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Sample records for discrete dependent variables

  1. Non-uniform approximations for sums of discrete m-dependent random variables

    Vellaisamy, P.; Cekanavicius, V.

    2013-01-01

    Non-uniform estimates are obtained for Poisson, compound Poisson, translated Poisson, negative binomial and binomial approximations to sums of of m-dependent integer-valued random variables. Estimates for Wasserstein metric also follow easily from our results. The results are then exemplified by the approximation of Poisson binomial distribution, 2-runs and $m$-dependent $(k_1,k_2)$-events.

  2. Can time be a discrete dynamical variable

    Lee, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    The possibility that time can be regarded as a discrete dynamical variable is examined through all phases of mechanics: from classical mechanics to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, and to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)

  3. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...

  4. Discrete variable theory of triatomic photodissociation

    Heather, R.W.; Light, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    The coupled equations describing the photodissociation process are expressed in the discrete variable representation (DVR) in which the coupled equations are labeled by quadrature points rather than by internal basis functions. A large reduction in the dimensionality of the coupled equations can be realized since the spatially localized bound state nuclear wave function vanishes at most of the quadrature points, making only certain orientations of the fragments important in the region of strong interaction (small separation). The discrete variable theory of photodissociation is applied to the model dissociation of bent HCN in which the CN fragment is treated as a rigid rotor. The truncated DVR rotational distributions are compared with the exact close coupled rotational distributions, and excellent agreement with greatly reduced dimensionality of the equations is found

  5. Discrete variable representation for singular Hamiltonians

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the application of the discrete variable representation (DVR) to Schrodinger problems which involve singular Hamiltonians. Unlike recent authors who invoke transformations to rid the eigenvalue equation of singularities at the cost of added complexity, we show that an approach based...... solely on an orthogonal polynomial basis is adequate, provided the Gauss-Lobatto or Gauss-Radau quadrature rule is used. This ensures that the mesh contains the singular points and by simply discarding the DVR functions corresponding to those points, all matrix elements become well behaved. the boundary...

  6. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    Liu, Xin-Ge; Tang, Mei-Lan; Martin, Ralph; Liu, Xin-Bi

    2007-07-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development.

  7. Discrete-time BAM neural networks with variable delays

    Liu Xinge; Tang Meilan; Martin, Ralph; Liu Xinbi

    2007-01-01

    This Letter deals with the global exponential stability of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Using a Lyapunov functional, and linear matrix inequality techniques (LMI), we derive a new delay-dependent exponential stability criterion for BAM neural networks with variable delays. As this criterion has no extra constraints on the variable delay functions, it can be applied to quite general BAM neural networks with a broad range of time delay functions. It is also easy to use in practice. An example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development

  8. Orthogonal functions, discrete variable representation, and generalized gauss quadratures

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    in the original representation. This has been exploited in bound-state, scattering, and time-dependent problems using the so-called, discrete variable representation (DVR). At the core of this approach is the mathematical three-term recursion relationship satisfied by the classical orthogonal functions...... functions, this is not the case. However, they may be computed in a stable numerical fashion, via the recursion. In essence, this is an application of the well-known Lanczos recursion approach. Once the recursion coefficients are known, it is possible to compute the points and weights of quadratures on...

  9. Probabilistic Power Flow Method Considering Continuous and Discrete Variables

    Xuexia Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow (PPF method considering continuous and discrete variables (continuous and discrete power flow, CDPF for power systems. The proposed method—based on the cumulant method (CM and multiple deterministic power flow (MDPF calculations—can deal with continuous variables such as wind power generation (WPG and loads, and discrete variables such as fuel cell generation (FCG. In this paper, continuous variables follow a normal distribution (loads or a non-normal distribution (WPG, and discrete variables follow a binomial distribution (FCG. Through testing on IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus power systems, the proposed method (CDPF has better accuracy compared with the CM, and higher efficiency compared with the Monte Carlo simulation method (MCSM.

  10. Avoiding and Correcting Bias in Score-Based Latent Variable Regression with Discrete Manifest Items

    Lu, Irene R. R.; Thomas, D. Roland

    2008-01-01

    This article considers models involving a single structural equation with latent explanatory and/or latent dependent variables where discrete items are used to measure the latent variables. Our primary focus is the use of scores as proxies for the latent variables and carrying out ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on such scores to estimate…

  11. Discrete rate and variable power adaptation for underlay cognitive networks

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Salem, Ahmed H.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximizing the average spectral efficiency of a secondary link in underlay cognitive networks. In particular, we consider the network setting whereby the secondary transmitter employs discrete rate and variable power

  12. Orthogonal functions, discrete variable representation, and generalized gauss quadratures

    Schneider, B. I.; Nygaard, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    in the original representation. This has been exploited in bound-state, scattering, and time-dependent problems using the so-called, discrete variable representation (DVR). At the core of this approach is the mathematical three-term recursion relationship satisfied by the classical orthogonal functions......, the distinction between spectral and grid approaches becomes blurred. In fact, the two approaches can be related by a similarity transformation. By the exploitation of this idea, calculations can be considerably simplified by removing the need to compute difficult matrix elements of the Hamiltonian...... functions, this is not the case. However, they may be computed in a stable numerical fashion, via the recursion. In essence, this is an application of the well-known Lanczos recursion approach. Once the recursion coefficients are known, it is possible to compute the points and weights of quadratures on...

  13. Finite element discretization of Darcy's equations with pressure dependent porosity

    Girault, Vivette; Murat, Franç ois; Salgado, Abner

    2010-01-01

    We consider the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through a rigid homogeneous porous medium. The permeability of the medium depends on the pressure, so that the model is nonlinear. We propose a finite element discretization of this problem and

  14. Discrete singular convolution for the generalized variable-coefficient ...

    Numerical solutions of the generalized variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries equation are obtained using a discrete singular convolution and a fourth order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta method for space and time discretisation, respectively. The theoretical convergence of the proposed method is rigorously ...

  15. Discretization-dependent model for weakly connected excitable media

    Arroyo, Pedro André; Alonso, Sergio; Weber dos Santos, Rodrigo

    2018-03-01

    Pattern formation has been widely observed in extended chemical and biological processes. Although the biochemical systems are highly heterogeneous, homogenized continuum approaches formed by partial differential equations have been employed frequently. Such approaches are usually justified by the difference of scales between the heterogeneities and the characteristic spatial size of the patterns. Under different conditions, for example, under weak coupling, discrete models are more adequate. However, discrete models may be less manageable, for instance, in terms of numerical implementation and mesh generation, than the associated continuum models. Here we study a model to approach discreteness which permits the computer implementation on general unstructured meshes. The model is cast as a partial differential equation but with a parameter that depends not only on heterogeneities sizes, as in the case of quasicontinuum models, but also on the discretization mesh. Therefore, we refer to it as a discretization-dependent model. We validate the approach in a generic excitable media that simulates three different phenomena: the propagation of action membrane potential in cardiac tissue, in myelinated axons of neurons, and concentration waves in chemical microemulsions.

  16. Discrete diffusion Monte Carlo for frequency-dependent radiative transfer

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Thompson, Kelly G.; Urbatsch, Todd J.

    2011-01-01

    Discrete Diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) is a technique for increasing the efficiency of Implicit Monte Carlo radiative-transfer simulations. In this paper, we develop an extension of DDMC for frequency-dependent radiative transfer. We base our new DDMC method on a frequency integrated diffusion equation for frequencies below a specified threshold. Above this threshold we employ standard Monte Carlo. With a frequency-dependent test problem, we confirm the increased efficiency of our new DDMC technique. (author)

  17. Discrete-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with variable delays

    Liang Jinling; Cao Jinde; Ho, Daniel W.C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI), some sufficient conditions are presented in this Letter for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Some of the stability criteria obtained in this Letter are delay-dependent, and some of them are delay-independent, they are less conservative than the ones reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, the results provide one more set of easily verified criteria for determining the exponential stability of discrete-time BAM neural networks

  18. Discrete-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with variable delays

    Liang, variable delays [rapid communication] J.; Cao, J.; Ho, D. W. C.

    2005-02-01

    Based on the linear matrix inequality (LMI), some sufficient conditions are presented in this Letter for the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete-time bidirectional associative memory (BAM) neural networks with variable delays. Some of the stability criteria obtained in this Letter are delay-dependent, and some of them are delay-independent, they are less conservative than the ones reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, the results provide one more set of easily verified criteria for determining the exponential stability of discrete-time BAM neural networks.

  19. The discrete spectrum in azimuthally dependent transport theory

    Garcia, R.D.M.; Siewert, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    The discrete spectrum for each component of a Fourier decomposition of the azimuthally dependent transport equation is analyzed. For a non-multiplying medium described by an L th -order scattering law, the problem of determining the zeros of the dispersion function for the m th Fourier component is formulated in terms of Sturm sequences. In particular, a straightforward application of the Sturm-sequence property is used to compute the number of discrete eigenvalue pairs κ m and to show that either κ m = γ m or κ m = γ m + 1, where γ m denotes the number of zeros of the Chandrasekhar polynomial g m L+1 (ξ) which are greater than unity. It is also shown how Sturm sequences can be used to construct effective algorithms to compute and to refine estimates of the discrete eigenvalues. Results are presented for a test problem. (author) [pt

  20. Finite element discretization of Darcy's equations with pressure dependent porosity

    Girault, Vivette

    2010-02-23

    We consider the flow of a viscous incompressible fluid through a rigid homogeneous porous medium. The permeability of the medium depends on the pressure, so that the model is nonlinear. We propose a finite element discretization of this problem and, in the case where the dependence on the pressure is bounded from above and below, we prove its convergence to the solution and propose an algorithm to solve the discrete system. In the case where the dependence on the pressure is exponential, we propose a splitting scheme which involves solving two linear systems, but parts of the analysis of this method are still heuristic. Numerical tests are presented, which illustrate the introduced methods. © 2010 EDP Sciences, SMAI.

  1. Time dependence linear transport III convergence of the discrete ordinate method

    Wilson, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper the uniform pointwise convergence of the discrete ordinate method for weak and strong solutions of the time dependent, linear transport equation posed in a multidimensional, rectangular parallelepiped with partially reflecting walls is established. The first result is that a sequence of discrete ordinate solutions converges uniformly on the quadrature points to a solution of the continuous problem provided that the corresponding sequence of truncation errors for the solution of the continuous problem converges to zero in the same manner. The second result is that continuity of the solution with respect to the velocity variables guarantees that the truncation erros in the quadrature formula go the zero and hence that the discrete ordinate approximations converge to the solution of the continuous problem as the discrete ordinate become dense. An existence theory for strong solutions of the the continuous problem follows as a result

  2. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables by outer approximation

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Several variants of an outer approximation method are proposed to solve truss topology optimization problems with discrete design variables to proven global optimality. The objective is to minimize the volume of the structure while satisfying constraints on the global stiffness of the structure...... for classical outer approximation approaches applied to optimal design problems. A set of two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems are solved and the numerical results suggest that the proposed approaches are competitive with other special-purpose global optimization methods for the considered class...... under the applied loads. We extend the natural problem formulation by adding redundant force variables and force equilibrium constraints. This guarantees that the designs suggested by the relaxed master problems are capable of carrying the applied loads, a property which is generally not satisfied...

  3. Discrete rate and variable power adaptation for underlay cognitive networks

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of maximizing the average spectral efficiency of a secondary link in underlay cognitive networks. In particular, we consider the network setting whereby the secondary transmitter employs discrete rate and variable power adaptation under the constraints of maximum average transmit power and maximum average interference power allowed at the primary receiver due to the existence of an interference link between the secondary transmitter and the primary receiver. We first find the optimal discrete rates assuming a predetermined partitioning of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of both the secondary and interference links. We then present an iterative algorithm for finding a suboptimal partitioning of the SNR of the interference link assuming a fixed partitioning of the SNR of secondary link selected for the case where no interference link exists. Our numerical results show that the average spectral efficiency attained by using the iterative algorithm is close to that achieved by the computationally extensive exhaustive search method for the case of Rayleigh fading channels. In addition, our simulations show that selecting the optimal partitioning of the SNR of the secondary link assuming no interference link exists still achieves the maximum average spectral efficiency for the case where the average interference constraint is considered. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Delay-dependent exponential stability for neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays

    Zhu Xunlin; Wang Youyi

    2009-01-01

    This Letter studies the exponential stability for a class of neural networks (NNs) with both discrete and distributed time-varying delays. Under weaker assumptions on the activation functions, by defining a more general type of Lyapunov functionals and developing a new convex combination technique, new less conservative and less complex stability criteria are established to guarantee the global exponential stability of the discussed NNs. The obtained conditions are dependent on both discrete and distributed delays, are expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and contain fewer decision variables. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and the less conservatism of the proposed conditions.

  5. Pricing of path dependent derivatives with discretely monitored underlying assets

    Choi, Hyomin

    This dissertation presents two different approaches to path dependent option pricing with discrete sampling. Provided the underlying asset of a path dependent derivative contract follows an affine process, we use the forward characteristic method to evaluate its fair price. Our study shows that the valuation method is numerically accessible as long as the contract payoff is a linear combination of log return of its underlying asset price. We compute various examples of such contracts and give contract-tailored formulas that we use in these examples. In the second part, we consider variance options under stochastic volatility model. We analyze the difference between variance option prices with discrete and continuous sampling as a function of N, the number of observations made in the former. We find the series expansion of the difference with respect to 1/N and find its leading term. By adding this leading term to the value of continuously sampled variance option, we obtain a simple and well-understood approximation of discretely sample variance option price.

  6. Discretized representations of harmonic variables by bilateral Jacobi operators

    Andreas Ruffing

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from a discrete Heisenberg algebra we solve several representation problems for a discretized quantum oscillator in a weighted sequence space. The Schrödinger operator for a discrete harmonic oscillator is derived. The representation problem for a q-oscillator algebra is studied in detail. The main result of the article is the fact that the energy representation for the discretized momentum operator can be interpreted as follows: It allows to calculate quantum properties of a large number of non-interacting harmonic oscillators at the same time. The results can be directly related to current research on squeezed laser states in quantum optics. They reveal and confirm the observation that discrete versions of continuum Schrodinger operators allow more structural freedom than their continuum analogs do.

  7. The Integration of Continuous and Discrete Latent Variable Models: Potential Problems and Promising Opportunities

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Curran, Patrick J.

    2004-01-01

    Structural equation mixture modeling (SEMM) integrates continuous and discrete latent variable models. Drawing on prior research on the relationships between continuous and discrete latent variable models, the authors identify 3 conditions that may lead to the estimation of spurious latent classes in SEMM: misspecification of the structural model,…

  8. Global exponential stability for discrete-time neural networks with variable delays

    Chen Wuhua; Lu Xiaomei; Liang Dongying

    2006-01-01

    This Letter provides new exponential stability criteria for discrete-time neural networks with variable delays. The main technique is to reduce exponential convergence estimation of the neural network solution to that of one component of the corresponding solution by constructing Lyapunov function based on M-matrix. By introducing the tuning parameter diagonal matrix, the delay-independent and delay-dependent exponential stability conditions have been unified in the same mathematical formula. The effectiveness of the new results are illustrated by three examples

  9. An improved Lobatto discrete variable representation by a phase optimisation and variable mapping method

    Yu, Dequan; Cong, Shu-Lin; Sun, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An optimised finite element discrete variable representation method is proposed. • The method is tested by solving one and two dimensional Schrödinger equations. • The method is quite efficient in solving the molecular Schrödinger equation. • It is very easy to generalise the method to multidimensional problems. - Abstract: The Lobatto discrete variable representation (LDVR) proposed by Manoloupolos and Wyatt (1988) has unique features but has not been generally applied in the field of chemical dynamics. Instead, it has popular application in solving atomic physics problems, in combining with the finite element method (FE-DVR), due to its inherent abilities for treating the Coulomb singularity in spherical coordinates. In this work, an efficient phase optimisation and variable mapping procedure is proposed to improve the grid efficiency of the LDVR/FE-DVR method, which makes it not only be competing with the popular DVR methods, such as the Sinc-DVR, but also keep its advantages for treating with the Coulomb singularity. The method is illustrated by calculations for one-dimensional Coulomb potential, and the vibrational states of one-dimensional Morse potential, two-dimensional Morse potential and two-dimensional Henon–Heiles potential, which prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme and promise more general applications of the LDVR/FE-DVR method

  10. An improved Lobatto discrete variable representation by a phase optimisation and variable mapping method

    Yu, Dequan [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Dalian 116023 (China); Cong, Shu-Lin, E-mail: shlcong@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Zhigang, E-mail: zsun@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Dalian 116023 (China); Center for Advanced Chemical Physics and 2011 Frontier Center for Quantum Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • An optimised finite element discrete variable representation method is proposed. • The method is tested by solving one and two dimensional Schrödinger equations. • The method is quite efficient in solving the molecular Schrödinger equation. • It is very easy to generalise the method to multidimensional problems. - Abstract: The Lobatto discrete variable representation (LDVR) proposed by Manoloupolos and Wyatt (1988) has unique features but has not been generally applied in the field of chemical dynamics. Instead, it has popular application in solving atomic physics problems, in combining with the finite element method (FE-DVR), due to its inherent abilities for treating the Coulomb singularity in spherical coordinates. In this work, an efficient phase optimisation and variable mapping procedure is proposed to improve the grid efficiency of the LDVR/FE-DVR method, which makes it not only be competing with the popular DVR methods, such as the Sinc-DVR, but also keep its advantages for treating with the Coulomb singularity. The method is illustrated by calculations for one-dimensional Coulomb potential, and the vibrational states of one-dimensional Morse potential, two-dimensional Morse potential and two-dimensional Henon–Heiles potential, which prove the efficiency of the proposed scheme and promise more general applications of the LDVR/FE-DVR method.

  11. Variability of a "force signature" during windmill softball pitching and relationship between discrete force variables and pitch velocity.

    Nimphius, Sophia; McGuigan, Michael R; Suchomel, Timothy J; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed reliability of discrete ground reaction force (GRF) variables over multiple pitching trials, investigated the relationships between discrete GRF variables and pitch velocity (PV) and assessed the variability of the "force signature" or continuous force-time curve during the pitching motion of windmill softball pitchers. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for all discrete variables was high (0.86-0.99) while the coefficient of variance (CV) was low (1.4-5.2%). Two discrete variables were significantly correlated to PV; second vertical peak force (r(5)=0.81, p=0.03) and time between peak forces (r(5)=-0.79; p=0.03). High ICCs and low CVs support the reliability of discrete GRF and PV variables over multiple trials and significant correlations indicate there is a relationship between the ability to produce force and the timing of this force production with PV. The mean of all pitchers' curve-average standard deviation of their continuous force-time curves demonstrated low variability (CV=4.4%) indicating a repeatable and identifiable "force signature" pattern during this motion. As such, the continuous force-time curve in addition to discrete GRF variables should be examined in future research as a potential method to monitor or explain changes in pitching performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Variable discrete ordinates method for radiation transfer in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index

    Sarvari, S. M. Hosseini

    2017-09-01

    The traditional form of discrete ordinates method is applied to solve the radiative transfer equation in plane-parallel semi-transparent media with variable refractive index through using the variable discrete ordinate directions and the concept of refracted radiative intensity. The refractive index are taken as constant in each control volume, such that the direction cosines of radiative rays remain non-variant through each control volume, and then, the directions of discrete ordinates are changed locally by passing each control volume, according to the Snell's law of refraction. The results are compared by the previous studies in this field. Despite simplicity, the results show that the variable discrete ordinate method has a good accuracy in solving the radiative transfer equation in the semi-transparent media with arbitrary distribution of refractive index.

  13. The discrete and localized nature of the variable emission from active regions

    Arndt, Martina Belz; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Karovska, Margarita

    1994-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Spectroheliometer on Skylab, we study the empirical characteristics of the variable emission in active regions. These simultaneous multi-wavelength observations clearly confirm that active regions consist of a complex of loops at different temperatures. The variable emission from this complex has very well-defined properties that can be quantitatively summarized as follows: (1) It is localized predominantly around the footpoints where it occurs at discrete locations. (2) The strongest variability does not necessarily coincide with the most intense emission. (3) The fraction of the area of the footpoints, (delta n)/N, that exhibits variable emission, varies by +/- 15% as a function of time, at any of the wavelengths measured. It also varies very little from footpoint to footpoint. (4) This fractional variation is temperature dependent with a maximum around 10(exp 5) K. (5) The ratio of the intensity of the variable to the average background emission, (delta I)/(bar-I), also changes with temperature. In addition, we find that these distinctive characteristics persist even when flares occur within the active region.

  14. The Fourier U(2 Group and Separation of Discrete Variables

    Kurt Bernardo Wolf

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The linear canonical transformations of geometric optics on two-dimensional screens form the group Sp(4,R, whose maximal compact subgroup is the Fourier group U(2_F; this includes isotropic and anisotropic Fourier transforms, screen rotations and gyrations in the phase space of ray positions and optical momenta. Deforming classical optics into a Hamiltonian system whose positions and momenta range over a finite set of values, leads us to the finite oscillator model, which is ruled by the Lie algebra so(4. Two distinct subalgebra chains are used to model arrays of N^2 points placed along Cartesian or polar (radius and angle coordinates, thus realizing one case of separation in two discrete coordinates. The N^2-vectors in this space are digital (pixellated images on either of these two grids, related by a unitary transformation. Here we examine the unitary action of the analogue Fourier group on such images, whose rotations are particularly visible.

  15. Friction dependence of shallow granular flows from discrete particle simulations

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Weinhart, Thomas; Luding, Stefan; Bokhove, Onno

    2011-01-01

    A shallow-layer model for granular flows is completed with a closure relation for the macroscopic bed friction or basal roughness obtained from micro-scale discrete particle simulations of steady flows. We systematically vary the bed friction by changing the contact friction coefficient between

  16. Reward-dependent modulation of movement variability.

    Pekny, Sarah E; Izawa, Jun; Shadmehr, Reza

    2015-03-04

    Movement variability is often considered an unwanted byproduct of a noisy nervous system. However, variability can signal a form of implicit exploration, indicating that the nervous system is intentionally varying the motor commands in search of actions that yield the greatest success. Here, we investigated the role of the human basal ganglia in controlling reward-dependent motor variability as measured by trial-to-trial changes in performance during a reaching task. We designed an experiment in which the only performance feedback was success or failure and quantified how reach variability was modulated as a function of the probability of reward. In healthy controls, reach variability increased as the probability of reward decreased. Control of variability depended on the history of past rewards, with the largest trial-to-trial changes occurring immediately after an unrewarded trial. In contrast, in participants with Parkinson's disease, a known example of basal ganglia dysfunction, reward was a poor modulator of variability; that is, the patients showed an impaired ability to increase variability in response to decreases in the probability of reward. This was despite the fact that, after rewarded trials, reach variability in the patients was comparable to healthy controls. In summary, we found that movement variability is partially a form of exploration driven by the recent history of rewards. When the function of the human basal ganglia is compromised, the reward-dependent control of movement variability is impaired, particularly affecting the ability to increase variability after unsuccessful outcomes. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354015-10$15.00/0.

  17. Micro-macro multilevel latent class models with multiple discrete individual-level variables

    Bennink, M.; Croon, M.A.; Kroon, B.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2016-01-01

    An existing micro-macro method for a single individual-level variable is extended to the multivariate situation by presenting two multilevel latent class models in which multiple discrete individual-level variables are used to explain a group-level outcome. As in the univariate case, the

  18. A uniaxial cyclic elastoplastic constitutive law with a discrete memory variable

    Taheri, S.

    1991-01-01

    At present, the study on cyclic elastoplastic constitutive laws is focused on nonproportional loading, but for uniaxial loading, some problems still exist. For example, the possibility for a law to describe simultaneously the ratcheting in nonsymmetrical load-controlled test, elastic and plastic shakedown in symmetrical and nonsymmetrical ones. Here a law is presented, which in addition to previous phenomena, describes the cyclic hardening in a pushpull test, the cyclic softening after overloading and also the dependence of cyclic strain-stress curves on the history of loading. These are the usual properties of 316 stainless steel at room temperature. This law uses an internal discrete memory variable: the plastic strain at the last unloading. On the other hand, the choice of all macroscopic variables is justified by a microscopic analysis. This law has been also extended to a three-dimensional case. Regarding the microstructure under cyclic loading, plastic shakedown and ratcheting are discussed. The definition of macroscopic variables taking account of microstructure and uniaxial constitutive law are described. (K.I.)

  19. Possibility/Necessity-Based Probabilistic Expectation Models for Linear Programming Problems with Discrete Fuzzy Random Variables

    Hideki Katagiri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers linear programming problems (LPPs where the objective functions involve discrete fuzzy random variables (fuzzy set-valued discrete random variables. New decision making models, which are useful in fuzzy stochastic environments, are proposed based on both possibility theory and probability theory. In multi-objective cases, Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are newly defined. Computational algorithms for obtaining the Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are provided. It is shown that problems involving discrete fuzzy random variables can be transformed into deterministic nonlinear mathematical programming problems which can be solved through a conventional mathematical programming solver under practically reasonable assumptions. A numerical example of agriculture production problems is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed models to real-world problems in fuzzy stochastic environments.

  20. Classifier-guided sampling for discrete variable, discontinuous design space exploration: Convergence and computational performance

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shahan, David W. [HRL Labs., LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Seepersad, Carolyn Conner [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-04-22

    A classifier-guided sampling (CGS) method is introduced for solving engineering design optimization problems with discrete and/or continuous variables and continuous and/or discontinuous responses. The method merges concepts from metamodel-guided sampling and population-based optimization algorithms. The CGS method uses a Bayesian network classifier for predicting the performance of new designs based on a set of known observations or training points. Unlike most metamodeling techniques, however, the classifier assigns a categorical class label to a new design, rather than predicting the resulting response in continuous space, and thereby accommodates nondifferentiable and discontinuous functions of discrete or categorical variables. The CGS method uses these classifiers to guide a population-based sampling process towards combinations of discrete and/or continuous variable values with a high probability of yielding preferred performance. Accordingly, the CGS method is appropriate for discrete/discontinuous design problems that are ill-suited for conventional metamodeling techniques and too computationally expensive to be solved by population-based algorithms alone. In addition, the rates of convergence and computational properties of the CGS method are investigated when applied to a set of discrete variable optimization problems. Results show that the CGS method significantly improves the rate of convergence towards known global optima, on average, when compared to genetic algorithms.

  1. Size and Topology Optimization for Trusses with Discrete Design Variables by Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Yue Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Firefly Algorithm (FA, for short is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and their phenomenon of bioluminescent communication. Based on the fundamentals of FA, two improved strategies are proposed to conduct size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete design variables. Firstly, development of structural topology optimization method and the basic principle of standard FA are introduced in detail. Then, in order to apply the algorithm to optimization problems with discrete variables, the initial positions of fireflies and the position updating formula are discretized. By embedding the random-weight and enhancing the attractiveness, the performance of this algorithm is improved, and thus an Improved Firefly Algorithm (IFA, for short is proposed. Furthermore, using size variables which are capable of including topology variables and size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete variables is formulated based on the Ground Structure Approach. The essential techniques of variable elastic modulus technology and geometric construction analysis are applied in the structural analysis process. Subsequently, an optimization method for the size and topological design of trusses based on the IFA is introduced. Finally, two numerical examples are shown to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method by comparing with different deterministic methods.

  2. Diabatic potential-optimized discrete variable representation: application to photodissociation process of the CO molecule

    Bitencourt, Ana Carla P; Prudente, Frederico V; Vianna, Jose David M

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new numerically optimized discrete variable representation using eigenstates of diabatic Hamiltonians. This procedure provides an efficient method to solve non-adiabatic coupling problems since the generated basis sets take into account information on the diabatic potentials. The method is applied to the B 1 Σ + - D' 1 Σ + Rydberg-valence predissociation interaction in the CO molecule. Here we give an account of the discrete variable representation and present the procedure for the calculation of its optimized version, which we apply to obtain the total photodissociation cross sections of the CO molecule

  3. Homogenous polynomially parameter-dependent H∞ filter designs of discrete-time fuzzy systems.

    Zhang, Huaguang; Xie, Xiangpeng; Tong, Shaocheng

    2011-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel H(∞) filtering technique for a class of discrete-time fuzzy systems. First, a novel kind of fuzzy H(∞) filter, which is homogenous polynomially parameter dependent on membership functions with an arbitrary degree, is developed to guarantee the asymptotic stability and a prescribed H(∞) performance of the filtering error system. Second, relaxed conditions for H(∞) performance analysis are proposed by using a new fuzzy Lyapunov function and the Finsler lemma with homogenous polynomial matrix Lagrange multipliers. Then, based on a new kind of slack variable technique, relaxed linear matrix inequality-based H(∞) filtering conditions are proposed. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  5. Benford's law and continuous dependent random variables

    Becker, Thealexa; Burt, David; Corcoran, Taylor C.; Greaves-Tunnell, Alec; Iafrate, Joseph R.; Jing, Joy; Miller, Steven J.; Porfilio, Jaclyn D.; Ronan, Ryan; Samranvedhya, Jirapat; Strauch, Frederick W.; Talbut, Blaine

    2018-01-01

    Many mathematical, man-made and natural systems exhibit a leading-digit bias, where a first digit (base 10) of 1 occurs not 11% of the time, as one would expect if all digits were equally likely, but rather 30%. This phenomenon is known as Benford's Law. Analyzing which datasets adhere to Benford's Law and how quickly Benford behavior sets in are the two most important problems in the field. Most previous work studied systems of independent random variables, and relied on the independence in their analyses. Inspired by natural processes such as particle decay, we study the dependent random variables that emerge from models of decomposition of conserved quantities. We prove that in many instances the distribution of lengths of the resulting pieces converges to Benford behavior as the number of divisions grow, and give several conjectures for other fragmentation processes. The main difficulty is that the resulting random variables are dependent. We handle this by using tools from Fourier analysis and irrationality exponents to obtain quantified convergence rates as well as introducing and developing techniques to measure and control the dependencies. The construction of these tools is one of the major motivations of this work, as our approach can be applied to many other dependent systems. As an example, we show that the n ! entries in the determinant expansions of n × n matrices with entries independently drawn from nice random variables converges to Benford's Law.

  6. An integrable (2+1)-dimensional Toda equation with two discrete variables

    Cao Cewen; Cao Jianli

    2007-01-01

    An integrable (2+1)-dimensional Toda equation with two discrete variables is presented from the compatible condition of a Lax triad composed of the ZS-AKNS (Zakharov, Shabat; Ablowitz, Kaup, Newell, Segur) eigenvalue problem and two discrete spectral problems. Through the nonlinearization technique, the Lax triad is transformed into a Hamiltonian system and two symplectic maps, respectively, which are integrable in the Liouville sense, sharing the same set of integrals, functionally independent and involutive with each other. In the Jacobi variety of the associated algebraic curve, both the continuous and the discrete flows are straightened out by the Abel-Jacobi coordinates, and are integrated by quadratures. An explicit algebraic-geometric solution in the original variable is obtained by the Riemann-Jacobi inversion

  7. Parametric methods outperformed non-parametric methods in comparisons of discrete numerical variables

    Sandvik Leiv

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of events per individual is a widely reported variable in medical research papers. Such variables are the most common representation of the general variable type called discrete numerical. There is currently no consensus on how to compare and present such variables, and recommendations are lacking. The objective of this paper is to present recommendations for analysis and presentation of results for discrete numerical variables. Methods Two simulation studies were used to investigate the performance of hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods for variables with outcomes {0, 1, 2}, {0, 1, 2, 3}, {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}, and {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, using the difference between the means as an effect measure. Results The Welch U test (the T test with adjustment for unequal variances and its associated confidence interval performed well for almost all situations considered. The Brunner-Munzel test also performed well, except for small sample sizes (10 in each group. The ordinary T test, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, the percentile bootstrap interval, and the bootstrap-t interval did not perform satisfactorily. Conclusions The difference between the means is an appropriate effect measure for comparing two independent discrete numerical variables that has both lower and upper bounds. To analyze this problem, we encourage more frequent use of parametric hypothesis tests and confidence intervals.

  8. Size and Topology Optimization for Trusses with Discrete Design Variables by Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Wu, Yue; Li, Q.; Hu, Qingjie; Borgart, A.

    2017-01-01

    Firefly Algorithm (FA, for short) is inspired by the social behavior of fireflies and their phenomenon of bioluminescent communication. Based on the fundamentals of FA, two improved strategies are proposed to conduct size and topology optimization for trusses with discrete design variables. Firstly,

  9. The selection of a mode of urban transportation: Integrating psychological variables to discrete choice models

    Cordoba Maquilon, Jorge E; Gonzalez Calderon, Carlos A; Posada Henao, John J

    2011-01-01

    A study using revealed preference surveys and psychological tests was conducted. Key psychological variables of behavior involved in the choice of transportation mode in a population sample of the Metropolitan Area of the Valle de Aburra were detected. The experiment used the random utility theory for discrete choice models and reasoned action in order to assess beliefs. This was used as a tool for analysis of the psychological variables using the sixteen personality factor questionnaire (16PF test). In addition to the revealed preference surveys, two other surveys were carried out: one with socio-economic characteristics and the other with latent indicators. This methodology allows for an integration of discrete choice models and latent variables. The integration makes the model operational and quantifies the unobservable psychological variables. The most relevant result obtained was that anxiety affects the choice of urban transportation mode and shows that physiological alterations, as well as problems in perception and beliefs, can affect the decision-making process.

  10. Stable Graphical Model Estimation with Random Forests for Discrete, Continuous, and Mixed Variables

    Fellinghauer, Bernd; Bühlmann, Peter; Ryffel, Martin; von Rhein, Michael; Reinhardt, Jan D.

    2011-01-01

    A conditional independence graph is a concise representation of pairwise conditional independence among many variables. Graphical Random Forests (GRaFo) are a novel method for estimating pairwise conditional independence relationships among mixed-type, i.e. continuous and discrete, variables. The number of edges is a tuning parameter in any graphical model estimator and there is no obvious number that constitutes a good choice. Stability Selection helps choosing this parameter with respect to...

  11. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  12. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    Pawel Sobkowicz

    Full Text Available We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  13. Discrete Model of Opinion Changes Using Knowledge and Emotions as Control Variables

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda. PMID:22984516

  14. The large discretization step method for time-dependent partial differential equations

    Haras, Zigo; Taasan, Shlomo

    1995-01-01

    A new method for the acceleration of linear and nonlinear time dependent calculations is presented. It is based on the Large Discretization Step (LDS) approximation, defined in this work, which employs an extended system of low accuracy schemes to approximate a high accuracy discrete approximation to a time dependent differential operator. Error bounds on such approximations are derived. These approximations are efficiently implemented in the LDS methods for linear and nonlinear hyperbolic equations, presented here. In these algorithms the high and low accuracy schemes are interpreted as the same discretization of a time dependent operator on fine and coarse grids, respectively. Thus, a system of correction terms and corresponding equations are derived and solved on the coarse grid to yield the fine grid accuracy. These terms are initialized by visiting the fine grid once in many coarse grid time steps. The resulting methods are very general, simple to implement and may be used to accelerate many existing time marching schemes.

  15. The discrete ordinates method for solving the azimuthally dependent transport equation in plane geometry

    Chalhoub, Ezzat Selim

    1997-01-01

    The method of discrete ordinates is applied to the solution of the slab albedo problem with azimuthal dependence in transport theory. A new set of quadratures appropriate to the problem is introduced. In addition to the ANISN code, modified to include the proposed formalism, two new programs, PEESNC and PEESNA, which were created on the basis of the discrete ordinates formalism, using the direct integration method and the analytic solution method respectively, are used in the generation of results for a few sample problems. Program PEESNC was created to validate the results obtained with the discrete ordinates method and the finite difference approximation (ANISN), while program PEESNA was developed in order to implement an analytical discrete ordinates formalism, which provides more accurate results. The obtained results for selected sample problems are compared with highly accurate numerical results published in the literature. Compared to ANISN and PEESNC, program PEESNA presents a greater efficiency in execution time and much more precise numerical results. (author)

  16. ON THE ANISOTROPIC NORM OF DISCRETE TIME STOCHASTIC SYSTEMS WITH STATE DEPENDENT NOISE

    Isaac Yaesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine conditions for the bound-edness of the anisotropic norm of discrete-time linear stochastic sys-tems with state dependent noise. It is proved that these conditions canbe expressed in terms of the feasibility of a specific system of matrixinequalities.

  17. Improved method for solving the neutron transport problem by discretization of space and energy variables

    Bosevski, T.

    1971-01-01

    The polynomial interpolation of neutron flux between the chosen space and energy variables enabled transformation of the integral transport equation into a system of linear equations with constant coefficients. Solutions of this system are the needed values of flux for chosen values of space and energy variables. The proposed improved method for solving the neutron transport problem including the mathematical formalism is simple and efficient since the number of needed input data is decreased both in treating the spatial and energy variables. Mathematical method based on this approach gives more stable solutions with significantly decreased probability of numerical errors. Computer code based on the proposed method was used for calculations of one heavy water and one light water reactor cell, and the results were compared to results of other very precise calculations. The proposed method was better concerning convergence rate, decreased computing time and needed computer memory. Discretization of variables enabled direct comparison of theoretical and experimental results

  18. Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation for Truss Optimization by Using Discrete Shape Variables

    Shen-yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an Improved Genetic Algorithm with Two-Level Approximation (IGATA to minimize truss weight by simultaneously optimizing size, shape, and topology variables. On the basis of a previously presented truss sizing/topology optimization method based on two-level approximation and genetic algorithm (GA, a new method for adding shape variables is presented, in which the nodal positions are corresponding to a set of coordinate lists. A uniform optimization model including size/shape/topology variables is established. First, a first-level approximate problem is constructed to transform the original implicit problem to an explicit problem. To solve this explicit problem which involves size/shape/topology variables, GA is used to optimize individuals which include discrete topology variables and shape variables. When calculating the fitness value of each member in the current generation, a second-level approximation method is used to optimize the continuous size variables. With the introduction of shape variables, the original optimization algorithm was improved in individual coding strategy as well as GA execution techniques. Meanwhile, the update strategy of the first-level approximation problem was also improved. The results of numerical examples show that the proposed method is effective in dealing with the three kinds of design variables simultaneously, and the required computational cost for structural analysis is quite small.

  19. Ruin Probabilities in a Dependent Discrete-Time Risk Model With Gamma-Like Tailed Insurance Risks

    Xing-Fang Huang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considered a dependent discrete-time risk model, in which the insurance risks are represented by a sequence of independent and identically distributed real-valued random variables with a common Gamma-like tailed distribution; the financial risks are denoted by another sequence of independent and identically distributed positive random variables with a finite upper endpoint, but a general dependence structure exists between each pair of the insurance risks and the financial risks. Following the works of Yang and Yuen in 2016, we derive some asymptotic relations for the finite-time and infinite-time ruin probabilities. As a complement, we demonstrate our obtained result through a Crude Monte Carlo (CMC simulation with asymptotics.

  20. State estimation for discrete-time Markovian jumping neural networks with mixed mode-dependent delays

    Liu Yurong; Wang Zidong; Liu Xiaohui

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the state estimation problem for a new class of discrete-time neural networks with Markovian jumping parameters as well as mode-dependent mixed time-delays. The parameters of the discrete-time neural networks are subject to the switching from one mode to another at different times according to a Markov chain, and the mixed time-delays consist of both discrete and distributed delays that are dependent on the Markovian jumping mode. New techniques are developed to deal with the mixed time-delays in the discrete-time setting, and a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is put forward to reflect the mode-dependent time-delays. Sufficient conditions are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) that guarantee the existence of the state estimators. We show that both the existence conditions and the explicit expression of the desired estimator can be characterized in terms of the solution to an LMI. A numerical example is exploited to show the usefulness of the derived LMI-based conditions

  1. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    Zhu, Guangpu

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation with the generalized Navier boundary condition. Variable densities and viscosities are incorporated in this model. A rigorous proof of energy stability is provided for the fully discrete scheme based on a semi-implicit temporal discretization and a finite difference method on the staggered grids for the spatial discretization. A splitting method based on the pressure stabilization is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equation, while the stabilization approach is also used for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Numerical results in both 2-D and 3-D demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and decaying property of discrete energy of the proposed scheme.

  2. Silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed polarization-based discrete variable quantum key distribution.

    Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M; DeRose, Christopher T; Boynton, Nicholas; Urayama, Junji; Camacho, Ryan; Pomerene, Andrew; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S; Lentine, Anthony L

    2017-05-29

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.

  3. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    Ma, L.X.; Tan, J.Y.; Zhao, J.M.; Wang, F.Q.; Wang, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus–Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus–Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied. - Highlights: • The Muller matrix of randomly distributed, densely packed spheres are investigated. • The effects of multiple scattering and dependent scattering are analyzed. • The accuracy of radiative transfer theory for densely packed spheres is discussed. • Dependent scattering correction takes effect at medium size parameter or smaller. • Performance of dependent scattering correction

  4. Study on the security of discrete-variable quantum key distribution over non-Markovian channels

    Huang Peng; Zhu Jun; He Guangqiang; Zeng Guihua

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic of the secret key rate of the discrete-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over the non-Markovian quantum channel is investigated. In particular, we calculate the secret key rate for the six-state protocol over non-Markovian depolarizing channels with coloured noise and Markovian depolarizing channels with Gaussian white noise, respectively. We find that the secure secret key rate for the non-Markovian depolarizing channel will be larger than the Markovian one under the same conditions even when their upper bounds of tolerable quantum bit error rate are equal. This indicates that this coloured noise in the non-Markovian depolarizing channel can enhance the security of communication. Moreover, we show that the secret key rate fluctuates near the secure point when the coupling strength of the system with the environment is high. The results demonstrate that the non-Markovian effects of the transmission channel can have a positive impact on the security of discrete-variable QKD. (paper)

  5. A three dimensional elastoplastic cyclic constitutive law with a semi discrete variable and a ratchetting stress

    Geyer, P.; Proix, J.M.; Jayet-Gendrot, S.; Schoenberger, P.; Taheri, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study of cyclic elastoplastic constitutive law is, at the moment, focused on non proportional loadings, but for uniaxial loadings some problems remain, as for example the ability for a law to describe simultaneously ratcheting (constant increment of strain) in non symmetrical ones. We propose a law with a discrete memory variable, the plastic strain at the last unloading, and a ratchetting stress which, in addition to previous phenomena, describes the other hand the choice of all macroscopic variables is justified by a microscopic analysis. The extension to 3D situations of this law is proposed. The discrete nature of the memory leads to discontinuity problems for some loading paths, a modification is then proposed which uses a differential evolution law. For large enough uniaxial cycles, the uniaxial law is nevertheless recovered. An incremental form of he implicit evolution problem is given, and we describe the implementation of this model in the Code Aster a thermomechanical structural software using the f.e.m. developed at Electricite de France. For a 316 stainless steel we present comparisons between experiments and numerical results in uniaxial and biaxial ratchetting and non proportional strain controlled test (circular, square, stair loading). (authors). 13 refs., 10 figs

  6. Multiple and sign-changing solutions for discrete Robin boundary value problem with parameter dependence

    Long Yuhua

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study second-order nonlinear discrete Robin boundary value problem with parameter dependence. Applying invariant sets of descending flow and variational methods, we establish some new sufficient conditions on the existence of sign-changing solutions, positive solutions and negative solutions of the system when the parameter belongs to appropriate intervals. In addition, an example is given to illustrate our results.

  7. A cyclic constitutive law for metals with a semi-discrete memory variable for description of ratcheting phenomena

    Andrieux, S.; Schoenberger, P.; Taheri, S.

    1993-01-01

    The study of cyclic elastoplastic constitutive laws is, at the moment, focused on non proportional loadings, but for uniaxial loadings some problems remain, as for example the ability for a law to describe simultaneously ratcheting in non symmetrical load-controlled test, elastic and plastic shakedown in symmetrical and non symmetrical ones. We have proposed in a law with a discrete memory variable which, in addition to previous phenomena, describes the cyclic hardening in a pushpull test, and the cyclic softening after overloading. A modified law has been proposed to take into account the dependence of cyclic strain stress curve on the history of loading. The extension to 3D situations of this law is proposed. The discrete nature of the memory leads to discontinuity problems for some loading paths, a modification is then proposed which uses a differential evolution law. For large enough uniaxial cycles, the uniaxial law is nevertheless recovered. In this paper, an incremental form of the implicit evolution problem is given, and we describe the implementation of this model in the Code Aster - a thermomechanical structural software using the finite element method (f.e.m) developed at Electricite de France. Comparison between experiment and numerical results is given for uniaxial ratcheting, non proportional strain controlled test

  8. TDTORT: Time-Dependent, 3-D, Discrete Ordinates, Neutron Transport Code System with Delayed Neutrons

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TDTORT solves the time-dependent, three-dimensional neutron transport equation with explicit representation of delayed neutrons to estimate the fission yield from fissionable material transients. This release includes a modified version of TORT from the C00650MFMWS01 DOORS3.1 code package plus the time-dependent TDTORT code. GIP is also included for cross-section preparation. TORT calculates the flux or fluence of particles due to particles incident upon the system from extraneous sources or generated internally as a result of interaction with the system in two- or three-dimensional geometric systems. The principle application is to the deep-penetration transport of neutrons and photons. Reactor eigenvalue problems can also be solved. Numerous printed edits of the results are available, and results can be transferred to output files for subsequent analysis. TDTORT reads ANISN-format cross-section libraries, which are not included in the package. Users may choose from several available in RSICC's data library collection which can be identified by the keyword 'ANISN FORMAT'. 2 - Methods:The time-dependent spatial flux is expressed as a product of a space-, energy-, and angle-dependent shape function, which is usually slowly varying in time and a purely time-dependent amplitude function. The shape equation is solved for the shape using TORT; and the result is used to calculate the point kinetics parameters (e.g., reactivity) by using their inner product definitions, which are then used to solve the time-dependent amplitude and precursor equations. The amplitude function is calculated by solving the kinetics equations using the LSODE solver. When a new shape calculation is needed, the flux is calculated using the newly computed amplitude function. The Boltzmann transport equation is solved using the method of discrete ordinates to treat the directional variable and weighted finite-difference methods, in addition to Linear Nodal

  9. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction.

    Song, H; Deshpande, V S; Van der Giessen, E

    2016-08-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent on the size of the contact, but also on the rate of deformation. Moreover, depending on its physical origin, adhesion can also be size and rate dependent, albeit different from plasticity. We present a two-dimensional model that incorporates both discrete dislocation plasticity inside a face-centred cubic crystal and adhesion in the interface to understand the rate dependence of friction caused by micrometre-size asperities. The friction strength is the outcome of the competition between adhesion and discrete dislocation plasticity. As a function of contact size, the friction strength contains two plateaus: at small contact length [Formula: see text], the onset of sliding is fully controlled by adhesion while for large contact length [Formula: see text], the friction strength approaches the size-independent plastic shear yield strength. The transition regime at intermediate contact size is a result of partial de-cohesion and size-dependent dislocation plasticity, and is determined by dislocation properties, interfacial properties as well as by the loading rate.

  10. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  11. Multiobjective Two-Stage Stochastic Programming Problems with Interval Discrete Random Variables

    S. K. Barik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the real-life decision-making problems have more than one conflicting and incommensurable objective functions. In this paper, we present a multiobjective two-stage stochastic linear programming problem considering some parameters of the linear constraints as interval type discrete random variables with known probability distribution. Randomness of the discrete intervals are considered for the model parameters. Further, the concepts of best optimum and worst optimum solution are analyzed in two-stage stochastic programming. To solve the stated problem, first we remove the randomness of the problem and formulate an equivalent deterministic linear programming model with multiobjective interval coefficients. Then the deterministic multiobjective model is solved using weighting method, where we apply the solution procedure of interval linear programming technique. We obtain the upper and lower bound of the objective function as the best and the worst value, respectively. It highlights the possible risk involved in the decision-making tool. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the proposed solution procedure.

  12. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients in Hierarchical Design Studies with Discrete Response Variables: A Note on a Direct Interval Estimation Procedure

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A latent variable modeling procedure that can be used to evaluate intraclass correlation coefficients in two-level settings with discrete response variables is discussed. The approach is readily applied when the purpose is to furnish confidence intervals at prespecified confidence levels for these coefficients in setups with binary or ordinal…

  13. Discrete factor approximations in simultaneous equation models: estimating the impact of a dummy endogenous variable on a continuous outcome.

    Mroz, T A

    1999-10-01

    This paper contains a Monte Carlo evaluation of estimators used to control for endogeneity of dummy explanatory variables in continuous outcome regression models. When the true model has bivariate normal disturbances, estimators using discrete factor approximations compare favorably to efficient estimators in terms of precision and bias; these approximation estimators dominate all the other estimators examined when the disturbances are non-normal. The experiments also indicate that one should liberally add points of support to the discrete factor distribution. The paper concludes with an application of the discrete factor approximation to the estimation of the impact of marriage on wages.

  14. A highly efficient SDRAM controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads

    Li, Nan; Wang, Junzheng

    2016-03-01

    A highly efficient Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) controller supporting variable-length burst access and batch process for discrete reads is proposed in this paper. Based on the Principle of Locality, command First In First Out (FIFO) and address range detector are designed within this controller to accelerate its responses to discrete read requests, which dramatically improves the average Effective Bus Utilization Ratio (EBUR) of SDRAM. Our controller is finally verified by driving the Micron 256-Mb SDRAM MT48LC16M16A2. Successful simulation and verification results show that our controller exhibits much higher EBUR than do most existing designs in case of discrete reads.

  15. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

    Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

    2016-01-01

    Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X-k. Then a......Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

  16. Violation of Continuous-Variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering with Discrete Measurements

    Schneeloch, James; Dixon, P. Ben; Howland, Gregory A.; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2013-03-01

    In this Letter, we derive an entropic Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering inequality for continuous-variable systems using only experimentally measured discrete probability distributions and details of the measurement apparatus. We use this inequality to witness EPR steering between the positions and momenta of photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We examine the asymmetry between parties in this inequality, and show that this asymmetry can be used to reduce the technical requirements of experimental setups intended to demonstrate the EPR paradox. Furthermore, we develop a more stringent steering inequality that is symmetric between parties, and use it to show that the down-converted photon pairs also exhibit symmetric EPR steering.

  17. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation

    Hirano, Takuya; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Namiki, Ryo; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that employs discrete quadrature-amplitude modulation and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We experimentally demonstrated automated secure key generation with a rate of 50 kbps when a quantum channel is a 10 km optical fibre. The CV-QKD system utilises a four-state and post-selection protocol and generates a secure key against the entangling cloner attack. We used a pulsed light source of 1550 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 10 MHz. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realise shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. We used a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification. A graphical processing unit card is used to accelerate the software-based post-processing.

  18. Variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach.

    Torchani, Borhen; Sellami, Anis; Garcia, Germain

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new design variable speed wind turbine control by discrete-time sliding mode approach. This methodology is designed for linear saturated system. The saturation constraint is reported on inputs vector. To this end, the back stepping design procedure is followed to construct a suitable sliding manifold that guarantees the attainment of a stabilization control objective. It is well known that the mechanisms are investigated in term of the most proposed assumptions to deal with the damping, shaft stiffness and inertia effect of the gear. The objectives are to synthesize robust controllers that maximize the energy extracted from wind, while reducing mechanical loads and rotor speed tracking combined with an electromagnetic torque. Simulation results of the proposed scheme are presented. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Statistical learning from nonrecurrent experience with discrete input variables and recursive-error-minimization equations

    Carter, Jeffrey R.; Simon, Wayne E.

    1990-08-01

    Neural networks are trained using Recursive Error Minimization (REM) equations to perform statistical classification. Using REM equations with continuous input variables reduces the required number of training experiences by factors of one to two orders of magnitude over standard back propagation. Replacing the continuous input variables with discrete binary representations reduces the number of connections by a factor proportional to the number of variables reducing the required number of experiences by another order of magnitude. Undesirable effects of using recurrent experience to train neural networks for statistical classification problems are demonstrated and nonrecurrent experience used to avoid these undesirable effects. 1. THE 1-41 PROBLEM The statistical classification problem which we address is is that of assigning points in ddimensional space to one of two classes. The first class has a covariance matrix of I (the identity matrix) the covariance matrix of the second class is 41. For this reason the problem is known as the 1-41 problem. Both classes have equal probability of occurrence and samples from both classes may appear anywhere throughout the ddimensional space. Most samples near the origin of the coordinate system will be from the first class while most samples away from the origin will be from the second class. Since the two classes completely overlap it is impossible to have a classifier with zero error. The minimum possible error is known as the Bayes error and

  20. Future-dependent Flow Policies with Prophetic Variables

    Li, Ximeng; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2016-01-01

    future-dependent flow policies- policies that can depend on not only the current values of variables, but also their final values. The final values are referred to using what we call prophetic variables, just as the initial values can be referenced using logical variables in Hoare logic. We develop...... and enforce a notion of future-dependent security for open systems, in the spirit of "non-deducibility on strategies". We also illustrate our approach in scenarios where future-dependency has advantages over present-dependency and avoids mixtures of upgradings and downgradings....

  1. Bifurcation analysis of a discrete SIS model with bilinear incidence depending on new infection.

    Cao, Hui; Zhou, Yicang; Ma, Zhien

    2013-01-01

    A discrete SIS epidemic model with the bilinear incidence depending on the new infection is formulated and studied. The condition for the global stability of the disease free equilibrium is obtained. The existence of the endemic equilibrium and its stability are investigated. More attention is paid to the existence of the saddle-node bifurcation, the flip bifurcation, and the Hopf bifurcation. Sufficient conditions for those bifurcations have been obtained. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate our theoretical results and the complexity of the model.

  2. An analytical nodal method for time-dependent one-dimensional discrete ordinates problems

    Barros, R.C. de

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, relatively little work has been done in developing time-dependent discrete ordinates (S N ) computer codes. Therefore, the topic of time integration methods certainly deserves further attention. In this paper, we describe a new coarse-mesh method for time-dependent monoenergetic S N transport problesm in slab geometry. This numerical method preserves the analytic solution of the transverse-integrated S N nodal equations by constants, so we call our method the analytical constant nodal (ACN) method. For time-independent S N problems in finite slab geometry and for time-dependent infinite-medium S N problems, the ACN method generates numerical solutions that are completely free of truncation errors. Bsed on this positive feature, we expect the ACN method to be more accurate than conventional numerical methods for S N transport calculations on coarse space-time grids

  3. Time-dependent switched discrete-time linear systems control and filtering

    Zhang, Lixian; Shi, Peng; Lu, Qiugang

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the basic control and filtering synthesis problems for discrete-time switched linear systems under time-dependent switching signals. Chapter 1, as an introduction of the book, gives the backgrounds and motivations of switched systems, the definitions of the typical time-dependent switching signals, the differences and links to other types of systems with hybrid characteristics and a literature review mainly on the control and filtering for the underlying systems. By summarizing the multiple Lyapunov-like functions (MLFs) approach in which different requirements on comparisons of Lyapunov function values at switching instants, a series of methodologies are developed for the issues on stability and stabilization, and l2-gain performance or tube-based robustness for l∞ disturbance, respectively, in Chapters 2 and 3. Chapters 4 and 5 are devoted to the control and filtering problems for the time-dependent switched linear systems with either polytopic uncertainties or measurable time-varying...

  4. Validity of a Residualized Dependent Variable after Pretest Covariance Adjustments: Still the Same Variable?

    Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.

    2015-01-01

    The authors empirically examined whether the validity of a residualized dependent variable after covariance adjustment is comparable to that of the original variable of interest. When variance of a dependent variable is removed as a result of one or more covariates, the residual variance may not reflect the same meaning. Using the pretest-posttest…

  5. A New Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Method Accounting for Discrete and Continuous Variables under Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainties

    Hong-Zhong Huang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Various uncertainties are inevitable in complex engineered systems and must be carefully treated in design activities. Reliability-Based Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (RBMDO has been receiving increasing attention in the past decades to facilitate designing fully coupled systems but also achieving a desired reliability considering uncertainty. In this paper, a new formulation of multidisciplinary design optimization, namely RFCDV (random/fuzzy/continuous/discrete variables Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (RFCDV-MDO, is developed within the framework of Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA to deal with multidisciplinary design problems in which both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are present. In addition, a hybrid discrete-continuous algorithm is put forth to efficiently solve problems where both discrete and continuous design variables exist. The effectiveness and computational efficiency of the proposed method are demonstrated via a mathematical problem and a pressure vessel design problem.

  6. Coupled hydromechanical paleoclimate analyses of density-dependant groundwater flow in discretely fractured crystalline rock settings

    Normani, S. D.; Sykes, J. F.; Jensen, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    A high resolution sub-regional scale (84 km2) density-dependent, fracture zone network groundwater flow model with hydromechanical coupling and pseudo-permafrost, was developed from a larger 5734 km2 regional scale groundwater flow model of a Canadian Shield setting in fractured crystalline rock. The objective of the work is to illustrate aspects of regional and sub-regional groundwater flow that are relevant to the long-term performance of a hypothetical nuclear fuel repository. The discrete fracture dual continuum numerical model FRAC3DVS-OPG was used for all simulations. A discrete fracture zone network model delineated from surface features was superimposed onto an 789887 element flow domain mesh. Orthogonal fracture faces (between adjacent finite element grid blocks) were used to best represent the irregular discrete fracture zone network. The crystalline rock between these structural discontinuities was assigned properties characteristic of those reported for the Canadian Shield at the Underground Research Laboratory at Pinawa, Manitoba. Interconnectivity of permeable fracture features is an important pathway for the possibly relatively rapid migration of average water particles and subsequent reduction in residence times. The multiple 121000 year North American continental scale paleoclimate simulations are provided by W.R. Peltier using the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model (UofT GSM). Values of ice sheet normal stress, and proglacial lake depth from the UofT GSM are applied to the sub-regional model as surface boundary conditions, using a freshwater head equivalent to the normal stress imposed by the ice sheet at its base. Permafrost depth is applied as a permeability reduction to both three-dimensional grid blocks and fractures that lie within the time varying permafrost zone. Two different paleoclimate simulations are applied to the sub-regional model to investigate the effect on the depth of glacial meltwater migration into the subsurface. In

  7. Time dependent and asymptotic neutron number probability distribution calculation using discrete Fourier transform

    Humbert, Ph.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the probability distribution of neutrons in a multiplying assembly. The problem is studied using a space independent one group neutron point reactor model without delayed neutrons. We recall the generating function methodology and analytical results obtained by G.I. Bell when the c 2 approximation is used and we present numerical solutions in the general case, without this approximation. The neutron source induced distribution is calculated using the single initial neutron distribution which satisfies a master (Kolmogorov backward) equation. This equation is solved using the generating function method. The generating function satisfies a differential equation and the probability distribution is derived by inversion of the generating function. Numerical results are obtained using the same methodology where the generating function is the Fourier transform of the probability distribution. Discrete Fourier transforms are used to calculate the discrete time dependent distributions and continuous Fourier transforms are used to calculate the asymptotic continuous probability distributions. Numerical applications are presented to illustrate the method. (author)

  8. Fixed transaction costs and modelling limited dependent variables

    Hempenius, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    As an alternative to the Tobit model, for vectors of limited dependent variables, I suggest a model, which follows from explicitly using fixed costs, if appropriate of course, in the utility function of the decision-maker.

  9. Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Trusses with Linked-Discrete Design Variables using the Improved Firefly Algorithm

    N. M. Okasha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for conducting a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO of truss structures with linked-discrete design variables is proposed. The sections of the truss members are selected from the AISC standard tables and thus the design variables that represent the properties of each section are linked. Latin hypercube sampling is used in the evaluation of the structural reliability. The improved firefly algorithm is used for the optimization solution process. It was found that in order to use the improved firefly algorithm for efficiently solving problems of reliability-based design optimization with linked-discrete design variables; it needs to be modified as proposed in this paper to accelerate its convergence.

  10. Hoeffding’s Inequality for Sums of Dependent Random Variables

    Pelekis, Christos; Ramon, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), č. článku 243. ISSN 1660-5446 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : dependent random variables * Hoeffding’s inequality * k-wise independent random variables * martingale differences Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.868, year: 2016

  11. TIMEX: a time-dependent explicit discrete ordinates program for the solution of multigroup transport equations with delayed neutrons

    Hill, T.R.; Reed, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    TIMEX solves the time-dependent, one-dimensional multigroup transport equation with delayed neutrons in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. The discrete ordinates approximation for the angular variable is used with the diamond (central) difference approximation for the angular extrapolation in curved geometries. A linear discontinuous finite element representation for the angular flux in each spatial mesh cell is used. The time variable is differenced by an explicit technique that is unconditionally stable so that arbitrarily large time steps can be taken. Because no iteration is performed the method is exceptionally fast in terms of computing time per time step. Two acceleration methods, exponential extrapolation and rebalance, are utilized to improve the accuracy of the time differencing scheme. Variable dimensioning is used so that any combination of problem parameters leading to a container array less than MAXCOR can be accommodated. The running time for TIMEX is highly problem-dependent, but varies almost linearly with the total number of unknowns and time steps. Provision is made for creation of standard interface output files for angular fluxes and angle-integrated fluxes. Five interface units (use of interface units is optional), five output units, and two system input/output units are required. A large bulk memory is desirable, but may be replaced by disk, drum, or tape storage. 13 tables, 9 figures

  12. State control of discrete-time linear systems to be bound in state variables by equality constraints

    Filasová, Anna; Krokavec, Dušan; Serbák, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of designing the discrete-time equivalent PI controller to control the discrete-time linear systems in such a way that the closed-loop state variables satisfy the prescribed equality constraints. Since the problem is generally singular, using standard form of the Lyapunov function and a symmetric positive definite slack matrix, the design conditions are proposed in the form of the enhanced Lyapunov inequality. The results, offering the conditions of the control existence and the optimal performance with respect to the prescribed equality constraints for square discrete-time linear systems, are illustrated with the numerical example to note effectiveness and applicability of the considered approach

  13. Analysis of transverse vibration and stability issues of discrete-continuous elastic systems with nonlinearly variable parameters

    Jaroszewicz Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to methods of analysis of vibrations and stability of discrete-continuous, multi-parameter models of beams, shafts, rotors, vanes, converting to homogeneous and one-dimensional. The properties of Cauchy's influence function and the characteristic series method were used to solve the boundary problem. It has been shown that the methods are an effective tool for solving boundary problems described by ordinary fourth-and second-order differential equations with variable parameters. Particular attention should be paid to the solution of the border problem of two-parameter elastic systems with variable distribution of parameters. Universal beam-specific equations with typical support conditions including vertical support, which do not depend on beam shape and axial load type, are recorded. The shape and type of load are considered in the form of an impact function that corresponds to any change in cross-section of the support and continuous axial load, so that the functions describing the stiffness, the mass and the continuous load are complete. As a result of the solution of the boundary vibration problem of freely bent support and any change in its cross-section, loaded with any longitudinal load, arranged on the resilient substrate, strict relations between the own frequency parameters and the load parameters were derived. Using the methods, simple calculations were made, easy to use in engineering practice and conditions of use were given. Experimental studies have confirmed the high accuracy of theoretical calculations using the proposed methods and formulas.

  14. The constrained discrete-time state-dependent Riccati equation technique for uncertain nonlinear systems

    Chang, Insu

    The objective of the thesis is to introduce a relatively general nonlinear controller/estimator synthesis framework using a special type of the state-dependent Riccati equation technique. The continuous time state-dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) technique is extended to discrete-time under input and state constraints, yielding constrained (C) discrete-time (D) SDRE, referred to as CD-SDRE. For the latter, stability analysis and calculation of a region of attraction are carried out. The derivation of the D-SDRE under state-dependent weights is provided. Stability of the D-SDRE feedback system is established using Lyapunov stability approach. Receding horizon strategy is used to take into account the constraints on D-SDRE controller. Stability condition of the CD-SDRE controller is analyzed by using a switched system. The use of CD-SDRE scheme in the presence of constraints is then systematically demonstrated by applying this scheme to problems of spacecraft formation orbit reconfiguration under limited performance on thrusters. Simulation results demonstrate the efficacy and reliability of the proposed CD-SDRE. The CD-SDRE technique is further investigated in a case where there are uncertainties in nonlinear systems to be controlled. First, the system stability under each of the controllers in the robust CD-SDRE technique is separately established. The stability of the closed-loop system under the robust CD-SDRE controller is then proven based on the stability of each control system comprising switching configuration. A high fidelity dynamical model of spacecraft attitude motion in 3-dimensional space is derived with a partially filled fuel tank, assumed to have the first fuel slosh mode. The proposed robust CD-SDRE controller is then applied to the spacecraft attitude control system to stabilize its motion in the presence of uncertainties characterized by the first fuel slosh mode. The performance of the robust CD-SDRE technique is discussed. Subsequently

  15. Comparison of small-footprint discrete return and full waveform airborne lidar data for estimating multiple forest variables

    Sumnall, Matthew J.; Hill, Ross A.; Hinsley, Shelley A.

    2016-01-01

    The quantification of forest ecosystems is important for a variety of purposes, including the assessment of wildlife habitat, nutrient cycles, timber yield and fire propagation. This research assesses the estimation of forest structure, composition and deadwood variables from small-footprint airborne lidar data, both discrete return (DR) and full waveform (FW), acquired under leaf-on and leaf-off conditions. The field site, in the New Forest, UK, includes managed plantation and ancient, se...

  16. On discrete stochastic processes with long-lasting time dependence in the variance

    Queirós, S. M. D.

    2008-11-01

    In this manuscript, we analytically and numerically study statistical properties of an heteroskedastic process based on the celebrated ARCH generator of random variables whose variance is defined by a memory of qm-exponencial, form (eqm=1 x=ex). Specifically, we inspect the self-correlation function of squared random variables as well as the kurtosis. In addition, by numerical procedures, we infer the stationary probability density function of both of the heteroskedastic random variables and the variance, the multiscaling properties, the first-passage times distribution, and the dependence degree. Finally, we introduce an asymmetric variance version of the model that enables us to reproduce the so-called leverage effect in financial markets.

  17. Statistical Dependence of Pipe Breaks on Explanatory Variables

    Patricia Gómez-Martínez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging infrastructure is the main challenge currently faced by water suppliers. Estimation of assets lifetime requires reliable criteria to plan assets repair and renewal strategies. To do so, pipe break prediction is one of the most important inputs. This paper analyzes the statistical dependence of pipe breaks on explanatory variables, determining their optimal combination and quantifying their influence on failure prediction accuracy. A large set of registered data from Madrid water supply network, managed by Canal de Isabel II, has been filtered, classified and studied. Several statistical Bayesian models have been built and validated from the available information with a technique that combines reference periods of time as well as geographical location. Statistical models of increasing complexity are built from zero up to five explanatory variables following two approaches: a set of independent variables or a combination of two joint variables plus an additional number of independent variables. With the aim of finding the variable combination that provides the most accurate prediction, models are compared following an objective validation procedure based on the model skill to predict the number of pipe breaks in a large set of geographical locations. As expected, model performance improves as the number of explanatory variables increases. However, the rate of improvement is not constant. Performance metrics improve significantly up to three variables, but the tendency is softened for higher order models, especially in trunk mains where performance is reduced. Slight differences are found between trunk mains and distribution lines when selecting the most influent variables and models.

  18. Leaping from Discrete to Continuous Independent Variables: Sixth Graders' Science Line Graph Interpretations

    Boote, Stacy K.; Boote, David N.

    2017-01-01

    Students often struggle to interpret graphs correctly, despite emphasis on graphic literacy in U.S. education standards documents. The purpose of this study was to describe challenges sixth graders with varying levels of science and mathematics achievement encounter when transitioning from interpreting graphs having discrete independent variables…

  19. How a dependent's variable non-randomness affects taper equation ...

    In order to apply the least squares method in regression analysis, the values of the dependent variable Y should be random. In an example of regression analysis linear and nonlinear taper equations, which estimate the diameter of the tree dhi at any height of the tree hi, were compared. For each tree the diameter at the ...

  20. Delay-Dependent Exponential Stability for Discrete-Time BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

    Yonggang Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the delay-dependent exponential stability for discrete-time BAM neural networks with time-varying delays. By constructing the new Lyapunov functional, the improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is derived in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Moreover, in order to reduce the conservativeness, some slack matrices are introduced in this paper. Two numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness and less conservativeness of the proposed method.

  1. Truss topology optimization with discrete design variables — Guaranteed global optimality and benchmark examples

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    this problem is well-studied for continuous bar areas, we consider in this study the case of discrete areas. This problem is of major practical relevance if the truss must be built from pre-produced bars with given areas. As a special case, we consider the design problem for a single available bar area, i.......e., a 0/1 problem. In contrast to the heuristic methods considered in many other approaches, our goal is to compute guaranteed globally optimal structures. This is done by a branch-and-bound method for which convergence can be proven. In this branch-and-bound framework, lower bounds of the optimal......-integer problems. The main intention of this paper is to provide optimal solutions for single and multiple load benchmark examples, which can be used for testing and validating other methods or heuristics for the treatment of this discrete topology design problem....

  2. The discovery of timescale-dependent color variability of quasars

    Sun, Yu-Han; Wang, Jun-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Yang [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Ya, E-mail: sunyh92@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are variable on timescales from days to years in UV/optical and generally appear bluer while they brighten. The physics behind the variations in fluxes and colors remains unclear. Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey g- and r-band photometric monitoring data for quasars in Stripe 82, we find that although the flux variation amplitude increases with timescale, the color variability exhibits the opposite behavior. The color variability of quasars is prominent at timescales as short as ∼10 days, but gradually reduces toward timescales up to years. In other words, the variable emission at shorter timescales is bluer than that at longer timescales. This timescale dependence is clearly and consistently detected at all redshifts from z = 0 to 3.5; thus, it cannot be due to contamination to broadband photometry from emission lines that do not respond to fast continuum variations. The discovery directly rules out the possibility that simply attributes the color variability to contamination from a non-variable redder component such as the host galaxy. It cannot be interpreted as changes in global accretion rate either. The thermal accretion disk fluctuation model is favored in the sense that fluctuations in the inner, hotter region of the disk are responsible for short-term variations, while longer-term and stronger variations are expected from the larger and cooler disk region. An interesting implication is that one can use quasar variations at different timescales to probe disk emission at different radii.

  3. Modelling discrete choice variables in assessment of teaching staff work satisfaction.

    Mieilă, Mihai; Popescu, Constanţa; Tudorache, Ana-Maria; Toplicianu, Valerică

    2015-01-01

    Levels of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation were measured by survey in a sample of 286 teachers. Using the discrete choice framework, the paper tries to assess the relevance of the considered indicators (demographic, social, motivational) in overall teaching work satisfaction. The findings provide evidence that job satisfaction is correlated significantly with level of university degree held by the teacher, type of secondary school where the teacher is enrolled, revenues, and salary-tasks adequacy. This is important for the Romanian economy, since the education system is expected to provide future human resources with enhanced skills and abilities.

  4. Modelling discrete choice variables in assessment of teaching staff work satisfaction.

    Mihai Mieilă

    Full Text Available Levels of self-reported job satisfaction and motivation were measured by survey in a sample of 286 teachers. Using the discrete choice framework, the paper tries to assess the relevance of the considered indicators (demographic, social, motivational in overall teaching work satisfaction. The findings provide evidence that job satisfaction is correlated significantly with level of university degree held by the teacher, type of secondary school where the teacher is enrolled, revenues, and salary-tasks adequacy. This is important for the Romanian economy, since the education system is expected to provide future human resources with enhanced skills and abilities.

  5. The Propagation of Movement Variability in Time: A Methodological Approach for Discrete Movements with Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    Krüger, Melanie; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability. Whereas, for cyclical movements (e.g., locomotion), mathematical approaches exist to investigate the propagation of movement variability in time (e.g., time series analysis), similar approaches are missing for discrete, goal-directed movements, such as reaching. Here, we propose canonical correlation analysis as a suitable method to analyze the propagation of within-subject variability across different time points during the execution of discrete movements. While similar analyses have already been applied for discrete movements with only one degree of freedom (DoF; e.g., Pearson's product-moment correlation), canonical correlation analysis allows to evaluate the coupling of inter-trial variability across different time points along the movement trajectory for multiple DoF-effector systems, such as the arm. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by empirical data from a study on reaching movements under normal and disturbed proprioception. The results show increased movement duration, decreased movement amplitude, as well as altered movement coordination under ischemia, which results in a reduced complexity of movement control. Movement endpoint variability is not increased under ischemia. This suggests that healthy adults are able to immediately and efficiently adjust the control of complex reaching movements to compensate for the loss of proprioceptive information. Further, it is

  6. Hopf bifurcations of a ratio-dependent predator–prey model involving two discrete maturation time delays

    Karaoglu, Esra; Merdan, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A ratio-dependent predator–prey system involving two discrete maturation time delays is studied. • Hopf bifurcations are analyzed by choosing delay parameters as bifurcation parameters. • When a delay parameter passes through a critical value, Hopf bifurcations occur. • The direction of bifurcation, the period and the stability of periodic solution are also obtained. - Abstract: In this paper we give a detailed Hopf bifurcation analysis of a ratio-dependent predator–prey system involving two different discrete delays. By analyzing the characteristic equation associated with the model, its linear stability is investigated. Choosing delay terms as bifurcation parameters the existence of Hopf bifurcations is demonstrated. Stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions is determined by using the center manifold theorem and the normal form theory introduced by Hassard et al. Furthermore, some of the bifurcation properties including direction, stability and period are given. Finally, theoretical results are supported by some numerical simulations

  7. Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2017-01-01

    Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green’s function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton–Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei–Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü–Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems. - Highlights: • Exact unitary transformation reducing time dependent quadratic quantum Hamiltonian to zero. • New separation of variables method and simultaneous uncoupling of modes. • Explicit examples of transformations for one to four dimensional problems. • New general evolution equation for quadratic form in the action, respectively Green’s function.

  8. Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables

    Anzaldo-Meneses, A.

    2017-06-01

    Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green's function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton-Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei-Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü-Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems.

  9. Size dependence of energy storage and dissipation in a discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of static friction

    Deshpande, VS; Needleman, A; Van der Giessen, E; Deshpande, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The initiation of frictional sliding between a flat-bottomed indenter and a planar single crystal substrate is analyzed using discrete dislocation plasticity. Plastic deformation is modeled through the motion of edge dislocations in an elastic solid with the lattice resistance to dislocation motion,

  10. ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTIAL DIFFERENCE SCHEMES II: DISCRETE VARIABLES AND SCHWARZIAN LATTICES

    Decio Levi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of constructing invariant difference schemes which approximate partial differential equations we write down a procedure for discretizing a partial differential equation on an arbitrary lattice. An open problem is the meaning of a lattice which does not satisfy the Clairaut–Schwarz–Young theorem. To analyze it we apply the procedure on a simple example, the potential Burgers equation with two different lattices, an orthogonal lattice which is invariant under the symmetries of the equation and satisfies the commutativity of the partial difference operators and an exponential lattice which is not invariant and does not satisfy the Clairaut–Schwarz–Young theorem. A discussion on the numerical results is presented showing the different behavior of both schemes for two different exact solutions and their numerical approximations.

  11. General conditions for maximal violation of non-contextuality in discrete and continuous variables

    Laversanne-Finot, A; Ketterer, A; Coudreau, T; Keller, A; Milman, P; Barros, M R; Walborn, S P

    2017-01-01

    The contextuality of quantum mechanics can be shown by the violation of inequalities based on measurements of well chosen observables. An important property of such observables is that their expectation value can be expressed in terms of probabilities for obtaining two exclusive outcomes. Examples of such inequalities have been constructed using either observables with a dichotomic spectrum or using periodic functions obtained from displacement operators in phase space. Here we identify the general conditions on the spectral decomposition of observables demonstrating state independent contextuality of quantum mechanics. Our results not only unify existing strategies for maximal violation of state independent non-contextuality inequalities but also lead to new scenarios enabling such violations. Among the consequences of our results is the impossibility of having a state independent maximal violation of non-contextuality in the Peres–Mermin scenario with discrete observables of odd dimensions. (paper)

  12. Improved Criteria on Delay-Dependent Stability for Discrete-Time Neural Networks with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    O. M. Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the delay-dependent stability analysis for discrete-time neural networks with interval time-varying delays. Based on Lyapunov method, improved delay-dependent criteria for the stability of the networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs by constructing a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and utilizing reciprocally convex approach. Also, a new activation condition which has not been considered in the literature is proposed and utilized for derivation of stability criteria. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Optical force on a discrete invisibility cloak in time-dependent fields

    Chaumet, Patrick C.; Zolla, Frederic; Nicolet, Andre; Belkebir, Kamal; Rahmani, Adel

    2011-01-01

    We study, in time domain, the exchange of momentum between an electromagnetic pulse and a three-dimensional, discrete, spherical invisibility cloak. We find that a discrete cloak, initially at rest, would experience an electromagnetic force due to the pulse but would acquire zero net momentum and net displacement. On the other hand, we find that while the cloak may manage to conceal an object and shroud it from the electromagnetic forces associated with the pulse, the cloak itself can experience optomechanical stress on a scale much larger than the object would in the absence of the cloak. We also consider the effects of material dispersion and losses on the electromagnetic forces experienced by the cloak and show that they lead to a transfer of momentum from the pulse to the cloak.

  14. Application of discrete function and software control flow to dependability assessment of embedded digital system

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    This article describes a combinatorial model for estimating the reliability of the embedded digital system by means of discrete function theory and software control flow. This model includes a coverage model for fault processing mechanisms implemented in digital system. Furthermore, the model considers the interaction between hardware and software. The fault processing mechanisms make it difficult for many types of components in digital system to be treated as binary state, good or bad. The discrete function theory provides a complete analysis of multi-state system as which the digital system can be regarded Through adaptation software control flow to discrete function theory, the HW/SW interaction is considered for estimation of the reliability of digital system. Using this model, we predict the reliability of one board controller in a digital system, Interposing Logic System(ILS), which is installed in YGN nuclear power units 3 and 4. Since the proposed model is general combinatinal model, the simplification of this model becomes a conservative model that treats the system as binary state. Moreover, if information for coverage factor of fault tolerance mechanisms implemented in system through fault injection experiment is obtained, this model can consider detailed interaction of system components

  15. Disease-induced mortality in density-dependent discrete-time S-I-S epidemic models.

    Franke, John E; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of simple discrete-time epidemic models without disease-induced mortality are typically characterized by global transcritical bifurcation. We prove that in corresponding models with disease-induced mortality a tiny number of infectious individuals can drive an otherwise persistent population to extinction. Our model with disease-induced mortality supports multiple attractors. In addition, we use a Ricker recruitment function in an SIS model and obtained a three component discrete Hopf (Neimark-Sacker) cycle attractor coexisting with a fixed point attractor. The basin boundaries of the coexisting attractors are fractal in nature, and the example exhibits sensitive dependence of the long-term disease dynamics on initial conditions. Furthermore, we show that in contrast to corresponding models without disease-induced mortality, the disease-free state dynamics do not drive the disease dynamics.

  16. Variable elasticity of substituition in a discrete time Solow–Swan growth model with differential saving

    Brianzoni, Serena; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► One dimensional piecewise smooth map: border collision bifurcations. ► Numerical simulations: complex dynamics. ► Ves production function in the solow–swan growth model and comparison with the ces production function. - Abstract: We study the dynamics shown by the discrete time neoclassical one-sector growth model with differential savings as in Bohm and Kaas while assuming VES production function in the form given by Revankar . It is shown that the model can exhibit unbounded endogenous growth despite the absence of exogenous technical change and the presence of non-reproducible factors if the elasticity of substitution is greater than one. We then consider parameters range related to non-trivial dynamics (i.e. the elasticity of substitution in less than one and shareholders save more than workers) and we focus on local and global bifurcations causing the transition to more and more complex asymptotic dynamics. In particular, as our map is non-differentiable in a subset of the states space, we show that border collision bifurcations occur. Several numerical simulations support the analysis.

  17. On a random area variable arising in discrete-time queues and compact directed percolation

    Kearney, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    A well-known discrete-time, single-server queueing system with mean arrival rate λ and mean departure rate μ is considered from the perspective of the area, A, swept out by the queue occupation process during a busy period. We determine the exact form of the tail of the distribution, Pr(A > x); in particular, we show that Pr(A > x) ∼ Cx -1/4 exp(-Dx 1/2 ) for all ρ ≠ 1, where ρ ≡ λ/μ, and expressions for C and D are given. For the critical case ρ = 1 we show that Pr(A > x) ∼ C'x -1/3 , with C' also given. A simple mapping, used in the derivation, establishes a connection with compact directed percolation on a square lattice. As a corollary, therefore, we are also able to specify the large-area asymptotic behaviour of this model at all points in the phase diagram. This extends previous scaling results, which are only valid close to the percolation threshold

  18. Exercise training improves heart rate variability after methamphetamine dependency.

    Dolezal, Brett Andrew; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent participants with age-matched, drug-free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the methamphetamine-dependent participants. In 50 participants (MD = 28; DF = 22), resting heart rate (HR; R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice-weekly exercise training (ME = 14) or equal attention without training (MC = 14) over 8 wk. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups (mean ± SD): age = 33 ± 6 yr; body mass = 82.7 ± 12 kg, body mass index = 26.8 ± 4.1 kg·min. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting HR (P HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase in HRV, representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.

  19. Incorporating Latent Variables into Discrete Choice Models - A Simultaneous Estimation Approach Using SEM Software

    Dirk Temme

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated choice and latent variable (ICLV models represent a promising new class of models which merge classic choice models with the structural equation approach (SEM for latent variables. Despite their conceptual appeal, applications of ICLV models in marketing remain rare. We extend previous ICLV applications by first estimating a multinomial choice model and, second, by estimating hierarchical relations between latent variables. An empirical study on travel mode choice clearly demonstrates the value of ICLV models to enhance the understanding of choice processes. In addition to the usually studied directly observable variables such as travel time, we show how abstract motivations such as power and hedonism as well as attitudes such as a desire for flexibility impact on travel mode choice. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to estimate such a complex ICLV model with the widely available structural equation modeling package Mplus. This finding is likely to encourage more widespread application of this appealing model class in the marketing field.

  20. Value of Construction Company and its Dependence on Significant Variables

    Vítková, E.; Hromádka, V.; Ondrušková, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the value of the construction company assessment respecting usable approaches and determinable variables. The reasons of the value of the construction company assessment are different, but the most important reasons are the sale or the purchase of the company, the liquidation of the company, the fusion of the company with another subject or the others. According the reason of the value assessment it is possible to determine theoretically different approaches for valuation, mainly it concerns about the yield method of valuation and the proprietary method of valuation. Both approaches are dependant of detailed input variables, which quality will influence the final assessment of the company´s value. The main objective of the paper is to suggest, according to the analysis, possible ways of input variables, mainly in the form of expected cash-flows or the profit, determination. The paper is focused mainly on methods of time series analysis, regression analysis and mathematical simulation utilization. As the output, the results of the analysis on the case study will be demonstrated.

  1. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))

    2009-11-15

    the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology

  2. Statistical methodology for discrete fracture model - including fracture size, orientation uncertainty together with intensity uncertainty and variability

    Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.

    2009-11-01

    the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that

  3. Lung ventilation injures areas with discrete alveolar flooding, in a surface tension-dependent fashion.

    Wu, You; Kharge, Angana Banerjee; Perlman, Carrie E

    2014-10-01

    With proteinaceous-liquid flooding of discrete alveoli, a model of the edema pattern in the acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung inflation over expands aerated alveoli adjacent to flooded alveoli. Theoretical considerations suggest that the overexpansion may be proportional to surface tension, T. Yet recent evidence indicates proteinaceous edema liquid may not elevate T. Thus whether the overexpansion is injurious is not known. Here, working in the isolated, perfused rat lung, we quantify fluorescence movement from the vasculature to the alveolar liquid phase as a measure of overdistension injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier. We label the perfusate with fluorescence; micropuncture a surface alveolus and instill a controlled volume of nonfluorescent liquid to obtain a micropunctured-but-aerated region (control group) or a region with discrete alveolar flooding; image the region at a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; apply five ventilation cycles with a positive end-expiratory pressure of 0-20 cmH2O and tidal volume of 6 or 12 ml/kg; return the lung to a constant transpulmonary pressure of 5 cmH2O; and image for an additional 10 min. In aerated areas, ventilation is not injurious. With discrete alveolar flooding, all ventilation protocols cause sustained injury. Greater positive end-expiratory pressure or tidal volume increases injury. Furthermore, we determine T and find injury increases with T. Inclusion of either plasma proteins or Survanta in the flooding liquid does not alter T or injury. Inclusion of 2.7-10% albumin and 1% Survanta together, however, lowers T and injury. Contrary to expectation, albumin inclusion in our model facilitates exogenous surfactant activity. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Global Discrete Artificial Boundary Conditions for Time-Dependent Wave Propagation

    Ryaben'kii, V. S.; Tsynkov, S. V.; Turchaninov, V. I.

    2001-12-01

    We construct global artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) for the numerical simulation of wave processes on unbounded domains using a special nondeteriorating algorithm that has been developed previously for the long-term computation of wave-radiation solutions. The ABCs are obtained directly for the discrete formulation of the problem; in so doing, neither a rational approximation of “nonreflecting kernels” nor discretization of the continuous boundary conditions is required. The extent of temporal nonlocality of the new ABCs appears fixed and limited; in addition, the ABCs can handle artificial boundaries of irregular shape on regular grids with no fitting/adaptation needed and no accuracy loss induced. The nondeteriorating algorithm, which is the core of the new ABCs, is inherently three-dimensional, it guarantees temporally uniform grid convergence of the solution driven by a continuously operating source on arbitrarily long time intervals and provides unimprovable linear computational complexity with respect to the grid dimension. The algorithm is based on the presence of lacunae, i.e., aft fronts of the waves, in wave-type solutions in odd-dimensional spaces. It can, in fact, be built as a modification on top of any consistent and stable finite-difference scheme, making its grid convergence uniform in time and at the same time keeping the rate of convergence the same as that of the unmodified scheme. In this paper, we delineate the construction of the global lacunae-based ABCs in the framework of a discretized wave equation. The ABCs are obtained for the most general formulation of the problem that involves radiation of waves by moving sources (e.g., radiation of acoustic waves by a maneuvering aircraft). We also present systematic numerical results that corroborate the theoretical design properties of the ABC algorithm.

  5. Quantum cryptography with finite resources: unconditional security bound for discrete-variable protocols with one-way postprocessing.

    Scarani, Valerio; Renner, Renato

    2008-05-23

    We derive a bound for the security of quantum key distribution with finite resources under one-way postprocessing, based on a definition of security that is composable and has an operational meaning. While our proof relies on the assumption of collective attacks, unconditional security follows immediately for standard protocols such as Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-states protocol. For single-qubit implementations of such protocols, we find that the secret key rate becomes positive when at least N approximately 10(5) signals are exchanged and processed. For any other discrete-variable protocol, unconditional security can be obtained using the exponential de Finetti theorem, but the additional overhead leads to very pessimistic estimates.

  6. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N≥4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states

  7. Energy dependent mesh adaptivity of discontinuous isogeometric discrete ordinate methods with dual weighted residual error estimators

    Owens, A. R.; Kópházi, J.; Welch, J. A.; Eaton, M. D.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper a hanging-node, discontinuous Galerkin, isogeometric discretisation of the multigroup, discrete ordinates (SN) equations is presented in which each energy group has its own mesh. The equations are discretised using Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS), which allows the coarsest mesh to exactly represent the geometry for a wide range of engineering problems of interest; this would not be the case using straight-sided finite elements. Information is transferred between meshes via the construction of a supermesh. This is a non-trivial task for two arbitrary meshes, but is significantly simplified here by deriving every mesh from a common coarsest initial mesh. In order to take full advantage of this flexible discretisation, goal-based error estimators are derived for the multigroup, discrete ordinates equations with both fixed (extraneous) and fission sources, and these estimators are used to drive an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) procedure. The method is applied to a variety of test cases for both fixed and fission source problems. The error estimators are found to be extremely accurate for linear NURBS discretisations, with degraded performance for quadratic discretisations owing to a reduction in relative accuracy of the "exact" adjoint solution required to calculate the estimators. Nevertheless, the method seems to produce optimal meshes in the AMR process for both linear and quadratic discretisations, and is ≈×100 more accurate than uniform refinement for the same amount of computational effort for a 67 group deep penetration shielding problem.

  8. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    Zhu, Guangpu; Chen, Huangxin; Sun, Shuyu; Yao, Jun

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation

  9. The effects of discrete contextual variables on «bullying» in the schoolyard

    Hernández de Frutos, Teodoro; Casares García, Esther

    2010-01-01

    A pesar de la abundante literatura científica que existe sobre el acoso escolar, pocos estudios han incidido sobre los efectos, tanto separados como combinados, causados por variables contextuales discretas, tales como el espacio geográfico, el distrito municipal, la familia, la escuela, el género, la cultura hegemónica machista y la exposición a los medios de comunicación masivos. El artículo analiza el estado actual de conocimiento de la incidencia de estos factores y añade evidencia empíri...

  10. A response matrix method for slab-geometry discrete ordinates adjoint calculations in energy-dependent source-detector problems

    Mansur, Ralph S.; Moura, Carlos A., E-mail: ralph@ime.uerj.br, E-mail: demoura@ime.uerj.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica; Barros, Ricardo C., E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Modelagem Computacional

    2017-07-01

    Presented here is an application of the Response Matrix (RM) method for adjoint discrete ordinates (S{sub N}) problems in slab geometry applied to energy-dependent source-detector problems. The adjoint RM method is free from spatial truncation errors, as it generates numerical results for the adjoint angular fluxes in multilayer slabs that agree with the numerical values obtained from the analytical solution of the energy multigroup adjoint SN equations. Numerical results are given for two typical source-detector problems to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the offered RM computer code. (author)

  11. Ruin Analysis of a Discrete-Time Dependent Sparre Andersen Model with External Financial Activities and Randomized Dividends

    Sung Soo Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time dependent Sparre Andersen risk model which incorporates multiple threshold levels characterizing an insurer’s minimal capital requirement, dividend paying situations, and external financial activities. We focus on the development of a recursive computational procedure to calculate the finite-time ruin probabilities and expected total discounted dividends paid prior to ruin associated with this model. We investigate several numerical examples and make some observations concerning the impact our threshold levels have on the finite-time ruin probabilities and expected total discounted dividends paid prior to ruin.

  12. Athermal mechanisms of size-dependent crystal flow gleaned from three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations

    Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Uchic, M.D.; Tang, M.; Woodward, C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent experimental studies have revealed that micrometer-scale face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals show strong strengthening effects, even at high initial dislocation densities. We use large-scale three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) to explicitly model the deformation behavior of fcc Ni microcrystals in the size range of 0.5-20 μm. This study shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. One mechanism, source-truncation hardening, is especially potent in micrometer-scale volumes. A second mechanism, termed exhaustion hardening, results from a breakdown of the mean-field conditions for forest hardening in small volumes, thus biasing the statistics of ordinary dislocation processes

  13. Quantum energy teleportation with an electromagnetic field: discrete versus continuous variables

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that usual quantum teleportation protocols cannot transport energy. Recently, new protocols called quantum energy teleportation (QET) have been proposed, which transport energy by local operations and classical communication with the ground states of many-body quantum systems. In this paper, we compare two different QET protocols for transporting energy with the electromagnetic field. In the first protocol, a 1/2 spin (a qubit) is coupled with the quantum fluctuation in the vacuum state and measured in order to obtain one-bit information about the fluctuation for the teleportation. In the second protocol, a harmonic oscillator is coupled with the fluctuation and measured in order to obtain continuous-variable information about the fluctuation. In the spin protocol, the amount of teleported energy is suppressed by an exponential damping factor when the amount of input energy increases. This suppression factor becomes power damping in the case of the harmonic oscillator protocol. Therefore, it is concluded that obtaining more information about the quantum fluctuation leads to teleporting more energy. This result suggests a profound relationship between energy and quantum information.

  14. Stability and Linear Quadratic Differential Games of Discrete-Time Markovian Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent Noise

    Huiying Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We mainly consider the stability of discrete-time Markovian jump linear systems with state-dependent noise as well as its linear quadratic (LQ differential games. A necessary and sufficient condition involved with the connection between stochastic Tn-stability of Markovian jump linear systems with state-dependent noise and Lyapunov equation is proposed. And using the theory of stochastic Tn-stability, we give the optimal strategies and the optimal cost values for infinite horizon LQ stochastic differential games. It is demonstrated that the solutions of infinite horizon LQ stochastic differential games are concerned with four coupled generalized algebraic Riccati equations (GAREs. Finally, an iterative algorithm is presented to solve the four coupled GAREs and a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of it.

  15. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  16. Calculated Low-Speed Steady and Time-Dependent Aerodynamic Derivatives for Some Airfoils Using a Discrete Vortex Method

    Riley, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a collection of some results of four individual studies presenting calculated numerical values for airfoil aerodynamic stability derivatives in unseparated inviscid incompressible flow due separately to angle-of-attack, pitch rate, flap deflection, and airfoil camber using a discrete vortex method. Both steady conditions and oscillatory motion were considered. Variables include the number of vortices representing the airfoil, the pitch axis / moment center chordwise location, flap chord to airfoil chord ratio, and circular or parabolic arc camber. Comparisons with some experimental and other theoretical information are included. The calculated aerodynamic numerical results obtained using a limited number of vortices provided in each study compared favorably with thin airfoil theory predictions. Of particular interest are those aerodynamic results calculated herein (such as induced drag) that are not readily available elsewhere.

  17. Calculated Low-Speed Steady and Time-Dependent Aerodynamic Derivatives for Several Different Wings Using a Discrete Vortex Method

    Riley, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    Calculated numerical values for some aerodynamic terms and stability Derivatives for several different wings in unseparated inviscid incompressible flow were made using a discrete vortex method involving a limited number of horseshoe vortices. Both longitudinal and lateral-directional derivatives were calculated for steady conditions as well as for sinusoidal oscillatory motions. Variables included the number of vortices used and the rotation axis/moment center chordwise location. Frequencies considered were limited to the range of interest to vehicle dynamic stability (kb <.24 ). Comparisons of some calculated numerical results with experimental wind-tunnel measurements were in reasonable agreement in the low angle-of-attack range considering the differences existing between the mathematical representation and experimental wind-tunnel models tested. Of particular interest was the presence of induced drag for the oscillatory condition.

  18. A numerical method for the quasi-incompressible Cahn–Hilliard–Navier–Stokes equations for variable density flows with a discrete energy law

    Guo, Z.; Lin, P.; Lowengrub, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate numerically a diffuse interface model for the Navier–Stokes equation with fluid–fluid interface when the fluids have different densities [48]. Under minor reformulation of the system, we show that there is a continuous energy law underlying the system, assuming that all variables have reasonable regularities. It is shown in the literature that an energy law preserving method will perform better for multiphase problems. Thus for the reformulated system, we design a C 0 finite element method and a special temporal scheme where the energy law is preserved at the discrete level. Such a discrete energy law (almost the same as the continuous energy law) for this variable density two-phase flow model has never been established before with C 0 finite element. A Newton method is introduced to linearise the highly non-linear system of our discretization scheme. Some numerical experiments are carried out using the adaptive mesh to investigate the scenario of coalescing and rising drops with differing density ratio. The snapshots for the evolution of the interface together with the adaptive mesh at different times are presented to show that the evolution, including the break-up/pinch-off of the drop, can be handled smoothly by our numerical scheme. The discrete energy functional for the system is examined to show that the energy law at the discrete level is preserved by our scheme

  19. Discrete dislocation plasticity analysis of loading rate-dependent static friction

    Song, H.; Deshpande, V. S.; van der Giessen, E.

    2016-01-01

    From a microscopic point of view, the frictional force associated with the relative sliding of rough surfaces originates from deformation of the material in contact, by adhesion in the contact interface or both. We know that plastic deformation at the size scale of micrometres is not only dependent

  20. Dynamical Analysis of Density-dependent Selection in a Discrete one-island Migration Model

    James H. Roberds; James F. Selgrade

    2000-01-01

    A system of non-linear difference equations is used to model the effects of density-dependent selection and migration in a population characterized by two alleles at a single gene locus. Results for the existence and stability of polymorphic equilibria are established. Properties for a genetically important class of equilibria associated with complete dominance in...

  1. A new DOI detector design using discrete crystal array with depth-dependent reflector patterns and single-ended readout

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chaeyeong; Kang, Jihoon; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2017-01-01

    We developed a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using depth-dependent reflector patterns in a discrete crystal array. Due to the different reflector patterns at depth, light distribution was changed relative to depth. As a preliminary experiment, we measured DOI detector module crystal identification performance. The crystal consisted of a 9×9 array of 2 mmx2 mmx20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. The crystal array was optically coupled to a 64-channel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a 2 mmx2 mm anode size and an 18.1 mmx18.1 mm effective area. We obtained the flood image with an Anger-type calculation. DOI layers and 9×9 pixels were well distinguished in the obtained images. Preclinical PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution.

  2. A new DOI detector design using discrete crystal array with depth-dependent reflector patterns and single-ended readout

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Chaeyeong [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihoon, E-mail: ray.jihoon.kang@gmail.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 50 Daehak-ro, Yeosu, Jeonnam 59626 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong Hyun, E-mail: ychung@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Wonju 26493 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-21

    We developed a depth of interaction (DOI) positron emission tomography (PET) detector using depth-dependent reflector patterns in a discrete crystal array. Due to the different reflector patterns at depth, light distribution was changed relative to depth. As a preliminary experiment, we measured DOI detector module crystal identification performance. The crystal consisted of a 9×9 array of 2 mmx2 mmx20 mm lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals. The crystal array was optically coupled to a 64-channel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a 2 mmx2 mm anode size and an 18.1 mmx18.1 mm effective area. We obtained the flood image with an Anger-type calculation. DOI layers and 9×9 pixels were well distinguished in the obtained images. Preclinical PET scanners based on this detector design offer the prospect of high and uniform spatial resolution.

  3. Parabolic partial differential equations with discrete state-dependent delay: Classical solutions and solution manifold

    Krisztin, T.; Rezunenko, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 260, č. 5 (2016), s. 4454-4472 ISSN 0022-0396 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2431 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Parabolic partial differential equations * State dependent delay * Solution manifold Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.988, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/rezunenko-0457879.pdf

  4. Discrete curved ray-tracing method for radiative transfer in an absorbing-emitting semitransparent slab with variable spatial refractive index

    Liu, L.H.

    2004-01-01

    A discrete curved ray-tracing method is developed to analyze the radiative transfer in one-dimensional absorbing-emitting semitransparent slab with variable spatial refractive index. The curved ray trajectory is locally treated as straight line and the complicated and time-consuming computation of ray trajectory is cut down. A problem of radiative equilibrium with linear variable spatial refractive index is taken as an example to examine the accuracy of the proposed method. The temperature distributions are determined by the proposed method and compared with the data in references, which are obtained by other different methods. The results show that the discrete curved ray-tracing method has a good accuracy in solving the radiative transfer in one-dimensional semitransparent slab with variable spatial refractive index

  5. Variability of interconnected wind plants: correlation length and its dependence on variability time scale

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.

    2015-04-01

    The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high

  6. Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations

    Wollaber, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Larsen, Edward W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Densmore, Jeffery D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-15

    It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle.' Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size {Delta}{sub t} that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a {Delta}{sub t} that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size {Delta}{sub x}. This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening {Delta}{sub x} is to reduce the limitation on {Delta}{sub t}, which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent timestep restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms.

  7. Towards a frequency-dependent discrete maximum principle for the implicit Monte Carlo equations

    Wollaber, Allan B.; Larsen, Edward W.; Densmore, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that temperature solutions of the Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations can exceed the external boundary temperatures, a so-called violation of the 'maximum principle'. Previous attempts at prescribing a maximum value of the time-step size Δ t that is sufficient to eliminate these violations have recommended a Δ t that is typically too small to be used in practice and that appeared to be much too conservative when compared to numerical solutions of the IMC equations for practical problems. In this paper, we derive a new estimator for the maximum time-step size that includes the spatial-grid size Δ x . This explicitly demonstrates that the effect of coarsening Δ x is to reduce the limitation on Δ t , which helps explain the overly conservative nature of the earlier, grid-independent results. We demonstrate that our new time-step restriction is a much more accurate means of predicting violations of the maximum principle. We discuss how the implications of the new, grid-dependent time-step restriction can impact IMC solution algorithms. (author)

  8. Solute transport modelling with the variable temporally dependent ...

    Pintu Das

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... in a finite domain with time-dependent sources and dis- tance-dependent dispersivities. Also, existing ... solute transport in multi-layered porous media using gen- eralized integral transform technique with .... methods for solving the fractional reaction-–sub-diffusion equation. To solve numerically the Eqs.

  9. A Discrete Event Simulation Model for Evaluating the Performances of an M/G/C/C State Dependent Queuing System

    Khalid, Ruzelan; M. Nawawi, Mohd Kamal; Kawsar, Luthful A.; Ghani, Noraida A.; Kamil, Anton A.; Mustafa, Adli

    2013-01-01

    M/G/C/C state dependent queuing networks consider service rates as a function of the number of residing entities (e.g., pedestrians, vehicles, and products). However, modeling such dynamic rates is not supported in modern Discrete Simulation System (DES) software. We designed an approach to cater this limitation and used it to construct the M/G/C/C state-dependent queuing model in Arena software. Using the model, we have evaluated and analyzed the impacts of various arrival rates to the throughput, the blocking probability, the expected service time and the expected number of entities in a complex network topology. Results indicated that there is a range of arrival rates for each network where the simulation results fluctuate drastically across replications and this causes the simulation results and analytical results exhibit discrepancies. Detail results that show how tally the simulation results and the analytical results in both abstract and graphical forms and some scientific justifications for these have been documented and discussed. PMID:23560037

  10. The time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates code TORT-TD with thermal-hydraulic feedback by ATHLET models

    Seubert, A.; Velkov, K.; Langenbuch, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the time-dependent 3D discrete ordinates transport code TORT-TD. Thermal-hydraulic feedback is considered by coupling TORT-TD with the thermal-hydraulics system code ATHLET. The coupled code TORT-TD/ATHLET allows 3D pin-by-pin analyses of transients in few energy groups and anisotropic scattering by solving the time-dependent transport equation using the unconditionally stable implicit method. The nuclear cross sections are interpolated between pre-calculated table values of fuel temperature, moderator density and boron concentration. For verification of the implementation, selected test cases have been calculated by TORT-TD/ATHLET. They include a control rod ejection transient in a small PWR fuel assembly arrangement and a local boron concentration change in a single PWR fuel assembly. In the latter, special attention has been paid to study the influence of the thermal-hydraulic feedback modelling in ATHLET. The results obtained for a control rod ejection accident in a PWR quarter core demonstrate the applicability of TORT-TD/ATHLET. (authors)

  11. A variable-order time-dependent neutron transport method for nuclear reactor kinetics using analytically-integrated space-time characteristics

    Hoffman, A. J.; Lee, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    A new time-dependent neutron transport method based on the method of characteristics (MOC) has been developed. Whereas most spatial kinetics methods treat time dependence through temporal discretization, this new method treats time dependence by defining the characteristics to span space and time. In this implementation regions are defined in space-time where the thickness of the region in time fulfills an analogous role to the time step in discretized methods. The time dependence of the local source is approximated using a truncated Taylor series expansion with high order derivatives approximated using backward differences, permitting the solution of the resulting space-time characteristic equation. To avoid a drastic increase in computational expense and memory requirements due to solving many discrete characteristics in the space-time planes, the temporal variation of the boundary source is similarly approximated. This allows the characteristics in the space-time plane to be represented analytically rather than discretely, resulting in an algorithm comparable in implementation and expense to one that arises from conventional time integration techniques. Furthermore, by defining the boundary flux time derivative in terms of the preceding local source time derivative and boundary flux time derivative, the need to store angularly-dependent data is avoided without approximating the angular dependence of the angular flux time derivative. The accuracy of this method is assessed through implementation in the neutron transport code DeCART. The method is employed with variable-order local source representation to model a TWIGL transient. The results demonstrate that this method is accurate and more efficient than the discretized method. (authors)

  12. On Direction of Dependence in Latent Variable Contexts

    von Eye, Alexander; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to determining direction of dependence in nonexperimental data are based on the relation between higher-than second-order moments on one side and correlation and regression models on the other. These approaches have experienced rapid development and are being applied in contexts such as research on partner violence, attention deficit…

  13. Classical solutions for discrete potential boundary value problems with generalized Leray-Lions type operator and variable exponent

    Bila Adolphe Kyelem

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of solutions for some discrete nonlinear difference equations subjected to a potential boundary type condition. We use a variational technique that relies on Szulkin's critical point theory, which ensures the existence of solutions by ground state and mountain pass methods.

  14. Solution of the one-dimensional time-dependent discrete ordinates problem in a slab by the spectral and LTSN methods

    Oliveira, J.V.P. de; Cardona, A.V.; Vilhena, M.T.M.B. de

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we present a new approach to solve the one-dimensional time-dependent discrete ordinates problem (S N problem) in a slab. The main idea is based upon the application of the spectral method to the set of S N time-dependent differential equations and solution of the resulting coupling equations by the LTS N method. We report numerical simulations

  15. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  16. Lyapunov spectrum of the separated flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil and its dependence on numerical discretization

    Fernandez, P.; Wang, Q.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impact of numerical discretization on the Lyapunov spectrum of separated flow simulations. The two-dimensional chaotic flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil at a low Reynolds number and large angle of attack is considered to that end. Time, space and accuracy-order refinement studies are performed to examine each of these effects separately. Numerical results show that the time discretization has a small impact on the dynamics of the system, whereas the spatial discretization can dramatically change them. Also, the finite-time Lyapunov exponents associated to unstable modes are shown to be positively skewed, and quasi-homoclinic tangencies are observed in the attractor of the system. The implications of these results on flow physics and sensitivity analysis of chaotic flows are discussed.

  17. Lyapunov spectrum of the separated flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil and its dependence on numerical discretization

    Fernandez, P.; Wang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impact of numerical discretization on the Lyapunov spectrum of separated flow simulations. The two-dimensional chaotic flow around the NACA 0012 airfoil at a low Reynolds number and large angle of attack is considered to that end. Time, space and accuracy-order refinement studies are performed to examine each of these effects separately. Numerical results show that the time discretization has a small impact on the dynamics of the system, whereas the spatial discretization can dramatically change them. Also, the finite-time Lyapunov exponents associated to unstable modes are shown to be positively skewed, and quasi-homoclinic tangencies are observed in the attractor of the system. The implications of these results on flow physics and sensitivity analysis of chaotic flows are discussed.

  18. FPGA-Based Smart Sensor for Drought Stress Detection in Tomato Plants Using Novel Physiological Variables and Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Carlos Duarte-Galvan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil drought represents one of the most dangerous stresses for plants. It impacts the yield and quality of crops, and if it remains undetected for a long time, the entire crop could be lost. However, for some plants a certain amount of drought stress improves specific characteristics. In such cases, a device capable of detecting and quantifying the impact of drought stress in plants is desirable. This article focuses on testing if the monitoring of physiological process through a gas exchange methodology provides enough information to detect drought stress conditions in plants. The experiment consists of using a set of smart sensors based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs to monitor a group of plants under controlled drought conditions. The main objective was to use different digital signal processing techniques such as the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT to explore the response of plant physiological processes to drought. Also, an index-based methodology was utilized to compensate the spatial variation inside the greenhouse. As a result, differences between treatments were determined to be independent of climate variations inside the greenhouse. Finally, after using the DWT as digital filter, results demonstrated that the proposed system is capable to reject high frequency noise and to detect drought conditions.

  19. H∞ Filtering for Discrete Markov Jump Singular Systems with Mode-Dependent Time Delay Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

    Cheng Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the H∞ filtering problem of discrete singular Markov jump systems (SMJSs with mode-dependent time delay based on T-S fuzzy model. First, by Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, a delay-dependent sufficient condition on H∞-disturbance attenuation is presented, in which both stability and prescribed H∞ performance are required to be achieved for the filtering-error systems. Then, based on the condition, the delay-dependent H∞ filter design scheme for SMJSs with mode-dependent time delay based on T-S fuzzy model is developed in term of linear matrix inequality (LMI. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the result.

  20. Using k-dependence causal forest to mine the most significant dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis.

    LiMin Wang

    Full Text Available Numerous data mining models have been proposed to construct computer-aided medical expert systems. Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs are more distinct and understandable than other models. To graphically describe the dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis and ensure the rationality of the diagnosis results, the proposed k-dependence causal forest (KCF model generates a series of submodels in the framework of maximum spanning tree (MST and demonstrates stronger dependence representation. Friedman test on 12 UCI datasets shows that KCF has classification accuracy advantage over the other state-of-the-art BNCs, such as Naive Bayes, tree augmented Naive Bayes, and k-dependence Bayesian classifier. Our extensive experimental comparison on 4 medical datasets also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of KCF in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Discrete wavelet transform-based investigation into the variability of standardized precipitation index in Northwest China during 1960-2014

    Yang, Peng; Xia, Jun; Zhan, Chesheng; Zhang, Yongyong; Hu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the temporal variations of the standard precipitation index (SPI) were analyzed at different scales in Northwest China (NWC). Discrete wavelet transform (DWT) was used in conjunction with the Mann-Kendall (MK) test in this study. This study also investigated the relationships between original precipitation and different periodic components of SPI series with datasets spanning 55 years (1960-2014). The results showed that with the exception of the annual and summer SPI in the Inner Mongolia Inland Rivers Basin (IMIRB), spring SPI in the Qinghai Lake Rivers Basin (QLRB), and spring SPI in the Central Asia Rivers Basin (CARB), it had an increasing trend in other regions for other time series. In the spring, summer, and autumn series, though the MK trends test in most areas was at the insignificant level, they showed an increasing trend in precipitation. Meanwhile, the SPI series in most subbasins of NWC displayed a turning point in 1980-1990, with the significant increasing levels after 2000. Additionally, there was a significant difference between the trend of the original SPI series and the largest approximations. The annual and seasonal SPI series were composed of the short periodicities, which were less than a decade. The MK value would increase by adding the multiple D components (and approximations), and the MK value of the combined series was in harmony with that of the original series. Additionally, the major trend of the annual SPI in NWC was based on the four kinds of climate indices (e.g., Atlantic Oscillation [AO], North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and El Nino-Southern Oscillation index [ENSO/NINO]), especially the ENSO.

  2. Improved Delay-Dependent Robust Stability Criteria for a Class of Uncertain Neutral Type Lur’e Systems with Discrete and Distributed Delays

    Kaibo Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of delay-dependent robust stability analysis for a class of uncertain neutral type Lur’e systems with mixed time-varying delays. The system has not only time-varying uncertainties and sector-bounded nonlinearity, but also discrete and distributed delays, which has never been discussed in the previous literature. Firstly, by employing one effective mathematical technique, some less conservative delay-dependent stability results are established without employing the bounding technique and the mode transformation approach. Secondly, by constructing an appropriate new type of Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional with triple terms, improved delay-dependent stability criteria in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs derived in this paper are much brief and valid. Furthermore, both nonlinearities located in finite sector and infinite one have been also fully taken into account. Finally, three numerical examples are presented to illustrate lesser conservatism and the advantage of the proposed main results.

  3. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of Discrete Mathematics (IDISM2) are: The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including the application within programming languages for computer systems. Having passed the IDISM2 course, the student will be able...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics......; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...

  4. Punishment induced behavioural and neurophysiological variability reveals dopamine-dependent selection of kinematic movement parameters

    Galea, Joseph M.; Ruge, Diane; Buijink, Arthur; Bestmann, Sven; Rothwell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Action selection describes the high-level process which selects between competing movements. In animals, behavioural variability is critical for the motor exploration required to select the action which optimizes reward and minimizes cost/punishment, and is guided by dopamine (DA). The aim of this study was to test in humans whether low-level movement parameters are affected by punishment and reward in ways similar to high-level action selection. Moreover, we addressed the proposed dependence of behavioural and neurophysiological variability on DA, and whether this may underpin the exploration of kinematic parameters. Participants performed an out-and-back index finger movement and were instructed that monetary reward and punishment were based on its maximal acceleration (MA). In fact, the feedback was not contingent on the participant’s behaviour but pre-determined. Blocks highly-biased towards punishment were associated with increased MA variability relative to blocks with either reward or without feedback. This increase in behavioural variability was positively correlated with neurophysiological variability, as measured by changes in cortico-spinal excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex. Following the administration of a DA-antagonist, the variability associated with punishment diminished and the correlation between behavioural and neurophysiological variability no longer existed. Similar changes in variability were not observed when participants executed a pre-determined MA, nor did DA influence resting neurophysiological variability. Thus, under conditions of punishment, DA-dependent processes influence the selection of low-level movement parameters. We propose that the enhanced behavioural variability reflects the exploration of kinematic parameters for less punishing, or conversely more rewarding, outcomes. PMID:23447607

  5. Equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent random variables

    Qunying Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for sequences of identically distributed extended negatively dependent random variables. As a result, we extend and generalize some results of complete moment convergence obtained by Chow (Bull. Inst. Math. Acad. Sin. 16:177-201, 1988 and Li and Spătaru (J. Theor. Probab. 18:933-947, 2005 from the i.i.d. case to extended negatively dependent sequences.

  6. Are Health State Valuations from the General Public Biased? A Test of Health State Reference Dependency Using Self-assessed Health and an Efficient Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Jonker, Marcel F; Attema, Arthur E; Donkers, Bas; Stolk, Elly A; Versteegh, Matthijs M

    2017-12-01

    Health state valuations of patients and non-patients are not the same, whereas health state values obtained from general population samples are a weighted average of both. The latter constitutes an often-overlooked source of bias. This study investigates the resulting bias and tests for the impact of reference dependency on health state valuations using an efficient discrete choice experiment administered to a Dutch nationally representative sample of 788 respondents. A Bayesian discrete choice experiment design consisting of eight sets of 24 (matched pairwise) choice tasks was developed, with each set providing full identification of the included parameters. Mixed logit models were used to estimate health state preferences with respondents' own health included as an additional predictor. Our results indicate that respondents with impaired health worse than or equal to the health state levels under evaluation have approximately 30% smaller health state decrements. This confirms that reference dependency can be observed in general population samples and affirms the relevance of prospect theory in health state valuations. At the same time, the limited number of respondents with severe health impairments does not appear to bias social tariffs as obtained from general population samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A numerical model for density-and-viscosity-dependent flows in two-dimensional variably saturated porous media

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Suidan, Makram T.; Venosa, Albert D.

    1999-04-01

    We present a formulation for water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media that accounts for the effects of the solute on water density and viscosity. The governing equations are cast in a dimensionless form that depends on six dimensionless groups of parameters. These equations are discretized in space using the Galerkin finite element formulation and integrated in time using the backward Euler scheme with mass lumping. The modified Picard method is used to linearize the water flow equation. The resulting numerical model, the MARUN model, is verified by comparison to published numerical results. It is then used to investigate beach hydraulics at seawater concentration (about 30 g l -1) in the context of nutrients delivery for bioremediation of oil spills on beaches. Numerical simulations that we conducted in a rectangular section of a hypothetical beach revealed that buoyancy in the unsaturated zone is significant in soils that are fine textured, with low anisotropy ratio, and/or exhibiting low physical dispersion. In such situations, application of dissolved nutrients to a contaminated beach in a freshwater solution is superior to their application in a seawater solution. Concentration-engendered viscosity effects were negligible with respect to concentration-engendered density effects for the cases that we considered.

  8. Motivation as an independent and a dependent variable in medical education: a review of the literature.

    Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; van Asperen, M; Croiset, G

    2011-01-01

    Motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched in general education, but less in medical education. To answer two research questions, 'How has the literature studied motivation as either an independent or dependent variable? How is motivation useful in predicting and understanding processes and outcomes in medical education?' in the light of the Self-determination Theory (SDT) of motivation. A literature search performed using the PubMed, PsycINFO and ERIC databases resulted in 460 articles. The inclusion criteria were empirical research, specific measurement of motivation and qualitative research studies which had well-designed methodology. Only studies related to medical students/school were included. Findings of 56 articles were included in the review. Motivation as an independent variable appears to affect learning and study behaviour, academic performance, choice of medicine and specialty within medicine and intention to continue medical study. Motivation as a dependent variable appears to be affected by age, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, personality, year of medical curriculum and teacher and peer support, all of which cannot be manipulated by medical educators. Motivation is also affected by factors that can be influenced, among which are, autonomy, competence and relatedness, which have been described as the basic psychological needs important for intrinsic motivation according to SDT. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education influencing important outcomes and is also a dependent variable influenced by autonomy, competence and relatedness. This review finds some evidence in support of the validity of SDT in medical education.

  9. Construction of adjoint operators for coupled equations depending on different variables

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for the construction of the adjoint operator matrix in case of coupled equations defining quantities that depend on different sets of variables. This case is not properly treated in the literature. From this procedure a simple rule can be deduced for the construction of such adjoint operator matrices

  10. Panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable

    Elhorst, J. Paul

    2001-01-01

    This paper surveys panel data models extended to spatial error autocorrelation or a spatially lagged dependent variable. In particular, it focuses on the specification and estimation of four panel data models commonly used in applied research: the fixed effects model, the random effects model, the

  11. Human Performance Technology (HPT): An Examination of Definitions through Dependent and Independent Variables.

    Irlbeck, Sonja A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a chronological perspective of human performance technology (HPT) definitions and an evaluation of them in terms of independent and dependent variables. Discusses human competence and performance technology and compares the definitions with the goals that have been articulated for HPT. (Author/LRW)

  12. Central limit theorem for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables

    Dmitrovskij, V.A.; Ermakov, S.V.; Ostrovskij, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) for the Banach-valued weakly dependent random variables is proved. In proving CLT convergence of finite-measured (i.e. cylindrical) distributions is established. A weak compactness of the family of measures generated by a certain sequence is confirmed. The continuity of the limiting field is checked

  13. Performance prediction for silicon photonics integrated circuits with layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variability.

    Lu, Zeqin; Jhoja, Jaspreet; Klein, Jackson; Wang, Xu; Liu, Amy; Flueckiger, Jonas; Pond, James; Chrostowski, Lukas

    2017-05-01

    This work develops an enhanced Monte Carlo (MC) simulation methodology to predict the impacts of layout-dependent correlated manufacturing variations on the performance of photonics integrated circuits (PICs). First, to enable such performance prediction, we demonstrate a simple method with sub-nanometer accuracy to characterize photonics manufacturing variations, where the width and height for a fabricated waveguide can be extracted from the spectral response of a racetrack resonator. By measuring the spectral responses for a large number of identical resonators spread over a wafer, statistical results for the variations of waveguide width and height can be obtained. Second, we develop models for the layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation. Our models use netlist extraction to transfer physical layouts into circuit simulators. Spatially correlated physical variations across the PICs are simulated on a discrete grid and are mapped to each circuit component, so that the performance for each component can be updated according to its obtained variations, and therefore, circuit simulations take the correlated variations between components into account. The simulation flow and theoretical models for our layout-dependent enhanced MC simulation are detailed in this paper. As examples, several ring-resonator filter circuits are studied using the developed enhanced MC simulation, and statistical results from the simulations can predict both common-mode and differential-mode variations of the circuit performance.

  14. Planting strategies of maize farmers in Kenya: a simultaneous equations analysis in the presence of discrete dependent variables

    Hassan, RM

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available procedures are used to handle the simultaneity and self-selectivity problems. Results showed that population pressure and agroclimatic diversity are important determinants of crop intensification and planting regimes among maize farmers and further supported...

  15. Synchronization Techniques in Parallel Discrete Event Simulation

    Lindén, Jonatan

    2018-01-01

    Discrete event simulation is an important tool for evaluating system models in many fields of science and engineering. To improve the performance of large-scale discrete event simulations, several techniques to parallelize discrete event simulation have been developed. In parallel discrete event simulation, the work of a single discrete event simulation is distributed over multiple processing elements. A key challenge in parallel discrete event simulation is to ensure that causally dependent ...

  16. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    ; construct a finite state machine for a given application. Apply these concepts to new problems. The teaching in Discrete Mathematics is a combination of sessions with lectures and students solving problems, either manually or by using Matlab. Furthermore a selection of projects must be solved and handed...... to accomplish the following: -Understand and apply formal representations in discrete mathematics. -Understand and apply formal representations in problems within discrete mathematics. -Understand methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics. -Apply methods for solving problems in discrete mathematics...... to new problems. Relations and functions: Define a product set; define and apply equivalence relations; construct and apply functions. Apply these concepts to new problems. Natural numbers and induction: Define the natural numbers; apply the principle of induction to verify a selection of properties...

  17. Digital Discretion

    Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a coupled hydro-mechanical paleo-climate model of density-dependent groundwater flow in discretely fractured crystalline rock

    Normani, S.D.; Sykes, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    A high resolution three-dimensional sub-regional scale (104 km 2 ) density-dependent, discretely fractured groundwater flow model with hydro-mechanical coupling and pseudo-permafrost was developed from a larger 5734 km 2 regional-scale groundwater flow model of a Canadian Shield setting. The objective of the work is to determine the sensitivity of modelled groundwater system evolution to the hydro-mechanical parameters. The discrete fracture dual continuum numerical model FRAC3DVS-OPG was used for all simulations. A discrete fracture network model delineated from surface features was superimposed onto an approximate 790 000 element domain mesh with approximately 850 000 nodes. Orthogonal fracture faces (between adjacent finite element grid blocks) were used to best represent the irregular discrete fracture zone network. Interconnectivity of the permeable fracture zones is an important pathway for the possible migration and subsequent reduction in groundwater and contaminant residence times. The crystalline rock matrix between these structural discontinuities was assigned mechanical and flow properties characteristic of those reported for the Canadian Shield. The variation of total dissolved solids with depth was assigned using literature data for the Canadian Shield. Performance measures for the sensitivity analysis include equivalent freshwater heads, environmental heads, linear velocities, and depth of penetration by conservative non-decaying tracers released at the surface. A 121 000 year North American continental scale paleo-climate simulation was applied to the domain with ice-sheet histories estimated by the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model (UofT GSM). Hydro-mechanical coupling between the rock matrix and the pore fluid, due to the ice sheet normal stress, was included in the simulations. The flow model included the influence of vertical strain and assumed that areal loads were homogeneous. Permafrost depth was applied as a permeability reduction

  19. DOT-IV two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport code with space-dependent mesh and quadrature

    Rhoades, W.A.; Simpson, D.B.; Childs, R.L.; Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    DOT IV is designed to allow very large problems to be solved on a wide range of computers and memory arrangements. New flexibility in both space-mesh and directional-quadrature specification is allowed. For example, the radial mesh in an R-Z problem can vary with axial position. The directional quadrature can vary with both space and energy group. Several features improve performance on both deep penetration and criticality problems. The program has been checked and used extensively on several types of computers. All of the features have been insured operable except the following two, which must not be used: criticality searches and P/sub L/ variable by group or material. Diffusion theory problems must not use internal or external boundary sources, variable mesh, or variable quadrature. A diffusion iteration cannot produce internal boundary source output or ''angular flux tape.'' The P 1 module is very limited. The special geometries, INGEOM greater than or equal to 10, have not been completely checked and are not guaranteed. 7 figures, 1 table

  20. Added damping of a wind turbine rotor : Two-dimensional discretization expressing the nonlinear wind-force dependency

    Van der Male, P.; Van Dalen, K.N.; Metrikine, A.

    2014-01-01

    In determining wind forces on wind turbine blades, and subsequently on the tower and the foundation, the blade response velocity cannot be neglected. This velocity alters the wind force, which depends on the wind velocity relative to that of the blades This blade response velocity component of the

  1. Integrable discretization s of derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    Tsuchida, Takayuki

    2002-01-01

    We propose integrable discretizations of derivative nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) equations such as the Kaup-Newell equation, the Chen-Lee-Liu equation and the Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation by constructing Lax pairs. The discrete DNLS systems admit the reduction of complex conjugation between two dependent variables and possess bi-Hamiltonian structure. Through transformations of variables and reductions, we obtain novel integrable discretizations of the nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS), modified KdV (mKdV), mixed NLS, matrix NLS, matrix KdV, matrix mKdV, coupled NLS, coupled Hirota, coupled Sasa-Satsuma and Burgers equations. We also discuss integrable discretizations of the sine-Gordon equation, the massive Thirring model and their generalizations. (author)

  2. Symmetries and conserved quantities of discrete wave equation associated with the Ablowitz—Ladik—Lattice system

    Fu Jing-Li; He Yu-Fang; Hong Fang-Yu; Song Duan; Fu Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to obtain the Lie symmetries and conserved quantities of the discrete wave equation with the Ablowitz—Ladik—Lattice equations. Firstly, the wave equation is transformed into a simple difference equation with the Ablowitz—Ladik—Lattice method. Secondly, according to the invariance of the discrete wave equation and the Ablowitz—Ladik—Lattice equations under infinitesimal transformation of dependent and independent variables, we derive the discrete determining equation and the discrete restricted equations. Thirdly, a series of the discrete analogs of conserved quantities, the discrete analogs of Lie groups, and the characteristic equations are obtained for the wave equation. Finally, we study a model of a biological macromolecule chain of mechanical behaviors, the Lie symmetry theory of discrete wave equation with the Ablowitz—Ladik—Lattice method is verified. (general)

  3. A delay-dependent LMI approach to dynamics analysis of discrete-time recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays

    Song, Qiankun; Wang, Zidong

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, the analysis problem for the existence and stability of periodic solutions is investigated for a class of general discrete-time recurrent neural networks with time-varying delays. For the neural networks under study, a generalized activation function is considered, and the traditional assumptions on the boundedness, monotony and differentiability of the activation functions are removed. By employing the latest free-weighting matrix method, an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is constructed and several sufficient conditions are established to ensure the existence, uniqueness, and globally exponential stability of the periodic solution for the addressed neural network. The conditions are dependent on both the lower bound and upper bound of the time-varying time delays. Furthermore, the conditions are expressed in terms of the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked numerically using the effective LMI toolbox in MATLAB. Two simulation examples are given to show the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed criteria

  4. Method of nuclear reactor control using a variable temperature load dependent set point

    Kelly, J.J.; Rambo, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor in response to a variable average reactor coolant temperature set point is disclosed. The set point is dependent upon percent of full power load demand. A manually-actuated ''droop mode'' of control is provided whereby the reactor coolant temperature is allowed to drop below the set point temperature a predetermined amount wherein the control is switched from reactor control rods exclusively to feedwater flow

  5. TWO MEASURES OF THE DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL RANKINGS ON CATEGORICAL VARIABLES

    Lissowski Grzegorz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a general methodology for constructing statistical methods, which is based on decision theory, to give a statistical description of preferential rankings, with a focus on the rankings’ dependence on categorical variables. In the paper, I use functions of description errors that are based on the Kemeny and Hamming distances between preferential orderings, but the proposed methodology can also be applied to other methods of estimating description errors.

  6. An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables

    Wan Soo Rhee

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,…,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+α (0<α≦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of Sσ−1(S=X1+X2+…+Xn, σ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it Sσ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.

  7. ABCB1 genetic variability and methadone dosage requirements in opioid-dependent individuals.

    Coller, Janet K; Barratt, Daniel T; Dahlen, Karianne; Loennechen, Morten H; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2006-12-01

    The most common treatment for opioid dependence is substitution therapy with another opioid such as methadone. The methadone dosage is individualized but highly variable, and program retention rates are low due in part to nonoptimal dosing resulting in withdrawal symptoms and further heroin craving and use. Methadone is a substrate for the P-glycoprotein transporter, encoded by the ABCB1 gene, which regulates central nervous system exposure. This retrospective study aimed to investigate the influence of ABCB1 genetic variability on methadone dose requirements. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid was isolated from opioid-dependent subjects (n = 60) and non-opioid-dependent control subjects (n = 60), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction were used to determine the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms at positions 61, 1199, 1236, 2677, and 3435. ABCB1 haplotypes were inferred with PHASE software (version 2.1). There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of the individual single nucleotide polymorphisms or haplotypes between the 2 populations. ABCB1 genetic variability influenced daily methadone dose requirements, such that subjects carrying 2 copies of the wild-type haplotype required higher doses compared with those with 1 copy and those with no copies (98.3 +/- 10.4, 58.6 +/- 20.9, and 55.4 +/- 26.1 mg/d, respectively; P = .029). In addition, carriers of the AGCTT haplotype required significantly lower doses than noncarriers (38.0 +/- 16.8 and 61.3 +/- 24.6 mg/d, respectively; P = .04). Although ABCB1 genetic variability is not related to the development of opioid dependence, identification of variant haplotypes may, after larger prospective studies have been performed, provide clinicians with a tool for methadone dosage individualization.

  8. BAYESIAN TECHNIQUES FOR COMPARING TIME-DEPENDENT GRMHD SIMULATIONS TO VARIABLE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios, E-mail: junhankim@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. Moreover, neglecting the variability in the data and the models often leads to erroneous model selections. We finally apply our method to the early EHT data on Sgr A*.

  9. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Spring 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 18...

  10. Discrete Mathematics

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15......The introduction of the mathematics needed for analysis, design and verification of discrete systems, including applications within programming languages for computer systems. Course sessions and project work. Semester: Autumn 2010 Ectent: 5 ects Class size: 15...

  11. Modeling Time-Dependent Behavior of Concrete Affected by Alkali Silica Reaction in Variable Environmental Conditions.

    Alnaggar, Mohammed; Di Luzio, Giovanni; Cusatis, Gianluca

    2017-04-28

    Alkali Silica Reaction (ASR) is known to be a serious problem for concrete worldwide, especially in high humidity and high temperature regions. ASR is a slow process that develops over years to decades and it is influenced by changes in environmental and loading conditions of the structure. The problem becomes even more complicated if one recognizes that other phenomena like creep and shrinkage are coupled with ASR. This results in synergistic mechanisms that can not be easily understood without a comprehensive computational model. In this paper, coupling between creep, shrinkage and ASR is modeled within the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) framework. In order to achieve this, a multi-physics formulation is used to compute the evolution of temperature, humidity, cement hydration, and ASR in both space and time, which is then used within physics-based formulations of cracking, creep and shrinkage. The overall model is calibrated and validated on the basis of experimental data available in the literature. Results show that even during free expansions (zero macroscopic stress), a significant degree of coupling exists because ASR induced expansions are relaxed by meso-scale creep driven by self-equilibriated stresses at the meso-scale. This explains and highlights the importance of considering ASR and other time dependent aging and deterioration phenomena at an appropriate length scale in coupled modeling approaches.

  12. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra

    2016-06-21

    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a large Mw 7.8 ShakeOut scenario. We include the geometrical fault complexity and consider different 1D velocity–density profiles for the Landers simulations and a 3D heterogeneous Earth structure for the ShakeOut scenario. For the Landers earthquake, the computed waveforms are validated using strong‐motion recordings. We analyze the simulated ground‐motion data set in terms of distance and azimuth dependence of peak ground velocity (PGV). Our simulations reveal that intraevent ground‐motion variability Graphic is higher in close distances to the fault (<20  km) and decreases with increasing distance following a power law. This finding is in stark contrast to constant sigma‐values used in empirical ground‐motion prediction equations. The physical explanation of a large near‐field Graphic is the presence of strong directivity and rupture complexity. High values of Graphic occur in the rupture‐propagation direction, but small values occur in the direction perpendicular to it. We observe that the power‐law decay of Graphic is primarily controlled by slip heterogeneity. In addition, Graphic, as function of azimuth, is sensitive to variations in both rupture speed and slip heterogeneity. The azimuth dependence of the ground‐motion mean μln(PGV) is well described by a Cauchy–Lorentz function that provides a novel empirical quantification to model the spatial dependency of ground motion. Online Material: Figures of slip distributions, residuals to ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs), distance and azimuthal dependence, and directivity predictor of ground‐motion variability for different source models.

  13. Discrete-Time Systems

    We also describe discrete-time systems in terms of difference ... A more modern alternative, especially for larger systems, is to convert ... In other words, ..... picture?) State-variable equations are also called state-space equations because the ...

  14. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.

  15. The dependence of J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section on the Feynman variable

    Duan Chungui; Liu Na; Miao Wendan

    2011-01-01

    By means of two typical sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, meanwhile taking account of the energy loss of the beam proton and the nuclear absorption of the charmonium states traversing the nuclear matter in the uniform framework of the Glauber model, a leading order phenomenological analysis is given in the color evaporation model of the E866 experimental data on J/ψ production differential cross section ratios R Fe/Be (x F ). It is shown that the energy loss effect of beam proton on R Fe/Be (x F ) is more important than the nuclear effects on parton distribution functions in the high Feynman variable x F region. It is found that the J/ψ-nucleon inelastic cross section depends on the Feynman variable x F and increases linearly with x F in the region x F > 0.2. (authors)

  16. A note on the optimal pricing strategy in the discrete-time Geo/Geo/1 queuing system with sojourn time-dependent reward

    Doo Ho Lee

    Full Text Available This work studies the optimal pricing strategy in a discrete-time Geo/Geo/1 queuing system under the sojourn time-dependent reward. We consider two types of pricing schemes. The first one is called the ex-post payment scheme where the server charges a price that is proportional to the time a customer spends in the system, and the second one is called ex-ante payment scheme where the server charges a flat price for all services. In each pricing scheme, a departing customer receives the reward that is inversely proportional to his/her sojourn time. The server should make the optimal pricing decisions in order to maximize its expected profits per time unit in each pricing scheme. This work also investigates customer's equilibrium joining or balking behavior under server's optimal pricing strategy. Numerical experiments are also conducted to validate our analysis. Keywords: Optimal pricing, Equilibrium behavior, Geo/Geo/1 queue, Sojourn time-dependent reward

  17. Radiative characteristics of a thin solid fuel at discrete levels of pyrolysis: Angular, spectral, and thermal dependencies

    Pettegrew, Richard Dale

    Numerical models of solid fuel combustion rely on accurate radiative property values to properly account for radiative heat transfer to and from the surface. The spectral properties can change significantly over the temperature range from ambient to burnout temperature. The variations of these properties are due to mass loss (as the sample pyrolyzes), chemical changes, and surface finish changes. In addition, band-integrated properties can vary due to the shift in the peak of the Planck curve as the temperature increases, which results in differing weightings of the spectral values. These effects were quantified for a thin cellulosic fuel commonly used in microgravity combustion studies (KimWipesRTM). Pyrolytic effects were simulated by heat-treating the samples in a constant temperature oven for varying times. Spectral data was acquired using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, along with an integrating sphere. Data was acquired at different incidence angles by mounting the samples at different angles inside the sphere. Comparisons of samples of similar area density created using different heat-treatment regimens showed that thermal history of the samples was irrelevant in virtually all spectral regions, with overall results correlating well with changes in area density. Spectral, angular, and thermal dependencies were determined for a representative data set, showing that the spectral absorptance decreases as the temperature increases, and decreases as the incidence angle varies from normal. Changes in absorptance are primarily offset by corresponding changes in transmittances, with reflectance values shown to be low over the tested spectral region of 2.50 mum to 24.93 mum. Band-integrated values were calculated as a function of temperature for the entire tested spectral region, as well as limited bands relevant for thermal imaging applications. This data was used to demonstrate the significant error that is likely if incorrect emittance values are

  18. Building the nodal nuclear data dependences in a many-dimensional state-variable space

    Dufek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The Abstract and Introduction are revised to reflect reviewers' comments. → Section is revised and simplified. → The third paragraph in Section is revised. → All typos are fixed. - Abstract: We present new methods for building the polynomial-regression based nodal nuclear data models. The data models can reflect dependences on a large number of state variables, and they can consider various history effects. Suitable multivariate polynomials that approximate the nodal data dependences are identified efficiently in an iterative manner. The history effects are analysed using a new sampling scheme for lattice calculations where the traditional base burnup and branch calculations are replaced by a large number of diverse burnup histories. The total number of lattice calculations is controlled so that the data models are built to a required accuracy.

  19. Memory effects, two color percolation, and the temperature dependence of Mott variable-range hopping

    Agam, Oded; Aleiner, Igor L.

    2014-06-01

    There are three basic processes that determine hopping transport: (a) hopping between normally empty sites (i.e., having exponentially small occupation numbers at equilibrium), (b) hopping between normally occupied sites, and (c) transitions between normally occupied and unoccupied sites. In conventional theories all these processes are considered Markovian and the correlations of occupation numbers of different sites are believed to be small (i.e., not exponential in temperature). We show that, contrary to this belief, memory effects suppress the processes of type (c) and manifest themselves in a subleading exponential temperature dependence of the variable-range hopping conductivity. This temperature dependence originates from the property that sites of type (a) and (b) form two independent resistor networks that are weakly coupled to each other by processes of type (c). This leads to a two-color percolation problem which we solve in the critical region.

  20. Population and prehistory III: food-dependent demography in variable environments.

    Lee, Charlotte T; Puleston, Cedric O; Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    2009-11-01

    The population dynamics of preindustrial societies depend intimately on their surroundings, and food is a primary means through which environment influences population size and individual well-being. Food production requires labor; thus, dependence of survival and fertility on food involves dependence of a population's future on its current state. We use a perturbation approach to analyze the effects of random environmental variation on this nonlinear, age-structured system. We show that in expanding populations, direct environmental effects dominate induced population fluctuations, so environmental variability has little effect on mean hunger levels, although it does decrease population growth. The growth rate determines the time until population is limited by space. This limitation introduces a tradeoff between population density and well-being, so population effects become more important than the direct effects of the environment: environmental fluctuation increases mortality, releasing density dependence and raising average well-being for survivors. We discuss the social implications of these findings for the long-term fate of populations as they transition from expansion into limitation, given that conditions leading to high well-being during growth depress well-being during limitation.

  1. Discrete mechanics

    Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental principles of mechanics to re-establish the equations of Discrete Mechanics. It introduces physics and thermodynamics associated to the physical modeling.  The development and the complementarity of sciences lead to review today the old concepts that were the basis for the development of continuum mechanics. The differential geometry is used to review the conservation laws of mechanics. For instance, this formalism requires a different location of vector and scalar quantities in space. The equations of Discrete Mechanics form a system of equations where the H

  2. Discrete mechanics

    Lee, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of time throughout all phases of mechanics: classical mechanics, non-relativistic quantum mechanics, and relativistic quantum theory. As an example of the relativistic quantum field theory, the case of a massless scalar field interacting with an arbitrary external current is discussed. The comparison between the new discrete theory and the usual continuum formalism is presented. An example is given of a two-dimensional random lattice and its duel. The author notes that there is no evidence that the discrete mechanics is more appropriate than the usual continuum mechanics

  3. Numerical Solution of the Time-Dependent Navier–Stokes Equation for Variable Density–Variable Viscosity. Part I

    Axelsson, Owe; Xin, H.; Neytcheva, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2015), s. 232-260 ISSN 1392-6292 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : variable density * phase-field model * Navier-Stokes equations * preconditioning * variable viscosity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.468, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3846/13926292.2015.1021395

  4. Automatic sleep staging using empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transform, time-domain, and nonlinear dynamics features of heart rate variability signals.

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV

  5. Uncovering state-dependent relationships in shallow lakes using Bayesian latent variable regression.

    Vitense, Kelsey; Hanson, Mark A; Herwig, Brian R; Zimmer, Kyle D; Fieberg, John

    2018-03-01

    Ecosystems sometimes undergo dramatic shifts between contrasting regimes. Shallow lakes, for instance, can transition between two alternative stable states: a clear state dominated by submerged aquatic vegetation and a turbid state dominated by phytoplankton. Theoretical models suggest that critical nutrient thresholds differentiate three lake types: highly resilient clear lakes, lakes that may switch between clear and turbid states following perturbations, and highly resilient turbid lakes. For effective and efficient management of shallow lakes and other systems, managers need tools to identify critical thresholds and state-dependent relationships between driving variables and key system features. Using shallow lakes as a model system for which alternative stable states have been demonstrated, we developed an integrated framework using Bayesian latent variable regression (BLR) to classify lake states, identify critical total phosphorus (TP) thresholds, and estimate steady state relationships between TP and chlorophyll a (chl a) using cross-sectional data. We evaluated the method using data simulated from a stochastic differential equation model and compared its performance to k-means clustering with regression (KMR). We also applied the framework to data comprising 130 shallow lakes. For simulated data sets, BLR had high state classification rates (median/mean accuracy >97%) and accurately estimated TP thresholds and state-dependent TP-chl a relationships. Classification and estimation improved with increasing sample size and decreasing noise levels. Compared to KMR, BLR had higher classification rates and better approximated the TP-chl a steady state relationships and TP thresholds. We fit the BLR model to three different years of empirical shallow lake data, and managers can use the estimated bifurcation diagrams to prioritize lakes for management according to their proximity to thresholds and chance of successful rehabilitation. Our model improves upon

  6. [Correlation coefficient-based classification method of hydrological dependence variability: With auto-regression model as example].

    Zhao, Yu Xi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Wu, Zi Yi

    2018-04-01

    Hydrological process evaluation is temporal dependent. Hydrological time series including dependence components do not meet the data consistency assumption for hydrological computation. Both of those factors cause great difficulty for water researches. Given the existence of hydrological dependence variability, we proposed a correlationcoefficient-based method for significance evaluation of hydrological dependence based on auto-regression model. By calculating the correlation coefficient between the original series and its dependence component and selecting reasonable thresholds of correlation coefficient, this method divided significance degree of dependence into no variability, weak variability, mid variability, strong variability, and drastic variability. By deducing the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient in each order of series, we found that the correlation coefficient was mainly determined by the magnitude of auto-correlation coefficient from the 1 order to p order, which clarified the theoretical basis of this method. With the first-order and second-order auto-regression models as examples, the reasonability of the deduced formula was verified through Monte-Carlo experiments to classify the relationship between correlation coefficient and auto-correlation coefficient. This method was used to analyze three observed hydrological time series. The results indicated the coexistence of stochastic and dependence characteristics in hydrological process.

  7. Variability of Surface Reflection Amplitudes of GPR Horn Antenna Depending on Distance between Antenna and Surface

    Komačka Jozef

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on variability of surface reflections amplitudes of GPR horn antenna in relation to distance between an antenna and a surface is presented in the paper. The air-coupled antenna with the central frequency of 1 GHz was used in the investigation. Four types of surfaces (dry pavement, wet pavement, metal plate and composite layer from gypsum and wood were tested. The distance of antenna above the surfaces was changed in the range from 37.5 cm to 53.5 cm. The amplitudes of negative and positive peaks and their variability were analysed in relation to the distance of antenna above the surfaces. Moreover, the influence of changes in the peaks of negative and positive amplitudes on the total amplitudes was assessed. It was found out the amplitudes of negative peaks for all investigated surfaces were relatively consistent in the range from 40.5 cm to 48.5 cm and the moderate decline was identified in the case of amplitudes of positive peaks in the range of distances from 37.5 cm to 51.5 cm. This decline influences the tendency of total amplitudes. Based on the results of analysis it can be stated the distance of air-coupled antenna above the surface can influence the value of total amplitude and the differences depend on the type of surface.

  8. The Attentional Dependence of Emotion Cognition is Variable with the Competing Task

    Cheng Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between emotion and attention has fascinated researchers for decades. Many previous studies have used eye-tracking, ERP, MEG and fMRI to explore this issue but have reached different conclusions: some researchers hold that emotion cognition is an automatic process and independent of attention, while some others believed that emotion cognition is modulated by attentional resources and is a type of controlled processing. The present research aimed to investigate this controversy, and we hypothesized that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition is variable with the competing task. Eye-tracking technology and a dual-task paradigm were adopted, and subjects’ attention was manipulated to fixate at the central task to investigate whether subjects could detect the emotional faces presented in the peripheral area with a decrease or near-absence of attention. The results revealed that when the peripheral task was emotional face discrimination but the central attention-demanding task was different, subjects performed well in the peripheral task, which means that emotional information can be processed in parallel with other stimuli, and there may be a specific channel in the human brain for processing emotional information. However, when the central and peripheral tasks were both emotional face discrimination, subjects could not perform well in the peripheral task, indicating that the processing of emotional information required attentional resources and that it is a type of controlled processing. Therefore, we concluded that the attentional dependence of emotion cognition varied with the competing task.

  9. Discrete Sparse Coding.

    Exarchakis, Georgios; Lücke, Jörg

    2017-11-01

    Sparse coding algorithms with continuous latent variables have been the subject of a large number of studies. However, discrete latent spaces for sparse coding have been largely ignored. In this work, we study sparse coding with latents described by discrete instead of continuous prior distributions. We consider the general case in which the latents (while being sparse) can take on any value of a finite set of possible values and in which we learn the prior probability of any value from data. This approach can be applied to any data generated by discrete causes, and it can be applied as an approximation of continuous causes. As the prior probabilities are learned, the approach then allows for estimating the prior shape without assuming specific functional forms. To efficiently train the parameters of our probabilistic generative model, we apply a truncated expectation-maximization approach (expectation truncation) that we modify to work with a general discrete prior. We evaluate the performance of the algorithm by applying it to a variety of tasks: (1) we use artificial data to verify that the algorithm can recover the generating parameters from a random initialization, (2) use image patches of natural images and discuss the role of the prior for the extraction of image components, (3) use extracellular recordings of neurons to present a novel method of analysis for spiking neurons that includes an intuitive discretization strategy, and (4) apply the algorithm on the task of encoding audio waveforms of human speech. The diverse set of numerical experiments presented in this letter suggests that discrete sparse coding algorithms can scale efficiently to work with realistic data sets and provide novel statistical quantities to describe the structure of the data.

  10. Discrete optimization

    Parker, R Gary

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the fundamental issues and algorithmic strategies emerging as the core of the discipline of discrete optimization in a comprehensive and rigorous fashion. Following an introductory chapter on computational complexity, the basic algorithmic results for the two major models of polynomial algorithms are introduced--models using matroids and linear programming. Further chapters treat the major non-polynomial algorithms: branch-and-bound and cutting planes. The text concludes with a chapter on heuristic algorithms.Several appendixes are included which review the fundamental ideas o

  11. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  12. Time-dependence in relativistic collisionless shocks: theory of the variable

    Spitkovsky, A

    2004-02-05

    We describe results from time-dependent numerical modeling of the collisionless reverse shock terminating the pulsar wind in the Crab Nebula. We treat the upstream relativistic wind as composed of ions and electron-positron plasma embedded in a toroidal magnetic field, flowing radially outward from the pulsar in a sector around the rotational equator. The relativistic cyclotron instability of the ion gyrational orbit downstream of the leading shock in the electron-positron pairs launches outward propagating magnetosonic waves. Because of the fresh supply of ions crossing the shock, this time-dependent process achieves a limit-cycle, in which the waves are launched with periodicity on the order of the ion Larmor time. Compressions in the magnetic field and pair density associated with these waves, as well as their propagation speed, semi-quantitatively reproduce the behavior of the wisp and ring features described in recent observations obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. By selecting the parameters of the ion orbits to fit the spatial separation of the wisps, we predict the period of time variability of the wisps that is consistent with the data. When coupled with a mechanism for non-thermal acceleration of the pairs, the compressions in the magnetic field and plasma density associated with the optical wisp structure naturally account for the location of X-ray features in the Crab. We also discuss the origin of the high energy ions and their acceleration in the equatorial current sheet of the pulsar wind.

  13. Nanostructures study of CNT nanofluids transport with temperature-dependent variable viscosity in a muscular tube

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Abid, Syed Ali; Tripathi, Dharmendra; Mir, Nazir Ahmed

    2017-03-01

    The transport of single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofluids with temperature-dependent variable viscosity is analyzed by peristaltically driven flow. The main flow problem has been modeled using cylindrical coordinates and flow equations are simplified to ordinary differential equations using long wavelength and low Reynolds' number approximation. Analytical solutions have been obtained for axial velocity, pressure gradient and temperature. Results acquired are discussed graphically for better understanding. It is observed that with an increment in the Grashof number the velocity of the governing fluids starts to decrease significantly and the pressure gradient is higher for pure water as compared to single-walled carbon nanotubes due to low density. As the specific heat is very high for pure water as compared to the multi-wall carbon nanotubes, it raises temperature of the muscles, in the case of pure water, as compared to the multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Furthermore, it is noticed that the trapped bolus starts decreasing in size as the buoyancy forces are dominant as compared to viscous forces. This model may be applicable in biomedical engineering and nanotechnology to design the biomedical devices.

  14. Discrete gradients in discrete classical mechanics

    Renna, L.

    1987-01-01

    A simple model of discrete classical mechanics is given where, starting from the continuous Hamilton equations, discrete equations of motion are established together with a proper discrete gradient definition. The conservation laws of the total discrete momentum, angular momentum, and energy are demonstrated

  15. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, oxygen, and other variables collected from surface discrete and surface underway observations using flow-through pump from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (ECOA) Cruise from 2015-06-19 to 2015-07-24 (NCEI Accession 0157485)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, oxygen, and other variables collected from surface discrete and surface underway observations during...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter off the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0159428)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow through pump and other instruments from NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter in the U.S. East Coast during the East Coast Ocean Acidification (GU-15-04 ECOA1) from 2015-06-20 to 2015-07-23 (NCEI Accession 0157389)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, nutrients and other variables collected from surface discrete sampling using flow...

  18. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    U. Mishra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The direction and magnitude of soil organic carbon (SOC changes in response to climate change depend on the spatial and vertical distributions of SOC. We estimated spatially resolved SOC stocks from surface to C horizon, distinguishing active-layer and permafrost-layer stocks, based on geospatial analysis of 472 soil profiles and spatially referenced environmental variables for Alaska. Total Alaska state-wide SOC stock was estimated to be 77 Pg, with 61% in the active-layer, 27% in permafrost, and 12% in non-permafrost soils. Prediction accuracy was highest for the active-layer as demonstrated by highest ratio of performance to deviation (1.5. Large spatial variability was predicted, with whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer stocks ranging from 1–296 kg C m−2, 2–166 kg m−2, and 0–232 kg m−2, respectively. Temperature and soil wetness were found to be primary controllers of whole-profile, active-layer, and permafrost-layer SOC stocks. Secondary controllers, in order of importance, were found to be land cover type, topographic attributes, and bedrock geology. The observed importance of soil wetness rather than precipitation on SOC stocks implies that the poor representation of high-latitude soil wetness in Earth system models may lead to large uncertainty in predicted SOC stocks under future climate change scenarios. Under strict caveats described in the text and assuming temperature changes from the A1B Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emissions scenario, our geospatial model indicates that the equilibrium average 2100 Alaska active-layer depth could deepen by 11 cm, resulting in a thawing of 13 Pg C currently in permafrost. The equilibrium SOC loss associated with this warming would be highest under continuous permafrost (31%, followed by discontinuous (28%, isolated (24.3%, and sporadic (23.6% permafrost areas. Our high-resolution mapping of soil carbon stock reveals the

  19. Discrete transforms

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  20. MIRU-VNTR allelic variability depends on Mycobacterium bovis clonal group identity.

    Hauer, Amandine; Michelet, Lorraine; De Cruz, Krystel; Cochard, Thierry; Branger, Maxime; Karoui, Claudine; Henault, Sylvie; Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, María Laura

    2016-11-01

    The description of the population of M. bovis strains circulating in France from 1978 to 2013 has highlighted the discriminating power of the MLVA among predominant spoligotype groups. In the present study we aimed to characterize clonal groups via MLVA and to better understand the strain's population structure. MLVA was performed with eight MIRU-VNTR loci, most of them defined by the Venomyc European consortium. The discriminatory index of each MLVA loci was calculated for SB0120, SB0134, SB0121 and the "F4-family", the main spoligotype groups in France. Differences in global DI per spoligotype, but also by locus within each spoligotype, were observed, which strongly suggest the clonal complex nature of these major groups. These MLVA results were compared to those of other European countries where strain collections had been characterized (Spain, Portugal, Italy, Northern Ireland and Belgium). Overall, QUB 3232 and ETR D are respectively the most and the least discriminative loci, regardless of the strains geographical origin. However, marked DI differences are observed in the rest of the MIRU-VNTR loci, again highlighting that strain genetic variability in a country depends on the dominant existing clonal complexes. A web application for M. bovis, including spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing data, was developed to allow inter-laboratory comparison of field isolates. In conclusion, combination of typing methods is required for M. bovis optimum discrimination and differentiation of groups of strains. Thus, the loci employed for MLVA in a country should be those which are the most discriminative for the clonal complexes which characterize their M. bovis population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Conductance of partially disordered graphene: crossover from temperature-dependent to field-dependent variable-range hopping

    Cheah, C Y; Jaurigue, L C; Kaiser, A B; Gómez-Navarro, C

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of low-temperature measurements of the conductance of partially disordered reduced graphene oxide, finding that the data follow a simple crossover scenario. At room temperature, the conductance is dominated by two-dimensional (2D) electric field-assisted, thermally driven (Pollak–Riess) variable-range hopping (VRH) through highly disordered regions. However, at lower temperatures T, we find a smooth crossover to follow the exp(−E 0 /E) 1/3 field-driven (Shklovskii) 2D VRH conductance behaviour when the electric field E exceeds a specific crossover value E C (T) 2D =(E a E 0 1/3 /3) 3/4 determined by the scale factors E 0 and E a for the high-field and intermediate-field regimes respectively. Our crossover scenario also accounts well for experimental data reported by other authors for three-dimensional disordered carbon networks, suggesting wide applicability. (paper)

  2. Peculiar symmetry structure of some known discrete nonautonomous equations

    Garifullin, R N; Habibullin, I T; Yamilov, R I

    2015-01-01

    We study the generalized symmetry structure of three known discrete nonautonomous equations. One of them is the semidiscrete dressing chain of Shabat. Two others are completely discrete equations defined on the square lattice. The first one is a discrete analogue of the dressing chain introduced by Levi and Yamilov. The second one is a nonautonomous generalization of the potential discrete KdV equation or, in other words, the H1 equation of the well-known Adler−Bobenko−Suris list. We demonstrate that these equations have generalized symmetries in both directions if and only if their coefficients, depending on the discrete variables, are periodic. The order of the simplest generalized symmetry in at least one direction depends on the period and may be arbitrarily high. We substantiate this picture by some theorems in the case of small periods. In case of an arbitrarily large period, we show that it is possible to construct two hierarchies of generalized symmetries and conservation laws. The same picture should take place in case of any nonautonomous equation of the Adler−Bobenko−Suris list. (paper)

  3. Exact analysis of discrete data

    Hirji, Karim F

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in fields ranging from biology and medicine to the social sciences, law, and economics regularly encounter variables that are discrete or categorical in nature. While there is no dearth of books on the analysis and interpretation of such data, these generally focus on large sample methods. When sample sizes are not large or the data are otherwise sparse, exact methods--methods not based on asymptotic theory--are more accurate and therefore preferable.This book introduces the statistical theory, analysis methods, and computation techniques for exact analysis of discrete data. After reviewing the relevant discrete distributions, the author develops the exact methods from the ground up in a conceptually integrated manner. The topics covered range from univariate discrete data analysis, a single and several 2 x 2 tables, a single and several 2 x K tables, incidence density and inverse sampling designs, unmatched and matched case -control studies, paired binary and trinomial response models, and Markov...

  4. The Relationship of Field Dependent/Independent Cognitive Styles, Stimuli Variability and Time Factor on Student Achievement.

    Atang, Christopher I.

    The effects of black and white and color illustrations on student achievement were studied to investigate the relationships between cognitive styles and instructional design. Field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI) were chosen as the cognitive style variables. Subjects were 85 freshman students in the Iowa State University Psychology…

  5. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads

  6. Time-Dependent Drug Administration in Hypertension and its Effect on Blood Pressure Variability

    Magdás Annamária

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimizing blood pressure variability seems to represent a new therapeutic target in the management of hypertension. It is emphasized that scheduling at least one antihypertensive agent at bedtime, has the ability to reduce blood pressure.

  7. Time-Dependent Drug Administration in Hypertension and its Effect on Blood Pressure Variability

    Magdás Annamária; Podoleanu Cristian; Tusa Anna-Boróka; Găburoi Adina; Incze Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Optimizing blood pressure variability seems to represent a new therapeutic target in the management of hypertension. It is emphasized that scheduling at least one antihypertensive agent at bedtime, has the ability to reduce blood pressure.

  8. Multivariable biorthogonal continuous--discrete Wilson and Racah polynomials

    Tratnik, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    Several families of multivariable, biorthogonal, partly continuous and partly discrete, Wilson polynomials are presented. These yield limit cases that are purely continuous in some of the variables and purely discrete in the others, or purely discrete in all the variables. The latter are referred to as the multivariable biorthogonal Racah polynomials. Interesting further limit cases include the multivariable biorthogonal Hahn and dual Hahn polynomials

  9. The Variability of Atmospheric Deuterium Brightness at Mars: Evidence for Seasonal Dependence

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Chaffin, Michael; Thiemann, Edward; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    The enhanced ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on Mars has been widely interpreted as indicating the loss of a large column of water into space, and the hydrogen content of the upper atmosphere is now known to be highly variable. The variation in the properties of both deuterium and hydrogen in the upper atmosphere of Mars is indicative of the dynamical processes that produce these species and propagate them to altitudes where they can escape the planet. Understanding the seasonal variability of D is key to understanding the variability of the escape rate of water from Mars. Data from a 15 month observing campaign, made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph high-resolution echelle channel, are used to determine the brightness of deuterium as observed at the limb of Mars. The D emission is highly variable, with a peak in brightness just after southern summer solstice. The trends of D brightness are examined against extrinsic as well as intrinsic sources. It is found that the fluctuations in deuterium brightness in the upper atmosphere of Mars (up to 400 km), corrected for periodic solar variations, vary on timescales that are similar to those of water vapor fluctuations lower in the atmosphere (20-80 km). The observed variability in deuterium may be attributed to seasonal factors such as regional dust storm activity and subsequent circulation lower in the atmosphere.

  10. Comprehensive Interpretation of a Three-Point Gauss Quadrature with Variable Sampling Points and Its Application to Integration for Discrete Data

    Young-Doo Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics of a variable three-point Gauss quadrature using a variable set of weighting factors and corresponding optimal sampling points. The major findings were as follows. The one-point, two-point, and three-point Gauss quadratures that adopt the Legendre sampling points and the well-known Simpson’s 1/3 rule were found to be special cases of the variable three-point Gauss quadrature. In addition, the three-point Gauss quadrature may have out-of-domain sampling points beyond the domain end points. By applying the quadratically extrapolated integrals and nonlinearity index, the accuracy of the integration could be increased significantly for evenly acquired data, which is popular with modern sophisticated digital data acquisition systems, without using higher-order extrapolation polynomials.

  11. On history dependence of stress-strain diagrams and creep curves under variable repeated loading

    Gokhfeld, D.A.; Sadakov, O.S.; Martynenko, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of structural alloys to 'keep in memory' the loading prehistory becomes of special importance when inelastic variable repeated loading is considered. There are two main approaches to the development of the mathematical description of this phenomenon: the inclusion of hidden state variables in the incremental theory constitutive equations (a) and construction of proper hereditary functionals (b). In this respect the assumption that the 'memory' regarding the previous deformation history is due to structural nonhomogeneity of actual materials proves to be fruitful. (orig.)

  12. Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces

    Sun, Xiang

    2012-06-01

    This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.

  13. Distance and Azimuthal Dependence of Ground‐Motion Variability for Unilateral Strike‐Slip Ruptures

    Vyas, Jagdish Chandra; Mai, Paul Martin; Galis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate near‐field ground‐motion variability by computing the seismic wavefield for five kinematic unilateral‐rupture models of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake, eight simplified unilateral‐rupture models based on the Landers event, and a

  14. A systematic method for constructing time discretizations of integrable lattice systems: local equations of motion

    Tsuchida, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new method for discretizing the time variable in integrable lattice systems while maintaining the locality of the equations of motion. The method is based on the zero-curvature (Lax pair) representation and the lowest-order 'conservation laws'. In contrast to the pioneering work of Ablowitz and Ladik, our method allows the auxiliary dependent variables appearing in the stage of time discretization to be expressed locally in terms of the original dependent variables. The time-discretized lattice systems have the same set of conserved quantities and the same structures of the solutions as the continuous-time lattice systems; only the time evolution of the parameters in the solutions that correspond to the angle variables is discretized. The effectiveness of our method is illustrated using examples such as the Toda lattice, the Volterra lattice, the modified Volterra lattice, the Ablowitz-Ladik lattice (an integrable semi-discrete nonlinear Schroedinger system) and the lattice Heisenberg ferromagnet model. For the modified Volterra lattice, we also present its ultradiscrete analogue.

  15. Phase dependence of transport-aperture coordination variability reveals control strategy of reach-to-grasp movements.

    Rand, Miya K; Shimansky, Y P; Hossain, Abul B M I; Stelmach, George E

    2010-11-01

    Based on an assumption of movement control optimality in reach-to-grasp movements, we have recently developed a mathematical model of transport-aperture coordination (TAC), according to which the hand-target distance is a function of hand velocity and acceleration, aperture magnitude, and aperture velocity and acceleration (Rand et al. in Exp Brain Res 188:263-274, 2008). Reach-to-grasp movements were performed by young adults under four different reaching speeds and two different transport distances. The residual error magnitude of fitting the above model to data across different trials and subjects was minimal for the aperture-closure phase, but relatively much greater for the aperture-opening phase, indicating considerable difference in TAC variability between those phases. This study's goal is to identify the main reasons for that difference and obtain insights into the control strategy of reach-to-grasp movements. TAC variability within the aperture-opening phase of a single trial was found minimal, indicating that TAC variability between trials was not due to execution noise, but rather a result of inter-trial and inter-subject variability of motor plan. At the same time, the dependence of the extent of trial-to-trial variability of TAC in that phase on the speed of hand transport was sharply inconsistent with the concept of speed-accuracy trade-off: the lower the speed, the larger the variability. Conversely, the dependence of the extent of TAC variability in the aperture-closure phase on hand transport speed was consistent with that concept. Taking into account recent evidence that the cost of neural information processing is substantial for movement planning, the dependence of TAC variability in the aperture-opening phase on task performance conditions suggests that it is not the movement time that the CNS saves in that phase, but the cost of neuro-computational resources and metabolic energy required for TAC regulation in that phase. Thus, the CNS

  16. Morphometric variability of mandible linear characteristics depending on level of teeth alveolus position

    Olga Yu. Aleshkina

    2017-05-01

    Results and Conclusion ― The highest altitude was marked at levels of incisors and 3rd molar, the smallest one – at level of 1st and 2nd molars; maximum mandible thickness was defined at level of 2nd molar, minimum – at levels of canine and 1st – 2nd premolars on both sides of mandible; average thickness was revealed at levels of incisors, 1st and 2nd molars and had the same statistical values. Bilateral variability of thickness was significantly dominating on the right side and only at levels of 1st – 2nd premolars and 1st molar. Average values of altitude and thickness from both sides of mandible and at all levels had medium degree of variability.

  17. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK

    Rothwell, James J.; Evans, Martin G.; Lindsay, John B.; Allott, Timothy E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably. - Multiple peat cores are required for accurate peatland Pb inventories

  18. Scale-dependent spatial variability in peatland lead pollution in the southern Pennines, UK.

    Rothwell, James J; Evans, Martin G; Lindsay, John B; Allott, Timothy E H

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, within-site and regional comparisons of peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. The peatlands of the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK, have received significant atmospheric inputs of lead over the last few hundred years. A multi-core study at three peatland sites in the Peak District demonstrates significant within-site spatial variability in industrial lead pollution. Stochastic simulations reveal that 15 peat cores are required to calculate reliable lead inventories at the within-site and within-region scale for this highly polluted area of the southern Pennines. Within-site variability in lead pollution is dominant at the within-region scale. The study demonstrates that significant errors may be associated with peatland lead inventories at sites where only a single peat core has been used to calculate an inventory. Meaningful comparisons of lead inventories at the regional or global scale can only be made if the within-site variability of lead pollution has been quantified reliably.

  19. Natural variability of biochemical biomarkers in the macro-zoobenthos: Dependence on life stage and environmental factors.

    Scarduelli, Lucia; Giacchini, Roberto; Parenti, Paolo; Migliorati, Sonia; Di Brisco, Agnese Maria; Vighi, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Biomarkers are widely used in ecotoxicology as indicators of exposure to toxicants. However, their ability to provide ecologically relevant information remains controversial. One of the major problems is understanding whether the measured responses are determined by stress factors or lie within the natural variability range. In a previous work, the natural variability of enzymatic levels in invertebrates sampled in pristine rivers was proven to be relevant across both space and time. In the present study, the experimental design was improved by considering different life stages of the selected taxa and by measuring more environmental parameters. The experimental design considered sampling sites in 2 different rivers, 8 sampling dates covering the whole seasonal cycle, 4 species from 3 different taxonomic groups (Plecoptera, Perla grandis; Ephemeroptera, Baetis alpinus and Epeorus alpicula; Tricoptera, Hydropsyche pellucidula), different life stages for each species, and 4 enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, glutathione S-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and catalase). Biomarker levels were related to environmental (physicochemical) parameters to verify any kind of dependence. Data were statistically elaborated using hierarchical multilevel Bayesian models. Natural variability was found to be relevant across both space and time. The results of the present study proved that care should be paid when interpreting biomarker results. Further research is needed to better understand the dependence of the natural variability on environmental parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3158-3167. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  20. ANISN-L, a CDC-7600 code which solves the one-dimensional, multigroup, time dependent transport equation by the method of discrete ordinates

    Wilcox, T. P.

    1973-09-20

    The code ANISN-L solves the one-dimensional, multigroup, time-independent Boltzmann transport equation by the method of discrete ordinates. In problems involving a fissionable system, it can calculate the system multiplication or alpha. In such cases, it is also capable of determining isotopic concentrations, radii, zone widths, or buckling in order to achieve a given multiplication or alpha. The code may also calculate fluxes caused by a specified fixed source. Neutron, gamma, and coupled neutron--gamma problems may be solved in either the forward or adjoint (backward) modes. Cross sections describing upscatter, as well as the usual downscatter, may be employed. This report describes the use of ANISN-L; this is a revised version of ANISN which handles both large and small problems efficiently on CDC-7600 computers. (RWR)

  1. Assessment of variability in the hydrological cycle of the Loess Plateau, China: examining dependence structures of hydrological processes

    Guo, A.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Investigating variability in dependence structures of hydrological processes is of critical importance for developing an understanding of mechanisms of hydrological cycles in changing environments. In focusing on this topic, present work involves the following: (1) identifying and eliminating serial correlation and conditional heteroscedasticity in monthly streamflow (Q), precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (PE) series using the ARMA-GARCH model (ARMA: autoregressive moving average; GARCH: generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity); (2) describing dependence structures of hydrological processes using partial copula coupled with the ARMA-GARCH model and identifying their variability via copula-based likelihood-ratio test method; and (3) determining conditional probability of annual Q under different climate scenarios on account of above results. This framework enables us to depict hydrological variables in the presence of conditional heteroscedasticity and to examine dependence structures of hydrological processes while excluding the influence of covariates by using partial copula-based ARMA-GARCH model. Eight major catchments across the Loess Plateau (LP) are used as study regions. Results indicate that (1) The occurrence of change points in dependence structures of Q and P (PE) varies across the LP. Change points of P-PE dependence structures in all regions almost fully correspond to the initiation of global warming, i.e., the early 1980s. (3) Conditional probabilities of annual Q under various P and PE scenarios are estimated from the 3-dimensional joint distribution of (Q, P and PE) based on the above change points. These findings shed light on mechanisms of the hydrological cycle and can guide water supply planning and management, particularly in changing environments.

  2. Darboux and binary Darboux transformations for discrete integrable systems I. Discrete potential KdV equation

    Shi, Ying; Zhang, Da-jun; Nimmo, Jonathan J C

    2014-01-01

    The Hirota–Miwa equation can be written in ‘nonlinear’ form in two ways: the discrete KP equation and, by using a compatible continuous variable, the discrete potential KP equation. For both systems, we consider the Darboux and binary Darboux transformations, expressed in terms of the continuous variable, and obtain exact solutions in Wronskian and Grammian form. We discuss reductions of both systems to the discrete KdV and discrete potential KdV equation, respectively, and exploit this connection to find the Darboux and binary Darboux transformations and exact solutions of these equations. (paper)

  3. Time-dependent inelastic analysis of metallic media using constitutive relations with state variables

    Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-03-01

    A computational technique in terms of stress, strain and displacement rates is presented for the solution of boundary value problems for metallic structural elements at uniform elevated temperatures subjected to time varying loads. This method can accommodate any number of constitutive relations with state variables recently proposed by other researchers to model the inelastic deformation of metallic media at elevated temperatures. Numerical solutions are obtained for several structural elements subjected to steady loads. The constitutive relations used for these numerical solutions are due to Hart. The solutions are discussed in the context of the computational scheme and Hart's theory.

  4. SECOND ORDER LEAST SQUARE ESTIMATION ON ARCH(1 MODEL WITH BOX-COX TRANSFORMED DEPENDENT VARIABLE

    Herni Utami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Box-Cox transformation is often used to reduce heterogeneity and to achieve a symmetric distribution of response variable. In this paper, we estimate the parameters of Box-Cox transformed ARCH(1 model using second-order leastsquare method and then we study the consistency and asymptotic normality for second-order least square (SLS estimators. The SLS estimation was introduced byWang (2003, 2004 to estimate the parameters of nonlinear regression models with independent and identically distributed errors

  5. THE DIFFERENCES IN MORAL, GROUP IDENTITY AND THE PERCON’S VARIABILITY DEPENDING ON THE EDUCATION

    Irina Aleksandrobna Kolinichenko

    2017-06-01

    Results. The results of the study have revealed the dominance of all specified assessment parameters in the group of test subjects with incomplete higher education: higher level of moral development in all dilemmas (the opposition of life values (compassion and following the law, self-interest – the interests of the city (law, business (benefit and law, personal interests (career and the freedom of another person, except for the dilemma of the opposition between the interests of a majority and a single person. The differences have also been revealed between the two groups of test subjects according to the group identity, group variability, the desirability of the common categories of identity.

  6. Dependence of conductivity on thickness within the variable-range hopping regime for Coulomb glasses

    M. Caravaca

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide some computational evidence concerning the dependence of conductivity on the system thickness for Coulomb glasses. We also verify the Efros–Shklovskii law and deal with the calculation of its characteristic parameter as a function of the thickness. Our results strengthen the link between theoretical and experimental fields. Keywords: Coulomb glass, Conductivity, Density of states, Efros–Shklovskii law

  7. Positive random variables with a discrete probability mass at the origin: Parameter estimation for left-censored samples with application to air quality monitoring data

    Gogolak, C.V.

    1986-11-01

    The concentration of a contaminant measured in a particular medium might be distributed as a positive random variable when it is present, but it may not always be present. If there is a level below which the concentration cannot be distinguished from zero by the analytical apparatus, a sample from such a population will be censored on the left. The presence of both zeros and positive values in the censored portion of such samples complicates the problem of estimating the parameters of the underlying positive random variable and the probability of a zero observation. Using the method of maximum likelihood, it is shown that the solution to this estimation problem reduces largely to that of estimating the parameters of the distribution truncated at the point of censorship. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportion of zero values follows directly. The derivation of the maximum likelihood estimates for a lognormal population with zeros is given in detail, and the asymptotic properties of the estimates are examined. The estimation method was used to fit several different distributions to a set of severely censored 85 Kr monitoring data from six locations at the Savannah River Plant chemical separations facilities

  8. Temperature-dependent behaviours are genetically variable in the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae.

    Stegeman, Gregory W; de Mesquita, Matthew Bueno; Ryu, William S; Cutter, Asher D

    2013-03-01

    Temperature-dependent behaviours in Caenorhabditis elegans, such as thermotaxis and isothermal tracking, are complex behavioural responses that integrate sensation, foraging and learning, and have driven investigations to discover many essential genetic and neural pathways. The ease of manipulation of the Caenorhabditis model system also has encouraged its application to comparative analyses of phenotypic evolution, particularly contrasts of the classic model C. elegans with C. briggsae. And yet few studies have investigated natural genetic variation in behaviour in any nematode. Here we measure thermotaxis and isothermal tracking behaviour in genetically distinct strains of C. briggsae, further motivated by the latitudinal differentiation in C. briggsae that is associated with temperature-dependent fitness differences in this species. We demonstrate that C. briggsae performs thermotaxis and isothermal tracking largely similar to that of C. elegans, with a tendency to prefer its rearing temperature. Comparisons of these behaviours among strains reveal substantial heritable natural variation within each species that corresponds to three general patterns of behavioural response. However, intraspecific genetic differences in thermal behaviour often exceed interspecific differences. These patterns of temperature-dependent behaviour motivate further development of C. briggsae as a model system for dissecting the genetic underpinnings of complex behavioural traits.

  9. Saddlepoint expansions for sums of Markov dependent variables on a continuous state space

    Jensen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the conjugate kernel studied in Iscoe et al. (1985) we derive saddlepoint expansions for either the density or distribution function of a sum f(X1)+...+f(Xn), where the Xi's constitute a Markov chain. The chain is assumed to satisfy a strong recurrence condition which makes the results...... here very similar to the classical results for i.i.d. variables. In particular we establish also conditions under which the expansions hold uniformly over the range of the saddlepoint. Expansions are also derived for sums of the form f(X1, X0)+f(X2, X1)+...+f(Xn, Xn-1) although the uniformity result...

  10. Effects of Variable Production Rate and Time-Dependent Holding Cost for Complementary Products in Supply Chain Model

    Mitali Sarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a major trend is going to redesign a production system by controlling or making variable the production rate within some fixed interval to maintain the optimal level. This strategy is more effective when the holding cost is time-dependent as it is interrelated with holding duration of products and rate of production. An effort is made to make a supply chain model (SCM to show the joint effect of variable production rate and time-varying holding cost for specific type of complementary products, where those products are made by two different manufacturers and a common retailer makes them bundle and sells bundles to end customers. Demand of each product is specified by stochastic reservation prices with a known potential market size. Those players of the SCM are considered with unequal power. Stackelberg game approach is employed to obtain global optimum solution of the model. An illustrative numerical example, graphical representation, and managerial insights are given to illustrate the model. Results prove that variable production rate and time-dependent holding cost save more than existing literature.

  11. Mimetic discretization methods

    Castillo, Jose E

    2013-01-01

    To help solve physical and engineering problems, mimetic or compatible algebraic discretization methods employ discrete constructs to mimic the continuous identities and theorems found in vector calculus. Mimetic Discretization Methods focuses on the recent mimetic discretization method co-developed by the first author. Based on the Castillo-Grone operators, this simple mimetic discretization method is invariably valid for spatial dimensions no greater than three. The book also presents a numerical method for obtaining corresponding discrete operators that mimic the continuum differential and

  12. Application of an efficient Bayesian discretization method to biomedical data

    Gopalakrishnan Vanathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several data mining methods require data that are discrete, and other methods often perform better with discrete data. We introduce an efficient Bayesian discretization (EBD method for optimal discretization of variables that runs efficiently on high-dimensional biomedical datasets. The EBD method consists of two components, namely, a Bayesian score to evaluate discretizations and a dynamic programming search procedure to efficiently search the space of possible discretizations. We compared the performance of EBD to Fayyad and Irani's (FI discretization method, which is commonly used for discretization. Results On 24 biomedical datasets obtained from high-throughput transcriptomic and proteomic studies, the classification performances of the C4.5 classifier and the naïve Bayes classifier were statistically significantly better when the predictor variables were discretized using EBD over FI. EBD was statistically significantly more stable to the variability of the datasets than FI. However, EBD was less robust, though not statistically significantly so, than FI and produced slightly more complex discretizations than FI. Conclusions On a range of biomedical datasets, a Bayesian discretization method (EBD yielded better classification performance and stability but was less robust than the widely used FI discretization method. The EBD discretization method is easy to implement, permits the incorporation of prior knowledge and belief, and is sufficiently fast for application to high-dimensional data.

  13. ENERGY-DEPENDENT POWER SPECTRAL STATES AND ORIGIN OF APERIODIC VARIABILITY IN BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    Yu Wenfei; Zhang Wenda

    2013-01-01

    We found that the black hole candidate MAXI J1659–152 showed distinct power spectra, i.e., power-law noise (PLN) versus band-limited noise (BLN) plus quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) below and above about 2 keV, respectively, in observations with Swift and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the 2010 outburst, indicating a high energy cutoff of the PLN and a low energy cutoff of the BLN and QPOs around 2 keV. The emergence of the PLN and the fading of the BLN and QPOs initially took place below 2 keV when the source entered the hard intermediate state and settled in the soft state three weeks later. The evolution was accompanied by the emergence of the disk spectral component and decreases in the amplitudes of variability in the soft and hard X-ray bands. Our results indicate that the PLN is associated with an optically thick disk in both hard and intermediate states, and the power spectral state is independent of the X-ray energy spectral state in a broadband view. We suggest that in the hard or intermediate state, the BLN and QPOs emerge from the innermost hot flow subjected to Comptonization, while the PLN originates from the optically thick disk farther out. The energy cutoffs of the PLN and the BLN or QPOs then follow the temperature of the seed photons from the inner edge of the optically thick disk, while the high frequency cutoff of the PLN follows the orbital frequency of the inner edge of the optically thick disk as well.

  14. Dark focus of accommodation as dependent and independent variables in visual display technology

    Jones, Sherrie; Kennedy, Robert; Harm, Deborah

    1992-01-01

    When independent stimuli are available for accommodation, as in the dark or under low contrast conditions, the lens seeks its resting position. Individual differences in resting positions are reliable, under autonomic control, and can change with visual task demands. We hypothesized that motion sickness in a flight simulator might result in dark focus changes. Method: Subjects received training flights in three different Navy flight simulators. Two were helicopter simulators entailed CRT presentation using infinity optics, one involved a dome presentation of a computer graphic visual projection system. Results: In all three experiments there were significant differences between dark focus activity before and after simulator exposure when comparisons were made between sick and not-sick pilot subjects. In two of these experiments, the average shift in dark focus for the sick subjects was toward increased myopia when each subject was compared to his own baseline. In the third experiment, the group showed an average shift outward of small amount and the subjects who were sick showed significantly less outward movement than those who were symptom free. Conclusions: Although the relationship is not a simple one, dark focus changes in simulator sickness imply parasympathetic activity. Because changes can occur in relation to endogenous and exogenous events, such measurement may have useful applications as dependent measures in studies of visually coupled systems, virtual reality systems, and space adaptation syndrome.

  15. Single genome retrieval of context-dependent variability in mutation rates for human germline.

    Sahakyan, Aleksandr B; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2017-01-13

    Accurate knowledge of the core components of substitution rates is of vital importance to understand genome evolution and dynamics. By performing a single-genome and direct analysis of 39,894 retrotransposon remnants, we reveal sequence context-dependent germline nucleotide substitution rates for the human genome. The rates are characterised through rate constants in a time-domain, and are made available through a dedicated program (Trek) and a stand-alone database. Due to the nature of the method design and the imposed stringency criteria, we expect our rate constants to be good estimates for the rates of spontaneous mutations. Benefiting from such data, we study the short-range nucleotide (up to 7-mer) organisation and the germline basal substitution propensity (BSP) profile of the human genome; characterise novel, CpG-independent, substitution prone and resistant motifs; confirm a decreased tendency of moieties with low BSP to undergo somatic mutations in a number of cancer types; and, produce a Trek-based estimate of the overall mutation rate in human. The extended set of rate constants we report may enrich our resources and help advance our understanding of genome dynamics and evolution, with possible implications for the role of spontaneous mutations in the emergence of pathological genotypes and neutral evolution of proteomes.

  16. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    Medyńska-Gulij, Beata; Cybulski, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  17. Spatio-temporal dependencies between hospital beds, physicians and health expenditure using visual variables and data classification in statistical table

    Medyńska-Gulij Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of table visual variables of statistical data of hospital beds as an important tool for revealing spatio-temporal dependencies. It is argued that some of conclusions from the data about public health and public expenditure on health have a spatio-temporal reference. Different from previous studies, this article adopts combination of cartographic pragmatics and spatial visualization with previous conclusions made in public health literature. While the significant conclusions about health care and economic factors has been highlighted in research papers, this article is the first to apply visual analysis to statistical table together with maps which is called previsualisation.

  18. Time Discretization Techniques

    Gottlieb, S.; Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-01-01

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include

  19. The Dependencies of Ecosystem Pattern, Structure, and Dynamics on Climate, Climate Variability, and Climate Change

    Flanagan, S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Fisk, J. P.; Rourke, O.

    2012-12-01

    A robust understanding of the sensitivity of the pattern, structure, and dynamics of ecosystems to climate, climate variability, and climate change is needed to predict ecosystem responses to current and projected climate change. We present results of a study designed to first quantify the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate through the use of climate and ecosystem data, and then use the results to test the sensitivity of the climate data in a state-of the art ecosystem model. A database of available ecosystem characteristics such as mean canopy height, above ground biomass, and basal area was constructed from sources like the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD). The ecosystem characteristics were then paired by latitude and longitude with the corresponding climate characteristics temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and dew point that were retrieved from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The average yearly and seasonal means of the climate data, and their associated maximum and minimum values, over the 1979-2010 time frame provided by NARR were constructed and paired with the ecosystem data. The compiled results provide natural patterns of vegetation structure and distribution with regard to climate data. An advanced ecosystem model, the Ecosystem Demography model (ED), was then modified to allow yearly alterations to its mechanistic climate lookup table and used to predict the sensitivities of ecosystem pattern, structure, and dynamics to climate data. The combined ecosystem structure and climate data results were compared to ED's output to check the validity of the model. After verification, climate change scenarios such as those used in the last IPCC were run and future forest structure changes due to climate sensitivities were identified. The results of this study can be used to both quantify and test key relationships for next generation models. The sensitivity of ecosystem characteristics to climate data

  20. Discretization of four types of Weyl group orbit functions

    Hrivnák, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    The discrete Fourier calculus of the four families of special functions, called C–, S–, S s – and S l -functions, is summarized. Functions from each of the four families of special functions are discretely orthogonal over a certain finite set of points. The generalizations of discrete cosine and sine transforms of one variable — the discrete S s – and S l -transforms of the group F 4 — are considered in detail required for their exploitation in discrete Fourier spectral methods. The continuous interpolations, induced by the discrete expansions, are presented

  1. Extracellular vesicles have variable dose-dependent effects on cultured draining cells in the eye.

    Tabak, Saray; Schreiber-Avissar, Sofia; Beit-Yannai, Elie

    2018-03-01

    The role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as signal mediators has been described in many biological fields. How many EVs are needed to deliver the desired physiological signal is yet unclear. Using a normal trabecular meshwork (NTM) cell culture exposed to non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPCE)-derived EVs, a relevant model for studying the human ocular drainage system, we addressed the EVs dose-response effects on the Wnt signaling. The objective of the study was to investigate the dosing effects of NPCE-derived EVs on TM Wnt signaling. EVs were isolated by PEG 8000 method from NPCE and RPE cells (used as controls) conditioned media. Concentrations were determined by Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing method. Various exosomes concentration were incubated with TM cells, for the determination of mRNA (β-Catenin, Axin2 and LEF1) and protein (β-Catenin, GSK-3β) expression using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Exposure of NTM cells for 8 hrs to low EVs concentrations was associated with a significant decreased expression of β-Catenin, GSK-3β, as opposed to exposure to high exosomal concentrations. Pro-MMP9 and MMP9 activities were significantly enhanced in NTM cells treated with high EV concentrations of (X10) as compared to low EV concentrations of either NPCE- or RPE-derived EVs and to untreated control. Our data support the concept that EVs biological effects are concentration-dependent at their target site. Specifically in the present study, we described a general dose-response at the gene and MMPs activity and a different dose-response regarding key canonical Wnt proteins expression. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in dairy cows with variable fat mobilization around calving.

    Weber, C; Schäff, C T; Kautzsch, U; Börner, S; Erdmann, S; Görs, S; Röntgen, M; Sauerwein, H; Bruckmaier, R M; Metges, C C; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M

    2016-08-01

    clamps, pp nonesterified fatty acid concentrations did not reach the ap levels. The study demonstrated a minor influence of different degrees of body fat mobilization on insulin metabolism in cows during the transition period. The distinct decrease in the glucose-dependent release of insulin pp is the most striking finding that explains the impaired insulin action after calving, but does not explain differences in body fat mobilization between HLFC and LLFC cows. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance on perceptual word identification is mediated by discrete states.

    Swagman, April R; Province, Jordan M; Rouder, Jeffrey N

    2015-02-01

    We contrast predictions from discrete-state models of all-or-none information loss with signal-detection models of graded strength for the identification of briefly flashed English words. Previous assessments have focused on whether ROC curves are straight or not, which is a test of a discrete-state model where detection leads to the highest confidence response with certainty. We along with many others argue this certainty assumption is too constraining, and, consequently, the straight-line ROC test is too stringent. Instead, we assess a core property of discrete-state models, conditional independence, where the pattern of responses depends only on which state is entered. The conditional independence property implies that confidence ratings are a mixture of detect and guess state responses, and that stimulus strength factors, the duration of the flashed word in this report, affect only the probability of entering a state and not responses conditional on a state. To assess this mixture property, 50 participants saw words presented briefly on a computer screen at three variable flash durations followed by either a two-alternative confidence ratings task or a yes-no confidence ratings task. Comparable discrete-state and signal-detection models were fit to the data for each participant and task. The discrete-state models outperformed the signal detection models for 90 % of participants in the two-alternative task and for 68 % of participants in the yes-no task. We conclude discrete-state models are viable for predicting performance across stimulus conditions in a perceptual word identification task.

  4. Variability in colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency of improved and unimproved soybean cultivars.

    Salloum, M S; Guzzo, M C; Velazquez, M S; Sagadin, M B; Luna, C M

    2016-12-01

    Breeding selection of germplasm under fertilized conditions may reduce the frequency of genes that promote mycorrhizal associations. This study was developed to compare variability in mycorrhizal colonization and its effect on mycorrhizal dependency (MD) in improved soybean genotypes (I-1 and I-2) with differential tolerance to drought stress, and in unimproved soybean genotypes (UI-3 and UI-4). As inoculum, a mixed native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was isolated from soybean roots, showing spores mostly of the species Funneliformis mosseae. At 20 days, unimproved genotypes followed by I-2, showed an increase in arbuscule formation, but not in I-1. At 40 days, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in nodulation, this effect being more evident in unimproved genotypes. Mycorrhizal dependency, evaluated as growth and biochemical parameters from oxidative stress was increased in unimproved and I-2 since 20 days, whereas in I-1, MD increased at 40 days. We cannot distinguish significant differences in AMF colonization and MD between unimproved and I-2. However, variability among improved genotypes was observed. Our results suggest that selection for improved soybean genotypes with good and rapid AMF colonization, particularly high arbuscule/hyphae ratio could be a useful strategy for the development of genotypes that optimize AMF contribution to cropping systems.

  5. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. Continuous solutions to a viral infection model with general incidence rate, discrete state-dependent delay, CTL and antibody immune responses

    Rezunenko, Oleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 79 (2016), s. 1-15 ISSN 1417-3875 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06678S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : evolution equations * Lyapunov stability * state-dependent delay * virus infection model Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.926, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/rezunenko-0464066.pdf

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Antibiotic Exposures as Time-Dependent Variables on the Acquisition of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Rosa, Rossana; Castro, Jose G; Laowansiri, Panthipa; Latibeaudiere, Rachel; Namias, Nicholas; Tarima, Sergey

    2016-10-01

    To determine the time-dependent effect of antibiotics on the initial acquisition of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Retrospective cohort study. Forty-bed trauma ICU in Miami, FL. All consecutive patients admitted to the unit from November 1, 2010, to November 30, 2011. None. Patients underwent surveillance cultures at admission to the unit and weekly thereafter. The primary outcome was the acquisition of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii on surveillance cultures. Daily antibiotic exposures during the time of observation were used to construct time-dependent variables, including cumulative exposures (in grams and daily observed doses [defined daily doses]). Among 360 patients, 45 (12.5%) became colonized with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Adjusted Cox models showed that each additional point in the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation score increased the hazard by 4.8% (hazard ratio, 1.048; 95% CI, 1.010-1.087; p = 0.0124) and time-dependent exposure to carbapenems quadrupled the hazard (hazard ratio, 4.087; 95% CI, 1.873-8.920; p = 0.0004) of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Additionally, adjusted Cox models determined that every additional carbapenem defined daily dose increased the hazard of acquiring carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii by 5.1% (hazard ratio, 1.051; 95% CI, 1.007-1.093; p = 0.0243). Carbapenem exposure quadrupled the hazards of acquiring A. baumannii even after controlling for severity of illness.

  8. Demographic models reveal the shape of density dependence for a specialist insect herbivore on variable host plants.

    Miller, Tom E X

    2007-07-01

    1. It is widely accepted that density-dependent processes play an important role in most natural populations. However, persistent challenges in our understanding of density-dependent population dynamics include evaluating the shape of the relationship between density and demographic rates (linear, concave, convex), and identifying extrinsic factors that can mediate this relationship. 2. I studied the population dynamics of the cactus bug Narnia pallidicornis on host plants (Opuntia imbricata) that varied naturally in relative reproductive effort (RRE, the proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction), an important plant quality trait. I manipulated per-plant cactus bug densities, quantified subsequent dynamics, and fit stage-structured models to the experimental data to ask if and how density influences demographic parameters. 3. In the field experiment, I found that populations with variable starting densities quickly converged upon similar growth trajectories. In the model-fitting analyses, the data strongly supported a model that defined the juvenile cactus bug retention parameter (joint probability of surviving and not dispersing) as a nonlinear decreasing function of density. The estimated shape of this relationship shifted from concave to convex with increasing host-plant RRE. 4. The results demonstrate that host-plant traits are critical sources of variation in the strength and shape of density dependence in insects, and highlight the utility of integrated experimental-theoretical approaches for identifying processes underlying patterns of change in natural populations.

  9. Laplacians on discrete and quantum geometries

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We extend discrete calculus for arbitrary (p-form) fields on embedded lattices to abstract discrete geometries based on combinatorial complexes. We then provide a general definition of discrete Laplacian using both the primal cellular complex and its combinatorial dual. The precise implementation of geometric volume factors is not unique and, comparing the definition with a circumcentric and a barycentric dual, we argue that the latter is, in general, more appropriate because it induces a Laplacian with more desirable properties. We give the expression of the discrete Laplacian in several different sets of geometric variables, suitable for computations in different quantum gravity formalisms. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of transforming from position to momentum space for scalar fields, thus setting the stage for the calculation of heat kernel and spectral dimension in discrete quantum geometries. (paper)

  10. Variability of the 2014-present inflation source at Mauna Loa volcano revealed using time-dependent modeling

    Johanson, I. A.; Miklius, A.; Okubo, P.; Montgomery-Brown, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Loa volcano is the largest active volcano on earth and in the 20thcentury produced roughly one eruption every seven years. The 33-year quiescence since its last eruption 1984 has been punctuated by three inflation episodes where magma likely entered the shallow plumbing system, but was not erupted. The most recent began in 2014 and is ongoing. Unlike prior inflation episodes, the current one is accompanied by a significant increase in shallow seismicity, a pattern that is similar to earlier pre-eruptive periods. We apply the Kalman filter based Network Inversion Filter (NIF) to the 2014-present inflation episode using data from a 27 station continuous GPS network on Mauna Loa. The model geometry consists of a point volume source and tabular, dike-like body, which have previously been shown to provide a good fit to deformation data from a 2004-2009 inflation episode. The tabular body is discretized into 1km x 1km segments. For each day, the NIF solves for the rates of opening on the tabular body segments (subject to smoothing and positivity constraints), volume change rate in the point source, and slip rate on a deep décollement fault surface, which is constrained to a constant (no transient slip allowed). The Kalman filter in the NIF provides for smoothing both forwards and backwards in time. The model shows that the 2014-present inflation episode occurred as several sub-events, rather than steady inflation. It shows some spatial variability in the location of the inflation sub-events. In the model, opening in the tabular body is initially concentrated below the volcano's summit, in an area roughly outlined by shallow seismicity. In October, 2015 opening in the tabular body shifts to be centered beneath the southwest portion of the summit and seismicity becomes concentrated in this area. By late 2016, the opening rate on the tabular body decreases and is once again under the central part of summit. This modeling approach has allowed us to track these

  11. Discrete scale-free distributions and associated limit theorems

    Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E; Matthews, J O

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is given to the convergence properties of sums of identical, independently distributed random variables drawn from a class of discrete distributions with power-law tails, which are relevant to scale-free networks. Different limiting distributions, and rates of convergence to these limits, are identified and depend on the index of the tail. For indices ≥2, the topology evolves to a random Poisson network, but the rate of convergence can be extraordinarily slow and unlikely to be yet evident for the current size of the WWW for example. It is shown that treating discrete scale-free behaviour with continuum or mean-field approximations can lead to incorrect results. (letter to the editor)

  12. Resistor capacitor, primitive variable solution of buoyant fluid flow within an enclosure with highly temperature dependent viscosity

    Burns, S.P. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Gianoulakis, S.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A numerical solution for buoyant natural convection within a square enclosure containing a fluid with highly temperature dependent viscosity is presented. Although the fluid properties employed do not represent any real fluid, the large variation in the fluid viscosity with temperature is characteristic of turbulent flow modeling with eddy-viscosity concepts. Results are obtained using a primitive variable formulation and the resistor method. The results presented include velocity, temperature and pressure distributions within the enclosure as well as shear stress and heat flux distributions along the enclosure walls. Three mesh refinements were employed and uncertainty values are suggested for the final mesh refinement. These solutions are part of a contributed benchmark solution set for the subject problem.

  13. Discrete Bose-Einstein spectra

    Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas

    2001-03-01

    The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a rigid cubic box, is shown to become discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry (size L), temperature, T and atomic mass number, A at , in the region of small γ=A at TV 1/3 . This behavior is the consequence of the random state degeneracy in the box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy does not obey the conventional law any longer, but a new law, which depends on γ and on the quantum gas fugacity. This energy law imposes a faster decrease to zero than it is classically expected, for γ→0. The lighter the gas atoms, the higher the temperatures or the box size, for the same effects in the discrete Bose-Einstein regime. (author)

  14. Discrete Planck spectra

    Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas

    2000-10-01

    The Planck radiation spectrum of ideal cubic and spherical cavities, in the region of small adiabatic invariance, γ = TV 1/3 , is shown to be discrete and strongly dependent on the cavity geometry and temperature. This behavior is the consequence of the random distribution of the state weights in the cubic cavity and of the random overlapping of the successive multiplet components, for the spherical cavity. The total energy (obtained by summing up the exact contributions of the eigenvalues and their weights, for low values of the adiabatic invariance) does not obey any longer Stefan-Boltzmann law. The new law includes a corrective factor depending on γ and imposes a faster decrease of the total energy to zero, for γ → 0. We have defined the double quantized regime both for cubic and spherical cavities by the superior and inferior limits put on the principal quantum numbers or the adiabatic invariance. The total energy of the double quantized cavities shows large differences from the classical calculations over unexpected large intervals, which are measurable and put in evidence important macroscopic quantum effects. (author)

  15. Discrete simulation system based on artificial intelligence methods

    Futo, I; Szeredi, J

    1982-01-01

    A discrete event simulation system based on the AI language Prolog is presented. The system called t-Prolog extends the traditional possibilities of simulation languages toward automatic problem solving by using backtrack in time and automatic model modification depending on logical deductions. As t-Prolog is an interactive tool, the user has the possibility to interrupt the simulation run to modify the model or to force it to return to a previous state for trying possible alternatives. It admits the construction of goal-oriented or goal-seeking models with variable structure. Models are defined in a restricted version of the first order predicate calculus using Horn clauses. 21 references.

  16. Outer membrane targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins shows variable dependence on the components of Bam and Lol machineries.

    Hoang, Hanh H; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Lee, Vincent T; Kazimirova, Anastasia; Chami, Mohamed; Pugsley, Anthony P; Lory, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, the Lol and Bam machineries direct the targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins, respectively, to the outer membrane (OM). Using Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with depleted levels of specific Bam and Lol proteins, we demonstrated a variable dependence of different OM proteins on these targeting pathways. Reduction in the level of BamA significantly affected the ability of the β-barrel membrane protein OprF to localize to the OM, while the targeting of three secretins that are functionally related OM proteins was less affected (PilQ and PscC) or not at all affected (XcpQ). Depletion of LolB affected all lipoproteins examined and had a variable effect on the nonlipidated proteins. While the levels of OprF, PilQ, and PscC were significantly reduced by LolB depletion, XcpQ was unaffected and was correctly localized to the OM. These results suggest that certain β-barrel proteins such as OprF primarily utilize the complete Bam machinery. The Lol machinery participates in the OM targeting of secretins to variable degrees, likely through its involvement in the assembly of lipidated Bam components. XcpQ, but not PilQ or PscC, was shown to assemble spontaneously into liposomes as multimers. This work raises the possibility that there is a gradient of utilization of Bam and Lol insertion and targeting machineries. Structural features of individual proteins, including their β-barrel content, may determine the propensity of these proteins for folding (or misfolding) during periplasmic transit and OM insertion, thereby influencing the extent of utilization of the Bam targeting machinery, respectively. Targeting of lipidated and nonlipidated proteins to the outer membrane (OM) compartment in Gram-negative bacteria involves the transfer across the periplasm utilizing the Lol and Bam machineries, respectively. We show that depletion of Bam and Lol components in Pseudomonas aeruginosa does not lead to a general OM protein translocation defect

  17. The Information Content of Discrete Functions and Their Application in Genetic Data Analysis.

    Sakhanenko, Nikita A; Kunert-Graf, James; Galas, David J

    2017-12-01

    The complex of central problems in data analysis consists of three components: (1) detecting the dependence of variables using quantitative measures, (2) defining the significance of these dependence measures, and (3) inferring the functional relationships among dependent variables. We have argued previously that an information theory approach allows separation of the detection problem from the inference of functional form problem. We approach here the third component of inferring functional forms based on information encoded in the functions. We present here a direct method for classifying the functional forms of discrete functions of three variables represented in data sets. Discrete variables are frequently encountered in data analysis, both as the result of inherently categorical variables and from the binning of continuous numerical variables into discrete alphabets of values. The fundamental question of how much information is contained in a given function is answered for these discrete functions, and their surprisingly complex relationships are illustrated. The all-important effect of noise on the inference of function classes is found to be highly heterogeneous and reveals some unexpected patterns. We apply this classification approach to an important area of biological data analysis-that of inference of genetic interactions. Genetic analysis provides a rich source of real and complex biological data analysis problems, and our general methods provide an analytical basis and tools for characterizing genetic problems and for analyzing genetic data. We illustrate the functional description and the classes of a number of common genetic interaction modes and also show how different modes vary widely in their sensitivity to noise.

  18. Free energy of activation. Definition, properties, and dependent variables with special reference to linear free energy relations

    Levine, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reaction rate constant is expressed as Z exp(-G/sub a//RT). Z is the binary collision frequency. G/sub a/, the free energy of activation, is shown to be the difference between the free energy of the reactive reactants and the free energy of all reactants. The results are derived from both a statistical mechanical and a collision theoretic point of view. While the later is more suitable for an ab-initio computation of the reaction rate, it is the former that lends itself to the search of systematics and of correlations and to compaction of data. Different thermodynamic-like routes to the characterization of G/sub a/ are thus explored. The two most promising ones appear to be the use of thermodynamic type cycles and the changes of dependent variables using the Legendre transform technique. The dependence of G/sub a/ on ΔG 0 , the standard free energy change in the reaction, is examined from the later point of view. It is shown that one can rigorously express this dependence as G/sub a/ = αΔG 0 + G/sub a/ 0 M(α). Here α is the Bronsted slope, α = -par. delta ln k(T)/par. delta(ΔG 0 /RT), G/sub a/ 0 is independent of ΔG 0 and M(α), the Legendre transform of G/sub a/, is a function only of α. For small changes in ΔG 0 , the general result reduces to the familiar ''linear'' free energy relation delta G/sub a/ = α delta ΔG 0 . It is concluded from general considerations that M(α) is a symmetric, convex function of α and hence that α is a monotonically increasing function of ΔG 0 . Experimental data appear to conform well to the form α = 1/[1 + exp(-ΔG 0 /G/sub s/ 0 )]. A simple interpretation of the ΔG 0 dependence of G/sub a/, based on an interpolation of the free energy from that of the reagents to that of the products, is offered. 4 figures, 69 references

  19. Baecklund transformations for discrete Painleve equations: Discrete PII-PV

    Sakka, A.; Mugan, U.

    2006-01-01

    Transformation properties of discrete Painleve equations are investigated by using an algorithmic method. This method yields explicit transformations which relates the solutions of discrete Painleve equations, discrete P II -P V , with different values of parameters. The particular solutions which are expressible in terms of the discrete analogue of the classical special functions of discrete Painleve equations can also be obtained from these transformations

  20. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from PROFESSOR MULTANOVSKIY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-09-11 to 1993-11-21 (NCEI Accession 0143931)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143931 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from PROFESSOR MULTANOVSKIY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-09-11 to 1993-11-21....

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1985-08-04 to 1985-09-07 (NCEI Accession 0143394)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143394 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1985-08-04 to 1985-09-07 and...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1993-05-13 to 1993-05-30 (NODC Accession 0115496)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115496 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from Hakuho Maru in the North Pacific Ocean from 1993-05-13 to...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from Kaiyo in the Philippine Sea from 1994-02-12 to 1994-02-16 (NCEI Accession 0143635)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143635 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from Kaiyo in the Philippine Sea from 1994-02-12 to 1994-02-16. These data include DELTA...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1999-08-13 to 1999-08-31 (NODC Accession 0115603)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115603 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1999-08-13 to 1999-08-31...

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from RYOFU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1992-02-10 to 1992-02-17 (NCEI Accession 0143943)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143943 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from RYOFU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1992-02-10 to 1992-02-17. These data include...

  6. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-09-06 to 1989-10-30 (NODC Accession 0116645)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116645 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from POLARSTERN in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1989-09-06 to...

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea from 2003-09-11 to 2003-10-18 (NODC Accession 0115676)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115676 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1996-05-07 to 1996-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0143942)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143942 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1996-05-07 to 1996-05-31. These data include...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 1987-11-12 to 1987-12-17 (NCEI Accession 0157468)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157468 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from CHARLES DARWIN in the Indian Ocean from 1987-11-12 to 1987-12-17....

  10. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1998-04-23 to 1998-06-01 (NODC Accession 0113536)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113536 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1998-04-23...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 2013-10-25 to 2013-12-20 (NCEI Accession 0163186)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0163186 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the South Pacific Ocean from 2013-10-25 to...

  12. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1991-06-26 to 1991-07-04 (NODC Accession 0115598)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115598 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1991-06-26 to...

  13. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1990-10-11 to 1990-10-15 (NODC Accession 0115600)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115600 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from OCEAN RESEARCHER I in the Philippine Sea from 1990-10-11 to...

  14. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-06-26 to 2003-07-21 (NODC Accession 0115682)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115682 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-06-26 to 2003-07-21...

  15. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-06-20 to 2001-07-15 (NODC Accession 0115601)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115601 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2001-06-20 to 2001-07-15...

  16. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-01-30 to 2006-03-14 (NODC Accession 0115593)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115593 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the South Pacific Ocean from 2006-01-30 to 2006-03-14...

  17. PH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1992-02-25 to 1992-02-29 (NODC Accession 0115709)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115709 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from SHUMPU MARU in the Philippine Sea from 1992-02-25 to 1992-02-29....

  18. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1995-09-13 to 1995-10-14 (NCEI Accession 0143397)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143397 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from FRANKLIN in the Indian Ocean from 1995-09-13 to 1995-10-14 and retrieved during...

  19. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from ATLANTIS II in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1981-06-12 to 1981-07-08 (NODC Accession 0117713)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117713 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ATLANTIS II in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1981-06-12 to...

  20. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-07-16 to 1989-08-10 (NODC Accession 0113532)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113532 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1989-07-16 to...

  1. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea from 2004-07-18 to 2004-08-26 (NODC Accession 0113548)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113548 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, optical, physical and profile data collected from HEALY in the Arctic Ocean and Beaufort Sea...

  2. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1986-04-24 to 1986-05-18 (NODC Accession 0117678)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117678 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KNORR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1986-04-24 to 1986-05-18...

  3. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the JAN MAYEN in the Norwegian Sea from 1993-04-01 to 1995-11-01 (NODC Accession 0115677)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115677 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JAN MAYEN in the Norwegian Sea from 1993-04-01 to 1995-11-01 and...

  4. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 1991-09-25 to 1991-10-27 (NODC Accession 0116370)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116370 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from AURORA AUSTRALIS in the Indian Ocean from 1991-09-25 to...

  5. Nutrients, transient tracers, and other variables collected from profile and discrete sampling observations using Niskin bottle, CTD and other instruments in the Arctic Ocean from 2005-05-02 to 2009-05-18 (NODC Accession 0117695)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117695 includes discrete CTD profile data collected from aircraft lending expeditions in the Arctic Ocean from 2005-05-02 to 2009-05-18. All...

  6. PH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-06-04 to 2004-07-06 (NODC Accession 0113918)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0113918 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THALASSA in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2004-06-04 to...

  7. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the ENDEAVOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-03-28 to 1991-04-21 (NODC Accession 0113988)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113988 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from ENDEAVOR in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1991-03-28 to...

  8. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean from 1995-01-06 to 1995-02-21 (NCEI Accession 0160543)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160543 includes biological, chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean from 1995-01-06 to...

  9. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the NEW HORIZON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1980-08-10 to 1980-09-03 (NODC Accession 0116707)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0116707 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NEW HORIZON in the North Pacific Ocean from 1980-08-10 to...

  10. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans from 1994-02-19 to 1994-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0144242)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144242 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the Indian Ocean and Southern Oceans (> 60 degrees South) from...

  11. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from DISCOVERY in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1992-12-22 to 1993-02-01 (NCEI Accession 0144287)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144287 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from DISCOVERY in the South Atlantic Ocean from 1992-12-22 to 1993-02-01. These data...

  12. Variability of Pinus halepensis Mill. Essential Oils and Their Antioxidant Activities Depending on the Stage of Growth During Vegetative Cycle.

    Djerrad, Zineb; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Kadik, Leila

    2017-04-01

    The impact of growth stages during vegetative cycle (B 0  - B 5 ) on chemical composition and antioxidant activities of Pinus halepensis Mill. needles essential oils was investigated for the first time. GC and GC/MS analyses pointed to a quantitative variability of components; terpene hydrocarbons derivatives, represented by α-pinene (8.5 - 12.9%), myrcene (17.5 - 21.6%), p-cymene (7.9 - 11.9%) and (Z)-β-caryophyllene (17.3 - 21.2%) as major components, decreased from 88.9% at B 0 growth stage to 66.9% at B 5 growth stage, whereas oxygenated derivatives, represented by caryophyllene oxide (5.4 - 12.6%) and terpinen-4-ol (0.4 - 3.3%) as major components, increased from 7% at B 0 growth stage to 28.4% at B 5 growth stage. Furthermore, our findings showed that essential oil of P. halepensis needles collected at B 5 growth stage possess higher antioxidant activities by four different testing systems than those collected at B 0  - B 4 growth stages. This highlighted variability led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on growth stage, in order to have the highest effectiveness of essential oil in terms of biological activities for human health purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Discrete Gabor transform and discrete Zak transform

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Namazi, N.M.; Matthews, K.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal or synthesis window is introduced, along with the inverse operation, i.e. the Gabor transform, which uses an analysis window that is related to the synthesis window and with the help of

  14. Discrete Mathematics Re "Tooled."

    Grassl, Richard M.; Mingus, Tabitha T. Y.

    1999-01-01

    Indicates the importance of teaching discrete mathematics. Describes how the use of technology can enhance the teaching and learning of discrete mathematics. Explorations using Excel, Derive, and the TI-92 proved how preservice and inservice teachers experienced a new dimension in problem solving and discovery. (ASK)

  15. Homogenization of discrete media

    Pradel, F.; Sab, K.

    1998-01-01

    Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.)

  16. Discrete density of states

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  17. Discrete density of states

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  18. Discrete control systems

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  19. Discrete repulsive oscillator wavefunctions

    Munoz, Carlos A; Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    For the study of infinite discrete systems on phase space, the three-dimensional Lorentz algebra and group, so(2,1) and SO(2,1), provide a discrete model of the repulsive oscillator. Its eigenfunctions are found in the principal irreducible representation series, where the compact generator-that we identify with the position operator-has the infinite discrete spectrum of the integers Z, while the spectrum of energies is a double continuum. The right- and left-moving wavefunctions are given by hypergeometric functions that form a Dirac basis for l 2 (Z). Under contraction, the discrete system limits to the well-known quantum repulsive oscillator. Numerical computations of finite approximations raise further questions on the use of Dirac bases for infinite discrete systems.

  20. Discrete Element Modeling

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  1. Quadratic Term Structure Models in Discrete Time

    Marco Realdon

    2006-01-01

    This paper extends the results on quadratic term structure models in continuos time to the discrete time setting. The continuos time setting can be seen as a special case of the discrete time one. Recursive closed form solutions for zero coupon bonds are provided even in the presence of multiple correlated underlying factors. Pricing bond options requires simple integration. Model parameters may well be time dependent without scuppering such tractability. Model estimation does not require a r...

  2. Influence of Flow Sequencing Attributed to Climate Change and Climate Variability on the Assessment of Water-dependent Ecosystem Outcomes

    Wang, J.; Nathan, R.; Horne, A.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional approaches to characterize water-dependent ecosystem outcomes in response to flow have been based on time-averaged hydrological indicators, however there is increasing recognition for the need to characterize ecological processes that are highly dependent on the sequencing of flow conditions (i.e. floods and droughts). This study considers the representation of flow regimes when considering assessment of ecological outcomes, and in particular, the need to account for sequencing and variability of flow. We conducted two case studies - one in the largely unregulated Ovens River catchment and one in the highly regulated Murray River catchment (both located in south-eastern Australia) - to explore the importance of flow sequencing to the condition of a typical long-lived ecological asset in Australia, the River Red Gum forests. In the first, the Ovens River case study, the implications of representing climate change using different downscaling methods (annual scaling, monthly scaling, quantile mapping, and weather generator method) on the sequencing of flows and resulting ecological outcomes were considered. In the second, the Murray River catchment, sequencing within a historic drought period was considered by systematically making modest adjustments on an annual basis to the hydrological records. In both cases, the condition of River Red Gum forests was assessed using an ecological model that incorporates transitions between ecological conditions in response to sequences of required flow components. The results of both studies show the importance of considering how hydrological alterations are represented when assessing ecological outcomes. The Ovens case study showed that there is significant variation in the predicted ecological outcomes when different downscaling techniques are applied. Similarly, the analysis in the Murray case study showed that the drought as it historically occurred provided one of the best possible outcomes for River Red Gum

  3. Duality for discrete integrable systems

    Quispel, G R W; Capel, H W; Roberts, J A G

    2005-01-01

    A new class of discrete dynamical systems is introduced via a duality relation for discrete dynamical systems with a number of explicitly known integrals. The dual equation can be defined via the difference of an arbitrary linear combination of integrals and its upshifted version. We give an example of an integrable mapping with two parameters and four integrals leading to a (four-dimensional) dual mapping with four parameters and two integrals. We also consider a more general class of higher-dimensional mappings arising via a travelling-wave reduction from the (integrable) MKdV partial-difference equation. By differencing the trace of the monodromy matrix we obtain a class of novel dual mappings which is shown to be integrable as level-set-dependent versions of the original ones

  4. Discrete non-parametric kernel estimation for global sensitivity analysis

    Senga Kiessé, Tristan; Ventura, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the discrete kernel approach for evaluating the contribution of the variance of discrete input variables to the variance of model output, via analysis of variance (ANOVA) decomposition. Until recently only the continuous kernel approach has been applied as a metamodeling approach within sensitivity analysis framework, for both discrete and continuous input variables. Now the discrete kernel estimation is known to be suitable for smoothing discrete functions. We present a discrete non-parametric kernel estimator of ANOVA decomposition of a given model. An estimator of sensitivity indices is also presented with its asymtotic convergence rate. Some simulations on a test function analysis and a real case study from agricultural have shown that the discrete kernel approach outperforms the continuous kernel one for evaluating the contribution of moderate or most influential discrete parameters to the model output. - Highlights: • We study a discrete kernel estimation for sensitivity analysis of a model. • A discrete kernel estimator of ANOVA decomposition of the model is presented. • Sensitivity indices are calculated for discrete input parameters. • An estimator of sensitivity indices is also presented with its convergence rate. • An application is realized for improving the reliability of environmental models.

  5. Inference for binomial probability based on dependent Bernoulli random variables with applications to meta‐analysis and group level studies

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We study bias arising as a result of nonlinear transformations of random variables in random or mixed effects models and its effect on inference in group‐level studies or in meta‐analysis. The findings are illustrated on the example of overdispersed binomial distributions, where we demonstrate considerable biases arising from standard log‐odds and arcsine transformations of the estimated probability p^, both for single‐group studies and in combining results from several groups or studies in meta‐analysis. Our simulations confirm that these biases are linear in ρ, for small values of ρ, the intracluster correlation coefficient. These biases do not depend on the sample sizes or the number of studies K in a meta‐analysis and result in abysmal coverage of the combined effect for large K. We also propose bias‐correction for the arcsine transformation. Our simulations demonstrate that this bias‐correction works well for small values of the intraclass correlation. The methods are applied to two examples of meta‐analyses of prevalence. PMID:27192062

  6. HEART RATE VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION IN DEPENDENCE ON THE TYPE OF DAILY BLOOD PRESSURE PROFILE

    S. G. B. K. Gorantla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Violation of functioning of the autonomic nervous system is an important factor in the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH. Abnormal nocturnal blood pressure (BP reduction is regarded as an independent prognostic factor for cardiovascular complications in patients with AH. One of the possible factors that determine the violation of BP circadian rhythm can be imbalance of different parts of autonomic nervous system. The aim of our study was to study heart rate variability (HRV in patients with AH, dependently of BP profile. 72 patients with AH were examined. Average age was 57 ± 11 years. All patients underwent ambulatory BP (ABPM and ECG monitoring. To define the daily profile the nocturnal BP dip was quantified and for HRV evaluation the frequency analysis method was used. HRV changes in patients with AH present with reduced total power and with a violation in the ratio of the powers of very low, low and high frequencies, enhanced sympathycotension and influence of humoral factors. Violations of systolic BP (SBP daily profile was mainly characterized by an increase in the power of low frequency waves, which indicates an intensification of sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic influences. Violations of diastolic BP (DBP daily profile were mainly characterized by a relative increase in the power of very low frequency waves. The obtained results showed that in the management of patients with AH it is important not only to control the circadian SBP and DBP profiles, but the evaluation of HRV also.

  7. Inference for binomial probability based on dependent Bernoulli random variables with applications to meta-analysis and group level studies.

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena; Morgenthaler, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    We study bias arising as a result of nonlinear transformations of random variables in random or mixed effects models and its effect on inference in group-level studies or in meta-analysis. The findings are illustrated on the example of overdispersed binomial distributions, where we demonstrate considerable biases arising from standard log-odds and arcsine transformations of the estimated probability p̂, both for single-group studies and in combining results from several groups or studies in meta-analysis. Our simulations confirm that these biases are linear in ρ, for small values of ρ, the intracluster correlation coefficient. These biases do not depend on the sample sizes or the number of studies K in a meta-analysis and result in abysmal coverage of the combined effect for large K. We also propose bias-correction for the arcsine transformation. Our simulations demonstrate that this bias-correction works well for small values of the intraclass correlation. The methods are applied to two examples of meta-analyses of prevalence. © 2016 The Authors. Biometrical Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Improved result on stability analysis of discrete stochastic neural networks with time delay

    Wu Zhengguang; Su Hongye; Chu Jian; Zhou Wuneng

    2009-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of exponential stability for discrete stochastic time-delay neural networks. By defining a novel Lyapunov functional, an improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Meanwhile, the computational complexity of the newly established stability condition is reduced because less variables are involved. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  9. A study of discrete nonlinear systems

    Dhillon, H.S.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation of various spatially discrete time-independent nonlinear models was undertaken. These models are generically applicable to many different physical systems including electron-phonon interactions in solids, magnetic multilayers, layered superconductors and classical lattice systems. To characterise the possible magnetic structures created on magnetic multilayers a model has been formulated and studied. The Euler-Lagrange equation for this model is a discrete version of the Sine-Gordon equation. Solutions of this equation are generated by applying the methods of Chaotic Dynamics - treating the space variable associated with the layer number as a discrete time variable. The states found indicate periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic structures. Analytic solutions to the discrete nonlinear Schroedinger Equation (DNSE) with cubic nonlinearity are presented in the strong coupling limit. Using these as a starting point, a procedure is developed to determine the wave function and the energy eigenvalue for moderate coupling. The energy eigenvalues of the different structures of the wave function are found to be in excellent agreement with the exact strong coupling result. The solutions to the DNSE indicate commensurate and incommensurate spatial structures associated with different localisation patterns of the wave function. The states which arise may be fractal, periodic, quasiperiodic or chaotic. This work is then extended to solve a first order discrete nonlinear equation. The exact solutions for both the first and second order discrete nonlinear equations with cubic nonlinearity suggests that this method of studying discrete nonlinear equations may be applied to solve discrete equations with any order difference and cubic nonlinearity. (author)

  10. Discrete Calculus by Analogy

    Izadi, F A; Bagirov, G

    2009-01-01

    With its origins stretching back several centuries, discrete calculus is now an increasingly central methodology for many problems related to discrete systems and algorithms. The topics covered here usually arise in many branches of science and technology, especially in discrete mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and probability theory as well as in electrical engineering, but our viewpoint here is that these topics belong to a much more general realm of mathematics; namely calculus and differential equations because of the remarkable analogy of the subject to this branch of mathemati

  11. Oxygen-Dependent Cell-to-Cell Variability in the Output of the Escherichia coli Tor Phosphorelay.

    Roggiani, Manuela; Goulian, Mark

    2015-06-15

    Escherichia coli senses and responds to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the environment through the TorT-TorS-TorR signal transduction system. The periplasmic protein TorT binds TMAO and stimulates the hybrid kinase TorS to phosphorylate the response regulator TorR through a phosphorelay. Phosphorylated TorR, in turn, activates transcription of the torCAD operon, which encodes the proteins required for anaerobic respiration via reduction of TMAO to trimethylamine. Interestingly, E. coli respires TMAO in both the presence and absence of oxygen, a behavior that is markedly different from the utilization of other alternative electron acceptors by this bacterium. Here we describe an unusual form of regulation by oxygen for this system. While the average level of torCAD transcription is the same for aerobic and anaerobic cultures containing TMAO, the behavior across the population of cells is strikingly different under the two growth conditions. Cellular levels of torCAD transcription in aerobic cultures are highly heterogeneous, in contrast to the relatively homogeneous distribution in anaerobic cultures. Thus, oxygen regulates the variance of the output but not the mean for the Tor system. We further show that this oxygen-dependent variability stems from the phosphorelay. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is utilized by numerous bacteria as an electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. In E. coli, expression of the proteins required for TMAO respiration is tightly regulated by a signal transduction system that is activated by TMAO. Curiously, although oxygen is the energetically preferred electron acceptor, TMAO is respired even in the presence of oxygen. Here we describe an interesting and unexpected form of regulation for this system in which oxygen produces highly variable expression of the TMAO utilization proteins across a population of cells without affecting the mean expression of these proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of a stimulus

  12. Diurnal and seasonal variability in size-dependent atmospheric deposition fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban center

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Li, Shao-Meng; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Staebler, Ralf; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2012-09-01

    Atmospheric gaseous and size-segregated particle samples were collected from urban Guangzhou at the heights of 100 and 150 m above the ground in daytime and at night in August and December 2010, and were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Particulate PAHs were more abundant at night than in daytime, and significantly higher in winter than in summer. The observed vertical, diurnal, and seasonal variability in the occurrences of PAH were attributed to varying meteorological conditions and atmospheric boundary layers. More than 60% of the particulate PAHs were contained in particles in the accumulation mode with an aerodynamic diameter (Dp) in the range of 0.1-1.8 μm. Different mass transfer velocities by volatilization and condensation are considered the main causes for the different particle size distributions among individual PAHs, while combustion at different temperatures and atmospheric transport were probable causes of the observed seasonal variation in the size distribution of PAHs. Based on the modeled size-dependent dry deposition velocities, daily mean dry deposition fluxes of particulate PAHs ranged from 604 to 1190 ng m-2 d-1, with PAHs in coarse particles (Dp > 1.8 μm) accounting for 55-95% of the total fluxes. In addition, gaseous PAHs were estimated to contribute 0.6-3.1% to the total dry deposition fluxes if a conservative dry deposition velocity for gaseous species (2 × 10-4 m s-1) were used. Finally, disequilibrium phase partitioning, meteorological conditions and atmospheric transport were regarded as the main reasons for the variances in dry deposition velocities of individual PAHs.

  13. Temperature-dependent, behavioural, and transcriptional variability of a tritrophic interaction consisting of bean, herbivorous mite, and predator.

    Ozawa, Rika; Nishimura, Osamu; Yazawa, Shigenobu; Muroi, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Junji; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Different organisms compensate for, and adapt to, environmental changes in different ways. In this way, environmental changes affect animal-plant interactions. In this study, we assessed the effect of temperature on a tritrophic system of the lima bean, the herbivorous spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. In this system, the plant defends itself against T. urticae by emitting volatiles that attract P. persimilis. Over 20-40 °C, the emission of volatiles by infested plants and the subsequent attraction of P. persimilis peaked at 30 °C, but the number of eggs laid by T. urticae adults and the number of eggs consumed by P. persimilis peaked at 35 °C. This indicates that the spider mites and predatory mites performed best at a higher temperature than that at which most volatile attractants were produced. Our data from transcriptome pyrosequencing of the mites found that P. persimilis up-regulated gene families for heat shock proteins (HSPs) and ubiquitin-associated proteins, whereas T. urticae did not. RNA interference-mediated gene suppression in P. persimilis revealed differences in temperature responses. Predation on T. urticae eggs by P. persimilis that had been fed PpHsp70-1 dsRNA was low at 35 °C but not at 25 °C when PpHsp70-1 expression was very high. Overall, our molecular and behavioural approaches revealed that the mode and tolerance of lima bean, T. urticae and P. persimilis are distinctly affected by temperature variability, thereby making their tritrophic interactions temperature dependent. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Finite Discrete Gabor Analysis

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2007-01-01

    frequency bands at certain times. Gabor theory can be formulated for both functions on the real line and for discrete signals of finite length. The two theories are largely the same because many aspects come from the same underlying theory of locally compact Abelian groups. The two types of Gabor systems...... can also be related by sampling and periodization. This thesis extends on this theory by showing new results for window construction. It also provides a discussion of the problems associated to discrete Gabor bases. The sampling and periodization connection is handy because it allows Gabor systems...... on the real line to be well approximated by finite and discrete Gabor frames. This method of approximation is especially attractive because efficient numerical methods exists for doing computations with finite, discrete Gabor systems. This thesis presents new algorithms for the efficient computation of finite...

  15. Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.

    Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

  16. Discrete fractional calculus

    Goodrich, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This text provides the first comprehensive treatment of the discrete fractional calculus. Experienced researchers will find the text useful as a reference for discrete fractional calculus and topics of current interest. Students who are interested in learning about discrete fractional calculus will find this text to provide a useful starting point. Several exercises are offered at the end of each chapter and select answers have been provided at the end of the book. The presentation of the content is designed to give ample flexibility for potential use in a myriad of courses and for independent study. The novel approach taken by the authors includes a simultaneous treatment of the fractional- and integer-order difference calculus (on a variety of time scales, including both the usual forward and backwards difference operators). The reader will acquire a solid foundation in the classical topics of the discrete calculus while being introduced to exciting recent developments, bringing them to the frontiers of the...

  17. Discrete quantum gravity

    Williams, Ruth M

    2006-01-01

    A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday

  18. Discrete computational structures

    Korfhage, Robert R

    1974-01-01

    Discrete Computational Structures describes discrete mathematical concepts that are important to computing, covering necessary mathematical fundamentals, computer representation of sets, graph theory, storage minimization, and bandwidth. The book also explains conceptual framework (Gorn trees, searching, subroutines) and directed graphs (flowcharts, critical paths, information network). The text discusses algebra particularly as it applies to concentrates on semigroups, groups, lattices, propositional calculus, including a new tabular method of Boolean function minimization. The text emphasize

  19. On Darboux-integrable semi-discrete chains

    Habibullin, Ismagil; Sakieva, Alfia; Zheltukhina, Natalya

    2010-01-01

    A differential-difference equation d/dx t (n+1,x) = f(x,t(n,x),t(n+1,x),d/dx t (n,x)) with unknown t(n, x) depending on the continuous and discrete variables x and n is studied. We call an equation of such kind Darboux integrable if there exist two functions (called integrals) F and I of a finite number of dynamical variables such that D x F = 0 and DI = I, where D x is the operator of total differentiation with respect to x and D is the shift operator: Dp(n) = p(n + 1). It is proved that the integrals can be brought to some canonical form. A method of construction of an explicit formula for a general solution to Darboux-integrable chains is discussed and such solutions are found for a class of chains.

  20. An Analysis of Some Variables Affecting the Internet Dependency Level of Turkish Adolescents by Using Decision Tree Methods

    Kayri, Murat; Gunuc, Selim

    2010-01-01

    Internet dependency is going to expand into social life in wide area whereas it has been accepted as a pathological and psychological disease. Knowing the basic effects of internet dependency is an inevitable approach to use the internet technology healthy. In this study, internet dependency levels of 754 students were examined with the Internet…

  1. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  2. A dynamic discretization method for reliability inference in Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    Zhu, Jiandao; Collette, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The material and modeling parameters that drive structural reliability analysis for marine structures are subject to a significant uncertainty. This is especially true when time-dependent degradation mechanisms such as structural fatigue cracking are considered. Through inspection and monitoring, information such as crack location and size can be obtained to improve these parameters and the corresponding reliability estimates. Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) are a powerful and flexible tool to model dynamic system behavior and update reliability and uncertainty analysis with life cycle data for problems such as fatigue cracking. However, a central challenge in using DBNs is the need to discretize certain types of continuous random variables to perform network inference while still accurately tracking low-probability failure events. Most existing discretization methods focus on getting the overall shape of the distribution correct, with less emphasis on the tail region. Therefore, a novel scheme is presented specifically to estimate the likelihood of low-probability failure events. The scheme is an iterative algorithm which dynamically partitions the discretization intervals at each iteration. Through applications to two stochastic crack-growth example problems, the algorithm is shown to be robust and accurate. Comparisons are presented between the proposed approach and existing methods for the discretization problem. - Highlights: • A dynamic discretization method is developed for low-probability events in DBNs. • The method is compared to existing approaches on two crack growth problems. • The method is shown to improve on existing methods for low-probability events

  3. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes

    Qinghui Du

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions.

  4. Homogenization of discrete media

    Pradel, F.; Sab, K. [CERAM-ENPC, Marne-la-Vallee (France)

    1998-11-01

    Material such as granular media, beam assembly are easily seen as discrete media. They look like geometrical points linked together thanks to energetic expressions. Our purpose is to extend discrete kinematics to the one of an equivalent continuous material. First we explain how we build the localisation tool for periodic materials according to estimated continuum medium type (classical Cauchy, and Cosserat media). Once the bridge built between discrete and continuum media, we exhibit its application over two bidimensional beam assembly structures : the honey comb and a structural reinforced variation. The new behavior is then applied for the simple plan shear problem in a Cosserat continuum and compared with the real discrete solution. By the mean of this example, we establish the agreement of our new model with real structures. The exposed method has a longer range than mechanics and can be applied to every discrete problems like electromagnetism in which relationship between geometrical points can be summed up by an energetic function. (orig.) 7 refs.

  5. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY

    Mrs. Manju Devi*

    2017-01-01

    Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...

  6. Discretization-induced delays and their role in the dynamics

    Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B; Satsuma, J; Willox, R

    2008-01-01

    We show that a discretization of a continuous system may entail 'hidden' delays and thus introduce instabilities. In this case, while the continuous system has an attractive fixed point, the instabilities present in the equivalent discrete one may lead to the appearance of a limit cycle. We explain that it is possible, thanks to the proper staggering of the discrete variables, to eliminate the hidden delay. However, in general, other instabilities may appear in the discrete system which can even lead to chaotic behaviour

  7. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  8. Discrete systems and integrability

    Hietarinta, J; Nijhoff, F W

    2016-01-01

    This first introductory text to discrete integrable systems introduces key notions of integrability from the vantage point of discrete systems, also making connections with the continuous theory where relevant. While treating the material at an elementary level, the book also highlights many recent developments. Topics include: Darboux and Bäcklund transformations; difference equations and special functions; multidimensional consistency of integrable lattice equations; associated linear problems (Lax pairs); connections with Padé approximants and convergence algorithms; singularities and geometry; Hirota's bilinear formalism for lattices; intriguing properties of discrete Painlevé equations; and the novel theory of Lagrangian multiforms. The book builds the material in an organic way, emphasizing interconnections between the various approaches, while the exposition is mostly done through explicit computations on key examples. Written by respected experts in the field, the numerous exercises and the thoroug...

  9. Introductory discrete mathematics

    Balakrishnan, V K

    2010-01-01

    This concise text offers an introduction to discrete mathematics for undergraduate students in computer science and mathematics. Mathematics educators consider it vital that their students be exposed to a course in discrete methods that introduces them to combinatorial mathematics and to algebraic and logical structures focusing on the interplay between computer science and mathematics. The present volume emphasizes combinatorics, graph theory with applications to some stand network optimization problems, and algorithms to solve these problems.Chapters 0-3 cover fundamental operations involv

  10. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of ev...

  11. Time dependent analysis of assay comparability: a novel approach to understand intra- and inter-site variability over time

    Winiwarter, Susanne; Middleton, Brian; Jones, Barry; Courtney, Paul; Lindmark, Bo; Page, Ken M.; Clark, Alan; Landqvist, Claire

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate here a novel use of statistical tools to study intra- and inter-site assay variability of five early drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in vitro assays over time. Firstly, a tool for process control is presented. It shows the overall assay variability but allows also the following of changes due to assay adjustments and can additionally highlight other, potentially unexpected variations. Secondly, we define the minimum discriminatory difference/ratio to support projects to understand how experimental values measured at different sites at a given time can be compared. Such discriminatory values are calculated for 3 month periods and followed over time for each assay. Again assay modifications, especially assay harmonization efforts, can be noted. Both the process control tool and the variability estimates are based on the results of control compounds tested every time an assay is run. Variability estimates for a limited set of project compounds were computed as well and found to be comparable. This analysis reinforces the need to consider assay variability in decision making, compound ranking and in silico modeling.

  12. Time dependence of the UV resonance lines in the cataclysmic variables SU UMa, RX And and 0623+71

    Woods, J.A.; Drew, J.E.; Verbunt, Frank

    1990-01-01

    We present IUE observations of the dwarf novae SU UMa and RX And, and of the nova-like variable 0623 + 71. At the time of observation, SU UMa and RX And were in outburst. All three systems show variability in the wind-formed UV resonance lines of N v λ 1240, Si IV λ 1397 and C IV λ 1549 on timescale of hours. The amplitude of variation is smallest in RX And and largest in 0623 + 71. There is evidence that the variations observed in SU UMa's UV spectrum repeat on the orbital period. Our observations of SU UMa also reveal variability in the continuum flux during the decline from outburst maximum that is much more marked in the UV than at optical wavelengths. (author)

  13. Attractors for discrete periodic dynamical systems

    John E. Franke; James F. Selgrade

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical framework is introduced to study attractors of discrete, nonautonomous dynamical systems which depend periodically on time. A structure theorem for such attractors is established which says that the attractor of a time-periodic dynamical system is the unin of attractors of appropriate autonomous maps. If the nonautonomous system is a perturbation of an...

  14. Discrete choice models with multiplicative error terms

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Bierlaire, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The conditional indirect utility of many random utility maximization (RUM) discrete choice models is specified as a sum of an index V depending on observables and an independent random term ε. In general, the universe of RUM consistent models is much larger, even fixing some specification of V due...

  15. Modeling discrete time-to-event data

    Tutz, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on statistical methods for the analysis of discrete failure times. Failure time analysis is one of the most important fields in statistical research, with applications affecting a wide range of disciplines, in particular, demography, econometrics, epidemiology and clinical research. Although there are a large variety of statistical methods for failure time analysis, many techniques are designed for failure times that are measured on a continuous scale. In empirical studies, however, failure times are often discrete, either because they have been measured in intervals (e.g., quarterly or yearly) or because they have been rounded or grouped. The book covers well-established methods like life-table analysis and discrete hazard regression models, but also introduces state-of-the art techniques for model evaluation, nonparametric estimation and variable selection. Throughout, the methods are illustrated by real life applications, and relationships to survival analysis in continuous time are expla...

  16. Discrete Lorentzian quantum gravity

    Loll, R.

    2000-01-01

    Just as for non-abelian gauge theories at strong coupling, discrete lattice methods are a natural tool in the study of non-perturbative quantum gravity. They have to reflect the fact that the geometric degrees of freedom are dynamical, and that therefore also the lattice theory must be formulated

  17. What Is Discrete Mathematics?

    Sharp, Karen Tobey

    This paper cites information received from a number of sources, e.g., mathematics teachers in two-year colleges, publishers, and convention speakers, about the nature of discrete mathematics and about what topics a course in this subject should contain. Note is taken of the book edited by Ralston and Young which discusses the future of college…

  18. Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence: modeling of two-stage variables using the CCC approach.

    Agrawal, A; Neale, M C; Jacobson, K C; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2005-06-01

    Drug use and abuse/dependence are stages of a complex drug habit. Most genetically informative models that are fit to twin data examine drug use and abuse/dependence independent of each other. This poses an interesting question: for a multistage process, how can we partition the factors influencing each stage specifically from the factors that are common to both stages? We used a causal-common-contingent (CCC) model to partition the common and specific influences on drug use and abuse/dependence. Data on use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, sedatives, stimulants and any illicit drug was obtained from male and female twin pairs. CCC models were tested individually for each sex and in a sex-equal model. Our results suggest that there is evidence for additive genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences that are common to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Furthermore, we found substantial evidence for factors that were specific to abuse/dependence. Finally, sexes could be equated for all illicit drugs. The findings of this study emphasize the need for models that can partition the sources of individual differences into common and stage-specific influences.

  19. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction: The Problem of Selection Bias and Limited Dependent Variables

    Bowles, Tyler J.; Jones, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Single equation regression models have been used rather extensively to test the effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction (SI). This approach, however, fails to account for the possibility that SI attendance and the outcome of SI attendance are jointly determined endogenous variables. Moreover, the standard approach fails to account for the fact…

  20. High-Rate Pacing Reduces Variability of Repolarization and Prevents Repolarization-Dependent Arrhythmias in Dogs With Chronic AV Block

    Oosterhoff, Peter; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Maas, Joep N

    2010-01-01

    -term variability of repolarization (STV) as a feedback parameter of arrhythmic risk. Methods and Results: The minimal signal sampling frequency required for measuring STV was determined through computer simulation. Arrhythmogenic response to dofetilide (25 µg/kg/5minutes) was tested at two different paced heart...

  1. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy

  2. Mapping of uncertainty relations between continuous and discrete time.

    Chiuchiù, Davide; Pigolotti, Simone

    2018-03-01

    Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds. Our results reduce the quests for uncertainty bounds in discrete and continuous time to a single problem.

  3. Discrete mKdV and discrete sine-Gordon flows on discrete space curves

    Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Matsuura, Nozomu; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the discrete deformation of the discrete space curves with constant torsion described by the discrete mKdV or the discrete sine-Gordon equations, and show that it is formulated as the torsion-preserving equidistant deformation on the osculating plane which satisfies the isoperimetric condition. The curve is reconstructed from the deformation data by using the Sym–Tafel formula. The isoperimetric equidistant deformation of the space curves does not preserve the torsion in general. However, it is possible to construct the torsion-preserving deformation by tuning the deformation parameters. Further, it is also possible to make an arbitrary choice of the deformation described by the discrete mKdV equation or by the discrete sine-Gordon equation at each step. We finally show that the discrete deformation of discrete space curves yields the discrete K-surfaces. (paper)

  4. Discrete time analysis of a repairable machine

    Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Castro, I. T.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, in discrete time, a single machine system that operates for a period of time represented by a general distribution. This machine is subject to failures during operations and the occurrence of these failures depends on how many times the machine has previously failed. Some failures are repairable and the repair times may or may not depend on the number of times the machine was previously repaired. Repair times also have a general distribution. The operating times...

  5. Impact of discretization of the decision variables in the search of optimized solutions for history matching and injection rate optimization; Impacto do uso de variaveis discretas na busca de solucoes otimizadas para o ajuste de historico e distribuicao de vazoes de injecao

    Sousa, Sergio H.G. de; Madeira, Marcelo G. [Halliburton Servicos Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In the classical operations research arena, there is the notion that the search for optimized solutions in continuous solution spaces is easier than on discrete solution spaces, even when the latter is a subset of the first. On the upstream oil industry, there is an additional complexity in the optimization problems because there usually are no analytical expressions for the objective function, which require some form of simulation in order to be evaluated. Thus, the use of meta heuristic optimizers like scatter search, tabu search and genetic algorithms is common. In this meta heuristic context, there are advantages in transforming continuous solution spaces in equivalent discrete ones; the goal to do so usually is to speed up the search for optimized solutions. However, these advantages can be masked when the problem has restrictions formed by linear combinations of its decision variables. In order to study these aspects of meta heuristic optimization, two optimization problems are proposed and solved with both continuous and discrete solution spaces: assisted history matching and injection rates optimization. Both cases operate on a model of the Wytch Farm onshore oil filed located in England. (author)

  6. Upper and lower solutions for BVPs on the half-line with variable coefficient and derivative depending nonlinearity

    S. Djebali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a second-order nonlinear boundary value problem with a derivative depending nonlinearity and posed on the positive half-line. The derivative operator is time dependent. Upon a priori estimates and under a Nagumo growth condition, the Schauder's fixed point theorem combined with the method of upper and lower solutions on unbounded domains are used to prove existence of solutions. A uniqueness theorem is also obtained and some examples of application illustrate the obtained results.

  7. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    M. Idrees

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″(0, Nusselt number (heat flux -θ′(0 and free surface temperature θ(1 are presented graphically and in tabular form. Keywords: Variable viscosity and thermal conductivity, Thermocapillary number, Magnetic field, Thin film, Unsteady stretching surface

  8. The IL--6 dependent effect of oral warfarin in heart valve replacement patients by measuring interacting clinical and demographic variables

    Shafiq, H.; Rashid, A.; Majeed, A.; Razah, S.; Asghar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine an inflammatory effect of warfarin and comparing with IL-6 levels along with different demographic and clinical variables. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Center of Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM), Army Medical College/National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad from Oct 2013 to Oct 2015. Material and Methods: The study design was Quasi Experimental study. Samples were collected by Non probability convenience sampling. Total 76 patients were included according to warfarin dose response in warfarin therapy patients, i.e. 32(42 percent) were taking 10mg/day of warfarin dose. Patient's demographic and clinical variables were noted i.e. age, gender, BMI, duration of therapy, INR history, hepatic, gastrointestinal and diabetic complications. Human IL-6 ELISA assay was performed. Results: The statistically significant difference was found between age groups (in years) and different levels of warfarin dose (p=0.046) along with IL-6 production. There is a negative correlation between warfarin dose and age group i.e. as age increases, the dose of warfarin decreases. Among the inter and intra-patient variability age and serum IL-6 levels were found to be statistically significant with warfarin dose response. BMI and warfarin dose were found to be weak positively correlated. Conclusion: A marked immunomodulatory response of warfarin was noted by measuring IL-6 levels. IL-6 levels retained a significant association with warfarin dose. (author)

  9. Geometric phases in discrete dynamical systems

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E., E-mail: julyan.cartwright@csic.es [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC–Universidad de Granada, E-18100 Armilla, Granada (Spain); Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Piro, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.piro@epfl.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Piro, Oreste, E-mail: piro@imedea.uib-csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Tuval, Idan, E-mail: ituval@imedea.uib-csic.es [Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies, CSIC–Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07190 Mallorca (Spain)

    2016-10-14

    In order to study the behaviour of discrete dynamical systems under adiabatic cyclic variations of their parameters, we consider discrete versions of adiabatically-rotated rotators. Parallelling the studies in continuous systems, we generalize the concept of geometric phase to discrete dynamics and investigate its presence in these rotators. For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number of the system. For the discrete version of the rotated rotator considered by Berry, the rotated standard map, we further explore this connection as well as the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. Further into the chaotic regime, we show that the geometric phase is also related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent. - Highlights: • We extend the concept of geometric phase to maps. • For the rotated sine circle map, we demonstrate an analytical relationship between the geometric phase and the rotation number. • For the rotated standard map, we explore the role of the geometric phase at the onset of chaos. • We show that the geometric phase is related to the diffusive behaviour of the dynamical variables and the Lyapunov exponent.

  10. A discrete stress-strength interference model based on universal generating function

    An Zongwen; Huang Hongzhong; Liu Yu

    2008-01-01

    Continuous stress-strength interference (SSI) model regards stress and strength as continuous random variables with known probability density function. This, to some extent, results in a limitation of its application. In this paper, stress and strength are treated as discrete random variables, and a discrete SSI model is presented by using the universal generating function (UGF) method. Finally, case studies demonstrate the validity of the discrete model in a variety of circumstances, in which stress and strength can be represented by continuous random variables, discrete random variables, or two groups of experimental data

  11. The Association of Selected Conative Variables to Field-Dependence with Inferences for Reasoning Characteristics in Marketing Education.

    Fritz, Robert L.

    A study examined the association between field-dependence and its related information processing characteristics, and educational cognitive style as a model of conative influence. Data were collected from 145 secondary marketing education students in nothern Georgia during spring 1991. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlations,…

  12. Discrete mathematics with applications

    Koshy, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This approachable text studies discrete objects and the relationsips that bind them. It helps students understand and apply the power of discrete math to digital computer systems and other modern applications. It provides excellent preparation for courses in linear algebra, number theory, and modern/abstract algebra and for computer science courses in data structures, algorithms, programming languages, compilers, databases, and computation.* Covers all recommended topics in a self-contained, comprehensive, and understandable format for students and new professionals * Emphasizes problem-solving techniques, pattern recognition, conjecturing, induction, applications of varying nature, proof techniques, algorithm development and correctness, and numeric computations* Weaves numerous applications into the text* Helps students learn by doing with a wealth of examples and exercises: - 560 examples worked out in detail - More than 3,700 exercises - More than 150 computer assignments - More than 600 writing projects*...

  13. Discrete and computational geometry

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...

  14. Lectures on discrete geometry

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  15. Time Discretization Techniques

    Gottlieb, S.

    2016-10-12

    The time discretization of hyperbolic partial differential equations is typically the evolution of a system of ordinary differential equations obtained by spatial discretization of the original problem. Methods for this time evolution include multistep, multistage, or multiderivative methods, as well as a combination of these approaches. The time step constraint is mainly a result of the absolute stability requirement, as well as additional conditions that mimic physical properties of the solution, such as positivity or total variation stability. These conditions may be required for stability when the solution develops shocks or sharp gradients. This chapter contains a review of some of the methods historically used for the evolution of hyperbolic PDEs, as well as cutting edge methods that are now commonly used.

  16. Discrete stochastic analogs of Erlang epidemic models.

    Getz, Wayne M; Dougherty, Eric R

    2018-12-01

    Erlang differential equation models of epidemic processes provide more realistic disease-class transition dynamics from susceptible (S) to exposed (E) to infectious (I) and removed (R) categories than the ubiquitous SEIR model. The latter is itself is at one end of the spectrum of Erlang SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models with [Formula: see text] concatenated E compartments and [Formula: see text] concatenated I compartments. Discrete-time models, however, are computationally much simpler to simulate and fit to epidemic outbreak data than continuous-time differential equations, and are also much more readily extended to include demographic and other types of stochasticity. Here we formulate discrete-time deterministic analogs of the Erlang models, and their stochastic extension, based on a time-to-go distributional principle. Depending on which distributions are used (e.g. discretized Erlang, Gamma, Beta, or Uniform distributions), we demonstrate that our formulation represents both a discretization of Erlang epidemic models and generalizations thereof. We consider the challenges of fitting SE[Formula: see text]I[Formula: see text]R models and our discrete-time analog to data (the recent outbreak of Ebola in Liberia). We demonstrate that the latter performs much better than the former; although confining fits to strict SEIR formulations reduces the numerical challenges, but sacrifices best-fit likelihood scores by at least 7%.

  17. Discrete pseudo-integrals

    Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo-multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals.pdf

  18. Discrete variational Hamiltonian mechanics

    Lall, S; West, M

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a canonical choice of a Hamiltonian theory corresponding to the theory of discrete Lagrangian mechanics. We make use of Lagrange duality and follow a path parallel to that used for construction of the Pontryagin principle in optimal control theory. We use duality results regarding sensitivity and separability to show the relationship between generating functions and symplectic integrators. We also discuss connections to optimal control theory and numerical algorithms

  19. Discrete Routh reduction

    Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure

  20. Variability of photovoltaic panels efficiency depending on the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon

    Majdak Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the relationship between the efficiency of photovoltaic panels and the value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon. For the purpose of experimental research have been done tests on the photovoltaic modules made of monocrystalline, polycrystalline and amorphous silicon. The experiment consisted of measurement of the voltage and current generated by photovoltaic panels at a known value of solar radiation and a specified resistance value determined by using resistor with variable value of resistance and known value of the angle of their inclination relative to the horizon.

  1. SU-F-T-113: Inherent Functional Dependence of Spinal Cord Doses of Variable Irradiated Volumes in Spine SBRT

    Ma, L; Braunstein, S; Chiu, J [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sahgal, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Spinal cord tolerance for SBRT has been recommended for the maximum point dose level or at irradiated volumes such as 0.35 mL or 10% of contoured volumes. In this study, we investigated an inherent functional relationship that associates these dose surrogates for irradiated spinal cord volumes of up to 3.0 mL. Methods: A hidden variable termed as Effective Dose Radius (EDR) was formulated based on a dose fall-off model to correlate dose at irradiated spinal cord volumes ranging from 0 mL (point maximum) to 3.0 mL. A cohort of 15 spine SBRT cases was randomly selected to derive an EDR-parameterized formula. The mean prescription dose for the studied cases was 21.0±8.0 Gy (range, 10–40Gy) delivered in 3±1 fractions with target volumes of 39.1 ± 70.6 mL. Linear regression and variance analysis were performed for the fitting parameters of variable EDR values. Results: No direct correlation was found between the dose at maximum point and doses at variable spinal cord volumes. For example, Pearson R{sup 2} = 0.643 and R{sup 2}= 0.491 were obtained when correlating the point maximum dose with the spinal cord dose at 1 mL and 3 mL, respectively. However, near perfect correlation (R{sup 2} ≥0.99) was obtained when corresponding parameterized EDRs. Specifically, Pearson R{sup 2}= 0.996 and R{sup 2} = 0.990 were obtained when correlating EDR (maximum point dose) with EDR (dose at 1 mL) and EDR(dose at 3 mL), respectively. As a result, high confidence level look-up tables were established to correlate spinal cord doses at the maximum point to any finite irradiated volumes. Conclusion: An inherent functional relationship was demonstrated for spine SBRT. Such a relationship unifies dose surrogates at variable cord volumes and proves that a single dose surrogate (e.g. point maximum dose) is mathematically sufficient in constraining the overall spinal cord dose tolerance for SBRT.

  2. Discrete port-Hamiltonian systems

    Talasila, V.; Clemente-Gallardo, J.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Either from a control theoretic viewpoint or from an analysis viewpoint it is necessary to convert smooth systems to discrete systems, which can then be implemented on computers for numerical simulations. Discrete models can be obtained either by discretizing a smooth model, or by directly modeling

  3. A paradigm for discrete physics

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.; Etter, T.; Manthey, M.J.; Gefwert, C.

    1987-01-01

    An example is outlined for constructing a discrete physics using as a starting point the insight from quantum physics that events are discrete, indivisible and non-local. Initial postulates are finiteness, discreteness, finite computability, absolute nonuniqueness (i.e., homogeneity in the absence of specific cause) and additivity

  4. A similarity solution of time dependent MHD liquid film flow over stretching sheet with variable physical properties

    Idrees, M.; Rehman, Sajid; Shah, Rehan Ali; Ullah, M.; Abbas, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    An analysis is performed for the fluid dynamics incorporating the variation of viscosity and thermal conductivity on an unsteady two-dimensional free surface flow of a viscous incompressible conducting fluid taking into account the effect of a magnetic field. Surface tension quadratically vary with temperature while fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as a linear function of temperature. The boundary layer partial differential equations in cartesian coordinates are transformed into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation. The developed nonlinear equations are solved analytically by Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) while numerically by using the shooting method. The Effects of natural parameters such as the variable viscosity parameter A, variable thermal conductivity parameter N, Hartmann number Ma, film Thickness, unsteadiness parameter S, Thermocapillary number M and Prandtl number Pr on the velocity and temperature profiles are investigated. The results for the surface skin friction coefficient f″ (0) , Nusselt number (heat flux) -θ‧ (0) and free surface temperature θ (1) are presented graphically and in tabular form.

  5. Family of columns isospectral to gravity-loaded columns with tip force: A discrete approach

    Ramachandran, Nirmal; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2018-06-01

    A discrete model is introduced to analyze transverse vibration of straight, clamped-free (CF) columns of variable cross-sectional geometry under the influence of gravity and a constant axial force at the tip. The discrete model is used to determine critical combinations of loading parameters - a gravity parameter and a tip force parameter - that cause onset of dynamic instability in the CF column. A methodology, based on matrix-factorization, is described to transform the discrete model into a family of models corresponding to weightless and unloaded clamped-free (WUCF) columns, each with a transverse vibration spectrum isospectral to the original model. Characteristics of models in this isospectral family are dependent on three transformation parameters. A procedure is discussed to convert the isospectral discrete model description into geometric description of realistic columns i.e. from the discrete model, we construct isospectral WUCF columns with rectangular cross-sections varying in width and depth. As part of numerical studies to demonstrate efficacy of techniques presented, frequency parameters of a uniform column and three types of tapered CF columns under different combinations of loading parameters are obtained from the discrete model. Critical combinations of these parameters for a typical tapered column are derived. These results match with published results. Example CF columns, under arbitrarily-chosen combinations of loading parameters are considered and for each combination, isospectral WUCF columns are constructed. Role of transformation parameters in determining characteristics of isospectral columns is discussed and optimum values are deduced. Natural frequencies of these WUCF columns computed using Finite Element Method (FEM) match well with those of the given gravity-loaded CF column with tip force, hence confirming isospectrality.

  6. Discrete persistent-chain model for protein binding on DNA.

    Lam, Pui-Man; Zhen, Yi

    2011-04-01

    We describe and solve a discrete persistent-chain model of protein binding on DNA, involving an extra σ(i) at a site i of the DNA. This variable takes the value 1 or 0, depending on whether or not the site is occupied by a protein. In addition, if the site is occupied by a protein, there is an extra energy cost ɛ. For a small force, we obtain analytic expressions for the force-extension curve and the fraction of bound protein on the DNA. For higher forces, the model can be solved numerically to obtain force-extension curves and the average fraction of bound proteins as a function of applied force. Our model can be used to analyze experimental force-extension curves of protein binding on DNA, and hence deduce the number of bound proteins in the case of nonspecific binding. ©2011 American Physical Society

  7. Two new discrete integrable systems

    Chen Xiao-Hong; Zhang Hong-Qing

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the construction of new (1+1)-dimensional discrete integrable systems according to a subalgebra of loop algebra à 1 . By designing two new (1+1)-dimensional discrete spectral problems, two new discrete integrable systems are obtained, namely, a 2-field lattice hierarchy and a 3-field lattice hierarchy. When deriving the two new discrete integrable systems, we find the generalized relativistic Toda lattice hierarchy and the generalized modified Toda lattice hierarchy. Moreover, we also obtain the Hamiltonian structures of the two lattice hierarchies by means of the discrete trace identity

  8. Decomposing a Utility Function Based on Discrete Distribution Independence

    He, Ying; Dyer, James; Butler, John

    2014-01-01

    For two-attribute decision-making problems, the multilinear utility model cannot be applied when the risk aversion on one attribute depends on the level of the other attribute. We propose a family of general preference conditions called nth-degree discrete distribution independence that can...... accommodate a variety of dependence relationships between two attributes. The special case of second-degree discrete distribution independence is equivalent to the utility independence condition. We focus on third-degree discrete distribution independence that leads to a decomposition formula that contains...

  9. Inferring network structure in non-normal and mixed discrete-continuous genomic data.

    Bhadra, Anindya; Rao, Arvind; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran

    2018-03-01

    Inferring dependence structure through undirected graphs is crucial for uncovering the major modes of multivariate interaction among high-dimensional genomic markers that are potentially associated with cancer. Traditionally, conditional independence has been studied using sparse Gaussian graphical models for continuous data and sparse Ising models for discrete data. However, there are two clear situations when these approaches are inadequate. The first occurs when the data are continuous but display non-normal marginal behavior such as heavy tails or skewness, rendering an assumption of normality inappropriate. The second occurs when a part of the data is ordinal or discrete (e.g., presence or absence of a mutation) and the other part is continuous (e.g., expression levels of genes or proteins). In this case, the existing Bayesian approaches typically employ a latent variable framework for the discrete part that precludes inferring conditional independence among the data that are actually observed. The current article overcomes these two challenges in a unified framework using Gaussian scale mixtures. Our framework is able to handle continuous data that are not normal and data that are of mixed continuous and discrete nature, while still being able to infer a sparse conditional sign independence structure among the observed data. Extensive performance comparison in simulations with alternative techniques and an analysis of a real cancer genomics data set demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  10. Increased Variability and Asymmetric Expansion of the Hippocampal Spatial Representation in a Distal Cue-Dependent Memory Task.

    Park, Seong-Beom; Lee, Inah

    2016-08-01

    Place cells in the hippocampus fire at specific positions in space, and distal cues in the environment play critical roles in determining the spatial firing patterns of place cells. Many studies have shown that place fields are influenced by distal cues in foraging animals. However, it is largely unknown whether distal-cue-dependent changes in place fields appear in different ways in a memory task if distal cues bear direct significance to achieving goals. We investigated this possibility in this study. Rats were trained to choose different spatial positions in a radial arm in association with distal cue configurations formed by visual cue sets attached to movable curtains around the apparatus. The animals were initially trained to associate readily discernible distal cue configurations (0° vs. 80° angular separation between distal cue sets) with different food-well positions and then later experienced ambiguous cue configurations (14° and 66°) intermixed with the original cue configurations. Rats showed no difficulty in transferring the associated memory formed for the original cue configurations when similar cue configurations were presented. Place field positions remained at the same locations across different cue configurations, whereas stability and coherence of spatial firing patterns were significantly disrupted when ambiguous cue configurations were introduced. Furthermore, the spatial representation was extended backward and skewed more negatively at the population level when processing ambiguous cue configurations, compared with when processing the original cue configurations only. This effect was more salient for large cue-separation conditions than for small cue-separation conditions. No significant rate remapping was observed across distal cue configurations. These findings suggest that place cells in the hippocampus dynamically change their detailed firing characteristics in response to a modified cue environment and that some of the firing

  11. Discrete dark matter

    Hirsch, M; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z2 subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while reactor angle equal to zero gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  12. Discrete Dynamics Lab

    Wuensche, Andrew

    DDLab is interactive graphics software for creating, visualizing, and analyzing many aspects of Cellular Automata, Random Boolean Networks, and Discrete Dynamical Networks in general and studying their behavior, both from the time-series perspective — space-time patterns, and from the state-space perspective — attractor basins. DDLab is relevant to research, applications, and education in the fields of complexity, self-organization, emergent phenomena, chaos, collision-based computing, neural networks, content addressable memory, genetic regulatory networks, dynamical encryption, generative art and music, and the study of the abstract mathematical/physical/dynamical phenomena in their own right.

  13. On localization in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Bang, O.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Christiansen, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    For some values of the grid resolution, depending on the nonlinearity, the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with arbitrary power nonlinearity can be approximated by the corresponding continuum version of the equation. When the discretization becomes too coarse, the discrete equation exhibits...

  14. Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.

    2009-01-01

    An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.

  15. Manifestly gauge invariant discretizations of the Schrödinger equation

    Halvorsen, Tore Gunnar; Kvaal, Simen

    2012-01-01

    Grid-based discretizations of the time dependent Schrödinger equation coupled to an external magnetic field are converted to manifest gauge invariant discretizations. This is done using generalizations of ideas used in classical lattice gauge theory, and the process defined is applicable to a large class of discretized differential operators. In particular, popular discretizations such as pseudospectral discretizations using the fast Fourier transform can be transformed to gauge invariant schemes. Also generic gauge invariant versions of generic time integration methods are considered, enabling completely gauge invariant calculations of the time dependent Schrödinger equation. Numerical examples illuminating the differences between a gauge invariant discretization and conventional discretization procedures are also presented. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the Schrödinger equation coupled to an external magnetic field. ► Any grid-based discretization is made trivially gauge invariant. ► An extension of classical lattice gauge theory.

  16. Optimization of the Method of Active Ingredients Adding to the Base of Medicinal Films Depending on Certain Variables

    L. L. Davtian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of variables of pharmaceutical factors on the technological processes of drugs manufacturing is incredibly important. Thus, in the development of a new drug in the form of medicinal films, the relevance and necessity of determining the effect of the methods of active substances adding on the effectiveness of the drug was determined. The aim is rationalization of the method of the active pharmaceutical ingredients adding into the composition of the developed drug. Materials and methods. As experimental samples we used medicinal films, which were made using various methods of active ingredients adding. The quality of the samples was evaluated by the antimicrobial activity against Clostridium sporogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, which was determined by the diffusion method in agar. Results. The study of the antimicrobial activity of medicinal films with various methods of active ingredients adding showed that the adding of metronidazole as an aqueous solution increases the antimicrobial activity of the films by 21.23%, 16.89%, 28.59%, respectively, compared with films of similar composition, in which metronidazole was added as a suspension, and the remaining ingredients were added by the same way. The introduction of chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride in the film-forming solution lastly together with the solution of metronidazole increases the antimicrobial activity by 24.67%, which is probably due to the absence of contact between thermolabile ingredients and solutions of film-forming substances having a high dissolution temperature. Conclusions. The most rational is adding of metronidazole to the medicinal films in the form of a 0.01% aqueous solution in a mixture with the chlorhexidine bigluconate and glucosamine hydrochloride solution to the final film-forming solution.

  17. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Graziela Murta Barbosa

    Full Text Available It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P

  18. Intraspecies Variability Affects Heterotypic Biofilms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia: Evidences of Strain-Dependence Biofilm Modulation by Physical Contact and by Released Soluble Factors.

    Barbosa, Graziela Murta; Colombo, Andrea Vieira; Rodrigues, Paulo Henrique; Simionato, Maria Regina Lorenzetti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that strain and virulence diversity exist within the population structure of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In the present study we investigate intra- and inter-species variability in biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and partners Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. All strains tested showed similar hydrophobicity, except for P. gingivalis W83 which has roughly half of the hydrophobicity of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. An intraspecies variability in coaggregation of P. gingivalis with P. intermedia was also found. The association P. gingivalis W83/P. intermedia 17 produced the thickest biofilm and strain 17 was prevalent. In a two-compartment system P. gingivalis W83 stimulates an increase in biomass of strain 17 and the latter did not stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis W83. In addition, P. gingivalis W83 also stimulates the growth of P. intermedia ATCC25611 although strain W83 was prevalent in the association with P. intermedia ATCC25611. P. gingivalis ATCC33277 was prevalent in both associations with P. intermedia and both strains of P. intermedia stimulate the growth of P. gingivalis ATCC33277. FISH images also showed variability in biofilm structure. Thus, the outcome of the association P. gingivalis/P. intermedia seems to be strain-dependent, and both soluble factors and physical contact are relevant. The association P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens ATCC33563 produced larger biomass than each monotypic biofilm, and P. gingivalis was favored in consortia, while no differences were found in the two-compartment system. Therefore, in consortia P. gingivalis-P. nigrescens physical contact seems to favor P. gingivalis growth. The intraspecies variability found in our study suggests strain-dependence in ability of microorganisms to recognize molecules in other bacteria which may further elucidate the dysbiosis event during periodontitis development giving additional explanation for periodontal bacteria, such as P. gingivalis and P

  19. Systematic spatial bias in DNA microarray hybridization is caused by probe spot position-dependent variability in lateral diffusion.

    Steger, Doris; Berry, David; Haider, Susanne; Horn, Matthias; Wagner, Michael; Stocker, Roman; Loy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The hybridization of nucleic acid targets with surface-immobilized probes is a widely used assay for the parallel detection of multiple targets in medical and biological research. Despite its widespread application, DNA microarray technology still suffers from several biases and lack of reproducibility, stemming in part from an incomplete understanding of the processes governing surface hybridization. In particular, non-random spatial variations within individual microarray hybridizations are often observed, but the mechanisms underpinning this positional bias remain incompletely explained. This study identifies and rationalizes a systematic spatial bias in the intensity of surface hybridization, characterized by markedly increased signal intensity of spots located at the boundaries of the spotted areas of the microarray slide. Combining observations from a simplified single-probe block array format with predictions from a mathematical model, the mechanism responsible for this bias is found to be a position-dependent variation in lateral diffusion of target molecules. Numerical simulations reveal a strong influence of microarray well geometry on the spatial bias. Reciprocal adjustment of the size of the microarray hybridization chamber to the area of surface-bound probes is a simple and effective measure to minimize or eliminate the diffusion-based bias, resulting in increased uniformity and accuracy of quantitative DNA microarray hybridization.

  20. Finite discrete field theory

    Souza, Manoelito M. de

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the physical meaning and the geometric interpretation of implementation in classical field theories. The origin of infinities and other inconsistencies in field theories is traced to fields defined with support on the light cone; a finite and consistent field theory requires a light-cone generator as the field support. Then, we introduce a classical field theory with support on the light cone generators. It results on a description of discrete (point-like) interactions in terms of localized particle-like fields. We find the propagators of these particle-like fields and discuss their physical meaning, properties and consequences. They are conformally invariant, singularity-free, and describing a manifestly covariant (1 + 1)-dimensional dynamics in a (3 = 1) spacetime. Remarkably this conformal symmetry remains even for the propagation of a massive field in four spacetime dimensions. We apply this formalism to Classical electrodynamics and to the General Relativity Theory. The standard formalism with its distributed fields is retrieved in terms of spacetime average of the discrete field. Singularities are the by-products of the averaging process. This new formalism enlighten the meaning and the problem of field theory, and may allow a softer transition to a quantum theory. (author)

  1. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  2. Discretization of 3d gravity in different polarizations

    Dupuis, Maïté; Freidel, Laurent; Girelli, Florian

    2017-10-01

    We study the discretization of three-dimensional gravity with Λ =0 following the loop quantum gravity framework. In the process, we realize that different choices of polarization are possible. This allows us to introduce a new discretization based on the triad as opposed to the connection as in the standard loop quantum gravity framework. We also identify the classical nontrivial symmetries of discrete gravity, namely the Drinfeld double, given in terms of momentum maps. Another choice of polarization is given by the Chern-Simons formulation of gravity. Our framework also provides a new discretization scheme of Chern-Simons, which keeps track of the link between the continuum variables and the discrete ones. We show how the Poisson bracket we recover between the Chern-Simons holonomies allows us to recover the Goldman bracket. There is also a transparent link between the discrete Chern-Simons formulation and the discretization of gravity based on the connection (loop gravity) or triad variables (dual loop gravity).

  3. Exactly and quasi-exactly solvable 'discrete' quantum mechanics.

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2011-03-28

    A brief introduction to discrete quantum mechanics is given together with the main results on various exactly solvable systems. Namely, the intertwining relations, shape invariance, Heisenberg operator solutions, annihilation/creation operators and dynamical symmetry algebras, including the q-oscillator algebra and the Askey-Wilson algebra. A simple recipe to construct exactly and quasi-exactly solvable (QES) Hamiltonians in one-dimensional 'discrete' quantum mechanics is presented. It reproduces all the known Hamiltonians whose eigenfunctions consist of the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a continuous or a discrete variable. Several new exactly and QES Hamiltonians are constructed. The sinusoidal coordinate plays an essential role.

  4. Discrete Quantum Gravity in the Regge Calculus Formalism

    Khatsymovsky, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss an approach to the discrete quantum gravity in the Regge calculus formalism that was developed in a number of our papers. The Regge calculus is general relativity for a subclass of general Riemannian manifolds called piecewise flat manifolds. The Regge calculus deals with a discrete set of variables, triangulation lengths, and contains continuous general relativity as a special limiting case where the lengths tend to zero. In our approach, the quantum length expectations are nonzero and of the order of the Plank scale, 10 -33 cm, implying a discrete spacetime structure on these scales

  5. Spaces of fractional quotients, discrete operators, and their applications. II

    Lifanov, I K; Poltavskii, L N

    1999-01-01

    The theory of discrete operators in spaces of fractional quotients is developed. A theorem on the stability of discrete operators under smooth perturbations is proved. On this basis, using special quadrature formulae of rectangular kind, the convergence of approximate solutions of hypersingular integral equations to their exact solutions is demonstrated and a mathematical substantiation of the method of closed discrete vortex frameworks is obtained. The same line of argument is also applied to difference equations arising in the solution of the homogeneous Dirichlet problem for a general second-order elliptic equation with variable coefficients

  6. Discrete quantum gravitation in formalism of Regge calculus

    Khatsimovskij, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    One deals with approach to the discrete quantum gravitation in terms of the Regge calculus formalism. The Regge calculus represents the general relativity theory for the Riemann varieties - the piecewise planar varieties. The Regge calculus makes use of the discrete set of variables, triangulation lengths, and contains the continuous general relativity theory serving as a limiting special case when lengths tend to zero. In terms of our approach the quantum mean values of the mentioned lengths differ from zero and 10 -33 cm Planck length and it implies the discrete structure of space-time at the mentioned scales [ru

  7. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  8. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Ioannidou, Theodora; Niemi, Antti J.

    2016-01-01

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  9. Poisson hierarchy of discrete strings

    Ioannidou, Theodora, E-mail: ti3@auth.gr [Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54249, Thessaloniki (Greece); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108, Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200, Tours (France); Department of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-01-28

    The Poisson geometry of a discrete string in three dimensional Euclidean space is investigated. For this the Frenet frames are converted into a spinorial representation, the discrete spinor Frenet equation is interpreted in terms of a transfer matrix formalism, and Poisson brackets are introduced in terms of the spinor components. The construction is then generalised, in a self-similar manner, into an infinite hierarchy of Poisson algebras. As an example, the classical Virasoro (Witt) algebra that determines reparametrisation diffeomorphism along a continuous string, is identified as a particular sub-algebra, in the hierarchy of the discrete string Poisson algebra. - Highlights: • Witt (classical Virasoro) algebra is derived in the case of discrete string. • Infinite dimensional hierarchy of Poisson bracket algebras is constructed for discrete strings. • Spinor representation of discrete Frenet equations is developed.

  10. String constraints on discrete symmetries in MSSM type II quivers

    Anastasopoulos, Pascal [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fur Theor. Phys.; Cvetic, Mirjam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Univ. of Maribor (Slovenia). Center for Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Richter, Robert [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We study the presence of discrete gauge symmetries in D-brane semirealistic compactifications. After establishing the constraints on the transformation behaviour of the chiral matter for the presence of a discrete gauge symmetry we perform a systematic search for discrete gauge symmetries within semi-realistic D-brane realizations, based on four D-brane stacks, of the MSSM and the MSSM with three right-handed neutrinos. The systematic search reveals that Proton hexality, a discrete symmetry which ensures the absence of R-parity violating terms as well as the absence of dangerous dimension 5 proton decay operators, is only rarely realized. Moreover, none of the semi-realistic local D-brane configurations exhibit any family dependent discrete gauge symmetry.

  11. Generalized Reduction Formula for Discrete Wigner Functions of Multiqubit Systems

    Srinivasan, K.; Raghavan, G.

    2018-03-01

    Density matrices and Discrete Wigner Functions are equally valid representations of multiqubit quantum states. For density matrices, the partial trace operation is used to obtain the quantum state of subsystems, but an analogous prescription is not available for discrete Wigner Functions. Further, the discrete Wigner function corresponding to a density matrix is not unique but depends on the choice of the quantum net used for its reconstruction. In the present work, we derive a reduction formula for discrete Wigner functions of a general multiqubit state which works for arbitrary quantum nets. These results would be useful for the analysis and classification of entangled states and the study of decoherence purely in a discrete phase space setting and also in applications to quantum computing.

  12. Rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice and the alternate discrete Painleve II equation

    Common, Alan K; Hone, Andrew N W

    2008-01-01

    The Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials y n (t), which are defined by a second-order bilinear differential-difference equation, provide rational solutions of the Toda lattice. They are also polynomial tau-functions for the rational solutions of the second Painleve equation (P II ). Here we define two-variable polynomials Y n (t, h) on a lattice with spacing h, by considering rational solutions of the discrete time Toda lattice as introduced by Suris. These polynomials are shown to have many properties that are analogous to those of the Yablonskii-Vorob'ev polynomials, to which they reduce when h = 0. They also provide rational solutions for a particular discretization of P II , namely the so-called alternate discrete P II , and this connection leads to an expression in terms of the Umemura polynomials for the third Painleve equation (P III ). It is shown that the Baecklund transformation for the alternate discrete Painleve equation is a symplectic map, and the shift in time is also symplectic. Finally we present a Lax pair for the alternate discrete P II , which recovers Jimbo and Miwa's Lax pair for P II in the continuum limit h → 0

  13. HIGHLY-ACCURATE MODEL ORDER REDUCTION TECHNIQUE ON A DISCRETE DOMAIN

    L. D. Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, we present a highly-accurate technique of model order reduction applied to staged processes. The proposed method reduces the dimension of the original system based on null values of moment-weighted sums of heat and mass balance residuals on real stages. To compute these sums of weighted residuals, a discrete form of Gauss-Lobatto quadrature was developed, allowing a high degree of accuracy in these calculations. The locations where the residuals are cancelled vary with time and operating conditions, characterizing a desirable adaptive nature of this technique. Balances related to upstream and downstream devices (such as condenser, reboiler, and feed tray of a distillation column are considered as boundary conditions of the corresponding difference-differential equations system. The chosen number of moments is the dimension of the reduced model being much lower than the dimension of the complete model and does not depend on the size of the original model. Scaling of the discrete independent variable related with the stages was crucial for the computational implementation of the proposed method, avoiding accumulation of round-off errors present even in low-degree polynomial approximations in the original discrete variable. Dynamical simulations of distillation columns were carried out to check the performance of the proposed model order reduction technique. The obtained results show the superiority of the proposed procedure in comparison with the orthogonal collocation method.

  14. Robust Stabilization of Discrete-Time Systems with Time-Varying Delay: An LMI Approach

    Valter J. S. Leite

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient linear matrix inequality (LMI conditions to verify the robust stability and to design robust state feedback gains for the class of linear discrete-time systems with time-varying delay and polytopic uncertainties are presented. The conditions are obtained through parameter-dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals and use some extra variables, which yield less conservative LMI conditions. Both problems, robust stability analysis and robust synthesis, are formulated as convex problems where all system matrices can be affected by uncertainty. Some numerical examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of the proposed LMI conditions.

  15. Analysis of arterial pressure variability in patients with acute cerebral stroke depending on the time of occurrence

    Volosovets A.O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arterial hypertension can cause a pronounced negative influence on the state of the cerebral vascular system and lead to significant microtraumatization of the walls of the vessels and disruption of vascular autoregulation. This predictor has the greatest influence on the onset of ischemic stroke of atherothrombotic and lacunar subtypes, however, hypertension occurs almost in all patients with acute cerebral ischemia. Interesting and not at all presented in modern scientific literature is the question of the relationship of oscillation of blood pressure with the period of the onset of the focus of ischemia, which predetermined the purpose of our work. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between deformation of the profile of fluctuations in blood pressure of patients in the acute period of ischemic stroke, depending on the time of the occurrence of cerebrovascular accident. We examined 300 patients who suffered acute ischemic stroke (men - 196, women - 104 aged 42 to 84 years (average age - 65.2 ± 8.7 years. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to the period of the day when an ischemic stroke occurred: 1 group (n=146, patients suffering from cerebral ischemia during the day (8.00-14.59; In group 2 (n=107, patients stroke was observed in the evening (15.00-21.59; Group 3 (n=47, patients had an ischemic stroke at night (22.00-7.59. For the 1st group of patients who have had ischemic stroke during the day and as a rule with an increase in blood pressure, a marked increase in blood pressure was at 12.00 and 15.00 and a tendency towards compensatory parasympathetic effect in the form of blood pressure decrease at night (over-dipper was typical. At the same time, in the 2nd group of patients with stroke in the evening, elevated blood pressure at 18.00 and 21.00 and parasympathetic activity disorders with prevalence of insufficient reduction of blood pressure in the evening and during sleep (non-dipper was observed

  16. Meteorological variables affect fertility rate after intrauterine artificial insemination in sheep in a seasonal-dependent manner: a 7-year study

    Palacios, C.; Abecia, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    A total number of 48,088 artificial inseminations (AIs) have been controlled during seven consecutive years in 79 dairy sheep Spanish farms (41° N). Mean, maximum and minimum ambient temperatures ( Ts), temperature amplitude (TA), mean relative humidity (RH), mean solar radiation (SR) and total rainfall of each insemination day and 15 days later were recorded. Temperature-humidity index (THI) and effective temperature (ET) have been calculated. A binary logistic regression model to estimate the risk of not getting pregnant compared to getting pregnant, through the odds ratio (OR), was performed. Successful winter inseminations were carried out under higher SR ( P 1 (maximum T, ET and rainfall on AI day, and ET and rainfall on day 15), and two variables presented OR AI day and maximum T on day 15). However, the effect of meteorological factors affected fertility in opposite ways, so T becomes a protective or risk factor on fertility depending on season. In conclusion, the percentage of pregnancy after AI in sheep is significantly affected by meteorological variables in a seasonal-dependent manner, so the parameters such as temperature reverse their effects in the hot or cold seasons. A forecast of the meteorological conditions could be a useful tool when AI dates are being scheduled.

  17. Principles of discrete time mechanics

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    2014-01-01

    Could time be discrete on some unimaginably small scale? Exploring the idea in depth, this unique introduction to discrete time mechanics systematically builds the theory up from scratch, beginning with the historical, physical and mathematical background to the chronon hypothesis. Covering classical and quantum discrete time mechanics, this book presents all the tools needed to formulate and develop applications of discrete time mechanics in a number of areas, including spreadsheet mechanics, classical and quantum register mechanics, and classical and quantum mechanics and field theories. A consistent emphasis on contextuality and the observer-system relationship is maintained throughout.

  18. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  19. Discrete anti-gravity

    Noyes, H.P.; Starson, S.

    1991-03-01

    Discrete physics, because it replaces time evolution generated by the energy operator with a global bit-string generator (program universe) and replaces ''fields'' with the relativistic Wheeler-Feynman ''action at a distance,'' allows the consistent formulation of the concept of signed gravitational charge for massive particles. The resulting prediction made by this version of the theory is that free anti-particles near the surface of the earth will ''fall'' up with the same acceleration that the corresponding particles fall down. So far as we can see, no current experimental information is in conflict with this prediction of our theory. The experiment crusis will be one of the anti-proton or anti-hydrogen experiments at CERN. Our prediction should be much easier to test than the small effects which those experiments are currently designed to detect or bound. 23 refs

  20. Discrete bacteria foraging optimization algorithm for graph based problems - a transition from continuous to discrete

    Sur, Chiranjib; Shukla, Anupam

    2018-03-01

    Bacteria Foraging Optimisation Algorithm is a collective behaviour-based meta-heuristics searching depending on the social influence of the bacteria co-agents in the search space of the problem. The algorithm faces tremendous hindrance in terms of its application for discrete problems and graph-based problems due to biased mathematical modelling and dynamic structure of the algorithm. This had been the key factor to revive and introduce the discrete form called Discrete Bacteria Foraging Optimisation (DBFO) Algorithm for discrete problems which exceeds the number of continuous domain problems represented by mathematical and numerical equations in real life. In this work, we have mainly simulated a graph-based road multi-objective optimisation problem and have discussed the prospect of its utilisation in other similar optimisation problems and graph-based problems. The various solution representations that can be handled by this DBFO has also been discussed. The implications and dynamics of the various parameters used in the DBFO are illustrated from the point view of the problems and has been a combination of both exploration and exploitation. The result of DBFO has been compared with Ant Colony Optimisation and Intelligent Water Drops Algorithms. Important features of DBFO are that the bacteria agents do not depend on the local heuristic information but estimates new exploration schemes depending upon the previous experience and covered path analysis. This makes the algorithm better in combination generation for graph-based problems and combination generation for NP hard problems.

  1. Finite Volumes Discretization of Topology Optimization Problems

    Evgrafov, Anton; Gregersen, Misha Marie; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    , FVMs represent a standard method of discretization within engineering communities dealing with computational uid dy- namics, transport, and convection-reaction problems. Among various avours of FVMs, cell based approaches, where all variables are associated only with cell centers, are particularly...... computations is done using nite element methods (FEMs). Despite some limited recent eorts [1, 2], we have only started to develop our understanding of the interplay between the control in the coecients and FVMs. Recent advances in discrete functional analysis allow us to analyze convergence of FVM...... of the induced parametrization of the design space that allows optimization algorithms to eciently explore it, and the ease of integration with existing computational codes in a variety of application areas, the simplicity and eciency of sensitivity analyses|all stemming from the use of the same grid throughout...

  2. Discrete PID Tuning Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Petr DOLEŽEL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PID controllers are widely used in industry these days due to their useful properties such as simple tuning or robustness. While they are applicable to many control problems, they can perform poorly in some applications. Highly nonlinear system control with constrained manipulated variable can be mentioned as an example. The point of the paper is to string together convenient qualities of conventional PID control and progressive techniques based on Artificial Intelligence. Proposed control method should deal with even highly nonlinear systems. To be more specific, there is described new method of discrete PID controller tuning in this paper. This method tunes discrete PID controller parameters online through the use of genetic algorithm and neural model of controlled system in order to control successfully even highly nonlinear systems. After method description and some discussion, there is performed control simulation and comparison to one chosen conventional control method.

  3. Optimization of Operations Resources via Discrete Event Simulation Modeling

    Joshi, B.; Morris, D.; White, N.; Unal, R.

    1996-01-01

    The resource levels required for operation and support of reusable launch vehicles are typically defined through discrete event simulation modeling. Minimizing these resources constitutes an optimization problem involving discrete variables and simulation. Conventional approaches to solve such optimization problems involving integer valued decision variables are the pattern search and statistical methods. However, in a simulation environment that is characterized by search spaces of unknown topology and stochastic measures, these optimization approaches often prove inadequate. In this paper, we have explored the applicability of genetic algorithms to the simulation domain. Genetic algorithms provide a robust search strategy that does not require continuity and differentiability of the problem domain. The genetic algorithm successfully minimized the operation and support activities for a space vehicle, through a discrete event simulation model. The practical issues associated with simulation optimization, such as stochastic variables and constraints, were also taken into consideration.

  4. Control of Discrete Event Systems

    Smedinga, Rein

    1989-01-01

    Systemen met discrete gebeurtenissen spelen in vele gebieden een rol. In dit proefschrift staat de volgorde van gebeurtenissen centraal en worden tijdsaspecten buiten beschouwing gelaten. In dat geval kunnen systemen met discrete gebeurtenissen goed worden gemodelleerd door gebruik te maken van

  5. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications

    Oxley, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The article gives ideas that lecturers of undergraduate Discrete Mathematics courses can use in order to make the subject more interesting for students and encourage them to undertake further studies in the subject. It is possible to teach Discrete Mathematics with little or no reference to computing. However, students are more likely to be…

  6. Discrete Mathematics and Curriculum Reform.

    Kenney, Margaret J.

    1996-01-01

    Defines discrete mathematics as the mathematics necessary to effect reasoned decision making in finite situations and explains how its use supports the current view of mathematics education. Discrete mathematics can be used by curriculum developers to improve the curriculum for students of all ages and abilities. (SLD)

  7. Connections on discrete fibre bundles

    Manton, N.S.; Cambridge Univ.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to gauge fields on a discrete space-time is proposed, in which the fundamental object is a discrete version of a principal fibre bundle. If the bundle is twisted, the gauge fields are topologically non-trivial automatically. (orig.)

  8. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  9. Discrete dynamics versus analytic dynamics

    Toxværd, Søren

    2014-01-01

    For discrete classical Molecular dynamics obtained by the “Verlet” algorithm (VA) with the time increment h there exists a shadow Hamiltonian H˜ with energy E˜(h) , for which the discrete particle positions lie on the analytic trajectories for H˜ . Here, we proof that there, independent...... of such an analytic analogy, exists an exact hidden energy invariance E * for VA dynamics. The fact that the discrete VA dynamics has the same invariances as Newtonian dynamics raises the question, which of the formulations that are correct, or alternatively, the most appropriate formulation of classical dynamics....... In this context the relation between the discrete VA dynamics and the (general) discrete dynamics investigated by Lee [Phys. Lett. B122, 217 (1983)] is presented and discussed....

  10. Modern approaches to discrete curvature

    Romon, Pascal

    2017-01-01

     This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.

  11. Fractional equations of kicked systems and discrete maps

    Tarasov, Vasily E; Zaslavsky, George M

    2008-01-01

    Starting from kicked equations of motion with derivatives of non-integer orders, we obtain 'fractional' discrete maps. These maps are generalizations of well-known universal, standard, dissipative, kicked damped rotator maps. The main property of the suggested fractional maps is a long-term memory. The memory effects in the fractional discrete maps mean that their present state evolution depends on all past states with special forms of weights. These forms are represented by combinations of power-law functions

  12. An integrable semi-discretization of the Boussinesq equation

    Zhang, Yingnan; Tian, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new integrable semi-discretization of the Boussinesq equation is present. • A Bäcklund transformation and a Lax pair for the differential-difference system is derived by using Hirota's bilinear method. • The soliton solutions of 'good' Boussinesq equation and numerical algorithms are investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, we present an integrable semi-discretization of the Boussinesq equation. Different from other discrete analogues, we discretize the ‘time’ variable and get an integrable differential-difference system. Under a standard limitation, the differential-difference system converges to the continuous Boussinesq equation such that the discrete system can be used to design numerical algorithms. Using Hirota's bilinear method, we find a Bäcklund transformation and a Lax pair of the differential-difference system. For the case of ‘good’ Boussinesq equation, we investigate the soliton solutions of its discrete analogue and design numerical algorithms. We find an effective way to reduce the phase shift caused by the discretization. The numerical results coincide with our analysis.

  13. An integrable semi-discretization of the Boussinesq equation

    Zhang, Yingnan, E-mail: ynzhang@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Tian, Lixin, E-mail: tianlixin@njnu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nonlinear Scientific Research Center, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-10-23

    Highlights: • A new integrable semi-discretization of the Boussinesq equation is present. • A Bäcklund transformation and a Lax pair for the differential-difference system is derived by using Hirota's bilinear method. • The soliton solutions of 'good' Boussinesq equation and numerical algorithms are investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, we present an integrable semi-discretization of the Boussinesq equation. Different from other discrete analogues, we discretize the ‘time’ variable and get an integrable differential-difference system. Under a standard limitation, the differential-difference system converges to the continuous Boussinesq equation such that the discrete system can be used to design numerical algorithms. Using Hirota's bilinear method, we find a Bäcklund transformation and a Lax pair of the differential-difference system. For the case of ‘good’ Boussinesq equation, we investigate the soliton solutions of its discrete analogue and design numerical algorithms. We find an effective way to reduce the phase shift caused by the discretization. The numerical results coincide with our analysis.

  14. Phase variable expression of a single phage receptor in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 influences sensitivity toward several diverse CPS-dependent phages

    Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Sørensen, Martine C.H.; Wenzel, Cory Q.

    2018-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni NCTC12662 is sensitive to infection by many Campylobacter bacteriophages. Here we used this strain to investigate the molecular mechanism behind phage resistance development when exposed to a single phage and demonstrate how phase variable expression of one surface component...... influences phage sensitivity against many diverse C. jejuni phages. When C. jejuni NCTC12662 was exposed to phage F207 overnight, 25% of the bacterial cells were able to grow on a lawn of phage F207, suggesting that resistance develops at a high frequency. One resistant variant, 12662R, was further...... characterized and shown to be an adsorption mutant. Plaque assays using our large phage collection showed that seven out of 36 diverse capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-dependent phages could not infect 12662R, whereas the remaining phages formed plaques on 12662R with reduced efficiencies. Analysis of the CPS...

  15. An alternative approach to exact wave functions for time-dependent coupled oscillator model of charged particle in variable magnetic field

    Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states of time-dependent coupled oscillator model for charged particles subjected to variable magnetic field are investigated using the invariant operator methods. To do this, we have taken advantage of an alternative method, so-called unitary transformation approach, available in the framework of quantum mechanics, as well as a generalized canonical transformation method in the classical regime. The transformed quantum Hamiltonian is obtained using suitable unitary operators and is represented in terms of two independent harmonic oscillators which have the same frequencies as that of the classically transformed one. Starting from the wave functions in the transformed system, we have derived the full wave functions in the original system with the help of the unitary operators. One can easily take a complete description of how the charged particle behaves under the given Hamiltonian by taking advantage of these analytical wave functions.

  16. Discretion and Disproportionality

    Jason A. Grissom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Students of color are underrepresented in gifted programs relative to White students, but the reasons for this underrepresentation are poorly understood. We investigate the predictors of gifted assignment using nationally representative, longitudinal data on elementary students. We document that even among students with high standardized test scores, Black students are less likely to be assigned to gifted services in both math and reading, a pattern that persists when controlling for other background factors, such as health and socioeconomic status, and characteristics of classrooms and schools. We then investigate the role of teacher discretion, leveraging research from political science suggesting that clients of government services from traditionally underrepresented groups benefit from diversity in the providers of those services, including teachers. Even after conditioning on test scores and other factors, Black students indeed are referred to gifted programs, particularly in reading, at significantly lower rates when taught by non-Black teachers, a concerning result given the relatively low incidence of assignment to own-race teachers among Black students.

  17. Multilevel discretized random field models with 'spin' correlations for the simulation of environmental spatial data

    Žukovič, Milan; Hristopulos, Dionissios T

    2009-01-01

    A current problem of practical significance is how to analyze large, spatially distributed, environmental data sets. The problem is more challenging for variables that follow non-Gaussian distributions. We show by means of numerical simulations that the spatial correlations between variables can be captured by interactions between 'spins'. The spins represent multilevel discretizations of environmental variables with respect to a number of pre-defined thresholds. The spatial dependence between the 'spins' is imposed by means of short-range interactions. We present two approaches, inspired by the Ising and Potts models, that generate conditional simulations of spatially distributed variables from samples with missing data. Currently, the sampling and simulation points are assumed to be at the nodes of a regular grid. The conditional simulations of the 'spin system' are forced to respect locally the sample values and the system statistics globally. The second constraint is enforced by minimizing a cost function representing the deviation between normalized correlation energies of the simulated and the sample distributions. In the approach based on the N c -state Potts model, each point is assigned to one of N c classes. The interactions involve all the points simultaneously. In the Ising model approach, a sequential simulation scheme is used: the discretization at each simulation level is binomial (i.e., ± 1). Information propagates from lower to higher levels as the simulation proceeds. We compare the two approaches in terms of their ability to reproduce the target statistics (e.g., the histogram and the variogram of the sample distribution), to predict data at unsampled locations, as well as in terms of their computational complexity. The comparison is based on a non-Gaussian data set (derived from a digital elevation model of the Walker Lake area, Nevada, USA). We discuss the impact of relevant simulation parameters, such as the domain size, the number of

  18. Multilevel discretized random field models with 'spin' correlations for the simulation of environmental spatial data

    Žukovič, Milan; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    2009-02-01

    A current problem of practical significance is how to analyze large, spatially distributed, environmental data sets. The problem is more challenging for variables that follow non-Gaussian distributions. We show by means of numerical simulations that the spatial correlations between variables can be captured by interactions between 'spins'. The spins represent multilevel discretizations of environmental variables with respect to a number of pre-defined thresholds. The spatial dependence between the 'spins' is imposed by means of short-range interactions. We present two approaches, inspired by the Ising and Potts models, that generate conditional simulations of spatially distributed variables from samples with missing data. Currently, the sampling and simulation points are assumed to be at the nodes of a regular grid. The conditional simulations of the 'spin system' are forced to respect locally the sample values and the system statistics globally. The second constraint is enforced by minimizing a cost function representing the deviation between normalized correlation energies of the simulated and the sample distributions. In the approach based on the Nc-state Potts model, each point is assigned to one of Nc classes. The interactions involve all the points simultaneously. In the Ising model approach, a sequential simulation scheme is used: the discretization at each simulation level is binomial (i.e., ± 1). Information propagates from lower to higher levels as the simulation proceeds. We compare the two approaches in terms of their ability to reproduce the target statistics (e.g., the histogram and the variogram of the sample distribution), to predict data at unsampled locations, as well as in terms of their computational complexity. The comparison is based on a non-Gaussian data set (derived from a digital elevation model of the Walker Lake area, Nevada, USA). We discuss the impact of relevant simulation parameters, such as the domain size, the number of

  19. Origins of intersubject variability of blood oxygenation level dependent and arterial spin labeling fMRI: implications for quantification of brain activity.

    Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Goodyear, Bradley G

    2012-12-01

    Accurate localization of brain activity using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been challenged because of the large BOLD signal within distal veins. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques offer greater sensitivity to the microvasculature but possess low temporal resolution and limited brain coverage. In this study, we show that the physiological origins of BOLD and ASL depend on whether percent change or statistical significance is being considered. For BOLD and ASL fMRI data collected during a simple unilateral hand movement task, we found that in the area of the contralateral motor cortex the centre of gravity (CoG) of the intersubject coefficient of variation (CV) of BOLD fMRI was near the brain surface for percent change in signal, whereas the CoG of the intersubject CV for Z-score was in close proximity of sites of brain activity for both BOLD and ASL. These findings suggest that intersubject variability of BOLD percent change is vascular in origin, whereas the origin of inter-subject variability of Z-score is neuronal for both BOLD and ASL. For longer duration tasks (12 s or greater), however, there was a significant correlation between BOLD and ASL percent change, which was not evident for short duration tasks (6 s). These findings suggest that analyses directly comparing percent change in BOLD signal between pre-defined regions of interest using short duration stimuli, as for example in event-related designs, may be heavily weighted by large-vessel responses rather than neuronal responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensitivity of Photosynthetic Gas Exchange and Growth of Lodgepole Pine to Climate Variability Depends on the Age of Pleistocene Glacial Surfaces

    Osborn, B.; Chapple, W.; Ewers, B. E.; Williams, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between soil conditions and climate variability plays a central role in the ecohydrological functions of montane conifer forests. Although soil moisture availability to trees is largely dependent on climate, the depth and texture of soil exerts a key secondary influence. Multiple Pleistocene glacial events have shaped the landscape of the central Rocky Mountains creating a patchwork of soils differing in age and textural classification. This mosaic of soil conditions impacts hydrological properties, and montane conifer forests potentially respond to climate variability quite differently depending on the age of glacial till and soil development. We hypothesized that the age of glacial till and associated soil textural changes exert strong control on growth and photosynthetic gas exchange of lodgepole pine. We examined physiological and growth responses of lodgepole pine to interannual variation in maximum annual snow water equivalence (SWEmax) of montane snowpack and growing season air temperature (Tair) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) across a chronosequence of Pleistocene glacial tills ranging in age from 700k to 12k years. Soil textural differences across the glacial tills illustrate the varying degrees of weathering with the most well developed soils with highest clay content on the oldest till surfaces. We show that sensitivity of growth and carbon isotope discrimination, an integrated measure of canopy gas exchange properties, to interannual variation SWEmax , Tair and VPD is greatest on young till surfaces, whereas trees on old glacial tills with well-developed soils are mostly insensitive to these interannual climate fluctuations. Tree-ring widths were most sensitive to changes in SWEmax on young glacial tills (p < 0.01), and less sensitive on the oldest till (p < 0.05). Tair correlates strongly with δ13C values on the oldest and youngest tills sites, but shows no significant relationship on the middle aged glacial till. It is clear that

  1. Intra- and inter-individual variability of Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies in healthy volunteers in dependency of mould exposure in residential and working environment.

    Wurster, Sebastian; Weis, Philipp; Page, Lukas; Helm, Johanna; Lazariotou, Maria; Einsele, Hermann; Ullmann, Andrew J

    2017-10-01

    Invasive aspergillosis remains a deadly disease in immunocompromised patients, whereas the combination of an exaggerated immune response and continuous exposure lead to various hyperinflammatory diseases. This pilot study aimed to gain an overview of the intra- and inter-individual variability in Aspergillus fumigatus reactive T-helper cells in healthy adults and the correlation with environmental mould exposure. In this flow cytometric study, the frequencies of CD154 + A. fumigatus reactive T cells were evaluated in 70 healthy volunteers. All subjects completed a standardised questionnaire addressing their mould exposure. Subjects with intensive mould exposure in their professional or residential surrounding demonstrated considerably higher mean frequencies of A. fumigatus reactive T-helper and T-memory cells. Comparative evaluation of multiple measurements over time demonstrated relatively conserved reactive T-cell frequencies in the absence of major changes to the exposure profile, whereas those frequently exposed in professional environment or with changes to their risk score demonstrated a marked dependency of antigen reactive T-cell frequencies on recent mould exposure. This pilot study was the first to provide data on the intra-individual variability in A. fumigatus reactive T-cell frequencies and its linkage to mould encounter. Fungus reactive T cells are to be considered a valued tool for the assessment of environmental mould exposure. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Self-produced Time Intervals Are Perceived as More Variable and/or Shorter Depending on Temporal Context in Subsecond and Suprasecond Ranges

    Keita eMitani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The processing of time intervals is fundamental for sensorimotor and cognitive functions. Perceptual and motor timing are often performed concurrently (e.g., playing a musical instrument. Although previous studies have shown the influence of body movements on time perception, how we perceive self-produced time intervals has remained unclear. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the timing mechanisms are distinct for the sub- and suprasecond ranges. Here, we compared perceptual performances for self-produced and passively presented time intervals in random contexts (i.e., multiple target intervals presented in a session across the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 1 and within the sub- (Experiment 2 and suprasecond (Experiment 3 ranges, and in a constant context (i.e., a single target interval presented in a session in the sub- and suprasecond ranges (Experiment 4. We show that self-produced time intervals were perceived as shorter and more variable across the sub- and suprasecond ranges and within the suprasecond range but not within the subsecond range in a random context. In a constant context, the self-produced time intervals were perceived as more variable in the suprasecond range but not in the subsecond range. The impairing effects indicate that motor timing interferes with perceptual timing. The dependence of impairment on temporal contexts suggests multiple timing mechanisms for the subsecond and suprasecond ranges. In addition, violation of the scalar property (i.e., a constant variability to target interval ratio was observed between the sub- and suprasecond ranges. The violation was clearer for motor timing than for perceptual timing. This suggests that the multiple timing mechanisms for the sub- and suprasecond ranges overlap more for perception than for motor. Moreover, the central tendency effect (i.e., where shorter base intervals are overestimated and longer base intervals are underestimated disappeared with subsecond

  3. A new method to detect transitory signatures and local time/space variability structures in the climate system: the scale-dependent correlation analysis

    Rodó, Xavier; Rodríguez-Arias, Miquel-Àngel

    2006-10-01

    The study of transitory signals and local variability structures in both/either time and space and their role as sources of climatic memory, is an important but often neglected topic in climate research despite its obvious importance and extensive coverage in the literature. Transitory signals arise either from non-linearities, in the climate system, transitory atmosphere-ocean couplings, and other processes in the climate system evolving after a critical threshold is crossed. These temporary interactions that, though intense, may not last long, can be responsible for a large amount of unexplained variability but are normally considered of limited relevance and often, discarded. With most of the current techniques at hand these typology of signatures are difficult to isolate because the low signal-to-noise ratio in midlatitudes, the limited recurrence of the transitory signals during a customary interval of data considered. Also, there is often a serious problem arising from the smoothing of local or transitory processes if statistical techniques are applied, that consider all the length of data available, rather than taking into account the size of the specific variability structure under investigation. Scale-dependent correlation (SDC) analysis is a new statistical method capable of highlighting the presence of transitory processes, these former being understood as temporary significant lag-dependent autocovariance in a single series, or covariance structures between two series. This approach, therefore, complements other approaches such as those resulting from the families of wavelet analysis, singular-spectrum analysis and recurrence plots. A main feature of SDC is its high-performance for short time series, its ability to characterize phase-relationships and thresholds in the bivariate domain. Ultimately, SDC helps tracking short-lagged relationships among processes that locally or temporarily couple and uncouple. The use of SDC is illustrated in the present

  4. Commutative discrete filtering on unstructured grids based on least-squares techniques

    Haselbacher, Andreas; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is concerned with the development of commutative discrete filters for unstructured grids and contains two main contributions. First, building on the work of Marsden et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 175 (2002) 584], a new commutative discrete filter based on least-squares techniques is constructed. Second, a new analysis of the discrete commutation error is carried out. The analysis indicates that the discrete commutation error is not only dependent on the number of vanishing moments of the filter weights, but also on the order of accuracy of the discrete gradient operator. The results of the analysis are confirmed by grid-refinement studies

  5. Effect of short-term heart rate variability biofeedback on long-term abstinence in alcohol dependent patients - a one-year follow-up.

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Barlinn, Kristian; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin; Siepmann, Timo

    2017-09-06

    A randomized controlled study (RCT) recently showed that short-term heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in addition to standard rehabilitation care for alcohol dependence can reduce craving, anxiety and improve cardiovascular autonomic function. In this one-year follow-up study we aimed to explore whether completion of 2-week HRV-Biofeedback training is associated with long-term abstinence. Furthermore, we sought to identify potential predictors of post-treatment abstinence. We conducted a survey on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence 1 year after completion of an RCT comparing HRV-biofeedback in addition to inpatient rehabilitation treatment alone (controls). Abstinence rates were compared and analysed for association with demographic data as well as psychometric and autonomic cardiac assessment before and after completion of the biofeedback training using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses. Out of 48 patients who participated in the RCT, 27 patients (9 females, ages 42.9 ± 8.6, mean ± SD) completed our one-year follow-up. When including in the analysis only patients who completed follow-up, the rate of abstinence tended to be higher in patients who underwent HRV-biofeedback 1 year earlier compared to those who received rehabilitative treatment alone (66.7% vs 50%, p = ns). This non-significant trend was also observed in the intention-to-treat analysis where patients who did not participate in the follow-up were assumed to have relapsed (46,7% biofeedback vs. 33.3% controls, p = ns). Neither cardiac autonomic function nor psychometric variables were associated with abstinence 1 year after HRV-biofeedback. Our follow-up study provide a first indication of possible increase in long-term abstinence after HRV-biofeedback for alcohol dependence in addition to rehabilitation. The original randomized controlled trial was registered in the German Clinical Trials Register ( DRKS00004618 ). This one-year follow-up survey has not been

  6. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  7. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discussed. Furthermore we show that a reparametrization invariant path integral implies discretization independence and acts as a projector onto physical states.

  8. The origin of discrete particles

    Bastin, T

    2009-01-01

    This book is a unique summary of the results of a long research project undertaken by the authors on discreteness in modern physics. In contrast with the usual expectation that discreteness is the result of mathematical tools for insertion into a continuous theory, this more basic treatment builds up the world from the discrimination of discrete entities. This gives an algebraic structure in which certain fixed numbers arise. As such, one agrees with the measured value of the fine-structure constant to one part in 10,000,000 (10 7 ). Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (56 KB). Chapter 1: Introduction

  9. Reminiscence therapy using odor in alcohol-dependent patients--psychophysiological evaluation and psychological evaluation; power spectral analysis of heart rate variability.

    Arizono, H; Morita, N; Iizuka, S; Satoh, S; Nakatani, Y

    2000-12-01

    This research was based on the hypothesis that when alcohol-dependent patients describe themselves, awakening of emotion by affirmative odor stimulation may facilitate memory reframing focusing on more affirmative emotion and memories. To prove the hypothesis, physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening were evaluated by measuring the autonomic activity. In addition, subjective evaluation by a self-report manner was examined to investigate the effectiveness of Reminiscence Therapy (RT) using odor in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-four patients who met the DSM-IV criteria of alcohol-related disorders and were hospitalized in a ward specialized to alcohol dependence therapy. Each patient underwent a one-to-one interview twice. For counterbalance, one interview was performed with odor stimulation using an odor with a relaxing effect that recall pleasant emotion, and the other was without odor stimulation. As the evaluation indices of physiological changes accompanied by emotional awakening, index of autonomic function (HRV; Heart rate variability) for objective evaluation and psychological indices (STAI; State-Trait Anxiety Inventory VAS; Visual Analog Scale) for subjective evaluation were measured. 1) Objective evaluation: Regarding the evaluation index of the autonomic function, the sympathetic nervous system activity (LF/HF; low frequency component/high frequency component ratio) was significantly inhibited by odor stimulation (p Subjective evaluation: Compared to the state prior to interview, state anxiety judged by STAI was significantly decreased after interview (p subjective evaluation, but the objective evaluation suggested that the odor inhibited the sympathetic nervous system. Thus, it was suggested that odor can be used in RT, that is, emotional changes due to stimulation of odor may be applicable in RT.

  10. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Moselewski, Fabian; Ferencik, Maros; Achenbach, Stephan; Abbara, Suhny; Cury, Ricardo C.; Booth, Sarah L.; Jang, Ik-Kyung; Brady, Thomas J.; Hoffmann, Udo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM]) at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 ± 68.7 HU versus 295 ± 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT

  11. Threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification measurements - implications for contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography

    Moselewski, Fabian [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Ferencik, Maros [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Achenbach, Stephan [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Internal Medicine II (Cardiology), University of Erlangen (Germany); Abbara, Suhny [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cury, Ricardo C. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Booth, Sarah L. [Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, 711 Washington St., Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Jang, Ik-Kyung [Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Brady, Thomas J. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Hoffmann, Udo [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: uhoffman@partners.org

    2006-03-15

    Introduction: The present study investigated the threshold-dependent variability of coronary artery calcification (CAC) measurements and the potential to quantify CAC in contrast-enhanced multi-detector row-computed tomography (MDCT). Methods: We compared the mean CT attenuation of CAC to luminal contrast enhancement of the coronary arteries in 30 patients (n = 30) undergoing standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT. The modified Agatston score [AS], calcified plaque volume [CV], and mineral mass [MM] at four different thresholds (130, 200, 300, and 400 HU) were measured in 50 patients who underwent non-contrast-enhanced MDCT. Results: Mean CT attenuation of CAC was similar to the attenuation of the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen (CAC 297.1 {+-} 68.7 HU versus 295 {+-} 65 HU (p < 0.0001), respectively). Above a threshold of 300 HU CAC measurements significantly varied to standard measurements obtained at a threshold of 130 HU (p < 0.0001). The threshold-dependent variation of MM measurements was significantly smaller than for AS and CV (130 HU versus 400 HU: 63, 75, and 81, respectively; p < 0.001). These differences resulted in a change of age and gender based percentile category for AS in 78% of subjects. Discussion: We demonstrated that CAC measurements are threshold dependent with MM measurements having significantly less variation than AS or CV. Due to the similarity of mean CT attenuation of CAC and the contrast-enhanced coronary lumen accurate quantification of CAC may be difficult in standard coronary contrast-enhanced spiral MDCT.

  12. Density dependence and climate effects in Rocky Mountain elk: an application of regression with instrumental variables for population time series with sampling error.

    Creel, Scott; Creel, Michael

    2009-11-01

    1. Sampling error in annual estimates of population size creates two widely recognized problems for the analysis of population growth. First, if sampling error is mistakenly treated as process error, one obtains inflated estimates of the variation in true population trajectories (Staples, Taper & Dennis 2004). Second, treating sampling error as process error is thought to overestimate the importance of density dependence in population growth (Viljugrein et al. 2005; Dennis et al. 2006). 2. In ecology, state-space models are used to account for sampling error when estimating the effects of density and other variables on population growth (Staples et al. 2004; Dennis et al. 2006). In econometrics, regression with instrumental variables is a well-established method that addresses the problem of correlation between regressors and the error term, but requires fewer assumptions than state-space models (Davidson & MacKinnon 1993; Cameron & Trivedi 2005). 3. We used instrumental variables to account for sampling error and fit a generalized linear model to 472 annual observations of population size for 35 Elk Management Units in Montana, from 1928 to 2004. We compared this model with state-space models fit with the likelihood function of Dennis et al. (2006). We discuss the general advantages and disadvantages of each method. Briefly, regression with instrumental variables is valid with fewer distributional assumptions, but state-space models are more efficient when their distributional assumptions are met. 4. Both methods found that population growth was negatively related to population density and winter snow accumulation. Summer rainfall and wolf (Canis lupus) presence had much weaker effects on elk (Cervus elaphus) dynamics [though limitation by wolves is strong in some elk populations with well-established wolf populations (Creel et al. 2007; Creel & Christianson 2008)]. 5. Coupled with predictions for Montana from global and regional climate models, our results

  13. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  14. Origin of the current discretization in deep reset states of an Al2O3/Cu-based conductive-bridging memory, and impact on state level and variability

    Belmonte, A.; Degraeve, R.; Fantini, A.; Kim, W.; Houssa, M.; Jurczak, M.; Goux, L.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we develop a Quantum-Point-Contact (QPC) model describing the state conduction in a W/Al2O3/TiW/Cu Conductive-Bridging Memory cell (CBRAM). The model allows describing both the voltage- and the temperature-dependence of the conduction. For deep current levels, a resistance component is added in series to the point-contact constriction to account for electron scattering in the residual filament. The fitting of single-particle perturbation also allowed to estimate the number and effective size of the conduction-controlling particles in the QPC constriction. The results clearly point to smaller particles for CBRAM (Cu particles) as compared to oxide-based resistive RAM involving oxygen-vacancy defects, which is discussed as a possible origin of deeper reset level obtained in CBRAM. We also evidence a beneficial impact of this smaller particle size on lower Random-Telegraph-Noise amplitude measured on CBRAM devices.

  15. Interactions of Soliton Waves for a Generalized Discrete KdV Equation

    Zhou Tong; Zhu Zuo-Nong

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that soliton interactions in discrete integrable systems often possess new properties which are different from the continuous integrable systems, e.g., we found that there are such discrete solitons in a semidiscrete integrable system (the time variable is continuous and the space one is discrete) that the shorter solitary waves travel faster than the taller ones. Very recently, this kind of soliton was also observed in a full discrete generalized KdV system (the both of time and space variables are discrete) introduced by Kanki et al. In this paper, for the generalized discrete KdV (gdKdV) equation, we describe its richer structures of one-soliton solutions. The interactions of two-soliton waves to the gdKdV equation are studied. Some new features of the soliton interactions are proposed by rigorous theoretical analysis. (paper)

  16. Discrete geometric structures for architecture

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    . The talk will provide an overview of recent progress in this field, with a particular focus on discrete geometric structures. Most of these result from practical requirements on segmenting a freeform shape into planar panels and on the physical realization

  17. Causal Dynamics of Discrete Surfaces

    Pablo Arrighi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We formalize the intuitive idea of a labelled discrete surface which evolves in time, subject to two natural constraints: the evolution does not propagate information too fast; and it acts everywhere the same.

  18. Spatial discretizations for self-adjoint forms of the radiative transfer equations

    Morel, Jim E.; Adams, B. Todd; Noh, Taewan; McGhee, John M.; Evans, Thomas M.; Urbatsch, Todd J.

    2006-01-01

    There are three commonly recognized second-order self-adjoint forms of the neutron transport equation: the even-parity equations, the odd-parity equations, and the self-adjoint angular flux equations. Because all of these equations contain second-order spatial derivatives and are self-adjoint for the mono-energetic case, standard continuous finite-element discretization techniques have proved quite effective when applied to the spatial variables. We first derive analogs of these equations for the case of time-dependent radiative transfer. The primary unknowns for these equations are functions of the angular intensity rather than the angular flux, hence the analog of the self-adjoint angular flux equation is referred to as the self-adjoint angular intensity equation. Then we describe a general, arbitrary-order, continuous spatial finite-element approach that is applied to each of the three equations in conjunction with backward-Euler differencing in time. We refer to it as the 'standard' technique. We also introduce an alternative spatial discretization scheme for the self-adjoint angular intensity equation that requires far fewer unknowns than the standard method, but appears to give comparable accuracy. Computational results are given that demonstrate the validity of both of these discretization schemes

  19. Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).

    Mousley, Sarah C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Deakin, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximation of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.

  20. Perfect discretization of path integrals

    Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain a well-defined path integral one often employs discretizations. In the case of General Relativity these generically break diffeomorphism symmetry, which has severe consequences since these symmetries determine the dynamics of the corresponding system. In this article we consider the path integral of reparametrization invariant systems as a toy example and present an improvement procedure for the discretized propagator. Fixed points and convergence of the procedure are discu...

  1. Random discrete Morse theory and a new library of triangulations

    Benedetti, Bruno; Lutz, Frank Hagen

    2014-01-01

    We introduce random discrete Morse theory as a computational scheme to measure the complexity of a triangulation. The idea is to try to quantify the frequency of discrete Morse matchings with few critical cells. Our measure will depend on the topology of the space, but also on how nicely the space...... is triangulated. The scheme we propose looks for optimal discrete Morse functions with an elementary random heuristic. Despite its naiveté, this approach turns out to be very successful even in the case of huge inputs. In our view, the existing libraries of examples in computational topology are “too easy......” for testing algorithms based on discrete Morse theory. We propose a new library containing more complicated (and thus more meaningful) test examples....

  2. Applied discrete-time queues

    Alfa, Attahiru S

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical fundamentals for modeling queues in discrete-time, and the basic procedures for developing queuing models in discrete-time. There is a focus on applications in modern telecommunication systems. It presents how most queueing models in discrete-time can be set up as discrete-time Markov chains. Techniques such as matrix-analytic methods (MAM) that can used to analyze the resulting Markov chains are included. This book covers single node systems, tandem system and queueing networks. It shows how queues with time-varying parameters can be analyzed, and illustrates numerical issues associated with computations for the discrete-time queueing systems. Optimal control of queues is also covered. Applied Discrete-Time Queues targets researchers, advanced-level students and analysts in the field of telecommunication networks. It is suitable as a reference book and can also be used as a secondary text book in computer engineering and computer science. Examples and exercises are includ...

  3. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e

  4. A two-component generalization of the reduced Ostrovsky equation and its integrable semi-discrete analogue

    Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a two-component generalization of the reduced Ostrovsky (Vakhnenko) equation, whose differential form can be viewed as the short-wave limit of a two-component Degasperis–Procesi (DP) equation. They are integrable due to the existence of Lax pairs. Moreover, we have shown that the two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation can be reduced from an extended BKP hierarchy with negative flow through a pseudo 3-reduction and a hodograph (reciprocal) transform. As a by-product, its bilinear form and N -soliton solution in terms of pfaffians are presented. One- and two-soliton solutions are provided and analyzed. In the second part of the paper, we start with a modified BKP hierarchy, which is a Bäcklund transformation of the above extended BKP hierarchy, an integrable semi-discrete analogue of the two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation is constructed by defining an appropriate discrete hodograph transform and dependent variable transformations. In particular, the backward difference form of above semi-discrete two-component reduced Ostrovsky equation gives rise to the integrable semi-discretization of the short wave limit of a two-component DP equation. Their N -soliton solutions in terms of pffafians are also provided. (paper)

  5. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    Rogala, Tomasz; Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed

  6. Discrete time modelization of human pilot behavior

    Cavalli, D.; Soulatges, D.

    1975-01-01

    This modelization starts from the following hypotheses: pilot's behavior is a time discrete process, he can perform only one task at a time and his operating mode depends on the considered flight subphase. Pilot's behavior was observed using an electro oculometer and a simulator cockpit. A FORTRAN program has been elaborated using two strategies. The first one is a Markovian process in which the successive instrument readings are governed by a matrix of conditional probabilities. In the second one, strategy is an heuristic process and the concepts of mental load and performance are described. The results of the two aspects have been compared with simulation data.

  7. Periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic discrete breathers in a parametrical driven two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein–Gordon lattice

    Quan, Xu; Qiang, Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study a two-dimensional (2D) diatomic lattice of anharmonic oscillators with only quartic nearest-neighbor interactions, in which discrete breathers (DBs) can be explicitly constructed by an exact separation of their time and space dependence. DBs can stably exist in the 2D discrete diatomic Klein–Gordon lattice with hard and soft on-site potentials. When a parametric driving term is introduced in the factor multiplying the harmonic part of the on-site potential of the system, we can obtain the stable quasiperiodic discrete breathers (QDBs) and chaotic discrete breathers (CDBs) by changing the amplitude of the driver. But the DBs and QDBs with symmetric and anti-symmetric profiles that are centered at a heavy atom are more stable than at a light atom, because the frequencies of the DBs and QDBs centered at a heavy atom are lower than those centered at a light atom

  8. Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity

    Frederiksen, Anders; Honoré, Bo; Hu, Loujia

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic discrete choice panel data models have received a great deal of attention. In those models, the dynamics is usually handled by including the lagged outcome as an explanatory variable. In this paper we consider an alternative model in which the dynamics is handled by using the duration...

  9. On discrete 2D integrable equations of higher order

    Adler, V E; Postnikov, V V

    2014-01-01

    We study two-dimensional discrete integrable equations of order 1 with respect to one independent variable and m with respect to another one. A generalization of the multidimensional consistency property is proposed for this type of equations. The examples are related to the Bäcklund–Darboux transformations for the lattice equations of Bogoyavlensky type. (paper)

  10. Graph-cut based discrete-valued image reconstruction.

    Tuysuzoglu, Ahmet; Karl, W Clem; Stojanovic, Ivana; Castañòn, David; Ünlü, M Selim

    2015-05-01

    Efficient graph-cut methods have been used with great success for labeling and denoising problems occurring in computer vision. Unfortunately, the presence of linear image mappings has prevented the use of these techniques in most discrete-amplitude image reconstruction problems. In this paper, we develop a graph-cut based framework for the direct solution of discrete amplitude linear image reconstruction problems cast as regularized energy function minimizations. We first analyze the structure of discrete linear inverse problem cost functions to show that the obstacle to the application of graph-cut methods to their solution is the variable mixing caused by the presence of the linear sensing operator. We then propose to use a surrogate energy functional that overcomes the challenges imposed by the sensing operator yet can be utilized efficiently in existing graph-cut frameworks. We use this surrogate energy functional to devise a monotonic iterative algorithm for the solution of discrete valued inverse problems. We first provide experiments using local convolutional operators and show the robustness of the proposed technique to noise and stability to changes in regularization parameter. Then we focus on nonlocal, tomographic examples where we consider limited-angle data problems. We compare our technique with state-of-the-art discrete and continuous image reconstruction techniques. Experiments show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art techniques in challenging scenarios involving discrete valued unknowns.

  11. A Pareto-Based Adaptive Variable Neighborhood Search for Biobjective Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Time

    Huixin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from most researches focused on the single objective hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS problem, this paper investigates a biobjective HFS problem with sequence dependent setup time. The two objectives are the minimization of total weighted tardiness and the total setup time. To efficiently solve this problem, a Pareto-based adaptive biobjective variable neighborhood search (PABOVNS is developed. In the proposed PABOVNS, a solution is denoted as a sequence of all jobs and a decoding procedure is presented to obtain the corresponding complete schedule. In addition, the proposed PABOVNS has three major features that can guarantee a good balance of exploration and exploitation. First, an adaptive selection strategy of neighborhoods is proposed to automatically select the most promising neighborhood instead of the sequential selection strategy of canonical VNS. Second, a two phase multiobjective local search based on neighborhood search and path relinking is designed for each selected neighborhood. Third, an external archive with diversity maintenance is adopted to store the nondominated solutions and at the same time provide initial solutions for the local search. Computational results based on randomly generated instances show that the PABOVNS is efficient and even superior to some other powerful multiobjective algorithms in the literature.

  12. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH4+ + H2, HD and D2: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D.

    2004-01-01

    Reactions of methane cations, CH 4 + , with H 2 , HD and D 2 have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH 5 + in collisions with H 2 is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH 4 + with HD, the CH 5 + product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH 4 D + (32%). Reaction of CH 4 + with D 2 is found to be much slower than with H 2 or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH 4 + into CH 3 D + by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10 -12 cm 3 /s, indicating that scrambling in the CH 6 + complex is very unlikely

  13. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH{sub 4}{sup +} + H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2}: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D

    2004-03-08

    Reactions of methane cations, CH{sub 4}{sup +}, with H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in collisions with H{sub 2} is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with HD, the CH{sub 5}{sup +} product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH{sub 4}D{sup +} (32%). Reaction of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with D{sub 2} is found to be much slower than with H{sub 2} or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH{sub 4}{sup +} into CH{sub 3}D{sup +} by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3}/s, indicating that scrambling in the CH{sub 6}{sup +} complex is very unlikely.

  14. Vaccine induced antibodies to the first variable loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120, mediate antibody-dependent virus inhibition in macaques.

    Bialuk, Izabela; Whitney, Stephen; Andresen, Vibeke; Florese, Ruth H; Nacsa, Janos; Cecchinato, Valentina; Valeri, Valerio W; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Gordon, Shari; Parks, Robyn Washington; Montefiori, David C; Venzon, David; Demberg, Thorsten; Guroff, Marjorie Robert-; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N; Franchini, Genoveffa

    2011-12-09

    The role of antibodies directed against the hyper variable envelope region V1 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has not been thoroughly studied. We show that a vaccine able to elicit strain-specific non-neutralizing antibodies to this region of gp120 is associated with control of highly pathogenic chimeric SHIV(89.6P) replication in rhesus macaques. The vaccinated animal that had the highest titers of antibodies to the amino terminus portion of V1, prior to challenge, had secondary antibody responses that mediated cell killing by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as early as 2 weeks after infection and inhibited viral replication by antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), by 4 weeks after infection. There was a significant inverse correlation between virus level and binding antibody titers to the envelope protein, (R=-0.83, p=0.015), and ADCVI (R=-0.84 p=0.044). Genotyping of plasma virus demonstrated in vivo selection of three SHIV(89.6P) variants with changes in potential N-linked glycosylation sites in V1. We found a significant inverse correlation between virus levels and titers of antibodies that mediated ADCVI against all the identified V1 virus variants. A significant inverse correlation was also found between neutralizing antibody titers to SHIV(89.6) and virus levels (R=-0.72 p=0.0050). However, passive inoculation of purified immunoglobulin from animal M316, the macaque that best controlled virus, to a naïve macaque, resulted in a low serum neutralizing antibodies and low ADCVI activity that failed to protect from SHIV(89.6P) challenge. Collectively, while our data suggest that anti-envelope antibodies with neutralizing and non-neutralizing Fc(R-dependent activities may be important in the control of SHIV replication, they also demonstrate that low levels of these antibodies alone are not sufficient to protect from infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications

    Sun, Xiang

    2016-08-25

    Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the

  16. The endogenous grid method for discrete-continuous dynamic choice models with (or without) taste shocks

    Iskhakov, Fedor; Jørgensen, Thomas H.; Rust, John

    2017-01-01

    We present a fast and accurate computational method for solving and estimating a class of dynamic programming models with discrete and continuous choice variables. The solution method we develop for structural estimation extends the endogenous grid-point method (EGM) to discrete-continuous (DC) p...

  17. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  18. Analysis of Discrete Mittag - Leffler Functions

    N. Shobanadevi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discrete Mittag - Leffler functions play a major role in the development of the theory of discrete fractional calculus. In the present article, we analyze qualitative properties of discrete Mittag - Leffler functions and establish sufficient conditions for convergence, oscillation and summability of the infinite series associated with discrete Mittag - Leffler functions.

  19. Stability analysis for discrete-time stochastic memristive neural networks with both leakage and probabilistic delays.

    Liu, Hongjian; Wang, Zidong; Shen, Bo; Huang, Tingwen; Alsaadi, Fuad E

    2018-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the globally exponential stability problem for a class of discrete-time stochastic memristive neural networks (DSMNNs) with both leakage delays as well as probabilistic time-varying delays. For the probabilistic delays, a sequence of Bernoulli distributed random variables is utilized to determine within which intervals the time-varying delays fall at certain time instant. The sector-bounded activation function is considered in the addressed DSMNN. By taking into account the state-dependent characteristics of the network parameters and choosing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some sufficient conditions are established under which the underlying DSMNN is globally exponentially stable in the mean square. The derived conditions are made dependent on both the leakage and the probabilistic delays, and are therefore less conservative than the traditional delay-independent criteria. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Foundations of a discrete physics

    McGoveran, D.; Noyes, P.

    1988-01-01

    Starting from the principles of finiteness, discreteness, finite computability and absolute nonuniqueness, we develop the ordering operator calculus, a strictly constructive mathematical system having the empirical properties required by quantum mechanical and special relativistic phenomena. We show how to construct discrete distance functions, and both rectangular and spherical coordinate systems(with a discrete version of ''π''). The richest discrete space constructible without a preferred axis and preserving translational and rotational invariance is shown to be a discrete 3-space with the usual symmetries. We introduce a local ordering parameter with local (proper) time-like properties and universal ordering parameters with global (cosmological) time-like properties. Constructed ''attribute velocities'' connect ensembles with attributes that are invariant as the appropriate time-like parameter increases. For each such attribute, we show how to construct attribute velocities which must satisfy the '' relativistic Doppler shift'' and the ''relativistic velocity composition law,'' as well as the Lorentz transformations. By construction, these velocities have finite maximum and minimum values. In the space of all attributes, the minimum of these maximum velocities will predominate in all multiple attribute computations, and hence can be identified as a fundamental limiting velocity, General commutation relations are constructed which under the physical interpretation are shown to reduce to the usual quantum mechanical commutation relations. 50 refs., 18 figs

  1. Discrete differential geometry. Consistency as integrability

    Bobenko, Alexander I.; Suris, Yuri B.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of discrete differential geometry is presently emerging on the border between differential and discrete geometry. Whereas classical differential geometry investigates smooth geometric shapes (such as surfaces), and discrete geometry studies geometric shapes with finite number of elements (such as polyhedra), the discrete differential geometry aims at the development of discrete equivalents of notions and methods of smooth surface theory. Current interest in this field derives not ...

  2. Integrable structure in discrete shell membrane theory.

    Schief, W K

    2014-05-08

    We present natural discrete analogues of two integrable classes of shell membranes. By construction, these discrete shell membranes are in equilibrium with respect to suitably chosen internal stresses and external forces. The integrability of the underlying equilibrium equations is proved by relating the geometry of the discrete shell membranes to discrete O surface theory. We establish connections with generalized barycentric coordinates and nine-point centres and identify a discrete version of the classical Gauss equation of surface theory.

  3. Degree distribution in discrete case

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  4. Discussion of discrete D shape toroidal coil

    Kaiho, Katsuyuki; Ohara, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Ko; Onishi, Toshitada

    1988-01-01

    A novel design for a toroidal coil, called the D shape coil, was reported by J. File. The coil conductors are in pure tension and then subject to no bending moment. This leads to a smaller number of emf supports in a simpler configuration than that with the conventional toroidal coil of circular cross-section. The contours of the D shape are given as solutions of a differential equation. This equation includes the function of the magnetic field distribution in the conductor region which is inversely proportional to the winding radius. It is therefore important to use the exact magnetic field distribution. However the magnetic field distribution becomes complicated when the D shape toroidal coil is comprised of discrete coils and also depends on the D shape configuration. A theory and a computer program for designing the practical pure-tension toroidal coil are developed. Using this computer code, D shape conductors are calculated for various numbers of discrete coils and the results are compared. Electromagnetic forces in the coils are also calculated. It is shown that the hoop stress in the conductors depends only on the total ampere-turns of the coil when the contours of the D shape are similar. (author)

  5. Symmetries and discretizations of the O(3) nonlinear sigma model

    Flore, Raphael [TPI, Universitaet Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nonlinear sigma models possess many interesting properties like asymptotic freedom, confinement or dynamical mass generation, and hence serve as toy models for QCD and other theories. We derive a formulation of the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the O(3) nonlinear sigma model in terms of constrained field variables. Starting from this formulation, it is discussed how the model can be discretized in a way that maintains as many symmetries of the theory as possible. Finally, recent numerical results related to these discretizations are presented.

  6. Foundations of the probabilistic mechanics of discrete media

    Axelrad, D R

    1984-01-01

    This latest volume in the Foundations & Philosophy of Science & Technology series provides an account of probabilistic functional analysis and shows its applicability in the formulation of the behaviour of discrete media with the inclusion of microstructural effects. Although quantum mechanics have long been recognized as a stochastic theory, the introduction of probabilistic concepts and principles to classical mechanics has in general not been attempted. In this study the author takes the view that the significant field quantities of a discrete medium are random variables or functions of s

  7. The dynamic relationship between current and previous severe hypoglycemic events: a lagged dependent variable analysis among patients with type 2 diabetes who have initiated basal insulin.

    Ganz, Michael L; Li, Qian; Wintfeld, Neil S; Lee, Yuan-Chi; Sorli, Christopher; Huang, Joanna C

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have found episodes of severe hypoglycemia (SH) to be serially dependent. Those studies, however, only considered the impact of a single (index) event on future risk; few have analyzed SH risk as it evolves over time in the presence (or absence) of continuing events. The objective of this study was to determine the dynamic risks of SH events conditional on preceding SH events among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have initiated basal insulin. We used an electronic health records database from the United States that included encounter and laboratory data and clinical notes on T2D patients who initiated basal insulin therapy between 2008 and 2011 and to identify SH events. We used a repeated-measures lagged dependent variable logistic regression model to estimate the impact of SH in one quarter on the risk of SH in the next quarter. We identified 7235 patients with T2D who initiated basal insulin. Patients who experienced ≥1 SH event during any quarter were more likely to have ≥1 SH event during the subsequent quarter than those who did not (predicted probabilities of 7.4% and 1.0%, respectively; p history of SH before starting basal insulin (predicted probabilities of 1.0% and 3.2%, respectively; p history of SH during the titration period (predicted probabilities of 1.1% and 2.8%, respectively; p history of SH events and therefore the value of preventing one SH event may be substantial. These results can inform patient care by providing clinicians with dynamic data on a patient's risk of SH, which in turn can facilitate appropriate adjustment of the risk-benefit ratio for individualized patient care. These results should, however, be interpreted in light of the key limitations of our study: not all SH events may have been captured or coded in the database, data on filled prescriptions were not available, we were unable to adjust for basal insulin dose, and the post-titration follow-up period could have divided into time units other

  8. On the discrete Gabor transform and the discrete Zak transform

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Geilen, M.C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Gabor's expansion of a discrete-time signal into a set of shifted and modulated versions of an elementary signal (or synthesis window) and the inverse operation -- the Gabor transform -- with which Gabor's expansion coefficients can be determined, are introduced. It is shown how, in the case of a

  9. Discrete Choice and Rational Inattention

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Melo, Emerson; de Palma, André

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a general equivalence between discrete choice and rational inattention models. Matejka and McKay (2015, AER) showed that when information costs are modelled using the Shannon entropy, the result- ing choice probabilities in the rational inattention model take the multinomial...... logit form. We show that when information costs are modelled using a class of generalized entropies, then the choice probabilities in any rational inattention model are observationally equivalent to some additive random utility discrete choice model and vice versa. This equivalence arises from convex...

  10. Numerical simulation of freshwater/seawater interaction in a dual-permeability karst system with conduits: the development of discrete-continuum VDFST-CFP model

    Xu, Zexuan; Hu, Bill

    2016-04-01

    Dual-permeability karst aquifers of porous media and conduit networks with significant different hydrological characteristics are widely distributed in the world. Discrete-continuum numerical models, such as MODFLOW-CFP and CFPv2, have been verified as appropriate approaches to simulate groundwater flow and solute transport in numerical modeling of karst hydrogeology. On the other hand, seawater intrusion associated with fresh groundwater resources contamination has been observed and investigated in numbers of coastal aquifers, especially under conditions of sea level rise. Density-dependent numerical models including SEAWAT are able to quantitatively evaluate the seawater/freshwater interaction processes. A numerical model of variable-density flow and solute transport - conduit flow process (VDFST-CFP) is developed to provide a better description of seawater intrusion and submarine groundwater discharge in a coastal karst aquifer with conduits. The coupling discrete-continuum VDFST-CFP model applies Darcy-Weisbach equation to simulate non-laminar groundwater flow in the conduit system in which is conceptualized and discretized as pipes, while Darcy equation is still used in continuum porous media. Density-dependent groundwater flow and solute transport equations with appropriate density terms in both conduit and porous media systems are derived and numerically solved using standard finite difference method with an implicit iteration procedure. Synthetic horizontal and vertical benchmarks are created to validate the newly developed VDFST-CFP model by comparing with other numerical models such as variable density SEAWAT, couplings of constant density groundwater flow and solute transport MODFLOW/MT3DMS and discrete-continuum CFPv2/UMT3D models. VDFST-CFP model improves the simulation of density dependent seawater/freshwater mixing processes and exchanges between conduit and matrix. Continuum numerical models greatly overestimated the flow rate under turbulent flow

  11. Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods

    Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.

    1997-01-01

    A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects

  12. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  13. Truss optimization with discrete design variables: a critical review

    Stolpe, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    problems. This, and other, observations lead to a set of recommended research tasks and objectives to bring the field forward. The development of a publicly available benchmark library is urgently needed to support development and assessment of existing and new heuristics and methods. Combined...... methods and meta heuristics. The field has experienced a shift in focus from deterministic methods to meta heuristics, i.e. stochastic search methods. Based on the reported numerical results it is however not possible to conclude that this shift has improved the competences to solve application relevant...... with this effort, it is recommended that the field begins to use modern methods such as performance profiles for fair and accurate comparison of optimization methods. Finally, theoretical results are rare in this field. This means that most recent methods and heuristics are not supported by mathematical theory...

  14. Applications of hybrid measurements with discrete and continuous variables

    Laghaout, Amine

    . This is what we do for two particular applications of quantum measurements: Bell tests and the amplication of Schrödinger cat states. This project also had an experimental component which was supposed to produce high-fidelity Schrödinger cat states. This goal turned out to be hampered by noise from the laser...... as well as a series of anomalous behavior of the nonlinear crystal whereby no classical de-amplification, and therefore no squeezing, could be observed....

  15. Data-Driven Process Discovery: A Discrete Time Algebra for Relational Signal Analysis

    Conrad, David

    1996-01-01

    .... Proposed is a time series transformation that encodes and compresses real-valued data into a well defined, discrete-space of 13 primitive elements where comparative evaluation between variables...

  16. MINARET: Towards a time-dependent neutron transport parallel solver

    Baudron, A.M.; Lautard, J.J.; Maday, Y.; Mula, O.

    2013-01-01

    We present the newly developed time-dependent 3D multigroup discrete ordinates neutron transport solver that has recently been implemented in the MINARET code. The solver is the support for a study about computing acceleration techniques that involve parallel architectures. In this work, we will focus on the parallelization of two of the variables involved in our equation: the angular directions and the time. This last variable has been parallelized by a (time) domain decomposition method called the para-real in time algorithm. (authors)

  17. Nonautonomous discrete bright soliton solutions and interaction management for the Ablowitz-Ladik equation.

    Yu, Fajun

    2015-03-01

    We present the nonautonomous discrete bright soliton solutions and their interactions in the discrete Ablowitz-Ladik (DAL) equation with variable coefficients, which possesses complicated wave propagation in time and differs from the usual bright soliton waves. The differential-difference similarity transformation allows us to relate the discrete bright soliton solutions of the inhomogeneous DAL equation to the solutions of the homogeneous DAL equation. Propagation and interaction behaviors of the nonautonomous discrete solitons are analyzed through the one- and two-soliton solutions. We study the discrete snaking behaviors, parabolic behaviors, and interaction behaviors of the discrete solitons. In addition, the interaction management with free functions and dynamic behaviors of these solutions is investigated analytically, which have certain applications in electrical and optical systems.

  18. Lagrangian finite element method for 3D time-dependent non-isothermal flow of K-BKZ fluids

    Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    equation is replaced with a temperature dependent pseudo time. The spatial coordinate system attached to the particles is discretized by 10-node quadratic tetrahedral elements using Cartesian coordinates. The temperature and the pressure are discretized by 10-node quadratic and linear interpolation...... utilizing an implicit variable step backwards differencing (BDF2) scheme, obtaining second order convergence of the temperature in time. A quadratic interpolation in time is applied to approximate the time integral in the K-BKZ equation. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect......, respectively, in the tetrahedral particle elements. The spatial discretization of the governing equations follows a mixed Galerkin finite element method. This type of scheme ensures third order accuracy with respect to the discretization of spatial dimension. The temperature equation is solved in time...

  19. Discrete Discriminant analysis based on tree-structured graphical models

    Perez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Eslava, Guillermina

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant a...... analysis based on tree{structured graphical models is a simple nonlinear method competitive with, and sometimes superior to, other well{known linear methods like those assuming mutual independence between variables and linear logistic regression.......The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential use of discriminant analysis based on tree{structured graphical models for discrete variables. This is done by comparing its empirical performance using estimated error rates for real and simulated data. The results show that discriminant...

  20. Lattice fluid dynamics from perfect discretizations of continuum flows

    Katz, E.; Wiese, U.

    1998-01-01

    We use renormalization group methods to derive equations of motion for large scale variables in fluid dynamics. The large scale variables are averages of the underlying continuum variables over cubic volumes and naturally exist on a lattice. The resulting lattice dynamics represents a perfect discretization of continuum physics, i.e., grid artifacts are completely eliminated. Perfect equations of motion are derived for static, slow flows of incompressible, viscous fluids. For Hagen-Poiseuille flow in a channel with a square cross section the equations reduce to a perfect discretization of the Poisson equation for the velocity field with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The perfect large scale Poisson equation is used in a numerical simulation and is shown to represent the continuum flow exactly. For nonsquare cross sections one can use a numerical iterative procedure to derive flow equations that are approximately perfect. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society