WorldWideScience

Sample records for discharge policy influence

  1. Does hospital discharge policy influence sick-leave patterns in the case of female breast cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Rikard; Stenbeck, Magnus; Diderichsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to investigate how differences among hospitals in the shift from in-patient care to day surgery and a reduced hospital length of stay affect the sick-leave period for female patients surgically treated for breast cancer. All women aged 18-64 who were diagnosed with breast cancer...... practice affected the length of sick-leave. The main output measure was the number of sick-leave days after discharge during the year following surgery. The confounders used included age, type of primary surgical treatment, whether or not lymph node dissection was performed, labour-market status, county...... in 2000 were selected from the National Cancer Register and combined with data from the sick-leave database of the National Social Insurance Board and the National Hospital Discharge Register (N = 1834). A multi-factorial model was fitted to the data to investigate how differences in hospital care...

  2. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Fang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.

  3. Magnetic field influence on the selfquenching streamer discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Korytov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the magnetic field on the selfquenching streamer discharge characteristics is investigated. In the field about 10 kGs streamer charge is decreased several per cent (change of charge is due to amplitude decreasing of signal). In the transition region from limited-proportional to streamer mode magnetic field results in increasing of probability of avalanche developing into a streamer

  4. Influence of dust particles on DC glow discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yonggan; Yuan, Chengxun; Li, Hui; Tian, Ruihuan; Wu, Jian; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Tian, Hao

    2018-02-01

    The effect of dust particles on DC glow discharge plasma parameters is studied numerically through the development of a self-consistent model based on the extended fluid approach. The orbital motion limited theory and collision enhanced collection approximation are employed to describe the charging processes of dust particles with various sizes and densities. The uniform distribution of dust particles in plasma and the instantaneous charging process were assumed during simulations. The influence of dust particle size rd and density Nd on gas discharge and dust particle parameters is investigated systematically. It is shown that the plasma parameters can be affected obviously by the dust particles. The increase in the values of rd and Nd leads to the decrease in the dust particle charge number, electron, and ion density. Meanwhile, the appearance of dust particles leads to an obvious increase in the averaged plasma electric field and electron temperature to sustain the discharge in the dust region. The dust particles are proven to be a very efficient way to artificially manipulate gas discharge parameters.

  5. Influencing policy for resilient societies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... For research results to improve people's lives, they must reach decision-makers who can use them to develop more effective policies and practices. About 20% of IDRC's project funding in the past year — and the past decade — went to research that aimed to influence policies. To help IDRC-supported ...

  6. Influencing Policy with Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    According to this acceptance speech delivered by the recipient of the 1987 Kurt Lewin Award, social psychological contributions should be placed within an interdisciplinary framework and an institutional structure in order to make it more relevant for public policy. Recommendations for doing this are offered. (BJV)

  7. Discharge Fee Policy Analysis: A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model of Water Resources and Water Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Guohua Fang; Ting Wang; Xinyi Si; Xin Wen; Yu Liu

    2016-01-01

    To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and out...

  8. Influence of ion transport on discharge propagation of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Weizhuo; Koji, Fukagata

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study has been conducted to understand the streamer formation and propagation of nanosecond pulsed surface dielectric barrier discharge of positive polarity. First we compared the result of different grid configuration to investigate the influence of x and y direction grid spacing on the streamer propagation. The streamer propagation is sensitive to y grid spacing especially at the dielectric surface. The streamer propagation velocity can reach 0.2 cm/ns when the voltage magnitude is 12 kV. A narrow gap was found between the streamer and dielectric barrier, where the plasma density is several orders of magnitude smaller than the streamer region. Analyses on the ion transport in the gap and streamer regions show the different ion transport mechanisms in the two different region. In the gap region, the diffusion of electron toward the dielectric layer decreases the seed electron in the beginning of voltage pulse, resulting that ionization avalanche does not occur. The streamer region is not significantly affected by the diffusion flux toward the dielectric layer, so that ionization avalanche takes place and leads to dramatic increase of plasma density.

  9. Training young researchers to influence telecommunications policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-02

    May 2, 2016 ... Some 125 young researchers have received training in research methods, communicating for policy influence, and the economics of communications infrastructure. Researchers from 40 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America have presented more than 100 papers throughout the project lifecycle. So far ...

  10. Influence of Climate Change on River Discharge in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Goler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of climate change on the river discharge characteristics in four catchment basins within Austria is investigated using a hydrological model. Input for the model are daily climate data generated from three regional climate models (RCMs over the time period 1951–2100 using the A1B emission scenario. Due to the complex terrain of the basins, the climate data has been downscaled to a resolution of 1km×1km$1\\,\\text{km}\\times1\\,\\text{km}$. The hydrological model includes processes such as meltwater from snow and glaciers; surface, subsurface, and groundwater flows; and evapotranspiration. The modelling results show that, although only one RCM exhibits a significant reduction in the mean annual discharge towards the end of the 21st century, all RCMs exhibit significant changes in the seasonal distribution of the discharge. In particular, for basins whose discharge is dependent on water stored as snow, there will be a shift in the time of maximum river discharge to earlier in the year as the snow and ice melt earlier. During the winter months the discharge is forecasted to be higher than at present, which would lead to the number of days of low discharge being reduced. However, the earlier snow melt means that the available water for the summer months will be reduced, leading to lower discharges than present, and thus an increase in the number of low discharge days.

  11. Influence of increased velocity on the statistical discharge characteristics of He and air barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichen, P.; Sonnenfeld, A.; von Rohr, Ph Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study of a description method for microdischarges based on the statistical analysis of single discharge bursts is presented and applied for small electrode arrays. As such, the electrical properties derived from the collective behaviour of the current bursts for microdischarges in helium and synthetic air for different pressure levels and variable voltage gradients are elaborately discussed. Motivated by the possible prolongation of the displacement distance of active species and thus the improved development of an atmospheric afterglow in a low frequency discharge, the interaction between high-speed gas flows and microdischarges in small ducts has been approached presenting first results. Intentionally, gases with different discharge mechanisms known as streamer (synthetic air) and Townsend (helium) have been considered. Similar velocity dependences of the discharge behaviour could be observed in both gases. For helium, subsonic channel velocity is sufficient to distinctively alter the discharge characteristics whereas transonic flow is needed to alter those of synthetic air. Subsequently, a simple model is proposed to explain these findings for elevated velocities in a dielectric setup.

  12. Properties Influencing Plasma Discharges in Packed Bed Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruszelnicki, Juliusz; Engeling, Kenneth W.; Foster, John E.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) sustained in packed bed reactors (PBRs) are being investigated for CO2 removal and conversion of waste gases into higher value compounds. We report on results of a computational investigation of PBR-DBD properties using the plasma hydrodynamics simulator nonPDPSIM with a comparison to experiments. Dielectric beads (rods in 2D) were inserted between two coplanar electrodes, 1 cm apart filled by humid air. A step-pulse of -30 kV was applied to the top electrode. Material properties of the beads (dielectric constant, secondary emission coefficient) and gas properties (photoionization and photo-absorption cross-sections, temperature) were varied. We found that photoionization plays a critical role in the propagation of the discharge through the PBR, as it serves to seed charges in regions of high electric field. Increasing rates of photo-ionization enable increases in the discharge propagation velocity, ionization rates and production of radicals. A transition between DBD-like and arc-like discharges occurs as the radiation mean free path decreases. Increasing the dielectric constant of the beads increased electric fields in the gas, which translated to increased discharge propagation velocity and charge density until ɛ/ɛ0 100. Secondary electron emission coefficient and gas temperature have minimal impacts on the discharge propagation though the latter did affect the production of reactive species. Work supported by US DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  13. Do coder characteristics influence validity of ICD-10 hospital discharge data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative data are widely used to study health systems and make important health policy decisions. Yet little is known about the influence of coder characteristics on administrative data validity in these studies. Our goal was to describe the relationship between several measures of validity in coded hospital discharge data and 1 coders' volume of coding (≥13,000 vs. Methods This descriptive study examined 6 indicators of face validity in ICD-10 coded discharge records from 4 hospitals in Calgary, Canada between April 2002 and March 2007. Specifically, mean number of coded diagnoses, procedures, complications, Z-codes, and codes ending in 8 or 9 were compared by coding volume and employment status, as well as hospital type. The mean number of diagnoses was also compared across coder characteristics for 6 major conditions of varying complexity. Next, kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discharge data and linked chart data reabstracted by nursing chart reviewers. Kappas were compared across coder characteristics. Results 422,618 discharge records were coded by 59 coders during the study period. The mean number of diagnoses per record decreased from 5.2 in 2002/2003 to 3.9 in 2006/2007, while the number of records coded annually increased from 69,613 to 102,842. Coders at the tertiary hospital coded the most diagnoses (5.0 compared with 3.9 and 3.8 at other sites. There was no variation by coder or site characteristics for any other face validity indicator. The mean number of diagnoses increased from 1.5 to 7.9 with increasing complexity of the major diagnosis, but did not vary with coder characteristics. Agreement (kappa between coded data and chart review did not show any consistent pattern with respect to coder characteristics. Conclusions This large study suggests that coder characteristics do not influence the validity of hospital discharge data. Other jurisdictions might benefit from

  14. Angra-1 NPP thermal influence on liquid effluent discharge zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Daniel de Araujo

    1996-01-01

    The Angra I Nuclear Power Plant makes use of sea-water to condense the steam generated in its secondary circuit. This water, collected from Itaorna bay, is then chlorinated and discharged, with higher temperature, in the Piraquara de Fora bay. Aiming the study of the marine ecosystem, submitted to the effects of the Nuclear Power Plant discharge water, the temperature, residual chlorine, flora and fauna are periodically monitored. Being sensitive to temperature variations and to chemical products, macroscopic algae are also bio-accumulators and primary producers, because of this, they are considered the main link in the food chain and therefore important bio-indicator. This paper shows the variation of species from the brown algae near the discharge of Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  15. An Assessment of Factors influencing Hospital Discharges Against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-three (79.1 per cent) children were admitted without a formal referral letter and 51 (76.2 per cent) children were discharged within two weeks of admission while 45 (67.2 per cent) children belonged to the lower social classes. It is concluded that parental low social class, poor financial support and unpreparedness for ...

  16. The influence of impurities on the discharge behaviour in SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, A.F.G. van der.

    1981-10-01

    Discharges in the screw pinch SPICA can be produced in a small range of filling pressures and bias field values. The experimentally observed lower limit of 6 mtorr for the filling pressure is explained by the onset of MHD instabilities and by imperfect implosion at low values of the filling pressure at high values of the bias field. In the accessible parameter regime, discharges can be produced with densities of the order of 5x10 21 m -3 and temperatures between 30 and 80 eV, which show gross stability for 200 μs, albeit not reproducible. In this density and temperature range discharges can easily become dominated by energy losses due to impurity radiation. An investigation of the temperature decay and the impurity concentration shows that, in spite of the quartz liner, this is not the case under normal operating conditions and that the energy containment time is of the order of 200 μs. The temperature decay rate, measured by means of Thomson scattering, is only 0.15 eV/μs, whereas from the intensity ratio of the 15.0 nm 2s 2 S - 3p 2 p 0 and the 103.2 nm 2s 2 S - 2p 2 P 0 OVI emission lines a decay rate of 0.3 eV/μs is derived. From absolute intensity measurements an oxygen concentration is derived. Besides oxygen, also silicon and nitrogen are present in the discharge. The nitrogen concentration that follows from absolute intensity measurements is in fair agreement with estimates based on an analysis of the background gas. The silicon concentration has not been measured directly, but it is estimated to be less than half the oxygen concentration since the wall material is quartz (SiO 2 ) and part of the oxygen originates from the background gas, mainly as a constituent of water vapour

  17. Study of the decomposition of CO2 under the influence of silent discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, Moshe

    1960-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the kinetics and mechanism of decomposition of carbon dioxide under the influence of slow electrons. These electrons are here obtained by silent discharge, i.e. ionizer discharge. The following parameters have been studied: electric energy dissipated in the gas, residence time of gas within the discharge, temperature and addition of some foreign gases produced or not by the reaction. Beside the chemical analysis, the author used absorption emission spectroscopy in order to identify species formed within the discharge. The interpretation of thus acquired data resulted in the proposition of a mechanism which could explain experimental observations [fr

  18. Study of the Accelerating Channel Wall Property Influence on the Hall Thruster Discharge Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vesselovzorov, Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    According to the work program and schedule there was developed the methodology of experiments on the discharge chamber material influence on the Hall thruster characteristics there was prepared Hall...

  19. Influence of the Electrical Discharges on Ignition of a Combustible Mix and the Flame Speed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sinkevich, Oleg A

    2003-01-01

    The D, A electrical discharges or their combination due to the Joule heating and the extensive UV radiation generated in plasma may influence on combustion processes by changing of the induction time...

  20. Strengthening research's influence on adaptation policies in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    CCAA

    Research processes and research results both influence policies, but in different ways. The link between research and policy influence is not linear and depends on the openness of policy actors to research. By involving policymakers in the research process, PAR supports their stake in finding solutions, improves the.

  1. The Influence of the Presence of Multiple Voids on the Discharge Patterns in Solid Epoxy Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim T.; Henriksen, Mogens; Larsen, Esben

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void di...... diameters will be given. A first evaluation/opinion of the impact this could have on the estimation of the insulation condition of electrical equipment, based on the identification of PD-patterns, will also be given.......In this paper, partial discharge test results from initial long term testing on samples which contain more voids, when exposed to a high electric stress will be presented. The influence on the discharge patterns, phase- and height-analyses, of such parameter as the number of voids and the void...

  2. Influence of discharged effluent on the quality of surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... higher values of determinants obtained from sampling points close to the wastewater treatment plant and the mine exit channels strongly revealed their influence on the general quality of the stream. Detection of metals such as cadmium and lead above acceptable limits has dire consequences across the food chain.

  3. Influence of Diffuse and Discrete Groundwater Discharge on River Thermal Regimes in Present and Future Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylyk, B.; MacQuarrie, K. T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater discharge alters stream and river thermal regimes due to the thermal inertia of the subsurface, but the exact nature of its influence depends on the discharge conditions. Diffuse groundwater discharge attenuates daily, weekly, and seasonal changes in surface water temperature. On the other hand, discrete groundwater discharge (e.g., a spring) creates in-stream thermal anomalies that provide temporary refuge for cold-water fish and other aquatic species. Thus, diffusive groundwater input reduces the temporal variability of surface water temperature, while discrete groundwater input enhances its spatial variability. In the present climate, thermal effects of groundwater discharge can be empirically studied by comparing thermal regimes of groundwater-dominated streams to those of runoff-dominated streams. However, there are still many challenges associated with attempting to quantify the thermal influence of groundwater discharge. These difficulties arise in part because the heat flux from groundwater upwelling is induced by a mass flux, and thus it cannot be directly compared to purely sensible heat fluxes. Also, shallow subsurface flow exhibits complex thermal signatures that are not well represented with mean annual air temperature data. Examining the thermal influence of groundwater discharge becomes even more complex when potential effects of climate change are considered. Results from previous studies utilizing empirical transfer models, analytical solutions, and numerical models of groundwater temperature dynamics have demonstrated that the nature of groundwater warming depends on the soil properties, groundwater recharge rate, and aquifer configuration. This talk will highlight challenges associated with quantifying the thermal influence of groundwater discharge and provide recommendations for future research opportunities in this field, including the potential to engineer thermal diversity in rivers via manipulation of groundwater flow paths.

  4. Homogeneous dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric air and its influencing factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Junxia; Li, Caixia; Ma, Dong; Luo, Haiyun; Li, Xiaowei

    2018-03-01

    The stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is obtained in atmospheric 2-3 mm air gap. It is generated using center frequency 1 kHz high voltage power supply between two plane parallel electrodes with specific alumina ceramic plates as the dielectric barriers. The discharge characteristics are studied by a measurement of its electrical discharge parameters and observation of its light emission phenomena. The results show that a large single current pulse of about 200 μs duration appearing in each voltage pulse, and its light emission is radially homogeneous and covers the entire surface of the two electrodes. The homogeneous discharge generated is a Townsend discharge during discharge. The influences of applied barrier, its thickness, and surface roughness on the transition of discharge modes are studied. The results show that it is difficult to produce a homogeneous discharge using smooth plates or alumina plate surface roughness Ra material, dielectric thickness, and dielectric surface roughness should be used, and proper applied voltage amplitude and frequency should also be used.

  5. Influencing Public Policy to Improve the Lives of Older Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Kietzman, Kathryn G.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Hensel, Brian K.; Miles, Toni P.; Segev, Dorry L.; Zerzan, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Aging of the U.S. population raises numerous public policy issues about which gerontological researchers, policy experts, and practitioners have much to contribute. However, the means by which aging-related public policy is influenced are not always apparent. Drawing on experience working in the U.S. Senate and other settings as Health and Aging…

  6. Influencing pro-poor telecommunications policy in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... A research network on telecommunications policy is playing a significant role in influencing pro-poor ICT policies in Latin America. Research conducted by DIRSI (Regional Dialogue on the Information Society) has been critical in building knowledge and providing the evidence base for numerous policy ...

  7. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  8. Influence of Electric Discharges on Bearings of Electric Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Chmelik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available I the last time many articles were found out discussed about shaft voltage, bearing currents and their influence on lifetime and reliability of electric machines bearings. This is associated with extension of use of static converters for control drives for DC motors feeding in the past and for induction motors feeding from frequency converters in the last time. It is known from our own experiences that not all failures assigned to bearing currents were their real reason and we also know how hardly the mentioned currents can be measured on real machines and how work-intensive and expensive is to detect real reason of the failure on damaged bearing. We will not concern with basics of classical bearing currents in this paper, because they were known and studied in the beginning of the last century but our own investigations will be presented.

  9. Activists' Influence Tactics and Corporate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Frank G. A.; den Hond, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Corporations increasingly pay attention to issues of social responsibility, but their policies and procedures to articulate such responsibilities are not just a result of the good will of top management. Often, such policies and procedures are devised because some stakeholders raised their voice on issues relating to the interests of employees,…

  10. The Influence of CO2 on Genioglossus Muscle After-Discharge Following Arousal From Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cori, Jennifer M; Rochford, Peter D; O'Donoghue, Fergal J; Trinder, John; Jordan, Amy S

    2017-11-01

    Ventilatory after-discharge (sustained elevation of ventilation following stimulus removal) occurs during sleep but not when hypocapnia is present. Genioglossus after-discharge also occurs during sleep, but CO2 effects have not been assessed. The relevance is that postarousal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse. This study aimed to determine whether arousal elicits genioglossus after-discharge that persists into sleep, and whether it is influenced by CO2. Twenty-four healthy individuals (6 female) slept with a nasal mask and ventilator. Sleep (EEG, EOG, EMG), ventilation (pneumotachograph), end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and intramuscular genioglossus EMG were monitored. NREM eucapnia was determined during 5 minutes on continuous positive airway pressure (4 cmH2O). Inspiratory pressure support was increased until PETCO2 was ≥2 mm Hg below NREM eucapnia. Supplemental CO2 was added to reproduce normocapnia, without changing ventilator settings. Arousals were induced by auditory tones and genioglossus EMG compared during steady-state hypocapnia and normocapnia. Eleven participants (4 female) provided data. Prearousal PETCO2 was less (p sleep. For tonic activity, after-discharge lasted four breaths irrespective of CO2 condition. For peak activity, after-discharge lasted one breath during hypocapnia and 6 breaths during normocapnia. However, when peak activity following the return to sleep was compared between CO2 conditions no individual breath differences were observed. Postarousal genioglossal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse during sleep. Steady-state CO2 levels minimally influence postarousal genioglossus after-discharge. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Study on the influences of ionization region material arrangement on Hall thruster channel discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, HU; Ping, DUAN; Jilei, SONG; Wenqing, LI; Long, CHEN; Xingyu, BIAN

    2018-02-01

    There exists strong interaction between the plasma and channel wall in the Hall thruster, which greatly affects the discharge performance of the thruster. In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established based on the actual size of an Aton P70 Hall thruster discharge channel. The particle-in-cell simulation method is applied to study the influences of segmented low emissive graphite electrode biased with anode voltage on the discharge characteristics of the Hall thruster channel. The influences of segmented electrode placed at the ionization region on electric potential, ion number density, electron temperature, ionization rate, discharge current and specific impulse are discussed. The results show that, when segmented electrode is placed at the ionization region, the axial length of the acceleration region is shortened, the equipotential lines tend to be vertical with wall at the acceleration region, thus radial velocity of ions is reduced along with the wall corrosion. The axial position of the maximal electron temperature moves towards the exit with the expansion of ionization region. Furthermore, the electron-wall collision frequency and ionization rate also increase, the discharge current decreases and the specific impulse of the Hall thruster is slightly enhanced.

  12. Assessing natural and anthropogenic influences on water discharge and sediment load in the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Qing; Yao, Yulong; Li, Yali; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Chenglong; Yu, Wenwen; Wang, Teng

    2017-12-31

    The water discharge and sediment load of rivers are changing substantially under the impacts of climate change and human activities, becoming a hot issue in hydro-environmental research. In this study, the water discharge and sediment load in the mainstream and seven tributaries of the Yangtze River were investigated by using long-term hydro-meteorological data from 1953 to 2013. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and double mass curve (DMC) were used to detect trends and abrupt change-points in water discharge and sediment load and to quantify the effects of climate change and human activities on water discharge and sediment load. The results are as follows: (1) the water discharge showed a non-significant decreasing trend at most stations except Hukou station. Among these, water discharge at Dongting Lake and the Min River basin shows a significant decreasing trend with average rates of -13.93×10 8 m 3 /year and -1.8×10 8 m 3 /year (P<0.05), respectively. However, the sediment load exhibited a significant decreasing trend in all tributaries of the Yangtze River. (2) No significant abrupt change-points were detected in the time series of water discharge for all hydrological stations. In contrast, significant abrupt change-points were detected in sediment load, most of these changes appeared in the late 1980s. (3) The water discharge was mainly influenced by precipitation in the Yangtze River basin, whereas sediment load was mainly affected by climate change and human activities; the relative contribution ratios of human activities were above 70% for the Yangtze River. (4) The decrease of sediment load has directly impacted the lower Yangtze River and the delta region. These results will provide a reference for better resource management in the Yangtze River Basin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors influencing period from surgery to discharge in patients with femoral trochanteric fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Shinoda, Soichiro; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Arata; Morita, Hidetaka; Kamioka, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing the period from surgery to discharge in patients with femoral trochanteric fractures. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients with femoral trochanteric fractures were investigated retrospectively. Based on the mean period from surgery to discharge (85.6 ± 26.6 days), the patients were divided into two groups: an under-85-day group (range, 29–78 days) and an over-85-day group (87–128 days). Age, gender, fracture type, pre...

  14. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Lingyi Zhou; Yixin Dai

    2017-01-01

    Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and poli...

  15. Planning laws and policies influencing the use of land in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates planning laws and policies influencing land use in metropolitan Lagos. Analysis of the laws and policies were presented based on the responses on 755 questionnaires administered on occupiers and users of all categories of land uses in 43 zones into which metropolitan Lagos was divided. The

  16. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-08-01

    Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  18. Factors influencing period from surgery to discharge in patients with femoral trochanteric fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Soichiro; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Arata; Morita, Hidetaka; Kamioka, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing the period from surgery to discharge in patients with femoral trochanteric fractures. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty patients with femoral trochanteric fractures were investigated retrospectively. Based on the mean period from surgery to discharge (85.6 ± 26.6 days), the patients were divided into two groups: an under-85-day group (range, 29–78 days) and an over-85-day group (87–128 days). Age, gender, fracture type, presence of lesser trochanteric displacement, discharge destination, and walking ability were investigated. The relationship between these factors and the period from surgery to discharge was analyzed with logistic regression analysis. [Results] Age and lesser trochanteric displacement were significantly higher in the over-85-day group, and walking ability before fracture and at discharge were significantly lower in the over-85-day group. Logistic regression analysis showed that lesser trochanteric displacement and age were predictors of the length from surgery to discharge. Lesser trochanteric displacement were observed in 87.5% of these. Immediate displacement after surgery occurred in 57.8% of lesser trochanteric fractures, while 26.3% displaced 1 to 3 weeks after surgery. [Conclusion] This study revealed that lesser trochanteric displacement, higher age, and lower walking ability before fracture and at discharge were associated with longer hospitalizations in patients with femoral trochanteric fractures. Lesser trochanteric displacement were observed in 87.5% of lesser trochanteric fractures. These displacements occurred within 3 weeks after surgery in 84.1% of cases. PMID:29200639

  19. Characterization of surface dielectric barrier discharge influenced by intermediate frequency for ozone production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, Ayman A; Ishijima, Tatsuo; Seto, Takafumi; Otani, Yoshio; Osawa, Naoki; Wedaa, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the intermediate frequency (1–10 kHz) of the sinusoidal driving voltage on the characteristics of a developed surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD)-based reactor having spikes on its discharge electrode. Moreover, its influence on the production of ozone and nitrogen oxide byproducts is evaluated. The results show that SDBD is operated in the filamentary mode at all the frequencies. Nevertheless, the pulses of the discharge current at high frequencies are much denser and have higher amplitudes than those at low frequencies. The analysis of the power consumed in the reactor shows that a small portion of the input power is dissipated in the dielectric material of SDBD source, whereas the major part of the power is consumed in the plasma discharge. The results of the ozone production show that higher frequencies have a slightly adverse effect on the ozone production at relatively high energy density values, where the ozone concentration is slightly decreased when the frequency is increased at the same energy density. The temperature of the discharge channels and gas is not a crucial factor for the decomposition of ozone in this reactor, while the results of the measurements of nitrogen oxides characteristics indicate that the formation of NO and NO 2 has a significant adverse effect on the production efficiency of ozone due to their oxidation to another nitrogen oxides and their catalytic effect. (paper)

  20. How Smog Awareness Influences Public Acceptance of Congestion Charge Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyi Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although various studies have investigated public acceptance of congestion charge policies, most of them have focused on behavioral and policy-related factors, and did not consider the moderating influence that individual concern about smog and perceived smog risk may have on public acceptance. This paper takes the congestion charge policy in China, targeted at smog and traffic control, and checks how smog awareness—including smog concerns and perceived smog risks, besides behavioral and policy-related factors—might influence public acceptance of the policy. In this paper, we found both a direct and moderating causal relationship between smog awareness and public acceptance. Based on a sample of 574 valid questionnaires in Beijing and Shanghai in 2016, an ordered logistic regression modeling approach was used to delineate the causality between smog awareness and public acceptance. We found that both smog concerns, such as perceived smog risk, and willingness to pay (WTP were both directly and indirectly positively correlated with public acceptance. These findings imply that policymakers should increase policy fairness with environmental-oriented policy design and should express potential policy effectiveness of the smog controlling policy to citizens to increase their acceptance level.

  1. Influence of Magnetic Field on Vacuum Arc Discharge Volt-Ampere Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Duhopel'nikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vacuum arc evaporation technology was developed in the 70-s in the USSR and widely used nowadays for deposition of various functional coatings. Magnetic field provides stabilization of the discharge and cathode spot movement in arc evaporators. Usually, are used two types of magnetic systems: with divergent axisymmetrical magnetic field and with an arch-like magnetic field. The systems with the arch-like magnetic field allow a flexible control of the trajectory and the speed of the moving cathode spot and, recently, have been increasingly frequently used in facilities of vacuum arc deposition of coatings.Since the plasma of vacuum arc discharge is almost in completely ionized state even the weak magnetic fields have a significant influence on the vacuum arc discharge volt-ampere characteristics (VAC. Unfortunately, with a wealth of materials concerning the vacuum arc discharge there is still insufficient information about the influence of magnetic field magnitude and shape on the arc discharge VAC of the industrial arc evaporators.This work studies the effect of magnetic fields on VAC of two different arc evaporators with a titanium cathode, which possess axial and arch-like magnetic field.It was shown that the magnetic field significantly affects the VAC behavior changing it from increasing to descending one. The transition of VAC curves behavior from growing to descending one occurs at magnetic field values of 4.4 mT and 6.5 mT for axial and arch-like magnetic field, respectively.Voltage at fixed discharge current linearly increases with raising magnetic field induction. The discharge voltage growth with the arch-like magnetic field is greater than with its axial configuration.At the same time in the work the analytical expressions are given. These equations show that the VAC shape modification of the vacuum arc discharge in an external magnetic field may be explained by the inverse proportionality of the Hall parameter on its

  2. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  3. The influence of circuit inductance on the energy characteristics of electric discharge and deformation of plates in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosenkov, V. M.; Bychkov, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of discharge-circuit inductance on the efficiency of conversion of energy stored in a capacitor bank, evolved in the electric-discharge channel in water, and spent for the resulting plastic deformation of plates. It is established for the first time that a growth in inductance of the discharge circuit produces a positive effect on the deformation of plates by increasing the amount of energy spent in this process.

  4. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  5. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary J; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-01-01

    The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT) record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC. Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy. The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies. Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on public health

  6. Corporate philanthropy, political influence, and health policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Fooks

    Full Text Available The Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC provides a basis for nation states to limit the political effects of tobacco industry philanthropy, yet progress in this area is limited. This paper aims to integrate the findings of previous studies on tobacco industry philanthropy with a new analysis of British American Tobacco's (BAT record of charitable giving to develop a general model of corporate political philanthropy that can be used to facilitate implementation of the FCTC.Analysis of previously confidential industry documents, BAT social and stakeholder dialogue reports, and existing tobacco industry document studies on philanthropy.The analysis identified six broad ways in which tobacco companies have used philanthropy politically: developing constituencies to build support for policy positions and generate third party advocacy; weakening opposing political constituencies; facilitating access and building relationships with policymakers; creating direct leverage with policymakers by providing financial subsidies to specific projects; enhancing the donor's status as a source of credible information; and shaping the tobacco control agenda by shifting thinking on the importance of regulating the market environment for tobacco and the relative risks of smoking for population health. Contemporary BAT social and stakeholder reports contain numerous examples of charitable donations that are likely to be designed to shape the tobacco control agenda, secure access and build constituencies.Tobacco companies' political use of charitable donations underlines the need for tobacco industry philanthropy to be restricted via full implementation of Articles 5.3 and 13 of the FCTC. The model of tobacco industry philanthropy developed in this study can be used by public health advocates to press for implementation of the FCTC and provides a basis for analysing the political effects of charitable giving in other industry sectors which have an impact on

  7. Influence of the Category Discharge Processing on Strength Properties of Piezocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazanov, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Piezoelectric, dielectric and physicomechanical properties of polymeric piezocomposites on piezoceramics basis are one of the major operational devices of applications. During their application in various devices for a long time can be exposed to various influences for a long time. Piezoelectric, dielectric and strength properties of polymeric piezocomposites strongly depend from the interphase phenomena, and also on charges saved up on border of the unit between components of a composition. Therefore creation the preliminary centers localization for charges in a composition is an actual problem for development effective polymeric piezocomposites. In the given work results of a research preliminary discharge processing's of powders of polymer on strength properties and dielectric characteristics of polymeric compositions on a basis polyvinilidenftorid (PVDF), high density polyethylene and piezoceramic from tetragonal structure are poisoned. Piezoceramic had structure plumbum-zirconate-titanate (PZT). Powders of polymer have been subjected to discharge processing in a quartz glass tube with a diameter 15 mm which walls with 1 mm. It is earthed, from one end and to other end it is connected with high-voltage electrode. Compositions in a volumetric ratio of 90+10 % have been obtained at temperature 435Κ under pressure 15ΜΠa. After creation reception of samples they were exposed electrothermopolarization. It is experimentally established, that after discharge processing powders of polymer depending on of processing duration electric and mechanical durability, and also an accrued charge on border of the unit of phases up to the certain value increases, and then decreases. Also it is shown, hat influence of category processing on strength and dielectric characteristics of a composition on the basis of polymer PVDF is more than , has on polyethylene basis. Changes piezoelectric, dielectric it is supposed, that, and strength properties to an extreme piezocomposite

  8. Nursing shaping and influencing health and social care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Theresa

    2009-09-01

    This paper seeks to consider how nursing as a profession in the United Kingdom is developing its role in shaping and influencing policy using lessons learnt from a policy study tour undertaken in the United States of America and extensive experience as a senior nurse within the government, the health service and more recently within a Professional Organization. The nursing profession faces major changes in health and health care and nurses need to be visible in the public debate about future models of health and health care. This paper critically reviews recent UK and USA literature and policy with relevance to nursing. Strategies that support nurses and nursing to influence policy are in place but more needs to be done to address all levels of nursing in order to find creative solutions that promote and increase the participation of nurses in the political process and health policy. There are lessons to be learnt in the UK from the US nursing experience. These need to be considered in the context of the UK and devolution. Although much has been achieved in positioning nurses and nursing as an influencer in the arena of policy and political decision-making, there is a need for greater co-ordination of action to ensure that nursing is actively supported in influencing and shaping health and health care policy. All leaders and other stakeholders require to play their part in considering how the actions set out in this article can be taken forward and how gaps such as education, fellowship experience and media engagement can be addressed in the future.

  9. The influence of spherical cavity surface charge distribution on the sequence of partial discharge events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illias, Hazlee A [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chen, George; Lewin, Paul L, E-mail: h.illias@um.edu.my [Tony Davies High Voltage Laboratory, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-22

    In this work, a model representing partial discharge (PD) behaviour of a spherical cavity within a homogeneous dielectric material has been developed to study the influence of cavity surface charge distribution on the electric field distribution in both the cavity and the material itself. The charge accumulation on the cavity surface after a PD event and charge movement along the cavity wall under the influence of electric field magnitude and direction has been found to affect the electric field distribution in the whole cavity and in the material. This in turn affects the likelihood of any subsequent PD activity in the cavity and the whole sequence of PD events. The model parameters influencing cavity surface charge distribution can be readily identified; they are the cavity surface conductivity, the inception field and the extinction field. Comparison of measurement and simulation results has been undertaken to validate the model.

  10. Influence of dust particles on positive column of DC glow discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ruihuan; Yuan, Chengxun; Li, Hui; Liang, Yonggan; Wu, Jian; Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Kirsanov, G. V.; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-03-01

    A self-consistent model of a DC glow discharge with dust particles based on orbital motion limited theory, collision enhanced collection approximation, and a fluid approach extended by energy conservation equation is presented. The model indicates the influence of dust particles on radical distributions of plasma parameters in positive columns. Dust particles are embedded in the positive column with the density profile prescribed as a given step function. It is shown that with the increase in dust particle density, electron density and the radical electric field decrease in the dust region. For high dust density, especially when the loss of ions and electrons on the dust surface exceeds their production in ionization collisions in the dust region, a local minimum of electron density forms in the discharge axis and the radical electric field obtained from the Poisson equation becomes non-monotonous. The addition of dust increases the longitudinal electric field and electron temperature simultaneously to compensate the electron and ion loss on dust particles and preserve the discharge.

  11. Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth International Workshop. IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Ecohealth) program initiative has been active in Latin America and the Caribbean for the past eight years. Ecohealth recognizes that it is now imperative to systematize the lessons ...

  12. Contribution of Women in Influencing Legislation and Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper on impact assessment of the contribution of women in influencing legislation and policy formulation and implementation in Uganda 1995-2005 is premised ... and non-discriminatory laws, in these sectors would go a long way in neutralising patriarchy and promoting gender equality and women's empowerment.

  13. Intellectual property policy as factor influencing creation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Universities in developed countries are benefitting more from Intellectual Property (IP) they create than those in developing countries especially Nigeria. There is also lack of, and adequate Intellectual Property Policy (IPP) in Nigerian universities. This study therefore, investigated the influence of IPP on creation of IP in ...

  14. Influence of current and temperature on discharge characteristics of electrochemical nickel−cadmium system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Andreja

    2010-01-01

    level. An overview of the obtained characteristics for analyzed battery and their comparison with the producers prescribed values and standards led to gaining of the valuable data that show how and in what measure do current and temperature influence the discharge characteristic of non-hermetic nickel-cadmium batteries with an especial observation of internal electrical resistance and battery efficiency level. Obtained results show that electrochemical power sources may provide electric energy with prescribed quality and quantity, with high level of work reliability, as well as with all other positive technical and economic effects within the given current-temperature range.

  15. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Donna; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Elbel, Brian

    2014-04-01

    In March 2013 a state judge invalidated New York City's proposal to ban sales of sugar-sweetened beverages larger than 16 ounces; the case is under appeal. This setback was attributable in part to opposition from the beverage industry and racial/ethnic minority organizations they support. We provide lessons from similar tobacco industry efforts to block policies that reduced smoking prevalence. We offer recommendations that draw on the tobacco control movement's success in thwarting industry influence and promoting public health policies that hold promise to improve population health.

  16. The Quality of Discharge Care Planning in Acute Stroke Care: Influencing Factors and Association with Postdischarge Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Nadine E; Busingye, Doreen; Lannin, Natasha A; Kilkenny, Monique F; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2018-03-01

    Comprehensive discharge planning is important for successful transitions from hospital to home after stroke. The aim of this study was to describe the quality of discharge planning received by patients discharged home from acute care, identify factors associated with a positive discharge experience, and assess the influence of discharge quality on outcomes. Patients discharged to the community and registered in the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry in 2014 were invited to participate. Patient-perceived discharge quality was evaluated using the Prescriptions, Ready to re-enter community, Education, Placement, Assurance of safety, Realistic expectations, Empowerment, Directed to appropriate services questionnaire (recall at 3-9 months). Factors associated with higher discharge quality scores were identified and associations between quality scores of more than 80% and outcomes were investigated using multivariable, multilevel regression analyses. There were 200 of 434 eligible registrants who responded; responders and nonresponders were similar with respect to age, sex, and type of stroke. The average overall quality score was 73% (standard deviation: 21). However, only 18% received all aspects of discharge care planning. Quality scores of more than 80% were independently associated with receiving hospital specific information (odds ratio: 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7, 12.4), and referral to a local support group (odds ratio: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 5.9). Discharge quality scores of more than 80% were associated with higher European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions EQ-5D scores (coefficient: .1, 95% CI: .04, .2) and a reduction in the rate of unmet needs reported at 3-9 months postdischarge (incidence rate ratio: .5, 95% CI: .3, .7). We provide new information on the quality of discharge planning from acute care after stroke. Aspects of discharge planning that correlate with quality of care may reduce unmet needs and improve quality of life outcomes. Copyright

  17. Climate, Companies, and Public Policy: How Transparent Is the Private Sector in Reporting Climate Policy Influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, G. T.; Carlson, C.

    2014-12-01

    To enact effective policies to address climate change, decision makers need both scientific and political support. One major barrier to U.S. climate policy enactment has been the opposition of private sector actors to proposed policies and to climate science itself. Increasingly, the public and investors are holding companies accountable for their actions around climate change—including political activies, affiliations with trade groups, and involvement with climate science. However, this accountability is inhibited by the prominent role that trade associations have played in climate policy debates in recent years. The opaque nature of such groups is problematic, as it inhibits the public from understanding who is obstructing progress on addressing climate change, and in some cases, impedes the public's climate literacy. Voluntary climate reporting can yield some information on companies' climate engagement and demonstrates the need for greater transparency in corporate political activities around climate change. We analyze CDP climate reporting data from 1,824 companies to assess the degree to which corporate actors disclosed their political influence on climate policies through their trade associations. Results demonstrate the limitations of voluntary reporting and the extent to which companies utilize their trade associations to influence climate change policy debates without being held accountable for these positions. Notably, many companies failed to acknowledge their board seat on trade groups with significant climate policy engagement. Of those that did acknowledge their board membership, some claimed not to agree with their trade associations' positions on climate change. These results raise questions about who trade groups are representing when they challenge the science or obstruct policies to address climate change. Recommendations for overcoming this barrier to informed decision making to address climate change will be discussed.

  18. plasma modes behaviors and electron injection influence in an audio-ultrasonic air gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragheb, M.S.; Haleem, N.A.

    2010-01-01

    the main purpose of this study is to investigate the favorable conditions for the production of plasma particle acceleration in an audio-ultrasonic air gas discharge of 20 cm long and 34 mm diameter.it is found that according to the applied conditions the formed plasma changes its behavior and overtakes diverse modes of different characteristics. the pressure, the voltage, and the frequency applied to the plasma determine its proper state. both experimental data collection and optical observations are introduced to clarify and to put in evidence the present plasma facts. the distribution of the electrons density along the plasma tube draws in average the electric field distribution of the ionization waves. in addition, the plasma is studied with and without electrons injection in order to investigate its influence . it is found that the electron injection decreases the plasma intensity and the plasma temperature, while it increases the discharge current. in turn, the decrease of the plasma temperature decreases the plasma oscillations and enhances the plasma instability. on the other hand,the enhancement of the plasma instability performs good conditions for electron acceleration. as a result, the qualified mode for particles acceleration is attained and its conditions are retrieved and defined for that purpose.

  19. Influence of Wastewater Discharge on the Metabolic Potential of the Microbial Community in River Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2015-09-24

    To reveal the variation of microbial community functions during water filtration process in river sediments, which has been utilized widely in natural water treatment systems, this study investigates the influence of municipal wastewater discharge to streams on the phylotype and metabolic potential of the microbiome in upstream and particularly various depths of downstream river sediments. Cluster analyses based on both microbial phylogenetic and functional data collectively revealed that shallow upstream sediments grouped with those from deeper subsurface downstream regions. These sediment samples were distinct from those found in shallow downstream sediments. Functional genes associated with carbohydrate, xenobiotic, and certain amino acid metabolisms were overrepresented in upstream and deep downstream samples. In contrast, the more immediate contact with wastewater discharge in shallow downstream samples resulted in an increase in the relative abundance of genes associated with nitrogen, sulfur, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms, as well as restriction–modification systems. More diverse bacterial phyla were associated with upstream and deep downstream sediments, mainly including Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Firmicutes. In contrast, in shallow downstream sediments, genera affiliated with Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were enriched with putative functions that included ammonia and sulfur oxidation, polyphosphate accumulation, and methylotrophic bacteria. Collectively, these results highlight the enhanced capabilities of microbial communities residing in deeper stream sediments for the transformation of water contaminants and thus provide a foundation for better design of natural water treatment systems to further improve the removal of contaminants. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  20. Influence of Coastal Submarine Groundwater Discharges on Seagrass Communities in a Subtropical Karstic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantún-Manzano, C A; Herrera-Silveira, J A; Arcega-Cabrera, F

    2018-01-01

    The influence of coastal submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) on the distribution and abundance of seagrass meadows was investigated. In 2012, hydrological variability, nutrient variability in sediments and the biotic characteristics of two seagrass beds, one with SGD present and one without, were studied. Findings showed that SGD inputs were related with one dominant seagrass species. To further understand this, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to explore the relationship between seagrass biomass and environment conditions (water and sediment variables). Salinity range (21-35.5 PSU) was the most influential variable (85%), explaining why H. wrightii was the sole plant species present at the SGD site. At the site without SGD, GAM could not be performed since environmental variables could not explain a total variance of > 60%. This research shows the relevance of monitoring SGD inputs in coastal karstic areas since they significantly affect biotic characteristics of seagrass beds.

  1. River Discharge and Local Scale Habitat Influence LIFE Score Macroinvertebrate LIFE Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunbar, Michael J.; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Cadman, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Midlands of the U.K., we describe how local-scale habitat features (indexed through River Habitat Survey or Danish Habitat Quality Survey) and changing river flow (discharge) influence the response of a macroinvertebrate community index. The approach has broad applicability in developing regional flow...... Invertebrate index for Flow Evaluation (LIFE), an average of abundance-weighted flow groups which indicate the microhabitat preferences of each taxon for higher velocities and clean gravel/cobble substrata or slow/still velocities and finer substrata. 3. For the Danish fauna, the LIFE score responded to three...... of the channel (negative). In both cases, LIFE responded negatively to features associated with historical channel modification. We suggest that there are several mechanisms for these relationships, including the narrower tolerances of taxa preferring high velocity habitat; these taxa are also continually...

  2. Influence of Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeakub Ali, Mohammad; Banu, Asfana; Abu Bakar, Mazilah

    2018-01-01

    In obtaining the best quality of engineering components, the quality of machined parts surface plays an important role. It improves the fatigue strength, wear resistance, and corrosion of workpiece. This paper investigates the effects of wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) process parameters on surface roughness of stainless steel using distilled water as dielectric fluid and brass wire as tool electrode. The parameters selected are voltage open, wire speed, wire tension, voltage gap, and off time. Empirical model was developed for the estimation of surface roughness. The analysis revealed that off time has a major influence on surface roughness. The optimum machining parameters for minimum surface roughness were found to be at a 10 V open voltage, 2.84 μs off time, 12 m/min wire speed, 6.3 N wire tension, and 54.91 V voltage gap.

  3. Influence of Sodium Carbonate on Decomposition of Formic Acid by Discharge inside Bubble in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2015-09-01

    An influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubble in water was investigated. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of addition of sodium carbonate, the pH value increased with decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the increase of pH value contributed to improve an efficiency of the formic acid decomposition because the reaction rate of ozone and formic acid increased with increasing pH value. In the case of argon injection, the decomposition rate was not affected by the pH value owing to the high rate constants for loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  4. Influence of grid resolution in fluid-model simulation of nanosecond dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Weizhuo; Fukagata, Koji

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator, driven by a nanosecond voltage pulse, is conducted. A special focus is laid upon the influence of grid resolution on the computational result. It is found that the computational result is not very sensitive to the streamwise grid spacing, whereas the wall-normal grid spacing has a critical influence. In particular, the computed propagation velocity changes discontinuously around the wall-normal grid spacing about 2 μm due to a qualitative change of discharge structure. The present result suggests that a computational grid finer than that was used in most of previous studies is required to correctly capture the structure and dynamics of streamer: when a positive nanosecond voltage pulse is applied to the upper electrode, a streamer forms in the vicinity of upper electrode and propagates along the dielectric surface with a maximum propagation velocity of 2 × 108 cm/s, and a gap with low electron and ion density (i.e., plasma sheath) exists between the streamer and dielectric surface. Difference between the results obtained using the finer and the coarser grid is discussed in detail in terms of the electron transport at a position near the surface. When the finer grid is used, the low electron density near the surface is caused by the absence of ionization avalanche: in that region, the electrons generated by ionization is compensated by drift-diffusion flux. In contrast, when the coarser grid is used, underestimated drift-diffusion flux cannot compensate the electrons generated by ionization, and it leads to an incorrect increase of electron density.

  5. THE INFLUENCES OF INFLATION ON THE MONETARY POLICY INTEREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa Coralia Emilia

    2012-12-01

    mainly due to the decrease of inflation phenomenon, although at the end of 2011 important quantities of liquidities were introduced in the financial system. It remains to be analysed to what extent the inflation phenomenon will be possible to manage under the conditions of the renewal of economic instability in the euro area and to which direction this aspect will influence the monetary policy of the National Bank of Romania.

  6. Empirically derived guidance for social scientists to influence environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Nadine; Adger, Neil; Attwood, Simon; Brown, Katrina; Crissman, Charles; Cvitanovic, Christopher; De Young, Cassandra; Gooch, Margaret; James, Craig; Jessen, Sabine; Johnson, Dave; Marshall, Paul; Park, Sarah; Wachenfeld, Dave; Wrigley, Damian

    2017-01-01

    Failure to stem trends of ecological disruption and associated loss of ecosystem services worldwide is partly due to the inadequate integration of the human dimension into environmental decision-making. Decision-makers need knowledge of the human dimension of resource systems and of the social consequences of decision-making if environmental management is to be effective and adaptive. Social scientists have a central role to play, but little guidance exists to help them influence decision-making processes. We distil 348 years of cumulative experience shared by 31 environmental experts across three continents into advice for social scientists seeking to increase their influence in the environmental policy arena. Results focus on the importance of process, engagement, empathy and acumen and reveal the importance of understanding and actively participating in policy processes through co-producing knowledge and building trust. The insights gained during this research might empower a science-driven cultural change in science-policy relations for the routine integration of the human dimension in environmental decision making; ultimately for an improved outlook for earth's ecosystems and the billions of people that depend on them.

  7. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  8. How do external donors influence national health policy processes? Experiences of domestic policy actors in Cambodia and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mishal S; Meghani, Ankita; Liverani, Marco; Roychowdhury, Imara; Parkhurst, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Although concerns have historically been raised about the influence of external donors on health policy process in recipient countries, remarkably few studies have investigated perspectives and experiences of domestic policymakers and advisers. This study examines donor influence at different stages of the health policy process (priority setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and monitoring and evaluation) in two aid-dependent LMICs, Cambodia and Pakistan. It identifies mechanisms through which asymmetries in influence between donors and domestic policy actors emerge. We conducted 24 key informant interviews-14 in Pakistan and 10 in Cambodia-with high-level decision-makers who inform or authorize health priority setting, allocate resources and/or are responsible for policy implementation, identifying three routes of influence: financial resources, technical expertise and indirect financial and political incentives. We used both inductive and deductive approaches to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that different routes of influence emerged depending on the stage of the policy process. Control of financial resources was the most commonly identified route by which donors influenced priority setting and policy implementation. Greater (perceived) technical expertise played an important role in donor influence at the policy formulation stage. Donors' power in influencing decisions, particularly during the final (monitoring and evaluation) stage of the policy process, was mediated by their ability to control indirect financial and political incentives as well as direct control of financial resources. This study thus helps unpack the nuances of donor influence over health policymaking in these settings, and can potentially indicate areas that require attention to increase the ownership of domestic actors of their countries' health policy processes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of

  9. Problems of mine waters discharge in the Samara River and its influence on biota of the ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Kochet

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of long-term studies of aquatic organisms’ reactions to mine waters the approximate estimation of the waters influence on theSamaraRiver’s ecosystems was performed. Modern variants of the waters discharge were analyzed. The most acceptable environmental and economic choice of mine pumping at the modern stage of coal mining is presented.

  10. Substrate temperature influence on W/WCN{sub x} bilayers grown by pulsed vacuum arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina, R.; Escobar, D. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 via al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 via al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia); Arango, P.J.; Jurado, J.F. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Km. 9 via al Magdalena, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-04-01

    W/WCN{sub x} coatings were produced by using a repetitive pulsed vacuum arc discharge on stainless-steel 304 substrates, varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200 Degree-Sign C. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was used for determining W, C and N concentrations dependence on the substrate temperature. A competition between C and N can be observed. Atomic force microscopy was employed for obtaining the thickness and grain size that present similar tendencies as a function of the temperature. X-ray diffraction characterization showed phases of W and {alpha}-WCN (hexagonal). Raman spectra for all substrate temperatures were obtained, presenting two peaks corresponding to D (disorder) and G (graphite) bands in the region of 1100-1700 cm{sup -1} due to the amorphous carbon. As an important conclusion, it was stated that substrate temperature has strong influence on the structure, chemical composition and morphology of W/WCN{sub x} bilayers, caused by the competition between carbon and nitrogen.

  11. Influence of nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 on singlet delta oxygen production in pulsed discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionin, A A; Klimachev, Yu M; Kozlov, A Yu; Kotkov, A A; Rulev, O A; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Vagin, N P; Yuryshev, N N; Kochetov, I V; Napartovich, A P

    2009-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen oxides NO and NO 2 on the specific input energy (SIE) and the time behaviour of singlet delta oxygen (SDO) luminescence excited by a pulsed e-beam sustained discharge in oxygen were experimentally and theoretically studied. NO and NO 2 addition into oxygen results in a small increase and decrease in the SIE, respectively, the latter being connected with a large energy of electron affinity to NO 2 . The addition of 0.1-0.3% nitrogen oxides was experimentally and theoretically demonstrated to result in a notable enhancement of the SDO lifetime, which is related to a decrease in the atomic oxygen concentration in afterglow. It was experimentally demonstrated that to get a high SDO concentration at the gas pressure 30-60 Torr for a time interval of less than ∼0.5 s one needs to add not less than 0.2% nitrogen oxides into oxygen. The temperature dependence of the relaxation constant for SDO quenching by unexcited oxygen was estimated by using experimental data on the time behaviour of SDO luminescence.

  12. Influence of the time interval between embryo catheter loading and discharging on the success of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matorras, R; Mendoza, R; Expósito, A; Rodriguez-Escudero, F J

    2004-09-01

    To ascertain the influence of the duration of the 'interval loading-discharging embryos' (ILDE) on the results of embryo transfer. The population under study consisted of 450 consecutive fresh embryo transfers. ILDE was measured in all transfers. Pregnancy and implantation rates were analyzed. Conceptional cycles had a lower (mean +/- SD) ILDE than non conceptional cycles (53.5 +/- 43.6 s vs 63.7 +/- 49.3). When only easy transfers--defined as those not requiring cervical tenaculum--were considered, similar differences were observed. The following pregnancy rates were obtained according ILDE duration: 38.9% (ILDE ILDE 31-60), 31.6% (ILDE 61-120) and 19.1% (ILDE > 120) (P ILDE duration is a prognostic factor of pregnancy rate and of implantation rate in IVF. The longer the ILDE duration, the lower the pregnancy and implantation rates. The decrease in pregnancy and implantation rates is gradual until an ILDE of 120 s, and decreases sharply afterwards. It is recommended to speed up the embryo transfer process, wherever possible. ILDE > 120 s carries a poor prognosis and should, when possible, be avoided.

  13. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  14. Influence of Electrical Resistivity and Machining Parameters on Electrical Discharge Machining Performance of Engineering Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  15. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E.; Kelderman, P.; van der Kwast, J.; Irvine, K.

    2018-04-01

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  16. Impacts and Policy Implications of Metals Effluent Discharge into Rivers within Industrial Zones: A Sub-Saharan Perspective from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinabu, E; Kelderman, P; van der Kwast, J; Irvine, K

    2017-12-09

    Kombolcha, a city in Ethiopia, exemplifies the challenges and problems of the sub-Saharan countries where industrialization is growing fast but monitoring resources are poor and information on pollution unknown. This study monitored metals Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in five factories' effluents, and in the effluent mixing zones of two rivers receiving discharges during the rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014. The results indicate that median concentrations of Cr in the tannery effluents and Zn in the steel processing effluents were as high as 26,600 and 155,750 µg/L, respectively, much exceeding both the USEPA and Ethiopian emission guidelines. Cu concentrations were low in all effluents. Pb concentrations were high in the tannery effluent, but did not exceed emission guidelines. As expected, no metal emission guidelines were exceeded for the brewery, textile and meat processing effluents. Median Cr and Zn concentrations in the Leyole river in the effluent mixing zones downstream of the tannery and steel processing plant increased by factors of 52 (2660 compared with 51 µg Cr/L) and 5 (520 compared with 110 µg Zn/L), respectively, compared with stations further upstream. This poses substantial ecological risks downstream. Comparison with emission guidelines indicates poor environmental management by industries and regulating institutions. Despite appropriate legislation, no clear measures have yet been taken to control industrial discharges, with apparent mismatch between environmental enforcement and investment policies. Effluent management, treatment technologies and operational capacity of environmental institutions were identified as key improvement areas to adopt progressive sustainable development.

  17. Influence of river discharge on abundance and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria along the East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V R; Srinivas, T N R; Sarma, V V S S

    2015-06-15

    In order to examine the influence of discharge from different rivers from peninsular India and urban sewage on intensity and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria, a study was carried out during peak discharge period along coastal Bay of Bengal. The coastal Bay received freshwater inputs from the river Ganges while Godavari and Krishna contributed to the south. Contrasting difference in salinity, temperature, nutrients and organic matter was observed between north and south east coast of India. The highest heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacterial abundance was observed in the central coastal Bay that received urban sewage from the major city. Intensity and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria displayed linear relation with magnitude of discharge. The coliform load was observed up to 100km from the coast suggesting that marine waters were polluted during the monsoon season and its impact on the ecosystem needs further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putro, Triswantoro, E-mail: tris@physics.its.ac.id; Endarko, E-mail: endarko@physics.its.ac.id [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS), Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    The influences of electron discharge and magnetic field on calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) precipitation in water have been successfully investigated. The study used three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T whilst the electron discharge was generated from television flyback transformer type BW00607 and stainless steel SUS 304 as an electrode. The water sample with an initial condition of 230 mg/L placed in the reactor with flow rate 375 mL/minutes, result showed that the electron discharge can be reduced contain of calcium carbonate the water sample around 17.39% within 2 hours. Meanwhile for the same long period of treatment and flow rate, around 56.69% from initial condition of 520 mg/L of calcium carbonate in the water sample can be achieved by three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T. When the combination of three pairs of magnetic field 0.1 T and the electron discharge used for treatment, the result showed that the combination of electron discharge and magnetic field methods can be used to precipitate calcium carbonate in the water sample 300 mg/L around 76.66% for 2 hours of treatment. The study then investigated the influence of the polar position of the magnetic field on calcium carbonate precipitation. Two positions of magnetic field were tested namely the system with alternated polar magnetics and the system without inversion of the polar magnetics. The influence of the polar position showed that the percentage reduction in levels of calcium carbonate in the water sample (360 mg/L) is significant different. Result showed that the system without inversion of the polar magnetics is generally lower than the system with alternated polar magnetics, with reduction level at 30.55 and 57.69%, respectively.

  19. On electro-hydrodynamic effects over liquids under influence of corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. L.; Abakumov, V. I.; Bikmukhametova, A. R.; Chernikov, V. A.; Safronenkov, D. A.

    2018-03-01

    Electrohydrodynamic effects over liquids under high voltage electrode are considered in experiments with corona discharge. Simple theory is applied for description of a funnel appearance over a liquid is presented. New types of electrohydrodynamic instabilities are revealed.

  20. Influence of condition of vacuum chamber wall upon discharge parameters in the Tuman-2a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladushchak, B.I.; Gusev, V.K.; Ipatov, V.A.; Kalmykov, S.G.; Lashkul, S.I.; Rozhdestvenskij, V.V.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Shprits, I.D.

    1983-01-01

    The condition of the inner surface of vacuum chamber walls in tokamaks strongly depends on the surface cleaning methods used. After introducing a gas-discharge cleaning in the Tuman-2a tokamak, a clean discharge, characterized by a low content of impurities, low effective ion charge number (Z=1-1.2), and prevailing losses of the transport type, has been achieved. Unfortunately, the cleaning discharges proved to be a source of ferromagnetic metallic dust well absorbing hydrogen. Over several years of operation the accumulation of metallic dust made it necessary to discontinue further experiments with magnetic compression. Normal experimental conditions were restored only after the whole vacuum chamber had been mechanically cleaned. As ion sputtering increases proportionally to the ion mass, cleaning discharges with noble gases of higher ion mass should be avoided in tokamaks. (J.U.)

  1. Comparison of three dielectric barrier discharges regarding their physical characteristics and influence on the adhesion properties on maple, high density fiberboards and wood plastic composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Hünnekens, B.; Wieneke, S.; Militz, H.; Ohms, G.; Viöl, W.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, three different dielectric barrier discharges, based on the same setup and run with the same power supply, are characterized by emission spectroscopy with regards to the reduced electrical field strength, and the rotational, vibrational and electron temperature. To compare discharges common for the treatment on wood, a coplanar surface barrier discharge, a direct dielectric barrier discharge and a jet system/remote plasma are chosen. To minimize influences due to the setups or power, the discharges are realized with the same electrodes and power supply and normalized to the same power. To evaluate the efficiency of the different discharges and the influence on treated materials, the surface free energy is determined on a maple wood, high density fiberboard and wood plastic composite. The influence is measured depending on the treatment time, with the highest impact in the time of 5 s.

  2. Influence of Plantation Establishment on Discharge Characteristics in a Small Catchment of Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisah Shamsuddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on the impact of forest clearance on discharge from newly established Hopea odorata plantations catchment (14.4 ha. The stands were two years old when this study commenced in year 2006 and the data collection was carried out for two years. The forested catchment (C3 was clear-cut during the preparation of the forest plantation and catchment C1 was left undisturbed. Discharge and rainfall were measured continuously for two years. The discharge measured from years 1997 to 2003 was used also to determine the water yield before and after forest clear-cut. This study showed that the plantation catchment is more responsive to storm with higher total water yield than in the forested catchment. The effect of forest clear cutting to discharge was clearly shown by the increment in the amount following the clear-cut activities and time taken for the recovery of the discharge back to its original state was almost three years. The peak discharge in C3 also was affected in which the biggest change was obtained during the forest clear-cutting period compared with during calibration and after clearing periods. This study is useful as basis for improving the existing guidelines on forest plantation establishment.

  3. Influence of ENSO events on the freshwater discharge pattern at Patos Lagoon, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, G. P.; Marques, W. C.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence and importance of ENSO events on the control of the freshwater discharge pattern at Patos Lagoon, in timescales longer than one year. For this study it was used freshwater discharge, water levels and South Oscillation Index (SOI) data sets. The Southern Oscillation Index, or SOI, gives an indication of the development and intensity of El Niño or La Niña events in the Pacific Ocean. Sustained negative values of the SOI greater than -8 often indicate El Niño episodes. Sustained positive values of the SOI greater than +8 are typical of a La Niña episode. Cross wavelet technique is applied to examine the coherence and phase between interannual time-series (South Oscillation Index, freshwater discharge and water levels). Over synoptic time scales, wind action is the most effective forcing in Patos Lagoon's circulation. However, at longer time scales (over one year), freshwater discharge becomes the most important forcing, controling the water levels, circulation and other processes. At longer time scales, South America is affected by ENSO's influence. El Niño is the South Oscillation phase where the trade winds are weak, the pressure is low over the eastern Tropical Pacific and high on the west side. The south region of Brazil shows precipitation anomalies associated with the ENSO occurrence. The most significant ENSO events show a high temporal variability, which may occur in near biannual scales (1.5 - 3 years) or in lower frequencies (3 years - 7 years). The freshwater discharge of the main tributaries and water levels in Patos Lagoon are influenced by ENSO on interannual scales (cycles between 3.8 and 6 years). Therefore, El Niño events are associated with high mean values of freshwater discharge and water levels above the mean. On the other hand, La Niña events are associated with low mean values of freshwater discharge and water levels below the mean. These results are consistent with analysis related to

  4. On the Science-Policy Bridge: Do Spatial Heat Vulnerability Assessment Studies Influence Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Wolf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Human vulnerability to heat varies at a range of spatial scales, especially within cities where there can be noticeable intra-urban differences in heat risk factors. Mapping and visualizing intra-urban heat vulnerability offers opportunities for presenting information to support decision-making. For example the visualization of the spatial variation of heat vulnerability has the potential to enable local governments to identify hot spots of vulnerability and allocate resources and increase assistance to people in areas of greatest need. Recently there has been a proliferation of heat vulnerability mapping studies, all of which, to varying degrees, justify the process of vulnerability mapping in a policy context. However, to date, there has not been a systematic review of the extent to which the results of vulnerability mapping studies have been applied in decision-making. Accordingly we undertook a comprehensive review of 37 recently published papers that use geospatial techniques for assessing human vulnerability to heat. In addition, we conducted an anonymous survey of the lead authors of the 37 papers in order to establish the level of interaction between the researchers as science information producers and local authorities as information users. Both paper review and author survey results show that heat vulnerability mapping has been used in an attempt to communicate policy recommendations, raise awareness and induce institutional networking and learning, but has not as yet had a substantive influence on policymaking or preventive action.

  5. Streambed scour of salmon spawning habitat in a regulated river influenced by management of peak discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Burton, Karl D.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Konrad, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, salmon eggs incubating within streambed gravels are susceptible to scour during floods. The threat to egg-to-fry survival by streambed scour is mitigated, in part, by the adaptation of salmon to bury their eggs below the typical depth of scour. In regulated rivers globally, we suggest that water managers consider the effect of dam operations on scour and its impacts on species dependent on benthic habitats.We instrumented salmon-spawning habitat with accelerometer scour monitors (ASMs) at 73 locations in 11 reaches of the Cedar River in western Washington State of the United States from Autumn 2013 through the Spring of 2014. The timing of scour was related to the discharge measured at a nearby gage and compared to previously published ASM data at 26 locations in two reaches of the Cedar River collected between Autumn 2010 and Spring 2011.Thirteen percent of the recovered ASMs recorded scour during a peak-discharge event in March 2014 (2-to 3-year recurrence interval) compared to 71% of the recovered ASMs during a higher peak-discharge event in January 2011 (10-year recurrence interval). Of the 23 locations where ASMs recorded scour during the 2011 and 2014 deployments, 35% had scour when the discharge was ≤87.3 m3/s (3,082 ft3/s) (2-year recurrence interval discharge) with 13% recording scour at or below the 62.3 m3/s (2,200 ft3/s) operational threshold for peak-discharge management during the incubation of salmon eggs.Scour to the depth of salmon egg pockets was limited during peak discharges with frequent (1.25-year or less) recurrence intervals, which managers can regulate through dam operations on the Cedar River. Pairing novel measurements of the timing of streambed scour with discharge data allows the development of peak-discharge management strategies that protect salmon eggs incubating within streambed gravels during floods.

  6. Do Workplace Flexibility Policies Influence Time Spent in Domestic Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Mary C.; Estes, Sarah Beth; Glass, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. midwestern sample of mothers and fathers, the authors examine whether using workplace flexibility policies alters time spent in housework and child care. They hypothesize that an individual's policy use will lead to more time in domestic labor and that his or her spouse's policy use will lead to less time in domestic labor.…

  7. DOMESTIC INFLUENCES ON U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. THE VIEW FROM WASHINGTON,

    Science.gov (United States)

    organizations and the oil companies, is likely to decline in influence over day-to-day policy. Policy-makers in the 1970’s will find their actions toward Arabs ...capabilities of the Arab states will have a greater impact on U.S. foreign policy than will domestic factors. (Author)

  8. Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on ozone generation in a dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Y; Drews, J; Leipold, F; Fateev, A; Bardenshtein, A; Krebs, N

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was generated in an N 2 /O 2 gas mixture at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation to investigate ozone production. Powerful ultrasonic irradiation with the sound pressure level of approximately 150 dB into the DBD can enhance ozone production especially when the DBD was driven at a frequency of 15 kHz.

  9. Influence of ultrasonic irradiation on ozone generation in a dielectric barrier discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Drews, J.; Leipold, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was generated in an N2/O2 gas mixture at room temperature with and without ultrasonic irradiation to investigate ozone production. Powerful ultrasonic irradiation with the sound pressure level of approximately 150 dB into the DBD can...... enhance ozone production especially when the DBD was driven at a frequency of 15 kHz....

  10. Influencing public policies: Two (very good) reasons to look toward scientific knowledge in public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, François; Bellefleur, Olivier

    2014-07-11

    The healthy public policy movement rests on the belief that a range of public policies should be at least partly informed by evidence demonstrating the positive effects of these policies on population health, health inequalities and their determinants. In order to address certain difficulties that the movement faces, knowledge produced in various scientific disciplines regarding public policies may provide some valuable guidance. In this short commentary, we examine how knowledge from the scientific disciplines investigating public policies makes it possible to address two difficulties in the development of healthy public policies: 1) adequately anticipating the effects of public policies, and 2) assessing the political viability of the policies being promoted. Since urban traffic policies are of interest to most of the other contributors to this supplement, we use examples from this field to illustrate some of our points.

  11. Degradation of spacecraft polymer films by charged particle irradiation and its influences on charging/discharging events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hirokazu

    2003-09-01

    Influences of ion bombardment on chemical structures and negative charging/discharging characteristics of spacecraft polymer films were examined. Furthermore, arcing characteristics of negatively-biased anodized aluminum sample (AAS) plates in plasma environment were investigated. Polyimide Upilex-S and Teflon FEP films were exposed to oxygen and nitrogen ion beams. The in-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometer analyses showed that an addition reaction and a desorption of structural components occurred by ion bombardment. After degradation of film surfaces by ion bombardment, negative charging experiment was carried out by electron beam exposure. The characteristic of the charging current by exposure of electron beams to polymer films showed a periodical time variation with a slow decay after a peak. The variation corresponded to a cyclic phenomenon of negative charging and discharging on the film surfaces. The cyclic period increased with dose of nitrogen ions had attacked. Degradation of polymer films by ion bombardment was considered to influence their charging/discharging phenomenon. The arcing characteristics for AAS in plasma environment showed that both the peak arc current and the total charge emitted by arcing increased with initial charging voltage and neutral particle number density. The diameter of arc spots increased with initial charging voltage although it was almost constant regardless of neutral particle density. Accordingly, high voltage operation of LEO spacecraft might bring degradation of AAS by arcing.

  12. The Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeruszka-Bielak, Marta; Sicinska, Ewa; de Wit, Liesbeth

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify the main factors infl uencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway......, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants representing mainly scientifi c advisory bodies (n=24) and governmental organisations (n=19...... of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors infl uencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations...

  13. From the Pews to Policy: Specifying Evangelical Protestantism's Influence on States' Sexual Orientation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheitle, Christopher P.; Hahn, Bryanna B.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed that the religious culture of a state can shape policies within the state, particularly concerning morality issues such as abortion or homosexuality. However, the precise manner in which religion shapes these policies has not been clearly specified. Drawing from social movements and policy literature, we argue that the…

  14. The influence of exothermic reactions on the nonequilibrium level of discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Ya.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Prysiazhnevych, I.V.; Martysh, Eu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The comparative analysis of plasma parameters of transverse arc and discharge in the gas channel with liquid wall was made for different working gas and liquids (for air, distilled water and for its mixtures with ethanol). Electronic excitation temperatures Te of atoms, vibrational Tv and rotational Tr temperatures of molecules in the generated plasma were determined by optical emission spectroscopy. It was shown that both discharges generate nonequilibrium plasma in the case of working gas air and working liquid-distilled water. Adding a fuel (ethanol) into the plasma system with O 2 leads to the increasing of rotational and vibrational temperatures of molecules, which became equal to each other within the errors. This may indicate that the exothermic reactions reduce the level of nonthermality of the generated plasma as a result of additional energy supply for heavy components in the process of complete combustion of hydrocarbons.

  15. The influence of major rivers discharges on physical and biological state of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowska, Aleksandra; Cieszyńska, Agata

    2017-04-01

    River discharges are one of very important factors affecting the marine ecosystem functioning. Land-originated inflows, carrying fresh, nutrient-rich water can be often defined as the factor responsible for creating new physical and biochemical conditions, which in turn can create more or less favorable medium for many marine organisms to run their biological cycles within. In some basins, the Baltic Sea including, land-originated water inflows are usually associated with the eutrophication and are the factors, which trigger this process. It is clear that not only because of the riverine discharges, the nutrients levels in the sea increase. To exemplify in the case of phosphorus, the nutrient concentration can be raised by 'internal re-loading', which is caused by phosphorus pools accumulated in the sediments of the sea bed being released back to the water under anoxic conditions. In the present study, we focused on the major Baltic rivers inflows and their impact on the environmental state of the basin. We have examined river discharges (expressed as volumetric inflow in m3 s-1) and the nutrient load (phosphorus, nitrogen) accompanied by these inflows. Data for our investigation were derived from EHype model (Swedish Meteorological Institute Server, http://hypeweb.smhi.se/europehype/time-series/). From the river discharge model data set spanned over 1981 - 2010, we have calculated long-term trends and the basic statistics: annual and monthly means, percentiles (10th, 50th, 90th). The trends were defined to be statistically significant at the confidence level of 95% (p contract number: 2012/07/N/ST10/03485) entitled: "Improved understanding of phytoplankton blooms in the Baltic Sea based on numerical models and existing data sets". The Author (AC) received funding from National Centre of Sciences in doctoral scholarship program (contract number: 2016/20/T/ST10/00214).

  16. Influence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on photically evoked after-discharge potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkanis, S A; Chiu, P; Borys, H K; Karler, R

    1977-04-29

    Two cannabinoids, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and several reference drugs were compared relative to their effects in a recently developed anticonvulsant test system, the after-discharge potentials of the visually evoked response; the potentials were recorded electrophysiologically from electrodes permanently mounted over the visual cortices of conscious rats. In anticonvulsant doses, trimethadione and ethosuximide produced an extensive depression of after-discharge activity, whereas diphenylhydantoin and cannabidiol exerted no such effect. In contrast, anticonvulsant doses of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and subconvulsant doses of pentylenetetrazol markedly increased after-discharge activity, which may represent a manifestation of their central nervous system excitatory properties. The data from the present study support our previously published ovservations from several other anticonvulsant tests that indicate the anticonvulsant characteristics of cannabidiol resemble those of diphenylhydantoin rather than those of trimethadione and that the central excitatory properties of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol distinguish it from cannabidiol. The results consistently suggest that the cannabinoids will be effective against grand mal but not absence seizures.

  17. Influence of excited molecules on electron swarm transport coefficients and gas discharge kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, Z.L.; Jovanovic, J.V.; Raspopovic, Z.M.; Bzenic, S.A.; Vrhovac, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we study different effects of excited molecules on swarm parameters, electron energy distribution functions and gas discharge modeling. First we discuss a possible experiment in parahydrogen to resolve the discrepancy in hydrogen vibrational excitation cross section data. Negative differential conductivity (NDC) is a kinetic phenomenon which manifests itself in a particular dependence of the drift velocity on E=N and it is affected by superelastic collisions with excited states. A complete kinetic scheme for argon required to model excited state densities in gas discharges is also described. These results are used to explain experiments in capacitively and inductively coupled RF plasmas used for processing. The paper illustrates the application of atomic and molecular collision data, swarm data and the theoretical techniques in modeling of gas discharges with large abundances of excited molecules. It is pointed out that swarm experiments with excited molecules are lacking and that there is a shortage of reliable data, while the numerical procedures are sufficiently developed to include all the important effects. (authors). 59 refs., 12 figs

  18. Influence of pulse width on decolorization efficiency of organic dye by discharge inside bubble in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, S; Wada, K; Kakuta, T; Takaki, K; Satta, N; Takahashi, K

    2013-01-01

    Decolorization of an organic dye by discharge in high conductive water using a pulsed power generator and a discharge reactor was investigated. The discharge reactor consisted of a glass tube and a tungsten wire inserted into the glass tube, which was immersed in the water. Room air was injected into the glass tube to generate bubbles in the water. High voltage pulses were generated by an inductive-energy storage system using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) and by a magnetic pulse compression circuit. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diode in the inductive-energy storage system. The pulse width was changed in range from 10 to 1200 ns. The high voltage was applied to the tungsten wire. Indigo carmine was employed as a specimen to evaluate decolorization efficiency. Potassium nitrate was used to adjust the solution conductivity. The dye solution was successfully decolorized at 7 mS/cm conductivity. Energy efficiency for decolorization increased from 0.680 to 55.6 mg/Wh with decreasing the pulse width from 1200 to 10 ns owing to the reduction of ohmic loss.

  19. Influence of pulse width on decolorization efficiency of organic dye by discharge inside bubble in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, S.; Wada, K.; Kakuta, T.; Takaki, K.; Satta, N.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    Decolorization of an organic dye by discharge in high conductive water using a pulsed power generator and a discharge reactor was investigated. The discharge reactor consisted of a glass tube and a tungsten wire inserted into the glass tube, which was immersed in the water. Room air was injected into the glass tube to generate bubbles in the water. High voltage pulses were generated by an inductive-energy storage system using semiconductor opening switch (SOS) and by a magnetic pulse compression circuit. Fast recovery diodes were used as SOS diode in the inductive-energy storage system. The pulse width was changed in range from 10 to 1200 ns. The high voltage was applied to the tungsten wire. Indigo carmine was employed as a specimen to evaluate decolorization efficiency. Potassium nitrate was used to adjust the solution conductivity. The dye solution was successfully decolorized at 7 mS/cm conductivity. Energy efficiency for decolorization increased from 0.680 to 55.6 mg/Wh with decreasing the pulse width from 1200 to 10 ns owing to the reduction of ohmic loss.

  20. On the influence of institutional design on monetary policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of a collection of essays on monetary policy making. These essays focus on institutional aspects which impact monetary policy making. Two chapters focus on analyzing voting records of central banks. A method is proposed to use the observed votes to infer the preferences of

  1. Communication: The influence of CO2 poisoning on overvoltages and discharge capacity in non-aqueous Li-Air batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Yedilfana Setarge; Knudsen, Kristian Bastholm; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Li2CO3 like species originating from reactions between CO2 and Li2O2 at the cathode of non-aqueous Li-air batteries were studied by density functional theory (DFT) and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. Adsorption energies of CO2 at various nucleation sites on a stepped (1...... the Li2O2 growth mechanism, capacity, and overvoltages. The charging processes are strongly influenced by CO2 contamination, and exhibit increased overvoltages and increased capacity, as a result of poisoning of nucleation sites: this effect is predicted from DFT calculations and observed experimentally...

  2. The Study of Complex (Ti, Zr, Cs) Nanopowder Influencing the Effective Ionization Potential of Arc Discharge When Mma Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapozhkov, S. B.; Burakova, E. M.

    2016-08-01

    Strength is one of the most important characteristics of a weld joint. Mechanical properties of a weld metal can be improved in a variety of ways. One of the possibilities is to add a nanopowder to the weld metal. Authors of the paper suggest changing the production process of MMA welding electrodes via adding nanopowder Ti, Zr, Cs to electrode components through liquid glass. Theoretical research into the nanopowder influence on the effective ionization potential (Ueff) of welding arc discharge is also necessitated. These measures support arcing stability, improve strength of a weld joint, as the consequence, ensure quality enhancing of a weld joint and the structure on the whole.

  3. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. Influence of initiating discharge characteristics on the performance and efficiency of a HF laser - An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteo, E.; Salvetti, G.; Solimeno, S.

    1980-10-01

    The performance and efficiency of a pulsed HF laser electrically initiated by transverse multiple-spark discharges are investigated with particular attention given to the influence of discharge parameters on the initiating and pumping reactions. A pin-electrode system consisting of 390 180-ohm resistors as the cathode and a shot-blasted aluminum plate as the anode was used to produce a quasi-uniform volume discharge along the axis of a laser medium consisting of a flowing mixture of SF6 with H2 or C4H10, and output energies and pulse shapes were monitored. When a voltage-doubling circuit configuration was used, maximum pulse energy is found to be relatively insensitive to changes in the hydrogen donor, however to be strongly dependent on the mixing ratio and on total gas pressure. Above the optimum gas pressure, the use of a single-capacitor circuit is observed to lead to a sharp decrease in pulse energy, presumably due to the inability of the driver circuit to sustain an electric field sufficient for the production of fluorine atoms. Conversion efficiencies as high as 4.5 percent are obtained at optimal pressures and mixing ratios in the voltage doubling configuration, although higher overall efficiencies are obtained with a single-capacitor circuit.

  5. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles at Room Temperature Under the Influence of Glow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Highly dispersed colloidal gold (Au nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature using glow discharge plasma within only 5 min. The prepared Au colloids were characterized with UV–visible absorption spectra (UV–vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM equipped with an energy dispersion X-ray spectrometer (EDX. UV–vis, XPS and EDX results confirmed that Au3+ ions in HAuCl4 solution could be effectively reduced into the metallic state at room temperature with the glow discharge plasma. TEM images showed that Au nanoparticles were highly dispersed. The size of colloidal Au nanoparticles could be easily tuned in the nanometer range by adjusting the initial concentration of HAuCl4 solution. Moreover, the as-synthesized Au colloids (d av = 3.64 nm exhibited good catalytic activity for glucose oxidation. The nucleation and growth of colloidal Au particles under the influence of the plasma was closely related with the high-energy electrons generated by glow discharge plasma.

  6. Influence of gas conditions on electron temperature inside a pinch column of plasma-focus discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, D. R.; Sadowski, M. J.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E.; Tomaszewski, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports on soft x-ray emission from high-current discharges in PF-1000U facility operated at 170 kJ. The discharges at static conditions were performed with pure deuterium (D2) and a mixture of D2 and neon (Ne). In shots with the gas-puffing 1 cm3 of D2 or a (D2+Ne) mixture was injected 2 ms before the discharge initiation. Time-integrated x-ray images from a Be-filtered pinhole camera showed that the pinch microstructure depends strongly on gas conditions. In shots with the D2-, (D2+Ne)- or He-puffing distinct “filaments” and “hot-spots” were observed. Time-resolved x-ray pulses were recorded with 4 filtered PIN-diodes which recorded signals from 2 regions of 3 cm in diameter (at z = 3 cm and 6 cm from the anode). From a ratio of x-ray pulses, measured behind different filters, it was estimated that at the static D2-filling electron temperatures (Te ) were from 90 eV to 200 eV. At the D2-filling and -puffing additional x-ray spikes were emitted from “hot-spots” with Te twice higher. In shots at the (D2+10%Ne)-filling Te was 4 keV. In shots with the (D2+Ne)-mixture puffing intense “hot-spots” were formed, and Te reached 2.2-7.5 keV. At the same conditions “filaments” were reproducible macroscopically, but “hot-spots” were irreproducible.

  7. INFLUENCE OF VACUUM ARC PLASMA EVAPORATOR CATHODE GEOMETRY OF ON VALUE OF ADMISSIBLE ARC DISCHARGE CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of main design parameters that determine a level of droplet formation intensity at the generating stage of plasma flow has been given in the paper. The paper considers the most widely used designs of water cooled consumable cathodes. Ti or Ti–Si and Fe–Cr alloys have been taken as a material for cathodes. The following calculated data: average ionic charge Zi for titanium plasma +1.6; for «titanium–silicon plasma» +1.2, an electronic discharge 1.6022 ⋅ 10–19 C, an ion velocity vi = 2 ⋅ 104 m/s, an effective volt energy equivalent of heat flow diverted in the cathode Uк = 12 V, temperature of erosion cathode surface Тп = 550 К; temperature of the cooled cathode surface То = 350 К have been accepted in order to determine dependence of a maximum admissible arc discharge current on cathode height. The calculations have been carried out for various values of the cathode heights hк (from 0.02 to 0.05 m. Diameter of a target cathode is equal to 0.08 m for a majority of technological plasma devices, therefore, the area of the erosion surface is S = 0.005 m2.A thickness selection for a consumable target cathode part in the vacuum arc plasma source has been justified in the paper. The thickness ensures formation of minimum drop phase in the plasma flow during arc cathode material evaporation. It has been shown that a maximum admissible current of an arc discharge is practically equal to the minimum current of stable arcing when thickness of the consumable cathode part is equal to 0.05 m. The admissible discharge current can be rather significant and ensure high productivity during coating process with formation of relatively low amount of droplet phase in the coating at small values of hк.

  8. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Influence of plasma discharge on the structure of polytetrafluoroethylene film and step coverage on polymer substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grytsenko, K.P. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 45 Nauki pr., Kyiv, 03028 (Ukraine); Institute of Photonics, Laser and Plasma Technology, University of Applied Sciences Wildau, F.-Engels-Str. 63, 15745, Wildau (Germany)], E-mail: d_gryts@isp.kiev.ua; Lytvyn, P.M. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 45 Nauki pr., Kyiv, 03028 (Ukraine); Friedrich, J.; Schulze, R.D. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Schrader, S. [Institute of Photonics, Laser and Plasma Technology, University of Applied Sciences Wildau, F.-Engels-Str. 63, 15745, Wildau (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films have been deposited onto polycarbonate (PC) substrates from the products of PTFE evaporation, activated by a cloud of accelerated electrons. A 40.68 MHz glow discharge was used during the deposition process. The polymer films have been characterised by XPS, FTIR and AFM. The use of the low power plasma during film growth led to the formation of PTFE films with modified structure. Films are amorphous and contain more cross-links, but in general, the structure of their macromolecules is still linear. An increase of RF-power leads to the formation of films with large amount of double bonds and enhanced internal stresses. Deposition of PTFE on PC without plasma treatment led to the formation of PTFE clusters up to 50 nm in diameter. The RMS roughness of the films, deposited without plasma, was about 4 nm, while the films deposited with plasma treatment had a roughness of 1.5 nm. The use of plasma has an additional effect if a PTFE coating is deposited on the PC substrate with submicrometer-sized steps. Without plasma the steps retain a rectangular shape. Deposited with the RF-discharge the PTFE layers resemble plasma-polymerised films. Under certain conditions the deposited films can fill trenches in the substrate like a wetting liquid, while under other conditions they avoid trenches and grow in between them.

  10. Understanding influences in policy landscapes for sustainable coastal livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, Dirk J.; Clifton, Julian; Visser, Leontine E.; Stacey, Natasha; McWilliam, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring sustainability of livelihoods for communities residing in coastal environments of the Global South has gained considerable attention across policy making, practice and research fields. Livelihood enhancement programs commonly strategize around developing people's resilience by

  11. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the opposition’s opportunities to influence policy; a topic that has been neglected in existing party-policy research. The idea that is developed is applied to a remarkable policy development on the environment during the Danish right-wing government in the 2000s. Contrary...... opinion, carbon dioxide emissions, and the government’s approval ratings into account, the empirical estimation based on unique quarterly data shows that opposition criticism had a systematic impact on the pro-environmental policy development. The implications for party-policy research are important...

  12. Education Policy Influence Efficacy: Teacher Beliefs in Their Ability to Change Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant-Crawford, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    Guided by Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) this study sought to understand how teachers view themselves as educational policy actors and to construct an instrument that measures teacher beliefs about their aptitude to advocate for changes in educational policy. This study employed a sequential explanatory design, characterized by quantitative data…

  13. Advanced metering policy development and influence structures: The case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inderberg, Tor Håkon

    2015-01-01

    Responding to a global trend of installing smart meters Norway has taken a route of full governmental and regulatory coordination. The article maps and analyses the main influences on the developments of Norwegian Advanced Metering policy. Based on 12 interviews and extensive document mapping the Norwegian policy developments are traced from about 1990 to 2014, divided into three phases: Before 2000, between 2000 and 2007, and after 2007. It finds that the main influence and push came from an increasingly united industry sector, fronted by the grid utilities with respective interest organizations. Policy change has been boosted by years of constrained supply, creating incentives for political action. Also developments at the EU level have been important for creating attention for smart meters, while consumer groups have been less influential. The national regulator NVE has adapted its policy process to include external expertise, in particular from the grid companies. The findings confirm that influence into policy processes is a matter of financial and organizational resources and expert knowledge. Of particular policy relevance is the weak organization of private consumer interests into these policy streams, which may be important for further policy development for distributed generation and regulation of private generation activities. -- Highlights: •Roll-out of smart meters is in Norway coordinated by national regulation. •Grid companies and related interest organizations has been most influential. •EU has provided informal pressure on smart meter policy. •Consumer interests have been less influential in the policy process

  14. A literature review of organisational, individual and teamwork factors contributing to the ICU discharge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Frances; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne

    2009-02-01

    It is everyday news that we need more intensive care unit (ICU) beds, thus effective use of existing resources is imperative. The aim of this literature review was to critically analyse current literature on how organizational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors influence the ICU discharge process. A better understanding of discharge practices has the potential to ultimately influence ICU resource availability. Databases including CINAHL, MEDLINE, PROQUEST, SCIENCE DIRECT were searched using key terms such as ICU discharge, discharge process, ICU guidelines and policies, discharge decision-making, ICU organisational factors, ICU and human factors, and ICU patient transfer. Articles' reference lists were also used to locate relevant literature. A total of 21 articles were included in the review. Only a small number of ICUs used written patient discharge guidelines. Consensus, rather than empirical evidence, dictates the importance of guidelines and policies. Premature discharge, discharge after hours and discharge by triage still exist due to resources constraints, even though the literature suggests these are associated with increased mortality. Teamwork and team training appear to be effective in improving efficiency and communication between professions or between clinical areas. However, this aspect has rarely been researched in relation to ICU patient discharge. Intensive care patient discharge is influenced by organisational factors, individual factors and teamwork factors. Organisational interventions are effective in reducing ICU discharge delay and shortening patient hospital stay. More rigorous research is needed to discover how these factors influence the ICU discharge process.

  15. The influence of various anesthesia techniques on postoperative recovery and discharge criteria among geriatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Dilsen; Metin, Seyhan; Deren, Serpil; Un, Canan; Metin, Mustafa; Dikmen, Bayazit; Gogus, Nermin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aim to compare selective spinal anesthesia and general anesthesia with regard to postoperative recovery and fast‐track eligibility in day surgeries. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty geriatric outpatient cases, with ASA II‐III physical status and requiring short‐duration transurethral intervention, were enrolled in the study. The cases were split into 2 groups: as general anesthesia (Group GA) and selective spinal anesthesia (Group SSA). Group GA (n = 30) received propofol 2 mg kg‐1 (until loss of eyelash reflex), remifentanil induction 0.5‐1 µg kg‐1, and laryngeal mask. Maintenance was achieved by 4‐6% desflurane in 60% N2O and 40% O2 along with remifentanil infusion at 0.05 µg /kg‐1 /min‐1. Drugs were discontinued after the withdrawal of the ureteroscope, and extubation was carried out with 100% O2. Group SSA (n = 30) received 0.5% spinal anesthesia via L4‐5 space by 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine 5 mg. Anesthesia preparation time, time to surgical anesthesia level, postoperative fast‐tracking, and time to White‐Song recovery score of 12, were noted. In the operating room, we evaluated hemodynamics, nausea/vomiting, surgeon and patient satisfaction with anesthesia, perioperative midazolam‐fentanyl administration, postoperative pain, and discharge time. RESULTS: Anesthesia preparation time, length of surgery, anesthesia‐related time in the operating room, time to sit, and time to walk were significantly low in Group GA (p<0.05), whereas time to fast‐track eligibility, length of stay in the PACU, discharge time, and other parameters were similar in both of the groups. CONCLUSION: While anesthesia preparation time, length of surgery, start time of surgery, time to sit, and time to walk were shorter in the General Anesthesia group, time to fast‐track eligibility, phase 1 recovery time, and discharge time were similar among patients subjected to selective spinal anesthesia. PMID:21120291

  16. Influence of void defects on partial discharge behavior of superconducting busbar insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chunyu; Huang, Xiongyi, E-mail: huangxy@ipp.ac.cn; Lu, Kun; Li, Guoliang; Zhu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Wang, Cao; Dai, Zhiheng; Fang, Linlin; Song, Yuntao

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • PD detection method was used to check the quality of the superconducting busbar insulation. • The samples with different void fraction were manufactured for comparing. • The discharge inception voltage, PRPD pattern was tested and studied for the samples with different void content. • The PD behaviors in oil bath and air condition were compared. - Abstract: For a magnetic confinement fusion device, the superconducting magnets and busbars need to be insulated with one layer of solid insulation to isolate the high voltage potential from the ground. The insulation layer commonly consists of several interleaved layers of epoxy resin-impregnated glass fiber tapes and polyimide films. The traditional electrical inspection methods for such solidified insulation on the magnet and busbar are a DC voltage test or a Paschen test. These tests measure the quality of the insulation based on the value of leakage currents. However, even if there is a larger quantity of high dielectric strength material implemented, if there are some microcavities or delaminations in the insulation system, the leakage current may be limited to microampere levels under testing levels over dozens of kilovolts. Therefore, it is difficult to judge the insulation quality just by the magnitudes of leakage current. Under long-term operation, such imperceptible defects will worsen and finally completely break down the insulation because of partial discharge (PD) incidents. Therefore, a PD detection test is an important complement to the DC voltage and Paschen tests for magnet and busbar insulations in the field of fusion. It is known that the PD detection test is a mature technique in the electric power industry. In this paper, the PD characteristics of samples containing glass fiber-reinforced composite insulations for use with the superconducting busbar were presented and discussed. Various samples with different void contents were prepared and the PD behaviors were tested.

  17. Widening Participation in Higher Education: An Examination of the Factors Influencing Institutional Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbank, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the factors influencing the development of widening participation policy in 16 higher education institutions (HEIs). It utilises documentary research, followed by interviews with key policy makers in three of the institutions: an "old" university, a "new" university and a college of higher education. The…

  18. Consulting, Mediating, Conducting, and Supporting: How Community-Based Organizations Engage with Research to Influence Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Evans, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in critical policy theories and democratic conceptions of research, case studies of three community-based organizations, one in Canada and two in the U.S., were analyzed to determine if and how the groups engaged with research in their efforts to influence education policy. The findings demonstrate that the community-based organizations…

  19. The Influence of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Nearshore Marine Dissolved Organic Carbon Reactivity, Concentration Dynamics, and Offshore Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, B.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is the largest pool of reduced carbon in the oceans, with a reservoir equivalent to atmospheric CO2. In nearshore marine regions, DOC sources include primary production, terrestrial DOC delivered by river discharge, and/or terrestrial and marine DOC delivered via submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). While the importance of SGD to coastal carbon cycling has been implicated, the actual influence of this process on nearshore carbon dynamics and offshore export has not been explicitly identified. This study, conducted at a predominantly marine-influenced intertidal beach-nearshore ocean system along the Santa Barbara, California coastline, aimed to address this knowledge gap. I coupled dark, temperature-controlled laboratory incubations, radioisotopic (Rn-222) SGD estimates, and a DOC box model to identify the influence of pore water mixing with seawater on nearshore DOC reactivity, concentration dynamics, and offshore export. Even with a relatively low volumetric contribution, SGD pore water mixing altered nearshore DOC reactivity, and elevated the nearshore DOC concentration by 0.9 to 5.6 µmol L-1 over nearshore seawater residence times ranging from 1 to 6 days. These elevated DOC concentrations were equivalent to 1.2 to 7.5% of the mean offshore DOC concentration taken during the summer months in the Santa Barbara Channel, when the coastal water column is highly thermally stratified. Despite the challenge of assessing carbon dynamics in physically and biogeochemically complex nearshore marine regions, this study demonstrates the need for future investigations to assess and account for SGD as a non-trivial component of coastal marine carbon cycles.

  20. Influencing policy through impact evaluation in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And there are growing concerns about the ethics of implementing some types of IE. This paper explores recent IE practice in Latin America and reviews more than 300 impact evaluations in 21 countries. It examines the policy issues covered and methodologies used; the research actors and implementing agencies involved; ...

  1. Influencing policy through impact evaluation in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Supporting Inclusive Growth (SIG) program supports the strengthening of research capacity, to generate and use evidence that contributes to informed public dialogue and policymaking. Impact Evaluation for Policy Making: A Close Look at Latin American Countries with Weaker Research Capacities, the fourth title ...

  2. Contribution of Women in Influencing Legislation and Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2010-09-16

    Sep 16, 2010 ... benefiting from development interventions, including resource allocation and utilisation, as well as decision making, planning, and administration. The question for us is: 'to what extent have women been consulted and involved in the formulation and implementation of the existing policies and legislations.

  3. Influence of poverty on forest / forest management policies of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... management of the forest as this would help to reduce the level of poverty. Also other sources of income and nutrition (example, fish and snail farming) apart from forest resources should be developed and encouraged. Keywords: rural poverty, forest management policies. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences Vol.

  4. Analyzing the influence of institutions on health policy development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: During the 2001 election campaign, President Yoweri Museveni announced he was abolishing user fees for health services in Uganda. No analysis has been carried out to explain how he was able to initiate such an important policy decision without encountering any immediate barriers. Objective: To explain ...

  5. Influencing parliamentary debate on labour policy in Uruguay | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IDRC-supported “Labour markets for inclusive growth” project, coordinated by the Centre for Distributive Labor and Social Studies (CEDLAS) at Universidad Nacional de La Plata in Argentina, is generating rigorous and policy-relevant evidence on how labour markets and social protection work in Latin America — and ...

  6. Bureaucratic Influence in the Formation of State School Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Tim L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of structured interviews conducted in 1973, 1979, and 1984 with state legislators and school lobbyists and 14 case studies that investigated issues in Minnesota state school policymaking reveal that influence relationships do not correspond to the bureaucratic model. Political leaders influence policymaking far more than do…

  7. Influence of local calibration on the quality of online wet weather discharge monitoring: feedback from five international case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caradot, Nicolas; Sonnenberg, Hauke; Rouault, Pascale; Gruber, Günter; Hofer, Thomas; Torres, Andres; Pesci, Maria; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports about experiences gathered from five online monitoring campaigns in the sewer systems of Berlin (Germany), Graz (Austria), Lyon (France) and Bogota (Colombia) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrometers and turbidimeters. Online probes are useful for the measurement of highly dynamic processes, e.g. combined sewer overflows (CSO), storm events, and river impacts. The influence of local calibration on the quality of online chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements of wet weather discharges has been assessed. Results underline the need to establish local calibration functions for both UV-VIS spectrometers and turbidimeters. It is suggested that practitioners calibrate locally their probes using at least 15-20 samples. However, these samples should be collected over several events and cover most of the natural variability of the measured concentration. For this reason, the use of automatic peristaltic samplers in parallel to online monitoring is recommended with short representative sampling campaigns during wet weather discharges. Using reliable calibration functions, COD loads of CSO and storm events can be estimated with a relative uncertainty of approximately 20%. If no local calibration is established, concentrations and loads are estimated with a high error rate, questioning the reliability and meaning of the online measurement. Similar results have been obtained for total suspended solids measurements.

  8. Influence of pulsed nanosecond volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure air on the electrical characteristics of MCT epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, Denis V.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexandr V.; Lozovoy, Kirill A.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Tarasenko, Viktor F.; Shulepov, Michail A.; Dvoretskii, Sergei A.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was investigating the effect of volume nanosecond discharge in air at atmospheric pressure on the electro-physical properties of the HgCdTe (MCT) epitaxial films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Hall measurements of electro-physical parameters of MCT samples after irradiation have shown that there is a layer of epitaxial films exhibiting n-type conductivity that is formed in the near-surface area. After more than 600 pulses of influence parameters and thickness of the resulting n-layer is such that the measured field dependence of Hall coefficient corresponds to the material of n-type conductivity. Also it is shown that the impact of the discharge leads to significant changes in electro-physical characteristics of MIS structures. This fact is demonstrated by increase in density of positive fixed charge, change in the hysteresis type of the capacitance-voltage characteristic, an increase in density of surface states. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies of the controlled change in the properties of MCT.

  9. Influence of air flow parameters on nanosecond repetitively pulsed discharges in a pin-annular electrode configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Heitz, Sylvain A

    2016-03-16

    The effect of various air flow parameters on the plasma regimes of nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharges is investigated at atmospheric pressure. The two electrodes are in a pin-annular configuration, transverse to the mean flow. The voltage pulses have amplitudes up to 15 kV, a duration of 10 ns and a repetition frequency ranging from 15 to 30 kHz. The NRP corona to NRP spark (C-S) regime transition and the NRP spark to NRP corona (S-C) regime transition are investigated for different steady and harmonically oscillating flows. First, the strong effect of a transverse flow on the C-S and S-C transitions, as reported in previous studies, is verified. Second, it is shown that the azimuthal flow imparted by a swirler does not affect the regime transition voltages. Finally, the influence of low frequency harmonic oscillations of the air flow, generated by a loudspeaker, is studied. A strong effect of frequency and amplitude of the incoming flow modulation on the NRP plasma regime is observed. Results are interpreted based on the cumulative effect of the NRP discharges and an analysis of the residence times of fluid particles in the inter-electrode region. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF MONETARY POLICY ON INVESTMENT DECISION IN THE EURO ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Mihai LEOVEANU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to highlight and analyze the main theoretical and practical aspects regarding the relationship between investment and monetary policy, as monetary policy decisions had a greater or lesser relevance on investment decisions. First, the authors make a short review into the theoretical analysis of interconnections between money and investments, and then they try to reveal how the monetary policy influences the investment decisions through the transmission mechanism channels. The effect of monetary policy measures on investment decision is followed by the authors on three levels of analysis: the selection of investment projects, the choice of sources of financing and the measurement of risk.

  11. Influence of sodium carbonate on decomposition of formic acid by pulsed discharge plasma inside bubble in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Masashi; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya

    2016-07-01

    The influence of sodium carbonate on the decomposition of formic acid by discharge inside bubbles in water was investigated experimentally. Oxygen or argon gases were injected into the water through a vertically positioned glass tube, in which the high-voltage wire electrode was placed to generate plasmas at low applied voltage. The concentration of formic acid was determined by ion chromatography. In the case of sodium carbonate additive, the pH increased owing to the decomposition of the formic acid. In the case of oxygen injection, the percentage of conversion of formic acid increased with increasing pH because the reaction rate of ozone with formic acid increased with increasing pH. In the case of argon injection, the percentage of conversion was not affected by the pH owing to the high rate loss of hydroxyl radicals.

  12. Appetite self-regulation: Environmental and policy influences on eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marlene B; Just, David R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-03-01

    Appetite regulation is influenced by the environment, and the environment is shaped by food-related policies. This review summarizes the environment and policy research portion of an NIH Workshop (Bethesda, MD, 2015) titled "Self-Regulation of Appetite-It's Complicated." In this paper, we begin by making the case for why policy is an important tool in efforts to improve nutrition, and we introduce an ecological framework that illustrates the multiple layers that influence what people eat. We describe the state of the science on how policies influence behavior in several key areas: the federal food programs, schools, child care, food and beverage pricing, marketing to youth, behavioral economics, and changing defaults. Next, we propose novel approaches for multidisciplinary prevention and intervention strategies to promote breastfeeding, and examine interactions between psychology and the environment. Policy and environmental change are the most distal influences on individual-level appetite regulation, yet these strategies can reach many people at once by changing the environment in which food choices are made. We note the need for more research to understand compensatory behavior, reactance, and how to effectively change social norms. To move forward, we need a more sophisticated understanding of how individual psychological and biological factors interact with the environment and policy influences. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  13. Impact of oil on the marine environment: policy of the Paris Commission on operational discharges from the offshore industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nihoul, C.; Ducrotoy, J.-P.

    1994-01-01

    The input of oil to the North Sea due to the offshore industry has been estimated at 29% of the total input of oil. The operational discharges consist of production water and drilling cuttings. An overview of statistics collected over the last 10 years shows that although the amount of oil discharged via production water is increasing as platforms are getting older, cuttings still account for 75% of the oil entering the sea as a result of normal operations. Spills represent a relatively small source of oil. The effects on the marine environment of discharges of production water and of discarded oily cuttings have been extensively studied, by national authorities as well as by the industry. Although it has not always been possible to reach consensus about the significance of the observed effects, a number of 'agreed facts' have led to the establishment of regulations in the framework of the Paris Commission. The 'decisions' and 'recommendations' adopted by the Commission are regularly reviewed in the light of new developments. (author)

  14. Influences of tourism public policies on transactions amongsts agents: an ect based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Martins Augusto Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian national tourism policies have relied on local agency, which had been formerly used in Minas Gerais state through the Tourist Circuits Policy. Being that new policies cause changes in relations among agents, this paper aims to identify the influence of the Tourist Circuits Policy in agents´ behavior as well as in financial transactions. Research assessed that Tourist Circuits Policy created a government structure that favored easier and more frequent relations among agents, reduced uncertainty, opportunism and the possibility of investments to be lost. As a result, researchers believe that Tourist Circuits Policy has been a contributor for the lowering of transactions costs, even though some adjustments are still needed.

  15. Radiological discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  16. Influencing policy change: the experience of health think tanks in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara; Corluka, Adrijana; Doherty, Jane; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Jesani, Amar; Kyabaggu, Joseph; Namaganda, Grace; Hussain, A M Zakir; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2012-05-01

    In recent years there has been a growth in the number of independent health policy analysis institutes in low- and middle-income countries which has occurred in response to the limitation of government analytical capacity and pressures associated with democratization. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the contribution made by health policy analysis institutes in low- and middle-income countries to health policy agenda setting, formulation, implementation and monitoring and evaluation; and (ii) assess which factors, including organizational form and structure, support the role of health policy analysis institutes in low- and middle-income countries in terms of positively contributing to health policy. Six case studies of health policy analysis institutes in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam were conducted including two NGOs, two university and two government-owned policy analysis institutes. Case studies drew on document review, analysis of financial information, semi-structured interviews with staff and other stakeholders, and iterative feedback of draft findings. Some of the institutes had made major contributions to policy development in their respective countries. All of the institutes were actively engaged in providing policy advice and most undertook policy-relevant research. Relatively few were engaged in conducting policy dialogues, or systematic reviews, or commissioning research. Much of the work undertaken by institutes was driven by requests from government or donors, and the primary outputs for most institutes were research reports, frequently combined with verbal briefings. Several factors were critical in supporting effective policy engagement. These included a supportive policy environment, some degree of independence in governance and financing, and strong links to policy makers that facilitate trust and influence. While the formal relationship of the institute to government was not found to be critical, units within

  17. DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN ALBA IULIA AREA OF INFLUENCE. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. NICULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development Policies in Alba Iulia Area of Influence. An Integrated Approach. The paper represents an integrated and holarchical perspective on the spatial development policies and its component measures and projects related to the City of Alba Iulia, its area of influence and the all-encompassing County of Alba, Romania. The goal was to see how the development and management policies from all levels merge into a single strategic framework that might create a favourable basis for the sustainable growth of Alba Iulia and its area of influence. As this area surrounding the city is subjected to different hierarchical plans and programmes, some that are not properly correlated, it is extremely clear that this area and Areas of Influence in general need legislative stipulations made specifically for them and also a well-thought holarchical planning approach.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES OVER THE ENTITIES’ RESULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE EMILIA ŢINTA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article started from the idea that International Accounting and Financial Reporting Standards have had a major impact over the accounting world. Accounting laws of Continental Europe (especially France centered on historical cost, are in opposition to IFRS towards fair value. If accounting is based on historical cost we can say that excess of prudence leads to inaction. On the other hand the Anglo-Saxon accounting system is based on fair value that looks for a quick profit and to help investors. Financial statements record how resources have been handled by the management. The role of financial statements is to provide informations that will help users to make decisions. They can accomplish this mission only for those objectives that can be quantified as value and quantity. IFRS is referring to the whole set of financial statements that have to include a statement of the financial position, of the result, of changes in equity and treasury. Alongside these informations has to be a summary of significant accounting policies as well as informations about retrospective application of one or more accounting policies.

  19. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  20. The influence of diffusion and of reabsorption of radiation on the particle and energy balance of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedheer, W.J.

    1978-09-01

    A numerical study of the pressure and temperature profiles of an infinitely long quasi-cylindrical discharge in hydrogen gas is presented. In particular the influence of the diffusion of atoms in the ground state and the reabsorption of Lyman-α and Lyman-β radiation on both the particle balance and the energy balance of the discharge is studied. Because the transport of the charged particles is corrected for toroidal effects in the regime of high collisionality which is present in the discharge, the model is quasi-cylindrical. The results obtained show an increase of the neutral density on the axis and of the ion and electron density near the wall of the discharge, as compared with earlier calculations in which both diffusion and reabsorption of radiation were neglected. The results are in agreement with measurements in the 'Ringboog' experiment. (Auth.)

  1. How social movements influence policies : Advocacy, framing, emotions and outcomes among reproductive rights coalitions in Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Anna-Britt

    2010-01-01

    With its origins in the early 1990s, feminist advocacy directed at influencing public policies is a relatively new phenomenon in Latin America that is commonly studied at the national level. The aim of this thesis was to study feminist advocacy on reproductive rights at the sub-national level in Peru. Specifically, it explored two research questions: how do feminist movements carry out advocacy to intervene with government agencies and what effects does their advocacy have on policies. This a...

  2. Influence of non-technical policies on choices of waste solidification technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubatch, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses non-technical policy considerations which may improperly influence decisions on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes (''LLW''). These policy considerations are contained principally in several State and Federal statutes which regulate various aspects of LLW disposal. One policy consideration in particular, the unqualified bias in favor of volume reduction, is shown to present a substantial potential for leading to technically suboptimal decisions on the appropriate processes for solidifying LLW. To avoid the unintended skewing of technical decisions by non-technical policy considerations, certain current policies may need to be revised to ensure that the choices of waste treatment, including decisions on solidification, are based primarily on reasonable assurance of adequate protection of public health and safety. This goal may be realized in part by basing any disposal fee structure on more than just LLW volume to include consideration of the waste's activity and its difficulty of confinement

  3. Factors influencing the policy responses of host governments to mass refugee influxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, K

    1996-01-01

    "The policy responses of asylum governments to mass influxes of refugees have varied considerably. Focusing on less developed countries, this article explores why some host governments respond in relatively generous ways, while other governments act more restrictively. The policy alternatives available to receiving governments are classified, and a set of factors influencing refugee policy formation is explored. These factors include: the costs and benefits of accepting international assistance, relations with the sending country, political calculations about the local community's absorption capacity, and national security considerations." excerpt

  4. Representing causal knowledge in environmental policy interventions: Advantages and opportunities for qualitative influence diagram applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriger, John F; Dyson, Brian E; Benson, William H

    2018-01-15

    This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation. Policy interventions on social-environmental systems can be intuitively diagrammed for representing knowledge of critical relationships among economic, environmental, and social attributes. Examples relevant to coastal resiliency issues in the U.S. Gulf Coast region are developed to illustrate model structures for developing qualitative influence diagrams useful for clarifying important policy intervention issues and enhancing transparency in decision making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. INFLUENCE OF SHOCK VOLTAGE FROM THE ELECTRIC DISCHARGE ON THE FATIGUE ENDURANCE OF CARBON STEEL IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research supposes the explanation of influence of stress impulses from an electrical discharge in water on the level of the limited endurance at a cyclic loading of the thermally work-hardened carbon steel. Methodology. Material for research was steel 45 (0,45 % carbon with сoncentration of chemical elements within the limits of steel composition. Specimens for tests are made as plates in 1 thick, width 15 and length 120-180 mm. The structural state of steel corresponded to quenching on a martensite from the normal temperatures of annealing and tempering at 300C, duration of 1 h. Microstructure was investigated with the use of electronic microscopy, the density of dislocations was estimated on the methods of X-ray analysis. Hardness was measured on the method of Rockwell (scale of «C». A cyclic loading was carried out in the conditions of symmetric bend on a tester «Saturn-10» at a temperature +20C. The treatment by shock voltage from the electrical discharge was carried out in water on setting of bath type «Iskra-23», used for cleaning of castings manufactures. Electric impulses were formed at 15-18 kV with energy of 10-12 kJ and amplitude of 1-2 GPа. Findings. As a result of processing pulses of a pressure wave of heat-strengthened steel 45 found the increase of endurance under the cyclic loading corresponds to an increased amount of accumulated dislocations on the fracture surface. The use of Coffin–Manson Equation allowed finding the decrease of deformation per cycle of loading as a result of arising stress from an electrical discharge in water. On the fracture surface (after pulse exposure was found the increased number of dislocations, located in different crystallographic systems, that is a testament to the rather complicated development of dislocation transformations in the structure of steel, which provide an increase of endurance at a fatigue. The increase of the limited endurance became as a result of impulsive

  6. The Peruvian Congress: Public Policies and Informal Influence over the Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Patriau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian Constitution grants presidents the power to participate in the policy making process. At the same time, the Peruvian Congress is considered to lack the technical and professional ability to fully participate in such a process. However, such analysis neglects the influence that the Congress can exert through informal politics. Based on 31 interviews with legislators, political authorities, officials and experts in public administration this paper shows that the Peruvian legislature participates in the policy making process albeit through informal channels of influence over the bureaucracy.

  7. Influence of processes of structure formation in mixed solvent and anion nature on cadmium ions discharge kinetics from water-dimethylformamide electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.V.; Bozhenko, L.G.; Kucherenko, S.S.; Fedorova, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    Electrochemical reaction of cadmium ion discharge in water-dimethylformamide (DMF) solutions is studied. The influence of DMF concentration in the presence of different anions (ClO 4 - , F - , I - ) on both reaction kinetics and mechanism is discussed on the basis of structural transformations in the mixed solvent and near the surface electrode processes

  8. Increasing Mississippi river discharge throughout the twenty-first century influenced by changes in climate, land use and atmospheric CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, B.; Tian, H.; Ren, W.; Yang, J.; Yang, Q.; He, R.; Cai, W. J.; Lohrenz, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that changes in temperature and precipitation (hereafter climate change) would influence river discharge, but the relative importance of climate change, land use, and elevated atmospheric CO2 have not yet been fully investigated. Here we examined how river discharge in the Mississippi River basin in the 21st century might be influenced by these factors using the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model driven by atmospheric CO2, downscaled GCMs climate and land use scenarios. Our results suggest that river discharge would be substantially enhanced (10.7-59.8%) by the 2090s compared to the recent decade (2000s), though large discrepancies exist among different climate, atmospheric CO2, and land use change scenarios. Our factorial analyses further indicate that the combined effects of land use change and human-induced atmospheric CO2 elevation on river discharge would outweigh climate change effect under the high emission scenario (A2) of Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change. Our study offers the first attempt to project potential changes in river discharge in response to multiple future environmental changes. It demonstrates the importance of land use change and atmospheric CO2 concentrations in projecting future changes in hydrologic processes. The projected increase river discharge implies that riverine fluxes of carbon, nutrients and pesticide from the MRB to the coastal regions would increase in the future, and thus may influence the states of ocean acidification and hypoxia and deteriorate ocean water quality. Further efforts will also be needed to account for additional environmental factors (such as nitrogen deposition, tropospheric ozone pollution, dam construction, etc.) in projecting changes in the hydrological cycle.

  9. The Influence of Entry Mode Decisions on International Marketing Policies. A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Musso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on firms' marketing strategy in foreign markets revealed inconsistent resultsregarding the relationship between entry mode strategies and the adoption of marketing policies. Thisinconsistency was due to the diversity of assumptions used for the conceptualization of the influence of entrymodes on marketing strategies. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual model that can support theanalysis of how the firm’s choice of entry mode may influence the adoption of marketing tools in the selectedmarket.

  10. The study of the influence of stabilizing devices on the pressure pulsations at the free discharge of water through the turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platonov Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free discharge through the turbine is applied in the course of construction of hydro power plant or in case of excessive water inflow during floods or emergency situations. The experimental and numerical investigation of flow-induced pressure pulsations in hydraulic turbine draft tube at free discharge was performed using a special setup for suppression of draft tube surge. Such special equipment in draft tube cone as fins and “spider”-like units was considered for reducing these pressure pulsations. The paper considers influence of these units on vortex structures and pressure pulsations in the draft tube in several regimes.

  11. Policies, Agendas, and Practices Influencing Doctoral Education in Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    If teaching physical education is a moral activity, it follows that there is a moral component to the preparation of teachers of physical education and thus a moral component to the preparation of teacher educators. In this article, I examine the major policies, agendas, and practices that influence doctoral preparation in physical education…

  12. Multicultural Efforts and Affirmative Action in Brazil: Policies Influencing Education in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; da Silva, Maria Auxiliadora Lima Dias

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the intercultural movements toward social justice in education in the Americas, most particularly, North America, and how U.S. multicultural movements and policies influence countries like Brazil. First we analyzed the movement toward multicultural practices to understand how those are developed both in the U.S., and in Brazil.…

  13. The Role of Civil Society in Influencing Public Health Policy for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The project will develop a theoretical framework for examining CSO strategies, coalitions, tools, and advocacy practices and will support research that analyzes how they can better influence public health policy in Mexico. Workshops and seminars will encourage dialogue and debate, and communicate the findings widely.

  14. Combining apps targeting professionals and senior citizens to improve housing accessibility and influence housing provision policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Iwarsson, Susanne; Lunn, Tine Bieber

    2015-01-01

    Two separate apps that address the increasingly important issue of accessible housing for senior citizens have been developed in different project settings. One of the apps was developed to facilitate the process for professional raters to assess housing accessibility in the context of individual...... and influence housing provision policies....

  15. The Role of Civil Society in Influencing Public Health Policy for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Role of Civil Society in Influencing Public Health Policy for Indigenous Women in Mexico. Inequities in accessing health care and related services in Mexico are markedly higher among indigenous peoples, especially women and other vulnerable groups. Access to health care is a basic right guaranteed by the Mexican ...

  16. Factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies : A test of VBN theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L; Dreijerink, L; Abrahamse, W

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines factors influencing the acceptability of energy policies aimed to reduce the emission of CO2 by households. More specifically, it is Studied to what extent the value-belief-norm theory of environmentalism (VBN theory; Stern, [(2000). Toward a coherent theory of environmentally

  17. Public policy influence on renewable energy investments—A panel data study across OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polzin, Friedemann; Migendt, Michael; Täube, Florian A.; Flotow, Paschen von

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of public policy measures on renewable energy (RE) investments in electricity-generating capacity made by institutional investors. Using a novel combination of datasets and a longitudinal research design, we investigate the influence of different policy measures in a sample of OECD countries to suggest an effective policy mix which could tackle failures in the market for clean energy. The results call for technology-specific policies which take into account actual market conditions and technology maturity. To improve the conditions for institutional investments, advisable policy instruments include economic and fiscal incentives such as feed-in tariffs (FIT), especially for less mature technologies. Additionally, market-based instruments such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trading systems for mature technologies should be included. These policy measures directly impact the risk and return structure of RE projects. Supplementing these with regulatory measures such as codes and standards (e.g. RPS) and long-term strategic planning could further strengthen the context for RE investments. - Highlights: • Panel data study on the effectiveness of policies to induce RE investments. • Novel combination of datasets (BNEF/IEA) in solar, wind and biomass sectors. • FIT proves to be more effective than subsidies for less mature technologies. • RPS and tradable permit systems seem more effective for mature technologies. • A long-term strategic planning framework is useful to attract institutional investors

  18. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C

    2015-12-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country's iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur's mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to a

  19. Policy entrepreneurs and structural influence in integrated community case management policymaking in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policy entrepreneurs are individuals who attempt to influence the policy process and its outcomes through their opportunistic or incremental actions. Their success in the policy-making process has been associated with the convergence of four factors: behavioural traits; institutional factors; network position and political capital. Policy entrepreneurs have received little study in low- and middle-income country policy research despite observations of individualized decision-making, informal institutions and the unequal distribution and exercise of power in policymaking. This article aims to identify whether policy entrepreneurs were present in the policy process around integrated community case management (iCCM) in Burkina Faso, whether they were successful in achieving policy change, and whether success or failure can be explained using existing policy entrepreneur frameworks from high-income polities. This mixed methods policy study collected data from in-depth qualitative interviews and social network surveys of actors involved in iCCM policymaking [known locally as C-integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI)]; data were analysed based on the framework categories. Interview data pointed to one key individual who played a significant role in the inclusion of pneumonia treatment into the country’s iCCM policy, an issue that had been a point of contention between government policy elites and development partners. Social network data confirmed that this actor was strategically located in the policy network to be able to reach the most other actors and to be able to control the flow of information. Although some development partner actors were as strategically located, none had the same level of authority or trust as was imbued by being a member of the government civil service. The entrepreneur’s mid-level rank in the health ministry may have encouraged him/her to invest political capital and take risks that would not have been feasible or attractive to

  20. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  1. Influence in the Policy Making Process: the Rise of Economics at the Expense of Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2007-12-01

    Scientific influence in resource policy making reached a zenith in the early 1970s during the legislative monopoly in the United States Congress that produced command and control regulatory protection policies. This congressional consensus began in 1879 with legislation producing the U.S. Geological Survey. Other scientific agencies followed. The Congresses of the first half of the 20th century merely strengthened the influence of science in policy outcomes that was present in the earliest congressional debates. What then happened at the turn of the 21st century when representatives in the administration frequently dismissed sound science in their policy deliberations? Policy monopolies arise from agreement in principle, and alternately decline as rival ideas gain hold in policy space. The science policy monopoly began to face competition from economics when cost benefit analysis was introduced into political parlance in 1936, again in the 1950s as a successful blocking tactic by the minority in opposition to western dams, and in 1961 when systems analysis was introduced to the Department of Defense under Robert McNamara. As businessmen replaced farmers as the modal profession of legislators, the language of politics increasingly contained economic terms and concepts. A ternary diagram and a budget simplex have the same shape, but have different theoretical meanings and imply different processes. Policy consensus is not dissimilar to a mineral phase diagram, with boundary conditions marked by election magnitudes and majority parties. The 1980 elections brought economic principles into all aspects of government decision-making, with a particular long-term interest in reducing the size and scope of government. Since then the shift in policy jargon from science to economics has been incremental. With the 1994 Republican legislative majority, scientists, their programs, and the funds required to maintain data collection projects became targets. The Conservative

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Stakeholders' Influence on Policy Development: the Role of Uncertainty Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M. Bijlsma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stakeholder participation is advocated widely, but there is little structured, empirical research into its influence on policy development. We aim to further the insight into the characteristics of participatory policy development by comparing it to expert-based policy development for the same case. We describe the process of problem framing and analysis, as well as the knowledge base used. We apply an uncertainty perspective to reveal differences between the approaches and speculate about possible explanations. We view policy development as a continuous handling of substantive uncertainty and process uncertainty, and investigate how the methods of handling uncertainty of actors influence the policy development. Our findings suggest that the wider frame that was adopted in the participatory approach was the result of a more active handling of process uncertainty. The stakeholders handled institutional uncertainty by broadening the problem frame, and they handled strategic uncertainty by negotiating commitment and by including all important stakeholder criteria in the frame. In the expert-based approach, we observed a more passive handling of uncertainty, apparently to avoid complexity. The experts handled institutional uncertainty by reducing the scope and by anticipating windows of opportunity in other policy arenas. Strategic uncertainty was handled by assuming stakeholders' acceptance of noncontroversial measures that balanced benefits and sacrifices. Three other observations are of interest to the scientific debate on participatory policy processes. Firstly, the participatory policy was less adaptive than the expert-based policy. The observed low tolerance for process uncertainty of participants made them opt for a rigorous "once and for all" settling of the conflict. Secondly, in the participatory approach, actors preferred procedures of traceable knowledge acquisition over controversial topics to handle substantive uncertainty. This

  3. Evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway and the influence of energy policy on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Honglin; Wang, Lin; Tian, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to the evolution of the competition of energy alternative pathway in China, and the influence of energy policy on economic growth by using a dynamical system method. Firstly, the relation between energy and economic growth is taken into account, and a dynamic evolution model is established. It is observed that Hopf bifurcation and chaotic behavior occurs with the varying investment in renewable energy production. Secondly, when there is no policy intervention in energy market, the evolution of competition in energy alternative pathway is also investigated. Thirdly, the system parameters are also identified by using an artificial neural network method on the basis of certain empirical statistical data in China, and the dynamics of the parameters-identified system are studied. Finally, the influences of energy policy on economic growth are empirically analyzed, and some policy recommendations are given based on the results of empirical analysis. - Highlights: • Modeling the energy economy system via the method of dynamic system. • Attaining the chaotic attractor of the energy production and economic system. • Discovering the Hopf bifurcation when the investment changes. • Proposing the alternative pathway of free competition in energy production. • Determining the turning points of parameters related to policy regulation

  4. Influence of export control policy on the competitiveness of machine tool producing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrstrom, Jeffrey D.

    The possible influence of export control policies on producers of export controlled machine tools is examined in this quantitative study. International market competitiveness theories hold that market controlling policies such as export control regulations may influence an organization's ability to compete (Burris, 2010). Differences in domestic application of export control policy on machine tool exports may impose throttling effects on the competitiveness of participating firms (Freedenberg, 2010). Commodity shipments from Japan, Germany, and the United States to the Russian market will be examined using descriptive statistics; gravity modeling of these specific markets provides a foundation for comparison to actual shipment data; and industry participant responses to a user developed survey will provide additional data for analysis using a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. There is scarce academic research data on the topic of export control effects within the machine tool industry. Research results may be of interest to industry leadership in market participation decisions, advocacy arguments, and strategic planning. Industry advocates and export policy decision makers could find data of interest in supporting positions for or against modifications of export control policies.

  5. Discharge modulates stream metabolism dependence on fine particulate organic carbon in a Mediterranean WWTP-influenced stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Bernal, S.; Meredith, W.; Schumer, R.; Martí Roca, E.

    2017-12-01

    Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents constitute point source inputs of fine sediment, nutrients, carbon, and microbes to stream ecosystems. A range of responses to these inputs may be observed in recipient streams, including increases in respiration rates, which augment CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Yet, little is known about which fractions of organic carbon (OC) contribute the most to stream metabolism in WWTP-influenced streams. Fine particulate OC (POC) represents ca. 40% of the total mass of OC in river networks, and is generally more labile than dissolved OC. Therefore, POC inputs from WWTPs could contribute disproportionately to higher rates of heterotrophic metabolism by stream microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of POC inputs from a WWTP effluent on the metabolism of a Mediterranean stream over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. We hypothesized that POC inputs would have a positive effect on respiration rates, and that the response to POC availability would be larger during low flows when the dilution capacity of the recipient stream is negligible. We focused on the easily resuspended fine sediment near the sediment-water interface (top 3 cm), as this region is a known hot spot for biogeochemical processes. For one year, samples of resuspended sediment were collected bimonthly at 7 sites from 0 to 800 m downstream of the WWTP point source. We measured total POC, organic matter (OM) content (%), and the associated metabolic activity of the resuspended sediment using the resazurin-resorufin smart tracer system as a proxy for aerobic ecosystem respiration. Resuspended sediment showed no difference in total POC over the year, while the OM content increased with decreasing discharge. This result together with the decreasing trend of total POC observed downstream of the point source during autumn after a long dry period, suggests that the WWTP effluent was the main contributor to stream POC. Furthermore

  6. An investigation into the factors that influence toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from semi-automatic pistols recovered from car fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collender, Mark A; Doherty, Kevin A J; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2017-01-01

    Following a shooting incident where a vehicle is used to convey the culprits to and from the scene, both the getaway car and the firearm are often deliberately burned in an attempt to destroy any forensic evidence which may be subsequently recovered. Here we investigate the factors that influence the ability to make toolmark identifications on ammunition discharged from pistols recovered from such car fires. This work was carried out by conducting a number of controlled furnace tests in conjunction with real car fire tests in which three 9mm semi-automatic pistols were burned. Comparisons between pre-burn and post burn test fired ammunition discharged from these pistols were then performed to establish if identifications were still possible. The surfaces of the furnace heated samples and car fire samples were examined following heating/burning to establish what factors had influenced their surface morphology. The primary influence on the surfaces of the furnace heated and car fire samples was the formation of oxide layers. The car fire samples were altered to a greater extent than the furnace heated samples. Identifications were still possible between pre- and post-burn discharged cartridge cases, but this was not the case for the discharged bullets. It is suggested that the reason for this is a difference between the types of firearms discharge-generated toolmarks impressed onto the base of cartridge cases compared to those striated along the surfaces of bullets. It was also found that the temperatures recorded in the front foot wells were considerably less than those recorded on top of the rear seats during the car fires. These factors should be assessed by forensic firearms examiners when performing casework involving pistols recovered from car fires. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiuying; Lu, Xuehe; Wang, Yueqi

    2015-05-20

    Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months.

  8. Influence of surface emission processes on a fast-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in air at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechereau, François; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Bourdon, Anne

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents simulations of an atmospheric pressure air discharge in a point-to-plane geometry with a dielectric layer parallel to the cathode plane. Experimentally, a discharge reignition in the air gap below the dielectrics has been observed. With a 2D fluid model, it is shown that due to the fast rise of the high voltage applied and the sharp point used, a first positive spherical discharge forms around the point. Then this discharge propagates axially and impacts the dielectrics. As the first discharge starts spreading on the upper dielectric surface, in the second air gap with a low preionization density of {{10}4}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} , the 2D fluid model predicts a rapid reignition of a positive discharge. As in experiments, the discharge reignition is much slower, a discussion on physical processes to be considered in the model to increase the reignition delay is presented. The limit case with no initial seed charges in the second air gap has been studied. First, we have calculated the time to release an electron from the cathode surface by thermionic and field emission processes for a work function φ \\in ≤ft[3,4\\right] eV and an amplification factor β \\in ≤ft[100,220\\right] . Then a 3D Monte Carlo model has been used to follow the dynamics of formation of an avalanche starting from a single electron emitted at the cathode. Due to the high electric field in the second air gap, we have shown that in a few nanoseconds, a Gaussian cloud of seed charges is formed at a small distance from the cathode plane. This Gaussian cloud has been used as the initial condition of the 2D fluid model in the second air gap. In this case, the propagation of a double headed discharge in the second air gap has been observed and the reignition delay is in rather good agreement with experiments.

  9. Healthy by Design: Using a Gender Focus to Influence Complete Streets Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keippel, April Ennis; Henderson, Melissa A; Golbeck, Amanda L; Gallup, TommiLee; Duin, Diane K; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie; Ciemins, Elizabeth L

    2017-10-17

    Public health leaders in Yellowstone County, Montana, formed an alliance to address community-wide issues. One such issue is Complete Streets, with its vision of safe streets for all. This case study focuses on development and adoption of a Complete Streets policy. It examines how a community coalition, Healthy By Design, infused a gender focus into the policymaking process. An incremental and nonlinear policymaking process was aided by a focus on gender and health equity. The focus on a large constituency helped to frame advocacy in terms of a broad population's needs, not just special interests. The city council unanimously adopted a Complete Streets resolution, informed by a gender lens. Healthy By Design further used gender information to successfully mobilize the community in response to threats of repeal of the policy, and then influenced the adoption of a revised policy. Policies developed with a focus on equity, including gender equity, may have broader impact on the community. Such policies may pave the way for future policies that seek to transform gender norms toward building a healthier community for all residents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Influence of small additives of nitrogen in 1D-modeling of non-uniform microwave discharge of low pressure in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Yu A.; Tatarinov, A. V.; Epstein, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    A one-dimensional simulation for studying the influence of small additives of nitrogen to the parameters and structure of non-uniform microwave discharge in hydrogen at pressure of 1 Torr has been performed. It is shown that the profiles of the electron density and microwave field are affected by changes both in the EEDF and in the ionic constituent of the plasma. The EEDF influences in a spherical region of the discharge (away from the central electrode). The addition of nitrogen increases the mobility of electrons and leads to reduction of size of the plasma formation. The change in the ion components of plasma (N2H+ becomes the main ion) affects the structure of the plasma near the surface of the electrode.

  11. Renewable energy policy design and framing influence public support in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Leah C.; Warshaw, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The United States has often led the world in supporting renewable energy technologies at both the state and federal level. However, since 2011 several states have weakened their renewable energy policies. Public opinion will probably be crucial for determining whether states expand or contract their renewable energy policies in the future. Here we show that a majority of the public in most states supports renewable portfolio standards, which require a portion of the electricity mix to come from renewables. However, policy design and framing can strongly influence public support. Using a survey experiment, we show that effects of renewable portfolio standards bills on residential electricity costs, jobs and pollution, as well as bipartisan elite support, are all important drivers of public support. In many states, these bills' design and framing can push public opinion above or below majority support.

  12. Influence of school competitive food and beverage policies on obesity, consumption, and availability: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Pickel, Margaret; Story, Mary

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs ("competitive foods and beverages" [CF&Bs]). To examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs. Keyword searches of peer-reviewed literature published between January 2005 and March 2013 were conducted using multiple databases. Titles and abstracts for 1160 nonduplicate articles were reviewed, with a full review conducted on 64 of those articles to determine their relevancy. Qualitative studies, studies of self-reported policies, or studies examining broad policies without a specific CF&B element were excluded. Twenty-four studies were selected for inclusion. Studies focused on state laws (n = 14), district policies (n = 8), or both (n = 2), with the majority of studies (n = 18) examining foods and beverages (as opposed to food-only or beverage-only policies). Sixteen studies examined prepolicy/postpolicy changes, and 8 studies examined postpolicy changes. Study designs were cross-sectional (n = 20), longitudinal (n = 3), or a combination (n = 1). Outcomes examined included change in BMI, weight, probability of overweight or obesity (n = 4), consumption (n = 10), and availability (n = 13); 3 studies examined more than 1 outcome. The majority of studies primarily reported results in the expected direction (n = 15), with the remaining studies (n = 9) reporting primarily mixed or nonsignificant results. In most cases, CF&B policies are associated with changes in consumption and/or availability in the expected direction; however, caution should be exercised, given that nearly all were cross-sectional. The influence of such policies on overall

  13. The influence and ethics of interest groups on policy incentives for clean energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mariana C.

    The clean energy revolution in the United States is not going to happen until diverse stakeholders in the coalition of clean energy proponents strengthen their cohesion and influence—two critical tools for interest group's to be successful in driving the formulation of public policy. Currently, clean energy technology and resource development is supported by a highly diverse coalition of interest groups such as environmental groups, health organizations, industry, and the Defense Department, whose primary goals are often unrelated. Yet their objectives are increasingly well served by pursuing clean energy development by pushing lawmakers for supportive policies. However, characteristics of this ad hoc coalition can hinder its influence and cohesion. Whereas, fossil fuel interests—exemplified by the coalition of oil proponents—are highly cohesive and influential. This thesis will analyze whether there is a correlation between public policies on clean energy, and the strength of interest group influence over those policy decisions. It will begin with an analysis of interest group theories. Next it will analyze the histories of the oil industry as the model opponent of clean energy policies, and the biofuels, wind energy, and solar energy industries as the model proponents of clean energy policies. The composition of the respective coalitions will reveal if they are diverse or similar, with broad or narrow goals, and other important characteristics. Their respective policy positions and messages will show what values are important to them, and the presidential support each coalition has been achieved, or failed to achieve, will provide further insight into their effectiveness. This thesis will then apply interest group theories to the supporter and opponent coalitions. Results obtained indicate that the coalition of oil interests is large, yet very cohesive and influential, while the coalition for clean energy is large, generally diffuse but with some important

  14. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  15. Factors influencing malaria control policy-making in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutero, Clifford M; Kramer, Randall A; Paul, Christopher; Lesser, Adriane; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Mboera, Leonard E G; Kiptui, Rebecca; Kabatereine, Narcis; Ameneshewa, Birkinesh

    2014-08-08

    Policy decisions for malaria control are often difficult to make as decision-makers have to carefully consider an array of options and respond to the needs of a large number of stakeholders. This study assessed the factors and specific objectives that influence malaria control policy decisions, as a crucial first step towards developing an inclusive malaria decision analysis support tool (MDAST). Country-specific stakeholder engagement activities using structured questionnaires were carried out in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The survey respondents were drawn from a non-random purposeful sample of stakeholders, targeting individuals in ministries and non-governmental organizations whose policy decisions and actions are likely to have an impact on the status of malaria. Summary statistics across the three countries are presented in aggregate. Important findings aggregated across countries included a belief that donor preferences and agendas were exerting too much influence on malaria policies in the countries. Respondents on average also thought that some relevant objectives such as engaging members of parliament by the agency responsible for malaria control in a particular country were not being given enough consideration in malaria decision-making. Factors found to influence decisions regarding specific malaria control strategies included donor agendas, costs, effectiveness of interventions, health and environmental impacts, compliance and/acceptance, financial sustainability, and vector resistance to insecticides. Malaria control decision-makers in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania take into account health and environmental impacts as well as cost implications of different intervention strategies. Further engagement of government legislators and other policy makers is needed in order to increase funding from domestic sources, reduce donor dependence, sustain interventions and consolidate current gains in malaria.

  16. Political and institutional influences on the use of evidence in public health policy. A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Liverani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition that the development of evidence-informed health policy is not only a technical problem of knowledge exchange or translation, but also a political challenge. Yet, while political scientists have long considered the nature of political systems, the role of institutional structures, and the political contestation of policy issues as central to understanding policy decisions, these issues remain largely unexplored by scholars of evidence-informed policy making. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical studies that examined the influence of key features of political systems and institutional mechanisms on evidence use, and contextual factors that may contribute to the politicisation of health evidence. Eligible studies were identified through searches of seven health and social sciences databases, websites of relevant organisations, the British Library database, and manual searches of academic journals. Relevant findings were extracted using a uniform data extraction tool and synthesised by narrative review. FINDINGS: 56 studies were selected for inclusion. Relevant political and institutional aspects affecting the use of health evidence included the level of state centralisation and democratisation, the influence of external donors and organisations, the organisation and function of bureaucracies, and the framing of evidence in relation to social norms and values. However, our understanding of such influences remains piecemeal given the limited number of empirical analyses on this subject, the paucity of comparative works, and the limited consideration of political and institutional theory in these studies. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the need for a more explicit engagement with the political and institutional factors affecting the use of health evidence in decision-making. A more nuanced understanding of evidence use in health policy making requires both additional empirical studies

  17. Influence of High Speed Repetition of Pulsed Streamer Discharge Produced by Polarity-Reversed Traveling Wave on NO Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Eiji; Kadowaki, Kazunori; Nishimoto, Sakae; Kitani, Isamu

    This paper describes experimental results of NO removal from a simulated exhausted gas using a barrier-type plasma reactor subjected to reciprocal traveling wave voltage pulses. A pulse-forming cable was charged and then grounded at one end without any resistance, so that a traveling wave reciprocated along the cable with a change in its polarity because the traveling wave was negatively reflected at the grounded-end. Transient discharge light between point-plane electrodes with a glass barrier was observed using a gated image-intensifier. Photographs of the transient discharge light indicated that many streamer channels extended widely in the gap at the initial stage in the voltage oscillation, while only an intense discharge channel was observed at the latter stage. NO removal tests were carried out using the reciprocal pulse generator and a coaxial plasma reactor with a cylindrical glass-barrier. Results indicated that the discharges at the first and the second polarity reversals contributed largely to the oxidation reaction from NO into NO2, whereas the contribution of the subsequent discharges in the latter stage to NO removal was small.

  18. Drivers of pCO2 dynamics in two contrasting coral reef lagoons: The influence of submarine groundwater discharge (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyronak, T.; Santos, I. R.; Erler, D.; Maher, D. T.; Eyre, B.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon chemistry of coral reef lagoons can be highly variable over short time scales. While much of the diel variability in seawater carbon chemistry is explained by biological processes, external sources such as river and groundwater seepage may deliver large amounts of organic and inorganic carbon to coral reefs and represent a poorly understood feedback to ocean acidification. Here, we assess the impact of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) on pCO2 variability in two coral reef lagoons with distinct SGD driving mechanisms. Diel variability of pCO2 in the two ecosystems was explained by a combination of biological drivers and SGD inputs. In Rarotonga, a South Pacific volcanic island, SGD was driven primarily by a steep terrestrial hydraulic gradient, and the lagoon was influenced by the high pCO2 (5,501 μatm) of the fresh groundwater. In Heron Island, a Great Barrier Reef coral cay, SGD was dominated by seawater recirculation through sediments (i.e. tidal pumping) and pCO2 was mainly impacted through the stimulation of biological processes. The Rarotonga water column had a relatively higher average pCO2 (549 μatm) than Heron Island (471 μatm). However, pCO2 exhibited a greater diel range in Heron Island (778 μatm) than in Rarotonga (507 μatm). The Rarotonga lagoon received 31.2 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1 from SGD, while the Heron Island lagoon received 12.3 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1. Over the course of this study both systems were sources of CO2 to the atmosphere (3.00 to 9.67 mmol CO2 m-2 d-1), with SGD-derived CO2 contributing a large portion to the air-sea CO2 flux. The relationship between both water column pH and aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and radon (222Rn) concentrations indicate that SGD may enhance the local acidification of some coral reef lagoons. Studies measuring the carbon chemistry of coral reefs (e.g. community metabolism, calcification rates) may need to consider SGD-derived CO2.

  19. Degradation of bisphenol-A by dielectric barrier discharge system: influence of polyethylene glycol stabilized nano zero valent iron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijani, Jimoh O.; Mouele, Massima E. S.; Fatoba, Ojo O.; Babajide, Omotola O.; Petrik, Leslie F.

    2017-09-01

    In this study we report the synthesis and catalytic properties of polyethylene glycol stabilized nano zero valent iron particles (PEG-nZVI) added to the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) system to induce photo-Fenton process in the degradation of bisphenol A (BPA) in aqueous solution. The influence of operating parameters such as solution pH, initial concentration of the modelled pollutant and PEG-nZVI dosage on the extent of BPA degradation was investigated. The residual concentration of BPA and its intermediates were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the formation of filamentous, high surface area iron nanoparticles in the zero valent state. The BPA mineralization rate was monitored using total organic carbon (TOC) analyser. 100% BPA removal was achieved with DBD/PEG-nZVI system within 30 min compared to 67.9% (BPA) with DBD alone after 80 min. The complete BPA removal within a short reaction time was attributed to the existence of a synergetic effect in the combined DBD/PEG-nZVI system. Five new transformation products of BPA namely: 4-nitrophenol (C6H5NO3), 4-nitrosophenolate (C6H4NO2), 4-(prop-1-en-2-yl) cyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-dione, (C9H8O2), 4-(2-hydroxylpropan-2-yl)cyclohexane-3,5-diene-1,2-dione (C9H10O3), and 1,2-dimethyl-4-(2-nitropropan-2-yl)benzene (C9H10NO4) were identified. BPA degradation proceeded via ozonation, hydroxylation, dimerization, and decarboxylation and nitration step. The combined DBD/photo-Fenton-induced process was found to be the most efficient in the elimination of BPA in aqueous solutions and DBD alone.

  20. Some use—Little influence? On the roles of indicators in European sustainable transport policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2013-01-01

    transport agenda. The first case concerns indicators tracking the fulfillment of national transport policy objectives in Sweden. The case explores the use and influence of an annual monitoring and evaluation report produced for this purpose, within a general ‘Management-by-Objectives’ regime. The second...... a very limited direct instrumental role, while some signs of symbolic, conceptual and process roles are found. In the EU case we identify what is called a rationalization role of indicators, meaning that indicators inform and help to rationalize a change in the position towards key objectives. Several...... factors that characterize the indicators, the users, and policy context are found to contribute to understand the type of use and influence observed in both cases....

  1. Contextual Influences on the Role of Evidence in Health Policy Development: What Can We Learn from Six Policies in India and Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Das, Mahua; Ebenso, Bassey; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Rawat, Bindiya; Blok, Lucie; Russo, Giuliano; Thepthien, Bang-On; Huss, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This study explored macro, meso and micro-level influences on the role of evidence in the development of six health policies in India and Nigeria. Macro-level influences included adoption of international agreements, movement towards evidence-informed policymaking, committed country leadership and resource environment. At meso level, national…

  2. Gifts and influence: Conflict of interest policies and prescribing of psychotropic medications in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Bearman, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry spends roughly 15 billion dollars annually on detailing – providing gifts, information, samples, trips, honoraria and other inducements – to physicians in order to encourage them to prescribe their drugs. In response, several states in the United States adopted policies that restrict detailing. Some states banned gifts from pharmaceutical companies to doctors, other states simply required physicians to disclose the gifts they receive, while most states allowed unrestricted detailing. We exploit this geographic variation to examine the relationship between gift regulation and the diffusion of four newly marketed medications. Using a dataset that captures 189 million psychotropic prescriptions written between 2005 and 2009, we find that uptake of new costly medications was significantly lower in states with marketing regulation than in areas that allowed unrestricted pharmaceutical marketing. In states with gift bans, we observed reductions in market shares ranging from 39% to 83%. Policies banning or restricting gifts were associated with the largest reductions in uptake. Disclosure policies were associated with a significantly smaller reduction in prescribing than gift bans and gift restrictions. In states that ban gift-giving, peer influence substituted for pharmaceutical detailing when a relatively beneficial drug came to market and provided a less biased channel for physicians to learn about new medications. Our work suggests that policies banning or limiting gifts from pharmaceutical representatives to doctors are likely to be more effective than disclosure policies alone. PMID:27856120

  3. The (limited) political influence of ecological economics. A case study on Dutch environmental policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boezeman, Daan; Leroy, Pieter; Maas, Rob; Kruitwagen, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Although the ecological economics (EE) discourse attempts to influence environmental policy, empirical studies have concluded that its success in this endeavour has been limited thus far. In the Netherlands, however, two EE-related policy concepts, Environmental Utilisation Space and Ecological Footprint, were strongly present in environmental policy during certain periods in time, but subsequently disappeared from the environmental agenda. The central question of this article is how these ups and downs of the EE concepts can be understood: which factors determine their rise on and fall from the policy agenda over time? To answer this question, this article offers a conceptual model informed by the approaches in political science on framing, agenda-setting and knowledge utilisation. We conclude that the interplay of concept-specific characteristics, the formation of coalitions around the concept and contextual variables explain the rise and fall of the aforementioned concepts. A match between the dominant policy frame and the core elements of the concept provides the opportunity for the two concepts to be pushed on the agenda. We observe the alternation of 'constraining' frames, which allows for EE concepts to survive, and 'reconciling' frames, which block agenda entrance for EE concepts. Furthermore, the alternation of these frames seems to correlate with economic and public environmental attention cycles in the Netherlands. (author)

  4. Behind the scenes: International NGOs' influence on reproductive health policy in Malawi and South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini T; Palmer, Jennifer; Daire, Judith; Kloster, Maren O

    2018-03-14

    Global health donors increasingly embrace international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) as partners, often relying on them to conduct political advocacy in recipient countries, especially in controversial policy domains like reproductive health. Although INGOs are the primary recipients of donor funding, they are expected to work through national affiliates or counterparts to enable 'locally-led' change. Using prospective policy analysis and ethnographic evidence, this paper examines how donor-funded INGOs have influenced the restrictive policy environments for safe abortion and family planning in South Sudan and Malawi. While external actors themselves emphasise the technical nature of their involvement, the paper analyses them as instrumental political actors who strategically broker alliances and resources to shape policy, often working 'behind the scenes' to manage the challenging circumstances they operate under. Consequently, their agency and power are hidden through various practices of effacement or concealment. These practices may be necessary to rationalise the tensions inherent in delivering a global programme with the goal of inducing locally-led change in a highly controversial policy domain, but they also risk inciting suspicion and foreign-national tensions.

  5. Multiple levels of influence in the adoption of sun protection policies in elementary schools in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Alan C; Zwirn, Jodie; Rutsch, Linda; Gorham, Sue A; Viswanath, Vish; Emmons, Karen M

    2008-04-01

    To understand the factors that may influence sun protection policy development if the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines are to be realized. Qualitative research methodology incorporating a socioecological framework using individual or small-group interviews, surveys, and environmental assessments with school superintendents, elementary school principals, elementary school nurses, and parent-teacher organization presidents and co-chairs as well as coding of school documents. Elementary schools in Massachusetts. Nine school superintendents, 18 elementary school principals, 18 elementary school nurses, and 16 parent-teacher organization presidents or co-chairs. Presence of school sun protection policies, sun protection curriculum, and communication portals for sun protection information to parents. None of the schools in the 9 districts had a sun protection policy, and only 1 had any type of sun protection curriculum. However, nearly all principals were receptive to developing sun protection policies and to making structural changes to increase the amount of accessible shade if funding were available. The schools' communication infrastructure could provide a key portal for disseminating sun protection information to parents. Although there are other resources that could be brought to bear, many challenges must be surmounted to develop effective sun protection policies.

  6. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  7. Influence of geometry of the discharge interval on distribution of ion and electron streams at surface of the Penning source cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egiazaryan, G.A.; Khachatrian, Zh.B.; Badalyan, E.S.; Ter-Gevorgyan, E.I.; Hovhannisyan, V.N.

    2006-01-01

    In the discharge of oscillating electrons, the mechanism of the processes, which controls the distribution of the ion and electron streams over the cathode surface, is investigated experimentally. The influence of the length of the discharge interval on value and distribution of the ion and electron streams is analyzed. The distribution both of ion and electron streams at the cathode surface is determined at different conditions of the discharge. It is shown that for given values of the anode diameter d a =31 mm and the gas pressure P=5x10 -5 Torr, the intensive stream of positive ions falls entirely on the cathode central area in the whole interval of the anode length variation (l a =1-11 cm). At the cathode, the ion current reaches the maximal value at a certain (optimal) value of the anode length that, in turn, depends on the anode voltage U a . The intensive stream of longitudinal electrons forms in the short anodes only (l a =2.5-3.5 cm) and depending on the choice of the discharge regime, may fall both on central and middle parts of the cathode

  8. Influence of river discharge on abundance and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria along the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prasad, V.R.; Srinivas, T.N.R.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    and pathogenic bacteria displayed linear relation with magnitude of discharge. The coliform load was observed up to 100 km from the coast suggesting that marine waters were polluted during the monsoon season and its impact on the ecosystem needs further studies...

  9. Seasonal variability of estuarine dynamics due to freshwater discharge and its influence on biological productivity in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Hong, Seongjin; Song, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Hae-Cheol; Ryu, Jongseong; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Lee, Chang-Hee; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-08-01

    In order to evaluate water quality and biological productivity, observation data sets were collected and analyzed in Yeongsan River Estuary, Korea. We also set up a numerical model to resolve hydrodynamics and fate of water quality variables in the system. Results show that most of nutrients loading are trapped in the lake and higher concentrations of nutrients and organic matters (OM) are present only inside of the artificial sea dike. There exist episodial discharges at the dam, which coincide mostly with rainfall events during summer monsoon periods. During this discharge event, lower salinity and higher suspended solids, nutrients, and OM are observed in surface layer of the estuarine section. Hydrodynamic model results show that circulation in the estuarine section is governed by freshwater discharge from the lake, resulting in an enhanced two-layer estuarine circulation being dominated, during and after the freshwater is discharged. Such two-layer estuarine circulation combined with higher concentration of nutrients in the surface layer results in that outfluxes of nutrients in the surface layer dominate over the influxes in the bottom layer during summer high precipitation periods. Meanwhile, numerical dye experiment results show that the discharged water with elevated nutrients levels have a short residence time (∼5-10 days) in the estuarine section. Due to this fast flushing rate, excessive nutrient loadings are not used to produce biological matters in the estuarine section. This limited biological productivity, characterized by seaward side of the artificial sea dike, makes Yeongsan estuarine system excluded from acting as an active carbon sink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Climate Change Considerations on Energy Policy. The Case of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Golub, A.; Strukova, E.

    2003-10-01

    To those working on climate change it is obvious that energy policy should be influenced by climate change considerations. The question that this paper seeks to answer is, to what extent do they influence policy and what contribution can a careful analysis of the costs and benefits of climate change options have on the formulation of that policy. We seek to understand this by looking in some detail at energy policy formulation in Russia. To do so it is necessary to look at the whole set of issues that determine energy policy. These include energy security, macroeconomic and uncertainty factors, local environmental issues and social issues. The analysis has been carried out for a specific case - that of the RF, where energy policy is currently under formulation to 2010. Two options have been looked at: a 'High Coal' option, where there would be a substantial change in fuel mix away from gas to coal; and a 'High Gas' option where the current fuel mix is retained and the increase in demand is met from all sources in proportion to current use. The analysis shows that, at international prices for fuels, the 'High Coal' option is attractive. However, when we include the potential decline of price for natural gas in the European market, the relative preference for this option drops dramatically but it still remains the preferred option. When, account is also taken of the carbon benefits of the High Gas option, using plausible values for carbon, the attraction of the High Coal option is further reduced but not altered. When finally account is taken of the health associated with the lower use of coal in the High Gas option, the preference can be reversed but it requires a critical value for the health benefits. This critical value - at around USD 3,000 for a life year lost - is plausible for the RF, if anything the actual value is probably higher. What the analysis shows is the need for a careful evaluation of the different factors determining energy policy. Among these is

  11. The current status of local medicare payment policy: how specialty societies can influence local coverage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Bibb; Pennington, Anita; Keysor, Kathryn J

    2008-06-01

    The Medicare Fee-for-Service Program is in the midst of numerous administrative and regulatory changes that may affect the way local Medicare payment policy is implemented. These changes involve redefining the contractors' jurisdictions, competitive bidding for the contractor selection process, combining the administration of Part A and Part B services, and error rate auditing. In addition, the roles of the Contractor Medical Directors and Contractor Advisory Committees are yet to be defined, and the future of the existing advisory process, while currently unchanged, remains uncertain. Most likely, the majority of coverage decisions will continue to be made at the local level; however, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has begun to increase its use of Technology Assessments and National Coverage Determinations for new technology and has developed a new payment category for coverage of new technology: Coverage with Evidence Development. Specialty societies continue to have the ability to exert influence on the coverage process. The American College of Radiology (ACR) monitors the activity of the local contractors and assists local physicians through the ACR Carrier Advisory Committee Network. The ACR has used a combination of clinical and economic experts to develop model Local Coverage Determinations for use by the local contractors, and some of these model policies have been developed in conjunction with other specialty societies, which bolsters their effectiveness. The changing administrative environment presents challenges and opportunities for specialty societies to influence local CMS payment policy.

  12. A Comprehensive Examination of the Influence of State Tobacco Control Programs and Policies on Youth Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Brett R.; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joe; Kuiper, Nicole; Couzens, G. Lance; Dube, Shanta; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of tobacco control policies (tobacco control program expenditures, smoke-free air laws, youth access law compliance, and cigarette prices) on youth smoking outcomes (smoking susceptibility, past-year initiation, current smoking, and established smoking). Methods. We combined data from the 2002 to 2008 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health with state and municipality population data from the US Census Bureau to assess the associations between state tobacco control policy variables and youth smoking outcomes, focusing on youths aged 12 to 17 years. We also examined the influence of policy variables on youth access when these variables were held at 2002 levels. Results. Per capita funding for state tobacco control programs was negatively associated with all 4 smoking outcomes. Smoke-free air laws were negatively associated with all outcomes except past-year initiation, and cigarette prices were associated only with current smoking. We found no association between these outcomes and retailer compliance with youth access laws. Conclusions. Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing youth smoking. PMID:23327252

  13. The Model of Influence of Regulatory Policy on the National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolupaieva Irina V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at developing a model of influence of regulatory policy on the national economy. Structural changes in the national economy were analyzed, and the existing problems were determined: a significant excess of the gross external debt over the GDP of Ukraine over the last 2 years, which testifies to excessive credit load; very inconsistent dynamics of capital investments change by the sources of financing, confirming presence of unfavorable investment climate for foreign investors. The current priorities in the implementation of regulatory policy have been substantiated: increase of GDP per capita, and consequently, reduction of the total amount of arrears on all existing obligations; ensuring the availability of investments and optimizing of the structure of the sources of attracting. The result of the research on the influence of regulatory policy on the national economy is building of a model with reflection of relevant causal relationships. Its application is optimal in the context of economic substantiation of decisions on improvement of tax system.

  14. Influence of the voltage waveform during nanocomposite layer deposition by aerosol-assisted atmospheric pressure Townsend discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profili, J. [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Levasseur, O.; Stafford, L. [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Naudé, N.; Gherardi, N., E-mail: nicolas.gherardi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [LAPLACE, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse (France); Chaneac, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Collège de France, Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris (CMCP), 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2016-08-07

    This work examines the growth dynamics of TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite coatings in plane-to-plane Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBDs) at atmospheric pressure operated in a Townsend regime using nebulized TiO{sub 2} colloidal suspension in hexamethyldisiloxane as the growth precursors. For low-frequency (LF) sinusoidal voltages applied to the DBD cell, with voltage amplitudes lower than the one required for discharge breakdown, Scanning Electron Microscopy of silicon substrates placed on the bottom DBD electrode reveals significant deposition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) close to the discharge entrance. On the other hand, at higher frequencies (HF), the number of TiO{sub 2} NPs deposited strongly decreases due to their “trapping” in the oscillating voltage and their transport along the gas flow lines. Based on these findings, a combined LF-HF voltage waveform is proposed and used to achieve significant and spatially uniform deposition of TiO{sub 2} NPs across the whole substrate surface. For higher voltage amplitudes, in the presence of hexamethyldisiloxane and nitrous oxide for plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic layers, it is found that TiO{sub 2} NPs become fully embedded into a silica-like matrix. Similar Raman spectra are obtained for as-prepared TiO{sub 2} NPs and for nanocomposite TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} coating, suggesting that plasma exposure does not significantly alter the crystalline structure of the TiO{sub 2} NPs injected into the discharge.

  15. Preliminary results on the influence of river discharges on biogeochemical processes in Godavari estuary and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.

    ) flushing of the estuary, (b) temporal variability in mixing processes, (c) discharge of nutrients, (d) evolution of biological productivity patterns, and (e) associated biogeochemical processes in mind, we have planned and carrying out systematic studies... the sampling. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity were obtained using a portable Sea Bird CTD system. Oxygen was estimated by Winkler's titration and nutrients (nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, phosphate and silicate) were analyzed spectrophotometrically...

  16. Factors influencing the development of antibiotic associated diarrhea in ED patients discharged home: risk of administering IV antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, John Patrick; Hayward, Gregory; Skinner, Stephen; Merritt, Chris; Hoaglin, David C; Hibberd, Patricia L; Lu, Shan; Boyer, Edward W

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are well-known outcomes from antibiotic administration. Because emergency department (ED) visits frequently result in antibiotic use, we evaluated the frequency of AAD/CDI in adults treated and discharged home with new prescriptions for antibiotics to identify risk factors for acquiring AAD/CDI. This prospective multicenter cohort study enrolled adult patients who received antibiotics in the ED and were discharged with a new prescription for antibiotics. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea was defined as 3 or more loose stools for 2 days or more within 30 days of starting the antibiotic. C difficile infection was defined by the detection of toxin A or B within this same period. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess predictors of developing AAD. We enrolled and followed 247 patients; 45 (18%) developed AAD, and 2 (1%) developed CDI. Patients who received intravenous (IV) antibiotics in the ED were more likely to develop AAD/CDI than patients who did not: 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.4-34.0) vs 12.3% (95% CI, 6.8-17.9). Intravenous antibiotics had adjusted odds ratio of 2.73 (95% CI, 1.38-5.43), and Hispanic ethnicity had adjusted odds ratio of 3.04 (95% CI, 1.40-6.58). Both patients with CDI had received IV doses of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Intravenous antibiotic therapy administered to ED patients before discharge was associated with higher rates of AAD and with 2 cases of CDI. Care should be taken when deciding to use broad-spectrum IV antibiotics to treat ED patients before discharge home. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Landscape Patterns and Their Influence on Bird Communities Resulting from Agricultural Policies Promoting Shelterbelts in Eastern Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A., II Pierce; D. Todd Farrand; William B. Kurtz; Jim Brandle; Ron Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Evolving agricultural policies and technologies have influenced land management practices within agroecosystems, impacting available habitats for many species of wildlife. Increasing available wildlife habitat and enhancing habitat quality have become an explicit objective of existing agricultural policy. Thus, there is renewed focus on utilizing shelterbelt...

  18. Influence of Remedial Education Policies: Experiences of Low-Income Native American Women at a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…

  19. From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle and Beyond: The Influence of Policy Actors in the Federal Higher Education Rulemaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natow, Rebecca S.

    2015-01-01

    The federal higher education rulemaking process develops policies that can profoundly affect college students, higher education institutions, and other actors in the higher education policy community. But little has been researched about the influence that different types of actors have on higher education rulemaking. By analyzing interviews with…

  20. The influence of economic interests on alcohol control policy: a case study from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavaikko, M; Osterberg, E

    2000-12-01

    Finland's participation in the European Union has meant that Finnish markets have been opened to international competition and that the traditional alcohol policy decision-making that revolved around Alko, the state alcohol monopoly company, has become impossible. The influence of private commercial interests increased in the 1990s but not in a straightforward manner. They had their biggest influence in the mid-1990s when the 1994 Alcohol Act was drafted and accepted. After that the influence of commercial interests has declined, and nowadays the alcohol question is again discussed in terms of public health and safety and drinking among young people. Integration did not lead to the expected deregulation of alcohol control but to new forms of regulation, where EU authorities such as the Commission and the EU Court also play an important role. Alcohol policy-making is now more transparent, and free trade and competition without interference are much more stressed than previously. These are the new frames of public intervention in the alcohol question, both in the trade of alcoholic beverages and in the taking care of individuals harmed by the use of alcohol.

  1. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICIES ON REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN-LĂSCUȚ COSTA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten years after Romania's accession to the European Union, it is still overshadowed by a series of challenges, which is why the European Commission periodically checks our country's fight against them, especially corruption. Romania has encountered multiple obstacles in accessing the structural funds as financial instruments of the European Union's cohesion policy. Through this paper we aim to identify the role played by Romania, more precisely its regions, in the absorption of funds provided by the European Union, referring to the regional competitiveness and the regional development policies. We also want to highlight the interdependence between regional competitiveness and regional development policies, the latter influencing competitiveness through support for innovation and, implicitly, economic growth. The paper is based on a comprehensive consultation of the specialized literature in the field, which includes not only scientific articles but also specialized books, reports of the European Union institutions, Eurostat databases from where statistics that can be compared later with the data in the official documents for a better understanding of the institutional and organizational framework of the regional development policies. The work is one that combines the theoretical and empirical spheres, going from general to particular, from macro level to micro level, to finally present the conclusions and boundaries of the research. The results show that, once Romania joined the EU, it benefited from the aid received by the European community in the form of non-reimbursable financial aid to support the development of its regions. The regional development policy in Romania seems not to have been understood and implemented rigorously, and this can be seen by the low absorption of European funds. We tend to believe that what actually took place in our country was just alignment with the requirements of the European Union as a requirement of the

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES ON SHAPING THE COMPANIES' MARKETING POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Dovleac

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, consumers do not just buy brands, but also buy company philosophies and policies. Worldwide studies have shown that customers tend to favour companies that are perceived to be socially and environmentally responsible. For that, companies need to face the challenge of evaluating their product and service portfolios, as well as the way these products and services are created, produced and marketed. The question is how to integrate marketing strategy and sustainable development principles for the company success. This paper aims to discover how hard young consumers are influenced in their buying decision by the companies’ preoccupations for sustainable development.

  4. Influence of dust particles on the neon spectral line intensities at the uniform positive column of dc discharge at the space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachev, A. D.; Zobnin, A. V.; Shonenkov, A. V.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Fortov, V. E.; Pustyl’nik, M. Y.; Fink, M. A.; Thoma, M. A.; Thomas, H. M.; Padalka, G. I.

    2018-01-01

    Influence of the elongated dust cloud on the intensities of different neon spectral lines in visible and near ir spectral ranges in the uniform positive column has been experimentally investigated using the Russian-European space apparatus “Plasma Kristall-4” (SA PK-4) on board of the International Space Station (ISS). The investigation was performed in the low pressure (0.5 mbar) direct current (dc, 1 mA) gas discharge in neon. Microgravity allowed us to perform experiments with a large dust cloud in the steady-state regime. To avoid the dust cloud drift in the dc electric field a switching dc polarity discharge mode has been applied. During the experiment a dust cloud of 9 mm in diameter in the discharge tube of 30 mm in diameter with the length of about 100 mm has been observed in the steady-state regime. In this regard, the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3p → 3s electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.4 times, while the intensities of neon spectral lines corresponding to 3d → 3p electronic transitions have increased by a factor of 1.6 times. The observed phenomenon is explained on the basis of the Schottky approach by a self-consistent rising dc electric field in the dusty plasma cloud resulting in an increase of the electron temperature.

  5. The influence of carrier gas on plasma properties and hydrogen peroxide production in a nanosecond pulsed plasma discharge generated in a water-film plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Wandell, Robert J.; Locke, Bruce R.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of carrier gas (argon and helium) on the properties of a nanosecond pulsed filamentary discharge propagating along the water surface in a water film plasma reactor, and the effects of plasma properties on the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are investigated. The plasma properties, including electron density, gas temperature, and plasma volume, and the hydrogen peroxide production rate and energy yield were measured and compared in both argon and helium discharges. The results show that helium plasma is more diffusive compared with the argon plasma, and it has lower electron density and gas temperature but larger volume. The production rates and energy yields of hydrogen peroxide are only slightly higher in the helium plasma although the electron density is much lower. A simple mathematical model with time-dependent fast radical and electron quenching in a small film surrounding the plasma core and with lumped reaction kinetics for H2O2 formation and degradation suggests that the hydroxyl radical (·OH) concentration is approximately two times higher in the argon discharge, but the larger volume of the helium leads to about two times more total ·OH in the helium with correspondingly higher energy yields. The experimental data and model imply that the H2O2 energy yield may increase at lower power (or specific energy density) for both carrier gases.

  6. Analyzing the sources and nature of influence: how the Avahan program used evidence to influence HIV/AIDS prevention policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan T; Bennett, Sara C; Bishnu, Rituparna; Singh, Suneeta

    2013-04-17

    Major investments by development partners in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often seek to develop a supportive policy environment. There is limited knowledge about the mechanisms that development partners use to influence government policy, or which mechanisms are effective. This study assessed the influence of Avahan, a large HIV/AIDS prevention program in India supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, on the development of HIV/AIDS policies in India, particularly the National AIDS Control Program III (NACP III). A retrospective assessment of the contributions of Avahan to the development of NACP III was conducted based upon document review and in-depth interviews with key informants, including Avahan staff and staff of implementing partners. This assessment was carried out within a framework centered on three domains: evidence considered by policy and decision-makers; the channel through which influence is exerted; and the target audience for influence. Respondents identified a number of respects in which Avahan influenced NACP III policy, notably, Avahan influenced perception of the feasibility of scaling up services (through a demonstration effect) and Avahan, along with others, helped ensure a strong focus on targeted interventions. Overall Avahan's influence was greatest during policy implementation. While the extent to which research evidence generated by Avahan influenced NACP III was limited, best practice evidence generated by Avahan, including the lessons learned from routine implementation and management, contributed significantly to NACP III. This was largely due to the credibility Avahan had established and strategic 'inside track' communications. While studies of knowledge translation typically focus primarily on scientific evidence, this study suggests that other forms of evidence, notably best practice evidence derived from program experience, and disseminated through personal communication, were particularly influential. The

  7. Hip Fracture-Related Pain Strongly Influences Functional Performance of Patients With an Intertrochanteric Fracture Upon Discharge From the Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange

    2013-01-01

    .7 seconds to perform the TUG. No significant differences were observed in baseline characteristics or pain medication given for patients with a cervical versus an intertrochanteric fracture (P ≥ .22), but patients with an intertrochanteric fracture presented more often with moderate to severe pain during...... testing (P New Mobility Score, fracture type, day of TUG performance, and pain intensity...... compromises the functional performance of patients with an intertrochanteric hip fracture upon discharge from hospital. Physical therapists should be involved in new and optimized fracture-type stratified pain management strategies....

  8. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  9. Influence of Monetary Policy Announcements on Ukraine’s Stock Market Return and Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Roman A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the influence of decisions on the monetary policy on return and volatility of the Ukrainian stock market (on the basis of the representative stock index PFTS with consideration to the phase of the financial cycle. Daily opening prices for the period of 2000-2015 are used as the initial data, on the basis of which the return of the stock index in the trading day format is calculated. Using the news about the monetary policy, the «expected» component and the component of «unexpectedness» of the announcement information context are distinguished. The analysis of the reaction of the Ukrainian stock market to the macroeconomic news about the monetary policy of the Federal Reserve System and the European Central Bank with regard to the phases of upturns and downturns of the financial cycle has been carried out. The study allows to draw conclusions about the impact of announcements about the dealing rate on the return and volatility of the domestic stock market: first, in the Ukrainian stock market the return reacts much more strongly to the announcements of the Federal Reserve System than those of the European Central Bank; second, the impact of decisions of the Federal Reserve System, being in line with the logic of risk management, is more pronounced during the downturn phase of the financial cycle.

  10. Contextual influence on evaluation capacity building in a rapidly changing environment under new governmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Karen Hui-Jung

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation capacity building (ECB) is a context-dependent process. Contextual factors affecting ECB implementation have been explored theoretically and practically, but their influence within a changing environment has seldom been discussed. This study examined essential context-sensitive parameters, particularly those involved in implementing new governmental policies regarding higher education. Taiwan was used as a case study for exploring the effect of contextual change on ECB attributes from the perspectives of training receivers and providers. Surveys and interviews were used for data collection and importance-performance analysis was applied for data analysis. Four prominent features were identified. First, the ECB attributes perceived as important by receivers were performed adequately, whereas those perceived as less important were performed less well. Second, under new policies, training provider designed training covering a wide range of ECB, whereas receivers focused on those can be directly applied in evaluation process. Third, in a small education system such as Taiwan's, the complexity of peer review is high and ethical issues become important. Fourth, because the evaluation structure has been changed from single- to dual-track, receivers expect more training for institution staff, whereas providers insist on hierarchical training. Aligning ECB supply and needs is paramount for adaptation to new policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do students' perceptions of school smoking policies influence where students smoke?: Canada's Youth Smoking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Lovato, Chris Y; Card, Antony; Manske, Steve R

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore students' perceptions of school policy characteristics that influence the location of smoking while at school. Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth in grades 7-12 as part of the 2006-2007 Youth Smoking Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression to examine how students' perceptions of school policies predicted smoking behavior on and off school grounds in 11,881 students who had ever smoked. Separate analyses were conducted for grades 7-9 and 10-12. In both grades 7-9 and 10-12, perceiving clear rules about smoking decreased the likelihood that a student would smoke on school grounds, while perceiving that a high percentage of peers smoke, that there are school rules about smoking, that students obey the rules, and that students can be fined for smoking increased the likelihood that a student would smoke off school grounds. Clearly perceived rules about smoking encourage students not to smoke on school grounds; however, perceptions of rules, along with strong enforcement, may displace behavior off of school grounds. Non-smoking policies should be part of a comprehensive approach, that supports cessation.

  12. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAT GRANDELLI, P.E.; GREG ROCHELEAU; JOHN HAMRICK, Ph.D.; MATT CHURCH, Ph.D.; BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D.

    2012-09-29

    This paper describes the modeling work by Makai Ocean Engineering, Inc. to simulate the biochemical effects of of the nutrient-enhanced seawater plumes that are discharged by one or several 100 megawatt OTEC plants. The modeling is needed to properly design OTEC plants that can operate sustainably with acceptably low biological impact. In order to quantify the effect of discharge configuration and phytoplankton response, Makai Ocean Engineering implemented a biological and physical model for the waters surrounding O`ahu, Hawai`i, using the EPA-approved Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC). Each EFDC grid cell was approximately 1 square kilometer by 20 meters deep, and used a time step of three hours. The biological model was set up to simulate the biochemical response for three classes of organisms: Picoplankton (< 2 um) such as prochlorococccus, nanoplankton (2-20 um), and microplankton (> 20 um) e.g., diatoms. The dynamic biological phytoplankton model was calibrated using chemical and biological data collected for the Hawaii Ocean Time Series (HOTS) project. Peer review of the biological modeling was performed. The physical oceanography model uses boundary conditions from a surrounding Hawai'i Regional Ocean Model, (ROM) operated by the University of Hawai`i and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration. The ROM provided tides, basin scale circulation, mesoscale variability, and atmospheric forcing into the edges of the EFDC computational domain. This model is the most accurate and sophisticated Hawai'ian Regional Ocean Model presently available, assimilating real-time oceanographic observations, as well as model calibration based upon temperature, current and salinity data collected during 2010 near the simulated OTEC site. The ROM program manager peer-reviewed Makai's implementation of the ROM output into our EFDC model. The supporting oceanographic data was collected for a Naval Facilities Engineering Command / Makai project

  13. Influence of second kind collisions on the electron distribution function in the positive column of low pressure nitrogen discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlena, K.; Ruzicka, T.

    1979-01-01

    A numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for the electron gas in the positive column of a DC discharge in nitrogen is presented. The Boltzmann equation was solved with the inclusion of the second-kind (superelastic) collisions proceeding from the first six excited vibrational levels of molecular nitrogen. The vibrational level population is supposed to follow the Boltzmann distribution for the given vibrational temperature Tsub(v), with a possible deviation of the ground level, which can be overpopulated in the given ratio γ. Apart from the electron distribution functions, which were gained for various values of E/p 0 , Tsub(v) and γ, the values of some production frequencies and kinetic coefficients are presented in form of tables and plots. It is found that the electron distribution (and also the corresponding production rates) only above a certain energy limit depends on Tsub(v) and γ through the normalization constant. (author)

  14. Submarine groundwater discharge as an important nutrient source influencing nutrient structure in coastal water of Daya Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuejing; Li, Hailong; Zheng, Chunmiao; Yang, Jinzhong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Qi, Zhanhui; Xiao, Kai; Zhang, Xiaolang

    2018-03-01

    As an important nutrient source for coastal waters, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has long been largely ignored in Daya Bay, China. In this study, we estimate the fluxes of SGD and associated nutrients into this region using a 224Ra mass balance model and assess the contribution/importance of nutrients by SGD, benthic sediments, local rivers, and atmospheric deposition. The results of 224Ra mass balance show that the estimated SGD ranges from (2.76 ± 1.43) × 106 m3/d to (1.03 ± 0.53) × 107 m3/d with an average of (6.32 ± 2.42) × 106 m3/d, about 16 times the total discharge rate of local rivers. The nutrient loading from SGD is estimated to be (1.05-1.99) × 105 mol/d for NO3-N, (4.04-12.16) × 103 mol/d for DIP, and (3.54-11.35) × 105 mol/d for Si. Among these considered nutrient sources, we find that SGD is the primary source for Si and NO3-N, contributing 68% and 42% of all considered sources, respectively. The atmospheric NO3-N flux is comparable to that from SGD. The local rivers are the most important source for DIP, contributing 75% of all considered sources. SGD with high N:P ratio (NO3-N/DIP) of 37.0 delivers not only a large quantity of nutrients, but also changes nutrient structure in coastal water. Based on a DIP budget, primary productivity is evaluated to be 54-73 mg C/m2 d, in which SGD accounts for approximately 30% of total production. This study indicates that SGD is a key source of nutrients to coastal waters and may cause an obvious change of primary production and nutrient structure in Daya Bay.

  15. Influence of discharge voltage on the sensitivity of the resultant sputtered NiO thin films toward hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalaf, Mohammed K. [Center of Applied Physics, Directorate of Materials Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Mutlak, Rajaa H. [Dept. of Physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad (Iraq); Khudiar, Ausama I., E-mail: ausamaikhudiar@yahoo.com [Center of Applied Physics, Directorate of Materials Research, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Hial, Qahtan G. [Dept. of Physics, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2017-06-01

    Nickel oxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates as the main gas sensor for H{sub 2} by the DC sputtering technique at various discharge voltages within the range of 1.8–2.5 kV. Their structural, optical and gas sensing properties were investigated by XRD, AFM, SEM, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and home-made gas sensing measurement units. A diffraction peak in the direction of NiO (200) was observed for the sputtered films, thereby indicating that these films were polycrystalline in nature. The optical band gap of the films decreased from 3.8 to 3.5 eV when the thickness of the films was increased from 83.5 to 164.4 nm in relation to an increase in the sputtering discharge voltage from 1.8 to 2.5 kV, respectively. The gas sensitivity performance of the NiO films that were formed was studied and the electrical responses of the NiO-based sensors toward different H{sub 2} concentrations were also considered. The sensitivity of the gas sensor increased with the working temperature and H{sub 2} gas concentration. The thickness of the NiO thin films was also an important parameter in determining the properties of the NiO films as H{sub 2} sensors. It was shown in this study that NiO films have the capability to detect H{sub 2} concentrations below 3% in wet air, a feature that allows this material to be used directly for the monitoring of the environment.

  16. Ileostomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  17. Evaluation of a pulsed glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometer as a detector for gas chromatography and the influence of the glow discharge source parameters on the information volume in chemical speciation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Daniel; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc; Günther, Detlef

    2006-09-01

    The figures of merit of a pulsed glow discharge time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GD-TOFMS) as a detector for gas chromatography (GC) analysis were evaluated. The mass resolution for the GD-TOFMS was determined on FWHM in the high mass range (208Pb+) as high as 5,500. Precision of 400 subsequent analyses was calculated on 63Cu+ to be better than 1% RSD with no significant drift over the time of the analysis. Isotope precision based on the 63Cu+/65Cu+ ratio over 400 analyses was 1.5% RSD. The limits of detection for gaseous analytes (toluene in methanol as solvent) were determined to be as low as several hundred ppb or several hundred pg absolute without using any pre-concentration technique. Furthermore, the different GD source parameters like capillary distance, cathode-anode spacing, and GD source pressure with regards to the accessible elemental, structural, and molecular information were evaluated. It was demonstrated that each of these parameters has severe influence on the ratio of elemental, structural, and parent molecular information in chemical speciation analysis.

  18. The influence of formal and informal policies and practices on health care innovation implementation: A mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Lisa D; Birken, Sarah A; Hanson, Laura C; Trogdon, Justin G; Clary, Alecia S; Weinberger, Morris; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Weiner, Bryan J

    2018-03-12

    The implementation science literature has contributed important insights regarding the influence of formal policies and practices on health care innovation implementation, whereas informal implementation policies and practices have garnered little attention. The broader literature suggests that informal implementation policies and practices could also influence innovation use. We used the Organizational Theory of Innovation Implementation to further understand the role of formal and informal implementation policies and practices as determinants of implementation effectiveness. We examined their role within the context of initiatives to increase palliative care consultation in inpatient oncology. We used a case study design in two organizational settings within one academic medical center: medical and gynecologic oncology. We completed semistructured interviews with medical (n = 12) and gynecologic (n = 10) oncology clinicians using questions based on organizational theory. Quantitative data assessed implementation effectiveness, defined as aggregated palliative care consult rates within oncology services from 2010 to 2016. Four palliative care clinicians were interviewed to gain additional implementation context insights. Medical oncology employed multiple formal policies and practices including training and clinician prompting to support palliative care consultation and a top-down approach, yet most clinicians were unaware of the policies and practices, contributing to a weak implementation climate. In contrast, gynecologic oncology employed one formal policy (written guideline of criteria for initiating a consult) but also relied on informal policies and practices, such as spontaneous feedback and communication; they adopted a bottom-up approach, contributing to broader clinician awareness and strong implementation climate. Both services exhibited variable, increasing consult rates over time. Informal policies and practices may compensate or substitute for formal

  19. INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TAP WATER UNDER INFLUENCE OF POWERFUL UNDERWATER SPARK DISCHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vinnikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this investigation is to study the changes in the redox potential and pH-value of the tap water as a function of underwater spark discharges, storage device capacitance and the charging voltage. Methodology. To define the electric parameters of discharge circuit we used the Rogowski loop and the compensated capacitance-ohm potential divider. To determine water properties before and after the treatment we used the following devices: the water analyzer Anion -7051 with the limit of absolute error of the EMF measurement ± 2 mV, the BANTE 902 device with the absolute error of ± 0.002 рН. Results. We managed to establish the time of the origination of changes in the properties of treated water. A change in the positive redox potential to a negative one occurred already after the third pulse at a total energy input of ≥ 1 kJ. The pH value increased in the range of 0.2 – 0.45 рН units. We obtained the relationship of a change in the redox potential as a function of total energy of the pulse train that actually exhibits the linear relation to the mass of erosion products. We established that the electrodes made of stainless steel and the electrodes made of graphite provide similar changes in water properties. An increase in pH is indicative of the progress of reactions that result in the formation of ОН‾. Originality. The obtained experimental data prove a rapid and reliable change in the redox potential from positive to negative changes in the redox potential exponent can persist during ten days and even longer. The erosion products of electrodes can be removed from the treated water using the method of magnetic separation. Practical value. The «HYDRA» plant can be used as the electrochemical ideal mixing reactor of a discrete action with the removal of erosion products of the electrode using the method of magnetic separation.

  20. Discharge of perfluorinated compounds from rivers and their influence on the coastal seas of Hyogo prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemine, Shusuke; Matsumura, Chisato; Yamamoto, Katsuya; Suzuki, Motoharu; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Nakano, Takeshi; Kondo, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) including perfluorinated carboxylates (C4-C12) and perfluorinated alkyl sulfonates (C4, C6, and C8) in river and seawater samples to determine contamination levels in the aquatic environment of Hyogo prefecture, Japan. High levels of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA; 2300-16,000 ng/L) were detected in the Samondogawa River at Tatsumi Bridge downstream of a PFC production facility; this location also had the highest mass flow rate of PFCs (3900-29,000 kg/y). Widespread contamination of coastal waters was confirmed with PFHxA as the dominant compound. Perfluorooctanoic acid was also prevalent in coastal waters. The concentration of PFHxA in coastal seawater and the distance from the mouth of the Samondogawa River were inversely related. This discharge of high concentrations of PFHxA from the Samondogawa River may have affected concentrations of PFCs in Osaka Bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of post discharge nutrition on body composition at 6 years of age among children born very preterm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Zachariassen, Gitte; Agertoft, Lone

    if type of nutrition in early life effects the body composition in later life among very preterm born children Method In 2004-08 a birth cohort of very preterm born infants with a gestational age ≤32+0 weeks. At time of hospital discharge, the infants were randomised into 3 different feeding groups...... month corrected age. At 6 years, a dexa scan was performed to evaluate body composition. Results A total number of 277 infants will be invited to follow up at 6 years of age. So far 79 children have had a dexa scan performed (HM 26, HMF: 22 and PF: 31). Fat mass (FM) and muscle mass (MM) was measured.......841 g), but no significant difference between the groups. Conclusion Human milk seems to result in a lower fat mass and higher muscle mass among very preterm born infants. The results are preliminary due to the small number of children. The remaining children in this cohort will be invited to similar...

  2. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry O'Brien

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty. This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. RESULTS: After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58 was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46, which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns. CONCLUSIONS: Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  3. Regional media coverage influences the public's negative attitudes to policy implementation success in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, Mio; Tiainen, Anne; Hanning, Marianne

    2015-12-01

    One central aspect of health literacy is knowledge of patients' rights. Being an important source of information about health and health care, the media may influence health literacy and act as a policy implementer. To investigate whether regional news media coverage in Sweden is linked to (i) the public's awareness and knowledge of a patient's rights policy, the waiting-time guarantee and (ii) the public's attitudes to how the guarantee's time limits are met, that is, implementation success. Three types of data are used. First, a national telephone survey of the public's awareness, knowledge and attitudes; second, media coverage information from digital media monitoring; and third, official waiting-time statistics. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses are performed with the 21 Swedish county councils/regions as a base. In the county councils/regions, non-awareness ranged from 1 to 15% and knowledge from 47 to 67%. There are relatively large differences between population groups. The amount of regional media coverage shows no significant correlation to the level of awareness and knowledge. There is, however, a significant correlation to both positive and negative attitudes; the latter remains after controlling for actual waiting times. At the national level, the media function as a policy implementer, being the primary source of information. At the regional level, the media are part of the political communication, reporting more extensively in county councils/regions where the population holds negative views towards the achievement in implementing the guarantee. We conclude that Swedish authorities should develop its communication strategies to bridge health literacy inequalities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867

  5. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  6. IMPACTS, PATTERNS, INFLUENCING FACTORS AND POLICIES OF FUELWOOD EXTRACTION IN WAY KAMBAS NATIONAL PARK, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Rakatama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled fuelwood extraction from conservation forest of Way Kambas National Park (WKNP could threaten the existing forest. This paper studies the way to tackle the forest degradation in WKNP, with less negative impacts to the local people. Study was conducted by analysing existing data and maps of WKNP in terms of forest degradation, forest inventories, current policies, survey on how fuelwood is extracted, observation on fuelwood gatherers, fuelwood demand, and identification of further policy options. Results show that the most significant factors influencing the fuelwood extraction activity in WKNP are land ownership, followed by the distance to forest area, income level, the number of household members and age of household head. In the field, the fuelwood utilization is allowed by WKNP Authority, although it is formally forbidden.It was stated that fuelwood extraction in the area should be less than 2.89 ton/ha/year to maintain its sustainability, based on the mean WNKP forest tree annual increment. The fact shows that fuelwood extraction in WKNP reduces of forest biomass stock (1.06 tons/ha/year and decreases species diversity index (from 3.05 to 2.45, species evenness index (from 1.06 to 0.91 and old-young tree ratio (from 1.29 to 1. Ecosystem quality reduction is mainly caused by destructive techniques in extracting fuelwood such as slashing, scratching cambium, and cutting trees. Therefore, recommended policy includes legalizing fuelwood extraction with restrictions, providing alternative fuelwood and other biomass energy resources outside WKNP, conducting preventive (establishing checkpoints and increasing patrols and pre-emptive (educating and campaigning efforts, collaborating with other stakeholders, and empowering local economy.

  7. Influence of UK energy policy on the deployment of anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zglobisz, Natalia; Castillo-Castillo, Arturo; Grimes, Sue; Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to contribute to greenhouse gas emissions reductions, improve energy security, increase generation of decentralised renewable electrical and thermal energy, produce low-impact fertiliser and enhance adherence to the principles of proximity as well as self-sufficiency in waste treatment, in energy generation and in resource use. Financial viability is scrutinised investigating optimal logistic pre-conditions such as catchment area or plant size. Given that a breakthrough in deployment does not only depend on technical aspects, the relative importance and magnitude of the necessary incentives is discussed. The influence of policy instruments is studied by devising different incentive scenarios for the United Kingdom. Substantial and predictable rewards for renewable electricity and heat are essential to harness the full potential of AD in addition to the current emphasis on landfill tax. A possible configuration of energy supply companies as a crucial vehicle to bring anaerobic digestion to market is highlighted.

  8. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  9. Decision Network for Blue Green Solutions to Influence Policy Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Theodoropoulos, G.; El Hattab, M. H.; Brown, K.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) deliver ecosystems services that can potentially yield multiple benefits to the urban environment. These benefits can be achieved through optimising SUDS' integration with the local environment and water resources, creating so-called Blue Green Solutions (BGS). The BGS paradigm, however, presents several challenges, in particular quantifying the benefits and creating the scientific evidence-base that can persuade high-level decision-makers and stakeholders to implement BGS at large scale. This work presents the development of the easily implemented and tailored-made approach that allows a robust assessment of the BGS co-benefits, and can influence the types of information that are included in policy impact assessments. The Analytic Network Process approach is used to synthesise the available evidence on the co-benefits of the BGS. The approach enables mapping the interactions between individual BGS selection criteria, and creates a platform to assess the synergetic benefits that arise from components interactions. By working with Government departments and other public and private sector stakeholders, this work has produced a simple decision criteria-based network that will enable the co-benefits and trade-offs of BGS to be quantified and integrated into UK policy appraisals.

  10. Economics case study: Harvard Business School pedagogy techniques: From teaching entrepreneurship to influencing business policy through research

    OpenAIRE

    MAMOON, Dawood

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The case study explains the need for social entrepreneurship while remaining in the premise of mainstream economics. A detailed discussion is carried out on the vulnerabilities of economic policy making that has led to some of the new initiatives at Harvard Business School to promote such pedagogy practices at Business Schools that may eventually influence national and international policy making to the benefit of the society and not only the economies of developed and developing co...

  11. Influence of Policy Making in the Profitability of Forage Production Irrigated with Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino Palacios-Diaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of water at low prices and the current scheme for specific supply arrangements (SSA/REA, both determined at the political level, explain that the goal of being self-sufficient in terms of forage consumption is currently unattainable in the Canaries. The “PFORCA” Plan aims to counteract this reality and increase their level of self-sufficiency. The financial aid relating to the REA reduces the amount payable for the imported fodder (annual 83,000 t versus local product, which influences the decision making by farmers. According to calculations, performed by reusing the water instead of discharging, Maralfalfa production could be competitive against imports, being financially viable with water prices in a range of 0.20–0.30 €/m3 (prices perfectly acceptable for reclaimed water with low levels of treatment, but fulfilling requirements reuse of Spanish law, RD 1620/2007. The economic contribution of forage crops could represent the creation of 640 new jobs, the enhancement of land currently abandoned, plus an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP of the archipelago on more than 23 million € (M€, product of the substitution of imports by local production. Also, it would help to save the REA’s aid (6 M€.

  12. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value).

  13. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value)

  14. Factors that influence human resources for health policy formulation: a multiple case study in Brazil and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Paula Cavalcante de; Poz, Mario Roberto Dal; Craveiro, Isabel; Gabriel, Mariana; Dussault, Gilles

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to analyze whether the process by which policies for human resources for health that aim to improve the geographic distribution of physicians have been informed by scientific evidence in Brazil and Portugal. This was a multiple case study on a decision-making process for human resources for health in Brazil and Portugal. The respective case studies were based on Brazil's More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos - PMM) and Portugal's strategy of hiring foreign physicians through bilateral agreements, to work in the country's National Health Service (SNS). We interviewed 27 key actors in the policy-making process on the following topics: factors that influenced the policy decisions, actors that were expected to win or lose from the policy, and the scientific evidence and available data used in the policy-making, among others. The most evident factors appearing in the interviews as having influenced the PMM were: institutions; external factors (Presidential elections); group interests (e.g. physicians' professional associations), governments (Brazil and Cuba), international organizations, and civil society; and ideas (scientific evidence). The most frequently cited factors in Portugal were: institutions and interests of government (from Portugal and the countries involved in the bilateral agreements), civil society, and groups (physicians' professional associations). Contrary to the case study in Brazil, where the evidence was reported to having played an important role in the policy decisions, in Portugal, scientific evidence was not identified as contributing to the specific policy process.

  15. The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole ...

  16. Incidence of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios in a coastal lagoon and seawater influenced by lake discharges along an annual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, E; Arnau, A; Amaro, C

    1985-08-01

    Most probable numbers of Vibrio cholerae and related vibrios were determined in Albufera Lake, Valencia, Spain, and in coastal waters under the influence of the lake discharges over the course of an annual cycle. The influence of temperature, kind of water, and characteristics of the different sampling sites on the numbers of vibrios recovered was evaluated. Maximum recovery of vibrios reached 10(3)/ml in both types of waters analyzed. V. cholerae numbers reached 10(3)/ml in the lake and 10(2) in one of the coastal sites. Frequently during the warm season, all vibrios isolated were identified as V. cholerae. Occasionally, no V. cholerae was recovered. The recovery of vibrios was significantly influenced by the temperature of the water and the type of water analyzed. Most of the V. cholerae isolates were included in Heiberg groups I and II, and nearly 50% of the strains used chitin as sole carbon source. Indole was not produced by 100% of the strains. All strains tested were non-O1 serovars.

  17. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  18. Studies on the replacement policies in dairy cattle II.Optimum policy and influence of changes in production and prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A dynamic programming model was developed to determine the optimum replacement policy of dairy cows. In the model cows were described in terms of lactation number, stage of lactation and the level of milk production during the previous and present lactations. The objective in determining the optimum

  19. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-05-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions.

  20. Influence of Land Use, Discharge and Impervious Surfaces on the Geochemistry of the Anacostia River, Washington DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; De Filippis, N.

    2016-12-01

    Challenges facing urban rivers include water stormwater runoff and changing water chemistry, not only from air and water pollution, but also from altered geology with the development of "urban karst" (concrete). The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. has 75% of its watershed classified as urban or impervious, and is among the 10 most contaminated rivers in the USA. In addition to its relatively well-documented organic contamination problems, we hypothesize that concrete could be substantially altering its geochemistry. Here we report findings from 6 locations along the Anacostia River and its tributaries that indicate both seasonally elevated Na and Cl (becoming brackish, 2000-3000 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids, in a suburban creek), and elevated cations in low flow suburban tributaries. Concentrations of all major cations (Ca, Mg, K, Na) strongly, and positively, covaried (factor scores (FC) >0.88). However Ca/Sr ratios negatively covaried with major cations (FC -0.64). This suggests the weathering of low Sr minerals, such as those in concrete. In urbanized portions of the river, Ca/Sr was >200, which is a concrete weathering indicator in areas with silica mineral bedrock (Anacostia bedrock consists of Precambrian phyllits, sericite, chlorite, quartzite, slate and schist). Mean ± SE Sr was 0.13 ± 0.02 mg/L in the most urban area, but 0.37 ± 0.03 mg/L in the most suburban. This supports the hypothesis that the source of elevated cations in the urban areas is concrete weathering, not bedrock mineral weathering. Inorganic N was not correlated strongly with cations. Mean NO3- was highest at the most suburban site (1.8 ± 0.2 mg/L), but rose above 3 mg/L in some samples at all sites. Elevated NO3- did not appear to vary with season or discharge rate at time of sampling. NH4+ was generally lower than 1 mg/L but spiked to 3.4 mg/L at the most urban site. These data follow patterns expected for "urban stream syndrome". Suburban areas, with their relatively small streams

  1. Influence of the electrode wear on the EUV generation of a discharge based extreme ultraviolet light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieker, Jochen; Bergmann, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    Reliability and a long maintenance interval are major requirements for the industrial use of an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. In this paper we present results on the influence of the electrode erosion on the EUV generation and its lifetime limiting characteristics. The geometry of the electrodes and their influence on the gas pressure distribution within the electrode system have been found to be the key variables to characterize the regime of operation. This better understanding allows for an optimization of device parameters (e.g. gas flow or pulse energy) to counteract the erosion process, in order to increase the maintenance interval and EUV output. The EUV source under investigation is based on a hollow cathode triggered pinch plasma. A new trigger concept is introduced that enables free adjustment of the gas pressure during operation, thus enabling the operation with a high conversion efficiency of up to  >0.7 %/2πsr at 13.5 nm and 2% bandwidth. The efficiency for the peak brilliance is up to ~2.6 W kW-1 mm-2sr-1 while the maximum electrical input power of the system is 15 kW.

  2. Esophagectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000241.htm Esophagectomy - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had ... up or down stairs, or ride in a car. Be sure to rest after being active. If it hurts when ... In the bathroom , install safety bars to help you get in and out ...

  3. Mastectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... had breast reconstruction surgery with implants or natural tissue . What to Expect at Home Full recovery may take ... lump removal Breast reconstruction - implants Breast reconstruction - natural ... breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask your doctor Wet-to-dry dressing ...

  4. Influence of health-insurance access and hospital retention policies on childhood cancer treatment in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; van de Ven, P M; Olbara, G; Kemps, L J P A; Musimbi, J; Strother, R M; Aluoch, L M; Skiles, J; Buziba, N G; Sitaresmi, M N; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-05-01

    Kenyan national policies for public hospitals dictate that patients are retained on hospital wards until their hospital bills are paid, but this payment process differs for patients with or without access to National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) at diagnosis. Whether these differences impact treatment outcomes has not been described. Our study explores whether childhood cancer treatment outcomes in Kenya are influenced by health-insurance status and hospital retention policies. This study combined retrospective review of medical records with an illustrative case report. We identified children diagnosed with malignancies at a large Kenyan academic hospital between 2007 and 2009, their treatment outcomes, and health-insurance status at diagnosis. Between 2007 and 2009, 222 children were diagnosed with malignancies. Among 180 patients with documented treatment outcome, 54% abandoned treatment, 22% had treatment-related death, 4% progressive/relapsed disease, and 19% event-free survival. Health-insurance status at diagnosis was recorded in 148 children: 23% had NHIF and 77% had no NHIF. For children whose families had NHIF compared with those who did not, the relative risk for treatment abandonment relative to event-free survival was significantly smaller (relative-risk ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.81, P = 0.016). The case report illustrates difficulties that Kenyan families might face when their child is diagnosed with cancer, has no NHIF, and is retained in hospital. Children with NHIF at diagnosis had significantly lower chance of abandoning treatment and higher chance of survival. Childhood cancer treatment outcomes could be improved by interventions that prevent treatment abandonment and improve access to NHIF. Hospital retention of patients over unpaid medical bills must stop. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The influence of public procurement policies on the implementation of procurement best practices in South African universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Dlamini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between public procurement policies and procurement best practices (PBPs in higher education institutions is inevitable. Higher education institutions (HEIs in South Africa play a crucial role in contributing to the economic, social and environmental development of the country. Hence the implementation of PBPs has a key role in creating a competitive advantage for higher education. The purpose of this article is to determine the influence of public procurement policies on the implementation of PBPs in the public HEIs in South Africa. The article employs a theoretical review of related literature on public procurement and PBPs. The article articulates that public procurement policies influence the implementation of PBPs in public HEIs in South Africa.

  6. No College Student Left Behind: The Influence of Financial Aspects of a State's Higher Education Policy on College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Marvin A.

    2006-01-01

    Using national data from various sources, this study investigates the influence of financial aspects of state higher education policy on college completion. It found that college completion is positively associated with total state grants as a percentage of appropriations of state tax funds for operating expenses of higher education and state…

  7. Factors Influencing ELT Policies in Schools in England with Particular Reference to Children from Pakistan, India and Bangla Desh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael

    1978-01-01

    English language teaching policies in England, and particularly those affecting children from Pakistan, India, and Bangla Desh, are influenced by the yearly immigration rate, the distribution pattern, reasons why immigrants come to England, and the host communities' conception of immigrants' reasons for coming. (SW)

  8. The Influence of Test-Based Accountability Policies on Early Elementary Teachers: School Climate, Environmental Stress, and Teacher Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Elina; Segool, Natasha; Pendergast, Laura; von der Embse, Nathaniel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the potential influence of test-based accountability policies on school environment and teacher stress among early elementary teachers. Structural equation modeling of data from 541 kindergarten through second grade teachers across three states found that use of student performance on high-stakes tests to evaluate teachers…

  9. Government Should Subsidize, Not Tax, Marriage: Social Policies Have Influenced the Rate of Growth in Single-Parent Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Based upon reflections from the Moynihan report of 1965, this author notes that the root causes of the growth in single-parent families have yet to be well identified, making it difficult to figure out where to go next. However, from 1965 onward, social policies have influenced the rate of growth in single-parent families. What is needed is a…

  10. The Influence Of Policy Implementation From The Change Of Institutional Status Toward Quality Of Patient Service In Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Kusnadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fenomenon and comunity problem in goverment hospital management not aware to wont and need public. Silent safety and consumen satisfaction is fenomenon lack quallity care. Goal this research goal for analysis about influence of policy implementation of hospital change institution status to the quality of patien service in Hospital. Kind of reserch is the quantity desain on approach the eksplanatory survey research analysis regresi linier multipel with analysis method validitas product moment pearson exam and reliability exam is alpha cronbach technique to hypotesis exam is path analysis and statistic exam t. Datum transformation is Skala Likert with measurement the method succesive interval. The population one thausand seventh two person with sample technique stratified random sampling the instrument research is quesioner and interview patien on caunter imforman. The result of assuming research that it is anticipated that implementation of change policy of institution status of hospital X there is significant influence to quality of service of patient Y is 66.31 and the other factor e is 33.69. In the implementation factor is significant to positif influence to quality service is communication X1 is 049 human resources X2 is 025 disposition X3 is 032 and structure birocratic X4 is 033. The conculsion from four factor independen variable X is the implementation of policy to quality service patient Y to influence and can receive in knowledge. To concept the development in implementation of policy need culture job factor because every product policy to contac direct with the community as to basic public policy.

  11. Frames of Reference: A Metaphor for Analyzing and Interpreting Attitudes of Environmental Policy Makers and Policy Influencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffield

    1998-07-01

    / The concept of frame of reference offers a potentially useful analytical metaphor in environmental management. This is illustrated by a case study in which attitudes of individuals involved in the management of trees in the New Zealand high country are classified into seven distinctive frames of reference. Some practical and theoretical implications of the use of the frame metaphor are explored, including its potential contribution to the emerg- ing field of communicative planning. KEY WORDS: Frames of reference; Environmental policy analysis; Metaphor; New Zealand high country

  12. Public policies influencing innovation in the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Tait, J.

    2002-01-01

    The development and marketing of new products by the agrochemical, biotechnology and seed industries is strongly regulated by government policies. Relevant policies include those on science, technology and innovation, the environment and public health, and farm support. This survey of policies

  13. Support for Climate Change Policy: Social Psychological and Social Structural Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Thomas; Dan, Amy; Shwom, Rachael

    2007-01-01

    We investigated preferences for climate change mitigation policies and factors contributing to higher levels of policy support. The sample was comprised of 316 Michigan and Virginia residents, all of whom completed mail surveys. Of the eight policies proposed to reduce the burning of fossil fuels, respondents overwhelmingly indicated they would…

  14. What Is the Influence of a Compulsory Attendance Policy on Absenteeism and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jason L.; Lee-Partridge, Joo Eng; Jarmoszko, A. Tomasz; Petkova, Olga; D'Onofrio, Marianne J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors utilized a quasiexperimental design across sections of managerial communication and management information systems classes (N = 212) to test the impact of compulsory attendance policies on student absenteeism and performance. Students in the compulsory attendance policy condition received an attendance policy that punished excessive…

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF ACCOUNTING SYSTEM AND FISCAL POLICY ON REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Bogdan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional development is a concept that aims at stimulating and diversifying economic activities, stimulating private sector investment and it contributes to reducing unemployment and improving living standards. To achieve these goals accounting and tax policies are necessary to allow private operators to realize taxable income, to create jobs for people and to pay taxes and contributions due to the State budget. The State must reinvest a part of the resources collected to the community in order to improve infrastructure, education and health, thus contributing to regional development. Changes in tax law and accounting adopted in Romania during 2009-2014 are regarded as tax breaks for companies created to ensure economic growth, dynamic and sustainable through efficient use of regional and local potential. In this paper we analyze the influence of the accounting and fiscal system on the regional development given that these measures do not always achieve their objectives established companies having benefit from the application of various tax measures. The paper will present the main changes of the tax and accounting systems and their impact on the regional development in Romania and the consequences resulting in implementing these measures.

  16. An analysis of Renewable Portfolio Standard policy formulation and its influence on state level energy prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollester, Peter Colin

    understand the relationship between RPS and energy markets. This study utilizes state level panel data from 2000 to 2011 to examine this relationship. The model controls for several factors including the existence of state level RPS, the amount of electricity generation from renewable and non-renewable sources, fuel price mix, and other macroeconomic and demographic indicators. The study compares and contrasts several regressions to illuminate important relationships between RPS design and residential energy prices. The findings of this study have the potential to have far reaching implications for the future of RPS design, and RPS policy. This paper finds that RPS and more specifically the way a RPS is formulated is related to increased energy prices. Retail energy prices are particularly strongly related to variables having to do with compliance with a specific RPS, while Industrial energy prices are more strongly related to the magnitude of RPS goals. Both of these findings are important and they accentuate the fact that different energy markets are influenced by different drivers.

  17. Are leftists more emotion-driven than rightists? The interactive influence of ideology and emotions on support for policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal; Halperin, Eran

    2014-12-01

    Although emotions and ideology are important factors guiding policy support in conflict, their interactive influence remains unclear. Based on prior findings that ideological leftists' beliefs are more susceptible to change than rightists' beliefs, we tested a somewhat counterintuitive extension that leftists would be more susceptible to influence by their emotional reactions than rightists. In three laboratory studies, inducing positive and negative emotions affected Jewish-Israeli leftists', but not rightists', support for conciliatory policies toward an adversarial (Studies 1 and 3) and a non-adversarial (Study 2) outgroup. Three additional field studies showed that positive and negative emotions were related to leftists', but not rightists', policy support in positive as well as highly negative conflict-related contexts, among both Jewish (Studies 4 and 5) and Palestinian (Study 6) citizens of Israel. Across different conflicts, emotions, conflict-related contexts, and even populations, leftists' policy support changed in accordance with emotional reactions more than rightists' policy support. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Clinical Styles and Practice Policies: Influence on Communication with Patients Regarding Worrisome Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebran, Christi; Leichtling, Gillian; Irvine, Jessica M; Cohen, Deborah J; Hallvik, Sara E; Deyo, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Clinician communication with patients regarding worrisome findings in Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs (PDMPs) may influence patient responses and subsequent care. The authors studied the range of approaches clinicians report when communicating with patients in this situation and how practice policies and procedures may influence this communication. Qualitative interviews of clinician PDMP users. Oregon registrants in the state's PDMP. Thirty-three clinicians practicing in pain management, emergency medicine, primary care, psychiatry, dentistry, and surgery. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews via telephone with clinicians who routinely used the PDMP. A multidisciplinary team used a grounded theory approach to identify ways clinicians reported using information from the PDMP when communicating with patients, and policies that influenced that communication. Clinicians reported using a range of approaches for communicating about PDMP results, from openly sharing, to questioning patients without disclosing access to the PDMP, to avoiding the conversation. Clinicians also reported practice policies and procedures that influenced communication with their patients about prescribing and ongoing care, including policies that normalized use of the PDMP with all patients and those that facilitated difficult conversations by providing a rationale not to prescribe in certain circumstances. Clinicians' self-reported approaches to sharing PDMP findings and communicating prescribing decisions with patients vary and may be facilitated by appropriate practice policies. Such communication may have implications for patient engagement and alliance building. More research is needed to identify best practices and potential guidelines for effectively communicating about PDMP findings, as this may enhance health outcomes. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Making an impact: The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Zoe G., E-mail: z.g.davies@kent.ac.uk; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2010-12-15

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO{sub 2} reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. - Research highlights: {yields}Ticket price rises can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights. {yields} Corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to policy options. {yields} Many companies measure emissions but few will apply in-house reduction policies before regulation.

  20. Making an impact: The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Armsworth, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO 2 reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. - Research highlights: →Ticket price rises can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights. → Corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to policy options. → Many companies measure emissions but few will apply in-house reduction policies before regulation.

  1. Discharge Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    less attention has been given to medical patients, who are often elderly and suffer from multiple diseases. This paper addresses the latter issue with a case study of a local initiative to improve transition from hospital to home (care) for medical patients at a Danish hospital, in which a discharge......For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...

  2. Teasing apart "the tangled web" of influence of policy dialogues: lessons from a case study of dialogues about healthcare reform options for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvale, Gillian; McRae, Samantha A; Milicic, Sandra

    2017-07-28

    The knowledge exchange literature suggests that policy dialogues are intended to enhance short-, medium- and long-term capacities of individuals, organizations and health systems to use evidence to inform policy-making. Key features of effective dialogues have been suggested, but the linkages between these features and the realization of improved capacities for evidence-informed policy-making among dialogue attendees and the subsequent influence on policy-making activities are not well understood. We conducted a qualitative case study of a series of four policy dialogues that were convened in Canada among national, provincial and regional stakeholders on topics pertaining to healthcare financing and funding in 2011. Data sources included videos of participant perspectives captured during or immediately following each event and follow-up key informant interviews among dialogue participants held 4 years later in 2015. Three conceptual frameworks pertaining to (i) policy dialogues and capacities for evidence use, (ii) factors shaping policy-making across the policy cycle and (iii) factors shaping implementation of evidence guided the thematic analysis. We then synthesized the findings across the three frameworks. The results suggest the potential benefits of policy dialogues described in the literature were developed among the participants at these dialogues. Informants elaborated on how dialogue features influenced their capacities to use evidence, the ideas, interests and institutions during the agenda-setting and policy formulation stages of policy-making and how implementation was affected by characteristics of policy options, individuals, organizations, the external environment and processes. We present a conceptual framework that furthers our understanding of the potential influence of policy dialogues on the content and mechanisms of policy development and illustrate pathways of influence on various stages of the policy cycle from agenda setting through

  3. Natrium dischargement from peripheral blood as a predominant factor influenced by the administration of banana (Musa paradisiaca) on elderly female hypertensive patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, A.; Noriko, N.; Komara, S. B.

    2017-04-01

    Hypertension is more common in eldery female that triggered by diet and lifestyle changes. Bananas were not only useful for the food, but also for hypertension therapy and preserving life. Administration of bananas decreased blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This study aims to identify of factors that influenced by the administration of banana (Musa paradisiaca) on elderly female hypertensive patient. Twenty of eldery female patient were divided into 2 respondents group: control (11 patients) and treatment (9 patients). The treatment groups received banana twice a day during 2 weeks, but the control group didn’t. Here, we showed the administration of banana significantly decreased blood pressure on elderly female hypertensive patient (p = 0.00) in both systole and diastole. There was a significant decrease in sodium levels (p = 0.037) in the blood, but potassium levels remained the same. Erythrocyte sedimentation level (p = 0.136) and trombocyte count (p = 0.176) in treatment group, were not affected by banana administration. Taken together, banana administration on elderly female hypertensive patient decreased the blood pressure significantly, greatly affected by the natrium dischargement from the blood. Thus, our findings contribute to preliminary comprehension of banana effect on hypertension reduction.

  4. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-09-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular in the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During one measurement flight the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low-ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. Entrainment of ozone-rich air is estimated to account for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on model calculations using observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range reported previously.

  5. The Influence of CO2Admixtures on the Product Composition in a Nitrogen-Methane Atmospheric Glow Discharge Used as a Prebiotic Atmosphere Mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazankova, V; Torokova, L; Krcma, F; Mason, N J; Matejcik, S

    2016-11-01

    This work extends our previous experimental studies of the chemistry of Titan's atmosphere by atmospheric glow discharge. The Titan's atmosphere seems to be similarly to early Earth atmospheric composition. The exploration of Titan atmosphere was initiated by the exciting results of the Cassini-Huygens mission and obtained results increased the interest about prebiotic atmospheres. Present work is devoted to the role of CO 2 in the prebiotic atmosphere chemistry. Most of the laboratory studies of such atmosphere were focused on the chemistry of N 2  + CH 4 mixtures. The present work is devoted to the study of the oxygenated volatile species in prebiotic atmosphere, specifically CO 2 reactivity. CO 2 was introduced to the standard N 2  + CH 4 mixture at different mixing ratio up to 5 % CH 4 and 3 % CO 2 . The reaction products were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. This work shows that CO 2 modifies the composition of the gas phase with the detection of oxygenated compounds: CO and others oxides. There is a strong influence of CO 2 on increasing concentration other products as cyanide (HCN) and ammonia (NH 3 ).

  6. On the influence of a TiN interlayer on DLC coatings produced by pulsed vacuum arc discharge: Compositional and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura-Giraldo, B. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Grupo de Desarrollo de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Arango-Arango, P.J. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia)

    2009-10-15

    The influence of a TiN interlayer on DLC coatings grown on silicon (1 0 0), 316 stainless steel and KCl by using the PAPVD pulsed arc discharge technique is presented in this paper. The structure of the coatings was determined by means of FTIR through observation of the absorption band modes of CH{sub 2} between 3100 and 2800 cm{sup -1} and representation of the sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} carbon bonds, respectively. The sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} bonds ratio was calculated by using the base line method and producing a value greater than 1 which was a good prediction of high hardness. XPS analysis of the films was made; the wide spectrum showed the elemental composition of the films (Ti, N, C). A narrow spectrum of C1s at binding energy of 284.48 eV was obtained, and its deconvolution showed peaks of sp{sup 3}, sp{sup 2} and Ti-C. Ti-C bonds were formed due to diffusion of carbon atoms into a TiN matrix. The concentration for the XPS spectra was calculated by using the area under the curve of sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} peaks. The morphology of the bilayer, including roughness, grain size and thickness was studied through SPM techniques.

  7. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  8. Historical economic and environmental policies influencing trace metal inputs in Montevideo Bay, Río de la Plata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, C; Brugnoli, E; Figueira, R C L; Muniz, P; Ferreira, P A L; García Rodríguez, F

    2016-12-15

    Montevideo Bay is located in the middle zone of the Rio de la Plata, and since the foundation of the city, several key economic and environmental policies affected the industry, and thus, metal inputs into this ecosystem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sedimentary geochemical record of Montevideo Bay, in order to determine the historical inputs of anthropogenic metals to the system. In addition, environmental and economic policies of the country were taken into account to infer the relationship between them and the historic metal input. Concentrations of aluminum, chromium, copper, lead, scandium and zinc were analyzed and the EF and SPI indices were calculated. The analysis showed that since Montevideo foundation, metal concentrations increased in accordance with industry development, and the indices as well as the metal concentration represent a reliable footprint of the history of different economic and environmental policies influencing historical industrial activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is There Any Hope? How Climate Change News Imagery and Text Influence Audience Emotions and Support for Climate Mitigation Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lauren; Hart, P Sol

    2018-03-01

    Using a national sample, this study experimentally tests the effects of news visuals and texts that emphasize either the causes and impacts of climate change or actions that can be taken to address climate change. We test the effects of variations in text and imagery on discrete emotions (i.e., hope, fear, and anger) and, indirectly, on support for climate mitigation policies. Political ideology is examined as a moderator. The findings indicate that news images and texts that focus on climate-oriented actions can increase hope and, in the case of texts, decrease fear and anger, and these effects generally hold across the ideological spectrum. In turn, the influence of emotions on policy support depends on ideology: Hope and fear increase support for climate policies for all ideological groups but particularly conservatives, whereas anger polarizes the opinions of liberals and conservatives. Implications for climate change communication that appeals to emotions are discussed. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...

  11. The influence of South Korean energy policy on OPEC oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansoori, Ali

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is the fifth top oil importer worldwide with 64% of its oil coming from OPEC member countries. Over the last 30 years, South Korea accounted for a rapid increase in energy use. This in turn led South Korea to be totally dependent on oil imports. Due to this increase, South Korea has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system which could potentially impact its dependence on OPEC oil import. External and internal factors have forced South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. These targets would be achieved by reducing its energy intensity and utilizing electricity and renewable energies in order to reduce its dependence on oil consumption. “Low Carbon, Green Growth” is one policy along with many other energy policies developed by South Korea for reducing greenhouse gases, thus this policy is receiving a remarkable attention today. These national policies along with other international ones are needed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and promote other green initiatives. This study puts emphasis on these policies as well as uses them to predict the future energy profile of South Korea and how these policies will impact on oil imports from OPEC member countries. - Highlights: • Analyze energy policy of South Korea and its energy profiles. • Study the factors that affect South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. • Analyze the implications of South Korean energy policy on oil imports from OPEC. • South Korea will continue importing oil from OPEC countries for the next decade

  12. Opposition Policy Influence Through Agenda-Setting: The Environment in Denmark, 1993–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    to its policy position when it took office in 2001, the right-wing government turned green and adopted a series of green policy initiatives. The vehement and persistent criticism from the left-wing opposition of the government provides an explanation, this article argues. Taking media coverage, public...

  13. Regional aspects influencing the financial-economical crisis and social policy of enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovleva, Viktoriya

    2010-01-01

    Financial and economic crisis brought up academic and public discussions about frameworks of the business social responsibility, resource opportunities of the companies and social development of the organizations, about social policy planning in the enterprises. Obscure institutional relations, their hierarchical structure, weak institutes of civil society were the reasons to change the quality of enterprises social policy during the financial and economic crisis.

  14. Technocrats and nuclear politics. The influence of professional experts in policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, Andrew

    1988-01-01

    The role of technical experts, especially scientists and engineers, in the development of Britain's civil nuclear energy policy is analysed. It is proposed that civil initiatives came from the integration of technical professions within the bureaucracy of government and quasi-governmental organisations involved in the formulation and implementation of policy. Organisational logic and professional motivation encouraged policies which would lead to occupational autonomy. The first three chapters develop the concept of technical professionalism, Chapters 4-7 then focus on the technocrat's role in providing a spur from their positions within the policy community's bureaucracies that drives top-level policy decisions. These functions are examined in more detail using two case studies, the first concerned with the evolution of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd., the second with the Inquiry (in 1977) into the proposal by BNFL to extend its Windscale site (now known as Sellafield) to build the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant. (U.K.)

  15. THE PROFITABILITY AND LIQUIDITY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCING POLICY IN THE METALLURGICAL INDUSTRY OF EU 28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOBROTĂ GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the problems of the economic system, the use of the capital and his structure represent important elements in the process of the financial decisions. The aim of this paper is to identify the influence of funding policy on rentability in metallurgical industry, dimensioned with the help of a set of relevant indicators, determined on the base of some aggregated data for a significant sample of very large firms from EU 28. Also, the paper present the situation of liquidity, reflected through the cash- flow and liquidity ratio, in the metallurgical industry of EU 28, being used dates for the period 2004 – 2013, for the mentioned sample. The conclusion of the realised study is that a funding policy well-founded, correlated with the efficient management of expenses and proactive risk management can positively influence the profitability and liquidity.

  16. The influence of extreme river discharge conditions on the quality of suspended particulate matter in Rivers Meuse and Rhine (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; van Gils, J.; Kotte, M.C.; van Hattum, A.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of climate change, increased precipitation in winter and longer periods of decreased precipitation in summer are expected to cause more frequent episodes of very high or very low river discharge in the Netherlands. To study the impact of such extreme river discharge conditions on

  17. AGING EFFECTS OF REPEATEDLY GLOW-DISCHARGED POLYETHYLENE - INFLUENCE ON CONTACT-ANGLE, INFRARED-ABSORPTION, ELEMENTAL SURFACE-COMPOSITION, AND SURFACE-TOPOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEI, HC; STOKROOS, [No Value; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    Aging effects of repeatedly oxygen glow-discharged polyethylene surfaces were determined by water contact angle measurements, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and surface topography determination. Glow-discharged surfaces were stored at room temperature and in

  18. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  19. The Influence of State Policies on Critical Infrastructure Resilience: An Approach for Analyzing Transportation and Capital Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, Jessica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gevondyan, Erna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ford, Janet [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marks, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    During times of crisis, communities and regions rely heavily on critical infrastructure systems to support their emergency management response and recovery activities. Therefore, the resilience of critical infrastructure systems to crises is a pivotal factor to a community’s overall resilience. Critical infrastructure resilience can be influenced by many factors, including State policies – which are not always uniform in their structure or application across the United States – were identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as an area of particular interest with respect to their the influence on the resilience of critical infrastructure systems. This study focuses on developing an analytical methodology to assess links between policy and resilience, and applies that methodology to critical infrastructure in the Transportation Systems Sector. Specifically, this study seeks to identify potentially influential linkages between State transportation capital funding policies and the resilience of bridges located on roadways that are under the management of public agencies. This study yielded notable methodological outcomes, including the general capability of the analytical methodology to yield – in the case of some States – significant results connecting State policies with critical infrastructure resilience, with the suggestion that further refinement of the methodology may be beneficial.

  20. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  1. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  2. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you are unable to urinate. You have a discharge from your vagina that has a bad odor. You have bleeding ...

  3. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  4. Hip replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Total hip replacement - discharge; Hip hemiarthroplasty - discharge; Osteoarthritis - hip replacement discharge ... such as downhill skiing or contact sports like football and soccer. But you should be able to ...

  5. New discharge tube with virtual cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidelmann, L.; Aubrecht, L.

    2003-01-01

    Till this time known methods of the excitation of the discharge between electrodes are using either secondary or thermo emission of electrons by the cathode. Usually we speak about the self-maintained discharge. Lifetime of the cathode, that is shortened by the emission, limits in principle, the lifetime of the whole discharge tube. The discharge can, according to the present state of the art, be induced also by the inductive way. Arrangement for excitation of such discharge is rather expensive. The construction of the inductive excited discharge tube is considerably influenced by the necessity of the limitation of the losses in excitation magnetic circuits. Especially length of the discharge and pressure of the working gas are limited by the economic standpoints. Function of the discharge is always connected with unwanted electromagnetic radiation, whose restraint is expensive and represents limiting factor for arrangement of the discharge tube (Authors)

  6. Do national drug policies influence antiretroviral drug prices? Evidence from the Southern African Development community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Galárraga, Omar

    2017-03-01

    The efficacy of low- and middle-income countries’ (LMIC) national drug policies in managing antiretroviral (ARV) pharmaceutical prices is not well understood. Though ARV drug prices have been declining in LMIC over the past decade, little research has been done on the role of their national drug policies. This study aims to (i) analyse global ARV prices from 2004 to 2013 and (ii) examine the relationship of national drug policies to ARV prices. Analysis of ARV drug prices utilized data from the Global Price Reporting Mechanism from the World Health Organization (WHO). Ten of the most common ARV drugs (first-line and second-line) were selected. National drug policies were also assessed for 12 countries in the South African Development Community (SADC), which self-reported their policies through WHO surveys. The best predictor of ARV drug price was generic status—the generic versions of 8 out of 10 ARV drugs were priced lower than branded versions. However, other factors such as transaction volume, HIV prevalence, national drug policies and PEPFAR/CHAI involvement were either not associated with ARV drug price or were not consistent predictors of price across different ARV drugs. In the context of emerging international trade agreements, which aim to strengthen patent protections internationally and potentially delay the sale of generic drugs in LMIC, this study shines a spotlight on the importance of generic drugs in controlling ARV prices. Further research is needed to understand the impact of national drug policies on ARV prices.

  7. Influence of Profitability, Investment Opportunity Set (Ios Leverage and Dividend Policy on Firm Value in The L Service in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuzaini Khuzaini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to analyze the significant influence of profitability, investment opportunity set (ios, leverage and dividend policy partially or simultaneously on firm value. The sample used in this research was Industrial Services in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2013 to 2015 as many as 28 companies taken by using purposive sampling technique. Hypothesis testing of research using multiple linear regression analysis by SPSS 21 for windows programs. This research found that: (1 profitability has significant influence partially  on firm value; (2 investment opportunity set (ios has significant influence partially  on firm value; (3 leverage has no significant influence partially  on firm value; (3 the dividend policy has no significant influence partially  on firm value; (5 profitability, investment opportunity set (ios, leverage and dividend policy have significant influence simultaneously on firm value with influence value of 46.7%.

  8. Enhanced Influence Through Advancing Scope of Practice Policy Research: An Interview With Alex Hoyt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jeffrey M

    2017-10-01

    This department highlights emerging nursing leaders who have demonstrated leadership in advancing innovation and patient care in practice policy, research, education, and theory. This interview profiles Alex Hoyt, assistant professor at Massachusetts Institute for Health Professions.

  9. The Influence of a Policy Document in the Practice of Intersectorial Collaboration in Danish Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Beedholm, Kirsten; Kolbæk, Raymond

    assess a policy document. Method A critical discourse analysis based on a three-dimensional model. Findings Our analysis showed how wordings and grammatical features create and maintain certain perceptions or common-sense understandings of actors, responsibilities, and tasks in health care....... The linguistic analysis of grammatical features present in the document enabled us to demonstrate how the authors of Health Agreements apply governing technologies to control the delivery of intersectorial health care in Denmark. Furthermore, the findings showed how this policy document, through its use......Background Policy documents are powerful actors in health care, and they play a significant role because they produce certain discursive and non-discursive conditions for intersectorial collaboration. Central documents in Denmark are the Health Agreements. These policy documents set out...

  10. Policies for Promotion of Electric Vehicles and Factors Influencing Consumers’ Purchasing Decisions of Low Emission Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaz Knez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently different studies of green transport have become interesting for policy makers,car manufacturers, customers and energy suppliers. Many stakeholders from the publicand private sectors are investing a lot of effort to identify consumer behaviour for futureimprovements in development of green products and effective strategies, which couldaccelerate the transition to sustainable future. This paper presents the effects of electricvehicle promotional policies and customer preferences about alternative fuel vehicles.This study has shown that the electric vehicle promotional policies adopted in Sloveniahave been unsuccessful, as the share of first-time registered electric vehicles in 2013 wasbelow 1%. For different segments of people whose opinions about low emission vehiclesdiffer, different measures must be adopted. When designing promotional policies focusmust be on the most relevant factors such as the total vehicle price and fuel economy.

  11. FEATURES OF INFLUENCE OF MACROECONOMIC MEASURES OF TRANSFORMATION ON THE STATE DEBT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rudyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to study the relationship between the debt policy and vector of macroeconomic measures which is reflected in the transformation of structure of budget deficiency payments. Also, the article defines and characterizes three main phases of the government debt policy: pre-stabilization, stabilization and post-stabilization. The author analyzes main aspects of the relationship between dept policy and monetary one. Methodology. The study is based on the works of domestic and foreign scientists engaged in research of the given problem. Theoretical concepts are supported by statistical data of key macroeconomic indicators of Ukraine’s economy. Results of the survey showed that the relationship between the debt policy and measures of macro-regulation during the transformation has the stable and permanent nature, and the use of certain instruments of government debt management is exclusively possible for a definite direction of macro policy on the one hand, and they are the elements in the system of measures for its implementation on the other hand. In the pre-stabilization phase of transformation the debt policy synthesizes the expansive solutions of monetary and fiscal authorities, and a direct link between them mediate the expansion of demand in the public sector and the preservation of soft budget constraints for micro-units; in the stabilization phase the relationship between fiscal, monetary and debt policy becomes more indirect, but are direct in that part of the borrowing purposes, subordinated to the creation of macro-stabilization mechanism of transformation; in the poststabilization period the role of indirect interconnection between the debt measures and fiscal and monetary decisions increases, but the lack of a deep micro-restructuring and deep systemic and structural reforms cause the deterioration in the macro-economic state of the system, due to which the vector of government borrowing again gravitates toward the field

  12. Political Influence on Japanese Nuclear and Security Policy: New Forces Face Large Obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsumi, Yuki; Weiner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Japan’s nuclear weapons policy has long enjoyed a stable, if somewhat internally inconsistent, equilibrium. Anti-proliferation efforts co-exist with reliance upon the United States’ nuclear deterrent, alongside dependence on a nuclear energy program robust enough to potentially support nuclear weapons capability. These policies have been promoted and maintained by Japan’s bureaucracy rather than by political bargains, with their bureaucratic proponents separately stovepipe...

  13. Influence of the configuration of the magnetic filter field on the discharge structure in the RF driven negative ion source prototype for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishev, S.; Schiesko, L.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.

    2017-08-01

    The study provides results for the influence of the filter field topology on the plasma parameters in the RF prototype negative ion source for ITER NBI. A previously developed 2D fluid plasma model of the prototype source was extended towards accounting for the particles and energy losses along the magnetic field lines and the presence of a magnetic field in the driver which is the case at the BATMAN and ELISE test-beds. The effect of the magnetic field in the driver is shown for the magnetic field configuration of the prototype source (i.e. a magnetic field produced by an external magnet frame) by comparison of plasma parameters without and with the magnetic field in the driver and for different axial positions of the filter. Since the ELISE-like magnetic field (i.e. a magnetic field produced by a current flowing through the plasma grid) is a new feature planned to be installed at the BATMAN test-bed, its effect on the discharge structure was studied for different strengths of the magnetic field. The obtained results show for both configurations of the magnetic filter the same main features in the patterns of the plasma parameters in the expansion chamber: a strong axial drop of the electron temperature and the formation of a groove accompanied with accumulation of electrons in front of the plasma grid. The presence of a magnetic field in the driver has a local impact on the plasma parameters: the formation of a second groove of the electron temperature in the case of BATMAN (due to the reversed direction of the filter field in the driver) and a strong asymmetry of the electron density. Accounting for the additional losses in the third dimension suppresses the drifts across the magnetic field and, thus, the variations of the electron density in the expansion chamber are less pronounced.

  14. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-02-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular that of the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During a measurement flight on 12 October the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized, providing evidence of convective transport. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. The enhanced mixing ratio of ozone in the outflow was mainly of dynamical origin. Entrainment of ozone rich air at the outflow level into the convective outflow accounts for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on steady state model calculations, using in-situ observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range of the values reported previously.

  15. Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha−1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

  16. Influence of the gas mixture radio on the correlations between the excimer XeCl emission and the sealed gas temperature in dielectric barrier discharge lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Xu Jin Zhou; Ren Zhao Xing

    2002-01-01

    For dielectric barrier discharge lamps filled with various gas mixture ratios, the correlations between the excimer XeCl emission and the sealed gas temperature have been founded, and a qualitative explication is presented. For gas mixture with chlorine larger than 3%, the emission intensity increases with the sealed gas temperature, while with chlorine about 2%, the emission intensity decreases with the increasing in the gas temperature, and could be improved by cooling water. However, if chlorine is less than 1.5%, the discharge appears to be a mixture mode with filaments distributed in a diffused glow-like discharge, and the UV emission is independent on the gas temperature

  17. Factors influencing physicians' choice of workplace: systematic review of drivers of attrition and policy interventions to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Koussa, Maria; Atun, Rifat; Bowser, Diana; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-12-01

    The movement of skilled physicians from the public to the private sector is a key constraint to achieving universal health coverage and is currently affecting health systems worldwide. This systematic review aims to assess factors influencing physicians' choice of workplace, and policy interventions for retaining physicians in the public sector. Five literature databases were searched. Studies were included in the review if they focused on at least one of the following criteria: (i) incentives or motivators for retaining physicians in the public sector, (ii) pull factors that encouraged physicians to move to the private sector, (iii) push factors that forced physicians to leave the public sector, (iv) policy interventions or case studies that addressed physician retention in the public sector, and (v) qualitative reviews of policy interventions that were implemented in different health system settings. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Six major themes that affected physicians' choice of workplace were identified including: financial incentives, career development, infrastructure and staffing, professional work environment, workload and autonomy. The majority of the studies suggested that the use of financial incentives was a motivator in retaining physicians in the public sector. The review also identified policy interventions including: regulatory controls, incentives and management reforms. Regulatory controls and incentives were the two most frequently reported policy interventions. While factors affecting physicians' choice of workplace are country specific, financial incentives and professional development are core factors. Other factors are highly influenced by context, and thus, it would be useful for future cross-country research to use standardized data collection tools, allowing comparison of contextual factors as well as the examination of how context affects physician retention in the public sector.

  18. Policy Influence on Consumers’ Evolution into Prosumers—Empirical Findings from an Exploratory Survey in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Kotilainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector is in transition to a flexible and sustainable energy system based on renewable energy sources. This complex transition is affecting multiple levels in the sociotechnical system. One driver of the transition is climate change that enforces the policy push from the macro level to change the way energy is produced, delivered, and used. As part of the energy system evolution, the role of the end user in the energy sector is undergoing profound changes, and consumers are increasingly being empowered to participate actively in the production and use of energy. This article investigates how policies might affect consumers’ interests in becoming prosumers of energy. We explore consumers’ attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies (RET by means of an empirical consumer survey that was conducted in five European countries. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM method was utilized to analyze the survey results. Our findings suggest that both economic and non-economic policies affect consumer attitudes toward using renewable energy technologies. We conclude that policies have different effects on consumers and prosumers, who have already made the decision to adopt renewable energy solutions. Based on the findings, we propose a set of policy and managerial implications.

  19. Making an impact. The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Armsworth, Paul R. [Biodiversity and Macroecology Group, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO{sub 2} reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. (author)

  20. The Influence Of Implementing The Strategic Policy In Creating Business Climate, Business Environment And Providing Support Facilities Towards Business Empowerment On Small Medium Craft Enterprises In Ambon Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Papilaya, Josef; Soisa, Thereesje Roza; Akib, Haedar

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing and explaining whether there was the influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities towards empowerment on small and medium enterprises as well as whether there is synchronously influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities for business empowerment on small and medium scale enterprises through a s...

  1. Influence of Port Policy on the Development of Croatian Container Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čedomir Dundović

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available It is important to consider the port development throughoutthe world from the aspect of economical, transport and portpolicy and their mutual impact on commerce and efficiency ofports. By examining such relations in the context of developmentof the Croatian container ports, it is possible to define reasonsfor lagging behind of Croatian ports compared to theworld movements.The main reason for the negative trend of development ofCroatian container ports lies in the non-existence of adequatemeasures of transport, maritime and port policy. Analysis ofstatistics over the past decade and comparison of structure andvolume of the general cargo traffic in the Rijeka port and theneighbouring ports in the area of North Adriatic are both showingsignificant size discrepancy and uncompetitiveness of theCroatian port. Disturbances that have brought to such a situationresult from inadequate port policy and non-harmonisedactivities between various modes of transport.In order to overcome such situation, the authors suggest determiningof clear tasks, goals and measures of the port policythat have to be undertaken so that the Croatian policy could becompatible with the main aspects, development tendencies andmeasures of theE U port policy.

  2. The influence of fiscal rules on healthcare policy in the United States and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schakel, H Christiaan; Jeurissen, Patrick; Glied, Sherry

    2017-10-01

    Governments use fiscal rules to put a framework and limits on how budgetary challenges are addressed, but the rules themselves are still an understudied area among health policy scholars. For a long time, healthcare held a somewhat separate status because of the reliance on entitlements and dedicated revenue streams. However, the combined forces of advocates for integral decision-making, central budget control and the increasing costs might shift healthcare towards budgetary frameworks that currently apply to other spending categories. In this paper, we study fiscal rules that the US and the Netherlands have adopted since 2010 and their impact on healthcare policy. Our analysis shows that fiscal rules can have an impact on the rationing of healthcare. In the studied timeframe, the rules seem to have more impact on budget outcomes than on the budget process itself. In addition, the convergence of fiscal and program policy objectives seems to be better accomplished in a budgetary system that applies enforceable budget ceilings. Budgeting for health entitlements requires a comprehensive and tailor-made approach and the composition of traditional rules might not fully answer to the complexities of healthcare policy. This paper aims to contribute to that debate and the way we think about healthcare budgeting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. International Education Policy: Its Influence on the Conception of VET and the VET System in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deissinger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Inquiries into vocational education and training (VET) systems are normally characterised by looking at institutions and steering mechanisms. That aside, however, it is culture which underlies both the practice and the theory as well as the policy of VET in various countries. Specific problems arise when it comes to harmonising VET systems through…

  4. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  5. Global Dimensions of Gifted and Talented Education: The Influence of National Perceptions on Policies and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Heuser

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We examine recent research across countries and cultures in regard to the issues related to the formation of gifted and talented education perspectives, policies, and practices. Many modern cultures and subcultures have developed formal and informal definitions of what it means to be gifted and talented, and when we compare the perceptions, policies, and practices across nations, we discover very different constructs of intelligence and ability. These understandings of giftedness and gifted and talented education can be grouped into four binary dimensions, scholarly versus co-curricular capabilities, aptitude versus achievement, nature versus nurture, and individualistic versus collective, that have significant implications for policy and practice. These constructs can serve as a foundation for countries that are looking to formalize or expand their gifted and talented education models or can be used to challenge the norms of established systems. We put forward recommendations to address some of the challenges in advancing gifted education cross-nationally, an area that is often assumed to introduce risks of enlarging social inequity. We also provide a cross-national matrix that captures known elements of gifted education policies and programs from over 20 subnational jurisdictions, countries, and world regions.

  6. Meeting Total Fat Requirements for School Lunches: Influence of School Policies and Characteristics. ERS Report Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Guthrie, Joanne; Mancino, Lisa; Ralston, Katherine; Musiker, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about child obesity have raised questions about the quality of meals served in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). Local, State, and Federal policymakers responded to these concerns beginning in the mid-1990s by instituting a range of policies and standards to improve the quality of USDA-subsidized meals. While most of USDA's…

  7. Policy Patrons: Philanthropy, Education Reform, and the Politics of Influence. Educational Innovations Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins-Stange, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    "Policy Patrons" offers a rare behind-the-scenes view of decision making inside four influential education philanthropies: the Ford Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation. The outcome is an intriguing, thought-provoking look at the impact of current…

  8. Catalysing Educational Development or Institutionalising External Influence? Donors, Civil Society and Educational Policy Formation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Recent pronouncements on the benefits of enlisting civil society in educational development have so far not attracted adequate scholarly analyses. This paper therefore seeks to present a critical perspective on this new trend by providing a fine-grained look at three concrete cases of NGO involvement in educational policy-making in Nepal. It also…

  9. The Changing Influence of Educational Policy and Race on Metropolitan Inequality, 1970-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Odis, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Schools do not receive much recognition within urban sociological research for the role they perform in shaping the demographic, structural, and social features of neighborhoods, cities, and metropolitan areas. In contrast, this article links schools, and the racial avoidance that operates through educational policy, to the extreme economic…

  10. Introducing Widening Participation Policies in Higher Education: The Influence of Institutional Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbank, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the role of culture in the development of higher education institution (HEI) policy on widening participation. The study involved documentary research and interviews with senior and middle managers. It suggests that a culture of widening participation is often not embedded throughout institutions. Therefore, widening…

  11. The Influence of Price on School Enrollment under Uganda's Policy of Free Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincove, Jane Arnold

    2012-01-01

    This study uses household survey data to estimate determinants of schooling in Uganda, with a model that includes the price of school. Uganda's universal education policy offered free tuition, fees, and supplies to up to four children per family, including two daughters. The empirical method includes an estimation of a child-specific price of…

  12. The Compelling Influence of Nonlinguistic Aims in Language Status Policy Planning in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Helen M.

    1992-01-01

    On April 5, 1991, Spanish was made the sole official language of Puerto Rico, a move that replaced the 1902 Official Languages Act, which had put English and Spanish on an equal footing on the island, in name if not in practice. This paper analyzes this language status policy decision in terms of both its linguistic and extralinguistic purposes…

  13. Telehealth among US hospitals: several factors, including state reimbursement and licensure policies, influence adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Kvedar, Joseph; Bates, David W

    2014-02-01

    Telehealth is widely believed to hold great potential to improve access to, and increase the value of, health care. Gaining a better understanding of why some hospitals adopt telehealth technologies while others do not is critically important. We examined factors associated with telehealth adoption among US hospitals. Data from the Information Technology Supplement to the American Hospital Association's 2012 annual survey of acute care hospitals show that 42 percent of US hospitals have telehealth capabilities. Hospitals more likely to have telehealth capabilities are teaching hospitals, those equipped with additional advanced medical technology, those that are members of a larger system, and those that are nonprofit institutions. Rates of hospital telehealth adoption by state vary substantially and are associated with differences in state policy. Policies that promote private payer reimbursement for telehealth are associated with greater likelihood of telehealth adoption, while policies that require out-of-state providers to have a special license to provide telehealth services reduce the likelihood of adoption. Our findings suggest steps that policy makers can take to achieve greater adoption of telehealth by hospitals.

  14. Research on Teaching and Teacher Education and Its Influences on Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Using five AERA presidential addresses over the past half century as landmarks, this essay traces the evolution of research on teaching and teacher education as well as some critical impacts the research has had on policy and practice related to teacher education and teacher evaluation in the United States. The discussion shows how these addresses…

  15. The influence of korean nurses' immigration into Germany on the nursing culture and policy of the countries: a transnational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Na Hye

    2013-04-01

    While many studies have addressed the Korean nurse immigration to Germany in 1960s-70s in terms of the nurses' personal histories from a national perspective, few studies have pointed to its transnational impact on the medical field. Given this gap, the paper discusses its significance in the medical history through examining the nursing culture and policy changes made in both countries initiated by the immigration of the qualified Korean nurses. For this end, the paper first discusses differences between Korea and Germany in the nursing culture and professional standards at the time of the nurse immigration. The study then examines the transnational changes in the two nations in the nursing professional culture and related policies including nurse education and qualification process. More specifically, the paper argues that the Korean female nurses not only supplied labor in need but also contributed to the medical policy changes in Germany. The prevalent stereotype of nursing as a non-professional field in the German society begin to change while experiencing professionally qualified Asian immigrant nurses and practiced treatments that had been conduced by German doctors by then. This observation actually leads to the policy level reforms in nursing education and qualification process to meet the need of high-quality nurses when the labor immigration was stopped in mid-1970s. The paper also points out that the influence of the nurse immigration on the Korean society is not merely economic; it brought the policy level reforms in nurse education and qualification as well. The immigration, resulting in a lack of nurses in the Korean society, triggered two main responses: the expansion of the existing nurse education system and the establishment of a new system called "nursing assistant."

  16. Using remote sensing to monitor the influence of river discharge on watershed outlets and adjacent coral Reefs: Magdalena River and Rosario Islands, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Madriñán, Max J.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Ogashawara, Igor; Irwin, Daniel E.; Ye, Jun; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, coral reef ecosystems are being increasingly threatened by sediments loads from river discharges, which in turn are influenced by changing rainfall patterns due to climate change and by growing human activity in their watersheds. In this case study, we explored the applicability of using remote sensing (RS) technology to estimate and monitor the relationship between water quality at the coral reefs around the Rosario Islands, in the Caribbean Sea, and the rainfall patterns in the Magdalena River watershed. From the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), this study used the water surface reflectance product (MOD09GQ) to estimate water surface reflectance as a proxy for sediment concentration and the land cover product (MCD12Q1 V51) to characterize land cover of the watershed. Rainfall was estimated by using the 3B43 V7 product from the Tropical Rainforest Measuring Mission (TRMM). For the first trimester of each year, we investigated the inter-annual temporal variation in water surface reflectance at the Rosario Islands and at the three main mouths of the Magdalena River watershed. No increasing or decreasing trends of water surface reflectance were detected for any of the sites for the study period 2001-2014 (p > 0.05) but significant correlations were detected among the trends of each site at the watershed mouths (r = 0.57-0.90, p < 0.05) and between them and the inter-annual variation in rainfall on the watershed (r = 0.63-0.67, p < 0.05). Those trimesters with above-normal water surface reflectance at the mouths and above-normal rainfall at the watershed coincided with La Niña conditions while the opposite was the case during El Niño conditions. Although, a preliminary analysis of inter-annual land cover trends found only cropland cover in the watershed to be significantly correlated with water surface reflectance at two of the watershed mouths (r = 0.58 and 0.63, p < 0.05), the validation analysis draw only a 40.7% of accuracy in

  17. Factors influencing the technology upgrading and catch-up of Chinese wind turbine manufacturers: Technology acquisition mechanisms and government policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Ortolano, Leonard; David Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses firm level data for the Chinese wind turbine manufacturing industry from 1998 to 2009 to quantify the effects of technology acquisition mechanisms – purchasing production licenses from foreign manufacturers, joint design with foreign design firms, joint-ventures and domestic R and D – on wind turbine manufacturers' technology levels (as measured by turbine size, in megawatts). It also examines the impacts of government policies on manufacturer technology levels. Technology upgrading (measured by increase of turbine size) and catch-up (measured by decrease in the distance to the world technology frontier in terms of turbine size) are used to measure advances in technology level. Results from econometric modeling studies indicate that firms' technology acquisition mechanisms and degree of business diversification are statistically significant factors in influencing technology upgrading. Similar results were found for the catch-up variable (i.e., distance to the world technology frontier). The influence of government policies is significant for technology upgrading but not catch-up. These and other modeling results are shown to have implications for both policymakers and wind turbine manufacturers. - Highlights: ► Technology acquired through joint design has the highest level. ► Technology acquired through purchasing production license has the lowest level. ► Technology acquired through domestic R and D has the level in between. ► A firm with related other businesses tends to have a higher level of technology. ► The influence of policies is significant for technology upgrade but not catch-up

  18. The Influence of Geopolitical Factors on the Tax Policy of Russia at the Contemporary Stage of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorletskiy Aleksandr Igorevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems analyzed in the article are new to the domestic financial and tax research due to their emergent character. The article considers the influence of geopolitical factors on the tax policy of the Russian Federation and marks the most visible implemented or prospective changes in the Russian tax system under the influence of the facts and circumstances related to the geopolitical component of modern development. The focus is made on the three factors of geopolitical nature, the influence of which on public finances and taxes of Russia has already been or may be the most noticeable in the future. These factors include the growth of military spending on the backdrop of escalating tensions in the political relations between Russia and Western countries; the exchange of trade and economic sanctions between Russia and Western countries; the pursuit of enhanced tax sovereignty of the regions in the framework of the current centralized model of fiscal federalism. The possible consequences of the policy of sanctions imposed as the result of the new round of geopolitical confrontation between Russia and Western countries are analyzed. Among these consequences we should name the use of tax incentives to compensate the losses of exporters; the use of tax regulators at the financial market; the search for new sources of tax revenues for regional budgets; anti-offshore policy in relation to the Russian tax residents; the limitation of the benefits of using the consolidated groups of taxpayers; the possibility of creating a special (free economic zone in Crimea with the regime of preferential taxation. It is proved that the manifestation of geopolitics requires the serious understanding of its consequences in all spheres, including the system of public finances and taxes.

  19. Different Countries, Different Strategies: ‘Green’ Member States Influencing EU Climate Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Liefferink, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Environmentally proactive member states of the European Union (EU) influence European legislation in different ways. Green ' pushers' seek direct influence al the EU level, whereas 'forerunners' try to gel national elements incorporated in an indirect fashion. Together with a second dimension,

  20. A Case Study of Community Involvement Influence on Policy Decisions: Victories of a Community-Based Participatory Research Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith M. Williams

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Buffalo Lupus Project was a community-university partnership that investigated associations between exposure to a local waste site and high rates of lupus and other autoimmune diseases. The partnership’s major accomplishment was successful advocacy for containment and clean-up of the site. As a result of community education, the remediation plan suggested by the community was adopted. Additionally, when a local childhood lead poisoning testing program was canceled, community members signed a letter to legislators urging them to replace the funding, which was restored within one week. This demonstrated how coordinated community-based capacity-building efforts can influence health policy.

  1. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  2. Prospective study of factors influencing conditional discharge from a forensic hospital: the DUNDRUM-3 programme completion and DUNDRUM-4 recovery structured professional judgement instruments and risk.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Mary

    2013-01-01

    We set out to examine whether structured professional judgement instruments DUNDRUM-3 programme completion (D-3) and DUNDRUM-4 recovery (D-4) scales along with measures of risk, mental state and global function could distinguish between those forensic patients detained in a secure forensic hospital (not guilty by reason of insanity or unfit to stand trial) who were subsequently discharged by a mental health review board. We also examined the interaction between these measures and risk, need for therapeutic security and eventual conditional discharge.

  3. Ankle replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  4. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  5. Knee joint replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Knee replacement - total - discharge; Tricompartmental knee replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - knee replacement discharge ... such as downhill skiing or contact sports like football and soccer. But, you should be able to ...

  6. Modeling a hierarchical structure of factors influencing exploitation policy for water distribution systems using ISM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Wyczółkowski, Ryszard; Gładysiak, Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Water distribution systems are one of the basic elements of contemporary technical infrastructure of urban and rural areas. It is a complex engineering system composed of transmission networks and auxiliary equipment (e.g. controllers, checkouts etc.), scattered territorially over a large area. From the water distribution system operation point of view, its basic features are: functional variability, resulting from the need to adjust the system to temporary fluctuations in demand for water and territorial dispersion. The main research questions are: What external factors should be taken into account when developing an effective water distribution policy? Does the size and nature of the water distribution system significantly affect the exploitation policy implemented? These questions have shaped the objectives of research and the method of research implementation.

  7. Discharge processes of UV pre-ionized electric-discharge pulsed DF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qikun; Xie, Jijiang; Shao, Chunlei; Wang, Chunrui; Shao, Mingzhen; Guo, Jin

    2016-03-01

    The discharge processes of ultraviolet (UV) pre-ionized electric-discharge pulsed DF laser operating with a SF6-D2 gas mixture are studied. A mathematical model based on continuity equation of electrons and Kirchhoff equations for discharge circuit is established to describe the discharge processes. Voltage and current waveforms of main discharge and voltage waveforms of pre-ionization are solved numerically utilizing the model. The calculations correctly display some physical processes, such as the delay time between pre-ionization and main discharge, breakdown of the main electrode and self-sustained volume discharge (SSVD). The results of theory are consistent with the experiments, which are performed in our non-chain pulsed DF laser. Then the delay inductance and peak capacitance are researched to analyze their influences on discharge processes, and the circuit parameters of DF laser are given which is useful to improve the discharge stability.

  8. Virtual Human Technology: Capturing Sex, Race, and Age Influences in Individual Pain Decision Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Alqudah, Ashraf F.; Stutts, Lauren A.; Robinson, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. The present study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and...

  9. What Factors Influence Smoking Prevalence and Smoke Free Policy Enactment across the European Union Member States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Methods Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. Results In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Conclusions Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key

  10. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Britton, John

    2011-01-01

    Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU) Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and the extent to which key tobacco control policies have been

  11. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    O?Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. METHOD: The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US wh...

  12. What factors influence smoking prevalence and smoke free policy enactment across the European Union Member States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Bogdanovica

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking prevention should be a primary public health priority for all governments, and effective preventive policies have been identified for decades. The heterogeneity of smoking prevalence between European Union (EU Member States therefore reflects, at least in part, a failure by governments to prioritise public health over tobacco industry or possibly other financial interests, and hence potentially government corruption. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that smoking prevalence is higher in countries with high levels of public sector corruption, and explore the ecological association between smoking prevalence and a range of other national characteristics in current EU Member States. METHODS: Ecological data from 27 EU Member States were used to estimate univariate and multivariate correlations between smoking prevalence and the Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, and a range of other national characteristics including economic development, social inclusion, quality of life and importance of religion. We also explored the association between the Corruption Perceptions Index and measures of the extent to which smoke-free policies have been enacted and are enforced. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, smoking prevalence was significantly higher in countries with higher scores for corruption, material deprivation, and gender inequality; and lower in countries with higher per capita Gross Domestic Product, social spending, life satisfaction and human development scores. In multivariate analysis, only the corruption perception index was independently related to smoking prevalence. Exposure to tobacco smoke in the workplace was also correlated with corruption, independently from smoking prevalence, but not with the measures of national smoke-free policy implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Corruption appears to be an important risk factor for failure of national tobacco control activity in EU countries, and

  13. Irish foreign policy in the United Nations and European Union: influence and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John; Connolly, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations has had a central place in Irish foreign policy from the state’s accession in 1955. Both political discourse and public opinion polls indicate widespread support for the organisation as a source of international legitimacy and as the appropriate forum to make major decisions regarding peace and security; international human rights; and development. The EU has an equally central role in Ireland’s economic and social development in the last three decades, and w...

  14. Understanding discharge communication behaviours in a pediatric emergency care context: a mixed methods observation study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A; Bishop, Andrea; Plint, Amy; MacPhee, Shannon; Zemek, Roger; Chorney, Jill; Jabbour, Mona; Porter, Stephen; Sawyer, Scott

    2017-04-17

    One of the most important transitions in the continuum of care for children is discharge to home. Optimal discharge communication between healthcare providers and caregivers (e.g., parents or other guardians) who present to the emergency department (ED) with their children is not well understood. The lack of policies and considerable variation in practice regarding discharge communication in pediatric EDs pose a quality and safety risk for children and their parents. The aim of this mixed methods study is to better understand the process and structure of discharge communication in a pediatric ED context to contribute to the design and development of discharge communication interventions. We will use surveys, administrative data and real-time video observation to characterize discharge communication for six common illness presentations in a pediatric ED: (1) asthma, (2) bronchiolitis, (3) abdominal pain, (4) fever, (5) diarrhea and vomiting, and (6) minor head injury. Participants will be recruited from one of two urban pediatric EDs in Canada. Video recordings will be analyzed using Observer XT. We will use logistic regression to identify potential demographic and visit characteristic cofounders and multivariate logistic regression to examine association between verbal and non-verbal behaviours and parent recall and comprehension. Video recording of discharge communication will provide an opportunity to capture important data such as temporality, sequence and non-verbal behaviours that might influence the communication process. Given the importance of better characterizing discharge communication to identify potential barriers and enablers, we anticipate that the findings from this study will contribute to the development of more effective discharge communication policies and interventions.

  15. The Influence of Dividend Policy on Market Value: Evidence in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Baiardo Cavalcante Viana Junior

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dividend Relevance Theory, this study investigated the relationship between the dividend policy and the market value of the companies listed on the BM&F Bovespa. We performed correlation tests between the variables analyzed and multiple regression with data in a balanced panel.  Data from 189 companies were analyzed referring to the period from 2009 to 2014. As a proxy for the market value dependent variable, we considered the logarithm of the market value available in Economática®. As an independent variable, a dividend policy was used, with the Payout Index as a proxy. In the proposed econometric model, two control variables were identified as significant in explaining the market value of firms: size and debt. The results indicate that, in general, the Payout does not prove significant vis `a vis firms’ market value. However, in an additional analysis, by segregating the sample according to economic sectors, it was found that in the Public Utilities and Non-Cyclical Consumption sectors, Payout presents a positive and significant relation in accounting for firms’ market value.  Thus, the present study shows indicators that the profit distribution policy is relevant in explaining the market value of firms, based upon specific characteristics in some sectors of the economy.

  16. Use of radon-222 to evaluate the influence of groundwater discharge on fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izbicki, J. A.; Burton, C.; Swarzenski, P. W.

    2011-12-01

    To protect beach-goers from waterborne disease, California requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at beaches having more than 50,000 visits annually. The source(s) of FIB in ocean beaches in excess of marine recreational water standards is often not known, or may be incorrectly identified. Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage have been implicated by regulatory agencies as a possible source of FIB to recreational ocean beaches, near Malibu, California. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater prior to discharge at the ocean. Groundwater discharge to the ocean near Malibu Lagoon (the estuary of Malibu Creek) is complicated by seasonally changing water levels in the lagoon. The lagoon is isolated from the ocean by a sand berm that develops across the mouth of the lagoon during the dry season. Higher water levels in the lagoon during the dry season, and lower water-levels during the wet season, cause seasonal changes in the direction of groundwater flow and the magnitude of discharge from the adjacent small (3,400 hectare), alluvial aquifer. Radon-222, an indicator of groundwater discharge, was measured in Malibu Lagoon, in the near-shore ocean adjacent to the lagoon, and in the near-shore ocean adjacent to unsewered residential development to determine the timing and magnitude of groundwater discharge. During the dry season, when the berm of the lagoon was closed and the lagoon was isolated from the ocean, radon-222 concentrations in the near-shore ocean during low tide increased as water discharged from the lagoon through the berm. Enterococcus concentrations in the near-shore ocean increased to almost 600 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliter at this time. Radon-222 concentrations also increased at low tide as groundwater discharged to the ocean from the adjacent alluvial aquifer underlying the unsewered residential development, but there was

  17. The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palència, Laia; Malmusi, Davide; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Backhans, Mona; Vanroelen, Christophe; Borrell, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi's typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21 in Traditional-Central and PR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.19-1.35 in Traditional-Southern) and in Contradictory countries (PR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.05-1.11). In multilevel models, only gender inequalities in Traditional-Southern countries were significantly higher than those in Dual-earner countries. Gender inequalities in self-perceived health were higher, women reporting worse self-perceived health than men, in countries with family policies that were less oriented to gender equality

  18. Watershed model calibration framework developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and a genetic algorithm and analysis of pollutant discharge characteristics and load reduction in a TMDL planning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jae Heon; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-11-01

    Manual calibration is common in rainfall-runoff model applications. However, rainfall-runoff models include several complicated parameters; thus, significant time and effort are required to manually calibrate the parameters individually and repeatedly. Automatic calibration has relative merit regarding time efficiency and objectivity but shortcomings regarding understanding indigenous processes in the basin. In this study, a watershed model calibration framework was developed using an influence coefficient algorithm and genetic algorithm (WMCIG) to automatically calibrate the distributed models. The optimization problem used to minimize the sum of squares of the normalized residuals of the observed and predicted values was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). The final model parameters were determined from the iteration with the smallest sum of squares of the normalized residuals of all iterations. The WMCIG was applied to a Gomakwoncheon watershed located in an area that presents a total maximum daily load (TMDL) in Korea. The proportion of urbanized area in this watershed is low, and the diffuse pollution loads of nutrients such as phosphorus are greater than the point-source pollution loads because of the concentration of rainfall that occurs during the summer. The pollution discharges from the watershed were estimated for each land-use type, and the seasonal variations of the pollution loads were analyzed. Consecutive flow measurement gauges have not been installed in this area, and it is difficult to survey the flow and water quality in this area during the frequent heavy rainfall that occurs during the wet season. The Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model was used to calculate the runoff flow and water quality in this basin. Using the water quality results, a load duration curve was constructed for the basin, the exceedance frequency of the water quality standard was calculated for each hydrologic condition class, and the percent reduction

  19. Groundwater rejuvenation in parts of India influenced by water-policy change implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, Soumendra N; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Rodell, Matthew; Wada, Yoshihide; Chattopadhyay, Siddhartha; Velicogna, Isabella; Pangaluru, Kishore; Famiglietti, James S

    2017-08-07

    The dwindling groundwater resource of India, supporting almost one fifth of the global population and also the largest groundwater user, has been of great concern in recent years. However, in contrary to the well documented Indian groundwater depletion due to rapid and unmanaged groundwater withdrawal, here for the first time, we report regional-scale groundwater storage (GWS) replenishment through long-term (1996-2014, using more than 19000 observation locations) in situ and decadal (2003-2014) satellite-based groundwater storage measurements in western and southern parts of India. In parts of western and southern India, in situ GWS (GWS obs ) has been decreasing at the rate of -5.81 ± 0.38 km 3 /year (in 1996-2001) and -0.92 ± 0.12 km 3 /year (in 1996-2002), and reversed to replenish at the rate of 2.04 ± 0.20 km 3 /year (in 2002-2014) and 0.76 ± 0.08 km 3 /year (in 2003-2014), respectively. Here, using statistical analyses and simulation results of groundwater management policy change effect on groundwater storage in western and southern India, we show that paradigm shift in Indian groundwater withdrawal and management policies for sustainable water utilization appear to have started replenishing the aquifers in western and southern parts of India.

  20. Factors Influencing And Alternative Policies Offered Of Social Conflicts Indigenous Peoples Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Deni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the social conflicts of indigenous peoples especially in North Maluku. The purpose of this review is to find out some factors causing indigenous peoples social conflicts in North Maluku and to produce alternative solutions as a policy to develop indigenous peoples livelihoods. The review resulted in several factors causing social conflicts of indigenous peoples such as the unclear boundary between the two parties the customary violations by the forest businessmen the injustice of the law enforcement officers in solving the problems the destruction of the indigenous people and the forest community narrow forest the lack positive contribution of forest management so far to indigenous peoples and forest communities companies do not involve indigenous peoples andor forest communities in forest exploitation destruction of customary buildings as places of worship deforestation timber exploitation while timber by indigenous peoples is sacred wood or abstinence to be felled. Alternative solutions are required by local government such as policy on legal recognition of indigenous peoples indigenous peoples empowerment implementation of indigenous peoples aspirations indigenous peoples economic development based on local wisdom and dispute resolution of indigenous peoples through special courts of a holistic nature.

  1. Factors Influencing the Conversion of Arable Land to Urban Use and Policy Implications in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daquan Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urban land expansion and the resulting arable land loss have put food security in China at risk. This paper investigates the characteristics and mechanism of arable land conversion in Beijing using a logistic model based on land-use data for 2001 and 2010. The results suggest that (1 arable land conversion tends to occur near built-up areas, city centers and major roads; (2 arable land that lies closer to irrigation canals and country roads is less likely to be converted to urban use; (3 arable land that is bigger in size and has a more regular shape has a lower probability of conversion to urban use; and (4 the Prime Farmland Protection policy and related land-use plan have played a positive role in preserving arable land, demonstrated by the probability for arable land conversion inside a prime farmland boundary is 63.9 percent less than for land outside the boundary. Based on these findings and on sustainable-development principles, we suggest that, rather than an exclusive focus on controlling the quantity of arable land, the location and characteristics of the arable land should be a primary consideration when designing urban policies and plans.

  2. Setting the Record Straight: Interest Group Influence on Climate Policy at the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jeffrey J.

    It is clear that interest groups are involved in the rulemaking process at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but it has been difficult to determine whether certain groups are more influential on outcomes. This debate persists because the literature illustrates that groups can be influential at discrete stages in the process, but the field rarely analyzes the entire rulemaking process. This uncertainty has spurred controversy regarding the EPA's recent climate change regulations. Therefore, this dissertation conducted three case studies of recent climate change regulations and addresses three questions. First, what, if any, strategies did interest groups use to influence the content of these climate change rules? Second, did these strategies translate into influence? Third, what can these climate change case studies tell us about the role of interest groups in other controversial rules at the EPA, and across the bureaucracy more broadly? Ultimately, I argue that interest group influence was generally balanced across each of the three case studies. These findings then serve as the basis to develop my Regulatory Spheres of Influence Framework. The framework illustrates that given the nature of EPA rulemakings, it is very difficult for one side either business or environmental to dominate the process in highly controversial rules. It is possible that these conclusions track to other controversial rules across the bureaucracy and I note that my framework could be applied in other contexts to test this assertion.

  3. The Role of Civil Society in Influencing Public Health Policy for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research will also raise awareness of the benefits of civil society participation and produce sound evidence that can help build strategic coalitions and influence ... IDRC is pleased to announce a new funding opportunity aimed at fostering effective, long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater ...

  4. Approximating Model Equivalence in Interactive Dynamic Influence Diagrams Using Top K Policy Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Y.; Chen, Y.; Doshi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    Interactive dynamic influence diagrams (I-DIDs) are graphical models for sequential decision making in uncertain settings shared by other agents. Algorithms for solving I-DIDs face the challenge of an exponentially growing space of behavioral models ascribed to other agents over time. Previous ap...

  5. Influences of Instructional Policies on Novice Teacher Cognition: Help or a Hindrance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök Kaça, Gökçen; Yigitoglu, Nur

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how novice English as a foreign language teachers (EFL) navigate their teaching in a university setting while attending an in-service teacher training program to improve their teaching skills. The purpose is to explore the influences of the curriculum followed at an intensive English program on novice teachers' cognitions.…

  6. The influence of bremsstrahlung on electric discharge streamers in N2, O2 gas mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhn, Christoph; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Streamers are ionization filaments of electric gas discharges. Negative polarity streamers propagate primarily through electron impact ionization, whereas positive streamers in air develop through ionization of oxygen by UV photons emitted by excited nitrogen; however, experiments show that posit......Streamers are ionization filaments of electric gas discharges. Negative polarity streamers propagate primarily through electron impact ionization, whereas positive streamers in air develop through ionization of oxygen by UV photons emitted by excited nitrogen; however, experiments show...... concentrations: no oxygen, 1 ppm O2 and 20% O2, as in air. At these oxygen levels, UV-relative to bremsstrahlung ionization is zero, small, and large. The simulations are conducted with a particle-in-cell code in a cylindrically symmetric configuration at ambient electric field magnitudes three times...

  7. A 3-D numerical model of the influence of meanders on groundwater discharge to a gaining stream in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balbarini, Nicola; Boon, Wietse M.; Nicolajsen, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater discharge to streams depends on stream morphology and groundwater flow direction, but are not always well understood. Here a 3-D groundwater flow model is employed to investigate the impact of meandering stream geometries on groundwater discharge to streams in an unconfined...... of stream morphology and flow direction to other parameters was quantified by varying the stream width, the meander amplitude, the magnitude of the hydraulic gradient, the hydraulic conductivity, and the aquifer thickness. Implications for a real stream were then investigated by simulating groundwater flow...... to a stream at a field site located in Grindsted, Denmark. The simulation of multiple scenarios was made possible by the employment of a computationally efficient coordinate transform numerical method. Comparison of the scenarios showed that the geometry of meanders greatly affect the spatial distribution...

  8. Influence of a high-frequency pulsed nanosecond diffusion discharge in the nitrogen atmosphere on the electrical characteristics of a CdHgTe epitaxial films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D.; Voitsekhovskii, A.; Korotaev, A.; Lyapunov, D.; Lozovoy, K.; Tarasenko, V.; Shulepov, M.; Erofeev, M.; Ripenko, V.; Dvoretskii, S.; Mikhailov, N.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of a high-frequency nanosecond volume discharge forming in an inhomogeneous electrical field at atmospheric pressure on the CdHgTe (CMT) epitaxial films is studied. The measurement of the electrophysical parameters of the CMT specimens upon irradiation shows that that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of CMT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high-conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of CMT narrow-band solid solutions and production of structures heterogeneous with respect to conduction.

  9. Importance of wind and river discharge in influencing nutrient dynamics and phytoplankton production in summer in the central Strait of Georgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, K.D.; Goldblatt, R.H.; Harrison, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    A cruise was conducted during August 6-14, 1991 to investigate the dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton production in the central Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada, during a period when strong stratification resulted in nitrogen-limited primary productivity. High resolution vertical...... that summer phytoplankton productivity in the central Strait of Georgia is fueled by a supply of nutrients from the nitracline through vertical mixing induced by the interaction of winds, river discharge and tidal cycles. Of these 3 factors, winds are the most variable and therefore a summer with frequent...... profiles of salinity, temperature, fluorescence and nutrients (nitrate and phosphate) were taken daily along a transect. A wind event occurred on August 7 and a rapid increase in the Fraser River discharge took place from August 8 to 14. The wind event mixed the water column and nutrients increased...

  10. The evaluations of the influence of surface conductivity to the energy of particles in discharge channel and interaction force in contact charging process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alisoy, H.Z. [Department of Electric and Electronics Engineering, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)]. E-mail: halis@inonu.edu.tr; Alisoy, G.T. [Department of Mathematics Education, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Sahin, A. [Department of Physics, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey); Yeroglu, C. [Department of Electric and Electronics Engineering, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-12-18

    In this Letter, we present some analytical expressions by using the equations of electric field, inside and outside of a cylindrical void, taking the surface conductivity into consideration. We apply the obtained expressions to the high voltage insulation and ion electron technology, such as: (i) energies of charged particles occurring in discharge channel in accordance with Townsend approach; (ii) interaction force between the dielectric particle and the electrode for DC and AC cases.

  11. Influence of Triply-Charged Ions and Ionization Cross-Sections in a Hybrid-PIC Model of a Hall Thruster Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of xenon ionization rates to collision cross-sections is studied within the framework of a hybrid-PIC model of a Hall thruster discharge. A revised curve fit based on the Drawin form is proposed and is shown to better reproduce the measured crosssections at high electron energies, with differences in the integrated rate coefficients being on the order of 10% for electron temperatures between 20 eV and 30 eV. The revised fit is implemented into HPHall and the updated model is used to simulate NASA's HiVHAc EDU2 Hall thruster at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500 V. For all three operating points, the revised cross-sections result in an increase in the predicted thrust and anode efficiency, reducing the error relative to experimental performance measurements. Electron temperature and ionization reaction rates are shown to follow the trends expected based on the integrated rate coefficients. The effects of triply-charged xenon are also assessed. The predicted thruster performance is found to have little or no dependence on the presence of triply-charged ions. The fraction of ion current carried by triply-charged ions is found to be on the order of 1% and increases slightly with increasing discharge voltage. The reaction rates for the 0?III, I?III, and II?III ionization reactions are found to be of similar order of magnitude and are about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate of 0?II ionization in the discharge channel.

  12. The influence of the N(2D) and N(2P) states in the ionization of the pink afterglow of the nitrogen flowing DC discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levaton, J.; Klein, A. N.; Binder, C.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work, we extensively discuss the role of N(2D) and N(2P) atoms in the ionization processes of pink afterglow based on optical emission spectroscopy analysis and kinetic numerical modelling. We studied the pink afterglow generated by a nitrogen DC discharge operating at 0.6 Slm-1 flow rate, 45 mA discharge current and pressures ranging from 250 to 1050 Pa. The 391.4 nm nitrogen band was monitored along the afterglow furnishing the relative density of the N2+(B2Σ+u, v = 0) state. A numerical model developed to calculate the nitrogen species densities in the afterglow fits the excited ion density profiles well for the experimental conditions. From the modelling results, we determine the densities of the N+, N2+, N3+, and N4+ ions; the calculations show that the N3+ ion density predominates in the afterglow at the typical residence times of the pink afterglow. This behaviour has been observed experimentally and reported in the literature. Furthermore, we calculate the fractional contribution in the ionization for several physical-chemical mechanisms in the post-discharge. Even with the N3+ ion density being dominant in the afterglow, we find through the calculations that the ionization is dominated by the reactions N(2D) + N(2P) → N2+(X2Σ+g) + e and N2(a'1Σ-u) + N2(X 1Σg+, v > 24) → N4+ + e. The ion conversion mechanisms, or ion transfer reactions, which are responsible for the fact that the N3+ density dominates in the post-discharge, are investigated.

  13. Influence of waste management policy on the characteristics of beach litter in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ta-Kang; Wang, Meng-Wei; Chen, Ping

    2013-07-15

    Marine debris is a ubiquitous problem that poses a serious threat to the global oceans; it has motivated public participation in clean-up campaigns, as well as governmental involvement in developing mitigation strategies. While it is known that the problem of marine litter may be affected by waste management practices on land, beach survey results have seldom been compared with them. In this study, marine litter surveys on four beaches of Cijin Island were conducted to explore the effects of waste management and policy implications. Indirect evidence shows that chances for land-based litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, entering the marine environment can be greatly decreased if they can be properly reduced, reused and recycled. We suggest that mitigation measures should focus on source reduction, waste recycling and management, utilizing effective economic instruments, and pursuing a long-term public education campaign to raise the public awareness of this problem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing local ecological knowledge maintenance in Mediterranean watersheds: Insights for environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García Del Amo, David; García-Nieto, Ana Paula; Piñeiro, Concepción; Montes, Carlos; Martín-López, Berta

    2015-05-01

    Local ecological knowledge (LEK) has been found to be one of the main bridges to manage biocultural diversity. We analyzed the factors affecting LEK maintenance and transmission in a Mediterranean watershed. We used a mixed methods approach to evaluate the agricultural LEK in three different dimensions: biological, soil and water management, and forecasting. We found that the main factors for its maintenance were the respondent's time living in the area and the social relationships established among farmers, which involved partner collaboration and farmer information exchanges. Protected areas also played a key role for maintaining the LEK associated with soil and water management. Finally, we found that outmigration and mechanization were the most important indirect drivers of change underlying LEK erosion. We suggest that environmental policies should focus on promoting this experiential knowledge, considering both intergenerational renewal and the gendered aspects of this knowledge.

  15. National and state policies influencing the care of children affected by AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, K M

    2000-04-01

    The portrait of HIV-affected children and youth that emerges from this policy overview is still one of children obscured from view by the shadow of their parents' and siblings' illness and policies that only address the needs of HIV-infected individuals. In addition, the secrecy and stigma that still surround HIV and AIDS make it difficult for HIV-affected children and youth to benefit as fully as they might from policies and programs that provide more generic types of care and assistance. Our failure as a nation to better illuminate the plight of HIV-affected children and youth can only leave us with a generation of children who are at greater risk of psychiatric illness, involvement with the criminal justice system, substance abuse, and contracting HIV. To avoid these consequences, both public and private sectors must place the spotlight on the development of new policies and programs designed to specifically meet their needs. Because the solutions defy traditional disciplinary and administrative boundaries, we also need to become more skilled at interagency planning and collaboration. No one system alone can be responsive to the many social, mental health, legal, and support needs of these children and their caretakers. More specifically, recommendations for improved systems of care to HIV-affected children, youth, and their families are as follows: To promote and fund cross-disciplinary initiatives among agencies that administer child welfare services, income supports, AIDS care, and children's mental health services at the national, state, and local levels to specifically meet the mental health, psychosocial, and permanency planning needs of HIV-affected children and youth. To provide training opportunities for Ryan White Title I, II, and III case managers on assessing the needs of HIV-affected children and youth, developmental theories and concepts, principles of family-centered care, and child welfare issues. To increase funding of the Ryan White CARE Act to

  16. Analysing key influences over actors' use of evidence in developing policies and strategies in Nigeria: a retrospective study of the Integrated Maternal Newborn and Child Health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere O; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Chikezie, Ifeanyi; Ezumah, Nkoli; Das, Mahua; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S C

    2016-04-12

    Evidence-informed policymaking has been promoted as a means of ensuring better outcomes. However, what counts as evidence in policymaking lies within a spectrum of expert knowledge and scientifically generated information. Since not all forms of evidence share an equal validity or weighting for policymakers, it is important to understand the key factors that influence their preferences for different types of evidence in policy and strategy development. A retrospective study was carried out at the national level in Nigeria using a case-study approach to examine the Nigerian Integrated Maternal Newborn and Child Health (IMNCH) strategy. Two frameworks were used for conceptualization and data analysis, namely (1) to analyse the role of evidence in policymaking and (2) the policy triangle. They were used to explore the key contextual and participatory influences on choice of evidence in developing the IMNCH strategy. Data was collected through review of relevant national documents and in-depth interviews of purposively selected key policy and strategic decision makers. Thematic analysis was applied to generate information from collected data. The breadth of evidence used was wide, ranging from expert opinions to systematic reviews. The choice of different types of evidence was found to overlap across actor categories. Key influences over actors' choice of evidence were: (1) perceived robustness of evidence - comprehensive, representative, recent, scientifically sound; (2) roles in evidence process, i.e. their degree and level of participation in evidence generation and dissemination, with regards to their role in the policy process; and (3) contextual factors such as global agenda and influence, timeline for strategy development, availability of resources for evidence generation, and lessons learnt from previous unsuccessful policies/plans. Actors' preferences for different types of evidence for policy are influenced not only by the characteristics of evidence itself

  17. The Second-Image Reversed and Climate Policy: How International Influences Helped Changing Brazil’s Positions on Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjur Kasa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available International climate policy over the last 7–8 years has been characterized by the increasing involvement of developing countries. While COP-13 at Bali marked a stronger willingness to participate in mitigation efforts in principle, there are now numerous examples of domestic programs for mitigation by this group of countries. Brazil has gone furthest among developing countries, with a substantial voluntary commitment to reduce its emissions proclaimed in 2009. The dynamics behind the change in Brazil’s position are discussed, with a particular eye to the effects of international influences. In conjunction with important domestic changes, a set of interacting influences through a variety of pathways both changed preferences among important interest groups in Brazilian society towards favoring some kind of commitments and helped to change the structure of government forums and decision-making rules in a way that empowered reform-minded ministries. It is argued that this perspective, drawn from Peter Gourevitch’s idea of the “second image reversed”, is increasingly relevant for understanding the influence of the broad “regime complex” on climate change on politics in developing countries.

  18. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    the United States’ area of influence. The Doctrine was initially focused on old European powers (specifically France , Spain and to a smaller extent...73 William Bollinger , "Villalobos on "Popular Insurrection"." Latin American Perspectives 16, no. 3...Conflict: The Case of Ronald Reagan and El Salvador." International Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (Mar. 1996): 23-44. Bollinger , William. "Villalobos on

  19. Shades of grey; Assessing the contribution of the magno- and parvocellular systems to neural processing of the retinal input in the human visual system from the influence of neural population size and its discharge activity on the VEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcar, Valentine L; Baselgia, Silvana; Lüthi-Eisenegger, Barbara; Jäncke, Lutz

    2018-03-01

    Retinal input processing in the human visual system involves a phasic and tonic neural response. We investigated the role of the magno- and parvocellular systems by comparing the influence of the active neural population size and its discharge activity on the amplitude and latency of four VEP components. We recorded the scalp electric potential of 20 human volunteers viewing a series of dartboard images presented as a pattern reversing and pattern on-/offset stimulus. These patterns were designed to vary both neural population size coding the temporal- and spatial luminance contrast property and the discharge activity of the population involved in a systematic manner. When the VEP amplitude reflected the size of the neural population coding the temporal luminance contrast property of the image, the influence of luminance contrast followed the contrast response function of the parvocellular system. When the VEP amplitude reflected the size of the neural population responding to the spatial luminance contrast property the image, the influence of luminance contrast followed the contrast response function of the magnocellular system. The latencies of the VEP components examined exhibited the same behavior across our stimulus series. This investigation demonstrates the complex interplay of the magno- and parvocellular systems on the neural response as captured by the VEP. It also demonstrates a linear relationship between stimulus property, neural response, and the VEP and reveals the importance of feedback projections in modulating the ongoing neural response. In doing so, it corroborates the conclusions of our previous study.

  20. Cap-and-trade policy: The influence on investments in carbon dioxide reducing technologies in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahie, Monique

    With most of the energy produced in the state of Indiana coming from coal, the implementation of policy instruments such as cap-and-trade, which is included in the most recent climate bill, will have significant effects. This thesis provides an analysis of the effects that a cap-and-trade policy might have on the investment decisions for alternative technologies in the power plant sector in Indiana. Two economic models of representative coal-fired power plants, Gallagher (600MW) and Rockport (2600MW), are selected and used to evaluate the repowering decision of a plant for several technologies: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), wind farm combined with natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC). The firm will make its decisions based on the net present value (NPV) of cost estimates for these CO2 reducing technologies, the cost of purchasing offsets and CO 2 allowances. This model is applied to a base case and three American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 cases derived from the Energy Information Administration (EIA, 2009b). A sensitivity analysis is done on the discount rate and capital costs. The results of the study indicate that a SCPC plant without carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the least costly compliance option for both plants under all of the cases while retrofitting the existing plant with CCS is the most expensive. Gallagher's three least expensive options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and investment in wind plus NGCC. Rockport's three least expensive compliance options across most scenarios were SCPC without CCS, the operation of the existing plant as is and IGCC without CCS. For both plants, when a 12% discount rate is utilized, NPV of costs are generally lower and the operation of the existing plant technology with the aid of allowances and offsets to be in compliance is the cheapest option. If capital costs were to decrease by 30%, a SCPC

  1. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual human technology: capturing sex, race, and age influences in individual pain decision policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Adam T; Alqudah, Ashraf F; Stutts, Lauren A; Robinson, Michael E

    2008-11-15

    Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. This study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and pain expression. Participants provided computerized ratings with Visual Analogue Scales on the VH's pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, negative mood, coping, and need for medical treatment. Idiographic analyses revealed that individuals used pain expression most frequently as a significant cue. Nomothetic analyses showed that higher pain expression VH and female VH were viewed as having higher pain intensity, higher pain unpleasantness, greater negative mood, worse coping, and a greater need to seek medical treatment than lower pain expression VH and male VH, respectively. Older VH were viewed as having worse coping and a greater need to seek medical treatment than younger VH. This innovative paradigm involving VH technology and a lens model design was shown to be highly effective and could serve as a model for future studies investigating pain-related decision making in healthcare providers.

  3. Influence of the European Union Traffic Policy on Traffic Development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Joining the European Union is the strategic priority for theRepublic of Croatia. Croatia has always been part of the Europeaneconomic region. The success of adaptability of the Croatianindust1y, particularly of Croatian traffic, to the EuropeanUnion, will greatly depend on the possibility of establishing contractualrelations of the economic and traffic branches with theEU. Therefore, this paper considers in more detail the traffic aspectsof integration.It is a fact that the EU traffic policy is contained in the RomanAgreement (1957 whose aim was elimination of the barriersfor the flows of goods, se1vices and capital, and the integrationof the European region. Thus, it requires equal treatmentof all the traffic branches and all the carriers, freedom forthe activities of transport companies, as welT as freedom for these1vice users to choose the transport means and carriers. Thisnaturally requires maximum rationality in fi·eight flows reflectedon the financial and commercial business activities of acompany.To converge maximally with the European Union is thestrategic priority of the Republic of Croatia, and within the Croatianindus fly this will especially require the adaptation of theCroatian traffic. The basic precondition for the functioning ofthe traffic ~ystem on the European transport market is the compliancewith the rules and standards determined by the internationalconventions.

  4. State policy influence on the early diffusion of buprenorphine in community treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Amanda J

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Buprenorphine was approved for use in the treatment of opioid dependence in 2002, but its diffusion into everyday clinical practice in community-based treatment programs has been slow. This study examines the net impact of efforts by state agencies, including provision of Medicaid coverage, on program-level adoption of buprenorphine as of 2006. Methods Interviews were conducted with key informants in 49 of the 50 state agencies with oversight responsibility for addiction treatment services. Information from these interviews was integrated with organizational data from the 2006 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services. A multivariate logistic regression model was estimated to identify the effects of state efforts to promote the use of this medication, net of a host of organizational characteristics. Results The availability of Medicaid coverage for buprenorphine was a significant predictor of its adoption by treatment organizations. Conclusion Inclusion of buprenorphine on state Medicaid formularies appears to be a key element in ensuring that patients have access to this state-of-the-art treatment option. Other potential barriers to the diffusion of buprenorphine require identification, and the value of additional state-level policies to promote its use should be evaluated.

  5. Effective discharge analysis of ecological processes in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M.W.; Stanley, E.H.; Strayer, D.L.; Jacobson, R.B.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Discharge is a master variable that controls many processes in stream ecosystems. However, there is uncertainty of which discharges are most important for driving particular ecological processes and thus how flow regime may influence entire stream ecosystems. Here the analytical method of effective discharge from fluvial geomorphology is used to analyze the interaction between frequency and magnitude of discharge events that drive organic matter transport, algal growth, nutrient retention, macroinvertebrate disturbance, and habitat availability. We quantify the ecological effective discharge using a synthesis of previously published studies and modeling from a range of study sites. An analytical expression is then developed for a particular case of ecological effective discharge and is used to explore how effective discharge varies within variable hydrologic regimes. Our results suggest that a range of discharges is important for different ecological processes in an individual stream. Discharges are not equally important; instead, effective discharge values exist that correspond to near modal flows and moderate floods for the variable sets examined. We suggest four types of ecological response to discharge variability: discharge as a transport mechanism, regulator of habitat, process modulator, and disturbance. Effective discharge analysis will perform well when there is a unique, essentially instantaneous relationship between discharge and an ecological process and poorly when effects of discharge are delayed or confounded by legacy effects. Despite some limitations the conceptual and analytical utility of the effective discharge analysis allows exploring general questions about how hydrologic variability influences various ecological processes in streams. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Simulation of the influence high-frequency (2 MHz) capacitive gas discharge and magnetic field on the plasma sheath near a surface in hypersonic gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, I. V.

    2012-01-01

    The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.

  7. Influence of a single lightning discharge on the intensity of an air electric field and acoustic emission of near-surface rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Smirnov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect was observed as a sharp fall of the electric potential gradient from +80 V m−1 down to –21 V m−1. After that the field returned to its normal level according to the formula of the capacitor discharge with 17 s characteristic time. Simultaneously, the response of the acoustic emission of surface rocks in the range of frequencies between 6.5 kHz and 11 kHz was evaluated.

  8. Evolution of N2(A3Σ+u) in streamer discharges: influence of oxygen admixtures on formation of low vibrational levels.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Milan; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, Václav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 50 (2017), č. článku 504002. ISSN 0022-3727 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-04023S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : nitrogen * air * streamer * laser-induced fluorescence * LIF Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics ) Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6463/aa96f3

  9. Effects of electric discharges on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagirov, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: One of the reasons for the worsening of electrical properties of polymeric isolation in use in the effect of the electric discharges which developing in the gas inclusions and in the interlayer inside the isolation itself. The electrical discharges in the gas gap lead to the electrical growing old and the worsening of its electro physical qualities. We have learned the changes of electrical properties (dielectrical permeability and dielectrical loss, and electrical conductivity, electrical strength) of polymer films under the influence of electrical discharges. This paper shows the ways of increase of stability of polymers to the electrical discharges

  10. OA34 Forum on end of life: working to influence policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Catherine; Murphy, Sarah; Clarke, Patricia Rickard

    2015-04-01

    The Forum on End of Life in Ireland was launched in 2009 and has conducted a year-long public consultation about end of life issues. A National Council was set up to carry out the work of the Forum. Think Ahead is a public awareness initiative of the Forum on End of Life in Ireland which guides people in recording important information in the event that they are unable to speak for themselves, due to serious illness, emergency or death. The Forum has advocated for legislation of advance health care directives and has worked to raise awareness among members of the public in relation to their rights. Currently in Ireland while common law recognises people's right to express preferences and make directives, there has been no legislative framework for this, despite European and international law regarding personal autonomy and the right to self-determination. Organised briefings and information seminars for public representatives Organised public meetings and national conferences which deal with the importance of advance healthcare directives Spoke of the importance of advance healthcare directives and advance care planning as part of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament) Health Committee hearings on end of life Called for wider national end of life strategy to take a comprehensive approach to end of life issues, including health, legal, administrative, financial and social. Advance healthcare directives are provided for in the Assisted Decision Making (Capacity) Bill 2013. The aforementioned Bill has yet to be enacted and there remains work to be done in developing policy in this area. © 2015, Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra D Syphard

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide

  12. Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Massada, Avi Bar; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for

  13. Land use planning and wildfire: development policies influence future probability of housing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D; Bar Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Keeley, Jon E

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of homes are being destroyed by wildfire in the wildland-urban interface. With projections of climate change and housing growth potentially exacerbating the threat of wildfire to homes and property, effective fire-risk reduction alternatives are needed as part of a comprehensive fire management plan. Land use planning represents a shift in traditional thinking from trying to eliminate wildfires, or even increasing resilience to them, toward avoiding exposure to them through the informed placement of new residential structures. For land use planning to be effective, it needs to be based on solid understanding of where and how to locate and arrange new homes. We simulated three scenarios of future residential development and projected landscape-level wildfire risk to residential structures in a rapidly urbanizing, fire-prone region in southern California. We based all future development on an econometric subdivision model, but we varied the emphasis of subdivision decision-making based on three broad and common growth types: infill, expansion, and leapfrog. Simulation results showed that decision-making based on these growth types, when applied locally for subdivision of individual parcels, produced substantial landscape-level differences in pattern, location, and extent of development. These differences in development, in turn, affected the area and proportion of structures at risk from burning in wildfires. Scenarios with lower housing density and larger numbers of small, isolated clusters of development, i.e., resulting from leapfrog development, were generally predicted to have the highest predicted fire risk to the largest proportion of structures in the study area, and infill development was predicted to have the lowest risk. These results suggest that land use planning should be considered an important component to fire risk management and that consistently applied policies based on residential pattern may provide substantial benefits for

  14. Assessing the influence of Environmental Impact Assessments on science and policy: an analysis of the Three Gorges Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, Desiree

    2009-07-01

    The need to understand and minimize negative environmental outcomes associated with large dams has both contributed to and benefited from the introduction and subsequent improvements in the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process. However, several limitations in the EIA process remain, including those associated with the uncertainty and significance of impact projections. These limitations are directly related to the feedback between science and policy, with information gaps in scientific understanding discovered through the EIA process contributing valuable recommendations on critical focus areas for prioritizing and funding research within the fields of ecological conservation and river engineering. This paper presents an analysis of the EIA process for the Three Gorges Project (TGP) in China as a case study for evaluating this feedback between the EIA and science and policy. For one of the best-studied public development projects in the world, this paper presents an investigation into whether patterns exist between the scientific interest (via number of publications) in environmental impacts and (a) the identification of impacts as uncertain or priority by the EIA, (b) decisions or political events associated with the dam, and (c) impact type. This analysis includes the compilation of literature on TGP, characterization of ecosystem interactions and responses to TGP through a hierarchy of impacts, coding of EIA impacts as "uncertain" impacts that require additional study and "priority" impacts that have particularly high significance, mapping of an event chronology to relate policies, institutional changes, and decisions about TGP as "events" that could influence the focus and intensity of scientific investigation, and analysis of the number of publications by impact type and order within the impact hierarchy. From these analyses, it appears that the availability and consistency of scientific information limit the accuracy of environmental impact

  15. [The influence of counseling for patients with cancer on their discharge from the palliative care support department of the community health care service of Minoh City Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suita, Tomoko; Kato, Rika; Fujita, Misao; Hidaka, Kumi; Iijima, Shohei

    2014-12-01

    Counseling for patients with cancer by a certified nurse in palliative care began in April 2011 in Minoh City Hospital. Counseling was provided immediately after a patient was informed by the treating physician of a primary diagnosis of cancer, a metastatic recurrence, or a decision to terminate cancer therapy. We examined the patient's support system after the counseling ended. The number of patients receiving end-of-life support with home or hospital care rapidly increased from 118 prior to the program's beginning to 186. The number of patients counseled was comparable to the rapid increase in their number(n=68). New cases in the outpatient department comprised 59% of all patients, of which, 45% began supportive counseling, with 43%of them ultimately returning home. Of the new cases receiving counseling in the hospital, 34%eventually returned home after discharge, and the highest percentage of discharges were to a palliative care unit or hospice program (48%). The initiation of counseling in the outpatient department allowed us to provide sufficient time to make decisions about appropriate places for end-of-life care. Cooperation with the patients' physicians was necessary to provide counseling from the outpatient department. Our findings suggest the importance of sharing the patients' medical and social information among the staff when necessary.

  16. The Influence of Organizational Reconciliation Policies and Culture on Workers Stress Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Work-family reconciliation plays a crucial role in the well-being of employees, having impacts at the individual, social and organizational level. Studies concluded that poor work-life balance as one of the ten predictors of psychosocial risks at work. A family-friendly culture relates to how an organization values and allows the articulation of the various spheres of its workers’ life. We intended to determine the effect of different variables like the existence of services, the organizational culture and the managers and colleagues support, on the stress experienced. A sample of 156 employees, from five organizations in the same region of Portugal, responded to a survey contributing to the empirical results of the study. We have conducted a structural equation model to test whether the factor solution of the perception of the reconciliation capability - STRESS model demonstrated a goodness of fit to the population studied. We’ve concluded that more important than the existence of reconciliation services, the perception of a supportive organizational culture, namely by colleagues and supervisors has great influence in reconciliation capability and by that way on work stress feelings. This might explain why workers do not use all the spectrum of resources provided by organizations and states to work-life reconciliation.

  17. Analysis of environmental regulatory proposals: Its your chance to influence policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A.

    1994-03-02

    As part of the regulatory development process, the US Envirorunental Protection Agency (EPA) collects data, makes various assumptions about the data, and analyzes the data. Although EPA acts in good faith, the agency cannot always be aware of all relevant data, make only appropriate assumptions, and use applicable analytical methods. Regulated industries must carefully must carefully review every component of the regulatory decision-making process to identify misunderstandings and errors and to supply additional data that is relevant to the regulatory action. This paper examines three examples of how EPA`s data, assumptions, and analytical methods have been critiqued. The first two examples involve EPA`s cost-effectiveness (CE) analyses prepared for the offshore oil and gas effluent limitations guidelines and as part of EPA Region 6`s general permit for coastal waters of Texas and Louisiana. A CE analysis regulations to the incremental amount of pollutants that would be removed by the recommended treatment processes. The third example, although not involving a CE analysis, demonstrates how the use of non-representative data can influence the outcome of an analysis.

  18. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  19. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could ...

  20. Elbow replacement - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total elbow arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic elbow replacement - discharge ... Pain is normal after elbow replacement surgery. It should get better over time. Your doctor will give you a prescription for pain medicine. Get it filled when ...

  1. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... return in: 4 to 9 weeks after your delivery if you're not breastfeeding 3 to 12 ... can start sexual activity around 6 weeks after delivery, if the discharge or lochia has stopped. Women ...

  2. A Systematic Review of the Factors Influencing Ethnic Minority Women's Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior: From Intrapersonal to Policy Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dorothy N S; So, Winnie K W

    Cervical cancer can be prevented by effective screening using Papanicolaou tests, but the utilization rate is lower among ethnic minorities than in the general population. Understanding the factors influencing minorities' use of such screening can aid the design of an appropriate intervention to increase their uptake rate. The aims of this study were to examine the factors that influence ethnic minority women in using cervical cancer screening and the similarities and differences in associated factors across different groups and to explore the interrelationships between the factors identified. A literature search was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, Scopus, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Furthermore, 1390 articles were retrieved, of which 24 met the inclusion criteria. Critical appraisal was performed by means of a quality assessment tool. The findings were summarized in tabular and narrative forms. The findings showed that certain factors commonly affected ethnic minority women's screening behavior, including knowledge, attitude and perceptions, physician's recommendation, quality of care and service, language, and acculturation. Culture-related factors, religion, and acculturation exhibited close interrelationships with the attitude and perceptions factor, resulting in behavioral change. The review sheds light on how common or unique are the factors across ethnic minorities and how these factors interact to influence behavior. Further studies are warranted to develop and test empirically a comprehensive model leading to a better understanding of the interrelationships between multiple factors. The model should be useful in informing policy makers about appropriate resource allocation and in guiding the development of culturally relevant programs to increase screening uptake.

  3. Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

    2013-06-01

    Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

  4. Heart attack - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  5. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  6. How Do Teachers' Unions Influence Education Policy? What We Know and What We Need to Learn. Working Paper #42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Joshua; Strunk, Katharine O.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider more than three decades of research on teachers' unions in the United States. Focusing on unions' role in shaping education policy, we argue that collective bargaining and political organizing comprise the two central but distinct forms of influence at the district, state and national levels of decision-making. We note…

  7. The Influence of Mandatory Arrest Policies, Police Organizational Characteristics, and Situational Variables on the Probability of Arrest in Domestic Violence Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David

    2005-01-01

    Prior research into factors predicting arrest in domestic violence cases is limited in three regards: (a) no examination of whether mandatory arrest policies are associated with increased risk of arrest across multiple jurisdictions; (b) little consideration of whether police organizational characteristics influence arrest in such cases; and (c)…

  8. Influence of Special Needs Education Policy on Access to Secondary School Education by Learners with Hearing Impairments in Nandi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhombe, Joseph Andrew; Rop, Naftali K.; Ogola, Fredrick O.; Wesonga, Justus Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine influence of Special Needs Education Policy on access to secondary school education by learners with hearing impairments in Nandi County, Kenya. The study was informed by the Multiple Intelligences theory and the Dewey theory of Progressivism. The findings showed that majority of the respondents were aware of the…

  9. Influence of Host Community on Industrial Relations Practices and Policies: A Survey of Agbara Community and Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidi, Christopher O.; Shadare, Oluseyi A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of host community on industrial relations practices and policies using Agbara community and Power Holding Company of Nigeria PLC as a case. The study adopted both the qualitative and quantitative methods. A total of 120 samples were drawn from the population using the simple random sampling technique in which…

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That Influence Enrolling in Alternative Educational Options: Adult Perceptions and Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis-McNerney, Violet

    2013-01-01

    This research obtained information using focus groups as qualitative method to determine the factors that influenced alternative education decisions. The purpose of this study was to help bridge theory, research, and educational practices and examine policy reform efforts. Through the lenses of returning adult education students, this research…

  11. Influence of Selected Factors on the Implementation of Information and Communication Technology Policy in Public Secondary Schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Njoroge Ngugi; Ngugi, Margaret; Kinzi, Joab

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected factors on implementation of Information and Communication Technology in public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county, Kenya. The study investigated whether the ICT infrastructural cost, schools' visions, and teachers' ICT skills hinder effective implementation of ICT policy in…

  12. Influence of 'third' elements and structure on the results of spectral analysis of high alloyed steels and cast iron with glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buravlev, Yu.M.; Zamarajev, V.P.; Chernyavskaya, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    The experimental technique consists in estimation of mutual arrangement of the calibration curves obtained using standard reference materials of low-alloyed and high-alloyed (high-chrome, stainless, high-speed) steels as well as of the curves for carbon steels and cast iron differing in their structure. ARL-31000 and Polyvac E-1000 quantometers with U=1300 V, I=0.12 A and argon pressure ∼1 kPa are used. The influence of third elements is shown in shift and slope changes of the curves for abovementioned high-alloyed steels in comparison to ones for low-alloyed steels accepted as basic. The influence magnitude runs up to 10-30 relative percents and more in the case of analysis of carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, silicon and other elements and depends on the type of the element and on the alloy composition. It is shown that the contribution of structure factor caused by different alloy thermal treatment makes up 10 to 20 relative percents. The experiments showed that the increase of influence of these factors caused by their imposing as well as the weakening of this influence caused by their counteraction is possible. When analyzed alloys differ in their composition and manufacturing technology it is necessary to take into consideration the influence of these effects. (author)

  13. Influence of the iodide/iodine redox system on the self-discharge of AC/AC electrochemical capacitors in salt aqueous electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qamar Abbas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-discharge (SD of AC/AC (AC=activated carbon electrochemical capacitors in aqueous solutions of lithium sulfate (Li2SO4 and lithium sulfate+iodide salts (Li2SO4+KI or Li2SO4+LiI was investigated at 24 °C and −40 °C after cell potential hold at values from 1 V to 1.6 V. At 24 °C, the cells exhibit lower SD in Li2SO4+KI than in Li2SO4, owing to the redox activity of the 2I−/I2 system which drives the positive AC electrode to operate in narrow potential range and display lower potential drop than in Li2SO4. At −40°C, the capacitors exhibit comparable and reduced SD both in Li2SO4+LiI and Li2SO4, whatever the holding cell potential. Three-electrode cell experiments demonstrate that, at −40 °C, hydrogen chemisorption is thermodynamically unfavored under negative polarization, while the activity of the 2I−/I2 redox system under positive polarization is only slightly reduced. As a consequence, the AC/AC cells in Li2SO4 exhibit a typical electrical double-layer performance at −40°C, whereas they still behave as hybrid ones in Li2SO4+LiI, with twice higher capacitance than in Li2SO4. The (Ui-Ut vs t1/2 plots demonstrate that SD is essentially controlled by diffusion at −40°C, suggesting that it originates from bulkier hydrated ions. Overall, in the investigated temperature range, the AC/AC capacitors in Li2SO4+LiI demonstrate low self-discharge and high capacitance, while being able to operate up to 1.6 V.

  14. The influence of health care policies and health care system distrust on willingness to undergo genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Putt, Mary; Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Grande, David; Schwartz, Jerome Sanford; Liao, Kaijun; Marcus, Noora; Demeter, Mirar Bristol; Shea, Judy

    2012-05-01

    health care system distrust, suggesting that policy decisions about delivery of genetic testing may influence differences in uptake across patient subgroups defined by levels of distrust rather than by race.

  15. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  16. The influence of Span-20 surfactant and micro-/nano-Chromium (Cr) Powder Mixed Electrical Discharge Machining (PMEDM) on the surface characteristics of AISI D2 hardened steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, N. A. J.; Lajis, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The application of powder mixed dielectric to improve the efficiency of electrical discharge machining (EDM) has been extensively studied. Therefore, PMEDM have attracted the attention of many researchers since last few decades. Improvement in EDM process has resulted in the use of span-20 surfactant and Cr powder mixed in dielectric fluid, which results in increasing machiniability, better surface quality and faster machining time. However, the study of powder suspension size of surface charateristics in EDM field is still limited. This paper presents the improvement of micro-/nano- Cr powder size on the surface characteristics of the AISI D2 hardened steels in PMEDM. It has found that the reacst layer in PMEDM improved by as high as 41-53 % compared to conventional EDM. Also notably, the combination of added Cr powder and span-20 surfactant reduced the recast layer thickness significantly especially in nano-Cr size. This improvement was great potential adding nano-size Cr powder to dielectric for machining performance.

  17. Key factors that influence government policies and decision making about healthcare priorities: Lessons for the field of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, the demand for healthcare exceeds what individuals and governments are able to afford. Priority setting is therefore inevitable, and mental health services have often been given low priority in the decision-making process. Drawing on established economic criteria, and specifically the work of Philip Musgrove, key factors which influence government decision-making about health priorities are reviewed. These factors include the size of the health burden, the availability of cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden, whether private markets can provide the necessary treatment efficiently, whether there are "catastrophic costs" incurred in accessing treatment, whether negative externalities arise from not providing care, and if the "rule of rescue" applies. Beyond setting priorities for resource allocation, governments also become involved where there is a need for regulation to maintain quality in the delivery of healthcare. By providing field-specific examples for each factor, we illustrate how advocates in the eating disorder field may use evidence to inform government policy about resource allocation and regulation in support of individuals with an eating disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The influence of social support on patients' quality of life after an intensive care unit discharge: A cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburgs, B.; Nijkamp, M.D.; Bakker, E.C.; Hoeven, H. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the influence of instrumental, emotional and informative support on the quality of life of former intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to establish their preferred sources of social support. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: In a cross-sectional survey, former intensive care patients

  19. Adult Education/Lifelong Learning Policies in Greece in the Early 2010s: Influences from European Education Policy and National Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokou, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that adult education/lifelong learning policies in Greece, as these are expressed by law 3879/2010 "Development of Lifelong Learning and Other Provisions," have the characteristics of the "statist" model of lifelong learning in Europe, namely strong governmental control and centralization. However, there are…

  20. Evolution of N2(A3 \\Sigma _{u}^{+} ) in streamer discharges: influence of oxygen admixtures on formation of low vibrational levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Prukner, V.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of N2(A3 Σ u+ ) metastable species, produced by cathode-directed streamer discharge, was investigated using the technique of laser-induced fluorescence. A triggered single streamer filament was periodically produced in pure nitrogen (and in nitrogen with admixtures of oxygen) at total pressure of 50 Torr and metastable species were monitored during the streamer channel decay in the centre of the discharge gap. We revealed the dynamics of individual vibrational (v  =  0–8) levels of N2(A3 Σ u+ ) for various oxygen admixtures (0–20%). In pure nitrogen, the observed evolution of the N2(A3 Σ u+ ) during the decaying streamer channel is evidence of initial vibrational relaxation of high vibrational levels towards the v  =  2 and 3 levels, followed by a delayed increase of terminal (v  =  0, 1) levels. A calibration procedure based on the rate of energy-pooling processes was used to place all detected vibronic levels in pure nitrogen on the absolute scale. Population maxima exceeding 1  ×  1014 cm‑3 were fixed for the v  =  2 and 3 vibrational levels, while the lowest v  =  0 level reaches only 3  ×  1013 cm‑3. Populations of v  =  2–5 vibrational levels were also estimated for N2  +  O2 mixtures after scaling of laser-induced fluorescence signals obtained at various oxygen admixtures. The total N2(A3 Σ u+ ) population in an air-like mixture is formed mainly by v  =  3–4 vibronic levels with the population maximum of ~3  ×  1013 cm‑3 fixed at the shortest analyzed delay. This observation, together with the fact that we were unable to detect v  =  0 and 1 levels (fluorescence signals below detection threshold), gives a strong evidence of the inhibition of Δv  =  2 vibrational relaxation towards terminal v  =  0 and 1 levels, causing much lower populations of the lowest v  =  0–1 levels. By analyzing data obtained in

  1. Influence of Nitrided Layer on The Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced on X105CrMo17 Steel Under DC Glow-Discharge Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz BOROWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, machine components, which come in contact with each other, are made of steel. Common steel types include 100Cr6 and X105CrMo17 are widely used in rolling bearings, which are subjected to high static loads. However, more and more sophisticated structural applications require increasingly better performance from steel. The most popular methods for improving the properties of steel is carburisation or nitriding. Unfortunately, when very high surface properties of steel are required, this treatment may be insufficient. Improvement of tribological properties can be achieved by increasing the hardness of the surface, reducing roughness or reducing the coefficient of friction. The formation of composite layers on steel, consisting of a hard nitride diffusion layer and an external carbon coating with a low coefficient of friction, seems to be a prospect with significant potential. The article describes composite layers produced on X105CrMo17 steel and defines their morphology, surface roughness and their functional properties such as: resistance to friction-induced wear, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The layers have been formed at a temperature of 370°C in successive processes of: nitriding in low-temperature plasma followed by deposition of a carbon coating under DC glow-discharge conditions. An evaluation was also made of the impact of the nitrided layers on the properties and morphology of the carbon coatings formed by comparing them to coatings formed on non-nitrided X105CrMo17 steel substrates. A study of the surface topography, adhesion, resistance to friction-induced wear and corrosion shows the significant importance of the substrate type the carbon coatings are formed on.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7532

  2. Research influence on antimalarial drug policy change in Tanzania: case study of replacing chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as the first-line drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in Tanzania is often constrained by poor communication between researchers and policy decision-makers, individual perceptions or attitudes towards the drug and hesitation by some policy decision-makers to approve change when they anticipate possible undesirable repercussions should the policy change as proposed. Internationally, literature on the role of researchers on national antimalarial drug policy change is limited. Objectives To describe the (a role of researchers in producing evidence that influenced the Tanzanian government replace chloroquine (CQ with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP as the first-line drug and the challenges faced in convincing policy-makers, general practitioners, pharmaceutical industry and the general public on the need for change (b challenges ahead before a new drug combination treatment policy is introduced in Tanzania. Methods In-depth interviews were held with national-level policy-makers, malaria control programme managers, pharmaceutical officers, general medical practitioners, medical research library and publications officers, university academicians, heads of medical research institutions and district and regional medical officers. Additional data were obtained through a review of malaria drug policy documents and participant observations were also done. Results In year 2001, the Tanzanian Government officially changed its malaria treatment policy guidelines whereby CQ – the first-line drug for a long time was replaced with SP. This policy decision was supported by research evidence indicating parasite resistance to CQ and clinical CQ treatment failure rates to have reached intolerable levels as compared to SP and amodiaquine (AQ. Research also indicated that since SP was also facing

  3. Research influence on antimalarial drug policy change in Tanzania: case study of replacing chloroquine with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine as the first-line drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubyazi, Godfrey M; Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2005-10-20

    Research is an essential tool in facing the challenges of scaling up interventions and improving access to services. As in many other countries, the translation of research evidence into drug policy action in Tanzania is often constrained by poor communication between researchers and policy decision-makers, individual perceptions or attitudes towards the drug and hesitation by some policy decision-makers to approve change when they anticipate possible undesirable repercussions should the policy change as proposed. Internationally, literature on the role of researchers on national antimalarial drug policy change is limited. To describe the (a) role of researchers in producing evidence that influenced the Tanzanian government replace chloroquine (CQ) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line drug and the challenges faced in convincing policy-makers, general practitioners, pharmaceutical industry and the general public on the need for change (b) challenges ahead before a new drug combination treatment policy is introduced in Tanzania. In-depth interviews were held with national-level policy-makers, malaria control programme managers, pharmaceutical officers, general medical practitioners, medical research library and publications officers, university academicians, heads of medical research institutions and district and regional medical officers. Additional data were obtained through a review of malaria drug policy documents and participant observations were also done. In year 2001, the Tanzanian Government officially changed its malaria treatment policy guidelines whereby CQ--the first-line drug for a long time was replaced with SP. This policy decision was supported by research evidence indicating parasite resistance to CQ and clinical CQ treatment failure rates to have reached intolerable levels as compared to SP and amodiaquine (AQ). Research also indicated that since SP was also facing rising resistance trend, the need for a more effective drug was

  4. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  5. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  6. Surgical discharge summaries: improving the record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D C; Bristol, J B; Poskitt, K R

    1993-03-01

    The problem area of communication between hospital and general practitioners may potentially be improved by the advent of new information technology. The introduction of a regional computer database for general surgery allows the rapid automated production of discharge summaries and has provided us with the opportunity for auditing the quality of old and new styles of discharge communication. A total of 118 general practitioners were sent a postal questionnaire to establish their views on the relative importance of various aspects of patient information and management after discharge. A high response rate (97%) indicated the interest of general practitioners in this topic. The majority (73%) believed that summaries should be delayed no more than 3 days. The structured and shortened new format was preferred to the older style of discharge summary. The older format rarely arrived within an appropriate time and its content was often felt to be either inadequate (35%) or excessive (7%) compared with the new format (8% and 1%, respectively). The diagnosis, information given to the patient, clinic date, list of medications and investigations were considered the more important details in the summary. Improvements in the discharge information were suggested and have subsequently been incorporated in our discharge policy. The use of new information technology, intended to facilitate clinical audit, has improved our ability to generate prompt, well-structured discharge summaries which are accepted by the general practitioners.

  7. Influence of accelerated thermal charging and discharging cycles on thermo-physical properties of organic phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raam Dheep, G.; Sreekumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of organic phase change materials namely benzamide and sebacic acid. • Thermal reliability studies on identified phase change materials. • Measurement of phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion. • Analysis of relative percentage difference (RPD%) in heat of fusion and melting temperature of benzamide and sebacic acid. - Abstract: Integration of appropriate thermal energy storage system plays a predominant role in upgrading the efficiency of solar thermal energy devices by reducing the incongruity between energy supply and demand. Latent heat thermal energy storage based on phase change materials (PCM) is found to be the most efficient and prospective method for storage of solar thermal energy. Ensuring the thermal reliability of PCM through large number of charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) cycles is a primary prerequisite to determine the suitability of PCM for a specific thermal energy storage applications. The present study explains the experimental analysis carried out on two PCM’s namely benzamide and sebacic acid to check the compatibility of the material in solar thermal energy storage applications. The selected materials were subjected to one thousand accelerated melting and solidification cycles in order to investigate the percentage of variation at different stages on latent heat of fusion, phase transition temperature, onset and peak melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the phase transition temperature and heat of fusion upon completion of every 100 thermal cycles and continued up to 1000 cycles. Relative Percentage Difference (RPD%) is calculated to find out the absolute deviation of melting temperature and latent heat of fusion with respect to zeroth cycle. The experimental study recorded a melting temperatures of benzamide and sebacic acid as 125.09 °C and 135.92 °C with latent heat of fusion of 285.1 (J/g) and 374.4 (J/g). The

  8. The Victims of Terrorism: An Assessment of Their Influence and Growing Role in Policy, Legislation, and the Private Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Bruce; Kasupski, Anna-Britt

    2007-01-01

    .... counterterrorism policy and legislation. These groups were remarkably successful in getting the 9/11 Commission established as well as the enactment of the commission's most important recommendations...

  9. Russian National Security Policy: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crutcher, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... The workshop examined that policy in terms of factors influencing Russian national security policy formulation, Russia's perceptions of the world and itself, current Russian security and foreign...

  10. The influence of state-level policy environments on the activation of the Medicaid SBIRT reimbursement codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Jesse; Bray, Jeremy; Kaiser, David; Mallonee, Erin

    2017-02-01

    To examine how institutional constraints, comprising federal actions and states' substance abuse policy environments, influence states' decisions to activate Medicaid reimbursement codes for screening and brief intervention for risky substance use in the United States. A discrete-time duration model was used to estimate the effect of institutional constraints on the likelihood of activating the Medicaid reimbursement codes. Primary constraints included federal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant funding, substance abuse priority, economic climate, political climate and interstate diffusion. Study data came from publicly available secondary data sources. Federal SBIRT grant funding did not affect significantly the likelihood of activation (P = 0.628). A $1 increase in per-capita block grant funding was associated with a 10-percentage point reduction in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.003) and a $1 increase in per-capita state substance use disorder expenditures was associated with a 2-percentage point increase in the likelihood of activation (P = 0.004). States with enacted parity laws (P = 0.016) and a Democratic-controlled state government were also more likely to activate the codes. In the United States, the determinants of state activation of Medicaid Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) reimbursement codes are complex, and include more than financial considerations. Federal block grant funding is a strong disincentive to activating the SBIRT reimbursement codes, while more direct federal SBIRT grant funding has no detectable effects. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Space-time clustering analysis of wildfires: The influence of dataset characteristics, fire prevention policy decisions, weather and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G; Tonini, Marj

    2016-07-15

    The present study focuses on the dependence of the space-time permutation scan statistics (STPSS) (1) on the input database's characteristics and (2) on the use of this methodology to assess changes on the fire regime due to different type of climate and fire management activities. Based on the very strong relationship between weather and the fire incidence in Portugal, the detected clusters will be interpreted in terms of the atmospheric conditions. Apart from being the country most affected by the fires in the European context, Portugal meets all the conditions required to carry out this study, namely: (i) two long and comprehensive official datasets, i.e. the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) and the National Mapping Burnt Areas (NMBA), respectively based on ground and satellite measurements; (ii) the two types of climate (Csb in the north and Csa in the south) that characterizes the Mediterranean basin regions most affected by the fires also divide the mainland Portuguese area; and, (iii) the national plan for the defence of forest against fires was approved a decade ago and it is now reasonable to assess its impacts. Results confirmed (1) the influence of the dataset's characteristics on the detected clusters, (2) the existence of two different fire regimes in the country promoted by the different types of climate, (3) the positive impacts of the fire prevention policy decisions and (4) the ability of the STPSS to correctly identify clusters, regarding their number, location, and space-time size in spite of eventual space and/or time splits of the datasets. Finally, the role of the weather on days when clustered fires were active was confirmed for the classes of small, medium and large fires. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Searching for value: the influence of policy and reform on nurses' sense of value in long-term aged care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturato, Lorraine; Kellett, Ursula; Windsor, Carol

    2006-12-01

    Contemporary literature on long-term aged care focuses heavily on issues associated with the recruitment and retention of nursing staff, such as job satisfaction and attitudes towards caring for older people. This paper aims to highlight one aspect of a larger study of registered nurses' experiences in long-term aged care in Australia and the influence that government policy and reform has in shaping that experience. This insight into aspects of nurses' everyday experience also contributes to a broader understanding of job satisfaction in long-term care. Findings from this study suggest that registered nurses experience tension in their search for value in their practice, which incorporates professional, political and social mediators of value and worth. These issues are discussed in relation to the impact of policy and reform on nurses' sense of value in long-term aged care and highlight the need for sensitive policy initiatives that support issues of value in nursing practice.

  13. Graywater Discharges from Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    both sewage and graywater, or sewage collected from “ honey dipper” trucks, which may contain far less graywater, depending on the source (See... crystal clean effluent discharge. As a reference, Cruiseliners equipped with Scanship AWP systems has obtained continous discharge permits in Hawaii and

  14. Paediatric vaginal discharge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vaginal discharge in the prepubertal patient is a common symptom, and can be a source of distress for the caregiver and con- cern for the healthcare worker. Several factors predispose these patients to the development of recurrent vaginal discharge. Unless noticed by the caregiver, this problem can persist for long periods ...

  15. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nausea or vomiting Any new or unusual symptoms Alternative Names Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge References D'Amico AV, Nguyen PL, Crook JM, et al. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, ...

  16. Policy space and the governance of education: transnational influences on institutions and identities in the Netherlands and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexiadou, N.; van de Bunt-Kokhuis, S.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of two country-specific cases. The comparative analysis is situated within the broad domain of the changing knowledge economy landscape for educational policy. The two cases examine the transfer, embedding and enactment of policies during the interactions

  17. Seeing It through: Advanced Strategies "for" Influencing Education Policy. Education Grantmakers Institute (Cambridge, Massachusetts, May 19-21, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Anne

    2009-01-01

    "No education grantmaker can afford to ignore public policy. Local, state and federal policies shape the context in which we work by establishing education standards, allocating resources and setting priorities for people working in education." So begins the report on Grantmakers for Educations' 2005 Grantmakers Institute, Foundation…

  18. Controlling corporate influence in health policy making? An assessment of the implementation of article 5.3 of the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooks, Gary Jonas; Smith, Julia; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2017-03-08

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) stands to significantly reduce tobacco-related mortality by accelerating the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control measures. However, the extent to which States Parties have implemented the Convention varies considerably. Article 5.3 of the FCTC, is intended to insulate policy-making from the tobacco industry's political influence, and aims to address barriers to strong implementation of the Convention associated with tobacco industry political activity. This paper quantitatively assesses implementation of Article 5.3's Guidelines for Implementation, evaluates the strength of Parties' efforts to implement specific recommendations, and explores how different approaches to implementation expose the policy process to continuing industry influence. We cross-referenced a broad range of documentary data (including FCTC Party reports and World Bank data on the governance of conflicts of interest in public administration) against Article 5.3 implementation guidelines (n = 24) for 155 Parties, and performed an in-depth thematic analysis to examine the strength of implementation for specific recommendations. Across all Parties, 16% of guideline recommendations reviewed have been implemented. Eighty-three percent of Parties that have taken some action under Article 5.3 have introduced less than a third of the guidelines. Most compliance with the guidelines is achieved through pre-existing policy instruments introduced independently of the FCTC, which rarely cover all relevant policy actors and fall short of the guideline recommendations. Measures introduced in response to the FCTC are typically restricted to health ministries and not explicit about third parties acting on behalf of the industry. Parties systematically overlook recommendations that facilitate industry monitoring. Highly selective and incomplete implementation of specific guideline recommendations facilitates

  19. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  20. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    More than 50 % of Danish agricultural areas are expected to be artificial tile drained. Transport of water and nutrients through the tile drain system to the aquatic environment is expected to be significant. For different mitigation strategies such as constructed wetlands an exact knowledge...... of the water load coming from the tile drainage system is therefore essential. This work aims at predicting tile drainage discharge using dynamic as well as a statistical predictive models. A large dataset of historical tile drain discharge data, daily discharge values as well as yearly average values were...... used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...

  1. TECHNICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITY ASSURANCE AND STANDARDS POLICY IN KENYAN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KEIYO SUB COUNTY OF ELGEIYO MARAKWET COUNTY, KENYA

    OpenAIRE

    Wambua Kyalo Benjamin; Kigen Viola J.; Khaemba Ongeti

    2017-01-01

    There is growing concern by various stakeholders about the declining student achievement and teacher performance highlighted by strong media publicity and frequently acknowledged in educational analysis in Kenyan schools. This paper examined technical and environmental factors influencing the implementation of Quality Assurance and Standards policy in public secondary schools in Kenya. The study was based on the Effective Schools Theory. This study employed a descriptive research design as it...

  2. UK strategy for radioactive discharges 2001-2020. Consultation document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This consultation draft of a strategy for radioactive discharges describes how the United Kingdom (UK) will implement the agreements reached at the 1998 Ministerial meeting of the OSPAR Commission, with regard to radioactive substances. It also provides a policy base for future reviews of discharge authorisations by the regulatory bodies and for strategic planning by the nuclear operators. The strategy sets a framework for radioactive discharges from UK installations over the next twenty years. Its aims are: progressive and substantial reductions in radioactive discharges from the UK as a whole and from each of the main sectors responsible for such discharges; progressive reduction of human exposure to ionising radiation resulting from radioactive discharges, so that no member of the general public in the UK will be exposed to a dose of more than 0.02 mSv a year, as a result of authorised radioactive discharges made from 2020 onwards; progressive reductions in concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment resulting from radioactive discharges, such that by 2020 they add close to zero to historic levels. The scope of the UK strategy encompasses radioactive discharges from nuclear licensed sites, defence activities and other nuclear and non-nuclear sources of radioactive discharges. It covers both liquid and aerial discharges, although it is assumed that in general liquid discharges will have the largest and most measurable effects in the marine environment

  3. From generic scheme to brand-generic scheme: Have new policy influenced the efficiency of Iranian pharmaceutical companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Yousefi, Mehdi; Yaghoubifard, Saeed; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2014-07-01

    Brand-generic scheme was implemented in Iran to improve the competition in the pharmaceutical market. In this study, we aim to assess if this policy had any positive effect on efficiency of Iranian pharmaceutical companies. We used data envelopment analysis to evaluate the relative efficiency of pharmaceutical companies during 1999-2008. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank and sign tests were used to assess the difference between mean technical efficiency of companies before and after implementation of the new policy. Although the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests did not show any significant differences in favor of the new policy in terms of both relative and pure (managerial) technical efficiency for included companies (P = 0.079 and 0.07, respectively), but the one-sided sign test indicated that only relative pure (managerial) efficiency has been improved after this policy (P = 0.031). The "brand-generic scheme" does not seem to be a successful policy to improve efficiency level and prompt competition in pharmaceutical companies in Iran. To achieve this aim, consideration of infrastructural requirements including transparent and non-discriminating laws and regulations to support competition, the competitive pricing policies, the presence of international companies in the market, and full privatization of companies had to be also deeming by policy makers.

  4. The Influence of Health Care Policies on Children's Health and Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 29, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, James M.; Boat, Thomas F.; Kelleher, Kelly J.

    2016-01-01

    Rates of health insurance for children have improved significantly over the past few decades, and more children have insurance than ever before in U.S. history. Health care does improve child health and well-being, but growing understanding of social and community influences has led health care practitioners to work toward more comprehensive and…

  5. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  6. Plasma return current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangano, J.A.; Hsia, J.; Jacob, J.H.; Srivastava, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    A discharge technique based on the use of an electron-beam-induced plasma return current to produce and heat large-volume plasmas is described. The results of discharge studies using this technique in attachment-dominated mixtures are presented. The results are found to be adequately described by a simple theory. The electron attachment rate by F 2 inferred from these measurements agrees well with those of other workers. KrF laser action at 248 nm is reported in return-current discharge-excited mixtures of F 2 /Kr/He

  7. Understanding the relationship between rainfall and river discharge: trends in an Amazonian watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Rodolfo; Guzha, Alphonce; Freire, Paula; Santos, Celso; Gerold, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    A research challenge in the Amazon rainforest is to understand different environmental patterns in a five million km2 region which with poor and/or unavailable environmental data. Deforestation and degradation in this forest have motivated intense monitoring activities in order to understand its impact and support the formulation of sustainable environmental policies. Time series analysis of hydrologic data is often use as a tool to evaluate watershed responses to climatic and anthropogenic influences. In this study, trend analysis of stream discharge from a 35600 km² watershed (Curuá River), located in southern Amazon was performed using 31 years discharge and rainfall data (1976-2006). The Curuá River is a tributary of Xingu River, site of the controversial Belo Monte dam. The aim of this work was to investigate the temporal variability of discharge, in relation to associated rainfall variability in order to contribute to a better understanding of the hydrological status of the watershed. The Mann Kendall non parametric tests were performed on daily, seasonal and annual discharge data. Frequency analysis using wavelet transform was also done, and annual and seasonal rainfall data was analyzed and correlated to discharge. Results from this study indicate decreasing trends in discharge (intra- and inter-annual) but while there is no evidence of a decreasing trend in in rainfall. Further interpretation of the data for possible causes of discharge changes is needed at the local study level, and implications of these results discussed in the context of climate change, deforestation and water resource management (including dam's constructions last decades). Results from this study do not confirm findings from other regional scale trend analyses, and therefore is it important to quantify the spatial extension of these decreasing stream flow trends in the Amazonia.

  8. Iran and Syria, a changing foreign policy. A comparative analysis of their internal links and influence regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Guerrero Turbay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there have been changes in the foreign policy of Syria and Iran, showing how their goals are far from immutable. Typically they have been associated and in some circles they talk of an alliance. However, this paper aims to show that although there is a convergence in a number of issues, their foreign policy priorities put them away. For this, the text is divided into two parts. First, there is a comparison of the internal links that condition the foreign policy in each state. Secondly, regional (and global? projection of the two nations is contrasted. Throughout the document, the notion of James Rosenau´s comparative study of foreign policy will be taken as a reference.

  9. Filament Discharge Phenomena in Fingerprint Acquisition by Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Ming; Xu Weijun; Liu Qiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the dielectric barrier discharge fingerprint acquisition technique is introduced. The filament discharge phenomena were observed in the process of fingerprint acquisition. The filament discharge reduced the quality of fingerprint images. Obviously, it was necessary to eliminate streamer discharges in order to get good fingerprint images. The streamer discharge was considered to be the cause of the filament discharge in the experiment. The relationship between the critical electric field and the discharge gap was calculated with the Raether's model of streamer discharge. The calculated results and our experiment proved that it would be difficult for the streamer discharge to occur when the discharge gap was narrow. With a narrow discharge gap, the discharge was homogeneous, and the fingerprint images were clear and large in area. The images obtained in the experiment are very suitable for fingerprint identification as they contain more information

  10. Human Resources Management and Effective Function of WLB Policies: A cross-national comparison of influence on workplace productivity (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUBARA Mitsuyo

    2011-01-01

    This study compares Japan and four other countries (the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Germany) with regard to human resources management, focusing on companies where work-life balance (WLB) policies are believed to have had a positive effect on workplace productivity. It aims to clarify the challenges in promoting WLB policies in Japan from the viewpoint of human resources management. The study has found the following: First, while incentive systems in the four foreign countrie...

  11. Are single children more likely to be overweight or obese than those with siblings? The influence of China's one-child policy on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Xue, Hong; Wang, Vivian H C; Li, Miao; Wang, Youfa

    2017-10-01

    China's one-child policy (1979-2015) has affected Chinese parenting practices and children's health behaviors and also may have contributed to increased childhood obesity. However, very limited research has investigated the association between one-child policy and childhood obesity. We examined characteristics of single-child families and the influence of one-child policy (indicated by single-child status) on children's weight status and related health behaviors. Data from children aged 6-18years old in the 2011 (n=1580) and 2000 (n=2317) China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed with multilevel models. From 2000 to 2011, the rates about doubled for being a single-child (30.1% to 57.0%) and being overweight or obese (OWB, 6.6% to 16.5%) along with urbanization (27.5% to 37.1%). Single-child families had higher levels of parental education, household income and urban residence than families with ≥ two children (pchildren with siblings, single children were more likely to be OWB; the association became stronger over time (OR=4.5 (1.7-12.4) in 2011 and 1.7 (1.0-2.8) in 2000). Also, single children had less recreational screen time, but similar physical activity levels; however single urban children were more likely to have excess total energy intake (OR=5.70 (1.58-20.60)) than those with siblings. Being single-child is about four times more likely to be overweight/obesity than those having siblings, and the association became stronger over time in China. China's one-child policy might have contributed to its rising childhood obesity rates. Obesity intervention programs may need to account for the influence of the one-child policy in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Controlled emptying with whole-area dischargers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Franke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available While emptying complex bulk solids apparatuses and silos, the discharger at container bottom can significantly affect the energy demand of the process and the product quality. At practice, a variety of discharge devices has been developed which differ in the closing mechanism and the design of their fixed inserts. Experimental studies with wheat have shown that some whole-area dischargers cause a distinctive flow profile. Due to their design, these systems offer an unexploited potential to locally influence the bulk solids motion and to realize a controlled emptying. Based on a prototype, a new type of discharge device has been developed at the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy e.V. (ATB. First results show that fixed baffles at the walls lead to a decelerated emptying at the sides of the discharge device. On the other hand, a complete renunciation of these installations results in a significant acceleration in the same regions. In future, it is intended to locally control the bulk solids movement by using an optimized design of the fixed inserts of the closing mechanism. Furthermore, it is intended to investigate how the drying process in mixed-flow grain dryers can be influenced and homogenized by using the newly developed discharge device.

  13. The patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process: experiences of district nurses, geriatric nurses and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydeman, IngBritt; Törnkvist, Lena

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the experiences of the discharge process among different professionals. An optimal discharge process for hospitalized elderly to other forms of care is of crucial importance, especially since health and medical policies encourages shorter hospital stays and increased healthcare service in outpatient care. Nurses and social workers from inpatient care, outpatient care, municipal care and social services were interviewed. Eight focus-group interviews with a total of 31 persons were conducted. The subsequent analyses followed a phenomenological approach. The findings revealed three themes, Framework, Basic Values and Patient Resources, which influenced the professionals' actions in the discharge process. The overall emerging structure comprised the patient's vulnerability, dependence and exposed situation in the discharge process. In conclusion some factors are of special importance for the co-operation and the actions of professionals involved in the discharge process. Firstly, a distinct and common framework, with conscious and organizationally based values. Secondly the need to take the patient resources into consideration. Together these factors could contribute to secure the patients involvement in the discharge process and to design an optimal, safe and good care. Collaborative approaches among a range of professionals within a variety of organizations are common, especially in the care of the elderly. The role and support of both the organizations and the educational units are decisive factors in this area.

  14. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000108.htm Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device that detects a life- ...

  15. Hypospadias repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000158.htm Hypospadias repair - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child had hypospadias repair to fix a birth defect in which ...

  16. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  17. Urethral discharge culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genital exudate culture; Culture - genital discharge or exudate; Urethritis - culture ... Augenbraun MH, McCormack WM. Urethritis. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. ...

  18. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000293.htm Thyroid gland removal - discharge To use the sharing features ... surgery. This will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid ...

  19. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  20. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... care for your child. Take Charge of Your Child's Asthma at Home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  1. Small bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - changing your pouch Ileostomy - discharge Ileostomy - what to ask your doctor Low-fiber diet Surgical wound care - open Types of ileostomy Wet-to-dry dressing ...

  2. Kidney stones - lithotripsy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000136.htm Kidney stones and lithotripsy - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny ...

  3. Chest radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - chest - discharge; Cancer - chest radiation; Lymphoma - chest radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after your first treatment: It may be hard ...

  4. Breast radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - breast - discharge ... away around 4 to 6 weeks after the radiation treatment is over. You may notice changes in ... breast looks or feels (if you are getting radiation after a lumpectomy). These changes include: Soreness or ...

  5. Brain radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  6. Epilepsy - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000127.htm Epilepsy in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  7. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000128.htm Epilepsy or seizures - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy . People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  8. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000129.htm Multiple sclerosis - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis (MS). This disease affects the brain and spinal ...

  9. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  10. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  11. Hip fracture - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 55. Read More Broken bone Hip fracture surgery Hip pain Leg MRI scan Osteoporosis - overview Patient Instructions Getting your home ready - knee or hip surgery Osteomyelitis - discharge Review ...

  12. Discharge lamp technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  13. Chaos in gas discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  14. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-10-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) laid down the cornerstone in the international cooperation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The UNFCCC provided a general framework for global cooperation to mitigate climate change. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC which formulated binding GHG emissions reduction targets did not result in universal participation. The United States- the major CO{sub 2} emitting country at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 - signed but did not ratify the Protocol. China - the current top CO{sub 2} emitter - does not belong to the list of countries which are committed to the CO{sub 2} reductions in the framework of the Protocol. Whereas the approach pursued within the UNFCCC is based on a goal-setting in the framework of the legally binding international treaties, an alternative approach to GHG mitigation presents a voluntary international cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation led to the development of the specific forms of cooperation between the public authorities and the stakeholders. Previous research referred to the organizations aimed at the transnational cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies to mitigate GHG emissions as the technology-oriented agreements (TOA). The literature on TOA focused on the scope of the contribution of the technology-oriented approach to the climate change mitigation targets. This PhD research project analyzes the influence of those specific forms of cooperation on policies in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The principal research question of the research project is formulated as follows - What is the influence of the technology-oriented agreements on policies aimed at supporting innovative technologies for mitigation of GHG emissions? The

  15. Interest mediation and policy formulation in the European Union. Influence of transnational technology-oriented agreements on European policy in the field of carbon capture and storage. Advances in systems analysis 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) laid down the cornerstone in the international cooperation to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels combustion. The UNFCCC provided a general framework for global cooperation to mitigate climate change. The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC which formulated binding GHG emissions reduction targets did not result in universal participation. The United States- the major CO 2 emitting country at the time of the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 - signed but did not ratify the Protocol. China - the current top CO 2 emitter - does not belong to the list of countries which are committed to the CO 2 reductions in the framework of the Protocol. Whereas the approach pursued within the UNFCCC is based on a goal-setting in the framework of the legally binding international treaties, an alternative approach to GHG mitigation presents a voluntary international cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The technology-oriented approach to climate change mitigation led to the development of the specific forms of cooperation between the public authorities and the stakeholders. Previous research referred to the organizations aimed at the transnational cooperation in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies to mitigate GHG emissions as the technology-oriented agreements (TOA). The literature on TOA focused on the scope of the contribution of the technology-oriented approach to the climate change mitigation targets. This PhD research project analyzes the influence of those specific forms of cooperation on policies in the field of development and deployment of innovative technologies. The principal research question of the research project is formulated as follows - What is the influence of the technology-oriented agreements on policies aimed at supporting innovative technologies for mitigation of GHG emissions? The research project

  16. Organisational culture and trust as influences over the implementation of equity-oriented policy in two South African case study hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin; Gilson, Lucy; Govender, Veloshnee; Nkosi, Moremi

    2017-09-15

    This paper uses the concepts of organisational culture and organisational trust to explore the implementation of equity-oriented policies - the Uniform Patient Fee Schedule (UPFS) and Patients' Rights Charter (PRC) - in two South African district hospitals. It contributes to the small literatures on organisational culture and trust in low- and middle-income country health systems, and broader work on health systems' people-centeredness and "software". The research entailed semi-structured interviews (Hospital A n = 115, Hospital B n = 80) with provincial, regional, district and hospital managers, as well as clinical and non-clinical hospital staff, hospital board members, and patients; observations of policy implementation, organisational functioning, staff interactions and patient-provider interactions; and structured surveys operationalising the Competing Values Framework for measuring organisational culture (Hospital A n = 155, Hospital B n = 77) and Organisational Trust Inventory (Hospital A n = 185, Hospital B n = 92) for assessing staff-manager trust. Regarding the UPFS, the hospitals' implementation approaches were similar in that both primarily understood it to be about revenue generation, granting fee exemptions was not a major focus, and considerable activity, facility management support, and provincial support was mobilised behind the UPFS. The hospitals' PRC paths diverged quite significantly, as Hospital A was more explicit in communicating and implementing the PRC, while the policy also enjoyed stronger managerial support in Hospital A than Hospital B. Beneath these experiences lie differences in how people's values, decisions and relationships influence health system functioning and in how the nature of policies, culture, trust and power dynamics can combine to create enabling or disabling micro-level implementation environments. Achieving equity in practice requires managers to take account of "unseen" but important factors such as

  17. Identifying discharge practice training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, L; Emmerson, K

    A training needs analysis tool was developed to identify nurses' discharge training needs and to improve discharge practice. The tool includes 49 elements of discharge practice subdivided into four areas: corporate, operational, clinical and nurse-led discharge. The tool was disseminated to 15 wards on two hospital sites with assistance from the practice development team. Analysis of discharge training is important to assess discharge training needs and to identify staff who may assist with training.

  18. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  19. The Impact of Policies Influencing the Demography of Age-Structured Populations: Lessons from Academies of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Winkler-Dworak, Maria; Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the role of policies aimed at regulating the number and age structure of elections on the size and age structure of five European Academies of Sciences. We show the recent pace of ageing and the degree of variation in policies across them and discuss the implications of different policies on the size and age structure of academies. We also illustrate the potential effect of different election regimes (fixed vs. linked) and age structures of election (younger vs. older) by contrasting the steady-state dynamics of different projections of Full Members in each academy into 2070 and measuring the size and age-compositional effect of changing a given policy relative to a status quo policy scenario. Our findings suggest that academies with linked intake (i.e., where the size of the academy below a certain age is fixed and the number of elections is set to the number of members becoming that age) may be a more efficient approach to curb growth without suffering any ageing trade-offs relative to the faster growth of academies electing a fixed number of members per year. We further discuss the implications of our results in the context of stable populations open to migration. PMID:23843677

  20. The Past, Present, and Future of Discharge Planning in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chuan Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Discharge planning is an interdisciplinary approach to provide continuity of care; it is a process that includes identification, assessment, goal setting, planning, implementation, coordination, and evaluation. Discharge planning has been viewed as a major way to enhance a smooth transition for patients from the hospital to home or other chronic care units and as a solution to solve problems associated with postdischarge care. The promotion of discharge planning began in the United States in the 1960s. Nursing scholars from Taiwan learned about the concept of discharge planning from the United States in the early 1980s and subsequently introduced it to Taiwanese medical institutions in 1985. A policy to promote discharge planning in Taiwan was announced by the Executive Yuan, Department of Health in 1993. Following the healthcare reforms in 1995, discharge planning has since been strongly promoted. Studies concerning discharge planning in Taiwan showed some promising results, including increased satisfaction of patients and their families, improved preparation of caregivers, and improved quality of life for patients. However, patients receiving interdisciplinary discharge planning services were still in the minority. There was no standard evaluation procedure for interdisciplinary discharge planning, and a high percentage of patients thought that hospitals handled the postdischarge long-term care services referral procedure inadequately. Despite the positive attitudes toward discharge planning, many physicians still demonstrate an unsatisfactory level of knowledge and behaviors with regard to discharge planning. To enhance the implementation of discharge planning, a standard evaluation procedure for interdisciplinary discharge planning and improved physician awareness concerning the importance of discharge planning are needed. In Taiwan, the improvement of discharge planning in the foreseeable future is promising with the accreditation of the

  1. Death in hospital and at home: population and health policy influences in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil (1996-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Iwamoto Marcucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and epidemiological transition involves prolonged terminal illnesses and an increased demand for end-stage support in health services, mainly in hospitals. Changes in health care and government health policies may influence the death locations, making it possible to remain at home or in an institution. The scope of this article is to analyze death locations in the city of Londrina, State of Paraná, from 1996 to 2010, and to verify the influence of population and health policy changes on these statistics. An analysis was conducted into death locations in Londrina in Mortality Information System (SIM considering the main causes and locations of death. There was an increase of 28% in deaths among the population in general, though 48% for the population over 60 years of age. There was an increase of deaths in hospitals, which were responsible for 70% of the occurrences, though death frequencies in others locations did not increase, and deaths in the home remained at about 18%. The locations of death did not change during this period, even with health policies that broadened care in other locations, such as the patient´s home. The predominance of hospital deaths was similar to other Brazilian cities, albeit higher than in other countries.

  2. Environmental Policy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Don

    1985-03-01

    This book tell US environmental problems and environmental conservation, theory with present situation of the problems, influence of environmental aggravation, and cause of environmental problems, environmental policy influencing environment such as the national environmental policy act in America, and the role of court and environmental policy act, jurisdiction investigation about administrative action which influence on environment, and standard of jurisdiction investigation in environmental problems and legislation of environmental rights.

  3. Measuring for Absorption: How the Institutionalisation of EU Cohesion Policy Influences the Use of Performance Indicators in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Károly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the performance measurement of the implementing agencies of EU Structural Funds in Hungary. Following the advice of Thiel and Leeuw (2002, we focus on the incentives created by the institutional environment of these agencies. The core of this environment is a double principal-agent relationship between the European Commission (EC, the national government and the Managing Authority. We investigate its institutional features and the resulting organisational incentives for Managing Authorities in Hungary. Relying on programme evaluations, we explore how these incentives actually affected the design and use of performance measurement by Authorities in two policy fields: active labour-market policy and higher education. We find that external incentives to focus on absorption and formal compliance created bias against integrating performance measurement into the policy process and tackling problems of performance risk and non-measurability.

  4. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact assessment (IA of all major European Union (EU policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA.In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA] within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since

  5. "Working the system"--British American tobacco's influence on the European union treaty and its implications for policy: an analysis of internal tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine E; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B

    2010-01-12

    Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost-benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical industries have since employed IA in

  6. “Working the System”—British American Tobacco's Influence on the European Union Treaty and Its Implications for Policy: An Analysis of Internal Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine E.; Fooks, Gary; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide; Mandal, Sema; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impact assessment (IA) of all major European Union (EU) policies is now mandatory. The form of IA used has been criticised for favouring corporate interests by overemphasising economic impacts and failing to adequately assess health impacts. Our study sought to assess how, why, and in what ways corporations, and particularly the tobacco industry, influenced the EU's approach to IA. Methods and Findings In order to identify whether industry played a role in promoting this system of IA within the EU, we analysed internal documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) that were disclosed following a series of litigation cases in the United States. We combined this analysis with one of related literature and interviews with key informants. Our analysis demonstrates that from 1995 onwards BAT actively worked with other corporate actors to successfully promote a business-oriented form of IA that favoured large corporations. It appears that BAT favoured this form of IA because it could advance the company's European interests by establishing ground rules for policymaking that would: (i) provide an economic framework for evaluating all policy decisions, implicitly prioritising costs to businesses; (ii) secure early corporate involvement in policy discussions; (iii) bestow the corporate sector with a long-term advantage over other actors by increasing policymakers' dependence on information they supplied; and (iv) provide businesses with a persuasive means of challenging potential and existing legislation. The data reveal that an ensuing lobbying campaign, largely driven by BAT, helped secure binding changes to the EU Treaty via the Treaty of Amsterdam that required EU policymakers to minimise legislative burdens on businesses. Efforts subsequently focused on ensuring that these Treaty changes were translated into the application of a business orientated form of IA (cost–benefit analysis [CBA]) within EU policymaking procedures. Both the tobacco and chemical

  7. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  8. International Organizations (IOs), Epistemic Tools of Influence, and the Colonial Geopolitics of Knowledge Production in Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Riyad A.

    2016-01-01

    While other scholars have analyzed the way that international organizations (IOs) in higher education policy may contribute to neocolonial domination, this paper illuminates not only on "how" IOs' epistemic activities promulgate one-size fit all solutions, but centers the colonial structures of knowledge/power that inform the…

  9. Meeting Total Fat Requirements for School Lunches: Influence of School Policies and Characteristics. Economic Research Report Number 87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Guthrie, Joanne; Mancino, Lisa; Ralston, Katherine; Musiker, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Concerns about child obesity have raised questions about the quality of meals served in the National School Lunch Program. Local, State, and Federal policymakers responded to these concerns beginning in the mid-1990s by instituting a range of policies and standards to improve the quality of U.S. Department of Agriculture-subsidized meals. Schools…

  10. The influence of hospital drug formulary policies on the prescribing patterns of proton pump inhibitors in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Due; Schou, Mette; Kristiansen, Anja Sparre

    2014-01-01

    for the recommended PPIs pantoprazole and lansoprazole to 14.6 and 26.1 %, respectively. The effect of a large discount on expensive PPI to hospital was 14.7 %, and this decreased to 2.6 % when coordinating drug policy in hospital and primary care. CONCLUSION: The likelihood of having an expensive PPI prescribed...

  11. On the Influence of the Industrialization Genesis on Modern Strategy of Industrial Policy in Russia: History and Economic Analisys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Vaskina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.

  12. Reculturing Schools in England: How "Cult" Values in Education Policy Discourse Influence the Construction of Practitioner Identities and Work Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The imperative of continuous improvement has now become normative in education policy discourse, typically framed as setting "aspirational" targets for pupil performance as a prerequisite for gaining competitive advantage in the global economy. In this context, teachers, leaders, teacher assistants and other practitioners working in…

  13. The Influence of Conflict Resolution Programs on Student Conduct Violations in Middle Schools with a School Uniform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenbach, Edward C.

    2010-01-01

    School safety is a very important issue for school staff, parents, and students. When school safety is lacking, students suffer in emotional, academic, and social areas. One recent intervention middle schools are examining is the student uniform policy. In some cases, school uniforms have been shown to have a profound effect on school safety,…

  14. Evidence-based health promotion for older people and instrumentalisation: comparing the influence of policy contexts in Austria and England

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Lang, G.; Resch, K.

    2012-01-01

    Health promotion (HP) amongst older people is an increasingly prominent policy concern for governments. The development of an evidence-base and the advocacy of effective interventions in the light of this act as legitimation tools for the overall HP phenomenon - assisting the growth of state and

  15. The relationship between inpatient discharge timing and emergency department boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Emilie S; Khare, Rahul K; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Van Roo, Ben D; Adams, James G; Reinhardt, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Patient crowding and boarding in Emergency Departments (EDs) impair the quality of care as well as patient safety and satisfaction. Improved timing of inpatient discharges could positively affect ED boarding, and this hypothesis can be tested with computer modeling. Modeling enables analysis of the impact of inpatient discharge timing on ED boarding. Three policies were tested: a sensitivity analysis on shifting the timing of current discharge practices earlier; discharging 75% of inpatients by 12:00 noon; and discharging all inpatients between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. A cross-sectional computer modeling analysis was conducted of inpatient admissions and discharges on weekdays in September 2007. A model of patient flow streams into and out of inpatient beds with an output of ED admitted patient boarding hours was created to analyze the three policies. A mean of 38.8 ED patients, 22.7 surgical patients, and 19.5 intensive care unit transfers were admitted to inpatient beds, and 81.1 inpatients were discharged daily on September 2007 weekdays: 70.5%, 85.6%, 82.8%, and 88.0%, respectively, occurred between noon and midnight. In the model base case, total daily admitted patient boarding hours were 77.0 per day; the sensitivity analysis showed that shifting the peak inpatient discharge time 4h earlier eliminated ED boarding, and discharging 75% of inpatients by noon and discharging all inpatients between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. both decreased boarding hours to 3.0. Timing of inpatient discharges had an impact on the need to board admitted patients. This model demonstrates the potential to reduce or eliminate ED boarding by improving inpatient discharge timing in anticipation of the daily surge in ED demand for inpatient beds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnetic-field control of low-pressure diffuse discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Application of a magnetic field in a direction transverse to the electric field in a diffuse discharge can have a strong effect on the transport parameters in the discharge medium and on the external characteristics of the discharge as a whole. Deviations in these transport parameters were investigated in this work by means of Monte Carlo calculations, and the electrical characteristics of the total discharge were observed experimentally. Results of the theoretical investigation show that, in attaching gas mixtures, both the ionization and attachment-rate coefficients in the positive column of the discharge are changed such that the combined effect results in an increase in resistivity. Experimentally, it is seen that application of a crossed magnetic field to an abnormal glow discharge in attaching gases in a certain parameter range causes the discharge voltage to increase significantly. The effect seems to be most strongly influenced by processes in the cathode-fall region

  17. Oil based mud discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiesma, R.

    1996-01-01

    The intensive use of oil based muds by the offshore oil and gas industry during the 1980s has caused considerable contamination around drilling sites. A recent investigation on the Norwegian continental shelf indicates that the situation is much worse than previously thought. This material suggests that oil pollution of this kind could be damaging the North Sea's endangered fish stocks, including cod, haddock and plaice. The amount of oil discharged in the UK sector is many times higher than in the other sectors, suggesting that the problem there may be even more serious. The amount discharged in the Dutch and Norwegian sectors are comparable. (author)

  18. [Diagnosis of vaginal discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcher, Sidsel; Helmig, Rikke Bek; Arpi, Magnus; Bjerrum, Lars

    2018-01-15

    Changes in vaginal discharge are often caused by imbalance in the vaginal microflora, and laboratory testing is usually of little use, as most microbes detected are commensals. In-office diagnosis in general practice using wet mount microscopy and Amsel criteria is helpful and often sufficient to ensure correct diagnosis and treatment. Laboratory testing of vaginal discharge should only be performed, if sexually transmitted disease is suspected, if there is treatment failure or inconclusive wet mount prior to gynaecological surgery, and in pregnant women with recurrent miscarriage or preterm birth.

  19. Red herring vaginal discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Pringle, Kirsty; Rajimwale, Ashok

    2013-09-18

    Labial hair tourniquet syndrome is a rare condition that can be easily misdiagnosed and ultimately lead to irreversible damage. An 11-year-old premenarche girl presented with a 5-day history of pain and swelling in the labia with associated vaginal discharge. The general practitioner treated her with clotrimazole without improvement. On examination, there was an oedematous swelling of the right labia with a proximal hair tourniquet. Local anaesthetic was applied and the hair removed with forceps. There was instant relief of pain and the discharge stopped within 24 h. The patient was sent home with a course of antibiotics.

  20. The influence of spatial resolution on human health risk co-benefit estimates for global climate policy assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsiu-Ching; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2015-03-15

    Assessment of the ability of climate policies to produce desired improvements in public health through co-benefits of air pollution reduction can consume resources in both time and research funds. These resources increase significantly as the spatial resolution of models increases. In addition, the level of spatial detail available in macroeconomic models at the heart of climate policy assessments is much lower than that available in traditional human health risk modeling. It is therefore important to determine whether increasing spatial resolution considerably affects risk-based decisions; which kinds of decisions might be affected; and under what conditions they will be affected. Human health risk co-benefits from carbon emissions reductions that bring about concurrent reductions in Particulate Matter (PM10) emissions is therefore examined here at four levels of spatial resolution (Uniform Nation, Uniform Region, Uniform County/city, Health Risk Assessment) in a case study of Taiwan as one of the geographic regions of a global macroeceonomic model, with results that are representative of small, industrialized nations within that global model. A metric of human health risk mortality (YOLL, years of life lost in life expectancy) is compared under assessments ranging from a "uniform simulation" in which there is no spatial resolution of changes in ambient air concentration under a policy to a "highly spatially resolved simulation" (called here Health Risk Assessment). PM10 is chosen in this study as the indicator of air pollution for which risks are assessed due to its significance as a co-benefit of carbon emissions reductions within climate mitigation policy. For the policy examined, the four estimates of mortality in the entirety of Taiwan are 747 YOLL, 834 YOLL, 984 YOLL and 916 YOLL, under Uniform Taiwan, Uniform Region, Uniform County and Health Risk Assessment respectively; or differences of 18%, 9%, 7% if the HRA methodology is taken as the baseline. While

  1. Using experiential marine debris education to make an impact: Collecting debris, informing policy makers, and influencing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katharine A

    2018-02-01

    The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Commentary: More implications of the 2008 amendments to the Americans with Disabilities Act: influencing institutional policies, practices, and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisa, Joel; Silverstein, Robert; Thomas, Peter

    2011-06-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a civil rights law designed to ensure that qualified individuals with disabilities are not discriminated against by covered entities. Under the ADA, colleges of medicine were expected to focus their attention on implementing policies that facilitated equal educational opportunity, not on the threshold question of whether an individual was considered "disabled enough" to be protected by the law. In this issue, Allen and Smith examine the implications of the 2008 ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) for medical education, focusing on the potential for the ADAAA to eliminate the threshold question and allow individuals seeking protection to bring their cases to trial.The authors of this commentary argue that the ADAAA also has important implications for institutions like colleges of medicine and the National Board of Medical Examiners that must not be overlooked. The impact of the ADAAA on colleges of medicine will depend in large part on how they historically viewed their obligations under the ADA. Those institutions that focused on eliminating all vestiges of disability discrimination by implementing comprehensive, system-wide, evidence-based policies, practices, and procedures related to reasonable accommodations and academic modifications/adjustments will experience little or no impact under the ADAAA. Those colleges that attempted to avoid or minimize compliance with the ADA by focusing on whether an individual achieved sufficient disability status to be protected by the law will need to pay closer attention to the development and implementation of nondiscrimination policies, particularly policies relating to reasonable accommodations and academic modifications/adjustments.

  3. The Influence of the Chicago School on the Commission's Guidelines, Notices and Block Exemption Regulations in EU Competition Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2016-01-01

    Antitrust rules are fundamentally informed and shaped by economic theories. Given the significance of EU competition policy for the European integration process, it is essential to disentangle the economic theories underlying EU competition law. There is abundant theoretical and empirical...... Commission incorporates Chicago School theory into EU competition law provisions. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the European Commission's guidelines, notices and block exemption regulations. The analysis reveals that the Commission does, to a considerable extent, follow the Chicago School...

  4. Reaching "an audience that you would never dream of speaking to": influential public health researchers' views on the role of news media in influencing policy and public understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Haynes, Abby; Derrick, Gemma; Sturk, Heidi; Hall, Wayne D; St George, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    While governments and academic institutions urge researchers to engage with news media, traditional academic values of public disengagement have inhibited many from giving high priority to media activity. In this interview-based study, the authors report on the views about news media engagement and strategies used by 36 peer-voted leading Australian public health researchers in 6 fields. The authors consider their views about the role and importance of media in influencing policy, their reflections on effective or ineffective media communicators, and strategies used by these researchers about how to best retain their credibility and influence while engaging with the news media. A willingness and capacity to engage with the mass media was seen as an essential attribute of influential public health researchers.

  5. Travel intensity and climate policy: The influence of different mobility futures on the diffusion of battery integrated vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The importance of a focus on mobility and the kilometres travelled using light duty vehicles is reflected in the persistence of strong demand for personal mobility and emissions that tend to be linked with population and economic growth. Simulation results using the WITCH model show that changes in the kilometres driven per year using light duty vehicles have a notable impact on investments related to the development of battery related technologies. As a result, different mobility futures have notably different optimal vehicle fleet compositions. As climate policy becomes more stringent, achieving abatement with increased mobility implies large investments in battery related technologies in comparison to the 2010 level. The model results also show that the Electric Vehicles Initiative goal of a 2% share of vehicles in 2020 could be achieved with climate policy in place. However, notable cost reductions and the removal of barriers to diffusion will need to continue for the EVI goal to be achieved. - Highlights: • Travel intensity of GDP at the national level shows signs of stability over an extended period. • Different mobility futures imply notably different optimal vehicle fleet compositions. • As climate policy becomes more stringent, investments in battery related technologies increase substantially. • The model results show that the Electric Vehicles Initiative goal of a 2% share of vehicles in 2020 could be achieved. • Cost reductions and the removal of barriers to diffusion will need to continue for the EVI goal to be achieved

  6. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  7. Heart bypass surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trouble with short-term memory or feel confused ("fuzzy-headed") Be tired or not have much energy ... or a fever over 101°F (38.3°C). Alternative Names Off-pump coronary artery bypass - discharge; ...

  8. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  9. MANAGEMENT OF VAGINAL DISCHARGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    , an oral antifungal should be used weekly, e.g. 100 mg flucona- zole.7. The discharge of candidiasis is curd- like and adherent due to direct hyphal invasion of epithelial tissues resulting in erythema of the vaginal epithelium. Clinical diagnosis ...

  10. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor - child Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus Ileostomy and your child Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - discharge Jejunostomy feeding tube Living with your ...

  11. Crohn disease - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor - child Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus Ileostomy and your child Ileostomy and your diet Ileostomy - caring for your stoma Ileostomy - discharge Jejunostomy feeding tube Living with your ...

  12. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  13. Response of bankfull discharge of the Inner Mongolia Yellow River ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and lagged influence on future bankfull discharge. Furthermore, Wu (2008), also using the channel of the lower reaches of the Yellow River as the target of research, established a lagged response model to predict bankfull discharge according to the self- adjustment ... started building again at a steady rate, leading to.

  14. Influence of N{sub 2} partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N{sub 2} vacuum arc discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M., E-mail: ascientific24@aec.org.sy [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Abdallah, B. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Ahmad, M. [IBA Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); A-Kharroub, M. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2016-08-15

    The influence of N{sub 2} partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N{sub 2} + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N{sub 2} partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N{sub 2} partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N{sub 2} partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N{sub 2} partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N{sub 2} partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N{sub 2} partial pressure.

  15. Electrostatic discharge concepts and definitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovina, Dan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Many objects -like a human body, plastic wrap, or a rolling cart -that are electrically neutral, overall, can gain a net electrostatic charge by means of one of three methods: induction, physical transfer, or triboelectric charging (separation of conductive surfaces). The result is a voltage difference between the charged object and other objects, creating a situation where current flow is likely if two objects come into contact or close proximity. This current flow is known as electrostatic discharge, or ESD. The energy and voltage of the discharge can be influenced by factors such as the temperature and humidity in the room, the types of materials or flooring involved, or the clothing and footwear a person uses. Given the possible ranges of the current and voltage characteristic of an ESD pulse, it is important to consider the safety risks associated with detonator handling, assembly and disassembly, transportation and maintenance. For main charge detonators, these safety risks include high explosive violent reactions (HEVR) as well as inadvertent nuclear detonations (lND).

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE STRATEGIC POLICY IN CREATING BUSINESS CLIMATE, BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT AND PROVIDING SUPPORT FACILITIES TOWARDS BUSINESS EMPOWERMENT ON SMALL MEDIUM CRAFT ENTERPRISES IN AMBON INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Papilaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing and explaining whether there was the influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities towards empowerment on small and medium enterprises as well as whether there is synchronously influence of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate, business environment and providing support facilities for business empowerment on small and medium scale enterprises through a survey in the city of Ambon. The results show, that there is a positive and significant effect of implementing the strategic policy in creating business climate to empower small and medium enterprises. There is a positive and significant effect on the business environment toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, there is a positive and significant effect of providing support facilities toward the empowerment of small and medium enterprises, and there is a positive and significant simultaneously effect in business climate, business environment and support facilities for business towards the empowerment of small business in Ambon city. Empowerment programs are conducted to maintain a conducive business climate, including: 1. the innovation promotion, 2. enhancing human resources through training development; 3. providing financial support, 4. giving support to the marketing strategy, 5. opening the business partnership. While the supporting facilities granted to small and medium enterprises including: 1. giving the fishing boat for the Fishermen, 2. providing the workshop (machine shop service facilities to small crafts business Enterprises, 3. establish vendors for small enterprises, 4. provide the area for street vendors, 5. provide tents for merchants culinary who work at night. Providing the assistance to encourage the business climate and create conducive business environment.

  17. Agent-based simulations of the influence of social policy and neighboring communication on the adoption of grid-connected photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-agent systems coupled with an electric power flow analysis. • Influence of social policy and communication on the adoption of photovoltaics. • Strong intervention near a transformer drives the greatest PV adoption. • Strong intervention far from a transformer increases social costs. - Abstract: Agent-based simulations coupled with an analysis of the flow of electric power are carried out to examine the influence of the social policy of the government and the neighboring communication between customers on the adoption of distributed rooftop photovoltaic electrical power generators (PVs). How the relationships between the social policy and the possibility of a reverse current restriction give rise to the collective behavior of autonomous individuals, and how the end customers interact and form relationships with its environment are described. Strong intervention by the government in the areas near a main high-voltage power distribution transformer, where the possibility of a reverse current restriction is relatively low, drives the greatest adoption of the PV system. The near areas are primarily occupied by customers with only a PV to improve the diffusion rate of PVs via the self-organization by the communication between customers. It also lead in a decrease in the need for compensation devices, which in turn minimizes the social cost. Growth in the number of PVs in areas far from the transformer is assisted by the installation of batteries as compensation for the lost opportunity due to restrictions in those areas on reverse power currents. Therefore, excessive intervention by the government in the far areas results in an increase in the social cost of managing reverse currents

  18. A study of the influence of regional environmental expenditure on air quality in China: the effectiveness of environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingyun; Wu, Meng; Wang, Deqing; Zhong, Zhangqi

    2018-03-01

    Based on the panel data model, data on environmental expenditures, the air quality index, economic aggregates, industrial structures, etc., of seven seriously polluted cities in China, from the period 2007-2015, were collected, and this paper estimates the general relationship between environmental expenditures and the air quality index. Besides, the impact of the fuel tax policy on air quality as well as on the relationship between environmental expenditure and the air quality index is tested using the method of regression discontinuity. We find that there is a long-term equilibrium relationship between environmental expenditure and air quality index as well as a 0.0507% positive effect of the former on the latter. Second, for Beijing, Taiyuan, Chongqing, and Lanzhou, a 1% increase in environmental expenditure leads to 0.0773, 0.0125, 0.0965, and 0.0912% decreases in the air quality index, respectively; however, for Shijiazhuang, Ji'nan, and Urumqi, effect of environmental expenditure on air quality is insignificant. Third, both economic growth and optimization of the industrial structure can lead to an improvement of air quality. Fourth, since the implementation of the fuel tax policy in 2009, the air quality of the sample cities has improved, and the pulling effect of environmental expenditure on the air quality index has decreased from 0.0507 to 0.0048%. Our findings cannot only clarify the effect of environmental expenditures on air quality but can also objectively judge the effectiveness of environmental policies of China to a certain extent. It may benefit Chinese government to effectively govern air pollution with fiscal tools in conjunction with economic and environmental characteristics.

  19. The Influence of R&D Policy on Performance of the Companies Listed with Bucharest Stock Exchange (through Intangible Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the new economy, R&D potential of the companies (reflected by intangible assets tends to make the difference between competing enterprises. Although investing in tangible assets is still viewed as important, the researchers have discovered that investors on capital market tend to buy stocks of the high-tech companies promoting a policy of increasing R&D expenditures.The results of the present study on the Romanian economy reveals the correlation between the variation of intangible assets of the chemicals and pharmaceuticals companies (high-tech and their performance – reflected by EPS and PER coefficients.

  20. Study of electric discharges between moving electrodes in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Pichugin, Yu. P.; Telegin, V. G.; Telegin, G. G.

    2011-01-01

    A barrier electric discharge excited between a fixed electrode and a rotating electrode covered with a dielectric layer in atmospheric-pressure air is studied experimentally. A distinctive feature of this type of discharge is that it operates at a constant voltage between the electrodes. An advantage of the proposed method for plasma generation in the boundary layer of the rotating electrode (e.g., for studying the influence of plasma on air flows) is the variety of forms of the discharge and conditions for its initiation, simplicity of the design of the discharge system, and ease of its practical implementation