionLess Interferometer- takes advantage of the new concept of static Fourier transform spectrometer. It is a high-resolution spectrometer working over a narrow bandwidth, which is adapted to a wide range of atmospheric sounding missions and compatible with micro-satellite platform. The core of this instrument is an echelette cube. Mirrors on the classical design are replaced by stepped mirrors -integrated into that interference cube- thus suppressing any moving part. The steps' directions being set over a perpendicular axis, the overlap of both stepped mirrors creates a cluster of so-called "echelettes", each one corresponding to a different optical path difference (OPD). Hence the Fourier transform of the incoming radiance is directly imaged on a CCD array in a single acquisition. The frequency domain of the measurements is selected by an interferential filter disposed on the incoming optical path. A rotating wheel equipped with several filters allows the successive measurement of spectra around some bands of interest, i.e. O2, CO2 and CO absorption bands.

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Kunal; Liyanage, Mangala R; Volkin, David B; Middaugh, C Russell

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy provides data that are widely used for secondary structure characterization of peptides. A wide array of available sampling methods permits structural analysis of peptides in diverse environments such as aqueous solution (including optically turbid media), powders, detergent micelles, and lipid bilayers. In some cases, side chain vibrations can also be resolved and used for tertiary structure and chemical analysis. Data from several low-resolution spectroscopic techniques, including FTIR, can be combined to generate an empirical phase diagram, an overall picture of peptide structure as a function of environmental conditions that can aid in the global interpretation of large amounts of spectroscopic data.

  8. Regular Discrete Cosine Transform and its Application to Digital Images Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri A. Gadzhiev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform dct-i, unlike dct-ii, does not concentrate the energy of a transformed vector sufficiently well, so it is not used practically for the purposes of digital image compression. By performing regular normalization of the basic cosine transform matrix, we obtain a discrete cosine transform which has the same cosine basis as dct-i, coincides as dct-i with its own inverse transform, but unlike dct-i, it does not reduce the proper ability of cosine transform to the energy concentration. In this paper we consider briefly the properties of this transform, its possible integer implementation for the case of 8x8-matrix, its applications to the image itself and to the preliminary rgb colour space transformations, further more we investigate some models of quantization, perform an experiment for the estimation of the level of digital images compression and the quality achieved by use of this transform. This experiment shows that the transform can be sufficiently effective for practical use, but the question of its comparative effectiveness with respect to dct-ii remains open.

  9. On a q-extension of Mehta's eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform for q a root of unity

    OpenAIRE

    Atakishiyeva, Mesuma K.; Atakishiyev, Natig M.; Koornwinder, Tom H.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the continuous q-Hermite polynomials for q a root of unity have simple transformation properties with respect to the classical Fourier transform. This result is then used to construct q-extended eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform in terms of these polynomials.

  10. OTDM-to-WDM Conversion of Complex Modulation Formats by Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Richter, T.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information.......We demonstrate the utilization of the optical Fourier transform technique for serial-to-parallel conversion of 64×10-GBd OTDM data tributaries with complex modulation formats into 50-GHz DWDM grid without loss of phase and amplitude information....

  11. Hybrid fast Hankel transform implementation for optics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Paul K.

    2013-09-01

    The most compute intensive part of a full optics simulation, especially including diffraction effects, is the Fourier transform between pupil and image spaces. This is typically performed as a two dimensional fast discrete transform. For a nearly radially symmetric system there are advantages to using polar coordinates, in which case the radial transform becomes a Hankel transform, using Bessel functions instead of circular functions. However, there are special difficulties in calculating and handling Bessel functions. Several solutions have been proposed. We present a hybrid Hankel transform which divides the domain, calculating a portion using Bessel function approximations but converting most of the domain into a one dimensional Fourier transform which can be handled by standard methods.

  12. Products of multiple Fourier series with application to the multiblade transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    A relatively simple and systematic method for forming the products of multiple Fourier series using tensor like operations is demonstrated. This symbolic multiplication can be performed for any arbitrary number of series, and the coefficients of a set of linear differential equations with periodic coefficients from a rotating coordinate system to a nonrotating system is also demonstrated. It is shown that using Fourier operations to perform this transformation make it easily understood, simple to apply, and generally applicable.

  13. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosch, T. [Erlanger-Nuernberg Univ., Erlanger (Germany). Lehrstul fuer Nachrichtentechnik I; Seidl, D. [Seismologisches Zentralobservatorium Graefenberg, Erlanegen (Greece). Bundesanstalt fuer Geiwissenschaften und Rohstoffe

    1999-06-01

    Among a variety of spectrogram methods short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli (Italy).

  14. How to use the Fast Fourier Transform in Large Finite Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Petur Birgir

    2011-01-01

    The article contents suggestions on how to perform the Fast Fourier Transform over Large Finite Fields. The technique is to use the fact that the multiplicative groups of specific prime fields are surprisingly composite.

  15. Stress wave calculations in composite plates using the fast Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    The protection of composite turbine fan blades against impact forces has prompted the study of dynamic stresses in composites due to transient loads. The mathematical model treats the laminated plate as an equivalent anisotropic material. The use of Mindlin's approximate theory of crystal plates results in five two-dimensional stress waves. Three of the waves are flexural and two involve in-plane extensional strains. The initial value problem due to a transient distributed transverse force on the plate is solved using Laplace and Fourier transforms. A fast computer program for inverting the two-dimensional Fourier transform is used. Stress contours for various stresses and times after application of load are obtained for a graphite fiber-epoxy matrix composite plate. Results indicate that the points of maximum stress travel along the fiber directions.

  16. On the spectral analysis of iterative solutions of the discretized one-group transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the Fourier-mode technique used for the spectral analysis of iterative solutions of the one-group discretized transport equation. We introduce a direct spectral analysis for the iterative solution of finite difference approximations for finite slabs composed of identical layers, providing thus a complementary analysis that is more appropriate for reactor applications. Numerical calculations for the method of characteristics and with the diamond difference approximation show the appearance of antisymmetric modes generated by the iteration on boundary data. We have also utilized the discrete Fourier transform to compute the spectrum for a periodic slab containing N identical layers and shown that at the limit N → ∞ one obtains the familiar Fourier-mode solution

  17. Introduction to the Discrete Fourier Series Considering Both Mathematical and Engineering Aspects--A Linear Algebra Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohaupt, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    The discrete Fourier series is a valuable tool developed and used by mathematicians and engineers alike. One of the most prominent applications is signal processing. Usually, it is important that the signals be transmitted fast, for example, when transmitting images over large distances such as between the moon and the earth or when generating…

  18. Experimental demonstrations of the properties of Fourier transforms using diffraction phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazin, M.J.; Lucie, P.H.; Oliveira, S.M.M. de.

    1984-01-01

    The standard mathematical properties of Fourier transforms and the experimental characteristics of diffraction phenomena are systematically brought together. An experimental realization of a particular case of the convolution theorem is displayed in details. (Author) [pt

  19. Calibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, E. T.; Hopwood, R.; Valtchanov, I.; Lu, N.; Fulton, T.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Marchili, N.; Baluteau, J.- P.; Bendo, G. J.; Ferlet, M.; Griffin, Matthew Jason; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Herschel Spectral and Photometric REceiver (SPIRE) instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of ∼450–1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a sp...

  20. On Fourier re-expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Liflyand, E.

    2012-01-01

    We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.

  1. All-optical signal processing of OTDM and OFDM signals based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Guan, Pengyu; Lillieholm, Mads

    2017-01-01

    In the talk, we will review recent work on optical signal processing based on time lenses. Various applications of optical Fourier transformation for optical communications will be discussed.......In the talk, we will review recent work on optical signal processing based on time lenses. Various applications of optical Fourier transformation for optical communications will be discussed....

  2. Subwavelength Fourier-transform imaging without a lens or a beamsplitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui-Feng; Yuan Xin-Xing; Fang Yi-Zhen; Zhang Pei; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2014-01-01

    The fourier-transform patterns of an object are usually observed in the far-field region or obtained in the near-field region with the help of lenses. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme of Fourier-transform patterns in the Fresnel diffraction region with thermal light. In this scheme, neither a lens nor a beamsplitter is used, and only one single charge coupled device (CCD) is employed. It means that dividing one beam out of a light source into signal and reference beams is not as necessary as the one done by the use of a beamsplitter in usual ghost interference experiments. Moreover, the coincidence measurement of two point detectors is not necessary and data recorded on a single CCD are sufficient for reconstructing the ghost diffraction patterns. The feature of the scheme promises a great potential application in the fields of X-ray and neutron diffraction imaging processes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Fourier transform based scalable image quality measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwaria, Manish; Lin, Weisi; McLoughlin, Ian; Emmanuel, Sabu; Chia, Liang-Tien

    2012-08-01

    We present a new image quality assessment (IQA) algorithm based on the phase and magnitude of the 2D (twodimensional) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). The basic idea is to compare the phase and magnitude of the reference and distorted images to compute the quality score. However, it is well known that the Human Visual Systems (HVSs) sensitivity to different frequency components is not the same. We accommodate this fact via a simple yet effective strategy of nonuniform binning of the frequency components. This process also leads to reduced space representation of the image thereby enabling the reduced-reference (RR) prospects of the proposed scheme. We employ linear regression to integrate the effects of the changes in phase and magnitude. In this way, the required weights are determined via proper training and hence more convincing and effective. Lastly, using the fact that phase usually conveys more information than magnitude, we use only the phase for RR quality assessment. This provides the crucial advantage of further reduction in the required amount of reference image information. The proposed method is therefore further scalable for RR scenarios. We report extensive experimental results using a total of 9 publicly available databases: 7 image (with a total of 3832 distorted images with diverse distortions) and 2 video databases (totally 228 distorted videos). These show that the proposed method is overall better than several of the existing fullreference (FR) algorithms and two RR algorithms. Additionally, there is a graceful degradation in prediction performance as the amount of reference image information is reduced thereby confirming its scalability prospects. To enable comparisons and future study, a Matlab implementation of the proposed algorithm is available at http://www.ntu.edu.sg/home/wslin/reduced_phase.rar.

  4. Fourier-Accelerated Nodal Solvers (FANS) for homogenization problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Matthias; Fritzen, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Fourier-based homogenization schemes are useful to analyze heterogeneous microstructures represented by 2D or 3D image data. These iterative schemes involve discrete periodic convolutions with global ansatz functions (mostly fundamental solutions). The convolutions are efficiently computed using the fast Fourier transform. FANS operates on nodal variables on regular grids and converges to finite element solutions. Compared to established Fourier-based methods, the number of convolutions is reduced by FANS. Additionally, fast iterations are possible by assembling the stiffness matrix. Due to the related memory requirement, the method is best suited for medium-sized problems. A comparative study involving established Fourier-based homogenization schemes is conducted for a thermal benchmark problem with a closed-form solution. Detailed technical and algorithmic descriptions are given for all methods considered in the comparison. Furthermore, many numerical examples focusing on convergence properties for both thermal and mechanical problems, including also plasticity, are presented.

  5. Description of the electron-hydrogen collision by the Coulomb Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    A recently developed Coulomb Fourier Transform method is applied to the system containing one heavy ion and two electrons. The transformed Hamiltonian is described with a controlled accuracy in an effective finite basis set as a finite dimensional operator matrix. The kernels of interaction are formulated in terms of the so called Nordsieck integrals

  6. Fourier transform distribution function of relaxation times; application and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukamp, Bernard A.

    2015-01-01

    A simple Fourier transform (FT) method is presented for obtaining a Distribution Function of Relaxation Times (DFRT) for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data. By using a special data extension procedure the FT is performed over the range from -∞ ≤ lnω ≤ + ∞. The integration procedure is

  7. Orthonormal mode sets for the two-dimensional fractional Fourier transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A family of orthonormal mode sets arises when Hermite–Gauss modes propagate through lossless first-order optical systems. It is shown that the modes at the output of the system are eigenfunctions for the symmetric fractional Fourier transformation if and only if the system is described by an

  8. Differentiating Fragmentation Pathways of Cholesterol by Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Agthoven, Maria A; Barrow, Mark P; Chiron, Lionel; Coutouly, Marie-Aude; Kilgour, David; Wootton, Christopher A; Wei, Juan; Soulby, Andrew; Delsuc, Marc-André; Rolando, Christian; O'Connor, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry is a data-independent analytical method that records the fragmentation patterns of all the compounds in a sample. This study shows the implementation of atmospheric pressure photoionization with two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. In the resulting 2D mass spectrum, the fragmentation patterns of the radical and protonated species from cholesterol are differentiated. This study shows the use of fragment ion lines, precursor ion lines, and neutral loss lines in the 2D mass spectrum to determine fragmentation mechanisms of known compounds and to gain information on unknown ion species in the spectrum. In concert with high resolution mass spectrometry, 2D Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry can be a useful tool for the structural analysis of small molecules. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  9. Discretization and Numerical Solution of a Plane Problem in the Mechanics of Interfacial Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoroshun, L. P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fourier transform is used to reduce the linear plane problem of the tension of a body with an interfacial crack to a system of dual equations for the transformed stresses and, then, to a system of integro-differential equations for the difference of displacements of the crack faces. After discretization, this latter system transforms into a system of algebraic equations for displacements of the crack faces. The effect of the bielastic constant and the number of discretization points on the half-length of the crack faces and the distribution of stresses at the interface is studied

  10. The Use of Continuous Wavelet Transform Based on the Fast Fourier Transform in the Analysis of Multi-channel Electrogastrography Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komorowski, Dariusz; Pietraszek, Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of multi-channel electrogastrographic (EGG) signals using the continuous wavelet transform based on the fast Fourier transform (CWTFT). The EGG analysis was based on the determination of the several signal parameters such as dominant frequency (DF), dominant power (DP) and index of normogastria (NI). The use of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) allows for better visible localization of the frequency components in the analyzed signals, than commonly used short-time Fourier transform (STFT). Such an analysis is possible by means of a variable width window, which corresponds to the scale time of observation (analysis). Wavelet analysis allows using long time windows when we need more precise low-frequency information, and shorter when we need high frequency information. Since the classic CWT transform requires considerable computing power and time, especially while applying it to the analysis of long signals, the authors used the CWT analysis based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT). The CWT was obtained using properties of the circular convolution to improve the speed of calculation. This method allows to obtain results for relatively long records of EGG in a fairly short time, much faster than using the classical methods based on running spectrum analysis (RSA). In this study authors indicate the possibility of a parametric analysis of EGG signals using continuous wavelet transform which is the completely new solution. The results obtained with the described method are shown in the example of an analysis of four-channel EGG recordings, performed for a non-caloric meal.

  11. Can we use the known fast spherical fourier transforms in numerical meterology?

    OpenAIRE

    Sprengel, F.

    2001-01-01

    In numerical meteorology, there are many solvers using spectral methods. Most of the computing time is spent computing the discrete Legendre function transforms. The aim of this paper is to clarify whether the recently published fast Legendre function transforms can be used here.

  12. Comparison between the accuracies of a new discretization method and an improved Fourier method to evaluate heat transfers between soil and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechinger, E.; Raffy, M.; Becker, F.

    1982-01-01

    To improve and evaluate the accuracy of Fourier methods for the analysis of the energy exchanges between soil and atmosphere, we have developed first a Fourier method that takes into account the nonneutrality corrections and the time variation of the air temperature and which improves the linearization procedures and, second a new discretization method that does not imply any linearization. The Fourier method, which gives the exact solution of an approximated problem, turns out to have the same order of accuracy as the discretization method, which gives an approximate solution of the exact problem. These methods reproduce the temperatures and fluxes predicted by the Tergra model as well as another set of experimental surface temperatures. In its present form, the Fourier method leads to results that become less accurate (mainly for low wind speeds) under certain conditions, namely, as the amplitude of the daily variation of the air and surface temperatures and their differences increase and as the relative humidities of the air at about 2 m and at the soil surface differ. Nevertheless, the results may be considered as generally satisfactory. Possible improvements of the Fourier model are discussed

  13. Utilização de filtro de transformada de fourier para a minimização de ruídos em sinais analíticos Utilization of fourier transform filter for noise minimization in analytical signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O. Cerqueira

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental data always present some noise. The analytical data information and instrumental noise generally has different frequencies. Thus is possible to remove the noise using a digital filter based on Fourier transform and inverse Fourier transform. This procedure enhance the signal/noise ratio and consecutively increase the detection limits on instrumental analysis. The basic principle of Fourier transform filter with modifications implemented to improve its performance is presented. A numerical example, as well as a real voltammetric example are showed to demonstrate the Fourier transform filter implementation. The programs to perform the Fourier transform filter, in Matlab and Visual Basic languages, are included as appendices

  14. Real-time frequency-to-time mapping based on spectrally-discrete chromatic dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yitang; Li, Jilong; Zhang, Ziping; Yin, Feifei; Li, Wangzhe; Xu, Kun

    2017-07-10

    Traditional photonics-assisted real-time Fourier transform (RTFT) usually suffers from limited chromatic dispersion, huge volume, or large time delay and attendant loss. In this paper we propose frequency-to-time mapping (FTM) by spectrally-discrete dispersion to increase frequency sensitivity greatly. The novel media has periodic ON/OFF intensity frequency response while quadratic phase distribution along disconnected channels, which de-chirps matched optical input to repeated Fourier-transform-limited output. Real-time FTM is then obtained within each period. Since only discrete phase retardation rather than continuously-changed true time delay is required, huge equivalent dispersion is then available by compact device. Such FTM is theoretically analyzed, and implementation by cascaded optical ring resonators is proposed. After a numerical example, our theory is demonstrated by a proof-of-concept experiment, where a single loop containing 0.5-meters-long fiber is used. FTM under 400-MHz unambiguous bandwidth and 25-MHz resolution is reported. Highly-sensitive and linear mapping is achieved with 6.25 ps/MHz, equivalent to ~4.6 × 10 4 -km standard single mode fiber. Extended instantaneous bandwidth is expected by ring cascading. Our proposal may provide a promising method for real-time, low-latency Fourier transform.

  15. Generating Solutions to Discrete sine-Gordon Equation from Modified Baecklund Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Xin; Zhang Dajun; Shi Ying; Zhao Songlin

    2011-01-01

    We modify the bilinear Baecklund transformation for the discrete sine-Gordon equation and derive variety, of solutions by freely choosing parameters from the modified Baecklund transformation. Dynamics of solutions and continuum limits are also discussed. (general)

  16. Discrete Orthogonal Transforms and Neural Networks for Image Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Polec

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present transform and neural network approaches to the interpolation of images. From transform point of view, the principles from [1] are modified for 1st and 2nd order interpolation. We present several new interpolation discrete orthogonal transforms. From neural network point of view, we present interpolation possibilities of multilayer perceptrons. We use various configurations of neural networks for 1st and 2nd order interpolation. The results are compared by means of tables.

  17. Tabletop single-shot extreme ultraviolet Fourier transform holography of an extended object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Erik B; Monserud, Nils C; Brown, Christopher G; Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Xu, Huiwen; Balakrishnan, Ganesh; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik; Marconi, Mario C

    2013-04-22

    We demonstrate single and multi-shot Fourier transform holography with the use of a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser. The reference wave was produced by a Fresnel zone plate with a central opening that allowed the incident beam to illuminate the sample directly. The high reference wave intensity allows for larger objects to be imaged compared to mask-based lensless Fourier transform holography techniques. We obtain a spatial resolution of 169 nm from a single laser pulse and a resolution of 128 nm from an accumulation of 20 laser pulses for an object ~11x11μm(2) in size. This experiment utilized a tabletop extreme ultraviolet laser that produces a highly coherent ~1.2 ns laser pulse at 46.9 nm wavelength.

  18. Calculation Scheme Based on a Weighted Primitive: Application to Image Processing Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio de Miguel Casado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to improve the calculation of functions which specially demand a great amount of computing resources. The method is based on the choice of a weighted primitive which enables the calculation of function values under the scope of a recursive operation. When tackling the design level, the method shows suitable for developing a processor which achieves a satisfying trade-off between time delay, area costs, and stability. The method is particularly suitable for the mathematical transforms used in signal processing applications. A generic calculation scheme is developed for the discrete fast Fourier transform (DFT and then applied to other integral transforms such as the discrete Hartley transform (DHT, the discrete cosine transform (DCT, and the discrete sine transform (DST. Some comparisons with other well-known proposals are also provided.

  19. Coulomb Fourier transformation: A novel approach to three-body scattering with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    A unitary transformation of the three-body Hamiltonian which describes a system of two charged and one neutral particles is constructed such that the Coulomb potential which acts between the charged particles is explicitly eliminated. The transformed Hamiltonian and, in particular, the transformed short-range pair interactions are worked out in detail. Thereby it is found that, after transformation, the short-range potentials acting between the neutral and either one of the charged particles become simply Fourier transformed but, in addition, multiplied by a function that represents the Coulombic three-body correlations originating from the action of the other charged particle on the considered pair. This function which is universal as it does not depend on any property of the short-range interaction is evaluated explicitly and its singularity structure is described in detail. In contrast, the short-range potential between the charged particles remains of two-body type but occurs now in the 'Coulomb representation'. Specific applications to Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are given. Since the Coulomb-Fourier-transformed Hamiltonian does no longer contain the Coulomb potential or any other effective interaction of long range, standard methods of short-range few-body scattering theory are applicable

  20. Fast parallel approach for 2-D DHT-based real-valued discrete Gabor transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Kwan, Hon Keung

    2009-12-01

    Two-dimensional fast Gabor transform algorithms are useful for real-time applications due to the high computational complexity of the traditional 2-D complex-valued discrete Gabor transform (CDGT). This paper presents two block time-recursive algorithms for 2-D DHT-based real-valued discrete Gabor transform (RDGT) and its inverse transform and develops a fast parallel approach for the implementation of the two algorithms. The computational complexity of the proposed parallel approach is analyzed and compared with that of the existing 2-D CDGT algorithms. The results indicate that the proposed parallel approach is attractive for real time image processing.

  1. Novel Polynomial Basis with Fast Fourier Transform and Its Application to Reed-Solomon Erasure Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian-Jheng

    2016-09-13

    In this paper, we present a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over extension binary fields, where the polynomial is represented in a non-standard basis. The proposed Fourier-like transform requires O(h lg(h)) field operations, where h is the number of evaluation points. Based on the proposed Fourier-like algorithm, we then develop the encoding/ decoding algorithms for (n = 2m; k) Reed-Solomon erasure codes. The proposed encoding/erasure decoding algorithm requires O(n lg(n)), in both additive and multiplicative complexities. As the complexity leading factor is small, the proposed algorithms are advantageous in practical applications. Finally, the approaches to convert the basis between the monomial basis and the new basis are proposed.

  2. The smoothing and fast Fourier transformation of experimental X-ray and neutron data from amorphous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, M.; Wright, A.C.; Hutchinson, P.

    1977-01-01

    The application of fast Fourier transformation techniques to the analysis of experimental X-ray and neutron diffraction patterns from amorphous materials is discussed and compared with conventional techniques using Filon's quadrature. The fast Fourier transform package described also includes cubic spline smoothing and has been extensively tested, using model data to which statistical errors have been added by means of a pseudo-random number generator with Gaussian shaper. Neither cubic spline nor hand smoothing has much effect on the resulting transform since the noise removed is of too high a frequency. (Auth.)

  3. Fourier Analysis: Graphical Animation and Analysis of Experimental Data with Excel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Oliveira

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Fourier formulation, any function that can be represented in a graph may be approximated by the “sum” of infinite sinusoidal functions (Fourier series, termed as “waves”.The adopted approach is accessible to students of the first years of university studies, in which the emphasis is put on the understanding of mathematical concepts through illustrative graphic representations, the students being encouraged to prepare animated Excel-based computational modules (VBA-Visual Basic for Applications.Reference is made to the part played by both trigonometric and complex representations of Fourier series in the concept of discrete Fourier transform. Its connection with the continuous Fourier transform is demonstrated and a brief mention is made of the generalization leading to Laplace transform.As application, the example presented refers to the analysis of vibrations measured on engineering structures: horizontal accelerations of a one-storey building deriving from environment noise. This example is integrated in the curriculum of the discipline “Matemática Aplicada à Engenharia Civil” (Mathematics Applied to Civil Engineering, lectured at ISEL (Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa. In this discipline, the students have the possibility of performing measurements using an accelerometer and a data acquisition system, which, when connected to a PC, make it possible to record the accelerations measured in a file format recognizable by Excel.

  4. Teaching Stable Two-Mirror Resonators through the Fractional Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala; Ferreira, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We analyse two-mirror resonators in terms of their fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) properties. We use the basic ABCD ray transfer matrix method to show how the resonator can be regarded as the cascade of two propagation-lens-propagation FRFT systems. Then, we present a connection between the geometric properties of the resonator (the g…

  5. Infrared and visual image fusion method based on discrete cosine transform and local spatial frequency in discrete stationary wavelet transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Jiang, Qian; Yao, Shaowen; Zhou, Dongming; Nie, Rencan; Lee, Shin-Jye; He, Kangjian

    2018-01-01

    In order to promote the performance of infrared and visual image fusion and provide better visual effects, this paper proposes a hybrid fusion method for infrared and visual image by the combination of discrete stationary wavelet transform (DSWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and local spatial frequency (LSF). The proposed method has three key processing steps. Firstly, DSWT is employed to decompose the important features of the source image into a series of sub-images with different levels and spatial frequencies. Secondly, DCT is used to separate the significant details of the sub-images according to the energy of different frequencies. Thirdly, LSF is applied to enhance the regional features of DCT coefficients, and it can be helpful and useful for image feature extraction. Some frequently-used image fusion methods and evaluation metrics are employed to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The experiments indicate that the proposed method can achieve good fusion effect, and it is more efficient than other conventional image fusion methods.

  6. Monitoring wine aging with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basalekou Marianthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oak wood has commonly been used in wine aging but recently other wood types such as Acacia and Chestnut, have attracted the interest of the researchers due to their possible positive contribution to wine quality. However, only the use of oak and chestnut woods is approved by the International Enological Codex of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. In this study Fourier Transform (FT-mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with Discriminant Analysis was used to differentiate wines aged in barrels made from French oak, American oak, Acacia and Chestnut and in tanks with oak chips, over a period of 12 months. Two red (Mandilaria, Kotsifali and two white (Vilana, Dafni native Greek grape varieties where used to produce four wines. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded on a Zinc Selenide (ZnSe window after incubation at 40 °C for 30 min. A complete differentiation of the samples according to both the type of wood used and the contact time was achieved based on their FT-IR spectra.

  7. Application of fast Fourier transform in thermo-magnetic convection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrda, L

    2014-01-01

    Application of Fast Fourier Transform in thermo-magnetic convection is reported. Cubical enclosure filled with paramagnetic fluid heated from below and placed in the strong magnetic field gradients was investigated. The main aim of study was connected with identification of flow types, especially transition to turbulence. For this purpose the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was applied. It was followed by the heat transfer characteristic for various values of magnetic induction gradient. The analysis was done at two Rayleigh numbers 7.89·10 5 and 1.86·10 6 with thermo-magnetic Rayleigh numbers up to 1.8·10 8 and 4.5·10 8 respectively. The presented results clearly indicate flow types and also demonstrate augmented heat transfer in dependence on magnetic induction gradient. Detailed analysis of flow transition to turbulent state was compared with transition line for natural convection reported in literature. The transition to turbulence in the case of thermo-magnetic convection of paramagnetic fluid was in very good agreement with transition in the case of natural convection.

  8. Teaching stable two-mirror resonators through the fractional Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Garcia-Martinez, Pascuala; Ferreira, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We analyse two-mirror resonators in terms of their fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) properties. We use the basic ABCD ray transfer matrix method to show how the resonator can be regarded as the cascade of two propagation-lens-propagation FRFT systems. Then, we present a connection between the geometric properties of the resonator (the g parameters) and those of the equivalent FRFT systems (the FRFT order and scaling parameters). Expressions connecting Gaussian beam q-transformation with FRFT parameters are derived. In particular, we show that the beam waist of the resonator's mode is located at the plane leading to two FRFT subsystems with equal scaling parameter which, moreover, coincides with the mode Rayleigh range. Finally we analyse the resonator's stability diagram in terms of the fractional orders of each FRFT subsystem, and the round trip propagation. The presented analysis represents an interesting link between two topics (optical resonators and Fourier optics) usually covered in optics and photonics courses at university level, which can be useful to teach and connect the principles of these subjects.

  9. 3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Martin; Charlotte Dabat-Blondeau; Miriam Unger; Julia Sedlmair; Dilworth Y. Parkinson; Hans A. Bechtel; Barbara Illman; Jonathan M. Castro; Marco Keiluweit; David Buschke; Brenda Ogle; Michael J. Nasse; Carol J. Hirschmugl

    2013-01-01

    We report Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography, a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging approach that reveals the distribution of distinctive chemical compositions throughout an intact biological or materials sample. The method combines mid-infrared absorption contrast with computed tomographic data acquisition and reconstruction to enhance chemical...

  10. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  11. A non-linear discrete transform for pattern recognition of discrete chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanikas, C.; Proios, G.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown, by an invertible non-linear discrete transform that any finite sequence or any collection of strings of any length can be presented as a random walk on trees. These transforms create the mathematical background for coding any information, for exploring its local variability and diversity. With the underlying computational algorithms, with several examples and applications we propose that these transforms can be used for pattern recognition of immune type. In other words we propose a mathematical platform for detecting self and non-self strings of any alphabet, based on a negative selection algorithms, for scouting data's periodicity and self-similarity and for measuring the diversity of chaotic strings with fractal dimension methods. In particular we estimate successfully the entropy and the ratio of chaotic data with self similarity. Moreover we give some applications of a non-linear denoising filter

  12. A non-linear discrete transform for pattern recognition of discrete chaotic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karanikas, C

    2003-01-01

    It is shown, by an invertible non-linear discrete transform that any finite sequence or any collection of strings of any length can be presented as a random walk on trees. These transforms create the mathematical background for coding any information, for exploring its local variability and diversity. With the underlying computational algorithms, with several examples and applications we propose that these transforms can be used for pattern recognition of immune type. In other words we propose a mathematical platform for detecting self and non-self strings of any alphabet, based on a negative selection algorithms, for scouting data's periodicity and self-similarity and for measuring the diversity of chaotic strings with fractal dimension methods. In particular we estimate successfully the entropy and the ratio of chaotic data with self similarity. Moreover we give some applications of a non-linear denoising filter.

  13. Discrete Haar transform and protein structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosetti, S

    1997-12-01

    The discrete Haar transform of the sequence of the backbone dihedral angles (phi and psi) was performed over a set of X-ray protein structures of high resolution from the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Afterwards, the new dihedral angles were calculated by the inverse transform, using a growing number of Haar functions, from the lower to the higher degree. New structures were obtained using these dihedral angles, with standard values for bond lengths and angles, and with omega = 0 degree. The reconstructed structures were compared with the experimental ones, and analyzed by visual inspection and statistical analysis. When half of the Haar coefficients were used, all the reconstructed structures were not yet collapsed to a tertiary folding, but they showed yet realized most of the secondary motifs. These results indicate a substantial separation of structural information in the space of Haar transform, with the secondary structural information mainly present in the Haar coefficients of lower degrees, and the tertiary one present in the higher degree coefficients. Because of this separation, the representation of the folded structures in the space of Haar transform seems a promising candidate to encompass the problem of premature convergence in genetic algorithms.

  14. Solving singular convolution equations using the inverse fast Fourier transform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krajník, E.; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, P.; Zizler, Václav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2012), s. 543-550 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : singular convolution equations * fast Fourier transform * tempered distribution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.222, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/m8437t3563214048/

  15. Valuation of European Call Option via Inverse Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenis Oskars

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Very few models allow expressing European call option price in closed form. Out of them, the famous Black- Scholes approach sets strong constraints - innovations should be normally distributed and independent. Availability of a corresponding characteristic function of log returns of underlying asset in analytical form allows pricing European call option by application of inverse Fourier transform. Characteristic function corresponds to Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG probability density function. NIG distribution is obtained based on assumption that time series of log returns follows APARCH process. Thus, volatility clustering and leptokurtic nature of log returns are taken into account. The Fast Fourier transform based on trapezoidal quadrature is numerically unstable if a standard cumulative probability function is used. To solve the problem, a dampened cumulative probability is introduced. As a computation tool Matlab framework is chosen because it contains many effective vectorization tools that greatly enhance code readability and maintenance. The characteristic function of Normal Inverse Gaussian distribution is taken and exercised with the chosen set of parameters. Finally, the call price dependence on strike price is obtained and rendered in XY plot. Valuation of European call option with analytical form of characteristic function allows further developing models with higher accuracy, as well as developing models for some exotic options.

  16. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  17. Functional Fourier transforms and the loop equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadskii, M.A.; Vaisburd, I.D.; Migdal, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Migdal-Makeenko momentum-space loop equation is investigated. This equation is derived from the ordinary loop equation by taking the Fourier transform of the Wilson functional. A perturbation theory is constructed for the new equation and it is proved that the action of the loop operator is determined by vertex functions which coincide with those of the previous equation. It is shown how the ghost loop arises in direct iterations of the momentum-space equation with respect to the coupling constant. A simple example is used to illustrate the mechanism of appearance of an integration in the interior loops in transition to observables

  18. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  19. Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy for the determination of wave propagation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Barnana

    2017-01-01

    The reported results for ultrasonic wave attenuation constant (α) in pure water show noticeable inconsistency in magnitude. A "Propagating-Wave" model analysis of the most popular pulse-echo technique indicates that this is a consequence of the inherent wave propagation characteristics in a bounded medium. In the present work Fourier Transform Ultrasound Spectroscopy (FTUS) is adopted to determine ultrasonic wave propagation parameters, the wave number (k) and attenuation constant (α) at 1MHz frequency in tri-distilled water at room temperature (25°C). Pulse-echo signals obtained under same experimental conditions regarding the exciting input signal and reflecting boundary wall of the water container for various lengths of water columns are captured. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) components of the echo signals are taken to compute k, α and r, the reflection constant at the boundary, using Oak Ridge and Oxford method. The results are compared with existing literature values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification using an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.R.; Bennett, C.L.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-10-01

    We are developing an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer for chemical effluent monitoring. The system consists of a 2-D infrared imaging array in the focal plane of a Michelson interferometer. Individual images are coordinated with the positioning of a moving mirror in the Michelson interferometer. A three dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one interferogram dimension is then Fourier transformed to produce a hyperspectral data cube with one spectral dimension and two spatial dimensions. The spectral range of the instrument is determined by the choice of optical components and the spectral range of the focal plane array. Measurements in the near UV, visible, near IR, and mid-IR ranges are possible with the existing instrument. Gaseous effluent monitoring and identification measurements will be primarily in the ``fingerprint`` region of the spectrum, ({lambda} = 8 to 12 {mu}m). Initial measurements of effluent using this imaging interferometer in the mid-IR will be presented.

  1. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by 'Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a clinical setting. After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis satisfying the entry criteria were subjected to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis after adequate sample homogenization at a single testing center. Calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate stone mixture was most commonly encountered in 35 (71%) followed by calcium phosphate, carbonate apatite, magnesium ammonium hexahydrate and xanthine stones. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy allows an accurate, reliable quantitative method of stone analysis. It also helps in maintaining a computerized large reference library. Knowledge of precise stone composition may allow the institution of appropriate prophylactic therapy despite the absence of any detectable metabolic abnormalities. This may prevent and or delay stone recurrence.

  2. QUANTITATIVE FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF HUMIC SUBSTANCE FUNCTIONAL GROUP COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been widely used for the structural investigation of humic substances. Although Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) instrumentation has been available for sometime, relatively little work with these instruments has been reported for humic substances,...

  3. Improved method of generating bit reversed numbers for calculating fast fourier transform

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, T.

    Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is an important tool required for signal processing in defence applications. This paper reports an improved method for generating bit reversed numbers needed in calculating FFT using radix-2. The refined algorithm takes...

  4. Spectrogram analysis of selected tremor signals using short-time Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Seidl

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Among a variety of spectrogram methods Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT and Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT were selected to analyse transients in non-stationary tremor signals. Depending on the properties of the tremor signal a more suitable representation of the signal is gained by CWT. Three selected broadband tremor signals from the volcanos Mt. Stromboli, Mt. Semeru and Mt. Pinatubo were analyzed using both methods. The CWT can also be used to extend the definition of coherency into a time-varying coherency spectrogram. An example is given using array data from the volcano Mt. Stromboli.

  5. Random sampling of evolution time space and Fourier transform processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Zawadzka, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor; Zhukov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Application of Fourier Transform for processing 3D NMR spectra with random sampling of evolution time space is presented. The 2D FT is calculated for pairs of frequencies, instead of conventional sequence of one-dimensional transforms. Signal to noise ratios and linewidths for different random distributions were investigated by simulations and experiments. The experimental examples include 3D HNCA, HNCACB and 15 N-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of 13 C 15 N labeled ubiquitin sample. Obtained results revealed general applicability of proposed method and the significant improvement of resolution in comparison with conventional spectra recorded in the same time

  6. Invariant object recognition based on the generalized discrete radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Glenn R.; Colonna, Flavia

    2004-04-01

    We introduce a method for classifying objects based on special cases of the generalized discrete Radon transform. We adjust the transform and the corresponding ridgelet transform by means of circular shifting and a singular value decomposition (SVD) to obtain a translation, rotation and scaling invariant set of feature vectors. We then use a back-propagation neural network to classify the input feature vectors. We conclude with experimental results and compare these with other invariant recognition methods.

  7. Investigations of the functional states of dendritic cells under different conditioned microenvironments by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Rong; Long, Jinhua; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chunlin; Wen, Zongyao; Li, Long; Yao, Weijuan; Zeng, Zhu

    2014-01-10

    Dendritic cells are potent and specialized antigen presenting cells, which play a crucial role in initiating and amplifying both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The dendritic cell-based vaccination against cancer has been clinically achieved promising successes. But there are still many challenges in its clinical application, especially for how to identify the functional states. The CD14+ monocytes were isolated from human peripheral blood after plastic adherence and purified to approximately 98% with cocktail immunomagnetic beads. The immature dendritic cells and mature dendritic cells were induced by traditional protocols. The resulting dendritic cells were cocultured with normal cells and cancer cells. The functional state of dendritic cells including immature dendritic cells (imDCs) and mature dendritic cells (mDCs) under different conditioned microenvironments were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and molecular biological methods. The results of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy showed that the gene transcription activity and energy states of dendritic cells were specifically suppressed by tumor cells (P Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were closely correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB (R2:0.69 and R2:0.81, respectively). Our results confirmed that the ratios of absorption intensities of Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy at given wave numbers were positively correlated with the expression levels of NF-κB, suggesting that Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy technology could be clinically applied to identify the functional states of dendritic cell when performing dendritic cell-based vaccination. It's significant for the simplification and standardization of dendritic cell-based vaccination clinical preparation protocols.

  8. Simple example of track finding by Fourier transform and possibilities for vector or optical processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.

    1986-01-01

    Simple examples of finding tracks by Fourier transform with filter or correlation function are presented. Possibilities for using this method in more complicated real situations and the processing times which might be achieved are discussed. The method imitates the simplest examples in the literature on optical pattern recognition and optical processing. The possible benefits of the method are in speed of processing in the optical Fourier transform wherein an entire picture is processed simultaneously. The speed of a computer vector processor may be competitive with present electro-optical devices. 2 refs., 6 figs

  9. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  10. Discrete-continuous bispectral operators and rational Darboux transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyallian, Carina; Portillo, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter we construct examples of discrete-continuous bispectral operators obtained by rational Darboux transformations applied to a regular pseudo-difference operator with constant coefficients. Moreover, we give an explicit procedure to write down the differential operators involved in the bispectral situation corresponding to the pseudo-difference operator obtained by the Darboux process.

  11. New significance test methods for Fourier analysis of geophysical time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available When one applies the discrete Fourier transform to analyze finite-length time series, discontinuities at the data boundaries will distort its Fourier power spectrum. In this paper, based on a rigid statistics framework, we present a new significance test method which can extract the intrinsic feature of a geophysical time series very well. We show the difference in significance level compared with traditional Fourier tests by analyzing the Arctic Oscillation (AO and the Nino3.4 time series. In the AO, we find significant peaks at about 2.8, 4.3, and 5.7 yr periods and in Nino3.4 at about 12 yr period in tests against red noise. These peaks are not significant in traditional tests.

  12. Simplification of gamma-ray spectral data by using Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Shoji; Nagata, Shojiro; Nayatani, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Isamu; Sasaki, Satoshi.

    1977-01-01

    A method is proposed to represent γ-ray response spectra by Fourier series for the purpose of compressing spectral data. The usefulness of the method was confirmed by applying it to a spectral library of a NaI detector. In the method, a response spectrum as a wave is described by superposition of sine (cosine) waves with low frequencies, whose coefficient parameters can be obtained by a Fast Fourier Transform program. The relation between the number of parameters and the fitting error is discussed, and as the result, it is shown that the number of parameters can be reduced to about a half. The merits and features are presented in practical application of the method to the analysis of γ-ray spectra. (auth.)

  13. An OTDM-To-WDM Converter Using Optical Fourier Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Khin Su Myat Min; Zaw Myo Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed OTDM signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed WDM individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation OFT method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research electro-optic phase modulator EOM is used as time lens. As our investigations simulation results and bit error rate BER measurements ar...

  14. Fast Fourier transformation results from gamma-ray burst profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Norris, Jay P.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Meegan, Charles A.; Wilson, Robert B.; Paciesas, W. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE data have sufficiently long durations and complex temporal structures with pulses that appear to be spaced quasi-periodically. In order to test and quantify these periods we have applied fast Fourier transformations (FFT) to all these events. We have also performed cross spectral analyses of the FFT of the two extreme (high-low) energy bands in each case to determine the lead/lag of the pulses in different energies.

  15. Small-amplitude limit of the spectral transform for the periodic Korteweg-de Vries equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, A R; Bergamasco, L

    1985-02-01

    The inverse spectral transform for the periodic Korteweg-de Vries equation is investigated in the limit for small-amplitude waves and the inverse Fourier transform is recovered. In the limiting process we find that the widths of the forbidden bands approach the amplitudes of the Fourier spectrum. The number of spectral bands is estimated from Fourier theory and depends explicitly on the assumed spatial discretization in the wave amplitude function (potential). This allows one to estimate the number of degrees of freedom in a discrete (and, therefore, finite-banded) potential. An essential feature of the calculations is that all results for the periodic problem are cast in terms of the infinite-line reflection and transmission coefficients b(k), a(k). Thus the connection between the whole-line and periodic problems is clear at every stage of the computations.

  16. Aliasless fresnel transform image reconstruction in phase scrambling fourier transform technique by data interpolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Liu, Na; Ito, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The signal in the Fresnel transform technique corresponds to a blurred one of the spin density image. Because the amplitudes of adjacent sampled signals have a high interrelation, the signal amplitude at a point between sampled points can be estimated with a high degree of accuracy even if the sampling is so coarse as to generate aliasing in the reconstructed images. In this report, we describe a new aliasless image reconstruction technique in the phase scrambling Fourier transform (PSFT) imaging technique in which the PSFT signals are converted to Fresnel transform signals by multiplying them by a quadratic phase term and are then interpolated using polynomial expressions to generate fully encoded signals. Numerical simulation using MR images showed that almost completely aliasless images are reconstructed by this technique. Experiments using ultra-low-field PSFT MRI were conducted, and aliasless images were reconstructed from coarsely sampled PSFT signals. (author)

  17. An algorithm for the basis of the finite Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhanam, Thalanayar S.

    1995-01-01

    The Finite Fourier Transformation matrix (F.F.T.) plays a central role in the formulation of quantum mechanics in a finite dimensional space studied by the author over the past couple of decades. An outstanding problem which still remains open is to find a complete basis for F.F.T. In this paper we suggest a simple algorithm to find the eigenvectors of F.T.T.

  18. A fast Fourier transform program for the deconvolution of IN10 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, W.S.

    1981-04-01

    A deconvolution program based on the Fast Fourier Transform technique is described and some examples are presented to help users run the programs and interpret the results. Instructions are given for running the program on the RAL IBM 360/195 computer. (author)

  19. A reversible transform for seismic data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, William A; Ferguson, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    We use the nonstationary equivalent of the Fourier shift theorem to derive a general one-dimensional integral transform for the application and removal of certain seismic data processing steps. This transform comes from the observation that many seismic data processing steps can be viewed as nonstationary shifts. The continuous form of the transform is exactly reversible, and the discrete form provides a general framework for unitary and pseudounitary imaging operators. Any processing step which can be viewed as a nonstationary shift in any domain is a special case of this transform. Nonstationary shifts generally produce coordinate distortions between input and output domains, and those that preserve amplitudes do not conserve the energy of the input signal. The nonstationary frequency distortions, time distortions and nonphysical energy changes inherent to such operations are predicted and quantified by this transform. Processing steps of this type are conventionally implemented using interpolation operators to map discrete data values between input and output coordinate frames. Although not explicitly derived to perform interpolation, the transform here assumes the Fourier basis to predict values of the input signal between sampling locations. We demonstrate how interpolants commonly used in seismic data processing and imaging approximate the proposed method. We find that our transform is equivalent to the conventional sinc interpolant with no truncation. Once the transform is developed, we demonstrate its numerical implementation by matrix–vector multiplication. As an example, we use our transform to apply and remove normal moveout

  20. Multicomplementary operators via finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Andrei B; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L; Guise, Hubert de

    2005-01-01

    A complete set of d + 1 mutually unbiased bases exists in a Hilbert space of dimension d, whenever d is a power of a prime. We discuss a simple construction of d + 1 disjoint classes (each one having d - 1 commuting operators) such that the corresponding eigenstates form sets of unbiased bases. Such a construction works properly for prime dimension. We investigate an alternative construction in which the real numbers that label the classes are replaced by a finite field having d elements. One of these classes is diagonal, and can be mapped to cyclic operators by means of the finite Fourier transform, which allows one to understand complementarity in a similar way as for the position-momentum pair in standard quantum mechanics. The relevant examples of two and three qubits and two qutrits are discussed in detail

  1. Fourier transform and mean quadratic variation of Bernoulli convolution on homogeneous Cantor set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zuguo E-mail: yuzg@hotmail.comz.yu

    2004-07-01

    For the Bernoulli convolution on homogeneous Cantor set, under some condition, it is proved that the mean quadratic variation and the average of Fourier transform of this measure are bounded above and below.

  2. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy; Yan, Fangzhi; Bach, Stephen; Pihakari, Katianna; Klein, David

    2016-01-01

    Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices. PMID:26784175

  3. Simulation of micromechanical behavior of polycrystals: finite elements versus fast Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, A; Lebensohn, R A

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we compare finite element and fast Fourier transform approaches for the prediction of the micromechanical behavior of polycrystals. Both approaches are full-field approaches and use the same visco-plastic single crystal constitutive law. We investigate the texture and the heterogeneity of the inter- and intragranular stress and strain fields obtained from the two models. Additionally, we also look into their computational performance. Two cases—rolling of aluminum and wire drawing of tungsten—are used to evaluate the predictions of the two models. Results from both the models are similar, when large grain distortions do not occur in the polycrystal. The finite element simulations were found to be highly computationally intensive, in comparison with the fast Fourier transform simulations. Figure 9 was corrected in this article on the 25 August 2009. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version

  4. Advances in hyperspectral remote sensing I: The visible Fourier transform hyperspectral imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bruce Rafert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss early hyperspectral research and development activities during the 1990s that led to the deployment of aircraft and satellite payloads whose heritage was based on the use of visible, spatially modulated, imaging Fourier transform spectrometers, beginning with early experiments at the Florida Institute of Technology, through successful launch and deployment of the Visible Fourier Transform Hyperspectral Imager on MightySat II.1 on 19 July 2000. In addition to a brief chronological overview, we also discuss several of the most interesting optical engineering challenges that were addressed over this timeframe, present some as-yet un-exploited features of field-widened (slit-less SMIFTS instruments, and present some images from ground-based, aircraft-based and satellite-based instruments that helped provide the impetus for the proliferation and development of entire new families of instruments and countless new applications for hyperspectral imaging.

  5. Use of switched capacitor filters to implement the discrete wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kraig E.; Peterson, James N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of IIR switched capacitor filters to implement the discrete wavelet transform and the inverse transform, using quadrature mirror filters (QMF) which have the necessary symmetry for reconstruction of the data. This is done by examining the sensitivity of the QMF transforms to the manufacturing variance in the desired capacitances. The performance is evaluated at the outputs of the separate filter stages and the error in the reconstruction of the inverse transform is compared with the desired results.

  6. Robust alignment of chromatograms by statistically analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjing; Wen, Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng; Zhan, Dejian

    2015-03-01

    Retention time shift is one of the most challenging problems during the preprocessing of massive chromatographic datasets. Here, an improved version of the moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation algorithm is presented to perform nonlinear and robust alignment of chromatograms by analyzing the shifts matrix generated by moving window procedure. The shifts matrix in retention time can be estimated by fast Fourier transform cross-correlation with a moving window procedure. The refined shift of each scan point can be obtained by calculating the mode of corresponding column of the shifts matrix. This version is simple, but more effective and robust than the previously published moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation method. It can handle nonlinear retention time shift robustly if proper window size has been selected. The window size is the only one parameter needed to adjust and optimize. The properties of the proposed method are investigated by comparison with the previous moving window fast Fourier transform cross-correlation and recursive alignment by fast Fourier transform using chromatographic datasets. The pattern recognition results of a gas chromatography mass spectrometry dataset of metabolic syndrome can be improved significantly after preprocessing by this method. Furthermore, the proposed method is available as an open source package at https://github.com/zmzhang/MWFFT2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography - Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesik, S.V.; French, S.B.; Movotny, M.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks asked of an analytical chemist today is to separate and identify the components of a nonvolatile complex mixture. An efficient separation technique combined with a universal detector that provides structural information, therefore, would be a great asset to analytical chemists. Capillary supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) - Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) shows great potential for being such a technique. SFC-FTIR shows great potential as a very powerful technique for separation and identification of thermally labile and nonvolatile compounds. Research is continuing in these labs to further optimize the technique. 2 refs

  8. An OTDM-To-WDM Converter Using Optical Fourier Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Su Myat Min

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed OTDM signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed WDM individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation OFT method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research electro-optic phase modulator EOM is used as time lens. As our investigations simulation results and bit error rate BER measurements are expressed.

  9. Transfer Function Identification Using Orthogonal Fourier Transform Modeling Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2013-01-01

    A method for transfer function identification, including both model structure determination and parameter estimation, was developed and demonstrated. The approach uses orthogonal modeling functions generated from frequency domain data obtained by Fourier transformation of time series data. The method was applied to simulation data to identify continuous-time transfer function models and unsteady aerodynamic models. Model fit error, estimated model parameters, and the associated uncertainties were used to show the effectiveness of the method for identifying accurate transfer function models from noisy data.

  10. High-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography using non-uniform fast Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kenny K. H.; Tang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    The useful imaging range in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is often limited by the depth dependent sensitivity fall-off. Processing SD-OCT data with the non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NFFT) can improve the sensitivity fall-off at maximum depth by greater than 5dB concurrently with a 30 fold decrease in processing time compared to the fast Fourier transform with cubic spline interpolation method. NFFT can also improve local signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce image artifacts introduced in post-processing. Combined with parallel processing, NFFT is shown to have the ability to process up to 90k A-lines per second. High-speed SD-OCT imaging is demonstrated at camera-limited 100 frames per second on an ex-vivo squid eye. PMID:21258551

  11. Discrete fourier transformations with weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Jiang Yong

    1988-01-01

    DFT and FFT with weight were considered and their properties were studied. The usual DFT and FFT were modified by reducing the number of sample points within a certain error band and therefore speeded up the computation. Finally, the practical applications of the new method in the fields of spectrum analysis, pulse tracing research and so on were pointed out

  12. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  13. Fourier Transform Surface Plasmon Resonance of Nanodisks Embedded in Magnetic Nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Insub; Ih, Seongkeun; Yoo, Haneul; Hong, Seunghun; Park, Sungho

    2018-03-14

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and application of magnetic plasmonic gyro-nanodisks (GNDs) for Fourier transform surface plasmon resonance based biodetection. Plasmonically active and magnetically responsive gyro-nanodisks were synthesized using electrochemical methods with anodized aluminum templates. Due to the unique properties of GNDs (magnetic responsiveness and surface plasmon bands), periodic extinction signals were generated under an external rotating magnetic field, which is, in turn, converted into frequency domains using Fourier transformation. After the binding of a target on GNDs, an increase in the shear force causes a shift in the frequency domain, which allows us to investigate biodetection for HA1 (the influenza virus). Most importantly, by modulating the number and the location of plasmonic nanodisks (a method for controlling the hydrodynamic forces by rationally designing the nanomaterial architecture), we achieved enhanced biodetection sensitivity. We expect that our results will contribute to improved sensing module performance, as well as a better understanding of dynamic nanoparticle systems, by harnessing the perturbed periodic fluctuation of surface plasmon bands under the modulated magnetic field.

  14. Specification of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm as a term rewriting system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.H.; Hoekzema, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    We specify an algorithm for multiplying polynomials with complex coefficients incorporating, the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm of Cooley and Tukey [CT]. The specification formalism we use is a variant of the formalism ASF described in. [BHK]. The difference with ASF is essentially a matter of

  15. Discrete wavelet transform: a tool in smoothing kinematic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A R; Asfour, S S

    1999-03-01

    Motion analysis systems typically introduce noise to the displacement data recorded. Butterworth digital filters have been used to smooth the displacement data in order to obtain smoothed velocities and accelerations. However, this technique does not yield satisfactory results, especially when dealing with complex kinematic motions that occupy the low- and high-frequency bands. The use of the discrete wavelet transform, as an alternative to digital filters, is presented in this paper. The transform passes the original signal through two complementary low- and high-pass FIR filters and decomposes the signal into an approximation function and a detail function. Further decomposition of the signal results in transforming the signal into a hierarchy set of orthogonal approximation and detail functions. A reverse process is employed to perfectly reconstruct the signal (inverse transform) back from its approximation and detail functions. The discrete wavelet transform was applied to the displacement data recorded by Pezzack et al., 1977. The smoothed displacement data were twice differentiated and compared to Pezzack et al.'s acceleration data in order to choose the most appropriate filter coefficients and decomposition level on the basis of maximizing the percentage of retained energy (PRE) and minimizing the root mean square error (RMSE). Daubechies wavelet of the fourth order (Db4) at the second decomposition level showed better results than both the biorthogonal and Coiflet wavelets (PRE = 97.5%, RMSE = 4.7 rad s-2). The Db4 wavelet was then used to compress complex displacement data obtained from a noisy mathematically generated function. Results clearly indicate superiority of this new smoothing approach over traditional filters.

  16. Comparative analysis of chosen transforms in the context of de-noising harmonic signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Zacniewski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, comparison of popular transforms used i.a. in denoising harmonical signals was presented. The division of signals submitted to mathematical analysis was shown and chosen transforms such as Short Time Fourier Transform, Wigner-Ville Distribution, Wavelet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform were presented. Harmonic signal with white noise added was submitted for research. During research, the parameters of noise were changed to analyze the effects of using particular transform on noised signal. The importance of right choice for transform and its parameters (different for particular kind of transform was shown. Small changes in parameters or different functions used in transform can lead to considerably different results.[b]Keywords[/b]: denoising of harmonical signals, wavelet transform, discrete cosine transform, DCT

  17. Oblique projections and standard-form transformations for discrete inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Christian

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial paper considers a specific computational tool for the numerical solution of discrete inverse problems, known as the standard-form transformation, by which we can treat general Tikhonov regularization problems efficiently. In the tradition of B. N. Datta's expositions of numerical li...... linear algebra, we use the close relationship between oblique projections, pseudoinverses, and matrix computations to derive a simple geometric motivation and algebraic formulation of the standard-form transformation....

  18. Superexponentially damped Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Z.; Nocera, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Landau (exponentially) damped solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson equation Fourier transformed with respect to velocity are genuine eigenmodes corresponding to complex eigenvalues. In addition there exist solutions decaying faster than exponentially which exhibit no oscillatory behaviour. A new characterization is given of the initial conditions that give rise to these solutions together with a numerical demonstration

  19. Fourier-transform ghost imaging with pure far-field correlated thermal light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Honglin; Shen Xia; Han Shensheng; Zhu Daming

    2007-01-01

    Pure far-field correlated thermal light beams are created with phase grating, and Fourier-transform ghost imaging depending only on the far-field correlation is demonstrated experimentally. Theoretical analysis and the results of experimental investigation of this pure far-field correlated thermal light are presented. Applications which may be exploited with this imaging scheme are discussed

  20. Quantum Fourier transform, Heisenberg groups and quasi-probability distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patra, Manas K; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the inherent connection between Heisenberg groups, quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and (quasi-probability) distribution functions. Distribution functions for continuous and finite quantum systems are examined from three perspectives and all of them lead to Weyl-Gabor-Heisenberg groups. The QFT appears as the intertwining operator of two equivalent representations arising out of an automorphism of the group. Distribution functions correspond to certain distinguished sets in the group algebra. The marginal properties of a particular class of distribution functions (Wigner distributions) arise from a class of automorphisms of the group algebra of the Heisenberg group. We then study the reconstruction of the Wigner function from the marginal distributions via inverse Radon transform giving explicit formulae. We consider some applications of our approach to quantum information processing and quantum process tomography.

  1. Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of atomic rubidium: g- and h-states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 17 (2012), s. 175002 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fourier transform infrared emission spectra * atomic rubidium * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2012

  2. Exact discretization of Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru

    2016-01-08

    There are different approaches to discretization of the Schrödinger equation with some approximations. In this paper we derive a discrete equation that can be considered as exact discretization of the continuous Schrödinger equation. The proposed discrete equation is an equation with difference of integer order that is represented by infinite series. We suggest differences, which are characterized by power-law Fourier transforms. These differences can be considered as exact discrete analogs of derivatives of integer orders. Physically the suggested discrete equation describes a chain (or lattice) model with long-range interaction of power-law form. Mathematically it is a uniquely highlighted difference equation that exactly corresponds to the continuous Schrödinger equation. Using the Young's inequality for convolution, we prove that suggested differences are operators on the Hilbert space of square-summable sequences. We prove that the wave functions, which are exact discrete analogs of the free particle and harmonic oscillator solutions of the continuous Schrödinger equations, are solutions of the suggested discrete Schrödinger equations. - Highlights: • Exact discretization of the continuous Schrödinger equation is suggested. • New long-range interactions of power-law form are suggested. • Solutions of discrete Schrödinger equation are exact discrete analogs of continuous solutions.

  3. Exact discretization of Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2016-01-01

    There are different approaches to discretization of the Schrödinger equation with some approximations. In this paper we derive a discrete equation that can be considered as exact discretization of the continuous Schrödinger equation. The proposed discrete equation is an equation with difference of integer order that is represented by infinite series. We suggest differences, which are characterized by power-law Fourier transforms. These differences can be considered as exact discrete analogs of derivatives of integer orders. Physically the suggested discrete equation describes a chain (or lattice) model with long-range interaction of power-law form. Mathematically it is a uniquely highlighted difference equation that exactly corresponds to the continuous Schrödinger equation. Using the Young's inequality for convolution, we prove that suggested differences are operators on the Hilbert space of square-summable sequences. We prove that the wave functions, which are exact discrete analogs of the free particle and harmonic oscillator solutions of the continuous Schrödinger equations, are solutions of the suggested discrete Schrödinger equations. - Highlights: • Exact discretization of the continuous Schrödinger equation is suggested. • New long-range interactions of power-law form are suggested. • Solutions of discrete Schrödinger equation are exact discrete analogs of continuous solutions.

  4. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  5. Discrete Hadamard transformation algorithm's parallelism analysis and achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui

    2009-07-01

    With respect to Discrete Hadamard Transformation (DHT) wide application in real-time signal processing while limitation in operation speed of DSP. The article makes DHT parallel research and its parallel performance analysis. Based on multiprocessor platform-TMS320C80 programming structure, the research is carried out to achieve two kinds of parallel DHT algorithms. Several experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  6. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry: The Transformation of Modern Environmental Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unknown compounds in environmental samples are difficult to identify using standard mass spectrometric methods. Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS has revolutionized how environmental analyses are performed. With its unsurpassed mass accuracy, high resolution and sensitivity, researchers now have a tool for difficult and complex environmental analyses. Two features of FTMS are responsible for changing the face of how complex analyses are accomplished. First is the ability to quickly and with high mass accuracy determine the presence of unknown chemical residues in samples. For years, the field has been limited by mass spectrometric methods that were based on knowing what compounds of interest were. Secondly, by utilizing the high resolution capabilities coupled with the low detection limits of FTMS, analysts also could dilute the sample sufficiently to minimize the ionization changes from varied matrices.

  7. Application of the fractional Fourier transform to the design of LCOS based optical interconnects and fiber switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Brian; Zhang, Zichen; Yang, Haining; Redmond, Maura M; Collings, Neil; Liu, Jinsong; Lin, Ruisheng; Jeziorska-Chapman, Anna M; Moore, John R; Crossland, William A; Chu, D P

    2012-04-20

    It is shown that reflective liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator (SLM) based interconnects or fiber switches that use defocus to reduce crosstalk can be evaluated and optimized using a fractional Fourier transform if certain optical symmetry conditions are met. Theoretically the maximum allowable linear hologram phase error compared to a Fourier switch is increased by a factor of six before the target crosstalk for telecom applications of -40 dB is exceeded. A Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm incorporating a fractional Fourier transform modified for use with a reflective LCOS SLM is used to optimize multi-casting holograms in a prototype telecom switch. Experiments are in close agreement to predicted performance.

  8. Efficient Algorithms for the Discrete Gabor Transform with a Long Fir Window

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2012-01-01

    The Discrete Gabor Transform (DGT) is the most commonly used signal transform for signal analysis and synthesis using a linear frequency scale. The development of the Linear Time-Frequency Analysis Toolbox (LTFAT) has been based on a detailed study of many variants of the relevant algorithms. As ...

  9. Improving Spectral Results Using Row-by-Row Fourier Transform of Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer Interferogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patrick D; Strange, K Alicia; Angel, S Michael

    2017-06-01

    This work describes a method of applying the Fourier transform to the two-dimensional Fizeau fringe patterns generated by the spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS), a dispersive interferometer, to correct the effects of certain types of optical alignment errors. In the SHRS, certain types of optical misalignments result in wavelength-dependent and wavelength-independent rotations of the fringe pattern on the detector. We describe here a simple correction technique that can be used in post-processing, by applying the Fourier transform in a row-by-row manner. This allows the user to be more forgiving of fringe alignment and allows for a reduction in the mechanical complexity of the SHRS.

  10. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super...

  11. Time Lens based Optical Fourier Transformation for All-Optical Signal Processing of Spectrally-Efficient Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Lillieholm, Mads

    2017-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced all-optical signal processing. A novel time lens based complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT) technique is introduced. This complete OFT is based on two quadratic phase-modulation stages using...... four-wave mixing (FWM), separated by a dispersive medium, which enables time-to-frequency and frequency-to-time conversions simultaneously, thus performing an exchange between the temporal and spectral profiles of the input signal. Using the proposed complete OFT, several advanced all-optical signal......, such as orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) and Nyquist optical time division multiplexing (Nyquist-OTDM) signals....

  12. Engineering Model Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) Instrument for the GEO-CAPE Mission

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Panchromatic Fourier Transform Spectrometer (PanFTS) is an imaging spectrometer that can measure pollutants, greenhouse gases, and aerosols as called for in the...

  13. Symmetries of the second-difference matrix and the finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A.; Wolf, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    The finite Fourier transformation is well known to diagonalize the second-difference matrix and has been thus applied extensively to describe finite crystal lattices and electric networks. In setting out to find all transformations having this property, we obtain a multiparameter class of them. While permutations and unitary scaling of the eigenvectors constitute the trivial freedom of choice common to all diagonalization processes, the second-difference matrix has a larger symmetry group among whose elements we find the dihedral manifest symmetry transformations of the lattice. The latter are nevertheless sufficient for the unique specification of eigenvectors in various symmetry-adapted bases for the constrained lattice. The free symmetry parameters are shown to lead to a complete set of conserved quantities for the physical lattice motion. (author)

  14. Copy-move forgery detection utilizing Fourier-Mellin transform log-polar features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Rahul; Naskar, Ruchira

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we address the problem of region duplication or copy-move forgery detection in digital images, along with detection of geometric transforms (rotation and rescale) and postprocessing-based attacks (noise, blur, and brightness adjustment). Detection of region duplication, following conventional techniques, becomes more challenging when an intelligent adversary brings about such additional transforms on the duplicated regions. In this work, we utilize Fourier-Mellin transform with log-polar mapping and a color-based segmentation technique using K-means clustering, which help us to achieve invariance to all the above forms of attacks in copy-move forgery detection of digital images. Our experimental results prove the efficiency of the proposed method and its superiority to the current state of the art.

  15. Transformation Matrix for Time Discretization Based on Tustin’s Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies rules in transformation of transfer function through time discretization. A method of using transformation matrix to realize bilinear transform (also known as Tustin’s method is presented. This method can be described as the conversion between the coefficients of transfer functions, which are expressed as transform by certain matrix. For a polynomial of degree n, the corresponding transformation matrix of order n exists and is unique. Furthermore, the transformation matrix can be decomposed into an upper triangular matrix multiplied with another lower triangular matrix. And both have obvious regularity. The proposed method can achieve rapid bilinear transform used in automatic design of digital filter. The result of numerical simulation verifies the correctness of the theoretical results. Moreover, it also can be extended to other similar problems. Example in the last throws light on this point.

  16. 10th International Conference on Progress in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Keresztury, Gábor; Kellner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    19 plenary lectures and 203 poster papers presented at the 10th International Conference of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in Budapest 1995 give an overview on the state-of-the art of this technology and its wide range of applications. The reader will get information on any aspects of FTS including the latest instrumental developments, e.g. in diode array detection, time resolution FTS, microscopy and spectral mapping, double modulation and two-dimensional FTS.

  17. Accurate artificial boundary conditions for the semi-discretized linear Schrödinger and heat equations on rectangular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Songsong; Yang, Yibo; Pang, Gang; Antoine, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design some accurate artificial boundary conditions for the semi-discretized linear Schrödinger and heat equations in rectangular domains. The Laplace transform in time and discrete Fourier transform in space are applied to get Green's functions of the semi-discretized equations in unbounded domains with single-source. An algorithm is given to compute these Green's functions accurately through some recurrence relations. Furthermore, the finite-difference method is used to discretize the reduced problem with accurate boundary conditions. Numerical simulations are presented to illustrate the accuracy of our method in the case of the linear Schrödinger and heat equations. It is shown that the reflection at the corners is correctly eliminated.

  18. The inverse of winnowing: a FORTRAN subroutine and discussion of unwinnowing discrete data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes an unwinnowing algorithm that utilizes a discrete Fourier transform, and a resulting Fortran subroutine that winnows or unwinnows a 1-dimensional stream of discrete data; the source code is included. The unwinnowing algorithm effectively increases (by integral factors) the number of available data points while maintaining the original frequency spectrum of a data stream. This has utility when an increased data density is required together with an availability of higher order derivatives that honor the original data.

  19. VUV Fourier-Transform absorption study of the np pi (1)Pi(-)(u) nu,N

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glass-Maujean, M.; Jungen, C.; Dickenson, G.D.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; de Oliveira, N.; Joyeux, D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The DESIRS beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron facility, equipped with a vacuum ultraviolet Fourier-Transform spectrometer has been used to measure Q(N″)(N-N″=0) absorption transitions of the D

  20. Solution of multi-group diffusion equation in x-y-z geometry by finite Fourier transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    1975-01-01

    The multi-group diffusion equation in three-dimensional x-y-z geometry is solved by finite Fourier transformation. Applying the Fourier transformation to a finite region with constant nuclear cross sections, the fluxes and currents at the material boundaries are obtained in terms of the Fourier series. Truncating the series after the first term, and assuming that the source term is piecewise linear within each mesh box, a set of coupled equations is obtained in the form of three-point equations for each coordinate. These equations can be easily solved by the alternative direction implicit method. Thus a practical procedure is established that could be applied to replace the currently used difference equation. This equation is used to solve the multi-group diffusion equation by means of the source iteration method; and sample calculations for thermal and fast reactors show that the present method yields accurate results with a smaller number of mesh points than the usual finite difference equations. (auth.)

  1. Cone-beam tomography with discrete data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, H.H.

    1994-01-01

    Sufficiently conditions for cone-beam data are well known for the case of continuous data collection along a cone-vortex curve with continuous detectors. These continuous conditions are inadequate for real-world data where discrete vertex geometries and discrete detector arrays are used. In this paper we present a theoretical formulation of cone-beam tomography with arbitrary discrete arrays of detectors and vertices. The theory models the imaging system as a linear continuous-to-discrete mapping and represents the continuous object exactly as a Fourier series. The reconstruction problem is posed as the estimation of some subset of the Fourier coefficients. The main goal of the theory is to determine which Fourier coefficients can be reliably determined from the data delivered by a specific discrete design. A fourier component will be well determined by the data if it satisfies two conditions: it makes a strong contribution to the data, and this contribution is relatively independent of the contribution of other Fourier components. To make these considerations precise, we introduce a concept called the cross-talk matrix. A diagonal element of this matrix measures the strength of a Fourier component in the data, while an off-diagonal element quantifies the dependence or aliasing of two different components. (Author)

  2. A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer for near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyang; Lu, Dan-feng; Qi, Zhi-mei

    2015-09-01

    A prototype stationary Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) was constructed with a fiber-coupled lithium niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) for the purpose of rapid on-site spectroscopy of biological and chemical measurands. The MZI contains push-pull electrodes for electro-optic modulation, and its interferogram as a plot of intensity against voltage was obtained by scanning the modulating voltage from -60 to +60 V in 50 ms. The power spectrum of input signal was retrieved by Fourier transform processing of the interferogram combined with the wavelength dispersion of half-wave voltage determined for the MZI used. The prototype FTS operates in the single-mode wavelength range from 1200 to 1700 nm and allows for reproducible spectroscopy. A linear concentration dependence of the absorbance at λmax = 1451 nm for water in ethanolic solution was obtained using the prototype FTS. The near-infrared spectroscopy of solid samples was also implemented, and the different spectra obtained with different materials evidenced the chemical recognition capability of the prototype FTS. To make this prototype FTS practically applicable, work on improving its spectral resolution by increasing the maximum optical path length difference is in progress.

  3. Double-resolution electron holography with simple Fourier transform of fringe-shifted holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V V; Han, M G; Zhu, Y

    2013-11-01

    We propose a fringe-shifting holographic method with an appropriate image wave recovery algorithm leading to exact solution of holographic equations. With this new method the complex object image wave recovered from holograms appears to have much less traditional artifacts caused by the autocorrelation band present practically in all Fourier transformed holograms. The new analytical solutions make possible a double-resolution electron holography free from autocorrelation band artifacts and thus push the limits for phase resolution. The new image wave recovery algorithm uses a popular Fourier solution of the side band-pass filter technique, while the fringe-shifting holographic method is simple to implement in practice. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Towards discrete wavelet transform-based human activity recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Manish; Jeon, Moongu

    2017-06-01

    Providing accurate recognition of human activities is a challenging problem for visual surveillance applications. In this paper, we present a simple and efficient algorithm for human activity recognition based on a wavelet transform. We adopt discrete wavelet transform (DWT) coefficients as a feature of human objects to obtain advantages of its multiresolution approach. The proposed method is tested on multiple levels of DWT. Experiments are carried out on different standard action datasets including KTH and i3D Post. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art methods in terms of different quantitative performance measures. The proposed method is found to have better recognition accuracy in comparison to the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    2013-01-01

    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  6. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the analysis of the biochemical composition of C. elegans worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ming; Gorzsás, András; Tuck, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Changes in intermediary metabolism have profound effects on many aspects of C. elegans biology including growth, development and behavior. However, many traditional biochemical techniques for analyzing chemical composition require relatively large amounts of starting material precluding the analysis of mutants that cannot be grown in large amounts as homozygotes. Here we describe a technique for detecting changes in the chemical compositions of C. elegans worms by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. We demonstrate that the technique can be used to detect changes in the relative levels of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in one and the same worm. We suggest that Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy represents a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for metabolic studies of C. elegans worms.

  7. Segment density profiles of polyelectrolyte brushes determined by Fourier transform ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Markus; Rühe, Jürgen; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    1999-10-01

    We describe a method for the explicit determination of the segment density profile φ(z) of surface-attached polymer brushes with multiple angle of incidence null-ellipsometry. Because the refractive index contrast between the brush layer and the solvent is weak, multiple reflections are of minor influence and the ellipsometric spectrum is closely related to the Fourier transform of the refractive index profile, thereby allowing for explicit inversion of the ellipsometric data. We chose surface-attached monolayers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), a weak polyelectrolyte, as a model system and determined the segment density profile of this system as a function of the pH value of the surrounding medium by the Fourier method. Complementary to the Fourier analysis, fits with error functions are given as well. The brushes were prepared on the bases of high refractive index prisms with the "grafting-from" technique. In water, the brushes swell by more than a factor of 30. The swelling increases with increasing pH because of a growing fraction of dissociated acidic groups leading to a larger electrostatic repulsion.

  8. Study of influence with fourier transform on long cable in measurement of fall time of DPF neutron profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongsheng; Li Rurong; Tang Dengpan; Yang Gaozhao; Hu Qingyuan; Si Fenni; Zhang Jianhua; Peng Taiping

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the Fourier Transform on long cable in the measurement of fall time of DPF neutron profile is discussed by mathematical methods. The application of anti-convolution function with the Fourier Transform on long cable is analysed. The time interval between the peak time and the time that the height falls 3 orders of magnitude after peak is measured with gated-detector array system which consists of PMT (photomultiplier tube) and organic scintillation crystal. (authors)

  9. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the B u )–X g ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    improved by putting the wave number of band origins in Deslandre table. The vibrational analysis was supported by determining the Franck–Condon factor and r-centroid values. Keywords. Fourier transform spectroscopy; electronic spectrum of selenium dimer; vibrational analysis; Franck–Condon factor; r-centroid values.

  10. Applications of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to quality control of the epoxy matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoon, M. K.; Starkey, K. M.; Koenig, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The object of the paper is to demonstrate the utility of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference spectra for investigating the composition of a neat epoxy resin, hardener, and catalysts. The composition and degree of cross-linking of the cured matrix is also considered.

  11. On the measurement of Wigner distribution moments in the fractional Fourier transform domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Alieva, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how all global Wigner distribution moments of arbitrary order can be measured as intensity moments in the output plane of an appropriate number of fractional Fourier transform systems (generally anamorphic ones). The minimum number of (anamorphic) fractional power spectra that are needed

  12. Unfolding and effective bandstructure calculations as discrete real- and reciprocal-space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boykin, Timothy B., E-mail: boykin@ece.uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ajoy, Arvind [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, alloy electronic structure calculations based on supercell Brillouin zone unfolding have become popular. There are a number of formulations of the method which on the surface might appear different. Here we show that a discrete real-space description, based on discrete Fourier transforms, is fully general. Furthermore, such an approach can more easily show the effects of alloy scattering. We present such a method for treating the random alloy problem. This treatment features straightforward mathematics and a transparent physical interpretation of the calculated effective (i.e., approximate) energy bands.

  13. Chemical fingerprinting of Arabidopsis using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzsás, András; Sundberg, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and nondestructive technique for chemical profiling of plant materials. In this chapter we discuss the instrumental setup, the basic principles of analysis, and the possibilities for and limitations of obtaining qualitative and semiquantitative information by FT-IR spectroscopy. We provide detailed protocols for four fully customizable techniques: (1) Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS): a sensitive and high-throughput technique for powders; (2) attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy: a technique that requires no sample preparation and can be used for solid samples as well as for cell cultures; (3) microspectroscopy using a single element (SE) detector: a technique used for analyzing sections at low spatial resolution; and (4) microspectroscopy using a focal plane array (FPA) detector: a technique for rapid chemical profiling of plant sections at cellular resolution. Sample preparation, measurement, and data analysis steps are listed for each of the techniques to help the user collect the best quality spectra and prepare them for subsequent multivariate analysis.

  14. Progress in static fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: assessment of sifti preliminary performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Philippe; Pierangelo, Clémence; Rosak, Alain; Cansot, Elodie; Bernard, Frédéric; Camy-Peyret, Claude

    2017-11-01

    The concept of static Fourier transform interferometry at thermal infrared wavelengths is well suited in the case of narrow spectral bands that are looked at for targeted molecular species as CO and O3 for pollution and air quality monitoring, or H20 and CO2 for weather forecast, down to the troposphere. It permits a high spectral resolution and a very good radiometric performance, with the advantage of a static interferometer, including no moving part. Along with other molecules sounded in the UV-VIS domain, as for instance in the TRAQ mission, SIFTI will provide scientists with a complete set for pollution measurements and air quality survey. Our paper presents the principles of static Fourier transform spectrometry, the work led on the instrument performance model and our study of the SIFTI instrument. We describe the instrument, its main dimensions and characteristics, and its architecture and major subsystems. We eventually make a preliminary survey of the SIFTI performance budget items. As a conclusion, we introduce the future CNES phase A study of this instrument that is started in 2006

  15. Generation of Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Jeronimo-Moreno, Yasser; Garcia-Gracia, Hipolito

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral (temporal) properties of heralded single photon wave packets, triggered by the detection of an idler photon in the process of parametric down conversion. The generated single photons are studied within the framework of the chronocyclic Wigner function, from which the single photon spectral width and temporal duration can be computed. We derive specific conditions on the two-photon joint spectral amplitude which result in both pure and Fourier-transform-limited heralded single photons. Likewise, we present specific source geometries which lead to the fulfillment of these conditions and show that one of these geometries leads, for a given pump bandwidth, to the temporally shortest possible heralded single photon wave packets

  16. On the discrete version of Gabor's signal expansion, the Gabor transform, and the Zak transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Veen, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Gabors expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e., the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

  17. Fourier transform n.m.r. spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.

    1976-01-01

    This book is orientated to techniques rather than applications. The basic theory of n.m.r. is dealt with in a unified approach to the Fourier theory. The middle section of the book concentrates on the practical aspects of Fourier n.m.r., both instrumental and experimental. The final chapters briefly cover general application of n.m.r., but concentrate strongly on those areas where Fourier n.m.r. can give information which is not available by conventional techniques

  18. Fourier transform n. m. r. spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, D [Varian Ltd., Walton (UK)

    1976-01-01

    This book is orientated to techniques rather than applications. The basic theory of n.m.r. is dealt with in a unified approach to the Fourier theory. The middle section of the book concentrates on the practical aspects of Fourier n.m.r., both instrumental and experimental. The final chapters briefly cover general application of n.m.r., but concentrate strongly on those areas where Fourier n.m.r. can give information which is not available by conventional techniques.

  19. Benefits of 2.94 μm infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization for analysis of labile molecules by Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budnik, Bogdan A.; Jensen, Kenneth Bendix; Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.

    2000-01-01

    A 2.94 microm Er:YAG laser was used together with a commercial Fourier transform mass spectrometer to study labile biomolecules. The combination has shown superior performance over conventional 337 nm ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (UV-MALDI) Fourier transform mass...

  20. On the Elliptic Nonabelian Fourier Transform for Unipotent Representations of p-Adic Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciubotaru, D.; Opdam, E.; Cogdell, J.; Kim, J.-L.; Zhu, C.-B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the relation between two nonabelian Fourier transforms. The first one is defined in terms of the Langlands-Kazhdan-Lusztig parameters for unipotent elliptic representations of a split p-adic group and the second is defined in terms of the pseudocoefficients of these

  1. The Kinetics of Mo(Co)6 Substitution Monitored by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslick, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that uses Fourier transform (FTIR) spectrometers and microcomputers as a way of introducing students to the spectral storage and manipulation techniques associated with digitized data. It can be used to illustrate FTIR spectroscopy, simple kinetics, inorganic mechanisms, and Beer's Law. (TW)

  2. Color image cryptosystem using Fresnel diffraction and phase modulation in an expanded fractional Fourier transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hang; Liu, Zhengjun; Chen, Qi; Blondel, Walter; Varis, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, what we believe is a new technique for optical color image encryption by using Fresnel diffraction and a phase modulation in an extended fractional Fourier transform domain is proposed. Different from the RGB component separation based method, the color image is converted into one component by improved Chirikov mapping. The encryption system is addressed with Fresnel diffraction and phase modulation. A pair of lenses is placed into the fractional Fourier transform system for the modulation of beam propagation. The structure parameters of the optical system and parameters in Chirikov mapping serve as extra keys. Some numerical simulations are given to test the validity of the proposed cryptosystem.

  3. Multi-band Image Registration Method Based on Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庹红娅; 刘允才

    2004-01-01

    This paper presented a registration method based on Fourier transform for multi-band images which is involved in translation and small rotation. Although different band images differ a lot in the intensity and features,they contain certain common information which we can exploit. A model was given that the multi-band images have linear correlations under the least-square sense. It is proved that the coefficients have no effect on the registration progress if two images have linear correlations. Finally, the steps of the registration method were proposed. The experiments show that the model is reasonable and the results are satisfying.

  4. Fourier transform infrared studies in solid egg white lysozyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivzi, T.Z.

    1994-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy is the most recent addition to the arsenal of bioanalytical techniques capable of providing information about the secondary structure of proteins in a variety of environments. FTIR spectra have been obtained in solid egg white lysozyme. The spectra display the usual amide I, II and III bands. Secondary structural information obtained from the spectra after applying resolution enhancement techniques to the amide I band has been found consistent with the x-ray crystallographic data of the protein and also to the spectroscopic data of the protein in aqueous solution. (author). 17 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  5. FFT-BM, Code Accuracy Evaluations with the 1D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FFT-BM is an integrated version of the programs package performing code accuracy evaluations with the 1D Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) methodology. It contains two programs: - CASEM: Takes care of the complete manipulation of data in order to evaluate the quantities through which the FFT method quantifies the code accuracy. - AAWFTO completes the evaluation of the average accuracy (AA) and related weighted frequency (WF) values in order to obtain the AAtot and WFtot values characterising the global calculation performance. 2 - Methods: The Fast Fourier Transform, or FFT, which is based on the Fourier analysis method is an optimised method for calculating the amplitude Vs frequency, of functions or experimental or computed data. In order to apply this methodology, after selecting the parameters to be analyzed, it is necessary to choose the following parameters: - number of curves (exp + calc) to be analyzed; - number of time windows to be analyzed; - sampling frequency; - cut frequency; - time begin and time end of each time window. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Up to 30 curves (exp + calc) and 5 time windows may be analyzed

  6. Distributed Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms on DSPs with an Application for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Scott

    2006-01-01

    Many applications of two-dimensional Fourier Transforms require fixed timing as defined by system specifications. One example is image-based wavefront sensing. The image-based approach has many benefits, yet it is a computational intensive solution for adaptive optic correction, where optical adjustments are made in real-time to correct for external (atmospheric turbulence) and internal (stability) aberrations, which cause image degradation. For phase retrieval, a type of image-based wavefront sensing, numerous two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are used. To meet the required real-time specifications, a distributed system is needed, and thus, the 2-D FFT necessitates an all-to-all communication among the computational nodes. The 1-D floating point FFT is very efficient on a digital signal processor (DSP). For this study, several architectures and analysis of such are presented which address the all-to-all communication with DSPs. Emphasis of this research is on a 64-node cluster of Analog Devices TigerSharc TS-101 DSPs.

  7. Second order oscillations of a Vlasov-Poisson plasma in the Fourier transformed space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Z.; Nocera, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in the Fourier-transformed velocity space is studied. At first some results of the linear theory are reformulated: in the new representation the Van Kampen eigenmodes and their adjoint are found to be ordinary functions with convenient piece-wise continuity properties. A transparent derivation is given of the free-streaming temporal echo in terms of the kinematics of wave packets in the Fourier-transformed velocity space. This analysis is further extended to include Coulomb interactions which allows to establish a connection between the echo theory, the second order oscillations of Best and the phenomenon of linear sidebands. The calculation of the time evolution of the global second order electric field is performed in detail in the case of a Maxwellian equilibrium distribution function. It is concluded that the phenomenon of linear sidebands may be properly explained in terms of the intrinsic features of the equilibrium distribution function. (author) 5 figs., 32 refs

  8. Direct application of the fast Fourier transform to open resonator calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the integral equations for resonators can be written in the form of convolution integrals. A graph is given of the ratio of the time required to compute resonator eigenmodes using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to the time required to evaluate the resonator convolution equation directly as a function of the number of mirror grid points. Computational savings made by using the FFT are discussed

  9. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of dental unit water line biofilm bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Liaqat, Iram

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy has become an important tool for rapid analysis of complex biological samples. The infrared absorbance spectrum could be regarded as a “fingerprint” which is a feature of biochemical substances. The FT-IR spectra of fresh and stored dried samples of six bacterial isolates (Klebsiella sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Achromobacter sp.) were observed by variation in sample preparation....

  10. Optical chirp z-transform processor with a simplified architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc

    2014-12-29

    Using a simplified chirp z-transform (CZT) algorithm based on the discrete-time convolution method, this paper presents the synthesis of a simplified architecture of a reconfigurable optical chirp z-transform (OCZT) processor based on the silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. In the simplified architecture of the reconfigurable OCZT, the required number of optical components is small and there are no waveguide crossings which make fabrication easy. The design of a novel type of optical discrete Fourier transform (ODFT) processor as a special case of the synthesized OCZT is then presented to demonstrate its effectiveness. The designed ODFT can be potentially used as an optical demultiplexer at the receiver of an optical fiber orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission system.

  11. 1.28 Tbaud Nyquist Signal Transmission using Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation based Receiver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate transmission of a 1.28-Tbaud Nyquist-OTDM signal over a record distance of 100 km with detection by time-domain optical Fourier transformation followed by FEC decoding, resulting in error-free performance for all tributaries....

  12. A Conditional Fourier-Feynman Transform and Conditional Convolution Product with Change of Scales on a Function Space II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple formula for conditional expectations over continuous paths, we will evaluate conditional expectations which are types of analytic conditional Fourier-Feynman transforms and conditional convolution products of generalized cylinder functions and the functions in a Banach algebra which is the space of generalized Fourier transforms of the measures on the Borel class of L2[0,T]. We will then investigate their relationships. Particularly, we prove that the conditional transform of the conditional convolution product can be expressed by the product of the conditional transforms of each function. Finally we will establish change of scale formulas for the conditional transforms and the conditional convolution products. In these evaluation formulas and change of scale formulas, we use multivariate normal distributions so that the conditioning function does not contain present positions of the paths.

  13. Surface Design Based on Discrete Conformal Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Carlos; Santangelo, Christian; Vouga, Etienne

    Conformal transformations are angle-preserving maps from one domain to another. Although angles are preserved, the lengths between arbitrary points are not generally conserved. As a consequence there is always a given amount of distortion associated to any conformal map. Different uses of such transformations can be found in various fields, but have been used by us to program non-uniformly swellable gel sheets to buckle into prescribed three dimensional shapes. In this work we apply circle packings as a kind of discrete conformal map in order to find conformal maps from the sphere to the plane that can be used as nearly uniform swelling patterns to program non-Euclidean sheets to buckle into spheres. We explore the possibility of tuning the area distortion to fit the experimental range of minimum and maximum swelling by modifying the boundary of the planar domain through the introduction of different cutting schemes.

  14. A difference tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, HaoPeng; Yao, Yong; Lei, HeBing; Wu, HaoKun

    2018-04-01

    Target tracking is an important field of computer vision. The template matching tracking algorithm based on squared difference matching (SSD) and standard correlation coefficient (NCC) matching is very sensitive to the gray change of image. When the brightness or gray change, the tracking algorithm will be affected by high-frequency information. Tracking accuracy is reduced, resulting in loss of tracking target. In this paper, a differential tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform is proposed to reduce the influence of image gray or brightness change. The algorithm that combines the discrete sine transform and the difference algorithm maps the target image into a image digital sequence. The Kalman filter predicts the target position. Using the Hamming distance determines the degree of similarity between the target and the template. The window closest to the template is determined the target to be tracked. The target to be tracked updates the template. Based on the above achieve target tracking. The algorithm is tested in this paper. Compared with SSD and NCC template matching algorithms, the algorithm tracks target stably when image gray or brightness change. And the tracking speed can meet the read-time requirement.

  15. Vibrational analysis of Fourier transform spectrum of the B 3− u (0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... microwave, was recorded on BOMEM DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer at an apodized resolution of 0.035 cm-1. Vibrational constants were improved by putting the wave number of band origins in Deslandre table. The vibrational analysis was supported by determining the Franck–Condon factor and -centroid values.

  16. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  17. Multirate-based fast parallel algorithms for 2-D DHT-based real-valued discrete Gabor transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Liang; Kwan, Hon Keung

    2012-07-01

    Novel algorithms for the multirate and fast parallel implementation of the 2-D discrete Hartley transform (DHT)-based real-valued discrete Gabor transform (RDGT) and its inverse transform are presented in this paper. A 2-D multirate-based analysis convolver bank is designed for the 2-D RDGT, and a 2-D multirate-based synthesis convolver bank is designed for the 2-D inverse RDGT. The parallel channels in each of the two convolver banks have a unified structure and can apply the 2-D fast DHT algorithm to speed up their computations. The computational complexity of each parallel channel is low and is independent of the Gabor oversampling rate. All the 2-D RDGT coefficients of an image are computed in parallel during the analysis process and can be reconstructed in parallel during the synthesis process. The computational complexity and time of the proposed parallel algorithms are analyzed and compared with those of the existing fastest algorithms for 2-D discrete Gabor transforms. The results indicate that the proposed algorithms are the fastest, which make them attractive for real-time image processing.

  18. A fractional Fourier transform analysis of the scattering of ultrasonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tant, Katherine M.M.; Mulholland, Anthony J.; Langer, Matthias; Gachagan, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Many safety critical structures, such as those found in nuclear plants, oil pipelines and in the aerospace industry, rely on key components that are constructed from heterogeneous materials. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing (NDT) uses high-frequency mechanical waves to inspect these parts, ensuring they operate reliably without compromising their integrity. It is possible to employ mathematical models to develop a deeper understanding of the acquired ultrasonic data and enhance defect imaging algorithms. In this paper, a model for the scattering of ultrasonic waves by a crack is derived in the time–frequency domain. The fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) is applied to an inhomogeneous wave equation where the forcing function is prescribed as a linear chirp, modulated by a Gaussian envelope. The homogeneous solution is found via the Born approximation which encapsulates information regarding the flaw geometry. The inhomogeneous solution is obtained via the inverse Fourier transform of a Gaussian-windowed linear chirp excitation. It is observed that, although the scattering profile of the flaw does not change, it is amplified. Thus, the theory demonstrates the enhanced signal-to-noise ratio permitted by the use of coded excitation, as well as establishing a time–frequency domain framework to assist in flaw identification and classification. PMID:25792967

  19. Application of Fractional Fourier Transform to Moving Target Indication via Along-Track Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Shen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown yet powerful technique, the so-called fractional Fourier transform (FrFT, is applied to SAR along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI in order to estimate moving target parameters. By mapping a target's signal onto a fractional Fourier axis, the FrFT permits a constant-velocity target to be focused in the fractional Fourier domain thereby affording orders of magnitude improvement in SCR. Moving target velocity and position parameters are derived and expressed in terms of an optimum fractional angle and a measured fractional Fourier position , allowing a target to be accurately repositioned and its velocity components computed without actually forming an SAR image. The new estimation algorithm is compared with the matched filter bank approach, showing some of the advantages of the FrFT method. The proposed technique is applied to the data acquired by the two-aperture CV580 airborne radar system configured in its along-track mode. Results show that the method is effective in estimating target velocity and position parameters.

  20. The Fourier transform method for infinite medium resonance absorption problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, S.V.G.; Sahni, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    A new method, using Fourier transforms, is developed for solving the integral equation of slowing down of neutrons in the resonance region. The transformations replace the slowing down equation with a discontinuous kernel by an integral equation with a continuous kernel over the interval (-infinity, infinity). Further the Doppler broadened line shape functions have simple analytical representations in the transform variable. In the limit of zero temperature, the integral equation reduces to a second order differential equation. Accurate expressions for the zero temperature resonance integrals are derived, using the WKB method. In general, the integral equation is seen to be amenable to solution by Ganss-Hermite quadrature formule. Doppler coefficients of 238 U resonances are given and compared with Monte Carlo calculations. The method is extended to include the effect of interference between neighbouring resonances of an absorber. For the case of two interfering resonances the slowing down equation is transformed to the coupled integral equations that are amenable to solution by methods indicated earlier. Numerical results presented for the low lying thorium-232 doublet show that the Doppler coefficients of the resonances are reduced considerably because of the overlap between them. (author)