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Sample records for discharge organic coatings

  1. Laser-fusion target fabrication: application of organic coatings to metallic and nonmetallic micropellets by the glow-discharge polymerization of p-xylene

    Simonsic, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-fusion targets require thin, uniform organic-film coatings. A coating technique involving glow-discharge polymerization is described for applying highly adherent, extremely uniform, thin films of a high-temperature polymer to a variety of microsubstrates. Polymeric coatings as thick as 10 μm have been successfully deposited on hollow, spherical, 40- to 250-μm-diam micropellets of glass, metal-coated glass, and nickel/manganese alloy. Experimental yields of coatings of a quality acceptable for laser-fusion targets are typically greater than 90 percent

  2. Flow accelerated organic coating degradation

    Zhou, Qixin

    Applying organic coatings is a common and the most cost effective way to protect metallic objects and structures from corrosion. Water entry into coating-metal interface is usually the main cause for the deterioration of organic coatings, which leads to coating delamination and underfilm corrosion. Recently, flowing fluids over sample surface have received attention due to their capability to accelerate material degradation. A plethora of works has focused on the flow induced metal corrosion, while few studies have investigated the flow accelerated organic coating degradation. Flowing fluids above coating surface affect corrosion by enhancing the water transport and abrading the surface due to fluid shear. Hence, it is of great importance to understand the influence of flowing fluids on the degradation of corrosion protective organic coatings. In this study, a pigmented marine coating and several clear coatings were exposed to the laminar flow and stationary immersion. The laminar flow was pressure driven and confined in a flow channel. A 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution and pure water was employed as the working fluid with a variety of flow rates. The corrosion protective properties of organic coatings were monitored inline by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement. Equivalent circuit models were employed to interpret the EIS spectra. The time evolution of coating resistance and capacitance obtained from the model was studied to demonstrate the coating degradation. Thickness, gloss, and other topography characterizations were conducted to facilitate the assessment of the corrosion. The working fluids were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and conductivity measurement. The influence of flow rate, fluid shear, fluid composition, and other effects in the coating degradation were investigated. We conclude that flowing fluid on the coating surface accelerates the transport of water, oxygen, and ions into the coating, as

  3. Deposition of protective coatings in rf organosilicon discharges

    Zajíčková, L.; Buršíková, V.; Kučerová, Z.; Franta, D.; Dvořák, P.; Šmíd, R.; Peřina, Vratislav; Macková, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2007), s. 123-132 ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06041 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : organosilicon discharges, hardness and elastic modulus, protectove coating s Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.120, year: 2007

  4. TiN coating on steel by pulsed capillary discharge

    Avaria, G; Favre, M; Bhuyan, H; Wyndham, E; Kelly, H; Grondona, D; Marquez, A

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic geometry of a pulsed capillary discharge (PCD)[1] establishes natural conditions for the formation of plasma jets, which expand in the chamber's neutral gas. A locally stored capacitor, coaxial with the capillary, is pulse charged to a maximum of -10kV, giving a current pulse of ∼10ns, ∼2kA. The discharge is operated in nitrogen, in a continuous pulsing mode, at a frequency of 50 Hz and pressures of 0.3 to 1 Torr. The coating produced by these plasma jets on substrates of AISI 304 stainless steel have been studied. The chamber's anode is made of titanium, which interacts with the nitrogen plasma producing TiN coatings on the substrates. The results are presented for the plasma characterization at different discharge pressures and times, as well as SEM, EDS and AFM analysis of deposits made. This characterization was carried out using Langmuir double probes, which provide data on the electronic temperature and density in the plasma jet. At the same time spectrographic studies of the plasma were carried out, and the presence of ionized atoms of titanium and nitrogen were observed. An inverse relation between the pressure of nitrogen present in the chamber and the thickness of the coating over steel was found, as well as a direct relationship between the temperature and plasma densities with the thickness of the deposit (CW)

  5. Evaluation of common organisms causing vaginal discharge.

    Khan, Shazia A; Amir, Fauzia; Altaf, Shagufta; Tanveer, Raazia

    2009-01-01

    Vaginal discharge is very common problem among females. Alteration in balance of normal vaginal organisms can cause the overgrowth of the bacteria that creates vaginal discharge. It is common among sexually active women yet there still remain gaps in our knowledge of this infectious disorder. To evaluate the frequency of bacterial vaginosis (BV), vaginal candidiasis (VC), vaginal trichomoniasis and Group B streptococcus in women complaining of vaginal discharge in our setup. A total of 100 women of reproductive age group with the complaint of vaginal discharge were included in the study. After filling proforma patients were examined by speculum examination and two high vaginal swabs (HVS) were collected aseptically from each patient. One swab was used for making wet mount for clue cells, pus cells and for motility of Trichomonas vaginalis. The other swab was used to check pH and Amine test. The growth was confirmed by Gram staining in each case. Gardnerrella vaginalis were isolated in 28%, Group B streptococcus in 5% and T. vaginolis in 4% of women. Gardnerella vaginalis causing BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge in otherwise healthy women of reproductive age group in our setup.

  6. Vapor phase coatings of metals and organics for laser fusion target applications

    Simonsic, G.A.; Powell, B.W.

    Techniques for applying a variety of metal and organic coatings to 50- to 500 μm diameter glass micro-balloons are discussed. Coating thicknesses vary from 1- to 10 μm. Physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electrolytic and electroless plating are some of the techniques being evaluated for metal deposition. PVD and glow discharge polymerization are being used for the application of organic coatings. (U.S.)

  7. Moisture transport and equilibrium in organic coatings

    Wel, van der G.K.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Improving coating performance in regard of protection of substrates and structures against moisturerelated degradation requires detailed knowledge of underlying transport mechanisms. In this paper a review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic

  8. Anticorrosive organic/inorganic hybrid coatings

    Gao, Tongzhai

    Organic/inorganic hybrid coating system was developed for anticorrosion applications using polyurea, polyurethane or epoxide as the organic phase and polysiloxane, formed by sol-gel process, as the inorganic phase. Polyurea/polysiloxane hybrid coatings were formulated and moisture cured using HDI isocyanurate, alkoxysilane-functionalized HDI isocyanurate, and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) oligomers. Two urethanes were prepared using the same components as abovementioned in addition to the oligoesters derived from either cyclohexane diacids (CHDA) and 2-butyl-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (BEPD) or adipic acid (AA), isophthalic acid (IPA), 1,6-hexanediol (HD), and trimethylol propane (TMP). Accelerated weathering and outdoor exposure were performed to study the weatherability of the polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coating system. FTIR and solid-state 13C NMR revealed that the degradation of the hybrid coatings occurred at the urethane and ester functionalities of the organic phase. DMA and DSC analyses showed the glass transition temperature increased and broadened after weathering. SEM was employed to observe the change of morphology of the hybrid coatings and correlated with the gloss variation after weathering. Rutile TiO2 was formulated into polyurethane/polysiloxane hybrid coatings in order to investigate the effect of pigmentation on the coating properties and the sol-gel precursor. Chemical interaction between the TiO2 and the sol-gel precursor was investigated using solid-state 29Si NMR and XPS. The morphology, mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal properties of the pigmented coatings were evaluated as a function of pigmentation volume concentration (PVC). Using AFM and SEM, the pigment were observed to be well dispersed in the polymer matrix. The thermal stability, the tensile modulus and strength of the coatings were enhanced with increasing PVC, whereas the pull-off adhesion and flexibility were reduced with increasing PVC. Finally, the pigmented coatings were

  9. GUIDE TO CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES: ORGANIC COATING REPLACEMENTS

    This guide describes available and emerging cleaner technologies that can be used to reduce emissions and wastes from paint and coatings applications. Environmental concerns and increasing costs of organic chemicals and metals are leading to changes in the formulation of organic ...

  10. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy for accurate and well resolved analysis of coatings and thin films

    Wilke, Marcus; Teichert, Gerd; Gemma, Ryota; Pundt, Astrid; Kirchheim, Reiner; Romanus, Henry; Schaaf, Peter

    2011-01-01

    overview on new developments in instrument design for accurate and well resolved thin film analyses is presented. The article focuses on the analytical capabilities of glow discharge optical emission spectrometry in the analysis of metallic coatings

  11. Microarc oxidation discharge types and bio properties of the coating synthesized on zirconium.

    Cengiz, Sezgin; Azakli, Yunus; Tarakci, Mehmet; Stanciu, Lia; Gencer, Yucel

    2017-08-01

    This study is an attempt for gaining a better understanding on relationship between microarc oxidation (MAO) coating discharge types and bioactivity of an oxide-based coating synthesized on a Zr substrate. The discharge types and the coating growth mechanism were identified by the examination of the real cross-section image of the coating microstructure. The coating was conducted by using MAO in an electrolyte containing Na 2 SiO 3 , Ca(CH 3 COO) 2 and C 3 H 7 Na 2 O 6 P, for different durations of 2.5, 5, 15, and 30mins. The effect of the process duration on the different discharge model types (Type-A, B, and C) and bioactivity of the coatings were investigated by using X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements (SEM-EDS) and Optical Surface Profilometry (OSP). It was found that the increasing MAO duration resulted in thicker and rougher coatings. The XRD data revealed that all the samples prepared at different process durations contained the t-ZrO 2 (tetragonal zirconia) phase. During the MAO process, non-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) formed, which was confirmed from the FTIR data. The surface morphology, the amount and distribution of the features of the coating surface were modified by increasing voltage. The simulated body fluid (SBF) tests showed that the more bioactive surface with more HA crystals formed owing to chemical composition and high surface roughness of the coating. The pore, crack and discharge structures played a key role in apatite nucleation and growth, and provided ingrowth of apatite into discharge channels on the coating surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Moisture resistant and anti-reflection optical coatings produced by plasma polymerization of organic compounds

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1975-01-01

    The need for protective coatings on critical optical surfaces, such as halide crystal windows or lenses used in spectroscopy, has long been recognized. It has been demonstrated that thin, one micron, organic coatings produced by polymerization of flourinated monomers in low temperature gas discharge (plasma) exhibit very high degrees of moisture resistence, e.g., hundreds of hours protection for cesium iodide vs. minutes before degradation sets in for untreated surfaces. The index of refraction of these coatings is intermediate between that of the halide substrate and air, a condition for anti-reflection, another desirable property of optical coatings. Thus, the organic coatings not only offer protection, but improved transmittance as well. The polymer coating is non-absorbing over the range 0.4 to 40 microns with an exception at 8.0 microns, the expected absorption for C-F bonds.

  13. Arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment for nanocomposite coating deposition

    Koval, N.N.; Borisov, D.P.; Savostikov, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that characteristics of nanocomposite coatings produced by reactive magnetron sputtering undergo an essential influence on the following parameters such as original component composition of targets being sputtered, as well as abundance ratio of such components in the coatings deposited, relative content of inert and reactionary gases in a gas mixture used and a value of operating pressure in a chamber, substrate temperature, and a value of substrate bias potential, determining energy of ionized atoms, ionized atoms flow density, i.e. ion current density on a substrate. The multifactor character of production process of nanocomposite coatings with certain physical and mechanical properties demands a purposeful and complex control on all above-mentioned parameters. To solve such a problem, an arc-discharge and magnetron sputtering combined equipment including a vacuum chamber of approximately ∼ 0.5 m 3 with a built-in low-pressure plasma generator made on the basis of non-self-sustained discharge with a thermal cathode and a planar magnetron combined with two sputtered targets has been created. Construction of such a complex set-up provides both an autonomous mode of operation and simultaneous operation of an arc plasma generator and magnetron sputtering system. Magnetron sputtering of either one or two targets simultaneously is provided as well. An arc plasma generator enables ions current density control on a substrate in a wide range due to discharge current varying from 1 to 100 A. Energy of ions is also being controlled in a wide range by a negative bias potential from 0 to 1000 V applied to a substrate. The wide control range of gas plasma density of a arc discharge of approximately 10 9 -10 11 cm -3 and high uniformity of its distribution over the total volume of an operating chamber (about 15% error with regard to the mean value) provides a purposeful and simultaneous control either of magnetron discharge characteristics (operating pressure of

  14. Plasma deposition of antimicrobial coating on organic polymer

    Rżanek-Boroch, Zenobia; Dziadczyk, Paulina; Czajkowska, Danuta; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Fabianowski, Wojciech

    2013-02-01

    Organic materials used for packing food products prevent the access of microorganisms or gases, like oxygen or water vapor. To prolong the stability of products, preservatives such as sulfur dioxide, sulfites, benzoates, nitrites and many other chemical compounds are used. To eliminate or limit the amount of preservatives added to food, so-called active packaging is sought for, which would limit the development of microorganisms. Such packaging can be achieved, among others, by plasma modification of a material to deposit on its surface substances inhibiting the growth of bacteria. In this work plasma modification was carried out in barrier discharge under atmospheric pressure. Sulfur dioxide or/and sodium oxide were used as the coating precursors. As a result of bacteriological studies it was found that sulfur containing coatings show a 16% inhibition of Salmonella bacteria growth and 8% inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria growth. Sodium containing coatings show worse (by 10%) inhibiting properties. Moreover, films with plasma deposited coatings show good sealing properties against water vapor. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  15. Deposition of coatings on Ti by sputtering of tableted carbonate-hydroxylapatite in HF discharge plasma

    Khamchukov, Y.D.; Klubovich, V.; Potapenko, I.

    2001-01-01

    The coatings of carbonate-hydroxyapatite (CHA) on materials suitable for implants must have, because of their shielding functions, sufficiently large thickness and good adhesion. For these reasons, the production of these coatings is a technological task whose solution may be obtained on the basis of the application of different ion-plasma technologies. Examination of the properties of the CHA coatings on the substrate of titanium and the effect on the materials of the coating and the substrate of ion-plasma technology with the application of high-frequency discharge was the aim of this investigation

  16. Erosion behavior of W-Ta coatings in plasmas of stationary mirror penning discharges

    Belous, V.A.; Bondarenko, M.N.; Glazunov, G.P.; Ilchenko, A.V.; Kuprin, A.S.; Konotopskiy, A.L.; Lunyov, V.M.; Ovcharenko, V.D.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations had been carried out of the influence of Ta alloying (2...16 wt.%) in W-coatings on their erosion behavior in steady state plasmas of Penning discharges in different gases: argon, nitrogen, and hydrogen. The coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrates by argon ion sputtering of targets made from appropriate metals. For comparison the erosion behavior had been examined of pure W and Ta coatings obtained by the same method. It was shown the essential decrease of an erosion rate after Ta addition in W coatings. The possible physical mechanism is suggested to explain such erosion behavior

  17. DLC coating on stainless steel by pulsed methane discharge in repetitive plasma focus

    Hassan, M.; Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S.; Mahmood, S.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Lee, P.; Rawat, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been achieved on AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by employing energetic ions emitted from a repetitive plasma focus operated in CH 4 discharge. The Raman spectroscopy of the coatings exhibits the evolution of a-C:H/DLC coatings with clearly observed D and G peaks centered about 1320–1360 and 1560–1620 cm −1 respectively. The diamond character of the coatings is influenced by the ion flux and repetition rate of the focus device. The repetitive discharge mode of plasma focus has led to the formation of a-C:H/DLC coatings in short duration of time. The coatings transform from a-C to a-C:H depending upon substrate angular position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of DLC coating owing to stress-induced restructuring in SS. The estimated crystallite size is found to be ∼40–50 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibit a layered granular surface morphology of the coatings. The Vickers surface hardness of the DLC coated SS samples has been significantly improved.

  18. DLC coating on stainless steel by pulsed methane discharge in repetitive plasma focus

    Hassan, M., E-mail: hassanjh@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Qayyum, A.; Ahmad, S. [National Tokamak Fusion Program, 3329 Islamabad (Pakistan); Mahmood, S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, 75270 Karachi (Pakistan); Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Lee, P.; Rawat, R.S. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, BLK7, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H)/diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been achieved on AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) substrates by employing energetic ions emitted from a repetitive plasma focus operated in CH{sub 4} discharge. The Raman spectroscopy of the coatings exhibits the evolution of a-C:H/DLC coatings with clearly observed D and G peaks centered about 1320–1360 and 1560–1620 cm{sup −1} respectively. The diamond character of the coatings is influenced by the ion flux and repetition rate of the focus device. The repetitive discharge mode of plasma focus has led to the formation of a-C:H/DLC coatings in short duration of time. The coatings transform from a-C to a-C:H depending upon substrate angular position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms the formation of DLC coating owing to stress-induced restructuring in SS. The estimated crystallite size is found to be ∼40–50 nm. Field emission scanning electron micrographs exhibit a layered granular surface morphology of the coatings. The Vickers surface hardness of the DLC coated SS samples has been significantly improved.

  19. Degradation of nitride coatings in low-pressure gas discharge plasma

    Ivanov, Yurii; Shugurov, Vladimir; Krysina, Olga; Petrikova, Elizaveta; Tolkachev, Oleg

    2017-12-01

    The paper provides research data on the defect structure, mechanical characteristics, and tribological properties of commercially pure VT1-0 titanium exposed to surface modification on a COMPLEX laboratory electron-ion plasma setup which allows nitriding, coating deposition, and etching in low-pressure gas discharge plasma in a single vacuum cycle. It is shown that preliminary plasma nitriding forms a columnar Ti2N phase in VT1-0 titanium and that subsequent TiN deposition results in a thin nanocrystalline TiN layer. When the coating-substrate system is etched, the coating fails and the tribological properties of the material degrade greatly.

  20. Surface Coating Constraint Induced Self-Discharging of Silicon Nanoparticles as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Luo, Langli; Zhao, Peng; Yang, Hui; Liu, Borui; Zhang, Jiguang; Cui, Yi; Yu, Guihua; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-10-01

    One of the key challenges of Si-based anodes for lithium ion batteries is the large volume change upon lithiation and delithiation, which commonly leads to electrochemo-mechanical degradation and subsequent fast capacity fading. Recent studies have shown that applying nanometer-thick coating layers on Si nanoparticle (SiNPs) enhances cyclability and capacity retention. However, it is far from clear how the coating layer function from the point of view of both surface chemistry and electrochemo-mechanical effect. Herein, we use in situ transmission electron microscopy to investigate the lithiation/delithiation kinetics of SiNPs coated with a conductive polymer, polypyrrole (PPy). We discovered that this coating layer can lead to “self-delithiation” or “self-discharging” at different stages of lithiation. We rationalized that the self-discharging is driven by the internal compressive stress generated inside the lithiated SiNPs due to the constraint effect of the coating layer. We also noticed that the critical size of lithiation-induced fracture of SiNPs is increased from ~ 150 nm for bare SiNPs to ~ 380 nm for the PPy-coated SiNPs, showing a mechanically protective role of the coating layer. These observations demonstrate both beneficial and detrimental roles of the surface coatings, shedding light on rational design of surface coatings for silicon to retain high-power and high capacity as anode for lithium ion batteries.

  1. Determining the coating speed limitations for organic photovoltaic inks

    Jakubka, Florian; Heyder, Madeleine; Machui, Florian

    2013-01-01

    To determine the output capability of present organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials, it is important to know the theoretical maximum coating speeds of the used semiconductor formulations. Here, we present a comprehensive investigation of the coating stability window of several prototype organic...... semiconductor inks relevant for organic solar cells. The coating stability window was first determined experimentally by a sheet to sheet coater at velocities of up to 10 m/min. A numerical simulation model based on the Coating Window Suite 2010 software was established to give insight into the coating...

  2. Arc-discharge system for nondestructive detection of flaws in thin ceramic coatings

    Scott, G.W.; Davis, E.V.

    1978-04-01

    The feasibility of nondestructively detecting small cracks or holes in plasma-sprayed ceramic coatings with an electric arc-discharge system was studied. We inspected ZrO 2 coatings 0.46 mm (0.018 in.) thick on Incoloy alloy 800 substrates. Cracks were artificially induced in controlled areas of the specimens by straining the substrates in tension. We designed and built a system to scan the specimen's surface at approximately 50 μm (0.002 in.) clearance with a sharp-pointed metal-tipped probe at high dc potential. The system measures the arc currents occurring at flaws, or plots a map of the scanned area showing points where the arc current exceeds a preset threshold. A theoretical model of the probe-specimen circuit shows constant dc potential to be the best choice for arc-discharge inspection of insulating coatings. Experimental observations and analysis of the data disclosed some potential for flaw description

  3. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy for accurate and well resolved analysis of coatings and thin films

    Wilke, Marcus

    2011-12-01

    In the last years, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES) gained more and more acceptance in the analysis of functional coatings. GDOES thereby represents an interesting alternative to common depth profiling techniques like AES and SIMS, based on its unique combination of high erosion rates and erosion depths, sensitivity, analysis of nonconductive layers and easy quantification even for light elements such as C, N, O and H. Starting with the fundamentals of GDOES, a short overview on new developments in instrument design for accurate and well resolved thin film analyses is presented. The article focuses on the analytical capabilities of glow discharge optical emission spectrometry in the analysis of metallic coatings and thin films. Results illustrating the high depth resolution, confirmation of stoichiometry, the detection of light elements in coatings as well as contamination on the surface or interfaces will be demonstrated by measurements of: a multilayer system Cr/Ti on silicon, interface contamination on silicon during deposition of aluminum, Al2O3-nanoparticle containing conversion coatings on zinc for corrosion resistance, Ti3SiC2 MAX-phase coatings by pulsed laser deposition and hydrogen detection in a V/Fe multilayer system. The selected examples illustrate that GDOES can be successfully adopted as an analytical tool in the development of new materials and coatings. A discussion of the results as well as of the limitations of GDOES is presented. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Inorganic-organic nanocomposites for optical coatings

    Schmidt, Helmut K.; Krug, Herbert; Sepeur-Zeitz, Bernhard; Geiter, Elisabeth

    1997-10-01

    The fabrication of nanoparticles by the sol-gel process and their use in polymeric or sol-gel-derived inorganic-organic composite matrices opens up interesting possibilities for designing new optical materials. Two different routes have been chosen for preparing optical nanocomposites: The first is the so-called 'in situ route,' where the nanoparticles are synthesized in a liquid mixture from Zr-alkoxides in a polymerizable system and diffractive gratings were produced by embossing uncured film. The second is the 'separate' preparation route, where a sterically stabilized dry nanoboehmite powder was completely redispersed in an epoxy group-containing matrix and hard coatings with optical quality on polycarbonate were prepared.

  5. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    2016-08-19

    organic paints, inert metallic layers, and protective oxide layers. 2 Although coatings have been commercially used for many years, the design of new...pigments found in chromates protect the substrate by passivating the metallic surface with an oxide layer. Sacrificial coatings prevent the self...surface, eliminating the components needed for a cathodic reaction to occur. Additionally, organic barrier coatings are protective by preventing

  6. Organic antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    Trefonas, Peter, III; Blacksmith, Robert F.; Szmanda, Charles R.; Kavanagh, Robert J.; Adams, Timothy G.; Taylor, Gary N.; Coley, Suzanne; Pohlers, Gerd

    1999-06-01

    Organic anti-reflective coatings (ARCs) continue to play an important role in semiconductor manufacturing. These materials provide a convenient means of greatly reducing the resist photospeed swing and reflective notching. In this paper, we describe a novel class of ARC materials optimized for lithographic applications using 193 nm exposure tools. These ARCs are based upon polymers containing hydroxyl-alkyl methacrylate monomers for crosslinkable sites, styrene for a chromophore at 193 nm, and additional alkyl-methacrylate monomers as property modifiers. A glycouril crosslinker and a thermally-activated acidic catalyst provide a route to forming an impervious crosslinked film activate data high bake temperatures. ARC compositions can be adjusted to optimize the film's real and imaginary refractive indices. Selection of optimal target indices for 193 nm lithographic processing through simulations is described. Potential chromophores for 193 nm were explored using ZNDO modeling. We show how these theoretical studies were combined with material selection criteria to yield a versatile organic anti-reflectant film, Shipley 193 G0 ARC. Lithographic process data indicates the materials is capable of supporting high resolution patterning, with the line features displaying a sharp resist/ARC interface with low line edge roughness. The resist Eo swing is successfully reduced from 43 percent to 6 percent.

  7. Greener corona discharge for enhanced wind generation with a simple dip-coated carbon nanotube decoration

    Wu, Yishan; Li, Jun; Ye, Jianchun; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Huili; Huang, Sumei; Zhao, Ran; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Corona discharge-induced wind (CDIW) has been widely utilized in production lines in the food and semiconductor industries and in indoor devices such as electrostatic precipitators. Some ozone is inevitably emitted, posing serious health risks to respiratory system and lung function of a human being. In this work, a greener corona discharge with enhanced wind generation for a needle-to-cylinder discharge structure is demonstrated using a simple dip-coating method to attach carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the discharge electrode of a stainless steel needle. Compared with a conventional discharge electrode without CNT decoration, the velocity of the CDIW is greatly enhanced, the onset voltage is lowered, the energy conversion efficiency is greatly improved and the concentration of generated ozone is much reduced, making this easy method of CNT decoration a promising candidate for greener corona discharge systems. In addition, several impact factors for improved performance are discussed mathematically and phenomenologically, providing an insight into the corona discharge and wind generation.

  8. Greener corona discharge for enhanced wind generation with a simple dip-coated carbon nanotube decoration

    Wu, Yishan; Ye, Jianchun; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Huili; Huang, Sumei; Zhao, Ran; Ou-Yang, Wei; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Corona discharge-induced wind (CDIW) has been widely utilized in production lines in the food and semiconductor industries and in indoor devices such as electrostatic precipitators. Some ozone is inevitably emitted, posing serious health risks to respiratory system and lung function of a human being. In this work, a greener corona discharge with enhanced wind generation for a needle-to-cylinder discharge structure is demonstrated using a simple dip-coating method to attach carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to the discharge electrode of a stainless steel needle. Compared with a conventional discharge electrode without CNT decoration, the velocity of the CDIW is greatly enhanced, the onset voltage is lowered, the energy conversion efficiency is greatly improved and the concentration of generated ozone is much reduced, making this easy method of CNT decoration a promising candidate for greener corona discharge systems. In addition, several impact factors for improved performance are discussed mathematically and phenomenologically, providing an insight into the corona discharge and wind generation. (paper)

  9. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    Božic' Lončaric', A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, Pavel; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C958-C963 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/1026 Keywords : organic synthetic Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  10. Diffusion cell investigations into the acidic degradation of organic coatings

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Wang, Ting; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Protective organic coatings work by preventing contact between an aggressive environment and a vulnerable substrate. However, the long required lifetime of a barrier coating provides a challenge when attempting to evaluate coating performance. Diffusion cells can be used as a tool to estimate...... coating barrier properties and lifetime. In this work, a diffusion cell array was designed, constructed, and compared to previous designs, with simplicity being the most important design parameter. Sulfuric acid diffusion through five different coatings was monitored using a battery of cells...

  11. COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES

    NIKROO, A.; PONTELANDOLFO, J.M.; CASTILLO, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 COATING AND MANDREL EFFECTS ON FABRICATION OF GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER NIF SCALE INDIRECT DRIVE CAPSULES. Targets for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) need to be about 200 (micro)m thick and 2 mm in diameter. These dimensions are well beyond those currently fabricated on a routine basis. They have investigated fabrication of near NIF scale targets using the depolymerizable mandrel technique. Poly-alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS) mandrels, about 2 mm in diameter, of varying qualities were coated with as much as 125 (micro)m of glow discharge polymer (GDP). The surface finish of the final shells was examined using a variety of techniques. A clear dependence of the modal spectrum of final GDP shell on the quality of the initial PAMS mandrels was observed. isolated features were found to be the greatest cause for a shell not meeting the NIF standard

  12. Effect of individual discharge cascades on the microstructure of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings

    Troughton, S.C.; Nominé, A.; Dean, J.; Clyne, T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • High speed current/video monitoring of discharge cascades. • SEM and X-ray Computed Tomography of cascade sites. • Effects of supply frequency and process interruption. • Explanation of cascade localisation. - Abstract: Short duration (∼1 s) PEO treatments have been applied to aluminium alloy samples on which coatings of thickness ∼100 μm had previously been created. This was done using the small area electrical monitoring system previously developed in the Gordon Laboratory in Cambridge. Voltage supply frequencies of 50 Hz and 2.5 kHz were employed. Fairly high resolution SEM micrographs were taken, covering the whole surface of small area samples (ie over a circular area of diameter about 0.9 mm). This was done both before and after the 1 s PEO treatments. X-ray tomographic data were also obtained in the vicinity of a recently-completed set of discharges. The outcomes of these observations were correlated with synchronised high speed electrical monitoring and video photography, carried out during the PEO treatment periods. Localised cascades (comprising hundreds of individual discharges) were observed in all cases, persisting throughout the 1 s periods and also reappearing in the same location when a second 1 s PEO treatment was applied to the same sample. This repetition of discharges at the same location is apparently due to the deep pores associated with these sites, creating a pathway of low electrical resistance, even after appreciable oxidation has occurred in the vicinity. Observations were made of the way in which the surfaces were reconstructed locally as discharge cascades occurred. With the high frequency voltage supply, discharge lifetimes were limited to the half-cycle period (of 200 μs), but in other respects the cascades were similar to those with the lower frequency. However, some discharges occurred during cathodic half-cycles with the high frequency supply, at the same location as the anodic discharges in the cascade

  13. Effect of individual discharge cascades on the microstructure of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings

    Troughton, S.C. [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge Universitym 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Nominé, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Dean, J. [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge Universitym 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Clyne, T.W., E-mail: twc10@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science & Metallurgy, Cambridge Universitym 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • High speed current/video monitoring of discharge cascades. • SEM and X-ray Computed Tomography of cascade sites. • Effects of supply frequency and process interruption. • Explanation of cascade localisation. - Abstract: Short duration (∼1 s) PEO treatments have been applied to aluminium alloy samples on which coatings of thickness ∼100 μm had previously been created. This was done using the small area electrical monitoring system previously developed in the Gordon Laboratory in Cambridge. Voltage supply frequencies of 50 Hz and 2.5 kHz were employed. Fairly high resolution SEM micrographs were taken, covering the whole surface of small area samples (ie over a circular area of diameter about 0.9 mm). This was done both before and after the 1 s PEO treatments. X-ray tomographic data were also obtained in the vicinity of a recently-completed set of discharges. The outcomes of these observations were correlated with synchronised high speed electrical monitoring and video photography, carried out during the PEO treatment periods. Localised cascades (comprising hundreds of individual discharges) were observed in all cases, persisting throughout the 1 s periods and also reappearing in the same location when a second 1 s PEO treatment was applied to the same sample. This repetition of discharges at the same location is apparently due to the deep pores associated with these sites, creating a pathway of low electrical resistance, even after appreciable oxidation has occurred in the vicinity. Observations were made of the way in which the surfaces were reconstructed locally as discharge cascades occurred. With the high frequency voltage supply, discharge lifetimes were limited to the half-cycle period (of 200 μs), but in other respects the cascades were similar to those with the lower frequency. However, some discharges occurred during cathodic half-cycles with the high frequency supply, at the same location as the anodic discharges in the cascade

  14. Cathodic disbonding of organic coatings on submerged steel

    Knudsen, Ole oeystein

    1998-12-31

    In offshore oil production, submerged steel structures are commonly protected by an organic coating in combination with cathodic protection. The main advantage is that the coating decreases the current demand for cathodic protection. But the coating degrades with time. This thesis studies one of the most important mechanisms for coating degradation in seawater, cathodic disbonding. Seven commercial coatings and two model coatings with various pigmentations have been studied. Parameter studies, microscopy and studies of free films were used in the mechanism investigations. Exposure to simulated North Sea conditions was used in the performance studies. The effect of aluminium and glass barrier pigments on cathodic disbonding was investigated. The mechanism for the effect of the aluminium pigments on cathodic disbonding was also investigated. The transport of charge and oxygen to the steel/coating interface during cathodic disbonding was studied for two epoxy coatings. Cathodic disbonding, blistering and current demand for cathodic protection was measured for nine commercial coatings for submerged steel structures, using the ASTM-G8 standard test and a long term test under simulated North Sea conditions. The relevance of the ASTM-G8 test as a prequalification test was evaluated. 171 refs., 40 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Organic coatings for marine and shipping applications

    Wit, J.H.W. de; Mol, J.M.C.; Bos, W.M.; Ferrari, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Since the maritime environment is strongly aggressive, coatings needed to protect steel can be classifi ed as ‘heavy duty coatings’. In most maritime applications because of maintenance diffi culties a long service life is generally required. This, together with safety and environmental issues,

  16. Relative effectiveness of electron-proton damage on organic coatings

    Bartolomei, P.; Cabrini, A.

    1988-01-01

    With aim to verify the validity of simulation with photon irradiators, of damage caused on internal containment coatings by beta plus gamma mixed field following to a LOCA in LWR, irradiation tests with Co 60 photon and with nearly 1.5 MeV mean energy electrons have been performed. Changes of some properties of coating film have been verified versus absorbed doses up to 1000 KGy (100 Mrad). A special technique for measurement of dose absorbed in thin film of coating has been tested, to be related to absorbed dose in organic dosimeters and in water (Fricke solution) dosimeter. The changes of considered properties (tensile strength, ease to decontamination, color, brightness) do not allow at the moment, to determine undoubtedly the degree of equivalence between radiation damage to coatings by two types of radiation. A strong backscatter effect mainly evident in electron irradiation, has been pointed out, which contribute to damage to coating film

  17. Ionic Transport Through Metal-Rich Organic Coatings

    2016-08-19

    important for metal substrates, as it is well-known that chloride increases corrosion of metals . 3 For metal -loaded primers, it has been established...volume (MPV) percent, solvent polarity, and resin molecular weight impact corrosion protection of metal -rich organic (MRO) coatings. Following design of...pH and chloride ion concentration levels over time. As the corrosion protection of the coating decreases, chloride ion concentration will increase

  18. Self-organization in cathode boundary layer discharges in xenon

    Takano, Nobuhiko; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    Self-organization of direct current xenon microdischarges in cathode boundary layer configuration has been studied for pressures in the range 30-140 Torr and for currents in the range 50 μA-1 mA. Side-on and end-on observations of the discharge have provided information on the structure and spatial arrangement of the plasma filaments. The regularly spaced filaments, which appear in the normal glow mode when the current is lowered, have a length which is determined by the cathode fall. It varies, dependent on pressure and current, between 50 and 70 μm. The minimum diameter is approximately 80 μm, as determined from the radiative emission in the visible. The filaments are sources of extensive excimer emission. Measurements of the cathode fall length have allowed us to determine the secondary emission coefficient for the discharge in the normal glow mode and to estimate the cathode fall voltage at the transition from normal glow mode to filamentary mode. It was found that the cathode fall voltage at this transition decreases, indicating the onset of additional electron gain processes at the cathode. The regular arrangement of the filaments, self-organization, is assumed to be due to Coulomb interactions between the positively charged cathode fall channels and positive space charges on the surface of the surrounding dielectric spacer. Calculations based on these assumptions showed good agreement with experimentally observed filament patterns

  19. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    2011-01-01

    Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices. PMID:21569579

  20. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  1. Scaling of silent electrical discharge reactors for hazardous organics destruction

    Coogan, J.J.; Rosocha, L.A.; Brower, M.J.; Kang, M.; Schmidt, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Silent electrical discharges are used to produce highly reactive free radicals that destroy hazardous compounds entrained in gaseous effluents at ambient gas temperatures and pressures. We have carried out destruction experiments at Los Alamos on a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene (PCE), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). We have measured a ''nine-factor'', the amount of energy required to reduce the VOC concentration by a factor of ten. For practical reactor power densities, the ''nine-factor'' can be used to predict the destruction an removal efficiency (DRE) in terms of gas flow rate and the number of reactor modules. This report proposes a modular, stackable architecture for scaling up the reactor throughput

  2. Thermal degradation process of poly (alpha-methylstyrene) microspheres coated with glow discharge polymer

    Zhang Zhanwen; Huang Yong; Tang Yongjian; Li Bo; Chen Sufen; He Zhibing

    2009-01-01

    Glow discharge polymer (GDP) shell was made by the decomposable mandrel technique using poly(alpha-methylstyrene) (PAMS) mandrel. The PAMS degradation rate and the GDP shell surface morphology at different equilibrium temperatures were investigated. Degradation rate was calculated from weight variation of PAMS before and after pyrolysis process. Experiment results indicate that the degradation rate decreases at the fixed equilibrium temperature and graded temperature can improve the rate. The degradation process has an effect on the GDP shell properties. The PAMS doesn't molten to flow liquid during degradation. But the degradation can reduce surface finish of GDP coatings. The GDP shell deffects are the result of the PAMS degradiation process. (authors)

  3. Product surface hardening in non-self-sustained glow discharge plasma before synthesis of superhard coatings

    Krasnov, P S; Metel, A S; Nay, H A

    2017-01-01

    Before the synthesis of superhard coating, the product surface is hardened by means of plasma nitriding, which prevents the surface deformations and the coating brittle rupture. The product heating by ions accelerated from plasma by applied to the product bias voltage leads to overheating and blunting of the product sharp edges. To prevent the blunting, it is proposed to heat the products with a broad beam of fast nitrogen molecules. The beam injection into a working vacuum chamber results in filling of the chamber with quite homogeneous plasma suitable for nitriding. Immersion in the plasma of the electrode and heightening of its potential up to 50–100 V initiate a non-self-sustained glow discharge between the electrode and the chamber. It enhances the plasma density by an order of magnitude and reduces its spatial nonuniformity down to 5–10%. When a cutting tool is isolated from the chamber, it is bombarded by plasma ions with an energy corresponding to its floating potential, which is lower than the sputtering threshold. Hence, the sharp edges are sputtered only by fast nitrogen molecules with the same rate as other parts of the tool surface. This leads to sharpening of the cutting tools instead of blunting. (paper)

  4. Explosion symmetry improvement of polyimide-coated tungsten wire in vacuum on negative discharge facility

    Li, Mo; Wu, Jian; Lu, Yihan; Li, Xingwen; Li, Yang; Qiu, Mengtong

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten wire explosion is very asymmetric when fast current rate and insulated coatings are both applied on negative discharge facility using a 24-mm-diameter cathode geometry, which is commonly used on mega-ampere facilities. It is inferred, based on an analytical treatment of the guiding center drift and COMSOL simulations, that the large negative radial electric field causes early voltage breakdown and terminates energy deposition into the wire core on the anode side of the wire. After the anode side is short circuited, the radial electric field along the wire surface on the cathode side will change its polarity and thus leading to additional energy deposition into the wire core. This change causes ˜10 times larger energy deposition and ˜14 times faster explosion velocity in the cathode side than the anode side. In order to reduce this asymmetry, a hollow cylindrical cathode geometry was used to reverse the polarity of radial electric field and was optimized to use on multi-MA facilities. In this case, fully vaporized polyimide-coated tungsten wire with great symmetry improvement was achieved with energy deposition of ˜8.8 eV/atom. The atomic and electronic density distributions for the two different load geometries were obtained by the double-wavelength measurement.

  5. Synthesis of electric discharge alloyed nickel–tungsten coating on tool steel and its tribological studies

    Arun, Ilangovan; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Senthilkumar, V.; Narayanasamy, R.; Anandakrishnan, V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical discharge alloying/coating made on AISI D2 tool steel. • The hardness of EDA layer is three to four time higher than the base material. • The dry sliding wear tests performed on EDA layer at different temperatures. • The alloyed layer acts as a self-lubricant at higher temperature. - Abstract: The present study examines the method of depositing nickel and tungsten on die steel surface by means of dispersing these elements in dielectric fluid in an electrical discharge alloying (EDA) process. The modified surface was mechanically and metallurgically characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), microhardness tester and Pin-on-disc tribometer. The phase transformations that occurred during EDA process were evaluated by XRD. The deposition of Ni and W on die steel surfaces yielded minimal cracks with excellent metallurgical bonding. Higher hardness (∼1059 HV 0.3 ) with little brittleness resulted in superior wear resistance properties, a property which was retained even at elevated temperature

  6. Impact of the organic coating on nanoparticles stability and reactivity

    Gelabert, A.; Sivry, Y.; Ould Boualy, L.; Roselyne, F.; Juillot, F.; Menguy, N.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    The strong increase in the use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) during the last decade may ultimately result in their release in environmental settings, as predicted for different types of NPs by Gottshalk et al.. Most of these NPs incorporate functionalized coatings to gain industrial benefits, which in turn may play a critical rule for the whole NPs reactivity. Thus, along with stability studies focusing on the fate of NPs in natural systems, an accurate understanding of the coating impacts on the NPs behaviour and reactivity is highly required. This study aims to estimate the impact of three different coatings on the NPs dissolution rates in natural water (Seine river water), and their sorption properties onto a model mineral substrate. In this work, ZnO NPs have been coated, either with triethoxycaprylylsilane (hydrophobic), methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (hydrophilic), or aminopropyltriethoxusilane (cationic). The dissolution rates were determined using two protocols: the Donnan Membrane Technique to measure the remaining free metal concentration in solution, and a 1 kDa ultrafiltration procedure to access both the free metal and small organic complexes part. For all three coating types, a fast dissolution step is reached in less than one day, followed by a slow precipitation of new mineral phases to finally reach a steady state. No major differences in the dissolution rates and profiles have been observed. Sorption studies on synthetic microsized goethite have been conducted at pH 7.5. The sorption ratio has been estimated as a function of initial NPs concentrations (from 10-7 M to 10-3 M), and follows a Langmuir shape for the hydrophobic and hydrophilic coatings at concentrations lower than 2.10-4 M. Interestingly, those two NPs exhibit high sorption capacities (10 times higher) compared to free Zn2+ sorption. On the other hand, at those concentrations, the cationic coating only induces a weak sorption without any defined trend. Moreover, for the

  7. Electric organ discharges and electric images during electrolocation

    Assad, C.; Rasnow, B.; Stoddard, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    Weakly electric fish use active electrolocation - the generation and detection of electric currents - to explore their surroundings. Although electrosensory systems include some of the most extensively understood circuits in the vertebrate central nervous system, relatively little is known quantitatively about how fish electrolocate objects. We believe a prerequisite to understanding electrolocation and its underlying neural substrates is to quantify and visualize the peripheral electrosensory information measured by the electroreceptors. We have therefore focused on reconstructing both the electric organ discharges (EODs) and the electric images resulting from nearby objects and the fish's exploratory behaviors. Here, we review results from a combination of techniques, including field measurements, numerical and semi-analytical simulations, and video imaging of behaviors. EOD maps are presented and interpreted for six gymnotiform species. They reveal diverse electric field patterns that have significant implications for both the electrosensory and electromotor systems. Our simulations generated predictions of the electric images from nearby objects as well as sequences of electric images during exploratory behaviors. These methods are leading to the identification of image features and computational algorithms that could reliably encode electrosensory information and may help guide electrophysiological experiments exploring the neural basis of electrolocation.

  8. ORGANIC ELECTRODE COATINGS FOR NEXT-GENERATION NEURAL INTERFACES

    Ulises A Aregueta-Robles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional neuronal interfaces utilize metallic electrodes which in recent years have reached a plateau in terms of the ability to provide safe stimulation at high resolution or rather with high densities of microelectrodes with improved spatial selectivity. To achieve higher resolution it has become clear that reducing the size of electrodes is required to enable higher electrode counts from the implant device. The limitations of interfacing electrodes including low charge injection limits, mechanical mismatch and foreign body response can be addressed through the use of organic electrode coatings which typically provide a softer, more roughened surface to enable both improved charge transfer and lower mechanical mismatch with neural tissue. Coating electrodes with conductive polymers or carbon nanotubes offers a substantial increase in charge transfer area compared to conventional platinum electrodes. These organic conductors provide safe electrical stimulation of tissue while avoiding undesirable chemical reactions and cell damage. However, the mechanical properties of conductive polymers are not ideal, as they are quite brittle. Hydrogel polymers present a versatile coating option for electrodes as they can be chemically modified to provide a soft and conductive scaffold. However, the in vivo chronic inflammatory response of these conductive hydrogels remains unknown. A more recent approach proposes tissue engineering the electrode interface through the use of encapsulated neurons within hydrogel coatings. This approach may provide a method for activating tissue at the cellular scale, however several technological challenges must be addressed to demonstrate feasibility of this innovative idea. The review focuses on the various organic coatings which have been investigated to improve neural interface electrodes.

  9. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    Kosuru, Lakshmoji

    2016-06-28

    Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP) and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH) from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  10. Humidity Detection Using Metal Organic Framework Coated on QCM

    Lakshmoji Kosuru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM coated with poly-4-vinylpyridine (PVP and metal organic framework HKUST-1 are investigated and compared for humidity sensing. Drop casting method is employed to coat the PVP and HKUST-1 solutions onto the surface of a quartz crystal microbalance. The resonance frequencies of these sensors with varying relative humidity (RH from 22% RH to 69% RH are measured using impedance analysis method. The sensitivity, humidity hysteresis, response, and recovery times of these sensors are studied. The sensitivities of uncoated, PVP, and HKUST-1 coated QCM sensors are 7 Hz, 48 Hz, and 720 Hz, respectively, in the range of 22% RH–69% RH. The extraction of desorption rate and adsorption energy associated with the adsorption and desorption of water molecules on these surfaces reveals that HKUST-1 has better sensing properties than PVP and uncoated QCM sensors. In this work, the HKUST-1 coated QCM is shown to be a promising material for moisture detection.

  11. Surface hardening of optic materials by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma of arc discharge

    Osipkov, A. S.; Bashkov, V. M.; Belyaeva, A. O.; Stepanov, R.; Mironov, Y. M.; Galinovsky, A. L.

    2015-02-01

    This article considers the issue of strengthening of optic materials used in the IR spectrum by deposition of diamond like carbon coatings from separated plasma arc discharge. The report shows results of tests of bare and strengthened optical materials such as BaF2, MgF2, Si, Ge, including the testing of their strength and spectral characteristics. Results for the determination of optical constants for the DLC coatings deposited on substrates of Ge and Si, by using separated plasma, are also presented. Investigations showed that surface hardening of optical materials operable in the IR range, by the deposition of diamond like carbon coating onto their surface, according to this technology, considerably improves operational properties and preserves or improves their optic properties.

  12. Magnetic properties of permalloy-coated organic tubules

    Krebs, J. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Lubitz, P.; Harford, M. Z.; Baral, S.; Shashidar, R.; Ho, Y. S.; Chow, G. M.; Qadri, S.

    1991-11-01

    An initial investigation is presented of the ferromagnetic properties of a novel type of magnetic composite, viz., permalloy-coated submicron diameter hollow cylinders or tubules. The tubules form spontaneously from an organic material, a diacetylenic phosopholipid, and were used as templates on which the ferromagnetic material was deposited by electroless deposition. The permalloy-coated tubules were dispersed in an epoxy matrix to measure the magnetization and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) properties of individual tubules. The nature of the magnetic anisotropy and the FMR spectra observed confirmed that the tubules are well aligned by a magnetic field during the epoxy curing. The FMR spectra are interpreted in terms of a powder pattern distribution of thin-film spectra consistent with the large diameter-to-thickness ratio.

  13. Comparison of additive amount used in spin-coated and roll-coated organic solar cells

    Cheng, Pei; Lin, Yuze; Zawacka, Natalia Klaudia

    2014-01-01

    All-polymer and polymer/fullerene inverted solar cells were fabricated by spin-coating and roll-coating processes. The spin-coated small-area (0.04 cm(2)) devices were fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in nitrogen. The roll-coated large-area (1.0 cm(2)) devices were...

  14. Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains

    Diao, Ying; Tee, Benjamin C-K.; Giri, Gaurav; Xu, Jie; Kim, Do Hwan; Becerril, Hector A.; Stoltenberg, Randall M.; Lee, Tae Hoon; Xue, Gi; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-01-01

    Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control

  15. Evaluation of a reflective coating for an organic scintillation detector

    Tarancón, A.; Marin, E.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    A reflective coating based on white paint, black paint and varnish has been evaluated to determine its reflective capabilities and its potential use in radioactivity detectors based on organic scintillators. Three different white paints, all of which were based on TiO 2 , were also tested to determine the one with the best performance and lowest radioactivity content. In a first experiment, we evaluated the capability of the reflective coating by measuring 90 Sr/ 90 Y with PSm in a polyethylene vial partially painted with EJ510 (Eljen Technology) reflective paint, black paint and varnish. In a second experiment, we compared the performance of the EJ510 to that of other white paints used for artistic purposes (Vallejo and Rembrandt). The results showed that, when a vial was only partially painted with the white paints (keeping a window free of paint to allow photons to exit), the efficiency and spectral distribution of the painted vial was similar to that of a non-painted vial. This behavior showed the efficiency of the reflective coatings. In terms of reflection capabilities, all of the tested paints were equivalent; however, the background was higher for the EJ510 paint. Analyses using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy indicated the presence of natural radionuclides ( 40 K, 226 Ra and 228 Ra) in the EJ510. On the basis of the results (high reflection capabilities and the absence of radioactive impurities) and its lower cost, the Vallejo paint was selected as the white reflective paint. The final structure of the reflective coating was composed of five white paint layers, a black paint (to avoid external light entrance) and a layer of varnish (to protect the paints).

  16. Evaluation of a reflective coating for an organic scintillation detector

    Tarancón, A.; Marin, E.; Tent, J.; Rauret, G.; Garcia, J. F.

    2012-05-01

    A reflective coating based on white paint, black paint and varnish has been evaluated to determine its reflective capabilities and its potential use in radioactivity detectors based on organic scintillators. Three different white paints, all of which were based on TiO2, were also tested to determine the one with the best performance and lowest radioactivity content. In a first experiment, we evaluated the capability of the reflective coating by measuring 90Sr/90Y with PSm in a polyethylene vial partially painted with EJ510 (Eljen Technology) reflective paint, black paint and varnish. In a second experiment, we compared the performance of the EJ510 to that of other white paints used for artistic purposes (Vallejo and Rembrandt). The results showed that, when a vial was only partially painted with the white paints (keeping a window free of paint to allow photons to exit), the efficiency and spectral distribution of the painted vial was similar to that of a non-painted vial. This behavior showed the efficiency of the reflective coatings. In terms of reflection capabilities, all of the tested paints were equivalent; however, the background was higher for the EJ510 paint. Analyses using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy indicated the presence of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 228Ra) in the EJ510. On the basis of the results (high reflection capabilities and the absence of radioactive impurities) and its lower cost, the Vallejo paint was selected as the white reflective paint. The final structure of the reflective coating was composed of five white paint layers, a black paint (to avoid external light entrance) and a layer of varnish (to protect the paints).

  17. Evaluation of a reflective coating for an organic scintillation detector

    Tarancon, A., E-mail: alex.tarancon@ub.edu [Department of Analytical Chemistry of the University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marin, E. [Department of Analytical Chemistry of the University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tent, J. [Servei d' analisis isotopics of the University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G.; Garcia, J.F. [Department of Analytical Chemistry of the University of Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-05-11

    A reflective coating based on white paint, black paint and varnish has been evaluated to determine its reflective capabilities and its potential use in radioactivity detectors based on organic scintillators. Three different white paints, all of which were based on TiO{sub 2}, were also tested to determine the one with the best performance and lowest radioactivity content. In a first experiment, we evaluated the capability of the reflective coating by measuring {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y with PSm in a polyethylene vial partially painted with EJ510 (Eljen Technology) reflective paint, black paint and varnish. In a second experiment, we compared the performance of the EJ510 to that of other white paints used for artistic purposes (Vallejo and Rembrandt). The results showed that, when a vial was only partially painted with the white paints (keeping a window free of paint to allow photons to exit), the efficiency and spectral distribution of the painted vial was similar to that of a non-painted vial. This behavior showed the efficiency of the reflective coatings. In terms of reflection capabilities, all of the tested paints were equivalent; however, the background was higher for the EJ510 paint. Analyses using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy indicated the presence of natural radionuclides ({sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra) in the EJ510. On the basis of the results (high reflection capabilities and the absence of radioactive impurities) and its lower cost, the Vallejo paint was selected as the white reflective paint. The final structure of the reflective coating was composed of five white paint layers, a black paint (to avoid external light entrance) and a layer of varnish (to protect the paints).

  18. Size-Controlled Dissolution of Organic-Coated Silver Nanoparticles

    Ma, Rui; Levard, Clément; Marinakos, Stella M.; Cheng, Yingwen; Liu, Jie; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Jr., Gordon E.; Lowry, Gregory V. (Duke)

    2012-04-02

    The solubility of Ag NPs can affect their toxicity and persistence in the environment. We measured the solubility of organic-coated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) having particle diameters ranging from 5 to 80 nm that were synthesized using various methods, and with different organic polymer coatings including poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and gum arabic. The size and morphology of Ag NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and synchrotron-based total X-ray scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis were used to determine the local structure around Ag and evaluate changes in crystal lattice parameters and structure as a function of NP size. Ag NP solubility dispersed in 1 mM NaHCO{sub 3} at pH 8 was found to be well correlated with particle size based on the distribution of measured TEM sizes as predicted by the modified Kelvin equation. Solubility of Ag NPs was not affected by the synthesis method and coating as much as by their size. Based on the modified Kelvin equation, the surface tension of Ag NPs was found to be {approx}1 J/m{sup 2}, which is expected for bulk fcc (face centered cubic) silver. Analysis of XAFS, X-ray scattering, and PDFs confirm that the lattice parameter, {alpha}, of the fcc crystal structure of Ag NPs did not change with particle size for Ag NPs as small as 6 nm, indicating the absence of lattice strain. These results are consistent with the finding that Ag NP solubility can be estimated based on TEM-derived particle size using the modified Kelvin equation for particles in the size range of 5-40 nm in diameter.

  19. Microporous Ti implant compact coated with hydroxyapatite produced by electro-discharge-sintering and electrostatic-spray-deposition.

    Jo, Y J; Kim, Y H; Jo, Y H; Seong, J G; Chang, S Y; Van Tyne, C J; Lee, W H

    2014-11-01

    A single pulse of 1.5 kJ/0.7 g of atomized spherical Ti powder from 300 μF capacitor was applied to produce the porous-surfaced Ti implant compact by electro-discharge-sintering (EDS). A solid core surrounded by porous layer was self-consolidated by a discharge in the middle of the compact in 122 μsec. Average pore size, porosity, and compressive yield strength of EDS Ti compact were estimated to be about 68.2 μm, 25.5%, and 266.4 MPa, respectively. Coatings with hydroxyapatite (HAp) on the Ti compact were conducted by electrostatic-spray-deposition (ESD) method. As-deposited HAp coating was in the form of porous structure and consisted of HAp particles which were uniformly distributed on the Ti porous structure. By heat-treatment at 700 degrees C, HAp particles were agglomerated each other and melted to form a highly smooth and homogeneous HAp thin film consisted of equiaxed nano-scaled grains. Porous-surfaced Ti implant compacts coated with highly crystalline apatite phase were successfully obtained by using the EDS and ESD techniques.

  20. Carbon coated CoS_2 thermal battery electrode material with enhanced discharge performances and air stability

    Xie, Song; Deng, Yafeng; Mei, Jun; Yang, Zhaotang; Lau, Woon-Ming; Liu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel carbon coated CoS_2 composite is prepared and investigated as a cathode material for thermal batteries. - Highlights: • A novel C@CoS_2 composite is successfully prepared by hydrothermal method. • The growth of CoS_2 in the glucose solution results in a smaller grain size. • The coating of carbon favors electron transfer and buffers polysulfides formation. • The in situ coated carbon layer effectively prevents the oxidation of CoS_2. • The C@CoS_2 composite shows competitive thermal stability and discharge property. - Abstract: Cobalt disulfide (CoS_2) is a promising thermal battery electrode material for its superior thermal stability and discharge performance. However, the low natural resource and poor air stability restrict its application in thermal battery fabrication. In this work, carbon coated CoS_2 composite was prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method with glucose as carbon source. During the growth of CoS_2, the glucose molecules were in situ adsorbed and carbonized on the surface of the as-synthesized CoS_2, and the resultant carbon coating provided improved electrical conductivity and discharge performances to the composite. The thermal battery cell, which was fabricated with such a composite cathode and with a Li-Si anode, can output a capacity of 235.8 mAh g"−"1 and an energy density of 416.9 Wh kg"−"1 at a cut-off voltage of 1.7 V. This carbon coated CoS_2 composite also presented enhanced air stability. After being stored in dry air for 3 months, the composite can still provide a capacity of 232.4 mAh g"−"1 to 1.7 V, whereas the capacity of bare CoS_2 stored with the same condition dropped from 202.4 mAh g"−"1 to 189.7 mAh g"−"1.

  1. Treatment of hazardous organic wastes using silent discharge plasmas

    Rosocha, L.A.; Anderson, G.K.; Bechtold, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Heck, H.G.; Kang, M.; McCulla, W.H.; Tennant, R.A.; Wantuck, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    During the past two decades, interest in applying non-equilibrium plasmas to the removal of hazardous chemicals from gaseous media has been growing, in particular from heightened concerns over the pollution of our environment and a growing body of environmental regulations. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we are currently engaged in a project to develop non-equilibrium plasma technology for hazardous waste treatment. Our present focus is on dielectric-barrier discharges, which are historically called silent electrical discharges. This type of plasma is also named a silent discharge plasma (SDP). We have chosen this method due to its potential for high energy efficiency, its scientific and technological maturity, and its scalability. The SDP process has been demonstrated to be reliable and economical for the industrial-scale synthesis of ozone, where municipal water treatment plants frequently require the on-site generation of thousands of kilograins per day (Eliasson ampersand Kogelschatz). The related methods of corona processing are presently the focus of work at other institutions, particularly for flue gas processing. Both SDP and corona processes are characterized by the production of large quantities of highly reactive free radicals, especially atomic oxygen O(3P) and the hydroxyl OH, in the gaseous medium and their subsequent reaction with contaminants. Our primary objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more amenable to treatment. In the ideal case, the hazardous wastes are destructively oxidized to simpler, non-hazardous compounds plus CO2 and H2O. Sometimes the reaction products are still potentially hazardous, but are easily treated by conventional methods to yield non-hazardous products

  2. Electric Organ Discharges of Mormyrid Fish as a Possible Cue for Predatory Catfish

    Hanika, S.; Kramer, B.

    During reproductive migration the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Siluriformes), preys mainly on a weakly electric fish, the bulldog Marcusenius macrolepidotus (Mormyridae; Merron 1993). This is puzzling because the electric organ discharges of known Marcusenius species are pulses of a duration (system (optimum sensitivity, 10-30Hz Peters and Bretschneider 1981). On the recent discovery that M. macrolepidotus males emit discharges lasting approximately ten times longer than those of females (Kramer 1997a) we determined behavioral thresholds for discharges of both sexes, using synthetic playbacks of field-recorded discharges. C. gariepinus detected M. macrolepidotus male discharges down to a field gradient of 103μVpeak-peak/cm and up to a distance of 1.5m at natural field conditions. In contrast, thresholds for female discharges were not reached with our setup, and we presume the bulldogs eaten by catfish are predominantly male.

  3. Measurements and 2-D Modeling of Recycling and Edge Transport in Discharges with Lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    Canik, John; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Osborne, T.H.

    2011-01-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D-alpha emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D-alpha emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R similar to 0.98 to R similar to 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/chi(e) similar to 0.2/1.0 m(2)/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  4. Measurements and 2-D modeling of recycling and edge transport in discharges with lithium-coated PFCs in NSTX

    Canik, J.M., E-mail: canikjm@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The application of lithium coatings on plasma facing components has been shown to profoundly affect plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, improving energy confinement and eliminating edge-localized modes. The edge particle balance during these ELM-free discharges has been studied through 2-D plasma-neutrals modeling, constrained by measurements of the upstream plasma density and temperature profiles and the divertor heat flux and D{sub {alpha}} emission. The calculations indicate that the reduction in divertor D{sub {alpha}} emission with lithium coatings applied is consistent with a drop in recycling coefficient from R {approx} 0.98 to R {approx} 0.9. The change in recycling is not sufficient to account for the change in edge density profiles: interpretive modeling indicates similar transport coefficients within the edge transport barrier (D/{chi}{sub e} {approx} 0.2/1.0 m{sup 2}/s), but a widening of the barrier with lithium.

  5. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon; Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock

    2014-01-01

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  6. Analysis of Discharged Gas from Incinerator using Simulated Organic Solution

    Kim, Seungil; Kim, Hyunki; Heo, Jun; Kang, Dukwon [HaJI Co., Ltd., Radiation Eng. Center, Siheung (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yunbok; Kwon, Youngbock [KORAD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Korea has no experience of treatment of RI organic waste and appropriate measures for treatment of organic waste did not suggested. RI organic wastes which are occurring in KOREA are stored at the RI waste storage building of KORAD. But they can't no more receive the RI organic waste because the storage facility for RI organic waste was saturated with these organic wastes. In case of Japan, they recognized the dangerousness of long-term storage for RI organic wastes. In case of Korea, the released concentration of gaseous pollutant from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.1 of the Notification No. 2012-60 of Nuclear Safety Commission and attached table No.8 of Clean Air Conservation Act. And the dioxin from the incinerator is regulated by attached table No.3 of Persistent Organic Pollutants Control Act. This experiment was performed to examine whether the incinerator introduced from Japan is manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and to confirm the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws especially attached table No.1 of NSC using simulated organic waste solution. In this experiment, we examined whether the incinerator was manufactured suitably for municipal law regulation and confirmed the compliance about the gaseous pollutant released from incinerator with the above-mentioned laws using simulated organic waste solution. The design requirement of incinerator for RI organic waste in the municipal law regulation is proposed briefly but the requirements for more detail about the incinerator are proposed in regulation of Japan. The incinerator used in this experiment is satisfied with all clauses of the domestic as well as Japan. Multiple safety functions were installed in the incinerator such as air purge system to remove unburned inflammable gases in the furnace and earthquake detector. Also, perfect combustion of RI organic waste is achieved because the temperature in the furnace

  7. Photochemically induced deposition of protective alumina coatings onto UV emitting phosphors for Xe excimer discharge lamps

    Broxtermann, Mike; Jüstel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A UV-reactor for the pH induced precipitation of inorganic material is described. • The photolysis of Azide (N_3"−) leads to a steady pH increase used for precipitation. • A UV induced Al(OH)_3 precipitation is used to craft Al_2O_3 coatings onto YPO_4:Bi. • The influence of Al_2O_3 coated onto YPO_4:Bi with different thicknesses is discussed. • SEM, VUV-spectroscopy and ESA measurements were performed on Al_2O_3 coated samples. - Abstract: This work concerns the particle coating of the UV-C emitting phosphor YPO_4:Bi, targeting a stability enhancement of the phosphor material for Xe excimer lamp operation. To this end, the material is coated by the wide band gap material Al_2O_3. In order to obtain a thin and homogeneous coating layer, a novel process based on the photochemical cleavage of NaN_3 in water was developed. This results in a slow and continuous enhancement of the pH value due to ongoing NaOH formation, which results in the precipitation of Al(OH)_3 from an Al_2(SO_4)_3 _× 18H_2O solution. It turned out that the obtained particle coatings are of much better quality, i.e. homogeneity, compared to coatings made from a wet-chemical homogeneous precipitation process. The morphology and electrochemical properties of Al_2O_3 coated YPO_4:Bi are discussed on the basis of optical spectroscopy, ESA measurements, and SEM/EDX investigations.

  8. Photochemically induced deposition of protective alumina coatings onto UV emitting phosphors for Xe excimer discharge lamps

    Broxtermann, Mike, E-mail: mike.b@fh-muenster.de; Jüstel, Thomas, E-mail: tj@fh-muenster.de

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A UV-reactor for the pH induced precipitation of inorganic material is described. • The photolysis of Azide (N{sub 3}{sup −}) leads to a steady pH increase used for precipitation. • A UV induced Al(OH){sub 3} precipitation is used to craft Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coatings onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi. • The influence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated onto YPO{sub 4}:Bi with different thicknesses is discussed. • SEM, VUV-spectroscopy and ESA measurements were performed on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated samples. - Abstract: This work concerns the particle coating of the UV-C emitting phosphor YPO{sub 4}:Bi, targeting a stability enhancement of the phosphor material for Xe excimer lamp operation. To this end, the material is coated by the wide band gap material Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to obtain a thin and homogeneous coating layer, a novel process based on the photochemical cleavage of NaN{sub 3} in water was developed. This results in a slow and continuous enhancement of the pH value due to ongoing NaOH formation, which results in the precipitation of Al(OH){sub 3} from an Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} {sub ×} 18H{sub 2}O solution. It turned out that the obtained particle coatings are of much better quality, i.e. homogeneity, compared to coatings made from a wet-chemical homogeneous precipitation process. The morphology and electrochemical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated YPO{sub 4}:Bi are discussed on the basis of optical spectroscopy, ESA measurements, and SEM/EDX investigations.

  9. Surface self-organization in multilayer film coatings

    Shuvalov, Gleb M.; Kostyrko, Sergey A.

    2017-12-01

    It is a recognized fact that during film deposition and subsequent thermal processing the film surface evolves into an undulating profile. Surface roughness affects many important aspects in the engineering application of thin film materials such as wetting, heat transfer, mechanical, electromagnetic and optical properties. To accurately control the morphological surface modifications at the micro- and nanoscale and improve manufacturing techniques, we design a mathematical model of the surface self-organization process in multilayer film materials. In this paper, we consider a solid film coating with an arbitrary number of layers under plane strain conditions. The film surface has a small initial perturbation described by a periodic function. It is assumed that the evolution of the surface relief is governed by surface and volume diffusion. Based on Gibbs thermodynamics and linear theory of elasticity, we present a procedure for constructing a governing equation that gives the amplitude change of the surface perturbation with time. A parametric study of the evolution equation leads to the definition of a critical undulation wavelength that stabilizes the surface. As a numerical result, the influence of geometrical and physical parameters on the morphological stability of an isotropic two-layered film coating is analyzed.

  10. Chemical intermediate detection following corona discharge on volatile organic compounds: general method using molecular beam techniques

    He Luning; Sulkes, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma (NTP)-based treatments of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have potential for effective environmental remediation. Theory and experiment that consider the basic science pertaining to discharge events have helped improve NTP remediation outcomes. If direct information on early post-discharge chemical intermediates were also available, it would likely lead to additional improvement in NTP remediation outcomes. To this point, however, experiments yielding direct information on post-NTP VOC intermediates have been limited. An approach using supersonic expansion molecular beam methods offers general promise for detection of post-discharge VOC intermediates. To illustrate the potential utility of these methods, we present mass spectra showing the growth of early products formed when pulsed corona discharges were carried out on toluene in He and then in He with added O 2 . Good general detection of neutral post-discharge species was obtained using 800 nm 150 fs photoionization pulses.

  11. The magnetic field application for the gas discharge plasma control in processes of surface coating and modification

    Asadullin, T Ya; Galeev, I G

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the method of magnetic field application to control the gas discharge plasma effect on the various surfaces in processes of surface coating and modification is considered. The magnetic field directed perpendicular to the direction of electric current in the gas discharge plasma channel is capable to reject this plasma channel due to action of Lorentz force on the moving electrically charged particles [1,2]. The three-dimensional spatial structure of magnetic field is created by system of necessary quantity of the magnets located perpendicular to the direction of course of electric current in the gas-discharge plasma channel. The formation of necessary spatial distribution of magnetic field makes possible to obtain a required distribution of plasma parameters near the processed surfaces. This way of the plasma channel parameters spatial distribution management is the most suitable for application in processes of plasma impact on a surface of irregular shape and in cases when the selective impact of plasma on a part of a surface of a product is required. It is necessary to apply automated computer management of the process parameters [3] to the most effective plasma impact. (paper)

  12. Appearance of a conductive carbonaceous coating in a CO2 dielectric barrier discharge and its influence on the electrical properties and the conversion efficiency

    Belov, Igor; Paulussen, Sabine; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-01-01

    This work examines the properties of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, built for CO 2 decomposition, by means of electrical characterization, optical emission spectroscopy and gas chromatography. The discharge, formed in an electronegative gas (such as CO 2 , but also O 2 ), exhibits clearly different electrical characteristics, depending on the surface conductivity of the reactor walls. An asymmetric current waveform is observed in the metal-dielectric (MD) configuration, with sparse high-current pulses in the positive half-cycle (HC) and a more uniform regime in the negative HC. This indicates that the discharge is operating in two alternating regimes with rather different properties. At high CO 2 conversion regimes, a conductive coating is deposited on the dielectric. This so-called coated MD configuration yields a symmetric current waveform, with current peaks in both the positive and negative HCs. In a double-dielectric (DD) configuration, the current waveform is also symmetric, but without current peaks in both the positive and negative HC. Finally, the DD configuration with conductive coating on the inner surface of the outer dielectric, i.e. so-called coated DD, yields again an asymmetric current waveform, with current peaks in the negative HC. These different electrical characteristics are related to the presence of the conductive coating on the dielectric wall of the reactor and can be explained by an increase of the local barrier capacitance available for charge transfer. The different discharge regimes affect the CO 2 conversion, more specifically, the CO 2 conversion is lowest in the clean DD configuration. It is somewhat higher in the coated DD configuration, and still higher in the MD configuration. The clean and coated MD configuration, however, gave similar CO 2 conversion. These results indicate that the conductivity of the dielectric reactor walls can highly promote the development of the high-amplitude discharge current pulses and

  13. Preparation and characterization of beryllium doped organic plasma polymer coatings

    Brusasco, R.; Letts, S.; Miller, P.; Saculla, M.; Cook, R.

    1995-01-01

    We report the formation of beryllium doped plasma polymerized coatings derived from a helical resonator deposition apparatus, using diethylberyllium as the organometaric source. These coatings had an appearance not unlike plain plasma polymer and were relatively stable to ambient exposure. The coatings were characterized by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Coating rates approaching 0.7 μm hr -1 were obtained with a beryllium-to-carbon ratio of 1:1.3. There is also a significant oxygen presence in the coating as well which is attributed to oxidation upon exposure of the coating to air. The XPS data show only one peak for beryllium with the preponderance of the XPS data suggesting that the beryllium exists as BeO. Diethylberyllium was found to be inadequate as a source for beryllium doped plasma polymer, due to thermal decomposition and low vapor recovery rates

  14. Towards high quality ITO coatings: the impact of nitrogen admixture in HiPIMS discharges

    Straňák, V.; Bogdanowicz, R.; Sezemsky, P.; Wulff, H.; Kruth, A.; Smietana, M.; Kratochvíl, J.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 335, Feb (2018), s. 126-133 ISSN 0257-8972 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : film properties * HiPIMS * ITO * plasma deposition Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.589, year: 2016

  15. Photodebromination of Opaque Slurries Using Titania-Coated Mercury Electrodeless Discharge Lamps.

    Kaštánek, František; Církva, Vladimír; Kmentová, Hana; Kaštánek, P.; Šolcová, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 7 (2016), s. 5262-5267 ISSN 2458-9403 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA04020700 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : photocatalysis * electrodeless discharge lamp * polybrominated diphenyl ethers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  16. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings including nanocontainers for corrosion protection of magnesium alloy ZK30

    Kartsonakis, I. A.; Koumoulos, E. P.; Charitidis, C. A.; Kordas, G.

    2013-08-01

    This study is focused on the fabrication, characterization, and application of corrosion protective coatings to magnesium alloy ZK30. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings were synthesized using organic-modified silicates together with resins based on bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. Cerium molybdate nanocontainers (ncs) with diameter 100 ± 20 nm were loaded with corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and incorporated into the coatings in order to improve their anticorrosion properties. The coatings were investigated for their anticorrosion and nanomechanical properties. The morphology of the coatings was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The composition was estimated by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical integrity of the coatings was studied through nanoindentation and nanoscratch techniques. Scanning probe microscope imaging of the coatings revealed that the addition of ncs creates surface incongruity; however, the hardness to modulus ratio revealed significant strengthening of the coating with increase of ncs. Studies on their corrosion behavior in 0.5 M sodium chloride solutions at room temperature were made using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Artificial defects were formatted on the surface of the films in order for possible self-healing effects to be evaluated. The results showed that the coated magnesium alloys exhibited only capacitive response after exposure to corrosive environment for 16 months. This behavior denotes that the coatings have enhanced barrier properties and act as an insulator. Finally, the scratched coatings revealed a partial recovery due to the increase of charge-transfer resistance as the immersion time elapsed.

  17. Stratification of living organisms in ballast tanks: how do organism concentrations vary as ballast water is discharged?

    First, Matthew R; Robbins-Wamsley, Stephanie H; Riley, Scott C; Moser, Cameron S; Smith, George E; Tamburri, Mario N; Drake, Lisa A

    2013-05-07

    Vertical migrations of living organisms and settling of particle-attached organisms lead to uneven distributions of biota at different depths in the water column. In ballast tanks, heterogeneity could lead to different population estimates depending on the portion of the discharge sampled. For example, concentrations of organisms exceeding a discharge standard may not be detected if sampling occurs during periods of the discharge when concentrations are low. To determine the degree of stratification, water from ballast tanks was sampled at two experimental facilities as the tanks were drained after water was held for 1 or 5 days. Living organisms ≥50 μm were counted in discrete segments of the drain (e.g., the first 20 min of the drain operation, the second 20 min interval, etc.), thus representing different strata in the tank. In 1 and 5 day trials at both facilities, concentrations of organisms varied among drain segments, and the patterns of stratification varied among replicate trials. From numerical simulations, the optimal sampling strategy for stratified tanks is to collect multiple time-integrated samples spaced relatively evenly throughout the discharge event.

  18. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in

  19. In situ UV-visible absorption during spin-coating of organic semiconductors: A new probe for organic electronics and photovoltaics

    Abdelsamie, Maged; Zhao, Kui; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is the most commonly used technique for the lab-scale production of solution processed organic electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. Spin-coating produces the most efficient solution-processed organic solar cells and has

  20. Organic inorganic hybrid coating (poly(methyl methacrylate)/monodisperse silica)

    Rubio, E.; Almaral, J.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Castaño, V.; Rodríguez, V.

    2005-04-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate-silica hybrid coatings were prepared from methyl methacrylate and monodisperse colloidal silica prepared by the Stöber method. The surfaces of the spheres were successfully modified by chemical reaction with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSPM) to compatibilise the organic and inorganic components of the precursor solution mixture. The coatings were deposited by dip-coating on glass substrates. They result with good properties of homogeneity, optical transparence, hardness and adhesion.

  1. Effect of Chromate and Chromate-Free Organic Coatings on Corrosion Fatigue of an Aluminum Alloy

    2012-02-20

    81. 50. T.N. Kalichak, V.I.Pokhmurskii. Influence of Galvanic and Organic Coatings on Fatigue Life of Martensitic Stainless Steel // Fizyko...34Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Silver- Zeolite Matrix Coatings on Stainless Steel ". Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 30 102 (2003). 82. I. M. Zin’, S. B. Lyon, L...to provide corrosion inhibiting properties when incorporated into a primer coatings and paints for iron and steel [38-40]. Regarding the

  2. Comparative study of the interface composition of TiN and TiCN hard coatings on high speed steel substrates obtained by arc discharge

    Roman, E. (Lab. de Fisica de Superficies, Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)); Segovia, J.L. de (Lab. de Fisica de Superficies, Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain)); Alberdi, A. (TEKNIKER, Asociacion de Investigacion Tecnologica, Eibar (Spain)); Calvo, J. (TEKNIKER, Asociacion de Investigacion Tecnologica, Eibar (Spain)); Laucirica, J. (TEKNIKER, Asociacion de Investigacion Tecnologica, Eibar (Spain))

    1993-05-15

    In this paper the composition of the interface of TiN and TiCN hard coatings deposited onto high speed steel substrates obtained by the arc discharge technique is studied using Auger electron spectroscopy at two different substrate temperatures, 520 K and 720 K. The low temperature (520 K) TiN coating developed an oxygen phase at the interface, producing a weak adherence of 40 N, while the high temperature coatings (720 K) had a less intense oxygen phase, giving a greater adherence to the substrate of 60 N. TiCN coatings at 520 K are characterized by a low oxygen intensity at the interface. However, their adherence of 50 N is lower than the value of 60 N for the high temperature TiN coatings and is independent of the substrate temperature. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of Surface Characteristics of Denture Base Using Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Coating: An SEM Study.

    Aa, Jafari; Mh, Lotfi-Kamran; M, Ghafoorzadeh; Sm, Shaddel

    2017-06-01

    Despite the numerous positive features of acrylic denture base, there are a number of undeniable associated disadvantages. The properties of denture base have been improved through various interventions including application of different types of filler and coatings. This study aimed to evaluate the surface roughness, thickness and coating quality of organic-inorganic coating on the denture base through scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, the colour change was evaluated visually. The organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared. Acrylic discs of 10×10 mm were fabricated. The test discs were dipped in the hybrid coating and cured. In order to evaluate the surface roughness and coating thickness, the surface and cross-section of the samples in both coated and control groups were subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The colour change and transparency were visually evaluated with naked eyes. The data were statistically analyzed by student's t test. The hybrid materials perfectly covered all the surfaces of acrylic resin and established proper thickness. The coated group seemed smoother and flatter than the control group; however, the difference was not statistically significant ( for all parameters p > 0.05). It was quite a thin coating and no perceptible colour change was observed. The hybrid coating maintained good binding, caused no noticeable discoloration, and thoroughly covered the acrylic resin surface with uniform delicate thickness. It also slightly improved the acrylic resin surface roughness.

  4. Evaluation of UV-permeability and photo-oxidisability of organic ultraviolet radiation-absorbing coatings

    Li, Neng; Chen, Yuhe, E-mail: yuhec@sina.com; Bao, Yongjie; Zhang, Zeqian; Wu, Zaixing; Chen, Zhangmin

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • We investigate organic UV radiation-absorbing coatings for use on bamboo surfaces. • The size of glass exactly inserted into sample cell of UV-Vis spectrophotometer. • A model was made to predict UV absorption of coatings. • We examine carbonyl groups change of coatings after ageing. • Two formulations which could effectively protect coating were obtained. - Abstract: Enhancing the durability of the coatings used on bamboo products is essential for increasing their use in outdoor environments. In this study, we investigated organic UV radiation-absorbing coatings for use on bamboo surfaces. The degree of resistance of the coatings, which contained 2-(2-hydroxy-3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-phenyl)-5-chlorinated benzotriazole (BTZ-1), to UV radiation degradation was determined through spectroscopic analysis. The critical BTZ-1 loading amount was determined by analysing the spectroscopic data. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to elucidate the relationship between the degree of photooxidation of the coatings and their BTZ-1 concentration. The experimental results showed that the coatings provided a high degree of shielding from UV radiation. The critical loading amount was determined to be 1.82 ± 0.05 g BTZ-1/m{sup 2}. The coatings formed using the formulations that contained 3 and 5 wt% BTZ-1 exhibited the lowest degree of photooxidation after exposure to UV radiation.

  5. 40 CFR 63.5752 - How do I calculate the organic HAP content of aluminum recreational boat surface coatings?

    2010-07-01

    ... Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5752 How do I calculate... fraction of organic HAP in coating i, kilograms of organic HAP per kilogram of coating. p = number of..., activator, or additive k, kilograms per liter. Wk= mass fraction of organic HAP in thinner, activator, or...

  6. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    Bachmann, Svenja; Schulze, Marcus; Morasch, Jan; Hesse, Sabine; Hussein, Laith; Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann; Stark, Robert W.; Narayan, Suman

    2016-05-01

    Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H2 plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C are not stable on long-term and are influenced by the environmental conditions.

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Properties of Nanocrystalline Diamond Coatings Grown Using CVD with E/H Field Glow Discharge Stabilization

    Iu. Nasieka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanocrystalline diamond films (coatings were prepared using the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD technique. In this method, direct current (DC glow discharge in the crossed E/H fields was used to activate the gas phase. The diamond coatings were deposited from the working gas mixture CH4/H2 with addition of nitrogen in various concentrations. It was ascertained that addition of N2 to the working gas mixture leads to reduction in the sizes of diamond grains as well as to the substantial decrease in the resistivity of the studied films. The electrophysical data are in good agreement with the changes induced by varying the N2 content in the Raman scattering spectra. The increase in the N2 concentration causes significant lowering of the crystalline diamond related peak and increase in the intensity of the peaks related to the sp2-bonded carbon. These changes in the spectra indicate significant disordering of the structure of prepared films and its uniformity in the nanodiamond film volume. With the great possibility, it is associated with a decrease in the sizes of diamond crystalline grains and tendency of NCD film to amorphization.

  8. The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    Majeski, R.; Kugel, H.; Kaita, R.; Avasarala, S.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Berzak, L.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Gransted, E.; Gray, T.; Jacobson, C.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lepson, J.; Lundberg, D.P.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D.; Paul, S.F.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Schneider, H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Strickler, T.; Stotler, D.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500-600 degrees C to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to Operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.

  9. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  10. Crystallization and deuterium permeation behaviors of yttrium oxide coating prepared by metal organic decomposition

    Takumi Chikada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium oxide coatings were fabricated on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by metal organic decomposition with a dip-coating technique, and their deuterium permeation behaviors were investigated. The microstructure of the coatings varied with heat-treatment temperature: amorphous at 670ºC (amorphous coating and crystallized at 700ºC (crystallized coating. Deuterium permeation flux of the amorphous coating was lower than the uncoated steel by a factor of 5 at 500ºC, while that of the crystallized coating was lower by a factor of around 100 at 400‒550ºC. The permeation fluxes of both coatings were drastically decreased during the measurements at higher temperatures by a factor of up to 790 for the amorphous coating and 1000 for the crystallized one, indicating a microstructure modification occurred by an effect of test temperature with hydrogen flux. Temperature dependence of deuterium diffusivity in the coatings suggests that the decrease of the permeation flux has been derived from a decrease of the diffusivity. Characteristic permeation behaviors were observed with different annealing conditions; however, they can be interpreted using the permeation mechanism clarified in the previous erbium oxide coating studies.

  11. Microbial penetration and utilization of organic aircraft fuel-tank coatings.

    Crum, M G; Reynolds, R J; Hedrick, H G

    1967-11-01

    Microorganisms have been found as contaminants in various types of aircraft fuel tanks. Their presence introduces problems in the operation of the aircraft, including destruction of components such as the organic coatings used as protective linings in the fuel tanks. Microbial penetration and utilization of the currently used organic coatings, EC 776, DV 1180, PR 1560, and DeSoto 1080, were determined by changes in electrical resistances of the coatings; mycelial weight changes; growth counts of the bacteria; and manometric determinations on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GD-FW B-25) and Cladosporium resinae (QMC-7998). The results indicate EC 776 and DV 1180 to be less resistant to microbial degradation than the other coatings. Organic coatings, serving as a source of nutrition, would be conducive to population buildups in aircraft fuel tanks.

  12. Preparation of Organic-Inorganic Multifunctional Nanocomposite Coating via Sol-Gel Routes

    Li Haoying; Chen Yunfa; Ruan Chengxiang; Gao Weimin; Xie Yusheng

    2001-01-01

    The inorganic-organic nanocomposite coatings are prepared on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate by the spinning technique which involves incorporating homogeneously nanosized ZnO particle into the molecular inorganic-organic hybrid matrices. The hybrid matrices are derived from tetraethoxyasilane (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxyailane (GLYMO). To avoid the destruction of the polymer structure caused by ZnO and modify the interface between nanoparticles and organic groups, ZnO was first surface-coated with SiO 2 from hydrolyzed TEOS using ammonia water as catalyst. The coatings thus obtained are dense, flexible, abrasion resistant and UV absorbent

  13. Corrosion protection by organic coatings in gas and oil industry

    Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    The drive to improve performance of coatings as protection against corrosion for automotive, aerospace and oil and gas industries is a never-ending story. Surface preparation is the most important single factor when a substrate surface e.g. steel is to be protected with a coating. This implies an extremely accurate and reliable characterisation of the substrate-surface prior to coating process and the investigation of polymeric coating materials. In order to have a durable adhesive bonding between the polymeric coating materials and the substrate i.e. to ensure prolonged life time and fewer maintenance intervals of coated products, a pre-treatment of the substrate is required in many cases. Sand blasting, corona /plasma pre.treatment of the substrate and the use of coupling agents like organo silanes are well accepted recent methods. Advanced surface analytical techniques like ESCA and TOFSIMS are proving to be extremely helpful in the chemical characterisation of the substrate surface. Contamination e.g. fat residues, tensides etc. on the substrate is one of the most serious enemies of adhesive bonding and the above mentioned techniques are playing a vital role in combating the enemy. Modern thermal analytical methods have made tremendous contribution to the development and quality control of high-performance polymeric coatings. MDSC, DMA and DETA are proving to be very useful tools for the characterisation of high-performance coating materials. An in-depth understanding of the structure-property relationship of these materials, predominantly epoxy and polyurethane coating systems, is a pre-requisite for their successful application and subsequent Quality Control. (author)

  14. Electrochemical Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibiting Layers Formed in a Defect from Lithium-Leaching Organic Coatings

    Visser, P.; Meeusen, M.; Gonzalez Garcia, Y.; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the electrochemical evaluation of protective layers generated in a coating defect from lithium-leaching organic coatings on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloys as a function of neutral salt spray exposure time. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to study the electrochemical

  15. Numerical Investigation on Absorption Enhancement of Black Carbon Aerosols Partially Coated With Nonabsorbing Organics

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Mao, Mao; Yin, Yan; Wang, Bin

    2018-01-01

    This study numerically evaluates the effects of aerosol microphysics, including coated volume fraction of black carbon (BC), shell/core ratio, and size distribution, on the absorption enhancement (Eab) of polydisperse BC aggregates partially coated by organics, which is calculated by the exact multiple-sphere T-matrix method. The coated volume fraction of BC plays a substantial role in determining the absorption enhancement of partially coated BC aggregates, which typically have an Eab in the range of 1.0-2.0 with a larger value for larger coated volume fraction of BC as the shell/core ratio, BC geometry, and size distribution are fixed. The shell/core ratio, BC geometry, and size distribution have little impact on the Eab of coated BC with small coated volume fraction of BC, while they become significant for large coated volume fraction of BC. The Eab of partially coated BC particles can be slightly less than 1.0 for the large BC in the accumulation mode exhibiting large shell/core ratio and small coated volume fraction of BC, indicating that the absorption shows even slight decrease relative to uncoated BC particles. For partially coated BC aggregates in the accumulation and coarse modes, the refractive index uncertainties of BC result in the Eab differences of less than 9% and 2%, respectively, while those of organics can induce larger variations with the maximum differences up to 22% and 18%, respectively. Our study indicates that accounting for particle coating microphysics, particularly the coated volume fraction of BC, can potentially help to understand the differences in observations of largely variable absorption enhancements over various regions.

  16. Aquatic indicator organisms as a tool to monitor discharges from nuclear power plants

    Outola, Iisa; Vartti, Vesa-Pekka; Klemola, Seppo [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, P.O. Box 14, 00881 Helsinki (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant units in Finland at two separate locations. The units started operation during 1977-1980. The surveillance of radioactive substances in the vicinities of the nuclear power plant is carried out under the permanent monitoring programs. Some 1000 samples are taken annually from the surroundings of the power plants to confirm that the discharges from the power plants are within permissible release limits and to monitor the dispersion of discharges in the environment. Aquatic indicator organisms (macro-algae, periphyton, mussels, crustacean, submerged aquatic plants) are included in the monitoring program. The indicator organisms are valuable monitoring objects both in normal and emergency situations because they accumulate effectively and often very rapidly radioactive substances from the medium. Six different species (Periphyton, Fucus vesiculosus, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Saduria entomon, Macoma Baltica/Mytilus edulis) are collected regularly. Number of sampling location for each species varies from 1 to 7. Some species are collected continuously, some 1-2 times in a year. In this study we have evaluated the monitoring results for the aquatic indicator organisms for the period of 2005-2010 concerning concentration of discharge nuclides. Our aim was to answer the following questions using the monitoring data from aquatic organisms: 1) Which radionuclides are released to the marine environment and how often do we detect them? 2) How far from the nuclear power plants discharge radionuclides are detected? 3) How concentration of discharge radionuclides has changed with time in aquatic organisms? The number of discharge nuclides detected in the aquatic indicator samples was 11. Most of them were only detected in few samples, but {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 110m}Ag were detected more frequently. Most of the observations above detection limits were made within the 5 km distance from the

  17. Controlled Growth of Ultrathin Film of Organic Semiconductors by Balancing the Competitive Processes in Dip-Coating for Organic Transistors.

    Wu, Kunjie; Li, Hongwei; Li, Liqiang; Zhang, Suna; Chen, Xiaosong; Xu, Zeyang; Zhang, Xi; Hu, Wenping; Chi, Lifeng; Gao, Xike; Meng, Yancheng

    2016-06-28

    Ultrathin film with thickness below 15 nm of organic semiconductors provides excellent platform for some fundamental research and practical applications in the field of organic electronics. However, it is quite challenging to develop a general principle for the growth of uniform and continuous ultrathin film over large area. Dip-coating is a useful technique to prepare diverse structures of organic semiconductors, but the assembly of organic semiconductors in dip-coating is quite complicated, and there are no reports about the core rules for the growth of ultrathin film via dip-coating until now. In this work, we develop a general strategy for the growth of ultrathin film of organic semiconductor via dip-coating, which provides a relatively facile model to analyze the growth behavior. The balance between the three direct factors (nucleation rate, assembly rate, and recession rate) is the key to determine the growth of ultrathin film. Under the direction of this rule, ultrathin films of four organic semiconductors are obtained. The field-effect transistors constructed on the ultrathin film show good field-effect property. This work provides a general principle and systematic guideline to prepare ultrathin film of organic semiconductors via dip-coating, which would be highly meaningful for organic electronics as well as for the assembly of other materials via solution processes.

  18. Growth and morphogenesis of embryonic mouse organs on non-coated and extracellular matrix-coated Biopore membrane

    Hardman, P.; Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse salivary glands, pancreata, and kidneys were isolated from embryos of appropriate gestational age by microdissection, and were cultured on Biopore membrane either non-coated or coated with type I collagen or Matrigel. As expected, use of Biopore membrane allowed high quality photomicroscopy of the living organs. In all organs extensive mesenchymal spreading was observed in the presence of type I collagen or Matrigel. However, differences were noted in the effects of extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings on epithelial growth and morphogenesis: salivary glands were minimally affected, pancreas morphogenesis was adversely affected, and kidney growth and branching apparently was enhanced. It is suggested that these differences in behaviour reflect differences in the strength of interactions between the mesenchymal cells and their surrounding endogenous matrix, compared to the exogenous ECM macromolecules. This method will be useful for culture of these and other embryonic organs. In particular, culture of kidney rudiments on ECM-coated Biopore offers a great improvement over previously used methods which do not allow morphogenesis to be followed in vitro.

  19. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Yun-Young Choi; Seung-Ryong Baek; Jae-In Kim; Jeong-Woo Choi; Jin Hur; Tae-U Lee; Cheol-Joon Park; Byung Joon Lee

    2017-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industri...

  20. Aging of oxygen and hydrogen plasma discharge treated a-C:H and ta-C coatings

    Bachmann, Svenja [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Schulze, Marcus [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Morasch, Jan [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Surface Science Division, Jovanka-Bonschits-Straße 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hesse, Sabine [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Hussein, Laith [Eduard-Zintl-Institut, Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 12, 64287, Darmstadt (Germany); Krell, Lisa; Schnagl, Johann [BMW Group, Hufelandstraße 4, 80788 Munich (Germany); Stark, Robert W. [Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The water CA of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C changes from hydrophillic to hydrophobic on aging. • XPS study indicates that the decrease in surface energy of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C could be due to adsorption of organic component from air. • The COFLFM of O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. • The COF of glycerol lubricated ta-C showed no sign of change upon aging. - Abstract: Surface modification with gas plasma is an efficient and easy way to improve the surface energy and the tribological behavior of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, e.g., in biomedical implants or as protective coatings. However, the long-term performance of the plasma treated DLC coatings is not fully clear. We thus studied the long-term stability of two kinds of DLC coatings, namely (a) hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and (b) tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) treated at different radio frequency (RF) power and time of oxygen (O{sub 2}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma. Their surface properties, e.g. surface wettability, structure and tribological behavior, were studied at regular intervals for a period of two months using contact angle goniometer, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), lateral force microscopy (LFM) and ball on disc apparatus. The surface energy of both the coatings decreased upon aging. The higher the RF power and time of treatment, the higher was the hydrophobicity upon aging. XPS analysis showed that the increase in hydrophobicity could be due to adsorption of unavoidable volatile organic components in the atmosphere. The H{sub 2} plasma treated ta-C was capable of rearranging its structural bonds upon aging. The nano-friction measurements by LFM showed that the coefficient of friction of plasma treated a-C:H and ta-C decreased upon aging. The results indicate that the surface properties of plasma treated a‐C:H and ta‐C are not stable on long-term and are

  1. 77 FR 33969 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters

    2012-06-08

    ...-10486] RIN 1625-AA32 Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters... Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters.'' Six technical errors were.... Waters.'' Six technical errors were inadvertently published in the final rule that require correction...

  2. Acid-resistant organic coatings for the chemical industry: a review

    Møller, Victor Buhl; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    2017-01-01

    Industries that work with acidic chemicals in their processes need to make choices on how to properly contain the substances and avoid rapid corrosion of equipment. Certain organic coatings and linings can be used in such environments, either to protect vulnerable construction materials, or......, in combination with fiber reinforcement, to replace them. However, degradation mechanisms of organic coatings in acid service are not thoroughly understood and relevant quantitative investigations are scarce. This review describes the uses and limitations of acid-resistant coatings in the chemical industry...

  3. Organic coatings silane-based for AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Hu Junying; Li Qing; Zhong Xiankang; Li Longqin; Zhang Liang

    2010-01-01

    Organic coatings silane-based containing electron withdrawing group or electron donating group have been synthesized and evaluated as prospective surface treatments for AZ91D magnesium alloy by hydrolysis and condensation reaction of the different silanes. Electrochemical tests were employed to confirm the corrosion resistance ability of the two kinds of organic coatings. The results showed that the coating with electron donating group had better corrosion protection performance. On the basis of the spatial configuration and the density of charge of those silanes molecules which was obtained through Gaussian 03 procedure based on B3LYP and density functional theory, combining experiment results, the rational explanation was provided.

  4. Conversion from carbon dioxide to organic materials by RF impulse discharges with hydrogen

    Satoh, G.; Kano, M.; Iizuka, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is among the most serious greenhouse gases emitted from the burning of fossil fuels. The objective of this study was to investigate the fundamental process of reducing CO{sub 2} to generate beneficial and reusable organic materials like methane (CH{sub 4}) and alcohol (CH{sub 3}OH) by using RF impulse discharges in a low gas pressure regime. A low-pressure glow discharge was used to investigate the fundamental processes without catalysts. The discharge took place inside a glass tube by changing the discharge parameters such as voltage, gas flow rate and gas residence time, where the CO{sub 2} was reduced by hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze the gas species. Several organic materials were observed, including methane and methanol. The study focused primarily on the reduction of CO{sub 2} by using only H{sub 2}. Carbon monoxide (CO) was clearly a major product from CO{sub 2}, but CH{sub 4} was the most dominant organic species in this experiment. The density of CH{sub 4} increased with the discharge power, and eventually its volume ratio was about 20 percent among the gas species containing carbon via decomposition of CO{sub 2}. This ratio was dependent on the mixing ratio of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. It was concluded that the total pressure is an important factor for efficient production. CH{sub 3}OH formation was observed, but its concentration was low in comparison to CH{sub 4}. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Formation of self-organized anode patterns in arc discharge simulations

    Trelles, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Pattern formation and self-organization are phenomena commonly observed experimentally in diverse types of plasma systems, including atmospheric-pressure electric arc discharges. However, numerical simulations reproducing anode pattern formation in arc discharges have proven exceedingly elusive. Time-dependent three-dimensional thermodynamic non-equilibrium simulations reveal the spontaneous formation of self-organized patterns of anode attachment spots in the free-burning arc, a canonical thermal plasma flow established by a constant dc current between an axi-symmetric electrode configuration in the absence of external forcing. The number of spots, their size and distribution within the pattern depend on the applied total current and on the resolution of the spatial discretization, whereas the main properties of the plasma flow, such as maximum temperatures, velocity and voltage drop, depend only on the former. The sensibility of the solution to the spatial discretization stresses the computational requirements for comprehensive arc discharge simulations. The obtained anode patterns qualitatively agree with experimental observations and confirm that the spots originate at the fringes of the arc–anode attachment. The results imply that heavy-species–electron energy equilibration, in addition to thermal instability, has a dominant role in the formation of anode spots in arc discharges. (paper)

  6. Epidemiology and clinico-investigative study of organisms causing vaginal discharge

    Venugopal, Swetha; Gopalan, Kannan; Devi, Asha; Kavitha, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Abnormal vaginal discharge is a common clinical problem in reproductive age group. It is the second most common problem after abnormal uterine bleeding. It is a neglected health problem, most commonly caused due to vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Objectives: The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of common organisms causing vaginal discharge and also to know the variety of clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Skin and STD Outpatient Department of Vinayaka Mission Kirupananda Variyar Medical College Hospital, Salem, who presented with abnormal vaginal discharge between September 2012 and September 2014. A total of 100 women in the reproductive age group who had symptoms of vaginitis were examined. Data were coded and analyzed. Results: Out of the 100 patients examined, 77 (77%) cases were organism positive. Among the positive cases, BV (27%) was the most common microbiological cause of abnormal vaginal discharge, followed by trichomoniasis (25%), vaginal candidiasis (22%), combined infection (Candida and BV) (3%), and nonspecific cases (23%). Conclusion: Out of 100 cases, few cases showed discordance between clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This discordance can be due to pitfalls in identifying the causative agent clinically or obscuring of the findings due to improper treatment received for other ailments. Thus, clinico-investigative correlation is more important than other clinical findings alone. PMID:28442807

  7. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    Gutierrez, Leonardo

    2015-07-31

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with AgNPs and their aggregation kinetics were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS), respectively. Two well-characterized EfOM isolates, i.e., wastewater humic (WW humic) and wastewater colloids (WW colloids, a complex mixture of polysaccharides-proteins-lipids), and a River humic isolate of different characteristics were selected. Citrate-coated AgNPs were selected as representative capped-AgNPs. Citrate-coated AgNPs showed a considerable stability in Na+ solutions. However, Ca2+ ions induced aggregation by cation bridging between carboxyl groups on citrate. Although the presence of River humic increased the stability of citrate-coated AgNPs in Na+ solutions due to electrosteric effects, they aggregated in WW humic-containing solutions, indicating the importance of humics characteristics during interactions. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs aggregation rates in both humic solutions, suggesting cation bridging between carboxyl groups on their structures as a dominant interacting mechanism. Aggregation of citrate-coated AgNPs in WW colloids solutions was significantly faster than those in both humic solutions. Control experiments in urea solution indicated hydrogen bonding as the main interacting mechanism. During AFM experiments, citrate-coated AgNPs showed higher adhesion to WW humic than to River humic, evidencing a consistency between TR-DLS and AFM results. Ca2+ ions increased citrate-coated AgNPs adhesion to both humic isolates. Interestingly, strong WW colloids interactions with citrate caused AFM probe contamination (nanoparticles adsorption) even at low Na+ concentrations, indicating the impact of hydrogen bonding on adhesion. These results suggest the importance

  8. Regulating specific organic substances and heavy metals in industrial wastewater discharged to municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Grüttner, Henrik; Munk, L.; Pedersen, F.

    1994-01-01

    Due to the extension of wastewater treatment plants to nutrient removal and the development towards reuse of sludge m agriculture, new guidelines for regulating industrial discharges m Denmark were needed. The paper describes how a concept for regulating the discharge of specific organic substances...... substances, present knowledge of fate and effects in biological treatment plants is too scarce to underpin the setting of general standards. Therefore, it has been decided to base the developed priority system on the data used in the EEC-system for classification of hazardous chemicals. This includes ready...... degradability, defined by the OECD-test, bio-sorption and bio-accumulation, defined by the octanol/water distribution coefficient and toxic effects on water organisms. Several potential effects of seven heavy metals have been evaluated, and the most critical effects were found to be the quality criteria...

  9. Interactions between wood and coatings with low organic solvent content

    Meijer, de M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the knowledge on the fundamental interactions between low VOC-coatings and wood, in particular in relation to wood protection in exterior use. To avoid environmental damage and dangerous conditions in the workplace, low-VOC paints

  10. Room-temperature solid phase ionic liquid (RTSPIL) coated Ω-transaminases: Development and application in organic solvents

    Grabner, B.; Nazario, M. A.; Gundersen, M. T.

    2018-01-01

    ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co‐lyophilization and ......ω-Transaminases ATA-40, ATA-47 and ATA-82P were coated with room-temperature solid phase ionic liquids (RTSPILs) by means of three methods, melt coating, precipitation coating, and co‐lyophilization, and showed increased stability in all of the five tested organic solvents. Co...

  11. Reduction of organic solvent emission by industrial use of electron-beam curable coatings

    Haering, E.

    1982-01-01

    Most industrial finishing processes operate by the use of liquid organic coating materials drying by solvent evaporation and subsequent chemical crosslinking reactions, in many cases also releasing cleavage products. These organic emissions contribute to air pollution and therefore many countries have issued restrictions in order to protect the environment. Complementary to other modern methods for reducing this problem, radiation chemistry enables an approach by radical chain polymerization which can be induced by exposure to electron radiation. This procedure is known as electron-beam curing of coatings or the EBC process. It utilizes well-developed accelerator equipment with voltages of 150 to 400kV at a minimum energy consumption. There is no necessity to use irradiation facilities based on the decay of radioisotopes. Free radical polymerization requires unsaturated resins as pain binders and polymerizable liquid compounds (monomers) as reactive diluents. Their crosslinking yields a high molecular network, the coating, without any emission of organic solvents or cleavage products. Moreover, the radiochemical formation of the paint film occurs extremely rapidly. The technical application of EBC coatings began by coating automotive plastic parts; a little later the finishing of wood products gained more industrial use as a non-polluting and energy-saving coating technology. Application methods in coating plastic foils in combination with vacuum metallizing and the production of decorative laminating papers for furniture followed. In 1981 new EBC pilot lines were installed for curing top coats on PVC foil and also for the coating of prefinished steel wheels for automobiles. In comparison with conventional solvent-based methods the industrial EBC process results in a nearly complete reduction of organic solvent emission avoiding air pollution and saving valuable petrochemical raw materials. This paper reviews the development of EBC during the last decade. (author)

  12. Simulation study of one-dimensional self-organized pattern in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Zhang, Jiao; Wang, Yanhui, E-mail: wangyh@dlut.edu.cn; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-04-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the one-dimensional self-organized patterns in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) driven by sinusoidal voltage in argon. Under certain conditions, by changing applied voltage amplitude, the transversely uniform discharge can evolve into the patterned discharge and the varied self-organized patterned discharges with different numbers and arrangements of discharge channels can be observed. Similar to the uniform atmospheric-pressure DBD, the patterned discharge mode is found to undergo a transition from Townsend regime, sub-glow regime to glow regime with increasing applied voltage amplitude. In the different regimes, charged particles and electric field display different dynamical behaviors. If the voltage amplitude is increased over a certain value, the discharge enters an asymmetric patterned discharge mode, and then transforms into the spatially chaotic state with out-of-order discharge channels. The reason for forming the one-dimensional self-organized pattern is mainly due to the so-called activation-inhibition effect resulting from the local high electron density region appearing in discharge space. Electrode arrangement is the reason that induces local high electron density.

  13. Self-healing anticorrosive organic coating based on an encapsulated water reactive silyl ester: synthesis and proof of concept

    García, S.J.; Fischer, H.R.; White, P.A.; Mardel, J.; González-García, Y.; Mol, J.M.C.; Hughes, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a self-healing anticorrosive organic coating based on an encapsulated water reactive organic agent is presented. A reactive silyl ester is proposed as a new organic reactive healing agent and its synthesis, performance, incorporation into an organic coating and evaluation of

  14. Characteristics and Biodegradability of Wastewater Organic Matter in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants Collecting Domestic Wastewater and Industrial Discharge

    Yun-Young Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in Korea collect and treat not only domestic wastewater, but also discharge from industrial complexes. However, some industrial discharges contain a large amount of non-biodegradable organic matter, which cannot be treated properly in a conventional biological WWTP. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and biodegradability of the wastewater organic matter contained in the industrial discharges and to examine the fate of the industrial discharges in a biological WWTP. In contrast to most previous studies targeting a specific group of organic compounds or traditional water quality indices, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD, this study was purposed to quantify and characterize the biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions of the wastewater organic matter. Chemical oxygen demand (COD fractionation tests and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the industrial discharge from dyeing or pulp mill factories contained more non-biodegradable soluble organic matter than did the domestic wastewater. Statistical analysis on the WWTPs’ monitoring data indicated that the industrial discharge containing non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was not treated effectively in a biological WWTP, but was escaping from the system. Thus, industrial discharge that contained non-biodegradable soluble organic matter was a major factor in the decrease in biodegradability of the discharge, affecting the ultimate fate of wastewater organic matter in a biological WWTP. Further application of COD fractionation and fluorescence spectroscopy to wastewaters, with various industrial discharges, will help scientists and engineers to better design and operate a biological WWTP, by understanding the fate of wastewater organic matter.

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart II of... - Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits for Marine Coatings

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP) Limits... (Surface Coating) Pt. 63, Subpt. II, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart II of Part 63—Volatile Organic HAP (VOHAP...) through (4). b VOC (including exempt compounds listed as HAP) shall be used as a surrogate for VOHAP for...

  16. Comparing Stream Discharge, Dissolved Organic Carbon, and Selected MODIS Indices in Freshwater Basins

    Shaver, W. T.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    In a preliminary study of the Ipswich Basin in Massachusetts, a good correlation was found to exist between the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Enhanced Vegetation Index and stream dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Further study was warranted to determine the utility of MODIS indices in predicting temporal stream DOC. Stream discharge rates and DOC data were obtained from the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) database. Twelve NAWQA monitoring sites were selected for evaluation based on the criteria of having drainage basin sizes less than 600 km2 with relatively continuous, long-term DOC and discharge data. MODIS indices were selected based on their connections with terrestrial DOC and were obtained for each site's catchment area. These included the Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI), the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), the Daily Photosynthesis (PSN) and the Leaf Area Index (LAI). Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between DOC, discharge and MODIS products. Data analysis revealed several important trends. Sites with strong positive correlation coefficients (r values ranging from 0.462 to 0.831) between DOC and discharge displayed weak correlations with all of the MODIS indices (r values ranging from 0 to 0.322). For sites where the DOC/discharge correlation was weak or negative, MODIS indices were moderately correlated, with r values ranging from 0.35 to 0.647, all of which were significant at less than 1 percent. Some sites that had weak positive correlations with MODIS indices displayed a lag time, that is, the MODIS index rose and fell shortly before the DOC concentration rose and fell. Shifting the MODIS data forward in time by roughly one month significantly increased the DOC/MODIS r values by about 10%. NDVI and EVI displayed the strongest correlations with temporal DOC variability (r values ranging from 0.471 to 0.647), and therefore these indices are the most promising for being incorporated

  17. Deposition of hybrid organic-inorganic composite coatings using an atmospheric plasma jet system.

    Dembele, Amidou; Rahman, Mahfujur; Reid, Ian; Twomey, Barry; MacElroy, J M Don; Dowling, Denis P

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of alcohol addition on the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles into nm thick siloxane coatings. Titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles with diameters of 30-80 nm were incorporated into an atmospheric plasma deposited tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) siloxane coating. The TMOS/TiO2 coating was deposited using the atmospheric plasma jet system known as PlasmaStream. In this system the liquid precursor/nanoparticle mixture is nebulised into the plasma. It was observed that prior to being nebulised the TiO2 particles agglomerated and settled over time in the TMOS/TiO2 mixture. In order to obtain a more stable nanoparticle/TMOS suspension the addition of the alcohols methanol, octanol and pentanol to this mixture was investigated. The addition of each of these alcohols was found to stabilise the nanoparticle suspension. The effect of the alcohol was therefore assessed with respect to the properties of the deposited coatings. It was observed that coatings deposited from TMOS/TiO2, with and without the addition of methanol were broadly similar. In contrast the coatings deposited with octanol and pentanol addition to the TMOS/TiO2 mixture were significantly thicker, for a given set of deposition parameters and were also more homogeneous. This would indicate that the alcohol precursor was incorporated into the plasma polymerised siloxane. The incorporation of the organic functionality from the alcohols was confirmed from FTIR spectra of the coatings. The difference in behaviour with alcohol type is likely to be due to the lower boiling point of methanol (65 degrees C), which is lower than the maximum plasma temperature measured at the jet orifice (77 degrees C). This temperature is significantly lower than the 196 degrees C and 136 degrees C boiling points of octanol and pentanol respectively. The friction of the coatings was determined using the Pin-on-disc technique. The more organic coatings deposited with

  18. The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols

    Moehler, O; Benz, S; Saathoff, H; Schnaiter, M; Wagner, R [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schneider, J; Walter, S [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Ebert, V; Wagner, S [University of Heidelberg, Institute for Physical Chemistry, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: Ottmar.Moehler@imk.fzk.de

    2008-04-15

    The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation (IN) efficiency of dust particles was investigated at simulated cirrus cloud conditions in the AIDA cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Arizona test dust (ATD) and the clay mineral illite were used as surrogates for atmospheric dust aerosols. The dry dust samples were dispersed into a 3.7 m{sup 3} aerosol vessel and either directly transferred into the 84 m{sup 3} cloud simulation chamber or coated before with the semi-volatile products from the reaction of {alpha}-pinene with ozone in order to mimic the coating of atmospheric dust particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substances. The ice-active fraction was measured in AIDA expansion cooling experiments as a function of the relative humidity with respect to ice, RHi, in the temperature range from 205 to 210 K. Almost all uncoated dust particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1.0 {mu}m acted as efficient deposition mode ice nuclei at RHi between 105 and 120%. This high ice nucleation efficiency was markedly suppressed by coating with SOA. About 20% of the ATD particles coated with a SOA mass fraction of 17 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 115 and 130%, and only 10% of the illite particles coated with an SOA mass fraction of 41 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 160 and 170%. Only a minor fraction of pure SOA particles were ice-active at RHi between 150 and 190%. Strong IN activation of SOA particles was observed only at RHi above 200%, which is clearly above water saturation at the given temperature. The IN suppression and the shift of the heterogeneous IN onset to higher RHi seem to depend on the coating thickness or the fractional surface coverage of the mineral particles. The results indicate that the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of atmospheric mineral particles may also be suppressed if they are coated with secondary organics.

  19. The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of mineral dust aerosols

    Moehler, O; Benz, S; Saathoff, H; Schnaiter, M; Wagner, R; Schneider, J; Walter, S; Ebert, V; Wagner, S

    2008-01-01

    The effect of organic coating on the heterogeneous ice nucleation (IN) efficiency of dust particles was investigated at simulated cirrus cloud conditions in the AIDA cloud chamber of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Arizona test dust (ATD) and the clay mineral illite were used as surrogates for atmospheric dust aerosols. The dry dust samples were dispersed into a 3.7 m 3 aerosol vessel and either directly transferred into the 84 m 3 cloud simulation chamber or coated before with the semi-volatile products from the reaction of α-pinene with ozone in order to mimic the coating of atmospheric dust particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substances. The ice-active fraction was measured in AIDA expansion cooling experiments as a function of the relative humidity with respect to ice, RHi, in the temperature range from 205 to 210 K. Almost all uncoated dust particles with diameters between 0.1 and 1.0 μm acted as efficient deposition mode ice nuclei at RHi between 105 and 120%. This high ice nucleation efficiency was markedly suppressed by coating with SOA. About 20% of the ATD particles coated with a SOA mass fraction of 17 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 115 and 130%, and only 10% of the illite particles coated with an SOA mass fraction of 41 wt% were ice-active at RHi between 160 and 170%. Only a minor fraction of pure SOA particles were ice-active at RHi between 150 and 190%. Strong IN activation of SOA particles was observed only at RHi above 200%, which is clearly above water saturation at the given temperature. The IN suppression and the shift of the heterogeneous IN onset to higher RHi seem to depend on the coating thickness or the fractional surface coverage of the mineral particles. The results indicate that the heterogeneous ice nucleation potential of atmospheric mineral particles may also be suppressed if they are coated with secondary organics

  20. The reaction between iodine and organic coatings under severe PWR accident conditions. An experimental parameter study

    Hellmann, S; Funke, F; Greger, G U; Bleier, A; Morell, W [Siemens AG, Power Generation Group, Erlangen (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    An extensive experimental parameter study was performed on the deposition and on the resuspension kinetics in the reaction system iodine/organically coated surfaces. Both reactions in the gas phase and in the liquid phase were investigated and kinetic rate constants suitable for modelling were derived. Previous experimental studies on the reaction of iodine with organic coated surfaces were mostly limited to temperatures below 100{sup o}C. Thus, this parameter study aims at filling a gap and providing kinetic data on heterogeneous reactions with organic surfaces in the accident-relevant temperature range of 100-160{sup o}C. Two types of laboratory experiments carried out at Siemens/KWU using coatings representative for German power plants (epoxy-tape paint), namely gas phase tests and liquid phase tests. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs.

  1. Reduction of aesthetical properties of organic coatings caused by mechanical damage

    Rossi, S.; Deflorian, F.; Scrinzi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Organic coatings are the most commonly used system for protection from corrosion. In many applications, the protective properties against corrosion are associated with several other properties, including resistance to abrasion and good aesthetic appearance. This is particularly important for the automotive and transport industry, building trade, domestic products, packaging. To evaluate the abrasion resistance of organic coatings the Taber Abraser test is frequently used. The aim of this work is to evaluate the reduction of aesthetical properties, caused by abrasion by Taber test, using different abrasive pastes. The level of damage was evaluated through gloss measurements; 20 deg. was the most sensitive angle to gloss changes, with this geometry different samples could be compared. The correlation between the changes of gloss and the damage was investigated using optical microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy. With increase of grain dimensions, the paste became more abrasive with negative effect on the aesthetical aspect of the organic coating

  2. Self-organization as the cause of different states of dc and hf discharge plasmas

    Lozneanu, E.; Dimitriu, D.; Gaman, C.; Furtuna, C.; Filep, E.; Sanduloviciu, M.

    2004-01-01

    Dc and hf gas discharges used in industrial devices are strongly nonlinear media whose characteristics and behavior critically depend on the type of the device and on the way and the amount of energy injected into the system. Consequently, considering a certain industrial device, it is possible to select, by gradually changing the injected energy, the working regimes that offer the most suitable conditions for a certain practical applications. The consideration of the nonlinear behavior of gaseous conductors (plasmas), created in dc and hf electric fields, and implicitly of the self-organizing phenomena at their origin become important for certain applications (Authors)

  3. Formation of secondary organic aerosol coating on black carbon particles near vehicular emissions

    Lee, Alex K. Y.; Chen, Chia-Li; Liu, Jun; Price, Derek J.; Betha, Raghu; Russell, Lynn M.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Cappa, Christopher D.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) emitted from incomplete combustion can result in significant impacts on air quality and climate. Understanding the mixing state of ambient BC and the chemical characteristics of its associated coatings is particularly important to evaluate BC fate and environmental impacts. In this study, we investigate the formation of organic coatings on BC particles in an urban environment (Fontana, California) under hot and dry conditions using a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). The SP-AMS was operated in a configuration that can exclusively detect refractory BC (rBC) particles and their coatings. Using the -log(NOx / NOy) ratio as a proxy for photochemical age of air masses, substantial formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) coatings on rBC particles was observed due to active photochemistry in the afternoon, whereas primary organic aerosol (POA) components were strongly associated with rBC from fresh vehicular emissions in the morning rush hours. There is also evidence that cooking-related organic aerosols were externally mixed from rBC. Positive matrix factorization and elemental analysis illustrate that most of the observed SOA coatings were freshly formed, providing an opportunity to examine SOA coating formation on rBCs near vehicular emissions. Approximately 7-20 wt % of secondary organic and inorganic species were estimated to be internally mixed with rBC on average, implying that rBC is unlikely the major condensation sink of SOA in this study. Comparison of our results to a co-located standard high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) measurement suggests that at least a portion of SOA materials condensed on rBC surfaces were chemically different from oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) particles that were externally mixed with rBC, although they could both be generated from local photochemistry.

  4. Inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coating applications: Formulation, characterization, and evaluation

    Eyassu, Tsehaye

    Nanotechnology applications in coatings have shown significant growth in recent years. Systematic incorporation of nano-sized inorganic materials into polymer coating enhances optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties significantly. The present dissertation will focus on formulation, characterization and evaluation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanocomposite coatings for heat dissipation, corrosion inhibition and ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) cut applications. In addition, the dissertation will cover synthesis, characterization and dispersion of functional inorganic fillers. In the first project, we investigated factors that can affect the "Molecular Fan" cooling performance and efficiency. The investigated factors and conditions include types of nanomaterials, size, loading amount, coating thickness, heat sink substrate, substrate surface modification, and power input. Using the optimal factors, MF coating was formulated and applied on commercial HDUs, and cooling efficiencies up to 22% and 23% were achieved using multi-walled carbon nanotube and graphene fillers. The result suggests that molecular fan action can reduce the size and mass of heat-sink module and thus offer a low cost of LED light unit. In the second project, we report the use of thin organic/inorganic hybrid coating as a protection for corrosion and as a thermal management to dissipate heat from galvanized steel. Here, we employed the in-situ phosphatization method for corrosion inhibition and "Molecular fan" technique to dissipate heat from galvanized steel panels and sheets. Salt fog tests reveal successful completion of 72 hours corrosion protection time frame for samples coated with as low as ~0.7microm thickness. Heat dissipation measurement shows 9% and 13% temperature cooling for GI and GL panels with the same coating thickness of ~0.7microm respectively. The effect of different factors, in-situ phosphatization reagent (ISPR), cross-linkers and nanomaterial on corrosion

  5. All-organic superhydrophobic coatings with mechanochemical robustness and liquid impalement resistance

    Peng, Chaoyi; Chen, Zhuyang; Tiwari, Manish K.

    2018-03-01

    Superhydrophobicity is a remarkable evolutionary adaption manifested by several natural surfaces. Artificial superhydrophobic coatings with good mechanical robustness, substrate adhesion and chemical robustness have been achieved separately. However, a simultaneous demonstration of these features along with resistance to liquid impalement via high-speed drop/jet impact is challenging. Here, we describe all-organic, flexible superhydrophobic nanocomposite coatings that demonstrate strong mechanical robustness under cyclic tape peels and Taber abrasion, sustain exposure to highly corrosive media, namely aqua regia and sodium hydroxide solutions, and can be applied to surfaces through scalable techniques such as spraying and brushing. In addition, the mechanical flexibility of our coatings enables impalement resistance to high-speed drops and turbulent jets at least up to 35 m s-1 and a Weber number of 43,000. With multifaceted robustness and scalability, these coatings should find potential usage in harsh chemical engineering as well as infrastructure, transport vehicles and communication equipment.

  6. Lifetime prediction for organic coating under alternating hydrostatic pressure by artificial neural network

    Tian, Wenliang; Meng, Fandi; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-01-01

    A concept for prediction of organic coatings, based on the alternating hydrostatic pressure (AHP) accelerated tests, has been presented. An AHP accelerated test with different pressure values has been employed to evaluate coating degradation. And a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) has been established to predict the service property and the service lifetime of coatings. The pressure value (P), immersion time (t) and service property (impedance modulus |Z|) are utilized as the parameters of the network. The average accuracies of the predicted service property and immersion time by the established network are 98.6% and 84.8%, respectively. The combination of accelerated test and prediction method by BP-ANN is promising to evaluate and predict coating property used in deep sea. PMID:28094340

  7. Electric organ discharge diversity in the genus Gymnotus: anatomo-functional groups and electrogenic mechanisms.

    Rodríguez-Cattáneo, A; Aguilera, P; Cilleruelo, E; Crampton, W G R; Caputi, A A

    2013-04-15

    Previous studies describe six factors accounting for interspecific diversity of electric organ discharge (EOD) waveforms in Gymnotus. At the cellular level, three factors determine the locally generated waveforms: (1) electrocyte geometry and channel repertoire; (2) the localization of synaptic contacts on electrocyte surfaces; and (3) electric activity of electromotor axons preceding the discharge of electrocytes. At the organismic level, three factors determine the integration of the EOD as a behavioral unit: (4) the distribution of different types of electrocytes and specialized passive tissue forming the electric organ (EO); (5) the neural mechanisms of electrocyte discharge coordination; and (6) post-effector mechanisms. Here, we reconfirm the importance of the first five of these factors based on comparative studies of a wider diversity of Gymnotus than previously investigated. Additionally, we report a hitherto unseen aspect of EOD diversity in Gymnotus. The central region of the EO (which has the largest weight on the conspecific-received field) usually exhibits a negative-positive-negative pattern where the delay between the early negative and positive peaks (determined by neural coordination mechanisms) matches the delay between the positive and late negative peaks (determined by electrocyte responsiveness). Because delays between peaks typically determine the peak power frequency, this matching implies a co-evolution of neural and myogenic coordination mechanisms in determining the spectral specificity of the intraspecific communication channel. Finally, we define four functional species groups based on EO/EOD structure. The first three exhibit a heterogeneous EO in which doubly innervated electrocytes are responsible for a main triphasic complex. Group I species exhibit a characteristic cephalic extension of the EO. Group II species exhibit an early positive component of putative neural origin, and strong EO auto-excitability. Group III species exhibit

  8. Effects of Neuroactive Drugs in the Discharge Patterns of Microsternarchus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes) Electric Organ.

    de Jesus, Isac Silva; Ferreira, Milena; Silva-Júnior, Urbano Lopes; Alves-Gomes, José Antônio

    2017-12-01

    Considering the conserved nature of synaptic physiology among vertebrates, we tested the effects of three psychotropics (diazepam, doxapram, and nicotine) on Microsternarchus cf. bilineatus, measuring 10 parameters associated to the electric organ discharges rhythm and waveform before and after the administration of each drug and a control group. There were statistically significant differences (p electric organ's (EO) firing rate, regardless of the expected stimulant or depressor effect of the drugs on the central nervous system (CNS). The intensity of the response changed with the treatment. The observed changes in the fishes' behavior may be a result of the drugs' direct action on the CNS or a combination of this with systemic effects of each substance tested, also in the EO.

  9. Alteration of five organic compounds by glow discharge plasma and UV light under simulated Mars conditions

    Hintze, Paul E.; Buhler, Charles R.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Calle, Luz M.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2010-08-01

    The Viking missions to Mars failed to detect any organic material in regolith samples. Since then, several removal mechanisms of organic material have been proposed. Two of these proposed methods are removal due to exposure to plasmas created in dust devils and exposure to UV irradiation. The experiments presented here were performed to identify similarities between the two potential removal mechanisms and to identify any compounds produced from these mechanisms that would have been difficult for the Viking instruments to detect. Five organic compounds, phenanthrene, octadecane, octadecanoic acid, decanophenone and benzoic acid, were exposed to a glow discharge plasma created in simulated martian atmospheres as might be present in dust devils, and to UV irradiation similar to that found at the surface of Mars. Glow discharge exposure was carried out in a chamber with 6.9 mbar pressure of a Mars like gas composed mostly of carbon dioxide. The plasma was characterized using emission spectroscopy and found to contain cations and excited neutral species including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. UV irradiation experiments were performed in a Mars chamber which simulates the temperature, pressure, atmospheric composition, and UV fluence rates of equatorial Mars. The non-volatile residues left after each exposure were characterized by mass loss, infrared spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Oxidized, higher molecular weight versions of the parent compounds containing carbonyl, hydroxyl and alkenyl functional groups were identified. The presence of these oxidized compounds suggests that searches for organic material in soils on Mars use instrumentation suitable for detection of compounds which contain the above functional groups. Discussions of possible reaction mechanisms are given.

  10. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Hoai, Nguyen To; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  11. Thermal reduction of graphene-oxide-coated cotton for oil and organic solvent removal

    Hoai, Nguyen To, E-mail: hoaito@pvu.edu.vn; Sang, Nguyen Nhat; Hoang, Tran Dinh

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A new method for preparation of reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO) coated cotton is proposed. • The RGO-Cotton composites were carefully characterized using many modern techniques. • RGO-Cotton exhibited superhydrophobicity and superolephilicity. • RGO-Cotton sponges can absorb many types of oils and organic solvents and can be recycled. - Abstract: The reduced-graphene-oxide (RGO)-coated cotton sponge (RGO-Cot) was prepared by simply heating a graphene-oxide (GO)-coated cotton sponge, which was fabricated by dipping a commercial cotton sponge into a GO dispersion, under vacuum at 200 °C for 2 h. The thus prepared RGO-Cot sponges exhibited superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity, with a water contact angle of 151°. These RGO-Cot sponges could be used for removal of many types of oils and organic solvents as they exhibit absorption capacities in the range of 22–45 times their weight and good absorption recyclability.

  12. Corrosion protection by organic coatings containing polyaniline salts prepared by oxidative polymerization

    Kohl, M.; Kalendová, A.; Černošková, E.; Bláha, Michal; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Erben, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2017), s. 1397-1410 ISSN 1945-9645 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * oxidative polymerization * organic coatings Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.557, year: 2016

  13. The application of ion-exchanged clay as corrosion inhibiting pigments in organic coatings

    Chrisanti, Santi

    High strength aluminum alloys are used in aerospace industry and are normally coated to prevent corrosion. The corrosion protection of the coatings is mainly provided by pigmented-primer layer. Strontium chromate pigments are widely used, but they are toxic and carcinogenic. The objective of the current study is to develop and characterize the ion exchange compounds bentonite and hydrotalcite as corrosion inhibiting pigments. These compounds were synthesized with different cations and anions, and were used either alone or in mixtures as particulate additive in organic coatings. In coating applications as well as bulk solution, the inhibitor release mechanism is based on ion exchange. To evaluate corrosion inhibition, pigments extract solutions were used in potentiodynamic polarization as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments on bare aluminum alloy 2024-T3. Cathodic polarization showed that zinc- and cerium-containing filtrate solutions modestly inhibited cathodic current density. These solutions also decreased the extent of pitting damage formed on the surface, as compared to uninhibited 0.5 M NaCl solution. Pigments were also added as primer additives, and painted on AA2024-T3. The coated panels were then subjected to salt spray exposure testing. The possibility of sensing inhibitor exhaustion by means of X-ray diffraction interrogation of the pigment in a coating is demonstrated and discussed on cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings. Although cerium bentonite-pigmented coatings did not show behavior indicative of self-healing, the combination of bentonite and hydrotalcite that released Ce3+, Zn 2+, and PO43- showed potent scribe protection even after 3000 h exposure in salt spray. Promising self-healing was also demonstrated by pigments that consisted of decavanadate-hydrotalcite and zinc pyrovanadate, as indicated by a shiny scribed area after 1000h exposure in salt spray. When these pigments are used, blistering is minimized.

  14. Reducing bleaching effects in organic nanofibers by coating

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    Para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) organic nanofibers emit polarized, blue light upon UV excitation with a peak wavelength of the emitted light of 425 nm [1] and a spatially anisotropic distribution of the emitted light [2]. These features could enable future (opto-)electronic applications [3], since...

  15. Bilayer polymer/oxide coating for organic semiconductors

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    Organic materials have been given much attention due to their intriguing properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications combined with their low price and fairly straight-forward large-scale synthesis. p6P nanofibers can emit polarized light with a highly anisotr...

  16. Bilayer polymer/oxide coating for electroluminescent organic semiconductors

    Tavares, Luciana

    Organic materials have been given much attention due to their intriguing properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications combined with their low price and fairly straight-forward large-scale synthesis. Para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nanofibers emit polarized light with...

  17. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic optical coatings to prevent laser damage

    Compoint, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The optical devices (lents, mirrors, portholes...) that are set on the chains of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) may be damaged by the high energy laser beam especially around the UV wavelength of 351 nm. The damages are micronic craters on the rear of the optics that grows exponentially after each laser shots. The study aims at developing some optical thin coatings on the rear of the optical substrates to prevent the growth of the damage by amortizing the laser shock wave, self-healing the craters that has appeared, or repairing the laser hole after the damage occurs. The thin coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel method by using silica precursor and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The two species reacted together to get a hybrid organic-inorganic Ormosil (organically modified silica) material, by creating a silica network linked to the PDMS species with covalent and hydrogen bounds. The thin layers are obtained from the sol-gel solution by using a dip and spin coating method. The coatings have an excellent optical transmission around the UV (351 nm) wavelength. They also have some self-healing properties by using mechanical (viscoelastic) mechanism and chemical reversible hydrogen bounds action in the materials. The silica-PDMS coatings prove to be resistant to the laser beam at 351 nm, despite some optimizations that still need to be done to reach the sought laser damage threshold. (author) [fr

  18. Organic composite-mediated surface coating of human acellular bone matrix with strontium.

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Wang, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yong-Can; Wu, Cheng-Guang; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chao-Liang; Bai, Lin; Xie, Hui-Qi; Li, Zhao-Yang; Deng, Li

    2018-03-01

    Acellular bone matrix (ACBM) provides an osteoconductive scaffold for bone repair, but its osteoinductivity is poor. Strontium (Sr) improves the osteoinductivity of bone implants. In this study, we developed an organic composite-mediated strontium coating strategy for ACBM scaffolds by using the ion chelating ability of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and the surface adhesion ability of dopamine (DOPA). The organic coating composite, termed the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite, was synthesized under a mild condition, and its chemical structure and strontium ion chelating ability were then determined. After surface decoration, the physicochemical properties of the strontium-coated ACBM (ACBM-Sr) scaffolds were characterized, and their biocompatibility and osteoinductivity were determined in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the CMC-DOPA-Sr composite facilitated strontium coating on the surface of ACBM scaffolds. The ACBM-Sr scaffolds possessed a sustained strontium ion release profile, exhibited good cytocompatibility, and enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Furthermore, the ACBM-Sr scaffolds showed good histocompatibility after subcutaneous implantation in nude mice. Taken together, this study provided a simple and mild strategy to realize strontium coating for ACBM scaffolds, which resulted in good biocompatibility and improved osteoinductivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.

    Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2013-10-01

    A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrafast traveling wave dominates the electric organ discharge of Apteronotus leptorhynchus: an inverse modelling study.

    Shifman, Aaron R; Longtin, André; Lewis, John E

    2015-10-30

    Identifying and understanding the current sources that give rise to bioelectric fields is a fundamental problem in the biological sciences. It is very difficult, for example, to attribute the time-varying features of an electroencephalogram recorded from the head surface to the neural activity of specific brain areas; model systems can provide important insight into such problems. Some species of fish actively generate an oscillating (c. 1000 Hz) quasi-dipole electric field to communicate and sense their environment in the dark. A specialized electric organ comprises neuron-like cells whose collective signal underlies this electric field. As a step towards understanding the detailed biophysics of signal generation in these fish, we use an anatomically-detailed finite-element modelling approach to reverse-engineer the electric organ signal over one oscillation cycle. We find that the spatiotemporal profile of current along the electric organ constitutes a travelling wave that is well-described by two spatial Fourier components varying in time. The conduction velocity of this wave is faster than action potential conduction in any known neuronal axon (>200 m/s), suggesting that the spatiotemporal features of high-frequency electric organ discharges are not constrained by the conduction velocities of spinal neuron pathways.

  1. Angina - discharge

    Chest pain - discharge; Stable angina - discharge; Chronic angina - discharge; Variant angina - discharge; Angina pectoris - discharge; Accelerating angina - discharge; New-onset angina - discharge; Angina-unstable - discharge; ...

  2. Studies on Mathematical Models of Wet Adhesion and Lifetime Prediction of Organic Coating/Steel by Grey System Theory.

    Meng, Fandi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Li; Li, Ying; Wang, Fuhui

    2017-06-28

    A rapid degradation of wet adhesion is the key factor controlling coating lifetime, for the organic coatings under marine hydrostatic pressure. The mathematical models of wet adhesion have been studied by Grey System Theory (GST). Grey models (GM) (1, 1) of epoxy varnish (EV) coating/steel and epoxy glass flake (EGF) coating/steel have been established, and a lifetime prediction formula has been proposed on the basis of these models. The precision assessments indicate that the established models are accurate, and the prediction formula is capable of making precise lifetime forecasting of the coatings.

  3. Evaluation of leachate dissolved organic nitrogen discharge effect on wastewater effluent quality.

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R

    2017-07-01

    Nitrogen is limited more and more frequently in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents because of the concern of causing eutrophication in discharge waters. Twelve leachates from eight landfills in Florida and California were characterized for total nitrogen (TN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). The average concentration of TN and DON in leachate was approximately 1146mg/L and 40mg/L, respectively. Solid-phase extraction was used to fractionate the DON based on hydrophobic (recalcitrant fraction) and hydrophilic (bioavailable fraction) chemical properties. The average leachate concentrations of bioavailable (bDON) and recalcitrant (rDON) DON were 16.5mg/L and 18.4mg/L, respectively. The rDON fraction was positively correlated, but with a low R 2 , with total leachate apparent color dissolved UV 254 , chemical oxygen demand (COD), and humic acid (R 2 equals 0.38, 0.49, and 0.40, respectively). The hydrophobic fraction of DON (rDON) was highly colored. This fraction was also associated with over 60% of the total leachate COD. Multiple leachate and wastewater co-treatment simulations were carried out to assess the effects of leachate on total nitrogen wastewater effluent quality using removals for four WWTPs under different scenarios. The calculated pass through of DON suggests that leachate could contribute to significant amounts of nitrogen discharged to aquatic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Metal-organic aerogel as a coating for solid-phase microextraction

    Saraji, Mohammad, E-mail: saraji@cc.iut.ac.ir; Shahvar, Ali

    2017-06-22

    An iron-based metal-organic aerogel was synthesized using metal-organic framework nanoparticles and applied as a fiber coating for solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Chemical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the material were investigated. Headspace SPME followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection was used for the determination of chlorobenzenes in the environmental samples. The key experimental factors affecting the extraction efficiency of the analytes, such as ionic strength, extraction and desorption temperature, and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The applicability of the coating for the extraction of chlorobenzenes from the environmental samples including river and tap water, sludge, and coastal soil was evaluated. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1–60 ng L{sup −1}. The relative standard deviations were between 2.0 and 5.0%. The extraction recovery of the analytes was in the range of 88–100%. Compared to the commercial PDMS fiber, the present fiber showed better extraction efficiency. - Highlights: • Metal-organic aerogel was synthesized and used as a novel fiber coating for SPME. • The new coating material showed high surface area and good thermal stability. • GC-ECD was used for determination of chlorobenzenes in environmental samples. • The method showed fast extraction and better efficiency than PDMS commercial fiber.

  5. Effects of Hydroxyl Radicals on Introduced Organisms of Ship's Ballast Water Based Micro-Gap Discharge

    Bai Mindong; Zhang Zhitao; Bai Mindi; Yang Bo; Bai Xiyao

    2007-01-01

    With the physical method of micro-gap gas discharge, OH· radicals were produced by the ionization of O 2 in air and H 2 O in the gaseous state, in order to explore more effective method to treat the ship's ballast water. The surface morphology of Al 2 O 3 dielectric layer was analysed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), where the size of Al 2 O 3 particles was in the range of 2 μm to 5 μm. At the same time, the biochemical effect of hydroxyl radicals on the introduced organisms and the quality of ship's ballast water were studied. The results indicate that the main reasons of cell death are lipid peroxide and damage of the antioxidant enzyme system in Catalase (CAT), Peroxidase (POD) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, the quality of the ballast water was greatly improved

  6. Comparative evaluation of effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges on estuarine and freshwater organisms

    Guerra, C.R.; Sugam, R.; Meldrim, J.W.; Holmstrom, E.R.; Balog, G.E.

    1980-08-01

    As a part of a program at PSE and G designed to examine the feasibility of ozonation as an alternative to chlorination for control of biofouling in once-through cooling systems, the biological effects of ozonated and chlorinated thermal discharges were evaluated with estuarine and freshwater organisms. Mortality at salinities between 0.5 to 2.5 ppt with mummichog and white perch indicated greater toxicity for chlorine while the alewife, spottail shiner, rainbow trout and white perch in freshwater were more sensitive to ozone. Behavioral and physograhic results were consistent with those observed in toxicity studies. Initial cough response and avoidance concentrations of mummicog and white perch in estuarine waters were lower when exposed to chlorine than to ozone. In freshwater, blueback herring, alewife, rainbow trout, spottail shiner, banded killifish, and white perch avoided lower concentrations of ozone than chlorine.

  7. [Development and evaluation of fertilizers cemented and coated with organic-inorganic materials].

    Xiao, Qiang; Wang, Jia-Chen; Zuo, Qiang; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Bao-Cun; Zhao, Tong-Ke; Zou, Guo-Yuan; Xu, Qiu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Four kinds of organic-inorganic cementing and coating materials were prepared by a coating method using water as the solvent, and the corresponding cemented and coated fertilizers (B2, PS, F2, and F2F) were produced by disc pelletizer. The tests on the properties of these fertilizers showed that the granulation rate, compression strength, and film-forming rate were B2 > PS > F2 > F2F. Soil column leaching experiment showed that the curve of accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was the gentlest for B2. In 48 days, the accumulated nitrogen-dissolving rate was in the order of B2, 54.65% fertilizers had better effects on corn yield, among which, B2 was the best, with the corn yield and fertilizer use efficiency increased by 19.72% and 20.30%, respectively. The yield-increasing effect of other test fertilizers was in the order of PS > F2 > F2F.

  8. Inorganic-Organic Coating via Molecular Layer Deposition Enables Long Life Sodium Metal Anode.

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Zhang, Qian; Kaghazchi, Payam; Sun, Qian; Lushington, Andrew; Wang, Biqiong; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-09-13

    Metallic Na anode is considered as a promising alternative candidate for Na ion batteries (NIBs) and Na metal batteries (NMBs) due to its high specific capacity, and low potential. However, the unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer caused by serious corrosion and reaction in electrolyte will lead to big challenges, including dendrite growth, low Coulombic efficiency and even safety issues. In this paper, we first demonstrate the inorganic-organic coating via advanced molecular layer deposition (alucone) as a protective layer for metallic Na anode. By protecting Na anode with controllable alucone layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and the lifetime has been significantly improved. Moreover, the molecular layer deposition alucone coating shows better performances than the atomic layer deposition Al 2 O 3 coating. The novel design of molecular layer deposition protected Na metal anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density NIBs and NMBs.

  9. Hexamethyldisiloxane thin films as sensitive coating for quartz crystal microbalance based volatile organic compounds sensors

    Boutamine, M.; Bellel, A.; Sahli, S.; Segui, Y.; Raynaud, P.

    2014-01-01

    Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) thin films coated quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrodes have been characterized for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The sensitive coatings were plasma polymerized in pure vapor of HMDSO and HMDSO/O 2 mixture. The sensor sensitivity was evaluated by monitoring the frequency shift (∆f) of the coated QCM electrode exposed to different concentrations of VOC vapors, such as ethanol, methanol, benzene and chloroform. The isotherm response characteristics showed good reproducibility and reversibility. For all types of analyte, ∆f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentration of VOC vapor. It was shown that it is possible to tune the chemical affinity of the sensor by changing the oxygen ratio in the deposition gas mixture. Contact angle measurements (CA), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study surface wettability, chemical composition and surface morphology of the coated QCM electrodes. ATR-FTIR analysis showed the presence of methyl groups around 840 cm −1 due to Si-(CH 3 ) 3 rocking vibration making the elaborated sensor surface hydrophobic. When the coating is performed in HMDSO/O 2 mixture, AFM and SEM images showed an increase in the effective specific surface area of the sensor due to the increase in surface roughness. Surface morphology combined with chemical composition significantly affects the sensitivity of the QCM-based sensor. - Highlights: • Hexamethyldisiloxane layers were evaluated for volatile organic compounds detection. • The kinetic response of the sensor showed good reproducibility and reversibility. • Hydrophobic coating and high specific surface area increase the sensor sensitivity. • Sensor affinity can be controlled by controlling oxygen proportion in the mixture

  10. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  11. Influence of natural organic matter (NOM) coatings on nanoparticle adsorption onto supported lipid bilayers.

    Bo, Zhang; Avsar, Saziye Yorulmaz; Corliss, Michael K; Chung, Minsub; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-10-05

    As the worldwide usage of nanoparticles in commercial products continues to increase, there is growing concern about the environmental risks that nanoparticles pose to biological systems, including potential damage to cellular membranes. A detailed understanding of how different types of nanoparticles behave in environmentally relevant conditions is imperative for predicting and mitigating potential membrane-associated toxicities. Herein, we investigated the adsorption of two popular nanoparticles (silver and buckminsterfullerene) onto biomimetic supported lipid bilayers of varying membrane charge (positive and negative). The quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) measurement technique was employed to track the adsorption kinetics. Particular attention was focused on understanding how natural organic matter (NOM) coatings affect nanoparticle-bilayer interactions. Both types of nanoparticles preferentially adsorbed onto the positively charged bilayers, although NOM coatings on the nanoparticle and lipid bilayer surfaces could either inhibit or promote adsorption in certain electrolyte conditions. While past findings showed that NOM coatings inhibit membrane adhesion, our findings demonstrate that the effects of NOM coatings are more nuanced depending on the type of nanoparticle and electrolyte condition. Taken together, the results demonstrate that NOM coatings can modulate the lipid membrane interactions of various nanoparticles, suggesting a possible way to improve the environmental safety of nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Nitrided Layer on The Properties of Carbon Coatings Produced on X105CrMo17 Steel Under DC Glow-Discharge Conditions

    Tomasz BOROWSKI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In most cases, machine components, which come in contact with each other, are made of steel. Common steel types include 100Cr6 and X105CrMo17 are widely used in rolling bearings, which are subjected to high static loads. However, more and more sophisticated structural applications require increasingly better performance from steel. The most popular methods for improving the properties of steel is carburisation or nitriding. Unfortunately, when very high surface properties of steel are required, this treatment may be insufficient. Improvement of tribological properties can be achieved by increasing the hardness of the surface, reducing roughness or reducing the coefficient of friction. The formation of composite layers on steel, consisting of a hard nitride diffusion layer and an external carbon coating with a low coefficient of friction, seems to be a prospect with significant potential. The article describes composite layers produced on X105CrMo17 steel and defines their morphology, surface roughness and their functional properties such as: resistance to friction-induced wear, coefficient of friction and corrosion resistance. The layers have been formed at a temperature of 370°C in successive processes of: nitriding in low-temperature plasma followed by deposition of a carbon coating under DC glow-discharge conditions. An evaluation was also made of the impact of the nitrided layers on the properties and morphology of the carbon coatings formed by comparing them to coatings formed on non-nitrided X105CrMo17 steel substrates. A study of the surface topography, adhesion, resistance to friction-induced wear and corrosion shows the significant importance of the substrate type the carbon coatings are formed on.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7532

  13. Identification of urushi coated films taken from ancient Buddha images by using PIXE, FT-IR, and organic elemental analysis

    Kagemori, N.; Umemura, K.; Yoshimura, T.; Inoue, M.; Kawai, S.; Yano, K.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Six types of samples including urushi, urushi tree and black coating films taken from ancient Buddha images were examined by analyses of PIXE, organic element and FT-IR to identify with urushi or another material. Based on the results of three analytical experiments above mentioned, the coating materials aging over hundreds of years were identified with weathered urushi films mixed with other material. Further investigation may reveal the urushi coating techniques used in the past. (author)

  14. Precision measurement of electric organ discharge timing from freely moving weakly electric fish.

    Jun, James J; Longtin, André; Maler, Leonard

    2012-04-01

    Physiological measurements from an unrestrained, untethered, and freely moving animal permit analyses of neural states correlated to naturalistic behaviors of interest. Precise and reliable remote measurements remain technically challenging due to animal movement, which perturbs the relative geometries between the animal and sensors. Pulse-type electric fish generate a train of discrete and stereotyped electric organ discharges (EOD) to sense their surroundings actively, and rapid modulation of the discharge rate occurs while free swimming in Gymnotus sp. The modulation of EOD rates is a useful indicator of the fish's central state such as resting, alertness, and learning associated with exploration. However, the EOD pulse waveforms remotely observed at a pair of dipole electrodes continuously vary as the fish swims relative to the electrodes, which biases the judgment of the actual pulse timing. To measure the EOD pulse timing more accurately, reliably, and noninvasively from a free-swimming fish, we propose a novel method based on the principles of waveform reshaping and spatial averaging. Our method is implemented using envelope extraction and multichannel summation, which is more precise and reliable compared with other widely used threshold- or peak-based methods according to the tests performed under various source-detector geometries. Using the same method, we constructed a real-time electronic pulse detector performing an additional online pulse discrimination routine to enhance further the detection reliability. Our stand-alone pulse detector performed with high temporal precision (<10 μs) and reliability (error <1 per 10(6) pulses) and permits longer recording duration by storing only event time stamps (4 bytes/pulse).

  15. Optimization and Surface Modification of Al-6351 Alloy Using SiC-Cu Green Compact Electrode by Electro Discharge Coating Process

    Chakraborty, Sujoy; Kar, Siddhartha; Dey, Vidyut; Ghosh, Subrata Kumar

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces the surface modification of Al-6351 alloy by green compact SiC-Cu electrode using electro-discharge coating (EDC) process. A Taguchi L-16 orthogonal array is employed to investigate the process by varying tool parameters like composition and compaction load and electro-discharge machining (EDM) parameters like pulse-on time and peak current. Material deposition rate (MDR), tool wear rate (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) are measured on the coated specimens. An optimum condition is achieved by formulating overall evaluation criteria (OEC), which combines multi-objective task into a single index. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to investigate the effect of relevant process parameters. A confirmation test is conducted based on optimal process parameters and experimental results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach. The modified surface is characterized by optical microscope and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. XRD analysis of the deposited layer confirmed the transfer of tool materials to the work surface and formation of inter-metallic phases. The micro-hardness of the resulting composite layer is also measured which is 1.5-3 times more than work material’s one and highest layer thickness (LT) of 83.644μm has been successfully achieved.

  16. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  17. Self-organization of single filaments and diffusive plasmas during a single pulse in dielectric-barrier discharges

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Kushner, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Self-organization of filaments in dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) probably has many origins. However, the dominant cause is proposed to be the accumulation of charge on the surfaces of the bounding dielectrics that reinforces successive discharge pulses to occur at the same locations. A secondary cause is the electrostatic repulsion of individual plasma filaments. Self-organization typically develops over many discharge pulses. In this paper, we discuss the results of a computational investigation of plasma filaments in overvoltage DBDs that, under select conditions, display self-organized patterns (SOPs) of plasma density during a single discharge pulse. (Overvoltage refers to the rapid application of a voltage in excess of the quasi-dc breakdown voltage.) The origin of the SOPs is a synergistic relationship between the speed of the surface-ionization waves that propagate along each dielectric and the rate at which avalanche occurs across the gap. For our test conditions, SOPs were not observed at lower voltages and gradually formed at higher voltages. The same conditions that result in SOPs, i.e. the application of an overvoltage, also produce more diffuse discharges. A transition from a single narrow filament to a more diffuse structure was observed as overvoltage was approached. The sensitivity of SOPs to the orientation and permittivity of the bounding dielectrics is discussed. (paper)

  18. Organic micropollutants discharged by combined sewer overflows - Characterisation of pollutant sources and stormwater-related processes.

    Launay, Marie A; Dittmer, Ulrich; Steinmetz, Heidrun

    2016-11-01

    To characterise emissions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) regarding organic micropollutants, a monitoring study was undertaken in an urban catchment in southwest Stuttgart, Germany. The occurrence of 69 organic micropollutants was assessed at one CSO outfall during seven rain events as well as in the sewage network at the influent of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and in the receiving water. Several pollutant groups like pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), urban biocides and pesticides, industrial chemicals, organophosphorus flame retardants, plasticisers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were chosen for analysis. Out of the 69 monitored substances, 60 were detected in CSO discharges. The results of this study show that CSOs represent an important pathway for a wide range of organic micropollutants from wastewater systems to urban receiving waters. For most compounds detected in CSO samples, event mean concentrations varied between the different events in about one order of magnitude range. When comparing CSO concentrations with median wastewater concentrations during dry weather, two main patterns could be observed depending on the source of the pollutant: (i) wastewater is diluted by stormwater; (ii) stormwater is the most important source of a pollutant. Both wastewater and stormwater only play an important role in pollutant concentration for a few compounds. The proportion of stormwater calculated with the conductivity is a suitable indicator for the evaluation of emitted loads of dissolved wastewater pollutants, but not for all compounds. In fact, this study demonstrates that remobilisation of in-sewer deposits contributed from 10% to 65% to emissions of carbamazepine in CSO events. The contribution of stormwater to CSO emitted loads was higher than 90% for all herbicides as well as for PAHs. Regarding the priority substance di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), this contribution varied between 39% and 85%. The PAH

  19. Homogeneous PCBM layers fabricated by horizontal-dip coating for efficient bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells.

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Bae, In-Gon; Jeon, Hong Goo; Park, Byoungchoo

    2016-10-31

    We herein report a homogeneous [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layer, produced by a solution process of horizontal-dipping (H-dipping) to improve the photovoltaic (PV) effects of bilayer heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) based on a bi-stacked poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electron donor layer and a PCBM electron acceptor layer (P3HT/PCBM). It was shown that a homogeneous and uniform coating of PCBM layers in the P3HT/PCBM bilayer OPVs resulted in reliable and reproducible device performance. We recorded a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.89%, which is higher than that (2.00%) of bilayer OPVs with a spin-coated PCBM layer. Moreover, introducing surfactant additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE) into the homogeneous P3HT/PCBM PV layers resulted in the bilayer OPVs showing a PCE value of 3.95%, which is comparable to those of conventional bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) OPVs (3.57-4.13%) fabricated by conventional spin-coating. This improved device performance may be attributed to the selective collection of charge carriers at the interfaces among the active layers and electrodes due to the PTE additives as well as the homogeneous formation of the functional PCBM layer on the P3HT layer. Furthermore, H-dip-coated PCBM layers were deposited onto aligned P3HT layers by a rubbing technique, and the rubbed bilayer OPV exhibited improved in-plane anisotropic PV effects with PCE anisotropy as high as 1.81, which is also higher than that (1.54) of conventional rubbed BHJ OPVs. Our results suggest that the use of the H-dip-coating process in the fabrication of PCBM layers with the PTE interface-engineering additive could be of considerable interest to those seeking to improve PCBM-based opto-electrical organic thin-film devices.

  20. Slot-Die-Coated V2O5 as Hole Transport Layer for Flexible Organic Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices

    Beliatis, Michail; Helgesen, Martin; Garcia Valverde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Vanadium pentoxide has been proposed as a good alternative hole transport layer for improving device lifetime of organic photovoltaics. The article presents a study on the optimization of slot-die-coated vanadium oxide films produced with a roll coating machine with the aim of achieving scalable ...

  1. Solution coating of large-area organic semiconductor thin films with aligned single-crystalline domains

    Diao, Ying

    2013-06-02

    Solution coating of organic semiconductors offers great potential for achieving low-cost manufacturing of large-area and flexible electronics. However, the rapid coating speed needed for industrial-scale production poses challenges to the control of thin-film morphology. Here, we report an approach - termed fluid-enhanced crystal engineering (FLUENCE) - that allows for a high degree of morphological control of solution-printed thin films. We designed a micropillar-patterned printing blade to induce recirculation in the ink for enhancing crystal growth, and engineered the curvature of the ink meniscus to control crystal nucleation. Using FLUENCE, we demonstrate the fast coating and patterning of millimetre-wide, centimetre-long, highly aligned single-crystalline organic semiconductor thin films. In particular, we fabricated thin films of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene having non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains and an unprecedented average and maximum mobilities of 8.1±1.2 cm2 V-1 s -1 and 11 cm2 V-1 s-1. FLUENCE of organic semiconductors with non-equilibrium single-crystalline domains may find use in the fabrication of high-performance, large-area printed electronics. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasmon-organic fiber interactions in diamond-like carbon coated nanostructured gold films

    Cielecki, Paweł Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiuočenko, Oksana; Leißner, Till; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Adam, Jost; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2017-11-01

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such protective layers on plasmonic interactions in organic-plasmonic hybrid systems. We consider systems, consisting of 1-Cyano-quaterphenylene nanofibers on top of gold nano-square plasmonic arrays, coated with protective layers of varying thickness. We numerically investigate the spectral position of surface plasmon polariton resonances and electric field intensity, as a function of protective layer thickness, using the finite-difference time-domain method. To confirm the numerically indicated field enhancement preservation on top of protective layers, we experimentally map the second harmonic response of organic nanofibers. Subsequently, we characterize the plasmonic coupling between organic nanofibers and underlying substrates, considered as one of the main loss channels for photoluminescence from nanofibers, by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our findings reveal that, for the investigated system, plasmonic interactions are preserved for DLC coatings up to 55 nm. This is relevant for the fabrication of new passive and active plasmonic components with increased durability and hence prolonged lifetime.

  3. Active Layer Spin Coating Speed Dependence of Inverted Organic Solar Cell Based on Eosin-Y-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Ginting, R. T.; Yap, C. C.; Yahaya, M.; Fauzia, V.; Salleh, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    The active layer spin coating speed dependence of the performance of inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) based on Eosin-Y-coated ZnOnanorods has been investigated. An active layer consisted of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl)-hexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) as donor and phenyl-c61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as acceptor was employed, whereas ZnO nanorods were utilized as electron transporting layer. The active layer was deposited on top of Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods with various spin coating speeds (1000-4000 rpm). Inverted OSCs with a structure of FTO/Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorods/MEH-PPV:PCBM /Ag were characterized through the current density-voltage (J-V) measurement under illumination intensity of 100 mW/cm2. Based on the investigation, the short circuit current density (Jsc) and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) enhanced significantly, where as fill factor slightly increased with spin coating speed. The two-diode equivalent model was found to fit the experimental J-V curves very well. The optimum PCE of 1.18 ± 0.07% was achieved at the highest spin coating speed of 4000 rpm, as a result of the decrement of diffusion current density (Jdiff), recombination current density (Jrec), and ideality factor, thus further confirms the strong built-in electric field in thinner photoactive layer.

  4. Waveform generation in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus coropinae (Hoedeman): the electric organ and the electric organ discharge.

    Castelló, María E; Rodríguez-Cattáneo, Alejo; Aguilera, Pedro A; Iribarne, Leticia; Pereira, Ana Carolina; Caputi, Angel A

    2009-05-01

    This article deals with the electric organ and its discharge in Gymnotus coropinae, a representative species of one of the three main clades of the genus. Three regions with bilateral symmetry are described: (1) subopercular (medial and lateral columns of complex shaped electrocytes); (2) abdominal (medial and lateral columns of cuboidal and fusiform electrocytes); and (3) main [four columns, one dorso-lateral (containing fusiform electrocytes) and three medial (containing cuboidal electrocytes)]. Subopercular electrocytes are all caudally innervated whereas two of the medial subopercular ones are also rostrally innervated. Fusiform electrocytes are medially innervated at the abdominal portion, and at their rostral and caudal poles at the main portion. Cuboidal electrocytes are always caudally innervated. The subopercular portion generates a slow head-negative wave (V(1r)) followed by a head-positive spike (V(3r)). The abdominal and main portions generate a fast tetra-phasic complex (V(2345ct)). Since subopercular components prevail in the near field and the rest in the far field, time coincidence of V(3r) with V(2) leads to different waveforms depending on the position of the receiver. This confirms the splitting hypothesis of communication and exploration channels based on the different timing, frequency band and reach of the regional waveforms. The following hypothesis is compatible with the observed anatomo-functional organization: V(1r) corresponds to the rostral activation of medial subopercular electrocytes and V(3r) to the caudal activation of all subopercular electrocytes; V(2), and part of V(3ct), corresponds to the successive activation of the rostral and caudal poles of dorso-lateral fusiform electrocytes; and V(345ct) is initiated in the caudal face of cuboidal electrocytes by synaptic activation (V(3ct)) and it is completed (V(45ct)) by the successive activation of rostral and caudal faces by the action currents evoked in the opposite face.

  5. Production of Organic Grain Coatings by Surface-Mediated Reactions and the Consequences of This Process for Meteoritic Constituents

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2011-01-01

    When hydrogen, nitrogen and CO are exposed to amorphous iron silicate surfaces at temperatures between 500 - 900K, a carbonaceous coating forms via Fischer-Tropsch type reactions. Under normal circumstances such a catalytic coating would impede or stop further reaction. However, we find that this coating is a better catalyst than the amorphous iron silicates that initiate these reactions. The formation of a self-perpetuating catalytic coating on grain surfaces could explain the rich deposits of macromolecular carbon found in primitive meteorites and would imply that protostellar nebulae should be rich in organic material. Many more experiments are needed to understand this chemical system and its application to protostellar nebulae.

  6. Evolution of self-organization in nano-structured PVD coatings under extreme tribological conditions

    Fox-Rabinovich, G., E-mail: gfox@mcmaster.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Kovalev, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Aguirre, M.H. [Laboratory of Advanced Microscopy, Institute of Nanoscience of Aragón, University of Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Yamamoto, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel Ltd, 1-5-5 Takatsuda-dai, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2271, Hyogo (Japan); Veldhuis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Gershman, I. [All-Russian Railway Research Institute, 10 Third Mytishchinskaya Street, Moscow 29851 (Russian Federation); Rashkovskiy, A. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Endrino, J.L. [Albengoa Research, Energia Solar 1, Palmas Altas, Seville 41014 (Spain); Beake, B. [Micro Materials Limited, Willow House, Yale Business Village, Ellice Way, Wrexham LL13 7YL (United Kingdom); Dosbaeva, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Wainstein, D. [Surface Phenomena Researches Group, CNIICHERMET, 9/23, 2-nd Baumanskaya Street, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Yuan, Junifeng; Bunting, J.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The evolution of self-organization under extreme frictional conditions has been studied. • Comprehensive characterization of the tribo-films was made using various surface analytical techniques. • During the running-in stage, mullite tribo-ceramics predominate on the surface of the nano-multilayer coating, establishing a functional hierarchy within the layer of tribo-films. • It is possible to control tribo-film evolution during self-organization by means of an increase in structural complexity and the non-equilibrium state of the surface engineered layer. - Abstract: The evolution of the self-organization process where dissipative structures are formed under the extreme frictional conditions associated with high performance dry machining of hardened steels has been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the progressive studies of surface transformations within multilayer and monolayer TiAlCrSiYN-based PVD coatings during the running-in stage of wear when self-organization process occurs. The coating layer was characterized by high resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HREELS). It is shown that the nano-multilayer coating possesses higher non-equilibrium structure in comparison to the monolayer. Comprehensive studies of the tribo-films (dissipative structures) formed on the friction surface were made using a number of advanced surface characterization techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The data obtained for the tribo-films was combined with the detailed TEM studies of the structural and phase transformations within the underlying coating layer. This data was related to the micro-mechanical characteristics of the coating layer and its wear resistance. It was demonstrated that the evolution of the self-organization process is strongly controlled by the characteristics of the tribo-films formed at different stages of the wear process. Within running-in stage (after

  7. Progammed synthesis of magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes for organic pollutant adsorption

    Tong, Yue; Zhang, Min, E-mail: congmingyang123@163.com; Xia, Peixiong; Wang, Linlin; Zheng, Jing; Li, Weizhen; Xu, Jingli, E-mail: xujingli@sues.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes were produced from hydrophilic monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes using well controlled programmed synthesis method and were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR, TGA, N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption and VSM. The well-designed mesoporous magnetic nanotubes had a large specific area, a highly open mesoporous structure and high magnetization. Firstly, SiO{sub 2}-coated maghemite/CNTs nanoparticles (CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composites) were synthesized by the combination of high temperature decomposition process and an sol–gel method, in which the iron acetylacetonate as well as TEOS acted as the precursor for maghemite and SiO{sub 2}, respectively. The CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@SiO{sub 2} composites revealed a core–shell structure, Then, CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2} was obtained by extracting cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) via an ion-exchange procedure. The resulting composites show not only a magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, but also can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant in the ambient temperature. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic mesoporous silica coated carbon nanotubes were produced from hydrophilic monodisperse magnetic nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes using well controlled programmed synthesis, which can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant in the ambient temperature. - Highlights: • The surface of CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} is hydrophilic, which facilitates the silica coating. • The CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2} was synthesized by a facile method. • The CNTs/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@mSiO{sub 2} can be a good adsorbent for the organic pollutant.

  8. Electric organ discharge patterns during group hunting by a mormyrid fish.

    Arnegard, Matthew E; Carlson, Bruce A

    2005-07-07

    Weakly electric fish emit and receive low-voltage electric organ discharges (EODs) for electrolocation and communication. Since the discovery of the electric sense, their behaviours in the wild have remained elusive owing to their nocturnal habits and the inaccessible environments in which they live. The transparency of Lake Malawi provided the first opportunity to simultaneously observe freely behaving mormyrid fish and record their EODs. We observed a piscivorous mormyrid, Mormyrops anguilloides, hunting in small groups in Lake Malawi while feeding on rock-frequenting cichlids of the largest known vertebrate species flock. Video recordings yielded the novel and unexpected finding that these groups resembled hunting packs by being largely composed of the same individuals across days. We show that EOD accelerations accompany prey probing and size estimation by M. anguilloides. In addition, group members occasionally synchronize bursts of EODs with an extraordinary degree of precision afforded by the mormyrid echo response. The characteristics and context of burst synchronization suggest that it may function as a pack cohesion signal. Our observations highlight the potential richness of social behaviours in a basal vertebrate lineage, and provide a framework for future investigations of the neural mechanisms, behavioural rules and ecological significance of social predation in M. anguilloides.

  9. The role of effective discharge in the ocean delivery of particulate organic carbon by small, mountainous river systems

    Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.; Hatten, J.A.; Pasternack, G.B.; Warrick, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has shown that small, mountainous river systems (SMRS) account for a significant fraction of the global flux of sediment and particulate organic carbon (POC) to the ocean. The enormous number of SMRS precludes intensive studies of the sort conducted on large systems, necessitating development of a conceptual framework that permits cross-system comparison and scaling up. Herein, we introduce the geomorphic concept of effective discharge to the problem of source-to-sink POC transport. This idea recognizes that transport effectiveness is the product of discharge frequency and magnitude, wherein the latter is quantified as a power-law relationship between discharge and load (the 'rating curve'). An analytical solution for effective discharge (Qe) identifies two key variables: the standard deviation of the natural logarithm of discharge (??q), and the rating exponent of constituent i (bi Data from selected SMRS are used to show that for a given river Qe-POC transport in SMRS should exploit the conceptual framework provided herein and seek to identify how constituent-specific effective discharges vary between rivers and respond to perturbations. ?? 2010, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  10. Development of soft ionization using direct current pulse glow discharge plasma source in mass spectrometry for volatile organic compounds analysis

    Nunome, Yoko; Kodama, Kenji; Ueki, Yasuaki; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    This study describes an ionization source for mass analysis, consisting of glow discharge plasma driven by a pulsed direct-current voltage for soft plasma ionization, to detect toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) rapidly and easily. The novelty of this work is that a molecular adduct ion, in which the parent molecule attaches with an NO+ radical, [M + NO]+, can be dominantly detected as a base peak with little or no fragmentation of them in an ambient air plasma at a pressure of several kPa. Use of ambient air as the discharge plasma gas is suitable for practical applications. The higher pressure in an ambient air discharge provided a stable glow discharge plasma, contributing to the soft ionization of organic molecules. Typical mass spectra of VOCs toluene, benzene, o-xylene, chlorobenzene and n-hexane were observed as [M + NO]+ adduct ion whose peaks were detected at m/z 122, 108, 136, 142 and 116, respectively. The NO generation was also confirmed by emission bands of NO γ-system. The ionization reactions were suggested, such that NO+ radical formed in an ambient air discharge could attach with the analyte molecule.

  11. Investigation into the role of primer, pre-treatments and coating microstructure in preventing cut edge corrosion of organically coated steels

    Khan, Khalil

    Investigations were carried out to assess the role of primer, pretreatments and coating microstructure in preventing cutedge corrosion of chrome free organically coated steels. Zinc runoff was monitored from a range of organically coated steels with a large cutedge length exposed over 18 months at Swansea University roof top site. The zinc in the runoff leaches from the zinc-aluminium alloy coating of the substrate. The paint systems' corrosion performance was assessed by monitoring the levels of zinc in the runoff. Consequently the levels of zinc reflected the effectiveness of the applied paint system against corrosion. Runoff was high in initial months with zinc levels reducing with time due to the build up of corrosion products that hindered the progress of corrosion. An accelerated laboratory test using a distilled water electrolyte was developed that predict long-term external weathering runoff from panels of a range of organically coated steels. The corrosion mechanisms of a variety of organically coated Galvalloy steel have been examined using the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) in 0.1%NaCI. The corrosion behaviour of a coating is related to the zinc-aluminium alloy coating structure and combination of pretreatment and primer. The SVET has been used to assess total zinc loss and the corrosion rate for a comparative measure of organically coating system performance. A correlation has been developed from SVET 24hour experiment data to accelerated weathering data and external weather data that can aid more accurately predicting the in service life of the product. Also considered were the effects of electrolyte conductivity on the morphology of corrosion on pure zinc. A mathematical model has been developed to predict corrosion pit population. Altered microstructure of solidifying zinc aluminium alloy melt via ultrasonication was investigated. Ultrasound irradiation significantly altered the final microstructure. The influence of morphed

  12. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    Jaber, Nizar; Ilyas, Saad; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  13. Sensitive resonant gas sensor operating in air with metal organic frameworks coating

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-08-09

    We report a practical resonant gas sensor that is uniformly coated with metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and excited near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of the squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic force electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOFs functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  14. Effect of surface organic coatings of cellulose nanocrystals on the viability of mammalian cell lines

    Jimenez AS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambar S Jimenez,1 Francesca Jaramillo,1 Usha D Hemraz,2 Yaman Boluk,3 Karina Ckless,1 Rajesh Sunasee1 1Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, NY, USA; 2National Research Council, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta and National Institute for Nanotechnology, National Research Council, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs have emerged as promising candidates for a number of bio-applications. Surface modification of CNCs continues to gain significant research interest as it imparts new properties to the surface of the nanocrystals for the design of multifunctional CNCs-based materials. A small chemical surface modification can potentially lead to drastic behavioral changes of cell-material interactions thereby affecting the intended bio-application. In this work, unmodified CNCs were covalently decorated with four different organic moieties such as a diaminobutane fragment, a cyclic oligosaccharide (β-cyclodextrin, a thermoresponsive polymer (poly[N-isopropylacrylamide], and a cationic aminomethacrylamide-based polymer using different synthetic covalent methods. The effect of surface coatings of CNCs and the respective dose-response of the above organic moieties on the cell viability were evaluated on mammalian cell cultures (J774A.1 and MFC-7, using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Overall, the results indicated that cells exposed to surface-coated CNCs for 24 h did not display major changes in cell viability, membrane permeability as well as cell morphology. However, with longer exposure, all these parameters were somewhat affected, which appears not to be correlated with either anionic or cationic surface coatings of CNCs used in this study. Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, surface coating, cell viability, MTT, LDH

  15. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings based on alkoxy-terminated macromonomers

    Kaddami, H. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Cuney, S. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon---Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]|[BSN Emballage-Centre de Recherche de Saint-Romain-en-Gier, 69700 Givors Cedex (France); Pascault, J.P. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Gerard, J.F. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires---URA CNRS 507, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon-Bat 403, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    1996-01-01

    From the use of alkoxysilane-terminated macromonomers based on hydrogenated polybutadiene and polycaprolactone oligomers and by using the polyurethane chemistry, hybrid organic{emdash}inorganic materials are prepared. These ones are two-phases systems in which the continuous phase is organic reinforced by silicon rich dispersed particles. These nanosized dispersed particles are formed {ital in} {ital situ} during the hydrolysis and condensation of the sol-gel process according to the phase separation process occurring between the organic and inorganic phases. The gelation process and the final morphologies were found to be very dependent on the acid(catalyst)-to-silicon ratio, on the molar mass of the oligomers, and on the solubility parameter of the soft segment. In fact, during the synthesis, there is a competition between the gelation and the phase separation process which could be perturbated by the vitrification of the silicon-rich clusters. The final morphologies observed by TEM and SAXS are discussed on the basis of the microstructural model proposed by Wilkes and Huang. Such hybrid organic-inorganic materials are applied as coatings on glass float plates tested in a bi-axial mode. The reinforcement is discussed as a function of the morphology of the coatings. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Emission and Dynamics of Charge Carriers in Uncoated and Organic/Metal Coated Semiconductor Nanowires

    Kaveh Baghbadorani, Masoud

    In this dissertation, the dynamics of excitons in hybrid metal/organic/nanowire structures possessing nanometer thick deposited molecular and metal films on top of InP and GaAs nanowire (NW) surfaces were investigated. Optical characterizations were carried out as a function of the semiconductor NW material, design, NW size and the type and thickness of the organic material and metal used. Hybrid organic and plasmonic semiconductor nanowire heterostructures were fabricated using organic molecular beam deposition technique. I investigated the photon emission of excitons in 150 nm diameter polytype wurtzite/zincblende InP NWs and the influence of a few ten nanometer thick organic and metal films on the emission using intensity- and temperature-dependent time-integrated and time resolved (TR) photoluminescence (PL). The plasmonic NWs were coated with an Aluminum quinoline (Alq3) interlayer and magnesium-silver (Mg0.9:Ag0.1) top layer. In addition, the nonlinear optical technique of heterodyne four-wave mixing was used (in collaboration with Prof. Wolfgang Langbein, University of Cardiff) to study incoherent and coherent carrier relaxation processes on bare nanowires on a 100 femtosecond time-scale. Alq3 covered NWs reveal a stronger emission and a longer decay time of exciton transitions indicating surface state passivation at the Alq3/NW interface. Alq3/Mg:Ag NWs reveal a strong quenching of the exciton emission which is predominantly attributed to Forster energy-transfer from excitons to plasmon oscillations in the metal cluster film. Changing the Mg:Ag to gold and the organic Alq3 spacer layer to PTCDA leads to a similar behavior, but the PL quenching is strongly increased. The observed behavior is attributed to a more continuous gold deposition leading to an increased Forster energy transfer and to a metal induced band-bending. I also investigated ensembles of bare and gold/Alq3 coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core shell NWs of 130 nm diameter. Plasmonic NWs with Au

  17. Citrate-coated silver nanoparticles interactions with effluent organic matter: influence of capping agent and solution conditions

    Gutierrez, Leonardo; Aubry, Cyril; Cornejo, Mauricio; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Fate and transport studies of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) discharged from urban wastewaters containing effluent organic matter (EfOM) into natural waters represent a key knowledge gap. In this study, EfOM interfacial interactions with Ag

  18. Dissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications of permafrost thaw and increased groundwater discharge

    O'Donnell, Jonathan A.; Aiken, George R.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Butler, Kenna D.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater discharge to rivers has increased in recent decades across the circumpolar region and has been attributed to thawing permafrost in arctic and subarctic watersheds. Permafrost-driven changes in groundwater discharge will alter the flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in rivers, yet little is known about the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) of groundwater in permafrost settings. Here, we characterize DOM composition of winter flow in 60 rivers and streams of the Yukon River basin to evaluate the biogeochemical consequences of enhanced groundwater discharge associated with permafrost thaw. DOC concentration of winter flow averaged 3.9 ± 0.5 mg C L−1, yet was highly variable across basins (ranging from 20 mg C L−1). In comparison to the summer-autumn period, DOM composition of winter flow had lower aromaticity (as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm, or SUVA254), lower hydrophobic acid content, and a higher proportion of hydrophilic compounds (HPI). Fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis indicated enrichment of protein-like fluorophores in some, but not all, winter flow samples. The ratio of DOC to dissolved organic nitrogen, an indicator of DOM biodegradability, was positively correlated with SUVA254 and negatively correlated with the percentage of protein-like compounds. Using a simple two-pool mixing model, we evaluate possible changes in DOM during the summer-autumn period across a range of conditions reflecting possible increases in groundwater discharge. Across three watersheds, we consistently observed decreases in DOC concentration and SUVA254 and increases in HPI with increasing groundwater discharge. Spatial patterns in DOM composition of winter flow appear to reflect differences in the relative contributions of groundwater from suprapermafrost and subpermafrost aquifers across watersheds. Our findings call for more explicit consideration of DOC loss and stabilization

  19. Relationships between dissolved organic matter and discharge: New insights from in-situ measurements in a northern forested watershed

    Pellerin, B. A.; Shanley, J. B.; Saraceno, J.; Aiken, G.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying the fundamental linkages between hydrology and dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in streams and rivers is critical for understanding carbon loads, ecosystem food webs and metal transport. Accurately assessing this relationship is difficult, however, given that rapid changes in water flow paths and associated DOM sources are often not captured by traditional discrete sampling intervals of weeks to months. We explored DOM - discharge relationships at Sleepers River below a 40.5 hectare USGS research watershed in northern Vermont by making 30 minute chromophoric DOM fluorescence (FDOM) measurements in-situ since October 2008 along with periodic discrete sampling for dissolved organic carbon. There is a tight coupling between the timing of increases in FDOM and discharge at Sleepers during events, but the ratio of FDOM to discharge exhibited considerable variability across seasons and events, as did FDOM-discharge hysteresis (FDOM variously peaked 1-4 hours after streamflow). Discrete DOM quality indicators (spectral slope, fluorescence index, SUVA) indicate DOM was predominantly terrestrial at all but the lowest flows, highlighting the important role of DOM-rich terrestrial flow paths as the primary source of stream DOM. Our results suggest that changes in flow paths are likely to be the primary drivers of future changes in DOM transport from this site rather than changes in DOM quality. Overcoming significant challenges inherent in continuous sensor deployments in watersheds (e.g. ice cover, suspended particles, remote communication and power) will allow for new insights into watershed biogeochemistry.

  20. Halloysite nanotubes-titanium dioxide as a solid-phase microextraction coating combined with negative corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometry for the determination of parathion.

    Saraji, Mohammad; Jafari, Mohammad Taghi; Mossaddegh, Mehdi

    2016-07-05

    Halloysite nanotubes-titanium dioxide (HNTs-TiO2) as a biocompatible environmentally friendly solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating was prepared. HNTs-TiO2 was chemically coated on the surface of a fused-silica fiber using a sol-gel process. Parathion as an organophosphorus pesticide was selected as a model compound to investigate the extraction efficiency of the fiber. The extracted analyte was detected by negative corona discharge-ion mobility spectrometer (NCD-IMS). The effective parameters on the extraction efficiency, such as salt effect, extraction temperature and extraction time were investigated and optimized. The extraction efficiency of HNTs-TiO2 fiber was compared with bare-silica (sol-gel based coating without HNTs-TiO2), HNTs, carbon nanotubes and commercial SPME fibers (PA, PDMS, and PDMS-DVB). The HNTs-TiO2 fiber showed highest extraction efficiency among the studied fibers. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were found to be 4.3 and 6.3%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were 0.03 and 0.1 μg L(-1), respectively. The dynamic range of the method was in the range of 0.1-25 μg L(-1). The spiking recoveries were between 85 (±9) and 97 (±6). The SPME-HNTs-TiO2 combined with NCD-IMS was successfully applied for the determination of parathion in apple, strawberry, celery and water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on characteristics of high frequency dielectric barrier discharge for the removal of organic pollutant adsorbed on activated carbon

    Qu, G.Z.; Li, G.F. [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics and Special Power; Li, J.; Lu, N.; Wu, Y.; Li, D. [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Inst. of Electrostatics and Special Power; Key Lab of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Ministry of Education, Dalian (China)

    2010-07-01

    Advanced oxidation technologies such as photocatalysis, electrochemical degradation, Fenton oxidation, hydrogen peroxide oxidation, and plasma oxidation are increasingly being used to degrade refractory biodegradable organic contaminants. The plasma oxidation method has the advantage of direct in situ production of multiple types of high-reactive chemical species, including molecules and radicals that facilitate the degradation reaction. In addition, plasma oxidation does not produce any secondary pollution. Compared to other plasma technologies, the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been considered as a promising technology for removing toxic compounds because of its stability and its treatability property of biologically recalcitrant compounds in wastewater. However, the energy efficiency of DBD requires improvement for economic reasons. This paper reported on an experimental study that investigated the electrical characteristics of a parallel plate DBD reactor using a high frequency power supply for the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP) adsorbed on activated carbon (AC). This study examined the effects of AC with different mass on discharge characteristics and compared the voltage and current waveforms, and discharge images of DBD reactors with different dielectric configurations. When the DBD reactor filled with AC, the applied voltage of discharge decreased regardless of the DBD reactor configuration in terms of having a single barrier or two barriers. The discharge characteristics had no significant change with AC mass increasing. The discharge images and current waveforms showed that DBD reactor configuration consisting of two dielectrics is more homogeneous and stable than the one consisting of a single dielectric. Under the same electric field condition, the degradation efficiency of PCP in two barriers reactor is higher than that in single barrier reactor. It was concluded that the findings from this study may be instrumental in treating

  2. Hybrid Photonic Cavity with Metal-Organic Framework Coatings for the Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds with High Immunity to Humidity

    Tao, Jifang; Wang, Xuerui; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yuxiang; Lin, Tong; Fu, Dongliang; Ting, Lennon Lee Yao; Gu, Yuandong; Zhao, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at parts-per-billion (ppb) level is one of the most challenging tasks for miniature gas sensors because of the high requirement on sensitivity and the possible interference from moisture. Herein, for the first time, we present a novel platform based on a hybrid photonic cavity with metal-organic framework (MOF) coatings for VOCs detection. We have fabricated a compact gas sensor with detection limitation ranging from 29 to 99 ppb for various VOCs including styrene, toluene, benzene, propylene and methanol. Compared to the photonic cavity without coating, the MOF-coated solution exhibits a sensitivity enhancement factor up to 1000. The present results have demonstrated great potential of MOF-coated photonic resonators in miniaturized gas sensing applications.

  3. Low Band Gap Polymers for Roll-to-Roll Coated Organic Photovoltaics – Design, Synthesis and Characterization

    Bundgaard, Eva; Hagemann, Ole; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and synthesis of 25 new low band gap polymers. The polymers were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy which showed optical band gaps of 2.0–0.9 eV. The polymers which were soluble enough were applied in organic photovoltaics, both small area devices with a spin...... coated active layer and in large area modules where all layers including the active layer were either roll-to-roll coated or printed. These experiments showed that the design of polymers compatible with roll-toroll coating is not straightforward and that there are various issues such as donor...

  4. Predictive Model for the Meniscus-Guided Coating of High-Quality Organic Single-Crystalline Thin Films.

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    A model that describes solvent evaporation dynamics in meniscus-guided coating techniques is developed. In combination with a single fitting parameter, it is shown that this formula can accurately predict a processing window for various coating conditions. Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), fabricated by a zone-casting setup, indeed show the best performance at the predicted coating speeds with mobilities reaching 7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  6. Biological response of HeLa cells to gold nanoparticles coated with organic molecules.

    Cardoso Avila, P E; Rangel Mendoza, A; Pichardo Molina, J L; Flores Villavicencio, L L; Castruita Dominguez, J P; Chilakapati, M K; Sabanero Lopez, M

    2017-08-01

    In this work, gold nanospheres functionalized with low weight organic molecules (4-aminothiphenol and cysteamine) were synthesized in a one-step method for their in vitro cytotoxic evaluation on HeLa cells. To enhance the biocompatibility of the cysteamine-capped GNPs, BSA was used due to its broad PH stability and high binding affinity to gold nanoparticles. Besides, the widely reported silica coated gold nanorods were tested here to contrast their toxic response against our nanoparticles coated with organic molecules. Our results shown, the viability measured at 1.9×10 -5 M did not show significant differences against negative controls for all the samples; however, the metabolic activity of HeLa cells dropped when they were exposed to silica gold nanorods in the range of concentrations from 2.9×10 -7 M to 3.0×10 -4 M, while in the cases of gold nanospheres, we found that only at concentrations below 1.9×10 -5 M metabolic activity was normal. Our preliminary results did not indicate any perceivable harmful toxicity to cell membrane, cytoskeleton or nucleus due to our nanospheres at 1.9×10 -5 M. Additional test should be conducted in order to ensure a safe use of them for biological applications, and to determine the extent of possible damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors

    Chou, Kang Wei; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Niazi, Muhammad Rizwan; Yan, Buyi; Li, Ruipeng; Payne, Marcia M.; Anthony, John Edward; Smilgies, Detlef Matthias; Amassian, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is currently the most widely used solution processing method in organic electronics. Here, we report, for the first time, a direct investigation of the formation process of the small-molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) 6,13-bis

  8. Chlorinated organic compound removal by gas phase pulsed streamer corona electrical discharge with reticulated vitreous carbon electrodes

    Kirkpatrick, M.J.; Finney, W.C.; Locke, B. R.

    2002-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) and vinyl chloride removal by pulsed corona discharge was investigated with attention to energy efficiency and byproduct identification. Approximately, 50 to 95 percent removal of TCE and vinyl chloride was observed depending on the energy density applied to the gas. Water vapor had no significant effect on TCE removal. Evidence was found for post-corona reactions leading to removal of vinyl chloride downstream of the plasma discharge. Energy efficiencies of 100-900 g/kw-hr in the case of 1000 ppm feed of TCE and efficiencies of 2-24 g/kw-hr for a 100 ppm feed of vinyl chloride were found. In TCE experiments, the formation of dichloroacetyl chloride was observed, while chloro-ethane formation was found for vinyl chloride. In both cases, Cl- was measured downstream of the pulsed corona reactor in a water trap using an ion-selective electrode, although measured amounts varied widely due to condensation in the gas lines between the reactor and the water trap. The addition of a platinum-rhodium coated electrode was found only to reduce the downstream removal of vinyl chloride at low energy density. (author)

  9. Removal of Refractory Organics from Biologically Treated Landfill Leachate by Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp Assisted Fenton Process

    Jiuyi Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologically treated leachate usually contains considerable amount of refractory organics and trace concentrations of xenobiotic pollutants. Removal of refractory organics from biologically treated landfill leachate by a novel microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL assisted Fenton process was investigated in the present study in comparison to conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes. Conventional Fenton and ultraviolet Fenton processes could substantially remove up to 70% of the refractory organics in a membrane bioreactor treated leachate. MDEL assisted Fenton process achieved excellent removal performance of the refractory components, and the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentration was lower than 100 mg L−1. Most organic matters were transformed into smaller compounds with molecular weights less than 1000 Da. Ten different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in the biologically treated leachate, most of which were effectively removed by MDEL-Fenton treatment. MDEL-Fenton process provides powerful capability in degradation of refractory and xenobiotic organic pollutants in landfill leachate and could be adopted as a single-stage polishing process for biologically treated landfill leachate to meet the stringent discharge limit.

  10. Organic impurities harmful to arc discharge in multi-ampere duo-pigatron ion source

    Peng Zhudong; Wang Shouhu; Chen Miaosun; Huang Chongan; Ge Yishan; Fu Peng; E Maohuai

    1989-01-01

    Besides mechanism producing plasmain Duo-Pigatron Ion Source, the main purpose of this paper is to introduce the problem on arc discharge exhaustion caused by oil pollution. The problem was discovered during developing a 15 cm Duo-Pigatron Ion Source. The paper also describes its physical process

  11. Roll coated large area ITO- and vacuum-free all organic solar cells from diketopyrrolopyrrole based non-fullerene acceptors with molecular geometry effects

    Brandt, Rasmus Guldbaek; Zhang, Fei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    2016-01-01

    morphology, and photovoltaic performance of both spin-coated ITO based and roll coated large area, ITO- and vacuum-free organic solar cells (OSCs). For spin-coated devices based on P3HT as the donor polymer the solar cells gave power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in the following order for (P3HT:PhDMe(DPP)2...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvv of... - Alternative Organic HAP Content Requirements for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVV of Part 63 Protection of... Organic HAP Content Requirements for Open Molding Resin and Gel Coat Operations As specified in §§ 63.5701... percent. 2. Production resin operations Nonatomized (nonspray) 35 percent. 3. Pigmented gel coat...

  13. Cross-linked cyclodextrin-based material for treatment of metals and organic substances present in industrial discharge waters

    Élise Euvrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a polymer, prepared by crosslinking cyclodextrin (CD by means of a polycarboxylic acid, was used for the removal of pollutants from spiked solutions and discharge waters from the surface treatment industry. In spiked solutions containing five metals, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and three alkylphenols (AP, the material exhibited high adsorption capacities: >99% of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were removed, between 65 and 82% of the PAHs, as well as 69 to 90% of the APs. Due to the structure of the polymer and its specific characteristics, such as the presence of carboxylic groups and CD cavities, the adsorption mechanism involves four main interactions: ion exchange, electrostatic interactions and precipitation for metal removal, and inclusion complexes for organics removal. In industrial discharge waters, competition effects appeared, especially because of the presence of calcium at high concentrations, which competed with other pollutants for the adsorption sites of the adsorbent.

  14. Ecotoxicological standard tests confirm beneficial effects of nitrate capture in organically coated grapewood biochar

    Haller, Andreas; Kammann, Claudia; Löhnertz, Otmar

    2017-04-01

    Due to the rising use of mineral N fertilizers and legume use in agriculture, the input of reactive N into the global N cycle has dramatically increased. Therefore new agricultural techniques that increase N use efficiency and reduce the loss of soil mineral N to surface and ground waters are urgently required. Pyrogenic carbon (biochar) produced from biomass may be used as a beneficial soil amendment to sequester carbon (C) in soils, increase soil fertility in the long term, and reduce environmental pollution such as nitrate leaching or N2O emissions. However, reduced nitrate leaching is not a constant finding when using biochar as a soil amendment and the mechanisms are poorly understood. To investigate if biochar is able to reduce nitrate pollution and its subsequent effects on soil and aquatic fauna, we conducted a series of experiments using standard ecotoxicological test methods: (1) the collembolan reproduction test (ISO 11267 (1999)), (2) the earthworm reproduction test (ISO 11268-2 (1998)), (3) the aquatic Daphnia acute test (ISO 6341 (1996)) and (4) a seedling emergence and growth test (ISO 11269-2 (2006)) also involving leaching events. For the tests grapewood biochar produced with a Kon-Tiki kiln (600-700°C) was used which had previously demonstrated nitrate capture; terrestrial tests were carried out with loamy sand standard soil 2.2 (LUFA-Speyer, Germany). The tests included the factors: (A) nitrate addition (using critical values for the test organisms) or no nitrate addition, (B) control (no biochar), pure biochar and organically-coated biochar. In the aquatic test (3), a nitrate amount which caused 50% of the Daphnia-immobilizing toxic nitrate concentration in leachates was applied to the soil or soil-biochar mixtures. Subsequently, soils were incubated overnight and leached on the next day, producing (in the control) the calculated nitrate concentrations. Daphnids were incubated for 48 hours. Test results without nitrate confirmed that soil

  15. Composting-derived organic coating on biochar enhances its affinity to nitrate

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Joseph, Stephen; Conte, Pellegrino; Albu, Mihaela; Obst, Martin; Borch, Thomas; Orsetti, Silvia; Subdiaga, Edisson; Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    energy loss spectroscopy - STEM-EELS, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy STXM) revealed the formation of a nano-porous organic coating on co-composted biochar. This coating alters the interaction of biochar with water as evidenced by proton fast field cycling nuclear magnetic resonance (1H FFC NMR) relaxometry and might explain its distinct characteristics. Our findings offer a roadmap for future research to design sustainable slow-release nitrogen fertilizers based on biochar to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture. Further microscopic studies are necessary to understand the preconditions of the formation of organic coatings on biochar on a holistic basis to design biochar post-production treatments.

  16. DC Glow Discharge Plasma, Containing Dust Particles: Self Organization and Peculiarities of Behavior

    Molotkov, V.I.; Pustyl'nik, M.Y.; Torchinskij, V.M.; Fortov, V.E.

    2003-01-01

    Dust particles, immersed in a plasma, acquire charge due to which they may be electrostatically trapped in a plasma. The energy of the interaction of the dust particles may be enough to transfer the dust component to nonideal and even crystalline state. This phenomenon is observed in various plasmas. In the present work a review of the investigations of strongly nonideal dusty plasma of the dc glow discharge striations is given. The formation of plasma crystals, liquids and plasma liquid crystals is considered. Typical phenomenon a for the dc discharge dusty plasma, such as coexistence of different phases in a single structure, convective motions, dust acoustic instability, are underlined. Results of the experiments on different external influences on dusty plasma structures are stated. It is shown that external influences may be used for measuring of the particle charge and field of forces acting on a dust grain levitating in a plasma. (author)

  17. [Mechanism of the organic pollutant degradation in water by hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge].

    Zhu, Li-nan; Ma, Jun; Yang, Shi-dong

    2007-09-01

    The method of hybrid gas-liquid electrical discharge was investigated for the removal of phenol. The results indicate that this new method can remove phenol in water effectively. The removal rate increases with increasing voltage and air aeration. The production quantity of H2O2 and O3 is measured respectively in the discharge region and the production quantity increases with increasing of voltage and air aeration. The energy consumption analysis indicates that with increasing the voltage, the increase extent of the phenol removal rate is smaller than the energy's, so the increase of energy efficiency is very small. Air aeration increases the energy consumption. At the same time, a considerable part of energy in the overall input energy makes the temperature of the solution increase, and more energy is transformed into heat, which leads to the waste of energy.

  18. Spin coated graphene films as the transparent electrode in organic photovoltaic devices

    Kymakis, E.; Stratakis, E.; Stylianakis, M.M.; Koudoumas, E.; Fotakis, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many research efforts have been devoted to the replacement of the traditional indium–tin-oxide (ITO) electrode in organic photovoltaics. Solution-based graphene has been identified as a potential replacement, since it has less than two percent absorption per layer, relative high carrier mobility, and it offers the possibility of deposition on large area and flexible substrates, compatible with roll to roll manufacturing methods. In this work, soluble reduced graphene films with high electrical conductivity and transparency were fabricated and incorporated in poly(3-hexylthiophene) [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester photovoltaic devices, as the transparent electrode. The graphene films were spin coated on glass from an aqueous dispersion of functionalized graphene, followed by a reduction process combining hydrazine vapor and annealing under argon, in order to reduce the sheet resistance. The photovoltaic devices obtained from the graphene films showed lower performance than the reference devices with ITO, due to the higher sheet resistance (2 kΩ/sq) and the poor hydrophilicity of the spin coated graphene films.

  19. Synchrotron DUV luminescence micro-imaging to identify and map historical organic coatings on wood.

    Echard, Jean-Philippe; Thoury, Mathieu; Berrie, Barbara H; Séverin-Fabiani, Tatiana; Vichi, Alessandra; Didier, Marie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-08-07

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) photoluminescence (PL) microimaging is an emerging approach to characterise materials from historical artefacts (see M. Thoury, J.-P. Echard, M. Réfrégiers, B. H. Berrie, A. Nevin, F. Jamme and L. Bertrand, Anal. Chem., 2011, 83, 1737-1745). Here we further assess the potential of the method to access a deeper understanding of multi-layered varnishes coating wooden violins and lutes. Cross-section micro samples from important 16(th)- to 18(th)-century instruments were investigated using synchrotron PL microimaging and microspectroscopy. Excitation was performed in the DUV and the near ultraviolet (NUV) regions, and emission recorded from the DUV to the visible region, at a submicrometric spatial resolution. Intercomparison of microspectroscopy and microimaging was made possible by radiometrically correcting PL spectra both in excitation and emission. Based on an optimised selection of emission and excitation bands, the specific PL features of the organic binding materials allowed a vastly enhanced discrimination between collagen-based sizing layers and oil/resin-based layers compared to epiluminescence microscopy. PL therefore appears to be a very promising analytical tool to provide new insights into the diversity of surface coating techniques used by instrument-makers. More generally, our results demonstrate the potential of synchrotron PL for studying complex heterogeneous materials beyond the core application of the technique to life sciences.

  20. Catalytic Ozonation by Iron Coated Pumice for the Degradation of Natural Organic Matters

    Alper Alver

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of iron-coated pumice (ICP in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of natural organic matters (NOMs in water, due to the synergistic effect of hybrid processes when compared to sole ozonation and adsorption. Multiple characterization analyses (BET, TEM, XRD, DLS, FT-IR, and pHPZC were employed for a systematic investigation of the catalyst surface properties. This analysis indicated that the ICP crystal structure was α-FeOOH, the surface hydroxyl group of ICP was significantly increased after coating, the particle size of ICP was about 200–250 nm, the BET surface area of ICP was about 10.56 m2 g−1, the pHPZC value of ICP was about 7.13, and that enhancement by iron loading was observed in the FT-IR spectra. The contribution of surface adsorption, hydroxyl radicals, and sole ozonation to catalytic ozonation was determined as 21.29%, 66.22%, and 12.49%, respectively. The reaction kinetic analysis with tert-Butyl alcohol (TBA was used as a radical scavenger, confirming that surface ferrous iron loading promoted the role of the hydroxyl radicals. The phosphate was used as an inorganic probe, and significantly inhibited the removal efficiency of catalytic NOM ozonation. This is an indication that the reactions which occur are more dominant in the solution phase.

  1. Adsorption performance of titanium dioxide (TiO2) coated air filters for volatile organic compounds.

    Zhong, Lexuan; Lee, Chang-Seo; Haghighat, Fariborz

    2012-12-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology as an alternative method for air purification has been studied for decades and a variety of PCO models indicate that the adsorption of reactants on the catalyst surface is one of the major physical and chemical processes occurring at a heterogeneous photocatalytic reaction. However, limited study explored the adsorption effect of a photocatalyst. This study carried out a systematic evaluation of adsorption performance of titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) coated fiberglass fibers (FGFs), TiO(2) coated carbon cloth fibers (CCFs), and original CCFs air filters at various relative humidity conditions for nine volatile organic compounds. TiO(2)/FGFs, TiO(2)/CCFs, and CCFs were characterized by SEM for morphology and N(2) adsorption isotherm for BET surface area and pore structure. A bench-scale adsorption test setup was constructed and adsorption tests were performed at various relative humidity conditions and four different injected concentrations for each compound. The isothermal adsorption curves at low concentration levels were obtained and they were well described by Langmuir isotherm model. It was noticed that there were significant differences between the adsorption behaviors and photocatalytic activities of TiO(2)/FGFs and TiO(2)/CCFs. It was concluded that adsorption performance is closely related to the characteristics of substrates and therefore, the development of a substrate with high adsorption ability is a promising trend for improving the performance of the UV-PCO technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Smart Resonant Gas Sensor and Switch Operating in Air With Metal-Organic Frameworks Coating

    Jaber, Nizar; Ilyas, Saad; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2017-01-01

    We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  3. Energy down converting organic fluorophore functionalized mesoporous silica hybrids for monolith-coated light emitting diodes

    Markus Börgardts

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The covalent attachment of organic fluorophores in mesoporous silica matrices for usage as energy down converting phosphors without employing inorganic transition or rare earth metals is reported in this article. Triethoxysilylpropyl-substituted derivatives of the blue emitting perylene, green emitting benzofurazane, and red emitting Nile red were synthesized and applied in the synthesis of mesoporous hybrid materials by postsynthetic grafting to commercially available MCM-41. These individually dye-functionalized hybrid materials are mixed in variable ratios to furnish a powder capable of emitting white light with CIE chromaticity coordinates of x = 0.33, y = 0.33 and an external quantum yield of 4.6% upon irradiation at 410 nm. Furthermore, as a proof of concept two different device setups of commercially available UV light emitting diodes, are coated with silica monoliths containing the three triethoxysilylpropyl-substituted fluorophore derivatives. These coatings are able to convert the emitted UV light into light with correlated color temperatures of very cold white (41100 K, 10700 K as well as a greenish white emission with correlated color temperatures of about 5500 K.

  4. The detection of organic solvent vapor by using polymer coated chemocapacitor sensor

    Rusdiarna Indrapraja, Apik; Rivai, Muhammad; Arifin, Achmad; Purwanto, Djoko

    2017-05-01

    A chemocapacitor consists of planar interdigital electrodes (IDE) made by two comb electrodes on a substrate. A dielectric film was applied on the electrodes in which the absorbed vapor will modify its permittivity. This study has fabricated chemocapacitor with the IDE distance of 0.5 mm, while the dielectric film was a sensitive layer consisting of a polymeric material. The deposition of the polymeric film was accomplished by drop casting. A sensor array consisting of four chemocapacitors coated with different polymers namely PEG-1540, PEG-20M, PEG-6000, and PVP was used to obtain the pattern of shift in the capacitance. The integrated circuit AD7746 was used as the capacitance to-digital converter (CDC). The organic solvents of ethanol, benzene, and aceton were used as the vapor samples in this experiment. The results showed that the change in the capacitance value increases proportionally to the concentration of vapour where sensors coated with PEG-1540 and PVP have higher sensitivity, i.e. 0.0028pF/part per thousand and 0.0027pF/part per thousand, respectively. Based on the capacitance to digital conversion capabilities, the system provides there solution of 0.4084ppm. The sensor array could produce a different pattern for each of the vapor sample. The Neural Network pattern recognition system could identify the type of vapor automatically with the root mean square error of 10-5

  5. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  6. Smart Resonant Gas Sensor and Switch Operating in Air With Metal-Organic Frameworks Coating

    Jaber, Nizar

    2017-11-03

    We report a resonant gas sensor, uniformly coated with a metal-organic framework (MOF), and excited it near the higher order modes for a higher attained sensitivity. Also, switching upon exceeding a threshold value is demonstrated by operating the resonator near the bifurcation point and the dynamic pull-in instabilities. The resonator is based on an electrostatically excited clamped-clamped microbeam. The microbeam is fabricated from a polyimide layer coated from the top with Cr/Au and from the bottom with Cr/Au/Cr layer. The geometry of the resonator is optimized to reduce the effect of squeeze film damping, thereby allowing operation under atmospheric pressure. The electrostatic electrode is designed to enhance the excitation of the second mode of vibration with the minimum power required. Significant frequency shift (kHz) is demonstrated for the first time upon water vapor, acetone, and ethanol exposure due to the MOF functionalization and the higher order modes excitation. Also, the adsorption dynamics and MOF selectivity is investigated by studying the decaying time constants of the response upon gas exposure.

  7. Characterization of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for corrosion protection of galvanized steel and electroplated ZnFe steel

    Maria Eliziane Pires de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of hybrids materials has been extensively investigated in recent years. The combination of a wide variety of compositions and production processes had permitted the use of these materials in different applications like coatings for corrosion protection of metals. In this work organic-inorganic hybrid materials have been prepared from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and silanol-terminated polidymetilmetoxysilane using a sol-gel process. These materials have been applied on galvanized steel and on steel electroplated with a ZnFe. In order to evaluate the degradation behavior of these coatings, electrochemical techniques (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Potentiodynamic Polarization were used. EIS data was fitted to an equivalent circuit from which the electrochemical parameters were obtained. Results show a good protective character of the hybrid films, when compared with uncovered specimens. The overall performance of the coating systems appears to be highly dependent on the kind of metallic coating applied to the steel.

  8. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects......Cobalt oxide films were grown by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (PI-MOCVD) using Co(acac)(3) (acac=acetylacetonate) precursor dissolved in toluene. The structure, morphology and growth rate of the layers deposited on silicon substrates were studied as a function......, to be used in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  9. Covalent organic framework-derived microporous carbon nanoparticles coated with conducting polypyrrole as an electrochemical capacitor

    Kim, Dong Jun; Yoon, Jung Woon; Lee, Chang Soo; Bae, Youn-Sang; Kim, Jong Hak

    2018-05-01

    We report a high-performance electrochemical capacitor based on covalent organic framework (COF)-derived microporous carbon (MPC) nanoparticles and electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole (Ppy) as a pseudocapacitive material. The COF, Schiff-based network-1 (SNW-1) nanoparticles are prepared via a condensation reaction between melamine and terephthalaldehyde, and the resultant MPC film is prepared via a screen-printing method. The MPC film exhibits a bimodal porous structure with micropores and macropores, resulting in both a large surface area and good electrolyte infiltration. Ppy is synthesized potentio-statically (0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl) by varying the reaction time, and successful synthesis of Ppy is confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. The specific capacitance with the Ppy coating is enhanced by up to 2.55 F cm-2 due to the synergetic effect of pseudocapacitance and reduced resistance.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and applications of electroactive polymeric nanostructures for organic coatings

    Suryawanshi, Abhijit Jagnnath

    Electroactive polymers (EAP) such as polypyrrole (PPy) and polyaniline (PANI) are being explored intensively in the scientific community. Nanostructures of EAPs have low dimensions and high surface area enabling them to be considered for various useful applications. These applications are in several fields including corrosion inhibition, capacitors, artificial muscles, solar cells, polymer light emitting diodes, and energy storage devices. Nanostructures of EAPs have been synthesized in different morphologies such as nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanospheres, and nanocapsules. This variety in morphology is traditionally achieved using soft templates, such as surfactant micelles, or hard templates, such as anodized aluminum oxide (AAO). Templates provide stability and groundwork from which the polymer can grow, but the templates add undesirable expense to the process and can change the properties of the nanoparticles by integrating its own properties. In this study a template free method is introduced to synthesize EAP nanostructures of PPy and PANI utilizing ozone oxidation. The simple techniques involve ozone exposure to the monomer solution to produce aqueous dispersions of EAP nanostructures. The synthesized nanostructures exhibit uniform morphology, low particle size distribution, and stability against agglomeration. Ozone oxidation is further explored for the synthesis of silver-PPy (Ag-PPy) core-shell nanospheres (CSNs). Coatings containing PPy nanospheres were formulated to study the corrosion inhibition efficiency of PPy nanospheres. Investigation of the coatings using electrochemical techniques revealed that the PPy nanospheres may provide corrosion inhibition against filiform corrosion by oxygen scavenging mechanism. Finally, organic corrosion inhibitors were incorporated in PPy to develop efficient corrosion inhibiting systems, by using the synergistic effects from PPy and organic corrosion inhibitors.

  11. Potential of electric discharge plasma methods in abatement of volatile organic compounds originating from the food industry.

    Preis, S; Klauson, D; Gregor, A

    2013-01-15

    Increased volatile organic compounds emissions and commensurate tightening of applicable legislation mean that the development and application of effective, cost-efficient abatement methods are areas of growing concern. This paper reviews the last two decades' publications on organic vapour emissions from food processing, their sources, impacts and treatment methods. An overview of the latest developments in conventional air treatment methods is presented, followed by the main focus of the paper, non-thermal plasma technology. The results of the review suggest that non-thermal plasma technology, in its pulsed corona discharge configuration, is an emerging treatment method with potential for low-cost, effective abatement of a wide spectrum of organic air pollutants. It is found that the combination of plasma treatment with catalysis is a development trend that demonstrates considerable potential. The as yet relatively small number of plasma treatment applications is considered to be due to the novelty of pulsed electric discharge techniques and a lack of reliable pulse generators and reactors. Other issues acting as barriers to widespread adoption of the technique include the possible formation of stable oxidation by-products, residual ozone and nitrogen oxides, and sensitivity towards air humidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the Ecological Relevance of Organic Discharge Limits for Constructed Wetlands by Means of a Model-Based Analysis

    Natalia Donoso

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polder watercourses within agricultural areas are affected by high chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentrations, due to intensive farming activities and runoff. Practical cases have shown that constructed wetlands (CWs are eco-friendly and cost-effective treatment systems which can reduce high levels of organic and nutrient pollution from agricultural discharges. However, accumulated recalcitrant organic matter, originated by in-situ sources or elements of CWs (i.e., plants or microbial detritus, limits the fulfilment of current COD discharge threshold. Thus, to evaluate its relevance regarding rivers ecosystem health preservation, we analysed the response of bio-indicators, the Multimetric Macroinvertebrate Index Flanders (MMIF and the occurrence of organic pollution sensitive taxa towards organic pollutants. For this purpose, statistical models were developed based on collected data in polder watercourses and CWs located in Flanders (Belgium. Results showed that, given the correlation between COD and BOD5, both parameters can be used to indicate the ecological and water quality conditions. However, the variability of the MMIF and the occurrence of sensitive species are explained better by BOD5, which captures a major part of their common effect. Whereas, recalcitrant COD and the interaction among other physico-chemical variables indicate a minor variability on the bio-indicators. Based on these outcomes we suggest a critical re-evaluation of current COD thresholds and moreover, consider other emerging technologies determining organic pollution levels, since this could support the feasibility of the implementation of CWs to tackle agricultural pollution.

  13. Evaluating Spatial Variability in Sediment and Phosphorus Concentration-Discharge Relationships Using Bayesian Inference and Self-Organizing Maps

    Underwood, Kristen L.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Schroth, Andrew W.; Dewoolkar, Mandar M.

    2017-12-01

    Given the variable biogeochemical, physical, and hydrological processes driving fluvial sediment and nutrient export, the water science and management communities need data-driven methods to identify regions prone to production and transport under variable hydrometeorological conditions. We use Bayesian analysis to segment concentration-discharge linear regression models for total suspended solids (TSS) and particulate and dissolved phosphorus (PP, DP) using 22 years of monitoring data from 18 Lake Champlain watersheds. Bayesian inference was leveraged to estimate segmented regression model parameters and identify threshold position. The identified threshold positions demonstrated a considerable range below and above the median discharge—which has been used previously as the default breakpoint in segmented regression models to discern differences between pre and post-threshold export regimes. We then applied a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), which partitioned the watersheds into clusters of TSS, PP, and DP export regimes using watershed characteristics, as well as Bayesian regression intercepts and slopes. A SOM defined two clusters of high-flux basins, one where PP flux was predominantly episodic and hydrologically driven; and another in which the sediment and nutrient sourcing and mobilization were more bimodal, resulting from both hydrologic processes at post-threshold discharges and reactive processes (e.g., nutrient cycling or lateral/vertical exchanges of fine sediment) at prethreshold discharges. A separate DP SOM defined two high-flux clusters exhibiting a bimodal concentration-discharge response, but driven by differing land use. Our novel framework shows promise as a tool with broad management application that provides insights into landscape drivers of riverine solute and sediment export.

  14. Self-Organized Patterns in Gas-Discharge: Particle-Like Behaviour and Dissipative Solitons

    Purwins, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of self-organise patterns in spatially extended nonlinear dissipative systems (SOPs) is one of the most challenging subjects in modern natural sciences. In the last 20 years it turned out that research in the field of low temperature gas-discharge can help to obtain insight into important aspect of SOPs. At the same time, due to the practical relevance of plasma systems one might expect interesting applications. In the present paper the focus is on self-organised filamentary patterns in planar dc and ac systems with high ohmic and dielectric barrier, respectively. - In the discharge plane of these systems filaments show up as spots which are also referred to as dissipative solitons (DSs). In many respect experimentally detected DSs exhibit particle-like behaviour. Among other things, isolated stationary or travelling DSs, stationary, travelling or rotating 'molecules' and various kinds of many-body systems have been observed. Also scattering, generation and annihilation of DSs are frequent phenomena. - At least some of these patterns can be described quantitatively in terms of a drift diffusion model. It is also demonstrated that a simple reaction diffusion model allows for an intuitive understanding of many of the observed phenomena. At the same time this model is the basis for a theoretical foundation of the particle picture and the experimentally observed universal behaviour of SOPs. - Finally some hypothetical applications are discussed

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates for bone replacement applications: mechanisms and development of new bioactive materials based on polysaccharides

    Cordero Arias, Luis Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Regarding the need to improve the usually encountered osteointegration of metallic implants with the surrounding body tissue in bone replacement applications, bioactive organic/inorganic composite coatings on metallic substrates were developed in this work using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) as coating technology. In the present work three polysaccharides, namely alginate, chondroitin sulfate and chitosan were used as the organic part, acting as the matrix of the coating and enabling the c...

  16. Inactivation of Salmonella in tomato stem scars by organic acid wash and chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate coating

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inactivation of inoculated Salmonella enterica on tomato stem scars exploiting integrated treatment of organic acid wash (AW) followed by chitosan-allyl isothiocyanate (CT-AIT) coating. The treatment effect on microbial loads and fruit quality during 21 d...

  17. Roll-to-Roll Slot–Die Coated Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Modules with High Geometrical Fill Factors

    Galagan, Y.; Fledderus, H.; Gorter, H.; Mannetje, H.H. 't; Shanmugam, S.; Mandamparambil, R.; Bosman, J.; Rubingh, J.M.; Teunissen, J.P.; Salem, A.; Vries, I.G. de; Andriessen, R.; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Flexible semi-transparent organic photovoltaic (OPV) modules were manufactured by roll-to-roll slot–die coating of three functional layers [ZnO, photoactive layer, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS)] and either the screen printing or inkjet printing of the top

  18. Polyimide Dielectric Layer on Filaments for Organic Field Effect Transistors: Choice of Solvent, Solution Composition and Dip-Coating Speed

    Rambausek Lina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In today’s research, smart textiles is an established topic in both electronics and the textile fields. The concept of producing microelectronics directly on a textile substrate is not a mere idea anymore and several research institutes are working on its realisation. Microelectronics like organic field effect transistor (OFET can be manufactured with a layered architecture. The production techniques used for this purpose can also be applied on textile substrates. Besides gate, active and contact layers, the isolating or dielectric layer is of high importance in the OFET architecture. Therefore, generating a high quality dielectric layer that is of low roughness and insulating at the same time is one of the fundamental requirements in building microelectronics on textile surfaces. To evaluate its potential, we have studied polyimide as a dielectric layer, dip-coated onto copper-coated polyester filaments. Accordingly, the copper-coated polyester filament was dip-coated from a polyimide solution with two different solvents, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and dimethylformaldehyde. A variety of dip-coating speeds, solution concentrations and solvent-solute combinations have been tested. Their effect on the quality of the layer was analysed through microscopy, leak current measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Polyimide dip-coating with polyimide resin dissolved in NMP at a concentration of 15w% in combination with a dip-coating speed of 50 mm/min led to the best results in electrical insulation and roughness. By optimising the dielectric layer’s properties, the way is paved for applying the subsequent semi-conductive layer. In further research, we will be working with the organic semiconductor material TIPS-Pentacene

  19. Long-Term Stability of Polymer-Coated Surface Transverse Wave Sensors for the Detection of Organic Solvent Vapors.

    Stahl, Ullrich; Voigt, Achim; Dirschka, Marian; Barié, Nicole; Richter, Christiane; Waldbaur, Ansgar; Gruhl, Friederike J; Rapp, Bastian E; Rapp, Michael; Länge, Kerstin

    2017-11-03

    Arrays with polymer-coated acoustic sensors, such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) sensors, have successfully been applied for a variety of gas sensing applications. However, the stability of the sensors' polymer coatings over a longer period of use has hardly been investigated. We used an array of eight STW resonator sensors coated with different polymers. This sensor array was used at semi-annual intervals for a three-year period to detect organic solvent vapors of three different chemical classes: a halogenated hydrocarbon (chloroform), an aliphatic hydrocarbon (octane), and an aromatic hydrocarbon (xylene). The sensor signals were evaluated with regard to absolute signal shifts and normalized signal shifts leading to signal patterns characteristic of the respective solvent vapors. No significant time-related changes of sensor signals or signal patterns were observed, i.e., the polymer coatings kept their performance during the course of the study. Therefore, the polymer-coated STW sensors proved to be robust devices which can be used for detecting organic solvent vapors both qualitatively and quantitatively for several years.

  20. Evaluation of organic coatings to reduce air leakage through cracks in the Pickering NGS 'A' reactor building 1

    Deans, J.J.; Sato, J.A.; Hampton, J.H.D.; Cullen, R.; Paterson, G.; Chan, P.; Rajagopalan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure tests conducted in 1992 on the Pickering NGS 'A' Reactor Building 1 showed that the containment leakage rate of the building was close to the licensing limit. The leakage was found to be pressure dependent and was attributed to cracks in the concrete dome. A number of solutions were studied by a task group, and the application of an organic coating to the exterior surface of the dome was identified as the most viable solution under the constraints of schedule and cost. In addition to reducing the air leakage rate, the coating material must be flexible to bridge existing moving cracks, it must have excellent adhesion to the concrete substrate to sustain the design pressure of 41.4 kPa(g) during pressure tests, and it must be durable for an exterior application and service conditions. Five candidate organic coating materials were selected for laboratory testing. As a result of the testing, a single-component elastomeric polyurethane coating was selected to be used on the dome. This paper discusses the selection process, laboratory tests and results, and the application of the polyurethane coating system to the exterior concrete dome surface. However, the main emphasis of the paper is on the laboratory evaluation of the five candidate materials. (author). 2 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge

    Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

  2. Titania nano-coated quartz wool for the photocatalytic mineralisation of emerging organic contaminants.

    Saracino, M; Pretali, L; Capobianco, M L; Emmi, S S; Navacchia, M L; Bezzi, F; Mingazzini, C; Burresi, E; Zanelli, A

    2018-01-01

    Many emerging contaminants pass through conventional wastewater treatment plants, contaminating surface and drinking water. The implementation of advanced oxidation processes in existing plants for emerging contaminant remediation is one of the challenges for the enhancement of water quality in the industrialised countries. This paper reports on the production of a TiO 2 nano-layer on quartz wool in a relevant amount, its characterisation by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, and its use as a photocatalyst under ultraviolet radiation for the simultaneous mineralisation of five emerging organic contaminants (benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, carbamazepine, diclofenac, and triton X-100) dissolved in deionised water and tap water. This treatment was compared with direct ultraviolet photolysis and with photocatalytic degradation on commercial TiO 2 micropearls. The disappearance of every pollutant was measured by high performance liquid chromatography and mineralisation was assessed by the determination of total organic carbon. After 4 hours of treatment with the TiO 2 nano-coated quartz wool, the mineralisation exceeds 90% in deionised water and is about 70% in tap water. This catalyst was reused for seven cycles without significant efficiency loss.

  3. Spray deposition of organic electroluminescent coatings for application in flexible light emitting devices

    Mariya Aleksandrova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic electroluminescent (EL films of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinatoaluminum (Alq3 mixed with polystyrene (PS binder were produced by spray deposition. The influence of the substrate temperature on the layer’s morphology and uniformity was investigated. The deposition conditions were optimized and simple flexible light-emitting devices consisting of indium-tin oxide/Alq3:PS/aluminum were fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET foil to demonstrate the advantages of the sprayed organic coatings. Same structure was produced by thermal evaporation of Alq3 film as a reference. The influence of the deposition method on the film roughness and contact resistance at the electrode interfaces for both types of structures was estimated. The results were related to the devices’ efficiency. It was found that the samples with sprayed films turn on at 4 V, which is 2 V lower in comparison to the device with thermal evaporated Alq3. The current through the sprayed device is six times higher as well (17 mA vs. 2.8 mA at 6.5 V, which can be ascribed to the lower contact resistance at the EL film/electrode interfaces. This is due to the lower surface roughness of the pulverized layers.

  4. Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing Using Optical Fibre Long Period Grating with Mesoporous Nano-Scale Coating

    Jiri Hromadka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A long period grating (LPG modified with a mesoporous film infused with a calixarene as a functional compound was employed for the detection of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs and their mixtures. The mesoporous film consisted of an inorganic part, SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs, along with an organic moiety of poly(allylamine hydrochloride polycation PAH, which was finally infused with the functional compound, p-sulphanato calix[4]arene (CA[4] or p-sulphanato calix[8]arene (CA[8]. The LPG sensor was designed to operate at the phase matching turning point to provide the highest sensitivity. The sensing mechanism is based on the measurement of the refractive index (RI change induced by a complex of the VOCs with calixarene. The LPG, modified with a coating of 5 cycles of (SiO2 NPs/PAH and infused with CA[4] or CA[8], was exposed to chloroform, benzene, toluene and acetone vapours. The British Standards test of the VOCs emissions from material (BS EN ISO 16000-9:2006 was used to test the LPG sensor performance.

  5. The influence of nanoadditives on surface, permeability and mechanical properties of self-organized organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings

    Špírková, Milena; Brožová, Libuše; Brus, Jiří; Strachota, Adam; Urbanová, Martina; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bláhová, O.; Duchek, P.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 8 (2008), s. 1-9 ISSN 0140-8798. [Additives for Coatings Conference. Frankfurt, 20.05.2008-21.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coatings * nanoadditives * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. In situ UV-visible absorption during spin-coating of organic semiconductors: A new probe for organic electronics and photovoltaics

    Abdelsamie, Maged

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is the most commonly used technique for the lab-scale production of solution processed organic electronic, optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices. Spin-coating produces the most efficient solution-processed organic solar cells and has been the preferred approach for rapid screening and optimization of new organic semiconductors and formulations for electronic and optoelectronic applications, both in academia and in industrial research facilities. In this article we demonstrate, for the first time, a spin-coating experiment monitored in situ by time resolved UV-visible absorption, the most commonly used, simplest, most direct and robust optical diagnostic tool used in organic electronics. In the first part, we successfully monitor the solution-to-solid phase transformation and thin film formation of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), the de facto reference conjugated polymer in organic electronics and photovoltaics. We do so in two scenarios which differ by the degree of polymer aggregation in solution, prior to spin-coating. We find that a higher degree of aggregation in the starting solution results in small but measurable differences in the solid state, which translate into significant improvements in the charge carrier mobility of organic field-effect transistors (OFET). In the second part, we monitor the formation of a bulk heterojunction photoactive layer based on a P3HT-fullerene blend. We find that the spin-coating conditions that lead to slower kinetics of thin film formation favour a higher degree of polymer aggregation in the solid state and increased conjugation length along the polymer backbone. Using this insight, we devise an experiment in which the spin-coating process is interrupted prematurely, i.e., after liquid ejection is completed and before the film has started to form, so as to dramatically slow the thin film formation kinetics, while maintaining the same thickness and uniformity. These changes yield substantial improvements to the

  7. Characterization and risk assessment of seasonal and weather dynamics in organic pollutant mixtures from discharge of a separate sewer system.

    Beckers, Liza-Marie; Busch, Wibke; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Brack, Werner

    2018-05-15

    Sites of wastewater discharge are hotspots for pollution of freshwaters with organic micropollutants and are often associated with adverse effects to aquatic organisms. The assessment, monitoring and managment of these hotspots is challenged by variations in the pollutant mixture composition due to season, weather conditions and random spills. In this study, we unraveled temporal exposure patterns in organic micropollutant mixtures from wastewater discharge and analyzed respective acute and sublethal risks for aquatic organisms. Samples were taken from two components of a separate sewer system i) a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and ii) a rain sewer of a medium size town as well as from the receiving river in different seasons. Rain sewer samples were separately collected for rain and dry - weather conditions. We analyzed 149 compounds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). By considering the pollution dynamics in the point sources, we reduced the complexity of pollutant mixtures by k-means clustering to a few emission groups representing temporal and weather-related pollution patterns. From these groups, we derived biological quality element (BQE) - specific risk patterns. In most cases, one main risk driving emission group and a few individual risk driving compounds were identified for each BQE. While acute risk for fish was quite low, algae were exposed to seasonally emitted herbicides (terbuthylazine, spiroxamine) and crustaceans to randomly spilled insecticides (diazinon, dimethoate). Sublethal risks for all BQE were strongly influenced by constantly emitted pollutants, above all, pharmaceuticals. Variability of risks in the river was mainly driven by water discharge of the river rather than by season or peak events. Overall, the studied WWTP represented the major pollution source with a specific emission of agricultural compounds. However, the investigated rain sewer showed to be a constant pollution source due to illicit connections

  8. The pH-dependent photoluminescence of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with different organic coatings

    Debruyne, David; Locquet, Jean-Pierre; Van Bael, Margriet J; Deschaume, Olivier; Bartic, Carmen; Coutiño-Gonzalez, Eduardo; Hofkens, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is known to be sensitive to the solution pH. In this work we investigate the role played by the organic coating in determining the pH-dependent PL. We compare two types of CdSe/ZnS QDs equipped with different organic coatings, namely dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA)-capped QDs and phospholipid micelle-encapsulated QDs. Both QD types have their PL intensity quenched at acidic pH values, but they differ in terms of the reversibility of the quenching process. For DHLA-capped QDs, the quenching is nearly irreversible, with a small reversible component visible only on short time scales. For phospholipid micelle-encapsulated QDs the quenching is notably almost fully reversible. We suggest that the surface passivation by the organic ligands is reversible for the micelle-encapsulated QDs. Additionally, both coatings display pH-dependent spectral shifts. These shifts can be explained by a combination of irreversible processes, such as photo-oxidation and acid etching, and reversible charging of the QD surface, leading to the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE), the extent of each effect being coating-dependent. At high ionic strengths, the aggregation of QDs also leads to a spectral (red) shift, which is attributable to the QCSE and/or electronic energy transfer. (paper)

  9. Corrosion monitoring of iron, protected by an organic coating, with the aid of impedance measurements

    Hubrecht, J.; Piens, M.; Vereecken, J.

    1984-01-01

    The ac impedance measurement has proved to be a useful electrochemical technique for mainly qualitative studies of electrochemical and corrosion systems. Even for complicated systems such as coated metals in corrosive environments this technique has been used with success. The system chosen for the present study is an ARMCO iron plate, coated with a SrCrO 4 -pigmented styrene acrylic polymer, and immersed for several weeks in an aqueous NaCl solution. Impedance measurements analyze a system under test into its constituting phenomena. The dependence of system parameters on coating layer thickness, NaCl concentration, and pigmentation of the coating during the immersion time provides insight into the corrosion and protection mechanisms at the coating/metal interface, besides the behavior of the coating itself

  10. Application of hybrid organic/inorganic polymers as coatings on metallic substrates

    Augustinho, T. R.; Motz, G.; Ihlow, S.; Machado, R. A. F.

    2016-09-01

    Acrylic polymers, particularly poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), have certain specific properties, such as good film formation, transparency, and good mechanical properties, which have been widely used in paints, coatings and adhesives. However, the limited chemical and physical stability of these pure polymers limits their applications when exposed to hostile conditions, as in ship hulls, for example. A suitable way to enhance PMMA properties is the addition of silicon polymers with very good protective characteristics. In this study, a PMMA and HTT 1800 (commercial silazane) copolymer were applied on metallic substrate and compared to pure PMMA and HTT 1800. All the materials were applied as coatings. They were applied on stainless steel via dip-coating to investigate the coating properties. Thermal cycling was employed to analyze coating durability at high temperatures (50 °C to 600 °C). Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the coated surfaces, and the adhesion of pure PMMA, pure HTT 1800 and PMMA/HTT 1800 coatings on metallic substrate was investigated by Cross-Cut-Test (ASTM D 3359). The sessile drop method was used to determine the contact angle. PMMA coatings presented complete degradation from 250 °C, while hybrid coatings of PMMA and HTT 1800 have good protection until 400 °C. The adherence of the coating on metallic substrate showed improvement in all synthesized materials when compared to pure PMMA, obtaining the best adherence possible. The contact angle test showed that the hydrophobicity of the hybrid coatings is higher than that of the pure coatings.

  11. High-speed deposition of titanium carbide coatings by laser-assisted metal–organic CVD

    Gong, Yansheng [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tu, Rong, E-mail: turong@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Goto, Takashi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A semiconductor laser was first used to prepare wide-area LCVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. • The effect of laser power for the deposition of TiC{sub x} coatings was discussed. • TiC{sub x} coatings showed a columnar cross section and a dense surface texture. • TiC{sub x} coatings had a 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous reports. • This study gives the possibility of LCVD applying on the preparation of TiC{sub x} coating. - Abstract: A semiconductor laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition (LCVD) of titanium carbide (TiC{sub x}) coatings on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate using tetrakis (diethylamido) titanium (TDEAT) and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} as source materials were investigated. The influences of laser power (P{sub L}) and pre-heating temperature (T{sub pre}) on the microstructure and deposition rate of TiC{sub x} coatings were examined. Single phase of TiC{sub x} coatings were obtained at P{sub L} = 100–200 W. TiC{sub x} coatings had a cauliflower-like surface and columnar cross section. TiC{sub x} coatings in the present study had the highest R{sub dep} (54 μm/h) at a relative low T{sub dep} than those of conventional CVD-TiC{sub x} coatings. The highest volume deposition rate (V{sub dep}) of TiC{sub x} coatings was about 4.7 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 3} s{sup −1}, which had 3–10{sup 5} times larger deposition area and 1–4 order lower laser density than those of previous LCVD using CO{sub 2}, Nd:YAG and argon ion laser.

  12. Using mixed solvent and changing spin-coating parameters to increase the efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells.

    Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Tang, Rong-Ming; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chang, Ming-Hua; Liu, Mark O; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2008-10-01

    The derivative of C60, i.e., PCBM, and P3HT (3-hexylthiophene) were dissolved in chloroform:dichlorobenzene mixed solvent, then spin-coated as the active layer for organic solar cells (OSC). The experimental parameters were studied carefully to obtain the optimum power conversion efficiency (PCE), including the solvent mixing ratio, spin-coating speed, annealing conditions for the active layer, etc. The OSC devices were packaged with glass and a newly developed UV-glue to improve the lifetime and PCE. Dichlorobenzene solvent has great effect upon the PCE. Changing the spin-coating speed and increasing the number of steps increased the PCE apparently to 1.4%.

  13. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Beeswax-Colophony Blend: A Novel Green Organic Coating for Protection of Steel Drinking Water Storage Tanks

    Sara Abdikheibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax-colophony blend is mainly used as a sealant mixture for preservation applications. The beeswax itself, however, has had a long way in history taking part in conservation processes including mummification. In this research, this blend was used as a protective coating for drinking water distribution tanks. Initially, a layer with 400 μm thickness was applied on a sand blasted mild steel plate. The long-term electrochemical behavior of the coating was investigated by open circuit potential (OCP and electrochemical microbiological characteristics of the coating, microbial and chemical examinations were performed on drinking water samples that had been in contact with the coating. Furthermore, its behavior in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASBR in a wastewater treatment plant was investigated using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. Regarding the consistency of experimental results, it was concluded that this proposed recyclable blend could be considered as a novel green organic coating and also a good corrosion barrier even in aggressive environments.

  15. Silicon micro venturi nozzles for cost-efficient spray coating of thin organic P3HT/PCBM layers

    Betz, Michael A.; Büchele, Patric; Brünnler, Manfred; Deml, Sonja; Lechner, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Improvements on spray coating are of particular interest to different fields of technology as it is a scalable deposition method and processing from solutions offer various application possibilities outside of typical facilities. When it comes to the deposition of expensive and film-forming media such as organic semiconductors, consumption and nozzle cleaning issues are of particular importance. We demonstrate the simple steps to design and fabricate micro venturi nozzles for economical spray coating with a consumption as low as 30-50 µl · min-1. For spray coating an active area of 25 cm2 a 2.45-4.01 fold coating efficiency is observed compared to a conventional airbrush nozzle set. The electrical characterization of first diodes sprayed with an active layer thickness of ~750 nm using a single micronozzle at a coating speed of 1.7 cm2 · min-1 reveals a good external quantum efficiency of 72.9% at 532 nm and a dark current of ~7.4 · 10-5 mA · cm-2, both measured at  -2 V. Furthermore, the high resistance of the micronozzles against solvents and most acids is provided through realization in a silicon wafer with silicon dioxide encapsulation, therefore allowing easy and effective cleaning.

  16. Silicon micro venturi nozzles for cost-efficient spray coating of thin organic P3HT/PCBM layers

    Betz, Michael A; Brünnler, Manfred; Deml, Sonja; Lechner, Alfred; Büchele, Patric

    2017-01-01

    Improvements on spray coating are of particular interest to different fields of technology as it is a scalable deposition method and processing from solutions offer various application possibilities outside of typical facilities. When it comes to the deposition of expensive and film-forming media such as organic semiconductors, consumption and nozzle cleaning issues are of particular importance. We demonstrate the simple steps to design and fabricate micro venturi nozzles for economical spray coating with a consumption as low as 30–50 µ l · min −1 . For spray coating an active area of 25 cm 2 a 2.45–4.01 fold coating efficiency is observed compared to a conventional airbrush nozzle set. The electrical characterization of first diodes sprayed with an active layer thickness of ∼750 nm using a single micronozzle at a coating speed of 1.7 cm 2 · min −1 reveals a good external quantum efficiency of 72.9% at 532 nm and a dark current of ∼7.4 · 10 −5 mA · cm −2 , both measured at  −2 V. Furthermore, the high resistance of the micronozzles against solvents and most acids is provided through realization in a silicon wafer with silicon dioxide encapsulation, therefore allowing easy and effective cleaning. (paper)

  17. Influence of organic surface coatings on the sorption of anticonvulsants on mineral surfaces.

    Qu, Shen; Cwiertny, David M

    2013-10-01

    Here, we explore the role that sorption to mineral surfaces plays in the fate of two commonly encountered effluent-derived pharmaceuticals, the anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine. Adsorption isotherms and pH-edge experiments are consistent with electrostatics governing anticonvulsant uptake on metal oxides typically found in soil and aquifer material (e.g., Si, Al, Fe, Mn, and Ti). Appreciable, albeit limited, adsorption was observed only for phenytoin, which is anionic above pH 8.3, on the iron oxides hematite and ferrihydrite. Adsorption increased substantially in the presence of cationic and anionic surfactants, species also commonly encountered in wastewater effluent. For carbamazepine, we propose the enhanced uptake results entirely from hydrophobic interactions with apolar tails of surfactant surface coatings. For phenytoin, adsorption also arises from the ability of surfactants to alter the net charge of the mineral surface and thereby further enhance favorable electrostatic interactions with its anionic form. Collectively, our results demonstrate that although pristine mineral surfaces are likely not major sinks for phenytoin and carbamazepine in the environment, their alteration with organic matter, particularly surfactants, can considerably increase their ability to retain these emerging pollutants in subsurface systems.

  18. Nanoscale Morphology of Doctor Bladed versus Spin-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Films

    Pokuri, Balaji Sesha Sarath

    2017-08-17

    Recent advances in efficiency of organic photovoltaics are driven by judicious selection of processing conditions that result in a “desired” morphology. An important theme of morphology research is quantifying the effect of processing conditions on morphology and relating it to device efficiency. State-of-the-art morphology quantification methods provide film-averaged or 2D-projected features that only indirectly correlate with performance, making causal reasoning nontrivial. Accessing the 3D distribution of material, however, provides a means of directly mapping processing to performance. In this paper, two recently developed techniques are integrated—reconstruction of 3D morphology and subsequent conversion into intuitive morphology descriptors —to comprehensively image and quantify morphology. These techniques are applied on films generated by doctor blading and spin coating, additionally investigating the effect of thermal annealing. It is found that morphology of all samples exhibits very high connectivity to electrodes. Not surprisingly, thermal annealing consistently increases the average domain size in the samples, aiding exciton generation. Furthermore, annealing also improves the balance of interfaces, enhancing exciton dissociation. A comparison of morphology descriptors impacting each stage of photophysics (exciton generation, dissociation, and charge transport) reveals that spin-annealed sample exhibits superior morphology-based performance indicators. This suggests substantial room for improvement of blade-based methods (process optimization) for morphology tuning to enhance performance of large area devices.

  19. Photoluminescence studies of organic phosphor coated diffusing surface using blue inorganic light-emitting diode as excitation source

    Singh, Gyanendra; Mehta, Dalip Singh

    2013-01-01

    We report the studies on photoluminescence (PL) of organic phosphor coated on a diffusing surface using a blue inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) array as an excitation source. The organic phosphor composite coated diffuser was used to scatter the directional blue light from the LED array. Some of the blue light is absorbed by the organic phosphor composite and the phosphor molecules are excited and re-emit light at longer wavelengths due to the PL process. The output light consists of scattered blue light plus phosphor generated broadband yellow light, thus making white light. The diffuser was made up of a plastic substrate coated with an organic composite of small molecule fluorescent material zinc(II)bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Znq 2 ) doped with different percentages of electro-phosphorescent metal complex iridium(III)bis(2-methyldibenzo-[f, h] quinoxaline) (acetylacetonate) ([Ir(MDQ) 2 (acac)]). By means of changing the concentration and the thickness of the phosphor composite material the colour coordinates of white light were achieved. The CIE coordinates and correlated colour temperature were calculated for various thicknesses and phosphor composite concentrations and the results are reported. (paper)

  20. Self-organized pattern on the surface of a metal anode in low-pressure DC discharge

    Yaqi, YANG; Weiguo, LI

    2018-03-01

    Self-organization phenomena on the surface of a metal electrode in low-pressure DC discharge is studied. In this paper, we carry out laboratory investigations of self-organization in a low-pressure test platform for 100-200 mm rod-plane gaps with a needle tip, conical tip and hemispherical tip within 1-10 kPa. The factors influencing the pattern profile are the pressure value, gap length and shape of the electrode, and a variety of pattern structures are observed by changing these factors. With increasing pressure, first the pattern diameter increases and then decreases. With the needle tip, layer structure, single-ring structure and double-ring structure are displayed successively with increasing pressure. With the conical tip, the ring-like structure gradually forms separate spots with increasing pressure. With the hemispherical tip, there are anode spots inside the ring structure. With the increase of gap length, the diameter of the self-organized pattern increases and the profile of the pattern changes. The development process of the pattern contains three key stages: pattern enlargement, pattern stabilization and pattern shrink.

  1. Efficiency improvement of flexible fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by inserting a spin-coating buffer layer

    Tsai, Yu-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Hsi; Chen, Shen-Yaur; Su, Shin-Yuan; Juang, Fuh-Shyang

    2009-01-01

    We dissolved hole transport materials α-NPD and NPB in THF solvent, and spin-coated the α-NPD + THF or NPB + THF solution onto ITO anode surface to improve the luminance efficiency and lifetime of flexible fluorescent and phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes. Then the BCP and TPBi were employed as hole blocking layer (HBL) of phosphorescent device and its thickness was optimized. From the experimental results, the maximum luminance efficiency is 4.4 cd/A at 9 V of fluorescent device and 24.4 cd/A of phosphorescent device, respectively. Such an improvement in the device performance was attributed to the smoother surface and good contact between the interface of spin-coated HTL/ITO, the hole were effectively injected from the anode into the organic layer. And the deposited HTL can block excitons from diffusing into the anode to quench, thus improving the luminance efficiency and lifetime greatly.

  2. Late stage crystallization and healing during spin-coating enhance carrier transport in small-molecule organic semiconductors

    Chou, Kang Wei

    2014-01-01

    Spin-coating is currently the most widely used solution processing method in organic electronics. Here, we report, for the first time, a direct investigation of the formation process of the small-molecule organic semiconductor (OSC) 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS)-pentacene during spin-coating in the context of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) application. The solution thinning and thin film formation were monitored in situ by optical reflectometry and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering, respectively, both of which were performed during spin-coating. We find that OSC thin film formation is akin to a quenching process, marked by a deposition rate of ∼100 nm s-1, nearly three orders of magnitude faster than drop-casting. This is then followed by a more gradual crystallization and healing step which depends upon the spinning speed. We associate this to further crystallization and healing of defects by residency of the residual solvent trapped inside the kinetically trapped film. The residency time of the trapped solvent is extended to several seconds by slowing the rotational speed of the substrate and is credited with improving the carrier mobility by nearly two orders of magnitude. Based on this insight, we deliberately slow down the solvent evaporation further and increase the carrier mobility by an additional order of magnitude. These results demonstrate how spin-coating conditions can be used as a handle over the crystallinity of organic semiconductors otherwise quenched during initial formation only to recrystallize and heal during extended interaction with the trapped solvent. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  3. Lithium salts as leachable corrosion inhibitors and potential replacement for hexavalent chromium in organic coatings for the protection of aluminum alloys

    Visser, P; Liu, Y; Terryn, H.A.; Mol, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium salts are being investigated as leachable corrosion inhibitor and potential replacement for hexavalent chromium in organic coatings. Model coatings loaded with lithium carbonate or lithium oxalate demonstrated active corrosion inhibition and the formation of a protective layer in a

  4. Continuous blade coating for multi-layer large-area organic light-emitting diode and solar cell

    Chen, Chun-Yu; Chang, Hao-Wen; Chang, Yu-Fan; Chang, Bo-Jie; Lin, Yuan-Sheng; Jian, Pei-Siou; Yeh, Han-Cheng; Chien, Hung-Ta; Chen, En-Chen; Chao, Yu-Chiang; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Lin, Hao-Wu; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Cheng, Yen-Ju; Yen, Feng-Wen; Lin, I.-Feng; Yang, Hsiu-Yuan; Huang, Kuo-Jui; Tseng, Mei-Rurng

    2011-11-01

    A continuous roll-to-roll compatible blade-coating method for multi-layers of general organic semiconductors is developed. Dissolution of the underlying film during coating is prevented by simultaneously applying heating from the bottom and gentle hot wind from the top. The solvent is immediately expelled and reflow inhibited. This method succeeds for polymers and small molecules. Uniformity is within 10% for 5 cm by 5 cm area with a mean value of tens of nanometers for both organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and solar cell structure with little material waste. For phosphorescent OLED 25 cd/A is achieved for green, 15 cd/A for orange, and 8 cd/A for blue. For fluorescent OLED 4.3 cd/A is achieved for blue, 9 cd/A for orange, and 6.9 cd/A for white. For OLED with 2 cm by 3 cm active area, the luminance variation is within 10%. Power conversion efficiency of 4.1% is achieved for polymer solar cell, similar to spin coating using the same materials. Very-low-cost and high-throughput fabrication of efficient organic devices is realized by the continuous blade-only method.

  5. Evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Line-X XS-350 Polymer Coating

    Henley, M

    2002-01-01

    The use of Line-X XS-350 polymer as an interior retrofit coating for occupied building Structures to improve their blast resistance has raised a major concern by potential users of the polymer retrofit technology...

  6. Surpassing 10% Efficiency Benchmark for Nonfullerene Organic Solar Cells by Scalable Coating in Air from Single Nonhalogenated Solvent

    Ye, Long [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Xiong, Yuan [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA; Zhang, Qianqian [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC 27599 USA; Li, Sunsun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; Wang, Cheng [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Jiang, Zhang [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Hou, Jianhui [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 P. R. China; You, Wei [Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill NC 27599 USA; Ade, Harald [Department of Physics, Organic and Carbon Electronics Lab (ORaCEL), North Carolina State University, Raleigh NC 27695 USA

    2018-01-10

    The commercialization of nonfullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) relies critically on the response under typical operating conditions (for instance, temperature, humidity) and the ability of scale-up. Despite the rapid increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) of spin-coated devices fabricated in a protective atmosphere, the device efficiencies of printed nonfullerene OSC devices by blade-coating are still lower than 6%. This slow progress significantly limits the practical printing of high-performance nonfullerene OSCs. Here, a new and stable nonfullerene combination was introduced by pairing a commercially available nonfluorinated acceptor IT-M with the polymeric donor FTAZ. Over 12%-efficiency can be achieved in spincoated FTAZ:IT-M devices using a single halogen-free solvent. More importantly, chlorinefree, in air blade-coating of FTAZ:IT-M is able to yield a PCE of nearly 11%, despite a humidity of ~50%. X-ray scattering results reveal that large π-π coherence lengths, high degree of faceon orientation with respect to the substrate, and small domain spacings of ~20 nm are closely correlated with such high device performance. Our material system and approach yields the highest reported performance for nonfullerene OSC devices by a coating technique approximating scalable fabrication methods and holds great promise for the development of low-cost, low-toxicity, and high-efficiency OSCs by high-throughput production.

  7. Protonated graphitic carbon nitride coated metal-organic frameworks with enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for contaminants degradation

    Huang, Jie; Zhang, Xibiao; Song, Haiyan; Chen, Chunxia; Han, Fuqin; Wen, Congcong

    2018-05-01

    Most of the reported composites of g-C3N4/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were obtained via exfoliation of g-C3N4 and wrapping the nanosheets on MOFs with weak interaction. In this work, chemical protonation of g-C3N4 and dip-coating was adopted as a feasible pathway to achieve the real combination of g-C3N4 derivatives with a familiar MOF material MIL-100(Fe). Structural, chemical and photophysical properties of the novel hybrid photocatalysts were characterized and compared to those of the parent materials. It was verified that the protonated g-C3N4 species of appropriate content were uniformly coated along the frameworks of MIL-100(Fe) with strong interaction. The optimal materials maintained the intact framework structure, surface property and porosity of MIL-100(Fe), as well as the inherent structural units and physicochemical properties of C3N4. In comparison to the parent materials, the protonated g-C3N4 coated MIL-100(Fe) materials exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity in degradation of rhodamine B or methylene blue dye, as well as in oxidative denitrogenation for pyridine by molecular oxygen under visible light. Introduction of protonated g-C3N4 on MOFs improved the adsorption ability for contaminant molecules. Furthermore, coating effect provided a platform for rapid photoexcited electrons transfer and superior separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Photocatalytic conversion of the three contaminants followed different mechanisms.

  8. Pancreatitis - discharge

    Chronic pancreatitis - discharge; Pancreatitis - chronic - discharge; Pancreatic insufficiency - discharge; Acute pancreatitis - discharge ... You were in the hospital because you have pancreatitis. This is a swelling of the pancreas. You ...

  9. Use of organosilicate precursors for transparent coatings on organic substrates by plasma CVD

    Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R; Perillo, P

    2006-01-01

    This work discusses the production of transparent coatings of SiOxCy on substrates polycarbonated by PECVD at temperatures below 80 o C, with a gaseous mixture using different precursors with which, in similar processes produced the same results with respect to the coating obtained, with the same excellent quality and in accordance with international standards for optic coatings. Chlorinated precursors were excluded because they are highly corrosive as well as those with operating risks (toxic or explosive). The precursors used were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), tetramethylsilanete (TMS,) tetramethoxy silane (TMOS), hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS), and methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070), with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used as well as X-ray generated photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA). The functional groups were studied together with the film elements and its mechanical properties, transparency and refraction index. Irregardless of the precursor used, by properly modifying the process variables (pressure of the gaseous mixture, radio frequency power, relationship of processing gases and their flow), similar coatings can be chemically obtained, having the same morphology and, therefore, with identical adherence, structural and optic properties. None of the works consulted refer to the possibility of the indistinct use of different precursors for obtaining the same coating. These results are relevant when considering the difference in costs and their market availability. The influence of the addition of methane was studied in two processing variants, a) with oxygen and methane and b) with oxygen alone. For all the precursors used and with identical processing conditions, the carbon contributed by the addition of methane increased the concentration of carbon compounds, considerably reducing the presence of silanol, which being absorbent produces structural instability and cracking of the

  10. Improved Morphology of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:Poly(styrenesulfonate Thin Films for All-Electrospray-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Yingjie Liao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray coating technique has been established as a promising substitute for the traditional coating methods in the fabrication of organic devices in many reports recently. Control of film morphology at the microscopic scale is critical if spray-coated devices are to achieve high performance. Here we investigate electrospray deposition protocols for the fabrication of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS thin films with a single additive system under ambient conditions at room temperature. Critical deposition parameters including solution composition, applied voltage, and relative humidity are discussed systematically. Optimized process for preparing homogenous PEDOT:PSS thin films is applied to all-electrospray-coated organic photovoltaic cells and contributes to a power conversion efficiency comparable to that of the corresponding all-spin-coated device.

  11. PROPERTIES OF ORGANIC COATINGS CONTAINING PIGMENTS WITH SURFACE MODIFIED WITH A LAYER OF ZnFe2O4

    Kateřina Nechvílová

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is focussed on the properties of organic coatings containing pigments whose surface was chemically coated with zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4 layer. Four silicate types with different particle shapes were selected as the cores: diatomite, talc, kaolin and wollastonite. The untreated particles exhibit a barrier effect. The aim of this project was to apply the surface treatment approach with a view to enhancing not only the model paint films’ anticorrosion properties but also their resistance to physico- mechanical tests pursuant to ISO standards (cupping, bending, impact, adhesion. Other parameters examined included: particle size and morphology, density of the modified pigment, oil consumption, pH, conductivity, and electrochemical properties of the paint film. A solvent-based epoxy-ester resin was used as the binder and also served as the reference material. The pigment volume concentration (PVC was 1% and 10%. During the last stage of the experiment, the paint films were exposed to a corrosive environment stimulating seaside conditions or conditions roads treated with rock salt. The accelerated cyclic corrosion test in a neutral salt mist atmosphere was conducted for 864 hours. The results served to ascertain a suitable environment for organic coatings.

  12. Heart pacemaker - discharge

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation - discharge; Artificial pacemaker - discharge; Permanent pacemaker - discharge; Internal pacemaker - discharge; Cardiac resynchronization therapy - discharge; CRT - discharge; ...

  13. Investigation of vacuum deposited hybrid coatings of protic organic UV absorbers embedded in a silica matrix used for the UV protection of Polycarbonate glazing

    Weber, C.; Schulz, U.; Mühlig, C.; Kaiser, N.; Tünnermann, A.

    2016-01-01

    A study of vacuum-deposited organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for UV protection of polycarbonate is presented. UV-absorbing compounds, which are commonly used for polycarbonate, were embedded in a silica matrix by thermal co-evaporation under high vacuum. In addition to the optical properties of the coatings, the influence of the silica network on the organic UV absorber and the stability of the intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) are discussed. A model is presented to show the interaction be...

  14. Interface and thickness tuning for blade coated small-molecule organic light-emitting diodes with high power efficiency

    Chang, Yu-Fan; Chiu, Yu-Chian; Chang, Hao-Wen; Wang, Yi-Siang; Shih, Yi-Lun; Wu, Chih-Hao; Liu, Yi-Lun; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Chi, Yun; Huang, Heh-Lung; Tseng, Mei-Rurng; Lin, Hao-Wu; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Horng, Sheng-Fu; Juang, Jenh-Yih

    2013-09-01

    We developed a general method based on fluorescence microscopy to characterize the interface dissolution in multi-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by blade coating. A sharp bi-layer edge was created before blade coating, with the bottom layer being insoluble and top layer soluble. After blade coating, fluorescence images showed that the edge of the top layer shifted when the layer dissolved completely, whereas the bottom layer's edge remained in place as a positioning mark. The dissolution depth was determined to be 15-20 nm when the emissive-layer host of 2,6-bis (3-(9H-carbazol-9-yl)phenyl) pyridine (26DCzPPy) was coated on the hole-transport layer of N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)-benzidine(NPB), which was consistent with a sudden drop in efficiency of orange OLEDs with layer thickness below 20 nm. Thus, the layer thickness of OLEDs was optimized to stay more than 20 nm for blade coating. For a two-color white OLED with the structure TCTA/26DCzPPy:PO-01-TB:FIrpic/TPBI, efficiency was 24 cd/A and 8.5 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. For a three-color white OLED with Os(fptz)2(dhpm) added as the emitter, the efficiency was 12.3 cd/A and 3.7 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2. For a green device with the structure TCTA/26DCzPPy:Ir(mppy)3/TPBI, the efficiency was 41.9 cd/A and 23.4 lm/W at 1000 cd/m2.

  15. Roll-coating fabrication of flexible organic solar cells: comparison of fullerene and fullerene-free systems

    Liu, Kuan; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Lin, Yuze

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) based on a blend of low-bandgap polymer donor PTB7-TH and nonfullerene small molecule acceptor IEIC were fabricated via a roll-coating process under ambient atmosphere. Both an indium tin oxide (ITO)-free substrate and a flexible ITO substrate were employed...... in these inverted OSCs. OSCs with flexible ITO and ITO-free substrates exhibited power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 2.26% and 1.79%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference devices based on fullerene acceptors under the same conditions. This is the first example for all roll......-coating fabrication procedures for flexible OSCs based on non-fullerene acceptors with the PCE exceeding 2%. The fullerene-free OSCs exhibited better dark storage stability than the fullerene-based control devices....

  16. Investigation of the cut-edge corrosion of organically-coated galvanized steel after accelerated atmospheric corrosion test

    Reşit Yıldız

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cut edge corrosion of organically coated (epoxy, polyurethane and polyester galvanized steel was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Measurements were performed on specimens that had been tested in an accelerated atmospheric corrosion test. The samples were subjected to 10 s fogging and 1 h awaiting cycles in an exposure cabinet (120 and 180 days with artificial acid rain solution. According to the investigation, the coatings were damaged from the cut edge into the sheet, this distance was about 0.8 cm. These defects were more pronounced at after 180 days in proportion to after 120 days.

  17. Evaluation of biocidal efficacy of copper alloy coatings in comparison with solid metal surfaces: generation of organic copper phosphate nanoflowers.

    Gutierrez, H; Portman, T; Pershin, V; Ringuette, M

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the biocidal efficacy of thermal sprayed copper surfaces. Copper alloy sheet metals containing >60% copper have been shown to exhibit potent biocidal activity. Surface biocidal activity was assessed by epifluorescence microscopy. After 2-h exposure at 20 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), contact killing of Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis by brass sheet metal and phosphor bronze was 3-4-times higher than that by stainless steel. SEM observations revealed that the surface membranes of both bacterial strains were slightly more irregular when exposed to brass sheet metal than stainless steel. However, when exposed to phosphor bronze coating, E. coli were 3-4 times larger with irregular membrane morphology. In addition, the majority of the cells were associated with spherical carbon-copper-phosphate crystalline nanostructures characteristic of nanoflowers. The membranes of many of the S. epidermidis exhibited blebbing, and a small subset was also associated with nanoflowers. Our data indicate that increasing the surface roughness of copper alloys had a pronounced impact on the membrane integrity of Gram-positive and, to a lesser degree, Gram-negative bacteria. In the presence of PBS, carbon-copper-phosphate-containing nanoflowers were formed, likely nucleated by components derived from killed bacteria. The intimate association of the bacteria with the nanoflowers and phosphor bronze coating likely contributed to their nonreversible adhesion. Thermal spraying of copper alloys provides a strategy for the rapid coating of three-dimensional organic and inorganic surfaces with biocidal copper alloys. Our study demonstrates that the macroscale surface roughness generated by the thermal spray process enhances the biocidal activity of copper alloys compared with the nanoscale surface roughness of copper sheet metals. Moreover, the coating surface topography provides conditions for the rapid formation of organic copper

  18. Improved Corrosion and Abrasion Resistance of Organic-Inorganic Composite Coated Electro-galvanized Steels for Digital TV Panels

    Jo, Du-Hwan; Noh, Sang-Geol; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Choon-Ho [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Recently, household electronic industries require environmentally-friendly and highly functional steels in order to enhance the quality of human life. Customers especially require both excellent corrosion and abrasion resistant anti-fingerprint steels for digital TV panels. Thus POSCO has developed new functional electro-galvanized steels, which have double coated layers with organic-inorganic composites on the zinc surface of the steel for usage as the bottom chassis panel of TVs. The inorganic solution for the bottom layer consists of inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and zirconium compounds with a small amount of epoxy binder, and affords both improved adhesion properties by chemical conversion reactions and corrosion resistance due to a self-healing effect. The composite solution for the top layer was prepared by fine dispersion of organic-inorganic ingredients that consist of a urethane modified polyacrylate polymer, hardener, silica sol and a titanium complex inhibitor in aqueous media. Both composite solutions were coated on the steel surface by using a roll coater and then cured through an induction furnace in the electro-galvanizing line. New anti-fingerprint steel was evaluated for quality performance through such procedures as the salt spray test for corrosion resistance, tribological test for abrasion resistance, and conductivity test for surface electric conductance regarding to both types of polymer resin and coating weight of composite solution. New composite coated anti-fingerprint steels afford both better corrosion resistance and abrasion properties compared to conventional anti-fingerprint steel that mainly consists of acrylate polymers. Detailed discussions of both composite solutions and experimental results suggest that urethane modifications of acrylate polymers of composite solutions play a key role in enhanced quality performances.

  19. Experimental investigation of the charge/discharge process for an organic PCM macroencapsulated in an aluminium rectangular cavity

    Bejan, Andrei-Stelian; Labihi, Abdelouhab; Croitoru, Cristiana Verona; Catalina, Tiberiu; Chehouani, Hassan; Benhamou, Brahim

    2018-02-01

    Buildings sector has one of the highest potential regarding the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, as being responsible for more than 40% of energy consumption worldwide. This is why, in order to achieve indoor thermal comfort, it is mandatory to use energy-efficient systems. Materials acting as thermal energy storage (TES) represents one of the most effective strategy that can be implemented and nowadays, many studies are focusing their attention on latent heat storage, respectively on phase changing materials (PCM) which can embed a large embed a high quantity of energy, unlike classic materials acting as thermal mass. This purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the charge and discharge processes for an organic PCM (RT35 paraffin) macroencapsulated in an aluminium rectangular cavity which was placed first in a horizontal position and after in a vertical position. After several experimental campaigns conducted we determined that the vertical position enhance the heat transfer because of the natural convection which occurs inside the cavity. Therefore, the charging time is lower in case of the vertical cavity and the temperature measured inside and on the surface is higher.

  20. Synergistic effect of plasmacatalyst and ozone in a pulsed corona discharge reactor on the decomposition of organic pollutants in water

    Malik, Muhammad Arif [Applied Chemistry Laboratories, PINSTECH, PO Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2003-11-01

    Plasmacatalytic effects of {alpha}-alumina, {gamma}-alumina, and silica gel in a pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor on the decomposition of aqueous methylene blue are described. Methylene blue concentration in the effluent was reduced to 23% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of {alpha}-alumina further reduced it to 8%, {gamma}-alumina to 4%, and silica gel to below the detection limits. PCDs with silica gel were run for >100 h in a continuous flow reactor and methylene blue in the effluent remained below the detection limit. A hybrid system of plasmacatalysis and ozonation is also described. Phenol concentration in the effluent was reduced to 84% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of either silica gel or ozone further reduced it to around 35%, and simultaneous addition of silica gel and ozone to 14% of inlet concentration. Decolourization of pre-adsorbed methylene blue on silica gel has been demonstrated. Adsorption and stabilization of the chemically active species on silica gel was indicated by experimental evidence. A significant improvement in the rate of decomposition of organic pollutants in water has been realized by hybridizing plasmacatalysis and ozonation in a PCD reactor.

  1. Synergistic effect of plasmacatalyst and ozone in a pulsed corona discharge reactor on the decomposition of organic pollutants in water

    Malik, Muhammad Arif

    2003-01-01

    Plasmacatalytic effects of α-alumina, γ-alumina, and silica gel in a pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor on the decomposition of aqueous methylene blue are described. Methylene blue concentration in the effluent was reduced to 23% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of α-alumina further reduced it to 8%, γ-alumina to 4%, and silica gel to below the detection limits. PCDs with silica gel were run for >100 h in a continuous flow reactor and methylene blue in the effluent remained below the detection limit. A hybrid system of plasmacatalysis and ozonation is also described. Phenol concentration in the effluent was reduced to 84% of the inlet concentration by PCDs in water. Under the same experimental conditions, addition of either silica gel or ozone further reduced it to around 35%, and simultaneous addition of silica gel and ozone to 14% of inlet concentration. Decolourization of pre-adsorbed methylene blue on silica gel has been demonstrated. Adsorption and stabilization of the chemically active species on silica gel was indicated by experimental evidence. A significant improvement in the rate of decomposition of organic pollutants in water has been realized by hybridizing plasmacatalysis and ozonation in a PCD reactor

  2. Plasmon-Organic Fiber Interactions in Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Nanostructured Gold Films

    Cielecki, Pawel Piotr; Sobolewska, Elżbieta Karolina; Kostiučenko, Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence of such p......Gold is the most commonly used plasmonic material, however soft and prone to mechanical deformations. It has been shown that the durability of gold plasmonic substrates can be improved by applying a protective diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. In this work, we investigate the influence...

  3. Self-organized criticality: An interplay between stable and turbulent regimes of multiple anodic double layers in glow discharge plasma

    Alex, Prince; Carreras, Benjamin Andres; Arumugam, Saravanan; Sinha, Suraj Kumar

    2018-05-01

    The role of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the transformation of multiple anodic double layers (MADLs) from the stable to turbulent regime has been investigated experimentally as the system approaches towards critical behavior. The experiment was performed in a modified glow discharge plasma setup, and the initial stable state of MADL comprising three concentric perceptible layers was produced when the drift velocity of electrons towards the anode exceeds the electron thermal velocity (νd ≥ 1.3νte). The macroscopic arrangement of both positive and negative charges in opposite layers of MADL is attributed to the self-organization scenario. Beyond νd ≥ 3νte, MADL begins to collapse and approaches critical and supercritical states through layer reduction which continue till the last remaining layer of the double layer is transformed into a highly unstable radiant anode glow. The avalanche resulting from the collapse of MADL leads to the rise of turbulence in the system. Long-range correlations, a key signature of SOC, have been explored in the turbulent floating potential fluctuations using the rescaled-range analysis technique. The result shows that the existence of the self-similarity regime with self-similarity parameter H varies between 0.55 and 0.91 for time lags longer than the decorrelation time. The power law tail in the rank function, slowly decaying tail of the autocorrelation function, and 1/f behavior of the power spectra of the fluctuations are consistent with the fact that SOC plays a conclusive role in the transformation of MADL from the stable to turbulent regime. Since the existence of SOC gives a measure of complexity in the system, the result provides the condition under which complexity arises in cold plasma.

  4. Colloidal stability of CeO2 nanoparticles coated with either natural organic matter or organic polymers under various hydrochemical conditions

    Dippon, Urs; Pabst, Silke; Klitzke, Sondra

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide marked for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) is growing and concerns on the environmental fate- and toxicity of ENPs are rising. Understanding the transport of ENPs within and between environmental compartments such as surface water and groundwater is crucial for exposition modeling, risk assessment and ultimately the protection of drinking water resources. The transport of ENPs is strongly influenced by the surface properties and aggregation behavior of the particles, which is strongly controlled by synthetic and natural organic coatings. Both, surface properties and aggregation characteristics are also key properties for the industrial application of ENPs, which leads to the development and commercialization of an increasing number of surface-functionalized ENPs. These include metals and oxides such as Cerium dioxide (CeO2) with various organic coatings. Therefore, we investigate CeO2 ENPs with different surface coatings such as weakly anionic polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or strongly anionic poly acrylic acid (PAA) with respect to their colloidal stability in aqueous matrix under various hydrochemical conditions (pH, ionic strength) and their transport behavior in sand filter columns. Furthermore, we investigate the interaction of naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) with CeO2 ENPs and its effect on surface charge (zeta potential), colloidal stability and transport. While uncoated CeO2 ENPs aggregate at pH > 4 in aqueous matrix, our results show that PAA and PVA surface coatings as well as NOM sorbed to CeO2-NP surfaces can stabilize CeO2 ENPs under neutral and alkaline pH conditions in 1 mM KCl solution. Under slightly acidic conditions, differences between the three particle types were observed. PVA can stabilize particle suspensions in presence of 1 mM KCl at pH > 4.3, PAA at pH >4.0 and NOM at >3.2. While the presence of KCl did not influence particle size of NOM-CeO2 ENPs, CaCl2 at >2 mM lead to aggregation. Further results on the influence of KCl

  5. Low Temperature Powder Coating

    2011-02-09

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) • Legacy primers contain hexavalent chrome • Conventional powder coatings...coatings both in laboratory and field service evaluations • LTCPC allows environmental cost reductions through VOC/HAP elimination and hexavalent ... chrome reduction. • The LTCPC process greatly shortens the coating operation (LTCPC cures much more rapidly then conventional wet coatings) resulting in

  6. Natural organic UV-absorbent coatings based on cellulose and lignin: designed effects on spectroscopic properties.

    Hambardzumyan, Arayik; Foulon, Laurence; Chabbert, Brigitte; Aguié-Béghin, Véronique

    2012-12-10

    Novel nanocomposite coatings composed of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and lignin (either synthetic or fractionated from spruce and corn stalks) were prepared without chemical modification or functionalization (via covalent attachment) of one of the two biopolymers. The spectroscopic properties of these coatings were investigated by UV-visible spectrophotometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry. When using the appropriate weight ratio of CNC/lignin (R), these nanocomposite systems exhibited high-performance optical properties, high transmittance in the visible spectrum, and high blocking in the UV spectrum. Atomic force microscopy analysis demonstrated that these coatings were smooth and homogeneous, with visible dispersed lignin nodules in a cellulosic matrix. It was also demonstrated that the introduction of nanoparticles into the medium increases the weight ratio and the CNC-specific surface area, which allows better dispersion of the lignin molecules throughout the solid film. Consequently, the larger molecular expansion of these aromatic polymers on the surface of the cellulosic nanoparticles dislocates the π-π aromatic aggregates, which increases the extinction coefficient and decreases the transmittance in the UV region. These nanocomposite coatings were optically transparent at visible wavelengths.

  7. Zirconia-doped nanoparticles: organic coating, polymeric entrapment and application as dual-imaging agents

    Rebuttini, Valentina; Pucci, Andrea; Arosio, Paolo; Bai, Xue; Locatelli, Erica; Pinna, Nicola; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Franchini, Mauro Comes

    2013-01-01

    Zirconia nanoparticles doped with Eu3+, Tb3+ and Gd3+ ions have been synthesized following the benzyl alcohol route. The nanoparticles were coated with N-hydroxydodecanamide and encapsulated in PLGA-b-PEG-COOH nanomicelles. The magnetic and fluorescent properties of these hybrid nanocarriers were investigated, proving them to be potential dual-imaging contrast agents.

  8. Organic transistors fabricated by contact coating at liquid-solid interface for nano-structures

    Yu-Wen Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A contact coating method is developed to cover the nano-channels with 100 nm or 200 nm diameter and 400 nm depth with a poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP. In such coating the nano-channels faces downwards and its vertical position is controlled by a motor. The surface is first lowered to be in immediate contact with the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPY water solution with concentration from 1 to 5 wt%, then pulled at the speed of 0.004 to 0.4 mm/s. By tuning the pulling speed and concentration we can realize conformal, filled, top-only, as well as floating film morphology. For a reproducible liquid detachment from the solid, the sample has a small tilt angle of 3 degree. Contact coating is used to cover the Al grid base of the vertical space-charge-limited transistor with PVPY. Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT as the semiconductor. The transistor breakdown voltage is raised due to base coverage achieved by contact coating.

  9. Magnetic materials based on manganese–zinc ferrite with surface organized polyaniline coating

    Kazantseva, N. E.; Bespyatykh, Y.; Sapurina, I.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Vilčáková, J.; Sáha, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 301, č. 1 (2006), s. 155-165 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4050313 Keywords : ferrite * coated particles * conducting polymer Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.212, year: 2006

  10. Preparation and surface characterization of novel epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings

    Špírková, Milena; Brus, Jiří; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav; Kotek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2005), s. 237-242 ISSN 1476-4865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Grant - others:European Union(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00306 Keywords : coatings * sol-gel process * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.393, year: 2005

  11. High mobility organic field-effect transistor based on water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid via spray coating

    Shi, Wei; Han, Shijiao; Huang, Wei; Yu, Junsheng, E-mail: jsyu@uestc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China (UESTC), Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2015-01-26

    High mobility organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) by inserting water-soluble deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) buffer layer between electrodes and pentacene film through spray coating process were fabricated. Compared with the OFETs incorporated with DNA in the conventional organic solvents of ethanol and methanol: water mixture, the water-soluble DNA based OFET exhibited an over four folds enhancement of field-effect mobility from 0.035 to 0.153 cm{sup 2}/Vs. By characterizing the surface morphology and the crystalline structure of pentacene active layer through atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction, it was found that the adoption of water solvent in DNA solution, which played a key role in enhancing the field-effect mobility, was ascribed to both the elimination of the irreversible organic solvent-induced bulk-like phase transition of pentacene film and the diminution of a majority of charge trapping at interfaces in OFETs.

  12. The role of surface chemistry at ceramic/electrolyte intefaces in the generation of pulsed corona discharges in water using porous ceramic-coated rod electrodes

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2009), s. 719-728 ISSN 1612-8850 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : non-thermal plasma * electrical discharge * water * surface chemistry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.037, year: 2009 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/122593644/PDFSTART

  13. Poly(methyl methacrylate) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes for volatile organic compound discrimination

    Muangrat, Worawut; Chodjarusawad, Thanawee; Maolanon, Rungroj; Pratontep, Sirapat; Porntheeraphat, Supanit; Wongwiriyapan, Winadda

    2016-02-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and thiophene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were fabricated for use in volatile organic compound (VOC) detection. Pristine SWNTs were separately coated with PMMA (PMMA/SWNTs) and thiophene (thiophene/SWNTs) by spin-coating. Pristine SWNTs showed the highest response to methanol, while PMMA/SWNTs enabled 5.4-fold improved dichloromethane detection and thiophene/SWNTs enabled 1.4-fold improved acetone detection compared with pristine SWNTs. The sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and that of thiophene/SWNTs to acetone can be attributed to the Hildebrand solubility parameter (HSP). The more similar the HSP, the higher the sensor response. The sensor response of pristine SWNTs to methanol is related to the diffusion coefficient and molecular size. The relationships between the vapor concentration and sensor response of PMMA/SWNTs to dichloromethane and thiophene/SWNTs to acetone are based on Henry’s adsorption isotherm, while that of pristine SWNTs to methanol is based on the Henry-clustering model. Principal component analysis (PCA) results show that dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol were successfully discriminated.

  14. Effect of pre-drying treatments on solution-coated organic thin films for active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes

    Shin, Dongkyun; Hong, Ki-Young; Park, Jongwoon

    2017-12-01

    Due to capillary rise, organic thin films fabricated by solution coating exhibit the concave thickness profile. It is found that the thickness and emission uniformities within pixels vary depending sensitively on the pre-drying treatment that has been done before hard bake. We investigate its effect on the film quality by varying the temperature, time, pressure, fluid flow-related solute concentration, and evaporation-related solvent. To this end, we carry out spin coatings of a non-aqueous poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) for a hole transporting blanket layer. With a low-boiling-point (BP) organic solvent, the pre-drying makes no significant impact on the thickness profiles. With a high-BP organic solvent, the PVK films pre-dried in a vacuum for a sufficient time exhibit very uniform light emission in the central region, but non-emission phenomenon near the perimeter of pixels. It is addressed that such a non-emission phenomenon can be suppressed to some extent by decreasing the vacuum pressure. However, the rapid evaporation by heat conduction during the pre-drying degrades the thickness uniformity due to a rapid microflow of solute from the edge to the center. No further enhancement in the thickness uniformity is obtained by varying the solute concentration and using a mixture of low- and high-BP solvents.

  15. Ambient fabrication of flexible and large-area organic light-emitting devices using slot-die coating

    Sandstrom, Andreas; Dam, Henrik Friis; Krebs, Frederik C

    2012-01-01

    available in smartphones, but the promise of a continuous ambient fabrication has unfortunately not materialized yet, as organic light-emitting diodes invariably depend on the use of one or more time-and energy-consuming process steps under vacuum. Here we report an all-solution-based fabrication...... of an alternative emissive device, a light-emitting electrochemical cell, using a slot-die roll-coating apparatus. The fabricated flexible sheets exhibit bidirectional and uniform light emission, and feature a fault-tolerant >1-mu m-thick active material that is doped in situ during operation. It is notable...

  16. Radiological discharges

    Woodliffe, J.

    1990-01-01

    Current practice of North Sea States on the discharge and disposal of liquid radioactive wastes to the North Sea are based on the declaration issued at the Second International Conference on the Protection of the North Sea, known as the London Declaration. This has three main points the first of which emphasises the application of the Best Available Technology to protect the North Sea, the second provides a framework on which future controls on radioactive discharges should be based. The third identifies two parts of the framework; to take into account the recommendations of international organizations and that any repositories of radioactive waste which are built should not pollute the North Sea. This chapter looks at how the concensus based on the London Declaration is working, gauges the progress made in the implementation of the policy goal, identifies existing and future areas for concern and proposes ways of strengthening the control of radioactive discharges. The emphasis is on the United Kingdom practice and regulations for liquid wastes, most of which comes from the Sellafield Reprocessing Plant. (author)

  17. Nipple Discharge

    ... any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation. One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your ...

  18. Thermal acclimation and thyroxine treatment modify the electric organ discharge frequency in an electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Dunlap, K D; Ragazzi, M A

    2015-11-01

    In ectotherms, the rate of many neural processes is determined externally, by the influence of the thermal environment on body temperature, and internally, by hormones secreted from the thyroid gland. Through thermal acclimation, animals can buffer the influence of the thermal environment by adjusting their physiology to stabilize certain processes in the face of environmental temperature change. The electric organ discharge (EOD) used by weak electric fish for electrocommunication and electrolocation is highly temperature sensitive. In some temperate species that naturally experience large seasonal fluctuations in environmental temperature, the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of the EOD shifts after long-term temperature change. We examined thermal acclimation of EOD frequency in a tropical electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus that naturally experiences much less temperature change. We transferred fish between thermal environments (25.3 and 27.8 °C) and measured EOD frequency and its thermal sensitivity (Q10) over 11 d. After 6d, fish exhibited thermal acclimation to both warming and cooling, adjusting the thermal dependence of EOD frequency to partially compensate for the small change (2.5 °C) in water temperature. In addition, we evaluated the thyroid influence on EOD frequency by treating fish with thyroxine or the anti-thyroid compound propylthiouricil (PTU) to stimulate or inhibit thyroid activity, respectively. Thyroxine treatment significantly increased EOD frequency, but PTU had no effect. Neither thyroxine nor PTU treatment influenced the thermal sensitivity (Q10) of EOD frequency during acute temperature change. Thus, the EOD of Apteronotus shows significant thermal acclimation and responds to elevated thyroxine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The active electric sense of weakly electric fish: from electric organ discharge to sensory processing and behaviour

    Krahe Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory systems have been shaped by evolution to extract information that is relevant for decision making. In order to understand the mechanisms used by sensory systems for filtering the incoming stream of sensory input, it is important to have a quantitative understanding of the natural sensory scenes that are to be processed. Weakly electric fish lead a rather cryptic nocturnal life in often turbid tropical rainforest streams. They produce electric discharges and sense perturbations of their selfgenerated electric field for prey detection and navigation, and also use their active sense for communication in the context of courtship and aggression. The fact that they produce their electric signals throughout day and night permits the use of electrode arrays to track the movements of multiple individual fish and monitor their communication interactions, thus offering a window into their electrosensory world. This approach yields unprecedented access to information on the biology of these fishes and also on the statistical properties of the sensory scenes that are to be processed by their electrosensory system. The electrosensory system shares many organizational features with other sensory systems, in particular, the use of multiple topographic maps. In fact, the sensory surface (the skin is represented in three parallel maps in the hindbrain, with each map covering the receptor organ array with six different cell types that project to the next higher level of processing. Thus, the electroreceptive body surface is represented a total of 18 times in the hindbrain, with each representation having its specific filter properties and degree of response plasticity. Thus, the access to the sensory world of these fish as well as the manifold filtering of the sensory input makes these fish an excellent model system for exploring the cell-intrinsic and network characteristics underlying the extraction of behaviourally relevant sensory information.

  20. Inorganic-Organic Thiol-ene Coated Mesh for Oil/Water Separation.

    Chen, Qiyi; de Leon, Al; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2015-08-26

    A highly efficient mesh for oil/water separation was fabricated by using a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic coating of thiol-ene hybrid, consisting of pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (PETMP), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8-tetravinylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVSi), and hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles, via a simple two-step fabrication process. Spray deposition and UV curing photopolymerization were sequentially performed, during which solvent evaporation provides microscale roughness while nanoparticle aggregation forms nanoscale roughness. The hierarchical morphologies were stabilized after UV curing photopolymerization. High contact angle (>150°) and low roll-off angle (<5°) were achieved due to the multiscale roughness structure of the hierarchical morphologies. These coatings also have excellent chemical resistance, as well as temperature and pH stability, after curing.

  1. Corrosion Control Through a Better Understanding of the Metallic Substrate/Organic Coating/Interface.

    1981-11-01

    and the cyclohexane over molecular sieves, -79- pm NO pAalB hION fl i4a and then measuring the ppm of water in the cyclohexane using the Karl Fischer ... potentiometric titration using a method outlined by Bell [J. Polymer Sci. 8, 417-36 (1970)]. The procedure for epoxy groups involves the re- action with...with time, earliest stages of coating delamination, and secondary processes that occur was obtained by time lapse photography. Electrical methods are

  2. Influence of crosslinker structure on performance of functionalised organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel coating

    Vasiljević, J.; Zorko, M.; Štular, D.; Tomšič, B.; Jerman, I.; Orel, B.; Medved, J.; Simončič, B.

    2017-10-01

    This research aimed to investigate the influence of the co-condensation of the three different organofunctional trialkoxysilane precursors with two different crosslinkers, i.e. tetraethoxysilane or organocyclotetrasiloxane on the performance and the washing fastness of this multicomponent multifunctional sol-gel coating on cellulose fibres. To this aim, a three-component equimolar sol mixture (MC), which included 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (SiF), 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (SiQ) and P,P-diphenyl-N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) phosphinic amide (SiP) in combination with two different concentrations of TEOS (T and 3T) or organocyclotetrasiloxane 2,4,6,8-tetrakis(2-(diethoxy(methyl)silyl)ethyl)-2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-cyclotetrasiloxane (T4) as crosslinkers, was applied to the cotton fibres by a pad-dry-cure process. The functional properties of the coated samples before and after repeated washing were investigated by the water θ (W) and n-hexadecane θ (C16) static contact angle as well as water sliding (roll-off) (α) angle measurements. The inclusion of both TEOS and T4 into the MC sol increased the hydrophobic affect and simultaneously decreased the oleophobic effect of the MC coating. These phenomena were more pronounced for higher concentration of TEOS and T4 crosslinker. The inclusion of T4 into the MC sol improved the coating washing fastness to a significantly higher extent than the inclusion of TEOS, with respect to the applied concentrations.

  3. Study of organic ablative thermal-protection coating for solid rocket motor

    Hua, Zenggong

    1992-06-01

    A study is conducted to find a new interior thermal-protection material that possesses good thermal-protection performance and simple manufacturing possibilities. Quartz powder and Cr2O3 are investigated using epoxy resin as a binder and Al2O3 as the burning inhibitor. Results indicate that the developed thermal-protection coating is suitable as ablative insulation material for solid rocket motors.

  4. Functionalization of a Hydrophilic Commercial Membrane Using Inorganic-Organic Polymers Coatings for Membrane Distillation

    Lies Eykens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermal separation technique using a microporous hydrophobic membrane. One of the concerns with respect to the industrialization of the technique is the development of novel membranes. In this paper, a commercially available hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane with a suitable structure for membrane distillation was modified using available hydrophobic coatings using ORMOCER® technology to obtain a hydrophobic membrane that can be applied in membrane distillation. The surface modification was performed using a selection of different components, concentrations, and application methods. The resulting membranes can have two hydrophobic surfaces or a hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface depending on the application method. An extensive characterization procedure confirmed the suitability of the coating technique and the obtained membranes for membrane distillation. The surface contact angle of water could be increased from 27° up to 110°, and fluxes comparable to membranes commonly used for membrane distillation were achieved under similar process conditions. A 100 h test demonstrated the stability of the coating and the importance of using sufficiently stable base membranes.

  5. The selective flow of volatile organic compounds in conductive polymer-coated microchannels

    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz; Hooshyar Zare, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Many gaseous markers of critical biological, physicochemical, or industrial occurrences are masked by the cross-sensitivity of the sensors to the other active components present at higher concentrations. Here, we report the strongly selective diffusion and drift of contaminant molecules in air-filled conductive polymer-coated microfluidic channels for the first time. Monitoring the passage of different target molecules through microchannels coated with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) revealed that contaminants such as hexane, benzene, and CO pass through the channel unaffected by the coating while methanol, ethanol, and partly acetone are blocked. The observations are explained with reference to the selective interactions between the conductive polymer surface and target gas molecules amplified by the large wall/volume ratio in microchannels. The accumulated quantitative data point at the hydrogen bonding as the mechanism of wall adsorption; dipole-dipole interactions are relatively insignificant. The presented model facilitates a better understanding of how the conductive polymer-based chemical sensors operate.

  6. Discharge modulates stream metabolism dependence on fine particulate organic carbon in a Mediterranean WWTP-influenced stream

    Drummond, J. D.; Bernal, S.; Meredith, W.; Schumer, R.; Martí Roca, E.

    2017-12-01

    Waste water treatment plant (WWTP) effluents constitute point source inputs of fine sediment, nutrients, carbon, and microbes to stream ecosystems. A range of responses to these inputs may be observed in recipient streams, including increases in respiration rates, which augment CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Yet, little is known about which fractions of organic carbon (OC) contribute the most to stream metabolism in WWTP-influenced streams. Fine particulate OC (POC) represents ca. 40% of the total mass of OC in river networks, and is generally more labile than dissolved OC. Therefore, POC inputs from WWTPs could contribute disproportionately to higher rates of heterotrophic metabolism by stream microbial communities. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of POC inputs from a WWTP effluent on the metabolism of a Mediterranean stream over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. We hypothesized that POC inputs would have a positive effect on respiration rates, and that the response to POC availability would be larger during low flows when the dilution capacity of the recipient stream is negligible. We focused on the easily resuspended fine sediment near the sediment-water interface (top 3 cm), as this region is a known hot spot for biogeochemical processes. For one year, samples of resuspended sediment were collected bimonthly at 7 sites from 0 to 800 m downstream of the WWTP point source. We measured total POC, organic matter (OM) content (%), and the associated metabolic activity of the resuspended sediment using the resazurin-resorufin smart tracer system as a proxy for aerobic ecosystem respiration. Resuspended sediment showed no difference in total POC over the year, while the OM content increased with decreasing discharge. This result together with the decreasing trend of total POC observed downstream of the point source during autumn after a long dry period, suggests that the WWTP effluent was the main contributor to stream POC. Furthermore

  7. The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of Lithium-sulfur cell containing various organic electrolytes

    Kim, Seok; Jung, Yongju; Lim, Hong S.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of solvent component on the discharge performance of lithium-sulfur (Li/S) cell and the optimal composition of ternary electrolyte for the improved discharge performance of the cell have been investigated. The capacity value and capacity stability with cycle are dependent on the nature of solvent as well as the composition of mixed solvent. The change trend of discharge performance as a function of content of each solvent component is studied. Capacity value increases as the 1,3-dioxolane (DOX) content decreases. Average discharge voltage shows larger value when the 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) content is small. Finally, we have obtained the optimal solvent composition by using a statistical method

  8. Eco-friendly spray coating of organic solar cells through water-based nanoparticles ink (Presentation Recording)

    Stryckers, Jeroen; D'Olieslaeger, Lien; Manca, Jean; Ethirajan, Anitha; Deferme, Wim

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonic spray coating is currently proven to be a reliable, flexible and cost efficient fabrication method for printed electronics [1-2]. Ultrasonic nozzles are by design especially well-suited to deposit nano-suspension dispersions. Due to the ultrasonic vibration of the nozzle, droplets having a median diameter of 20 μm are created in a homogeneous droplet cloud and directed towards the substrate. When one prepares an ink having the right wetting properties, thin and homogeneous layers, fully covering the surface, can be achieved. Together with conjugated polymer nanoparticles (NPs), emerging as a new class of nanomaterials, [3] it opens possibilities towards eco-friendly roll-to-roll processing of state-of-the-art organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. A ultrasonic spray coater was used to print the conjugated polymer NP layers under different conditions. A first optimization of the spray coater settings (flow rate, spray speed and temperature) and the ink formulation (water and co-solvent mixture and NP content) was performed for polystyrene particles dissolved in a water-ethanol mixture. As a next step, the low bandgap donor polymer poly[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophene-diyl] (PCDTBT) [4] and the fullerene acceptor phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM[70]) were combined in a water-based blend NP dispersion which was prepared using the mini-emulsion technique. [5,6] Optical Microscopy, profilometry and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) are performed to study the roughness, surface structure, thickness and coverage of the spray coated layers. Finally the printed NP layers are integrated in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells and compared to spin coated reference devices.

  9. Predicting the optimal process window for the coating of single-crystalline organic films with mobilities exceeding 7 cm2/Vs.

    Janneck, Robby; Vercesi, Federico; Heremans, Paul; Genoe, Jan; Rolin, Cedric

    2016-09-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on single crystalline thin films of organic semiconductors have seen considerable development in the recent years. The most successful method for the fabrication of single crystalline films are solution-based meniscus guided coating techniques such as dip-coating, solution shearing or zone casting. These upscalable methods enable rapid and efficient film formation without additional processing steps. The single-crystalline film quality is strongly dependent on solvent choice, substrate temperature and coating speed. So far, however, process optimization has been conducted by trial and error methods, involving, for example, the variation of coating speeds over several orders of magnitude. Through a systematic study of solvent phase change dynamics in the meniscus region, we develop a theoretical framework that links the optimal coating speed to the solvent choice and the substrate temperature. In this way, we can accurately predict an optimal processing window, enabling fast process optimization. Our approach is verified through systematic OTFT fabrication based on films grown with different semiconductors, solvents and substrate temperatures. The use of best predicted coating speeds delivers state of the art devices. In the case of C8BTBT, OTFTs show well-behaved characteristics with mobilities up to 7 cm2/Vs and onset voltages close to 0 V. Our approach also explains well optimal recipes published in the literature. This route considerably accelerates parameter screening for all meniscus guided coating techniques and unveils the physics of single crystalline film formation.

  10. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  11. Seasonal Changes in Estuarine Dissolved Organic Matter Due to Variations in Discharge, Flushing Times and Wind-driven Mixing Events

    Dixon, Jennifer Louise

    Estuaries are highly productive habitats that transport and transform organic matter (OM), experience large changes in ionic composition and act as a transition zone between terrestrial and marine environments (Paerl et al. 1998; Markager et al. 2011; Osburn et al. 2012). OM source and matrix effects (such as salinity and pH) influence the chemical structure of DOM in estuaries and therefore affect its bioavailability, photo-reactivity, and its overall fate in these systems (Jaffe et al. 2004; Boyd et al. 2010; Pace et al. 2012; Osburn et al. 2012; Cawley et al. 2013). Within estuaries, dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a heterogeneous mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, and its composition in aquatic systems varies spatially and temporally with source (Bauer and Bianchi 2011). However, the main source of DOM in estuaries, rivers and other aquatic systems, originates from vascular plant detritus, soil humus, older fossil (i.e., petrogenic) organic carbon, black carbon, marine OM and in situ production (Hedges 2002; Houghton 2007; Bauer and Bianchi 2011). Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), the light absorbing fraction of DOM, can be characterized using optical methods such as absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy (e.g. Coble, 1996; Stedmon and Markager, 2003). By analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of DOM and CDOM within estuaries, information pertaining to OM source and fate across the freshwater-marine continuum can be obtained. These methods offer an inexpensive, non-destructive means for obtaining sensitive measurements of a diverse group of organic compounds. By using this technology to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of CDOM within estuaries, information pertaining to OM source and fate across the freshwater-marine continuum can be obtained (Fellman et al. 2011; Osburn et al. 2012; Murphy et al. 2014). Chemical biomarkers are also routinely used to identify DOM sources in coastal waters. Examples are carbon stable

  12. Influence of oxygen gas on characteristics of self-organized luminous pattern formation observed in an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode

    Shirai, Naoki; Uchida, Satoshi; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Self-organized luminous pattern formation is observed in the liquid surface of an atmospheric dc glow discharge using a liquid electrode with a miniature helium flow. The factors affecting pattern formation are the gap length, discharge current, helium mass flow rate and polarity. The pattern shape depends on the conductivity and temperature of the liquid electrode. A variety of patterns were observed by changing the conductivity and temperature of the liquid. We clarified that the self-organized pattern formation depends on the amount of electronegative gas, such as oxygen, in the gas in the electrode gap. When an oxygen gas flow was fed to the liquid surface from the outside in an obliquely downward direction, namely, the amount of oxygen gas on the liquid surface was increased locally, self-organized pattern formation was observed in the region with the increased amount of oxygen gas. When the amount of oxygen in the gas in the gap was changed by using a sheath flow system, the appearance of the pattern changed. The presence of oxygen gas strongly affected the self-organized pattern formation of the atmospheric dc discharge using a liquid anode. (paper)

  13. Mesoporous carbon-zirconium oxide nanocomposite derived from carbonized metal organic framework: A coating for solid-phase microextraction.

    Saraji, Mohammad; Mehrafza, Narges

    2016-08-19

    In this paper, a mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a stainless steel wire for the first time and used as the solid-phase microextraction coating. The fiber was synthesized with the direct carbonization of a Zr-based metal organic framework. With the utilization of the metal organic framework as the precursor, no additional carbon source was used for the synthesis of the mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite coating. The fiber was applied for the determination of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m, p-xylenes) in different water samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Such important experimental factors as synthesis time and temperature, salt concentration, equilibrium and extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time and desorption temperature were studied and optimized. Good linearity in the concentration range of 0.2-200μgL(-1) and detection limits in the range of 0.05-0.56μgL(-1) was achieved for BTEX compounds. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.5-4.8% and 4.9-6.7%, respectively. The prepared fiber showed high capability for the analysis of BTEX compounds in different water and wastewater samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 93-107%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Electric organ discharge diversification in mormyrid weakly electric fish is associated with differential expression of voltage-gated ion channel genes.

    Nagel, Rebecca; Kirschbaum, Frank; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    In mormyrid weakly electric fish, the electric organ discharge (EOD) is used for species recognition, orientation and prey localization. Produced in the muscle-derived adult electric organ, the EOD exhibits a wide diversity across species in both waveform and duration. While certain defining EOD characteristics can be linked to anatomical features of the electric organ, many factors underlying EOD differentiation are yet unknown. Here, we report the differential expression of 13 Kv1 voltage-gated potassium channel genes, two inwardly rectifying potassium channel genes, two previously studied sodium channel genes and an ATPase pump in two sympatric species of the genus Campylomormyrus in both the adult electric organ and skeletal muscle. Campylomormyrus compressirostris displays a basal EOD, largely unchanged during development, while C. tshokwe has an elongated, putatively derived discharge. We report an upregulation in all Kv1 genes in the electric organ of Campylomormyrus tshokwe when compared to both skeletal muscle and C. compressirostris electric organ. This pattern of upregulation in a species with a derived EOD form suggests that voltage-gated potassium channels are potentially involved in the diversification of the EOD signal among mormyrid weakly electric fish.

  15. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Zhang Zhuomin; Wang Qingtang; Li Gongke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. ► NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. ► NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7–4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient analytical method for the potential study of trace and small molecular

  16. Fabrication of novel nanoporous array anodic alumina solid-phase microextraction fiber coating and its potential application for headspace sampling of biological volatile organic compounds

    Zhang Zhuomin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang Qingtang [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Li Gongke, E-mail: cesgkl@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2012-05-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) SPME coating was originally prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating achieved excellent enrichment capability and selectivity for VOCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NAAA SPME coating can be applied for the headspace sampling of biological VOCs. - Abstract: In the study, nanoporous array anodic alumina (NAAA) prepared by a simple, rapid and stable two-step anodic oxidization method was introduced as a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The regular nanoporous array structure and chemical composition of NAAA SPME fiber coating was characterized and validated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy, respectively. Compared with the commercial polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SPME fiber coating, NAAA SPME fiber coating achieved the higher enrichment capability (1.7-4.7 folds) for the mixed standards of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The selectivity for volatile alcohols by NAAA SPME fiber coating demonstrated an increasing trend with the increasing polarity of alcohols caused by the gradually shortening carbon chains from 1-undecanol to 1-heptanol or the isomerization of carbon chains of some typical volatile alcohols including 2-ethyl hexanol, 1-octanol, 2-phenylethanol, 1-phenylethanol, 5-undecanol, 2-undecanol and 1-undecanol. Finally, NAAA SPME fiber coating was originally applied for the analysis of biological VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection. Thirty, twenty-seven and forty-four VOCs of Bailan flower, stinkbug and orange peel samples were sampled and identified, respectively. Moreover, the contents of trace 1-octanol and nonanal of real orange peel samples were quantified for the further method validation with satisfactory recoveries of 106.5 and 120.5%, respectively. This work proposed a sensitive, rapid, reliable and convenient

  17. Residual stress, mechanical and microstructure properties of multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN coating produced by R.F Magnetron discharge

    Bouaouina, B., E-mail: b.bouaouina@gmail.com [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Besnard, A. [Arts et Metiers ParisTech—LaBoMaP, 71250 Cluny (France); Abaidia, S.E. [Department of physic, research unite UR-MPE, Boumerdes University 35000 (Algeria); Haid, F. [CDTA, Plasma discharges Group, Baba hassen, Algers (Algeria)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Depositing of crystallized molybdenum nitride and chromium nitride multilayer at room temperature. • Correlation between stress measurement and the shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N. • Studied the effect of the bi-layer thickness on the mechanical properties. - Abstract: We have investigated the effect of the period thickness of the multilayer Mo{sub 2}N/CrN deposited on Si substrate produced by reactive magnetron sputtering. Mo{sub 2}N presents a face centered cubic structure and CrN an orthorhombic one. The residual stress of the coatings was determined by the measurement of the substrate curvature. The microstructure of the multilayer was investigated from the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (cross section images). The residual stresses resulting from the deposition of the different bi-layer thickness were measured and correlated to the structural properties of the coating as well as the nanoindentation analysis of the coating. The stresses are compressive and tensile for the individual Mo{sub 2}N and CrN layer respectively. The result shows that an increase of the multilayer coatings Mo{sub 2}N/CrN thicknesses induce an increase of the hardness and the elastic modulus, in the other hand the tensile stress increases. The shift of the XRD diffraction peak (1 1 1) of Mo{sub 2}N at high angle which means the reduction of the residual stress is in good agreement with the residual stresses measurements.

  18. Novel conformal organic antireflective coatings for advanced I-line lithography

    Deshpande, Shreeram V.; Nowak, Kelly A.; Fowler, Shelly; Williams, Paul; Arjona, Mikko

    2001-08-01

    Flash memory chips are playing a critical role in semiconductor devices due to increased popularity of hand held electronic communication devices such as cell phones and PDAs (personal Digital Assistants). Flash memory offers two primary advantages in semiconductor devices. First, it offers flexibility of in-circuit programming capability to reduce the loss from programming errors and to significantly reduce commercialization time to market for new devices. Second, flash memory has a double density memory capability through stacked gate structures which increases the memory capability and thus saves significantly on chip real estate. However, due to stacked gate structures the requirements for manufacturing of flash memory devices are significantly different from traditional memory devices. Stacked gate structures also offer unique challenges to lithographic patterning materials such as Bottom Anti-Reflective Coating (BARC) compositions used to achieve CD control and to minimize standing wave effect in photolithography. To be applicable in flash memory manufacturing a BARC should form a conformal coating on high topography of stacked gate features as well as provide the normal anti-reflection properties for CD control. In this paper we report on a new highly conformal advanced i-line BARC for use in design and manufacture of flash memory devices. Conformal BARCs being significantly thinner in trenches than the planarizing BARCs offer the advantage of reducing BARC overetch and thus minimizing resist thickness loss.

  19. Improving Mechanical Properties of Thermoset Biocomposites by Fiber Coating or Organic Oil Addition

    Truc T. Ngo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different thermoset biocomposite systems are experimented in this study with the hope to improve their mechanical properties. Fiberglass and hemp, in form of fabrics, are used to reinforce the thermoset polymer matrix, which includes a traditional epoxy resin and a linseed oil-based bioresin (UVL. The fiber/polymer matrix interface is modified using two different approaches: adding a plant-based oil (pine or linseed to the polymer matrix or coating the fibers with 3-(aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES prior to integrating them into the polymer matrix. Epoxy resin is cured using an amine-based initiator, whereas UVL resin is cured under ultraviolet light. Results show that hemp fibers with APTES prime coat used in either epoxy or UVL matrix exhibit some potential improvements in the composite’s mechanical properties including tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, and ductility. It is also found that adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with fiberglass mostly improves the material’s modulus of elasticity while maintaining its tensile strength and ductility. However, adding oil to the epoxy matrix reinforced with hemp doubles the material’s ductility while slightly reducing its tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.

  20. Enhancement of ZnO nanorod arrays-based inverted type hybrid organic solar cell using spin-coated Eosin-Y

    Lim, Eng Liang; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Salleh, Muhamad Mat

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of Eosin-Y coating concentration on the performance of inverted type hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). The Eosin-Y solution with concentrations of 0.05, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0 mM was spin-coated onto the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The P3HT film was then spin-coated onto Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays, followed by deposition of silver (Ag) as anode using magnetron sputtering technique. The short circuit current density increased with the Eosin-Y coating concentration up to 0.2 mM, after which it started to decrease, mainly due to the aggregation of Eosin-Y which reduced the charge extraction from P3HT to ZnO. Meanwhile, the open circuit voltage increased with the Eosin-Y coating concentration, indicating reduced back charge recombination of electron on the ZnO and hole on the P3HT, as well as reduced leakage current through the direct contact between the ZnO nanorods and the Ag metal contact. The power conversion efficiency of the device with the optimum coating concentration was approximately eight times higher than that without Eosin-Y modification. (paper)

  1. Enhancement of ZnO nanorod arrays-based inverted type hybrid organic solar cell using spin-coated Eosin-Y

    Lim, Eng Liang; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad; Mat Salleh, Muhamad

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the effect of Eosin-Y coating concentration on the performance of inverted type hybrid organic solar cell based on ZnO nanorod arrays and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT). The Eosin-Y solution with concentrations of 0.05, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0 mM was spin-coated onto the ZnO nanorod arrays grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate. The P3HT film was then spin-coated onto Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays, followed by deposition of silver (Ag) as anode using magnetron sputtering technique. The short circuit current density increased with the Eosin-Y coating concentration up to 0.2 mM, after which it started to decrease, mainly due to the aggregation of Eosin-Y which reduced the charge extraction from P3HT to ZnO. Meanwhile, the open circuit voltage increased with the Eosin-Y coating concentration, indicating reduced back charge recombination of electron on the ZnO and hole on the P3HT, as well as reduced leakage current through the direct contact between the ZnO nanorods and the Ag metal contact. The power conversion efficiency of the device with the optimum coating concentration was approximately eight times higher than that without Eosin-Y modification.

  2. Bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles to cucumber in soil with or without organic matter.

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Fotovat, Amir; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Karimzadeh, F; Khazaei, Hamid Reza; Khorassani, Reza

    2017-10-01

    There is a gap of knowledge for the fate, effects and bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in soil. Moreover, little is known about the effects of soil properties on effects of NPs on plants. In this study, the availability ZnO NPs in two soils with different organic matter content (one treated with cow manure (CM) and the other as untreated) was compared with their bulk particles. Results showed that coated and uncoated ZnO NPs can be more bioaccessible than their bulk counterpart and despite their more positive effects at low concentration (soil untreated with CM. The concentration of 1000mgkg -1 of ZnO NPs, decreased shoot dry biomass (52%) in the soil untreated with CM but increased shoot dry biomass (35%) in CM-treated soil compared to their bulk counterpart. In general, plants in the CM-treated soil showed higher Zn concentration in their tissues compared with those in untreated soil. The difference in shoot Zn concentration between CM-treated and untreated soil for NPs treatments was more than bulk particles treatment. This different percentage at 100mgkg -1 of bulk particles was 20.6% and for coated and uncoated NPs were 37% and 32%, respectively. Generally, the distribution of ZnO among Zn fractions in soil (exchangeable, the metal bound to carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter and silicate minerals and the residual fraction) changed based on applied Zn concentration, Zn source and soil organic matter content. The root tip deformation under high concentration of NPs (1000mgkg -1 treatment ) was observed by light microscopy in plants at the soil untreated with CM. It seems that root tip deformation is one of the specific effects of NPs which in turn inhibits plant growth and nutrients uptake by root. The transmission electron microcopy image showed the aggregation of NPs inside the plant cytoplasm and their accumulation adjacent to the cell membrane. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Microwave Photocatalysis IV: Effects of Additional Operational Parameters on the Microwave Photocatalytic Degradation of Mono-Chloroacetic Acid Using Titania-Coated Mercury Electrodeless Discharge Lamps

    Kmentová, Hana; Církva, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), s. 1109-1113 ISSN 0268-2575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/07/1212; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : microwave photocatalysis * titania thin film * mercury electrodeless discharge lamp Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.494, year: 2013

  4. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Shrivastava, Manish; Lou, Silja; Zelenyuk, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on humans and ecosystems. One of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is efficiently bound to and transported with atmospheric particles. Laboratory measurements show that particle-bound BaP degrades in a few hours by heterogeneous reaction with ozone, yet field observations indicate BaP persists much longer in the atmosphere, and some previous chemical transport modeling studies have ignored heterogeneous oxidation of BaP to bring model predictions into better agreement with field observations. We attribute this unexplained discrepancy to the shielding of BaP from oxidation by coatings of viscous organic aerosol (OA). Accounting for this OA viscosity-dependent shielding, which varies with temperature and humidity, in a global climate/chemistry model brings model predictions into much better agreement with BaP measurements, and demonstrates stronger long-range transport, greater deposition fluxes, and substantially elevated lung cancer risk from PAHs. Model results indicate that the OA coating is more effective in shielding BaP in the middle/high latitudes compared with the tropics because of differences in OA properties (semisolid when cool/dry vs. liquid-like when warm/humid). Faster chemical degradation of BaP in the tropics leads to higher concentrations of BaP oxidation products over the tropics compared with higher latitudes. This study has profound implications demonstrating that OA strongly modulates the atmospheric persistence of PAHs and their cancer risks.

  5. Laser-driven coating of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes with manganese oxide from metal organic precursors for energy storage

    Pérez del Pino, A.; György, E.; Alshaikh, I.; Pantoja-Suárez, F.; Andújar, J. L.; Pascual, E.; Amade, R.; Bertran-Serra, E.

    2017-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes-transition metal oxide systems are intensively studied due to their excellent properties for electrochemical applications. In this work, an innovative procedure is developed for the synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) coated with transition metal oxide nanostructures. VACNTs are grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and coated with a manganese-based metal organic precursor (MOP) film based on manganese acetate solution. Subsequent UV pulsed laser irradiation induces the effective heating-decomposition of the MOP leading to the crystallization of manganese oxide nanostructures on the VACNT surface. The study of the morphology, structure and composition of the synthesized materials shows the formation of randomly oriented MnO2 crystals, with few nanometers in size, and to their alignment in hundreds of nm long filament-like structures, parallel to the CNT’s long axis. Electrochemical measurements reveal a significant increase of the specific capacitance of the MnO2-VACNT system (100 F g-1) as compared to the initial VACNT one (21 F g-1).

  6. Numerical simulation of flow boiling for organic fluid with high saturation temperature in vertical porous coated tube

    Yang Dong, E-mail: dyang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Pan Jie; Wu Yanhua; Chen Tingkuan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Zhou, Chenn Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN 46323 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling in vertical porous tubes. > The model assumes that the nucleate boiling plays an important role. > The present model can predict most of the experimental values within {+-}20%. > The results indicate the nucleate boiling contribution decreases from 50% to 15%. - Abstract: A semi-analytical model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer inside vertical porous coated tubes. The model assumes that the forced convection and nucleate boiling coexist together in the annular flow regime. Conservations of mass, momentum, and energy are used to solve for the liquid film thickness and temperature. The heat flux due to nucleate boiling consists of those inside and outside micro-tunnels. To close the equations, a detailed analysis of various forces acting on the bubble is presented to predict its mean departure diameter. The active nucleation site density of porous layer is determined from the pool boiling correlation by introducing suppression factor. The flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of organic fluid (cumene) with high saturation temperature in a vertical flame-spraying porous coated tube are studied numerically. It is shown that the present model can predict most of the experimental values within {+-}20%. The numerical results also indicate that the nucleate boiling contribution to the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases from 50% to 15% with vapor quality increasing from 0.1 to 0.5.

  7. Response Characterization of a Fiber Optic Sensor Array with Dye-Coated Planar Waveguide for Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Jae-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a multi-array side-polished optical-fiber gas sensor for the detection of volatile organic compound (VOC gases. The side-polished optical-fiber coupled with a polymer planar waveguide (PWG provides high sensitivity to alterations in refractive index. The PWG was fabricated by coating a solvatochromic dye with poly(vinylpyrrolidone. To confirm the effectiveness of the sensor, five different sensing membranes were fabricated by coating the side-polished optical-fiber using the solvatochromic dyes Reinhardt’s dye, Nile red, 4-aminophthalimide, 4-amino-N-methylphthalimide, and 4-(dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde, which have different polarities that cause changes in the effective refractive index of the sensing membrane owing to evanescent field coupling. The fabricated gas detection system was tested with five types of VOC gases, namely acetic acid, benzene, dimethylamine, ethanol, and toluene at concentrations of 1, 2,…,10 ppb. Second-regression and principal component analyses showed that the response properties of the proposed VOC gas sensor were linearly shifted bathochromically, and each gas showed different response characteristics.

  8. Contribution for study on curing of organic coatings in papers, by electron beam

    Taqueda, M.H.S.

    1986-01-01

    The behaviour of national raw material is studied: paper, resins vamishes used on the surface finishing furniture, when subnitted to electron beam curing in an inert atmosphere. The dosimetric control of the irradiation system was made by using CTA films. The minimum cure dose obtained for the EBC 1650/3009 varnish(national polyester) was 2.4 Mrad and of 2.0 Mrad for the EBC 1650/3010 (imported polyester from Germany). The optimun cure dose for both was 3.0 Mrad. The papers impregnated with EBC varnish of with conventional varnish were measured mechanically for resistance in traction and an evaluation of resistance of the finished surfaces with the ebc varnishes was made. The coatings obtained with the EBC varnishes manufactured nationally were compared with the conventional vamishes of thermal cure and with paper samples impregnated and cured in Germany. (author) [pt

  9. Metal-organic framework superhydrophobic coating on Kevlar fabric with efficient drag reduction and wear resistance

    Li, Deke; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-06-01

    Superhydrophobic layers are extremely essential for protecting material surface in various applications. In this study, a stable superhydrophobic mixed matrix surface with a 152.2° contact angle can be fabricated through the technology of layer-by-layer hot-pressing (HoP), and then modified by 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES) on the ZIF-8@Kevlar fabric surface. The morphology and chemical composition were analyzed by the means of SEM, XRD and FTIR. The obtained superhydrophobic coatings showed excellent antiwear performance and drag reduction under desired working conditions. Moreover, we successfully applied superhydrophobic F-ZIF-8@Kevlar fabric in the alcohol adsorbent with high removal capacity, and it can be reused for several times without serious efficiency loss.

  10. Power source for inactivation of micro-organisms with partial high voltage discharge in a continuous process

    Creyghton, Y.; Beurskens, R.; Fiala, A.; Haan, S.W.H. de

    2002-01-01

    An electrical discharge technology is investigated as non-thermal method for inactivation of microorganisms. Potential applications include treatment of drinking water (e.g. legionella) and liquid food pasteurization (e.g. fruit juices). A strong interest exists in mild food conservation processes

  11. 77 FR 17082 - Standards for Living Organisms in Ships' Ballast Water Discharged in U.S. Waters: Final...

    2012-03-23

    ... standard will be used to approve ballast water management methods that are effective in preventing or reducing the introduction of nonindigenous species via discharged ballast water into waters of the United....regulations.gov on or before April 23, 2012 or reach the Docket Management Facility by that date. ADDRESSES...

  12. Fabrication of metal organic framework materials using a layer-by-layer spin coating approach

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shekhah, Osama

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments describe a method of depositing an MOF, including depositing a metal solution onto a substrate, spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the metal solution, depositing an organic ligand solution onto the substrate and spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the organic ligand solution and form a MOF layer.

  13. Fabrication of metal organic framework materials using a layer-by-layer spin coating approach

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-03-17

    Embodiments describe a method of depositing an MOF, including depositing a metal solution onto a substrate, spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the metal solution, depositing an organic ligand solution onto the substrate and spinning the substrate sufficient to spread the organic ligand solution and form a MOF layer.

  14. Analysing impact of oxygen and water exposure on roll-coated organic solar cell performance using impedance spectroscopy

    Arredondo, B.; Romero, B.; Beliatis, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    In this work we study the degradation of roll-coated flexible inverted organic solar cells in different atmospheres. We demonstrate that impedance spectroscopy is a powerful tool for elucidating degradation mechanisms; it is used here to distinguish the different degradation mechanisms due to water...... and oxygen. Identical cells were exposed to different accelerated degradation environments using water only, oxygen only, and both water and oxygen simultaneously, all of them enhanced with UV light. The photocurrent is dramatically reduced in the oxygen-degraded samples. Impedance measurements indicate...... of degradation differs for the water and oxygen degraded samples. While oxygen + UV light decreases the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS layer, water + UV light changes the PEDOT:PSS work function inducing a depletion region at the anode....

  15. Shoulder replacement - discharge

    Total shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder replacement - discharge; Partial shoulder arthroplasty - discharge; Replacement - shoulder - discharge; Arthroplasty - shoulder - discharge

  16. Chemical nature and structure of organic coating of quantum dots is crucial for their application in imaging diagnostics

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Spasov, Lubomir; Aoki, Ichio; Saga, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    Background: One of the most attractive properties of quantum dots is their potential to extend the opportunities for fluorescent and multimodal imaging in vivo. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether the composition and structure of organic coating of nanoparticles are crucial for their application in vivo. Methods: We compared quantum dots coated with non-crosslinked amino-functionalized polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers, quantum dots encapsulated in crosslinked carboxyl-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers, and silica-shelled amino-functionalized quantum dots. A multimodal fluorescent and paramagnetic quantum dot probe was also developed and analyzed. The probes were applied intravenously in anesthetized animals for visualization of brain vasculature using two-photon excited fluorescent microscopy and visualization of tumors using fluorescent IVIS® imaging (Caliper Life Sciences, Hopkinton, MA) and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Quantum dots coated with non-crosslinked dendrimers were cytotoxic. They induced side effects in vivo, including vasodilatation with a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate. The quantum dots penetrated the vessels, which caused the quality of fluorescent imaging to deteriorate. Quantum dots encapsulated in crosslinked dendrimers had low cytotoxicity and were biocompatible. In concentrations quantum dots/kg bodyweight, these nanoparticles did not affect blood pressure and heart rate, and did not induce vasodilatation or vasoconstriction. PEGylation (PEG [polyethylene glycol]) was an indispensable step in development of a quantum dot probe for in vivo imaging, based on silica-shelled quantum dots. The non-PEGylated silica-shelled quantum dots possessed low colloidal stability in high-salt physiological fluids, accompanied by rapid aggregation in vivo. The conjugation of silica-shelled quantum dots with PEG1100 increased their stability and half-life in the circulation without significant enhancement of their

  17. Underwater Ship Husbandry Discharges

    2011-11-01

    which entered into force in September of 2008, prohibits the use of harmful organotins such as tributyltin ( TBT ) in AFCs used on international...States. The use of TBT AFCs is explicitly prohibited under the VGP, and vessels must remove such coatings or paint over them to prevent toxic ...to hull husbandry include (1) the discharge of toxic chemicals used as biocides in AFCs and (2) biofouling as a vector for aquatic nuisance species

  18. Calibration and field performance of membrane-enclosed sorptive coating for integrative passive sampling of persistent organic pollutants in water

    Vrana, Branislav; Paschke, Albrecht; Popp, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Membrane-enclosed sorptive coating (MESCO) is a miniaturised monitoring device that enables integrative passive sampling of persistent, hydrophobic organic pollutants in water. The system combines the passive sampling with solventless preconcentration of organic pollutants from water and subsequent desorption of analytes on-line into a chromatographic system. Exchange kinetics of chemicals between water and MESCO was studied at different flow rates of water, in order to characterize the effect of variable environmental conditions on the sampler performance, and to identify a method for in situ correction of the laboratory-derived calibration data. It was found that the desorption of chemicals from MESCO into water is isotropic to the absorption of the analytes onto the sampler under the same exposure conditions. This allows for the in situ calibration of the uptake of pollutants using elimination kinetics of performance reference compounds and more accurate estimates of target analyte concentrations. A field study was conducted to test the sampler performance alongside spot sampling. A good agreement of contaminant patterns and water concentrations was obtained by the two sampling techniques. - A robust calibration method of a passive sampling device for monitoring of persistent organic pollutants in water is described

  19. Ultra-high mobility transparent organic thin film transistors grown by an off-centre spin-coating method.

    Yuan, Yongbo; Giri, Gaurav; Ayzner, Alexander L; Zoombelt, Arjan P; Mannsfeld, Stefan C B; Chen, Jihua; Nordlund, Dennis; Toney, Michael F; Huang, Jinsong; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and better transparency have been actively pursued for numerous applications, such as flat-panel display backplane and sensor arrays. The carrier mobility is an important figure of merit and is sensitively influenced by the crystallinity and the molecular arrangement in a crystal lattice. Here we describe the growth of a highly aligned meta-stable structure of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) from a blended solution of C8-BTBT and polystyrene by using a novel off-centre spin-coating method. Combined with a vertical phase separation of the blend, the highly aligned, meta-stable C8-BTBT films provide a significantly increased thin film transistor hole mobility up to 43 cm(2) Vs(-1) (25 cm(2) Vs(-1) on average), which is the highest value reported to date for all organic molecules. The resulting transistors show high transparency of >90% over the visible spectrum, indicating their potential for transparent, high-performance organic electronics.

  20. Nanoscale Morphology of Doctor Bladed versus Spin-Coated Organic Photovoltaic Films

    Pokuri, Balaji Sesha Sarath; Sit, Joseph; Wodo, Olga; Baran, Derya; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J.; Moule, Adam J.; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in efficiency of organic photovoltaics are driven by judicious selection of processing conditions that result in a “desired” morphology. An important theme of morphology research is quantifying the effect of processing conditions

  1. Organic chemistry of NH3 and HCN induced by an atmospheric abnormal glow discharge in N2-CH4 mixtures

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The formation of the chemical products produced in an atmospheric glow discharge fed by a N2-CH4 gas mixture has been studied using Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) and Optical Emission Spectrometry (OES). The measurements were carried out in a flowing regime at ambient temperature and pressure with CH4 concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 2%. In the recorded emission spectra the lines of the second positive system CN system and the first negative s...

  2. In situ preparation of multilayer coated capillary column with HKUST-1 for separation of neutral small organic molecules by open tubular capillary electrochromatography.

    Xu, Yin-Yin; Lv, Wen-Juan; Ren, Cui-Ling; Niu, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hong-Li; Chen, Xing-Guo

    2018-01-12

    The popularity of novel nanoparticles coated capillary column has aroused widespread attention of researchers. Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) with special structure and chemical properties have received great interest in separation sciences. This work presents the investigation of HKUST-1 (Hong Kong University of Science and Technology-1, called Cu 3 (BTC) 2 or MOF-199) nanoparticles as a new type of coating material for capillary electrochromatography. For the first time, three layers coating (3-LC), five layers coating (5-LC), ten layers coating (10-LC), fifteen layers coating (15-LC), twenty layers coating(20-LC) and twenty-five layers coating (25-LC) capillary columns coated with HKUST-1 nanoparticles were synthesized by covalent bond with in situ, layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) indicated that HKUST-1 was successfully grafted on the inner wall of the capillary. The separating performances of 3-LC, 5-LC, 10-LC, 15-LC, 20-LC and 25-LC open tubular (OT) capillary columns were studied with some neutral small organic molecules. The results indicated that the neutral small organic molecules were separated successfully with 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns because of the size selectivity of lattice aperture and hydrophobicity of organic ligands. In addition, 10-LC and 15-LC OT capillary columns showed better performance for the separation of certain phenolic compounds. Furthermore, 10-LC, 15-LC and 20-LC OT capillary columns exhibited good intra-day repeatability with the relative standard deviations (RSDs; %) of migration time and peak areas lying in the range of 0.3-1.2% and 0.5-4.2%, respectively. For inter-day reproducibility, the RSDs of the three OT capillary columns were found to be lying in the range of 0.3-5.5% and 0.3-4.5% for migration time and peak area, respectively. The RSDs of retention times for column

  3. Preparation and characterization of inorganic and organic coatings on AZ91D magnesium alloy with electroless plating pretreatment

    Zhang, S.Y.; Li, Q.; Zhang, H.X.; Wang, S.Y.; Liu, F. [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing, 400715 (China); Yang, X.K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University Chongqing, 400715 (China)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, a protective coating scheme was applied for the corrosion protection of AZ91D magnesium alloy. Electroless Ni coating (EN coating) as bottom layer, electrodeposited Ni coating (ENN coating), and silane-based coating (ENS coating) as top layer, respectively, were successfully prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy by combination techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the surface and phase structure of coatings, respectively. The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of coatings in neutral 3.5 wt% NaCl solution were evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The corrosion testing showed that the three kinds of coatings all could provide corrosion protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy to a certain extent, and the corrosion resistance of ENN and ENS was superior to EN. In order to further study the corrosion protection properties of ENN and ENS, a comparative investigation on the evolution of EIS of ENN and ENS was carried out by dint of immersion test in neutral 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The results indicated that, compared with ENN, the ENS could provide longer corrosion protection for AZ91D magnesium alloy. It is significant to determine the barrier effect of each coating, which could provide reference for industry applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Reduced bleaching in organic nanofibers by bilayer polymer/oxide coating

    Tavares, Luciana; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2010-01-01

    Organic semiconductors based on small molecules are receiving increased attention due in part to their application potential within various opto-electronic devices such as transistors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells, but also due to their relative ease of processing, low price...

  5. Bi-hybrid coatings: polyaniline-montmorillonite filler in organic-inorganic polymer matrix

    Špírková, Milena; Bober, Patrycja; Kotek, Jiří; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 8 (2013), s. 1020-1027 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * montmorillonite * organic-inorganic composite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  6. 77 FR 14279 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...

    2012-03-09

    ...'' system, which means the EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in... page number). Follow directions--The agency may ask you to respond to specific questions or organize... 1.55 Automotive Bumper and Trim Products ABT 1.75 Aviation or Marine Primers AMP 2.00 Aviation...

  7. In situ coating nickel organic complexes on free-standing nickel wire films for volumetric-energy-dense supercapacitors.

    Hong, Min; Xu, Shusheng; Yao, Lu; Zhou, Chao; Hu, Nantao; Yang, Zhi; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Liying; Zhou, Zhihua; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2018-07-06

    A self-free-standing core-sheath structured hybrid membrane electrodes based on nickel and nickel based metal-organic complexes (Ni@Ni-OC) was designed and constructed for high volumetric supercapacitors. The self-standing Ni@Ni-OC film electrode had a high volumetric specific capacity of 1225.5 C cm -3 at 0.3 A cm -3 and an excellent rate capability. Moreover, when countered with graphene-carbon nanotube (G-CNT) film electrode, the as-assembled Ni@Ni-OC//G-CNT hybrid supercapacitor device delivered an extraordinary volumetric capacitance of 85 F cm -3 at 0.5 A cm -3 and an outstanding energy density of 33.8 at 483 mW cm -3 . Furthermore, the hybrid supercapacitor showed no capacitance loss after 10 000 cycles at 2 A cm -3 , indicating its excellent cycle stability. These fascinating performances can be ascribed to its unique core-sheath structure that high capacity nano-porous nickel based metal-organic complexes (Ni-OC) in situ coated on highly conductive Ni wires. The impressive results presented here may pave the way to construct s self-standing membrane electrode for applications in high volumetric-performance energy storage.

  8. Magnetic inductive heating of organs of mouse models treated by copolymer coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Pham, Hong Nam; Giang Pham, Thi Ha; Nguyen, Dac Tu; Thong Phan, Quoc; Thu Huong Le, Thi; Thu Ha, Phuong; Do, Hung Manh; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Biodistribution studies provide basic information to design and perform various applications of superparamagnetic iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (SPIOs) in biomedicine such as drug delivery, MRI as well as hyperthermia. Recently, several quantitative measurements as well as new imaging methods have been used to characterize the SPIOs distribution in organs and in tissues of animal model. In this report we used the fabricated iron oxide nanoparticles coated with two block copolymers of polystyrene-co-polyacrylic acid (St-co-PAA) and polylactic acid-co-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG). The biodistributions were investigated ex-vivo for several organs of both healthy and Sarcoma transplanted Swiss mice. The SPIOs concentrations were verified mainly by magnetic inductive heating (MIH) measurement with a combination with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results indicated the density detected highest in liver and lowest in kidney. The SPIOs concentration increased significantly up to 24 h after the injection. The observations by our two methods not only are in agreement with each other but also consistent with the tendency reported by other techniques. Discussion will also concern injection strategy for various aspects of hyperthermia applications. Invited talk at 8th Int. Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (Ha Long City, Vietnam, 8-12 November 2016).

  9. Application of the Microwave Discharge Modification of the Wilzbach Technique for the Tritium Labelling of some Organics of Biological Interest

    Gosztonyi, T.

    1969-01-01

    The modification of the Wilzbach technique using microwave discharge has been routinely used in our laboratory for rapid tritium labellings. The applicability of the method and the effects of some of the reaction parameters were studied and published previously. The main advantage of the method is its simplicity and rapidity and the low extent of decomposition of the compound to be labelled during the reaction. Specific activities obtained, however, are not high enough for some investigations. In this paper the labelling of dihydrostreptomycine, tetracycline and antipyrine will be described

  10. Application of the Microwave Discharge Modification of the Wilzbach Technique for the Tritium Labelling of some Organics of Biological Interest

    Gosztonyi, T

    1969-01-15

    The modification of the Wilzbach technique using microwave discharge has been routinely used in our laboratory for rapid tritium labellings. The applicability of the method and the effects of some of the reaction parameters were studied and published previously. The main advantage of the method is its simplicity and rapidity and the low extent of decomposition of the compound to be labelled during the reaction. Specific activities obtained, however, are not high enough for some investigations. In this paper the labelling of dihydrostreptomycine, tetracycline and antipyrine will be described.

  11. Hybrid organic-inorganic coatings and films containing conducting polyaniline nanoparticles

    Špírková, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 212, č. 1 (2004), s. 343-348 ISSN 1022-1360. [Electrical and Related Properties of Polymers and Other Organic Solids /9./. Prague, 14.07.2002-18.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA ČR GA203/01/0735 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * films * hybrid networks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.691, year: 2004

  12. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: Stability and cytocompatibility studies

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ornelas da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Gouvêa dos Santos, Raquel; Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG) 1000 , and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. - Highlights: • BNNTs were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents. • Hydrophilic molecules do not alter the biocompatibility profile of BNNTs. • No significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations in ROS could be observed

  13. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: Stability and cytocompatibility studies

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; Ornelas da Silva, Paulo Roberto [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Gouvêa dos Santos, Raquel [Laboratório de Radiobiologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CNEN/CDTN, Av. Presidente Antônio Carlos 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Barros de Sousa, Edésia Martins, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br [Serviço de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CDTN/CNEN, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6.627, Campus da UFMG, Pampulha, CEP 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG){sub 1000}, and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. - Highlights: • BNNTs were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents. • Hydrophilic molecules do not alter the biocompatibility profile of BNNTs. • No significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations in ROS could be observed.

  14. Impact of natural organic matter coatings on the microbial reduction of iron oxides

    Poggenburg, Christine; Mikutta, Robert; Schippers, Axel; Dohrmann, Reiner; Guggenberger, Georg

    2018-03-01

    Iron (Fe) oxyhydroxides are important constituents of the soil mineral phase known to stabilize organic matter (OM) under oxic conditions. In an anoxic milieu, however, these Fe-organic associations are exposed to microbial reduction, releasing OM into soil solution. At present, only few studies have addressed the influence of adsorbed natural OM (NOM) on the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides. This study therefore examined the impact of both the composition and concentration of adsorbed NOM on microbial Fe reduction with regard to (i) electron shuttling, (ii) complexation of Fe(II,III), (iii) surface site coverage and/or pore blockage, and (iv) aggregation. Adsorption complexes with varying carbon loadings were synthesized using different Fe oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, hematite, magnetite) and NOM of different origin (extracellular polymeric substances from Bacillus subtilis, OM extracted from soil Oi and Oa horizons). The adsorption complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 gas adsorption, electrophoretic mobility and particle size measurements, and OM desorption. Incubation experiments under anaerobic conditions were conducted for 16 days comparing two different strains of dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens). Mineral transformation during reduction was assessed via XRD and FTIR. Microbial reduction of the pure Fe oxyhydroxides was controlled by the specific surface area (SSA) and solubility of the minerals. For Shewanella putrefaciens, the Fe reduction of adsorption complexes strongly correlated with the concentration of potentially usable electron-shuttling molecules for NOM concentrations <2 mg C L-1, whereas for Geobacter metallireducens, Fe reduction depended on the particle size and thus aggregation of the adsorption complexes. These diverging results suggest that

  15. Analysis of Organic Volatile Flavor Compounds in Fermented Stinky Tofu Using SPME with Different Fiber Coatings

    Wei Guan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu (FST were studied using SPME-GC/MS. A total of 39 volatile compounds were identified, including nine esters, seven alcohols, five alkenes, four sulfides, three heterocycles, three carboxylic acids, three ketones, two aldehydes, one phenol, one amine and one ether. These compounds were determined by MS, and conformed by comparison of the retention times of the separated constituents with those of authentic samples and by comparison of retention indexes (RIs of separated constituents with the RIs reported in the literature. The predominant volatile compound in FST was indole, followed by dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl tetrasulfide. In order to find a better extraction time, the extraction times was optimized for each type of SPME fiber; the results show that the best extraction time for Carboxen/PDMS is 60 min, for PDMS/DVB 30 min, for DVB/CAR/PDMS 60 min and for PDMS 75 min. Of the four fibers used in this work, Carboxen/PDMS is found to be the most suitable to extract the organic volatile flavor compounds in fermented stinky tofu.

  16. Mechanism of formation of humus coatings on mineral surfaces 3. Composition of adsorbed organic acids from compost leachate on alumina by solid-state 13C NMR

    Wershaw, R. L.; Llaguno, E.C.; Leenheer, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The adsorption of compost leachate DOC on alumina is used as a model for elucidation of the mechanism of formation of natural organic coatings on hydrous metal oxide surfaces in soils and sediments. Compost leachate DOC is composed mainly of organic acid molecules. The solid-state 13C NMR spectra of these organic acids indicate that they are very similar in composition to aquatic humic substances. Changes in the solid-state 13C NMR spectra of compost leachate DOC fractions adsorbed on alumina indicate that the DOC molecules are most likely adsorbed on metal oxide surfaces through a combination of polar and hydrophobic interaction mechanisms. This combination of polar and hydrophobic mechanism leads to the formation of bilayer coatings of the leachate molecules on the oxide surfaces.

  17. Enhanced vapour sensing using silicon nanowire devices coated with Pt nanoparticle functionalized porous organic frameworks

    Cao, Anping

    2018-03-09

    Recently various porous organic frameworks (POFs, crystalline or amorphous materials) have been discovered, and used for a wide range of applications, including molecular separations and catalysis. Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been extensively studied for diverse applications, including as transistors, solar cells, lithium ion batteries and sensors. Here we demonstrate the functionalization of SiNW surfaces with POFs and explore its effect on the electrical sensing properties of SiNW-based devices. The surface modification by POFs was easily achieved by polycondensation on amine-modified SiNWs. Platinum nanoparticles were formed in these POFs by impregnation with chloroplatinic acid followed by chemical reduction. The final hybrid system showed highly enhanced sensitivity for methanol vapour detection. We envisage that the integration of SiNWs with POF selector layers, loaded with different metal nanoparticles will open up new avenues, not only in chemical and biosensing, but also in separations and catalysis.

  18. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  19. Microstructure and Properties of Composite Coatings Obtained on Aluminium Alloys

    Bara M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents methods of modifying the anode surface layers of Al2O3 by introducing carbon to their microstructure. Composite coatings were prepared using two different methods. In the first, coatings were formed by means of oxidation under constant current conditions. Anodic oxidation of aluminium was conducted in a multicomponent electrolyte with the addition of organic acids and graphite. The second method was based on the formation of oxide coatings in an electrolyte without the addition of graphite or heat treatment of the layers of succinic acid. The obtained coatings were tested using SEM, TEM, and GDOES (glow discharge optical emission spectrometry and their tribological and stereometric properties were measured. The study demonstrated the beneficial effects of the methods when used to improve the tribological properties of sliding couples.

  20. Detection of volatile organic compounds using an optical fiber sensor coated with a sol-gel silica layer containing immobilized Nile red

    Liu, Dejun; Lian, Xiaokang; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Han, Wei; Wei, Fangfang; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    A simple volatile organic compound (VOC) sensor based on a tapered small core singlemode fiber (SCSMF) structure is reported. The tapered SCSMF fiber structure with a waist diameter of 7.0 μm is fabricated using a customized microheater brushing technique. Silica based material containing immobilized Nile red was prepared by a sol-gel method and was used as a coating applied to the surface of the tapered fiber structure. Different coating thicknesses created by a 2-pass and 4-pass coating process are investigated. The experiments demonstrate that both sensors show a linear response at different gas concentrations to all three tested VOCs (methanol, ethanol and acetone). The sensor with a thicker coating shows better sensitivities but longer response and recovery times. The best measurement resolutions for the 4-pass coating sensor are estimated to be 2.3 ppm, 1.5 ppm and 3.1 ppm for methanol, ethanol and acetone, respectively. The fastest response and recovery time of 1 min and 5 min are demonstrated by the sensor in the case of methanol.

  1. Enhancement of visible light photocatalytic activity of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles based on organic and inorganic coating

    Soltani, Nayereh, E-mail: nayereh.soltani@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Saion, Elias; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Erfani, Maryam; Navasery, Manizheh; Bahmanrokh, Ghazaleh [Department of Physics, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rezaee, Kadijeh [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advance Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-30

    Coating of ZnS and CdS nanoparticles with organic and inorganic materials can extend their light absorption in the visible region and their stability against photo-corrosion. Such materials could emerge as excellent photocatalysts for the elimination of pollutants from aqueous media using solar energy. In this study, PVP (polyvinyl pyrrolidone)-capped ZnS and CdS nanoparticles, ZnS/CdS and CdS/ZnS core shell nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave irradiation method and characterized using different techniques. The XRD patterns exhibited cubic and hexagonal structures for coated ZnS and CdS nanoparticles, respectively. Morphological evaluation of TEM images showed that the nanoparticles are generally spherical in shape. The UV–visible spectra confirmed a shift in the band gap of coated nanoparticles to longer or shorter wavelengths due to size and potential-well effects. The photocatalytic activity of nanoparticles toward dye degradation under visible light was found to be improved after coating. PVP-capped ZnS and CdS exhibited an enhancement in the initial methylene blue degradation efficiency by a factor of about 1.3. ZnS nanoparticles coated by CdS displayed the initial efficiency 3.2 times higher than bare ZnS. The maximum dye removal was obtained in presence of CdS/ZnS core shells which is 1.4 times more efficient than bare CdS.

  2. Global long-range transport and lung cancer risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons shielded by coatings of organic aerosol

    Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Lou, Sijia; Zelenyuk-Imre, Alla; Easter, Richard C.; Corley, Richard A.; Thrall, Brian D.; Rasch, Philip J.; Fast, Jerome D.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2017-01-23

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic impacts on ecosystems and human health. Laboratory measurements show that one of the most carcinogenic PAHs, benzo(a)pyrene, which is adsorbed on surfaces of soot particles, reacts very quickly with atmospheric oxidants like ozone within ~2 hours. Yet, field observations indicate that it actually persists for much longer periods in the atmosphere, and this large discrepancy is not well understood. Driven by novel experimental understanding, we develop a new modelling approach, whereby particle-bound BaP is shielded from oxidation by a coating of viscous organic aerosol (OA). We show that application of this new approach in a global climate model leads to higher atmospheric BaP concentrations that agree much better with measurements, compared to the default model, as well as stronger long-range transport and greater deposition fluxes. This new approach also predicts elevated lung-cancer risk from PAHs. Predicted oxidation of BaP is highest over a tropical belt where OA is liquid-like.

  3. Anticorrosive coatings: a review

    Sørensen, Per Aggerholm; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have caused significant changes in the anticorrosive coating industry. The requirement for new VOC-compliant coating technologies means that coating manufacturers can no longer rely on the extensive track record of their time-served products to convince consumers...... of their suitability for use. An important aspect in the development of new VOC-compliant, high-performance anticorrosive coating systems is a thorough knowledge of the components in anticorrosive coatings, their interactions, their advantages and limitations, as well as a detailed knowledge on the failure modes......, and inhibitive coatings are outlined. In the past decades, several alternatives to organic solvent-borne coatings have reached the commercial market. This review also presents some of these technologies and discusses some of their advantages and limitations. Finally, some of the mechanisms leading to degradation...

  4. The formation of an organic coat and the release of corrosion microparticles from metallic magnesium implants.

    Badar, Muhammad; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Evertz, Florian; Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Glasmacher, Birgit; Hauser, Hansjörg; Mueller, Peter P

    2013-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have been proposed as prospective degradable implant materials. To elucidate the complex interactions between the corroding implants and the tissue, magnesium implants were analyzed in a mouse model and the response was compared to that induced by Ti and by the resorbable polymer polyglactin, respectively. One month after implantation, distinct traces of corrosion were apparent but the magnesium implants were still intact, whereas resorbable polymeric wound suture implants were already fragmented. Analysis of magnesium implants 2weeks after implantation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that magnesium, oxygen, calcium and phosphate were present at the implant surface. One month after implantation, the element composition of the outermost layer of the implant was indicative of tissue without detectable levels of magnesium, indicating a protective barrier function of this organic layer. In agreement with this notion, gene expression patterns in the surrounding tissue were highly similar for all implant materials investigated. However, high-resolution imaging using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy revealed magnesium-containing microparticles in the tissue in the proximity of the implant. The release of such corrosion particles may contribute to the accumulation of calcium phosphate in the nearby tissue and to bone conductive activities of magnesium implants. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NIPPLE DISCHARGE

    T. N. Bukharova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data available in the literature, as high as 50% of women have benign breast tumors frequently accompanied by nip- ple discharge. Nipple discharge may be serous, bloody, purulent, and colostric. The most common causes are breast abscess, injury, drugs, prolactinoma, intraductal pappiloma, ductal ectasia, intraductal cancer (not more than 10%.

  6. Coating, Degrading and Testing of Organic Polymer Devices - Reducing the route from Laboratory to Production scale devices

    Dam, Henrik Friis

    volume, which for spin coating allowed making a single 1 cm2 device, using the mini roll coater (MRC) enable the coating of a 100 cm2 area, resulting in 60 1cm2 devices with the present mask designs. With the relative expensive polymers, this translates into a large saving for performing the same amount...

  7. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments

    Burd, B.; Macdonald, T.; Bertold, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • High river particulate flux results in low sediment P/B due to large burrowers. • Sewage deposition results in high P/B from biomass depletion and bacterial increase. • Heterotrophic production was 56% of oxidized OC flux with 35% growth efficiency. • Production was correlated with organic/inorganic flux – biomass was not. • δ 15 N patterns illustrate feeding strategies of key taxa near the outfall. -- Abstract: We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r 2 = 0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production “saturated”. The δ 15 N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast

  8. Antibacterial polymer coatings.

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Allen, Ashley N.; Barnhart, Meghan; Tucker, Mark David; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2009-09-01

    A series of poly(sulfone)s with quaternary ammonium groups and another series with aldehyde groups are synthesized and tested for biocidal activity against vegetative bacteria and spores, respectively. The polymers are sprayed onto substrates as coatings which are then exposed to aqueous suspensions of organisms. The coatings are inherently biocidal and do not release any agents into the environment. The coatings adhere well to both glass and CARC-coated coupons and they exhibit significant biotoxicity. The most effective quaternary ammonium polymers kills 99.9% of both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and the best aldehyde coating kills 81% of the spores on its surface.

  9. The effects of wastewater effluent and river discharge on benthic heterotrophic production, organic biomass and respiration in marine coastal sediments.

    Burd, B; Macdonald, T; Bertold, S

    2013-09-15

    We examine effects of high river particulate flux and municipal wastewater effluent on heterotrophic organic carbon cycling in coastal subtidal sediments. Heterotrophic production was a predictable (r(2)=0.95) proportion (56%) of oxidized OC flux and strongly correlated with organic/inorganic flux. Consistent growth efficiencies (36%) occurred at all stations. Organic biomass was correlated with total, OC and buried OC fluxes, but not oxidized OC flux. Near the river, production was modest and biomass high, resulting in low P/B. Outfall deposition resulted in depleted biomass and high bacterial production, resulting in the highest P/B. These patterns explain why this region is production "saturated". The δ(15)N in outfall effluent, sediments and dominant taxa provided insight into where, and which types of organisms feed directly on fresh outfall particulates, on older, refractory material buried in sediments, or utilize chemosynthetic symbiotic bacteria. Results are discussed in the context of declining bottom oxygen conditions along the coast. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Thin metal organic frameworks coatings by cathodic electrodeposition for solid-phase microextraction and analysis of trace exogenous estrogens in milk.

    Lan, Hangzhen; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Guo, Yuxing; Wu, Zhen

    2016-09-21

    Cathodic electrodeposition (CED) has received great attention in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) synthesis due to its distinguished properties including simplicity, controllability, mild synthesis conditions, and product continuously. Here, we report the fabrication of thin (Et3NH)2Zn3(BDC)4 (E-MOF-5) film coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber by a one-step in situ cathodic electrodeposition strategy. Several etched stainless steel fibers were placed in parallel in order to achieve simultaneously electrochemical polymerization. The influence of different polymerization parameters Et3NHCl concentration and polymerization time were evaluated. The proposed method requires only 20 min for the preparation of E-MOF-5 coating. The optimum coating showed excellent thermal stability and mechanical durability with a long lifetime of more than 120 repetitions SPME operations, and also exhibited higher extraction selectivity and capacity to four estrogens than commonly-used commercial PDMS coating. The limits of detection for the estrogens were 0.17-0.56 ng mL(-1). Fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n = 8) was in the respective ranges of 3.5%-6.1% relative standard deviation (RSD) for four estrogens for triplicate measurements at 200 ng mL(-1). Finally, the (E-MOF-5) coated fiber was evaluated for ethinylestradiol (EE2), bisphenol A (BPA), diethylstilbestrol (DES), and hexestrol (HEX) extraction in the spiked milk samples. The extraction performance of this new coating was satisfied enough for repeatable use without obvious decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value).

  12. Decomposition of three volatile organic compounds by nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: Study of by-product formation and influence of high voltage pulse parameters

    Jarrige, Julien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Increasing concerns over atmospheric pollution has motivated research into technologies able to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC's) from gas streams. The aim of this paper is to understand the chemical and physical mechanisms implied in the decomposition of VOC's in a filamentary nonthermal plasma discharge. Experiments have been carried out on three pollutants (propane, propene, and isopropyl alcohol) in dry air at atmospheric pressure using a wire to cylinder corona discharge generated by a homemade nanosecond rise time high voltage pulse generator. The resulting plasma efficiently destructs propane, propene, or isopropyl alcohol at a concentration of 500 ppm with low specific input energies (less than 500 J/L), but the poor oxidation rate leads to the formation of numerous by-products (acetone, formaldehyde, formic acid, and methyl nitrate) whose concentration can reach some hundreds of ppm. We also investigated the effect of pulse parameters on VOC removal efficiency. Neither pulse peak value nor rise time (in the range of 4-12 ns) appears to have a significant influence on the VOC decomposition rates. Therefore, we believe that the way the energy is deposited in the plasma does not modify the density of active species (radicals, ions) in the streamers. The production of energetic electrons is not enhanced by the external applied field, and the only effective parameter may be the local field in the streamer head, which is almost the same (around 500 Td) whatever the voltage (above the inception value)

  13. Multipactor discharge apparatus

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with a multipactor discharge apparatus which can be used for tuning microwave organs such as magnetron oscillators and other cavity resonators. This apparatus is suitable for delivering an improved tuning effect in a resonation organ wherefrom the working frequency must be set. This apparatus is equipped with two multipactor discharge electrodes set in a configuration such to that a net current flows from one electrode to another. These electrodes are parallel and flat. The apparatus can be used in magnetron devices as well for continuous waves as for impulses

  14. Discharge amplified photo-emission from ultra-thin films applied to tuning work function of transparent electrodes in organic opto-electronic devices

    Gentle, A.R.; Smith, G.B.; Watkins, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel photoemission technique utilising localised discharge amplification of photo-yield is reported. It enables fast, accurate measurement of work function and ionisation potential for ultra-thin buffer layers vacuum deposited onto single and multilayer transparent conducting electrodes for organic solar cells and OLED's. Work function in most traditional transparent electrodes has to be raised to maximise charge transfer while high transmittance and high conductance must be retained. Results are presented for a range of metal oxide buffers, which achieve this goal. This compact photo-yield spectroscopy tool with its fast turn-around has been a valuable development aid since ionisation potential can vary significantly as deposition conditions change slightly, and as ultra-thin films grow. It has also been useful in tracking the impact of different post deposition cleaning treatments along with some storage and transport protocols, which can adversely reduce ionisation potential and hence subsequent device performance.

  15. Ileostomy - discharge

    ... dried fruits (such as raisins), mushrooms, chunky relishes, coconut, and some Chinese vegetables. Tips for when no ... ask your doctor Living with your ileostomy Low-fiber diet Small bowel resection - discharge Total colectomy or ...

  16. White coat effect and masked uncontrolled hypertension in treated hypertensive-diabetic patients: Prevalence and target organ damage.

    Leiria, Liana F; Severo, Mateus D; Ledur, Priscila S; Becker, Alexandre D; Aguiar, Fernanda M; Massierer, Daniela; Freitas, Valéria C; Schaan, Beatriz D; Gus, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    The association between hypertensive phenotypes of controlled hypertension (CH), white-coat effect (WCE), masked uncontrolled hypertension (MUH) and sustained hypertension (SH) with target organ damage have not been clearly established in diabetic hypertensive treated patients. The present study aims to evaluate the prevalence of the four phenotypes considering the current cut-off points for office and 24 h-ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and the association with left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic function and nephropathy. Cross-sectional study with 304 patients on anti-hypertensive treatment aged 57.6 ± 6.1 years, who were submitted to ABPM and echocardiography. They were classified into CH (normal office BP and ABPM), WCE (high office BP and normal ABPM), MUH (normal office BP and high ABPM), and SH (high office BP and ABPM). Median HbA1c and diabetes duration were 7.9% (6.8-9.2), and 10 years (5-16), respectively. Prevalences of CH, WCE, MUH and SH were 27.3%, 17.1%, 18.8%, and 36.8%. MUH prevalence was higher than previously described. There was a significant increasing trend across the four groups in variables related to LVH (P ABPM beyond the traditional cardiovascular risk stratification tools has limitations, but is still useful in high-risk patients. Longitudinal studies could better evaluate the role of the use of ABPM in this scenario. Cut-off points for normality of office and ABPM influence the prevalences of WCH and MUH. © 2014 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New evidence on the formation of oxidizing species in corona discharge in contact with liquid and their reactions with organic compounds.

    Magureanu, M; Dobrin, D; Bradu, C; Gherendi, F; Mandache, N B; Parvulescu, V I

    2016-12-01

    The objective of these investigations is to understand in more detail how organic compounds in water are degraded during plasma treatment. The formation of oxidizing species (ozone (O 3 ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and hydroxyl radicals (OH)) in a pulsed corona discharge in contact with liquid is investigated. The degradation of a target organic compound (methylparaben) in aqueous solution was increased when combining plasma treatment with ozonation, using the O 3 generated in the discharge. Enhanced mass transfer of O 3 obtained in this plasma+O 3 configuration leads to a six fold increase of MeP oxidation rate. The evolution of oxidants concentration during treatment of MeP solutions provides information on their consumption in reactions with MeP and its oxidation products. The correlation of MeP degradation results (MeP removal and mineralization) with O 3 consumption and the identified reaction products confirms that although O 3 plays an important role in the degradation, for the mineralization OH radicals have an essential contribution. The concentration of OH radicals is diminished in the solutions containing MeP as compared to plasma-treated water, indicating OH consumption in reactions with the target compound and its degradation products. The concentration of H 2 O 2 in the liquid can be either increased or reduced in the presence of MeP, depending on its initial concentration. On the one hand, decomposition of H 2 O 2 by OH or O 3 is suppressed in the presence of MeP, but on the other hand less OH radicals are available for its formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Pre-coated Microfiltration Ceramic Membrane with Powdered Activated Carbon for Natural Organic Matter Removal from Secondary Wastewater Effluent

    Kurniasari, Novita

    2012-12-01

    Ceramic membranes offer more advantageous performances than conventional polymeric membranes. However, membrane fouling caused by Natural Organic Matters (NOM) contained in the feed water is still become a major problem for operational efficiency. A new method of ceramic membrane pre-coating with Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC), which allows extremely contact time for adsorbing aquatic contaminants, has been studied as a pre-treatment prior to ceramic microfiltration membrane. This bench scale study evaluated five different types of PAC (SA Super, G 60, KCU 6, KCU 8 and KCU 12,). The results showed that KCU 6 with larger pore size was performed better compared to other PAC when pre-coated on membrane surface. PAC pre-coating on the ceramic membrane with KCU 6 was significantly enhance NOM removal, reduced membrane fouling and improved membrane performance. Increase of total membrane resistance was suppressed to 96%. The removal of NOM components up to 92%, 58% and 56% for biopolymers, humic substances and building blocks, respectively was achieved at pre-coating dose of 30 mg/l. Adsorption was found to be the major removal mechanism of NOM. Results obtained showed that biopolymers removal are potentially correlated with enhanced membrane performance.

  20. Inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel by layer-by-layer deposition and surface-initiated atom-transfer-radical polymerization for combating biocorrosion.

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2009-03-01

    To improve the biocorrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to confer the bactericidal function on its surface for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of the inner compact titanium oxide multilayers and outer dense poly(vinyl-N-hexylpyridinium) brushes, were successfully developed. Nanostructured titanium oxide multilayer coatings were first built up on the SS substrates via the layer-by-layer sol-gel deposition process. The trichlorosilane coupling agent, containing the alkyl halide atom-transfer-radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was subsequently immobilized on the titanium oxide coatings for surface-initiated ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP). The pyridium nitrogen moieties of the covalently immobilized 4VP polymer, or P(4VP), brushes were quaternized with hexyl bromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium salt on the SS surfaces. The excellent antibacterial efficiency of the grafted polycations, poly(vinyl-N-pyridinium bromide), was revealed by viable cell counts and atomic force microscopy images of the surface. The effectiveness of the hybrid coatings in corrosion protection was verified by the Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements.

  1. Matrix Organization and Merit Factor Evaluation as a Method to Address the Challenge of Finding a Polymer Material for Roll Coated Polymer Solar Cells

    Bundgaard, Eva; Livi, Francesco; Hagemann, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The results presented demonstrate how the screening of 104 light-absorbing low band gap polymers for suitability in roll coated polymer solar cells can be accomplished through rational synthesis according to a matrix where 8 donor and 13 acceptor units are organized in rows and columns. Synthesis...... silver comb back electrode structure. The matrix organization enables fast identification of active layer materials according to a weighted merit factor that includes more than simply the power conversion efficiency and is used as a method to identify the lead candidates. Based on several characteristics...

  2. Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments

    Rita B. Figueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS. The influence of residence time (Rt, a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400, was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400 sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness.

  3. Antibacterial inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on stainless steel via consecutive surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for biocorrosion prevention.

    Yuan, S J; Pehkonen, S O; Ting, Y P; Neoh, K G; Kang, E T

    2010-05-04

    To enhance the corrosion resistance of stainless steel (SS) and to impart its surface with antibacterial functionality for inhibiting biofilm formation and biocorrosion, well-defined inorganic-organic hybrid coatings, consisting of a polysilsesquioxane inner layer and quaternized poly(2-(dimethyamino)ethyl methacrylate) (P(DMAEMA)) outer blocks, were prepared via successive surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The cross-linked P(TMASPMA), or polysilsesquioxane, inner layer provided a durable and resistant coating to electrolytes. The pendant tertiary amino groups of the P(DMAEMA) outer block were quaternized with alkyl halide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium groups with biocidal functionality. The so-synthesized inorganic-organic hybrid coatings on the SS substrates exhibited good anticorrosion and antibacterial effects and inhibited biocorrosion induced by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in seawater media, as revealed by antibacterial assay and electrochemical analyses, and they are potentially useful to steel-based equipment under harsh industrial and marine environments.

  4. Ice nucleation activity of diesel soot particles at cirrus relevant temperature conditions: Effects of hydration, secondary organics coating, soot morphology, and coagulation

    Kulkarni, Gourihar; China, Swarup; Liu, Shang; Nandasiri, Manjula; Sharma, Noopur; Wilson, Jacqueline; Aiken, Allison C.; Chand, Duli; Laskin, Alexander; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Zelenyuk, Alla; Zaveri, Rahul A.

    2016-04-01

    Ice formation by diesel soot particles was investigated at temperatures ranging from -40 to -50°C. Size-selected soot particles were physically and chemically aged in an environmental chamber, and their ice nucleating properties were determined using a continuous flow diffusion type ice nucleation chamber. Bare (freshly formed), hydrated, and compacted soot particles, as well as α-pinene secondary organic aerosol (SOA)-coated soot particles at high relative humidity conditions, showed ice formation activity at subsaturation conditions with respect to water but below the homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. However, SOA-coated soot particles at dry conditions were observed to freeze at homogeneous freezing threshold conditions. Overall, our results suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of freshly emitted diesel soot particles are sensitive to some of the aging processes that soot can undergo in the atmosphere.

  5. The importance of spinning speed in fabrication of spin-coated organic thin film transistors: Film morphology and field effect mobility

    Kotsuki, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiroshige; Obata, Seiji; Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo; Saiki, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the film morphology and the field effect mobility of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) thin films which were formed by spin coating on the SiO 2 substrate with solution-processed graphene electrodes. The domain size and the density of aggregates in the C8-BTBT film showed the same dependence on the spinning speed. These competitive two factors (domain size and density of aggregates) give an optimum spinning speed, at which the field effect mobility of C8-BTBT transistor showed a maximum (2.6 cm 2 /V s). This result indicates the importance of spinning speed in the fabrication of solution processed organic thin film transistors by spin coating.

  6. Spatial-temporal evolution of self-organized loop-patterns on a water surface and a diffuse discharge in the gap

    Li, Xuechen; Geng, Jinling; Jia, Pengying; Zhang, Panpan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Yaru

    2017-11-01

    Excited by an alternating current voltage, a patterned discharge and a diffuse discharge are generated in a needle to liquid configuration. Using an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), temporal evolution of the discharge between the two electrodes is investigated for the diffuse mode and the patterned mode, respectively. For the diffuse mode, the positive discharge is in a glow regime, and the negative discharge is in a Townsend discharge regime. For the patterned mode, the discharge always belongs to the Townsend discharge regime. Moreover, in the patterned mode, various patterns including the single loop, single loop with the surrounding corona, triple loops, and concentric loops with a central spot are observed on the water surface with the increasing positive peak-value of the applied voltage (Upp). Temporally resolved images of the loop-patterns are captured on the water surface. From the electrical measurements and the ICCD imaging, it is found that the loop pattern emerges after the discharge bridges the two electrodes. Then, it begins to evolve and finally degenerates with the decrease in the discharge current. The pattern does not disappear until the discharge quenches. Formation of the loop-patterns is attributed to the role of negative ions.

  7. Discharge Dialogue

    Horsbøl, Anders

    2012-01-01

    For several years, efforts have been made to strengthen collaboration between health professionals with different specializations and to improve patient transition from hospital to home (care). In the Danish health care system, these efforts have concentrated on cancer and heart diseases, whereas...... coordinator, employed at the hospital, is supposed to anticipate discharge and serve as mediator between the hospital and the municipal home care system. Drawing on methods from discourse and interaction analysis, the paper studies the practice of the discharge coordinator in two encounters between patients...... how the home context provides different resources for identification of patient needs and mutual decision making....

  8. Effect of secondary organic aerosol coating thickness on the real-time detection and characterization of biomass-burning soot by two particle mass spectrometers

    A. T. Ahern

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning is a large source of light-absorbing refractory black carbon (rBC particles with a wide range of morphologies and sizes. The net radiative forcing from these particles is strongly dependent on the amount and composition of non-light-absorbing material internally mixed with the rBC and on the morphology of the mixed particles. Understanding how the mixing state and morphology of biomass-burning aerosol evolves in the atmosphere is critical for constraining the influence of these particles on radiative forcing and climate. We investigated the response of two commercial laser-based particle mass spectrometers, the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV ablation LAAPTOF and the IR vaporization SP-AMS, to monodisperse biomass-burning particles as we sequentially coated the particles with secondary organic aerosol (SOA from α-pinene ozonolysis. We studied three mobility-selected soot core sizes, each with a number of successively thicker coatings of SOA applied. Using IR laser vaporization, the SP-AMS had different changes in sensitivity to rBC compared to potassium as a function of applied SOA coatings. We show that this is due to different effective beam widths for the IR laser vaporization region of potassium versus black carbon. The SP-AMS's sensitivity to black carbon (BC mass was not observed to plateau following successive SOA coatings, despite achieving high OA : BC mass ratios greater than 9. We also measured the ion fragmentation pattern of biomass-burning rBC and found it changed only slightly with increasing SOA mass. The average organic matter ion signal measured by the LAAPTOF demonstrated a positive correlation with the condensed SOA mass on individual particles, despite the inhomogeneity of the particle core compositions. This demonstrates that the LAAPTOF can obtain quantitative mass measurements of aged soot-particle composition from realistic biomass-burning particles with complex morphologies and composition.

  9. The ability of microbial community of Lake Baikal bottom sediments associated with gas discharge to carry out the transformation of organic matter under thermobaric conditions

    Sergei Viktorovich Bukin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to compare the composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities inhabiting the subsurface sediment in geographically distinct locations is one of the keys to understanding the evolution and function of the subsurface biosphere. Prospective areas for study of the subsurface biosphere are the sites of hydrocarbon discharges on the bottom of the Lake Baikal rift, where ascending fluxes of gas-saturated fluids and oil from deep layers of bottom sediments seep into near-surface sediment. The samples of surface sediments collected in the area of the Posolskaya Bank methane seep were cultured for 17 months under thermobaric conditions (80°С, 5 MPa with the addition of complementary organic substrate, and a different composition for the gas phase. After incubation, the presence of intact cells of microorganisms, organic matter transformation and the formation of oil biomarkers was confirmed in the samples, with the addition of Baikalian diatom alga Synedra acus detritus, and gas mixture СH4:H2:CO2. Taxonomic assignment of the 16S rRNA sequence data indicates that the predominant sequences in the enrichment were Sphingomonas (55.3%, Solirubrobacter (27.5% and Arthrobacter (16.6%. At the same time, in heat-killed sediment and in sediment without any additional substrates, which were cultivated in a CH4 atmosphere, no geochemical changes were detected, nor the presence of intact cells and 16S rRNA sequences of Bacteria and Archaea. This data may suggest that the decomposition of organic matter under culturing conditions could be performed by microorganisms from low-temperature sediment layers. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is migration of the representatives of the deep thermophilic community through fault zones in the near surface sediment layers, together with gas-bearing fluids.

  10. The Effect Of Organic Surfactants On The Properties Of Common Hygroscopic Particles: Effective Densities, Reactivity And Water Evaporation Of Surfactant Coated Particles

    Cuadrarodriguez, L.; Zelenyuk, A.; Imre, D.; Ellison, B.

    2006-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosol compositions routinely show that organic compounds account for a very large fraction of the particle mass. The organic compounds that make up this aerosol mass represent a wide range of molecules with a variety of properties. Many of the particles are composed of hygroscopic salts like sulfates, nitrates and sea-salt internally mixed with organics. While the properties of the hygroscopic salts are known, the effect of the organic compounds on the microphysical and chemical properties which include CCN activity is not clear. .One particularly interesting class of internally mixed particles is composed of aqueous salts solutions that are coated with organic surfactants which are molecules with long aliphatic chain and a water soluble end. Because these molecules tend to coat the particles' surfaces, a monolayer might be sufficient to drastically alter their hygroscopic properties, their CCN activity, and reactivity. The aliphatic chains, being exposed to the oxidizing atmosphere are expected to be transformed through heterogeneous chemistry, yielding complex products with mixed properties. We will report the results from a series of observations on ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and sea salt particles coated with three types of surfactant molecules: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium oleate and laurtrimonium chloride. We have been able to measure the effective densities of internally mixed particles with a range of surfactant concentration that start below a monolayer and extend all the way to particles composed of pure surfactant. For many of the measurements the data reveal a rather complex picture that cannot be simply interpreted in terms of the known pure-compound densities. For unsaturated hydrocarbons we observed and quantified the effect of oxidation by ozone on particle size, effective density and individual particle mass spectral signatures. One of the more important properties of these surfactants is that they can form a

  11. Two level undercut-profile substrate-based filamentary coated conductors produced using metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    Insinga, Andrea R.; Sundaram, Aarthi; Hazelton, Drew W.

    2018-01-01

    The two level undercut-profile substrate (2LUPS) has been introduced as a concept for subdividing rare-earth-Ba$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ (REBCO) coated conductors (CC) into narrow filaments which reduces the AC losses and improves field stability for DC magnets. The 2LUPS consists of two levels...

  12. Protective film formation on AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy by leaching of lithium carbonate from an organic coating

    Liu, Y.; Visser, P.; Zhou, X.; Lyon, S.B.; Hashimoto, T.; Curioni, M.; Gholinia, A.; Thompson, G.E.; Smyth, G.; Gibbon, S.R.; Graham, D.; Mol, J.M.C.; Terryn, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation into corrosion inhibition properties of a primer coating containing lithium carbonate as corrosion inhibitive pigment for AA2024 aluminum alloy was conducted. It was found that, during neutral salt spray exposure, a protective film of about 0.2 to 1.5 ?m thickness formed within the

  13. The role of organic modification of layered nanosilicates on mechanical and surface properties of organic–inorganic coatings

    Špírková, Milena; Duchek, P.; Strachota, Adam; Poreba, Rafal; Kotek, Jiří; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 311-328 ISSN 1547-0091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX08240901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : organic–inorganic nanocomposite * coating * sol–gel process Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.121, year: 2011

  14. The influence of nanoadditives on surface, permeability and mechanical properties of self-organized organic–inorganic nanocomposite coatings

    Špírková, Milena; Strachota, Adam; Brožová, Libuše; Brus, Jiří; Urbanová, Martina; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bláhová, O.; Duchek, P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2010), s. 219-228 ISSN 1547-0091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : coatings * nanoadditives * nanocomposite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2010

  15. Inhibition of filiform corrosion on organic-coated AA2024-T3 by smart-release cation and anion-exchange pigments

    Williams, G.; McMurray, H.N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Filiform corrosion (FFC) inhibition by various smart-release pigments was evaluated by SKP. ► Rare earth cation-containing pigments were ineffective at halting FFC propagation. ► Metal oxo-anions and organic copper-specific agents were exchanged into hydrotalcite. ► Effective inhibition of FFC was demonstrated by anions which stopped copper re-plating. - Abstract: In-coating cation and anion exchange pigments are studied with respect to their ability to inhibit chloride-induced filiform corrosion (FFC) on organic-coated AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy substrates. In-situ scanning Kelvin probe potentiometry is used to quantify both underfilm potentials associated with populations of propagating corrosion filaments and the kinetics of coating disbondment. Smart-release bentonite pigments containing exchangeable cerium (III) and yttrium (III) cations are shown to be largely ineffective in reducing rates of FFC propagation. The reasons for this are discussed in terms of the chemistry of the electrolyte-filled corrosion filament head. In contrast, anion-exchange hydrotalcite (HT) based pigments are highly effective inhibitors of FFC. A comparison of the extent of FFC observed for various inorganic exchangeable anions is made with as-received HT comprising carbonate anions. Of the anions evaluated, exchangeable chromate unsurprisingly provides the highest FFC inhibition efficiency. It is also demonstrated that exchanging the native carbonate ions for certain organic species which act as complexing agents for copper ions, gives rise to an equivalent level of FFC inhibition. The implication of these findings with respect to the mechanism of FFC on copper containing aluminium alloys is considered.

  16. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact

    Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a continuous assessment of the impact of solid urban waste (SUW) landfills in the central Iberian Peninsula that were sealed with a layer of soil 20 years ago. cover soils and soils from discharge areas have been periodically analysed. Soil concentrations of salts and heavy metals affect the biotic components of these ecosystems. (Author)

  17. Angioplasty and stent - heart - discharge

    Drug-eluting stents - discharge; PCI - discharge; Percutaneous coronary intervention - discharge; Balloon angioplasty - discharge; Coronary angioplasty - discharge; Coronary artery angioplasty - discharge; Cardiac ...

  18. Biocompatible antimicrobial cotton fibres for healthcare industries: a biogenic approach for synthesis of bio-organic-coated silver nanoparticles.

    Kashid, Sahebrao B; Lakkakula, Jaya R; Chauhan, Deepak S; Srivastava, Rohit; Raut, Rajesh W

    2017-12-01

    Cotton fibres coated with biogenically fabricated silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are most sought material because of their enhanced activity and biocompatibility. After successful synthesis of SNPs on cotton fibres using leaf extract of Vitex negundo Linn, the fibres were studied using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, energy dispersive X-ray, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The characterisation revealed uniformly distributed spherical agglomerates of SNPs having individual particle size around 50 nm with the deposition load of 423 μg of silver per gram of cotton. Antimicrobial assay of cotton-SNPs fibres showed effective performance against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The method is biogenic, environmentally benign, rapid, and cost-effective, producing highly biocompatible antimicrobial coating required for the healthcare industry.

  19. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ13C, Δ14C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C and Δ 14 C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  20. Synthesis and stabilization of oxide-based colloidal suspensions in organic media: application in the preparation of hybrids organic-inorganic materials for very high laser damage threshold coatings

    Marchet, N.

    2008-02-01

    Multilayer coatings are widely used in optic and particular in the field of high power laser on the components of laser chains. The development of a highly reflective coating with a laser damage resistance requires the fine-tuning of a multilayer stack constituted by a succession alternated by materials with low and high refractive index. In order to limit the number of layers in the stack, refractive indexes must be optimized. To do it, an original approach consists in synthesizing new organic-inorganic hybrid materials satisfying the criteria of laser damage resistance and optimized refractive index. These hybrid materials are constituted by nano-particles of metal oxides synthesized by sol-gel process and dispersed in an organic polymer with high laser damage threshold. Nevertheless, this composite system requires returning both compatible phases between them by chemical grafting of alc-oxy-silanes or carboxylic acids. We showed that it was so possible to disperse in a homogeneous way these functionalized nano-particles in non-polar, aprotic solvent containing solubilized organic polymers, to obtain time-stable nano-composite solutions. From these organic-inorganic hybrid solutions, thin films with optical quality and high laser damage threshold were obtained. These promising results have permitted to realize highly reflective stacks, constituted by 7 pairs with optical properties in agreement with the theoretical models and high laser damage threshold. (author)

  1. MEH-PPV and PCBM Solution Concentration Dependence of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells Based on Eosin-Y-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Riski Titian Ginting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of polymer solution concentration on the performance of chlorobenzene- (CB- and chloroform- (CF- based inverted-type organic solar cells has been investigated. The organic photoactive layers consisted of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2-ethyl hexyloxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene (MEH-PPV and (6,6-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM were spin coated from CF with concentrations of 4, 6, and 8 mg/mL and from CB with concentrations of 6, 8, and 10 mg/mL onto Eosin-Y-coated ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs. Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO and silver (Ag were used as electron collecting electrode and hole collecting electrode, respectively. Experimental results showed that the short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency increased with decrease of solution concentration for both CB and CF devices, which could be attributed to reducing charge recombination in thinner photoactive layer and larger contact area between the rougher photoactive layer and Ag contact. However, the open circuit voltage decreased with decreasing solution concentration due to increase of leakage current from ZnO NRAs to Ag as the ZnO NRAs were not fully covered by the polymer blend. The highest power conversion efficiencies of 0.54 ± 0.10% and 0.87 ± 0.15% were achieved at the respective lowest solution concentrations of CB and CF.

  2. Highly efficient blue organic light emitting device using indium-free transparent anode Ga:ZnO with scalability for large area coating

    Wang Liang; Matson, Dean W.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Gaspar, Daniel J.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Berry, Joseph J.; Ginley, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices have been achieved with an indium-free transparent anode, Ga doped ZnO (GZO). A large area coating technique was used (RF magnetron sputtering) to deposit the GZO films onto glass. The respective organic light emitting devices exhibited an operational voltage of 3.7 V, an external quantum efficiency of 17%, and a power efficiency of 39 lm/W at a current density of 1 mA/cm 2 . These parameters are well within acceptable standards for blue OLEDs to generate a white light with high enough brightness for general lighting applications. It is expected that high-efficiency, long-lifetime, large area, and cost-effective white OLEDs can be made with these indium-free anode materials.

  3. Analysis of Multipactor Discharge

    Lau, Y. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Several comprehensive studies of radio frequency (rf) breakdown and rf heating are reported. They are of general interest to magnetic confinement fusion, rf linac, and high power microwave source development. The major results include: (1) a ground-breaking theory of multipactor discharge on dielectric, including a successful proof-of-principle experiment that verified the newly developed scaling laws, (2) an in depth investigation of the failure mechanisms of diamond windows and ceramic windows, and of the roles of graphitization, thin films of coating and contaminants, and (3) a most comprehensive theory, to date, on the heating of particulates by an electromagnetic pulse, and on the roles of rf magnetic field heating and of rf electric field heating, including the construction of new scaling laws that govern them. The above form a valuable knowledge base for the general problem of heating phenomenology

  4. Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge

    Vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy - discharge; LAVH - discharge ... you were in the hospital, you had a vaginal hysterectomy. Your surgeon made a cut in your ...

  5. Simultaneous testing of multiclass organic contaminants in food and environment by liquid chromatography/dielectric barrier discharge ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Meyer, Cordula; Michels, Antje; Franzke, Joachim; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Hayen, Heiko

    2012-11-21

    A Dielectric Barrier Discharge Ionization (DBDI) LC/MS interface is based on the use of a low-temperature helium plasma, which features the possibility of simultaneous ionization of species with a wide variety of physicochemical properties. In this work, the performance of LC/DBDI-MS for trace analysis of highly relevant species in food and environment has been examined. Over 75 relevant species including multiclass priority organic contaminants and residues such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine species, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and drugs of abuse were tested. LC/DBDI-MS performance for this application was assessed and compared with standard LC/MS sources (electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)). The used benchtop Orbitrap mass spectrometer features a 10 Hz polarity switching mode, so that both positive and negative ion mode acquisitions are possible with acquisition cycles matching the requirements of fast liquid chromatography. Both polar and nonpolar species (including those typically analyzed by GC/electron ionization-MS) can be tested in a single run using polarity switching mode. The methodology was found to be effective in detecting a wide array of organic compounds at concentration levels in the low ng L(-1) to μg kg(-1) range in wastewater and food matrices, respectively. The linearity was evaluated in an olive oil extract, obtaining good correlation coefficients in the studied range. Additionally, minor matrix effects (≤15% of signal suppression or enhancement) were observed for most of the studied analytes in this complex fatty matrix. The results obtained were compared with data from both ESI and APCI sources, obtaining a merged coverage between ESI and APCI in terms of analyte ionization and higher overall sensitivity for the proposed ion source based on the DBD principle. The use of this approach further extends the coverage of current LC/MS methods towards

  6. Synthesis of Eugenol-Based Silicon-Containing Benzoxazines and Their Applications as Bio-Based Organic Coatings

    Jinyue Dai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, several bio-based main-chain type benzoxazine oligomers (MCBO were synthesized from eugenol derivatives via polycondensation reaction with paraformaldehyde and different diamine. Afterwards, their chemical structures were confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H-NMR. The curing reaction was monitored by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and FT-IR. The polybenzoxazine films were prepared via thermal ring-opening reaction of benzoxazine groups without solvent, and their thermodynamic properties, thermal stability, and coating properties were investigated in detail. Results indicated that the cured films exhibited good thermal stability and mechanical properties, showing 10% thermal weight loss (Td10% temperature as high as 408 °C and modulus at a room temperature of 2100 MPa as well as the glass transition temperature of 123 °C. In addition, the related coatings exhibited high hardness, excellent adhesion, good flexibility, low moisture absorption, and outstanding solvent resistance.

  7. Lung surgery - discharge

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  8. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  9. Steam Plasma Flows Generated in Gerdien Arc: Environment for Energy Gas Production from Organics and for Surface Coatings

    Hrabovský, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), s. 792-801 ISSN 1880-5558. [Seventh International Conference on Flow Dynamics. Sendai, 01.11.2010-03.11.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Thermal Plasma * Dc Arc Plasma Torch * Gerdien Arc * Plasma Gasification Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jfst/6/5/792/_pdf

  10. Flame retardant and hydrophobic properties of novel sol-gel derived phytic acid/silica hybrid organic-inorganic coatings for silk fabric

    Cheng, Xian-Wei; Liang, Cheng-Xi; Guan, Jin-Ping; Yang, Xu-Hong; Tang, Ren-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a novel phosphorus-rich hybrid organic-inorganic silica coating for improving the flame retardancy of silk fabric was prepared using naturally occurring phytic acid as phosphorus precursor and catalyst for the hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane. In addition, three silane coupling agents, namely 3-aminopropyldimethoxymethylsilane, 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane, were added in the hybrid sol as cross-linkers with the aim of developing hydrophobic coatings and improving the washing durability of the treated silk fabric. The condensation degree of the hybrid sol was characterized by solid-state 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The flammability and thermal degradation properties of the treated silk fabrics were determined in terms of limiting oxygen index, vertical burning, pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. The surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the treated silk fabrics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and water contact angle tests. The flammability tests revealed that the silicon sol could endow silk fabric with excellent flame retardancy when doped with phytic acid, and the treated silk fabrics self-extinguished immediately when the ignition source was removed. The silk fabrics treated with the modified hybrid sols exhibited hydrophobic surface and also better durability to washing.

  11. Impact of modified diamond-like carbon coatings on the spatial organization and disinfection of mixed-biofilms composed of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans industrial isolates.

    Gomes, L C; Deschamps, J; Briandet, R; Mergulhão, F J

    2018-07-20

    This work investigated the effects of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on the architecture and biocide reactivity of dual-species biofilms mimicking food processing contaminants. Biofilms were grown using industrial isolates of Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans on bare stainless steel (SST) and on two DLC surface coatings (a-C:H:Si:O designated by SICON® and a-C:H:Si designated by SICAN) in order to evaluate their antifouling activities. Quantification and spatial organization in single- and dual-species biofilms were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) using a strain specific labelling procedure. Those assays revealed that the E. coli isolate exhibited a higher adhesion to the modified surfaces and a decreased susceptibility to disinfectant in presence of P. agglomerans than alone in axenic culture. While SICON® reduced the short-term growth of E. coli in axenic conditions, both DLC surfaces increased the E. coli colonization in presence of P. agglomerans. However, both modified surfaces triggered a significantly higher log reduction of E. coli cells within mixed-species biofilms, thus the use of SICON® and SICAN surfaces may be a good approach to facilitate the disinfection process in critical areas of food processing plants. This study presents a new illustration of the importance of interspecies interactions in surface-associated community functions, and of the need to evaluate the effectiveness of hygienic strategies with relevant multi-species consortia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Contribution of radioactive 137Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction from a headwater catchment in Fukushima after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Iwagami, Sho; Onda, Yuichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Abe, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Radiocesium ( 137 Cs) migration from headwaters in forested areas provides important information, as the output from forest streams subsequently enters various land-use areas and downstream rivers. Thus, it is important to determine the composition of 137 Cs fluxes (dissolved fraction, suspended sediment, or coarse organic matter) that migrate through a headwater stream. In this study, the 137 Cs discharge by suspended sediment and coarse organic matter from a forest headwater catchment was monitored. The 137 Cs concentrations in suspended sediment and coarse organic matter, such as leaves and branches, and the amounts of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured at stream sites in three headwater catchments in Yamakiya District, located ∼35 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) from August 2012 to September 2013, following the earthquake and tsunami disaster. Suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were sampled at intervals of approximately 1-2 months. The 137 Cs concentrations of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 2.4-49 kBq/kg and 0.85-14 kBq/kg, respectively. The 137 Cs concentrations of the suspended sediment were closely correlated with the average deposition density of the catchment. The annual proportions of contribution of 137 Cs discharge by suspended sediment, coarse organic matter, and dissolved fraction were 96-99%, 0.0092-0.069%, and 0.73-3.7%, respectively. The total annual 137 Cs discharge from the catchment was 0.02-0.3% of the deposition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microencapsulation of Biocides for Reduced Copper, Long-life Antifouling Coatings

    2007-02-01

    NEHC - Naval Environmental Health Center ONR – Office of Naval Research PVA – polyvinyl alcohol QPL – qualified products list TBT – tributyltin ...also organotin) TSCA - Toxic Substance Control Act UNDS - Uniform National Discharge Standards US – United States VOC – volatile organic content...mechanisms, and are designed to erode or polish with time to ensure long service lives (Yebra et. al., 2004). Fouling release coatings are a non- toxic

  14. Electrochemical synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of poly(N-phenylpyrrole coatings in an organic medium on iron and platinum electrodes

    A.K.D. Diaw

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical synthesis of poly(N-phenylpyrrole film was achieved on pretreated iron and platinum electrodes in acetonitrile solutions containing 0.1 M N-phenylpyrrole as the monomer and 0.1 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethane sulfonate (Bu4NCF3SO3 as the supporting-salt. The results showed that a surface treatment by 10 % aqueous nitric acid inhibits iron dissolution without preventing the N-phenylpyrrole oxidation. Very strongly adherent films were obtained at constant-potential, constant-current and cyclic voltammetry. XPS measurements, infrared (FT-IR and electronic absorption (UV-vis spectroscopies were used to characterize the iron and platinum-coated electrodes. Finally the anticorrosion properties of the PΦP film were evidenced.

  15. Influence of accelerated thermal charging and discharging cycles on thermo-physical properties of organic phase change materials for solar thermal energy storage applications

    Raam Dheep, G.; Sreekumar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of organic phase change materials namely benzamide and sebacic acid. • Thermal reliability studies on identified phase change materials. • Measurement of phase transition temperature and latent heat of fusion. • Analysis of relative percentage difference (RPD%) in heat of fusion and melting temperature of benzamide and sebacic acid. - Abstract: Integration of appropriate thermal energy storage system plays a predominant role in upgrading the efficiency of solar thermal energy devices by reducing the incongruity between energy supply and demand. Latent heat thermal energy storage based on phase change materials (PCM) is found to be the most efficient and prospective method for storage of solar thermal energy. Ensuring the thermal reliability of PCM through large number of charging (melting) and discharging (solidification) cycles is a primary prerequisite to determine the suitability of PCM for a specific thermal energy storage applications. The present study explains the experimental analysis carried out on two PCM’s namely benzamide and sebacic acid to check the compatibility of the material in solar thermal energy storage applications. The selected materials were subjected to one thousand accelerated melting and solidification cycles in order to investigate the percentage of variation at different stages on latent heat of fusion, phase transition temperature, onset and peak melting temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the phase transition temperature and heat of fusion upon completion of every 100 thermal cycles and continued up to 1000 cycles. Relative Percentage Difference (RPD%) is calculated to find out the absolute deviation of melting temperature and latent heat of fusion with respect to zeroth cycle. The experimental study recorded a melting temperatures of benzamide and sebacic acid as 125.09 °C and 135.92 °C with latent heat of fusion of 285.1 (J/g) and 374.4 (J/g). The

  16. Fabrication of 100 A class, 1 m long coated conductor tapes by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and pulsed laser deposition

    Selvamanickam, V.; Lee, H.G.; Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Xie, Y.; Knoll, A.; Lenseth, K

    2003-10-15

    SuperPower has been scaling up YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}-based second-generation superconducting tapes by techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using industrial laser and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Both techniques offer advantage of high deposition rates, which is important for high throughput. Using highly-polished substrates produced in a reel-to-reel polishing facility and buffer layers deposited in a pilot ion beam assisted deposition facility, meter-long second-generation high temperature superconductor tapes have been produced. 100 A class, meter-long coated conductor tapes have been reproducibly demonstrated in this work by both MOCVD and PLD. The best results to date are 148 A over 1.06 m by MOCVD and 135 A over 1.1 m by PLD using industrial laser.

  17. High-sensitivity green resist material with organic solvent-free spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide-free water-developable processes for EB and EUV lithography

    Takei, Satoshi; Hanabata, Makoto; Oshima, Akihiro; Kashiwakura, Miki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the eco-friendly electron beam (EB) and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography using a high-sensitive negative type of green resist material derived from biomass to take advantage of organic solvent-free water spin-coating and tetramethylammonium hydroxide(TMAH)-free water-developable techniques. A water developable, non-chemically amplified, high sensitive, and negative tone resist material in EB lithography was developed for environmental affair, safety, easiness of handling, and health of the working people, instead of the common developable process of TMAH. The material design concept to use the water-soluble resist material with acceptable properties such as pillar patterns with less than 100 nm in high EB sensitivity of 10 μC/cm2 and etch selectivity with a silicon-based middle layer in CF4 plasma treatment was demonstrated for EB and EUV lithography.

  18. Investigation of Combined High-Frequency and Arc Discharges

    Taran, V.S.; Nezovibatko, Yu.N.; Marinin, V.G.; Shvets, O.M.; Ridozub, V.N.; Gasilin, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze experiment with arc and high-frequency (HF) plasma sources carried out in modified devise of the ''Bulat'' type. The HF-sources and combined discharges have attracted considerable attention for surface cleaning and coating. The utilization of such discharges allows decreasing droplet fraction formation and providing better adhesion and microhardness values. The existence of HF-field in plasma allows obtaining either conductive or dielectric coatings and they can be deposited on any substrates. (author)

  19. Effect of Illumination on the Photovoltaic Parameters of Al/p-Si Diode with an Organic Interlayer Prepared by Spin Coating Method

    Arife GENCER IMER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the photovoltaic device application of bromothymol blue (BTB as an organic interlayer has been reported. After Al back contact fabrication on the surface of the chemically cleaned substrate by thermal evaporation method, the organic interlayer has been grown on p-Si substrate via spin coating technique. Al top contacts have been formed on this organic thin film to finalize the device constructions. The different illumination intensities were exposed to the prepared sample for the enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of device. The fundamental photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc, short circuit current (Isc and output power (P were determined for the device under different illuminations. The photocurrent and the photo voltage have been increased with the increasing in illumination intensity. The dependence of the capacitance on the voltage at high and low frequency has been also reported for the studied device. Consequently, it has been confirmed that the illumination intensity has an important influence on the photovoltaic parameters of the device.

  20. Self-organized morphological evolution and dewetting in solvent vapor annealing of spin coated polymer blend nanostructures.

    Roy, Sudeshna; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-07-01

    Dewetting pathways, kinetics and morphologies of thin films of phase separating polymer blends are governed by the relative mobilities of the two components. We characterize the morphological transformations of the nanostructures of a PS/PMMA blend by annealing in toluene and chloroform vapors. Toluene leads to faster reorganization of PS, whereas chloroform engenders the opposite effect. Spin coating produces a very rough PMMA rich layer that completely wets the substrate and forms a plethora of slender columns protruding through the continuous PS rich layer on top. The nanostructures were stable under long thermal annealing but in the vapor annealing, phase separation and dewetting occurred readily to form the equilibrium structures of dewetted droplets of PS on top of PMMA which also climbed around the PS droplets to form rims. Toluene and chloroform annealing required around 50 h and 1 h respectively to attain the equilibrium. Substantial differences are observed in the intermediate morphologies (heights of nanostructures, roughness and size). PMMA columns remained embedded in the dewetted PS droplets, whereas a high mobility of PMMA in chloroform allowed its rapid evacuation during dewetting to produce an intermediate swiss-cheese like morphology of PS domains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 63.5797 - How do I determine the organic HAP content of my resins and gel coats?

    2010-07-01

    ... single value, you may use that value to determine compliance. If a separate measurement of the total... provided by the material supplier or manufacturer as a range, you must use the upper limit of the range for determining compliance. If a separate measurement of the total organic HAP content, such as an analysis of the...

  2. Nanoparticle/Polymer Nanocomposite Bond Coat or Coating

    Miller, Sandi G.

    2011-01-01

    This innovation addresses the problem of coatings (meant to reduce gas permeation) applied to polymer matrix composites spalling off in service due to incompatibility with the polymer matrix. A bond coat/coating has been created that uses chemically functionalized nanoparticles (either clay or graphene) to create a barrier film that bonds well to the matrix resin, and provides an outstanding barrier to gas permeation. There is interest in applying clay nanoparticles as a coating/bond coat to a polymer matrix composite. Often, nanoclays are chemically functionalized with an organic compound intended to facilitate dispersion of the clay in a matrix. That organic modifier generally degrades at the processing temperature of many high-temperature polymers, rendering the clay useless as a nano-additive to high-temperature polymers. However, this innovation includes the use of organic compounds compatible with hightemperature polymer matrix, and is suitable for nanoclay functionalization, the preparation of that clay into a coating/bondcoat for high-temperature polymers, the use of the clay as a coating for composites that do not have a hightemperature requirement, and a comparable approach to the preparation of graphene coatings/bond coats for polymer matrix composites.

  3. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs deposited by spin coating

    Ricardo Vera

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymer-based organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO / PEDOT:PSS / MDMO-PPV / Metal were prepared by spincoating. It is known that electroluminescence of these devices is strongly dependent on the material used as cathode and on the depositionparameters of the polymer electroluminescent layer MDMO-PPV. Objective. In this work the effect of i the frequency of the spin coater(1000-8000 rpm, ii the concentration of the MDMO-PPV: Toluene solution, and iii the material used as cathode (Aluminium or Silveron the electrical response of the devices, was evaluated through current-voltage (I-V measurements. Materials and methods. PEDOT:PPSand MDMO-PPV organic layers were deposited by spin coating on ITO substrates, and the OLED structure was completed with cathodesof aluminium and silver. The electric response of the devices was evaluated based on the I-V characteristics. Results. Diodes prepared withthinner organic films allow higher currents at lower voltages; this can be achieved either by increasing the frequency of the spin coater orby using concentrations of MDMO-PPV: Toluene lower than 2% weight. A fit of the experimental data showed that the diodes have twocontributions to the current. The first one is attributed to parasitic currents between anode and cathode, and the other one is a parallel currentthrough the organic layer, in which the carrier injection mechanism is mediated by thermionic emission. Conclusions. The results of thefitting and the energy level alignment through the whole structure show that PPV-based OLEDs are unipolar devices, with current mainlyattributed to hole transport.

  4. Effect of the metal concentration on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of self-organized a-C:Cu hard nanocomposite coatings

    Pardo, A.; Buijnsters, J.G.; Endrino, J.L.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; Abrasonis, G.; Bonet, R.; Caro, J.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the metal content (Cu: 0–28 at.%) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition is investigated. Silicon and AISI 301 stainless steel have been used as substrate materials. The microstructure, composition and bonding structure have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, combined Rutherford backscattered spectroscopy-nuclear reaction analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical and tribological properties have been assessed using nanoindentation and reciprocating sliding (fretting tests) and these have been correlated with the elemental composition of the films. A self-organized multilayered structure consisting of alternating carbon and copper metal nanolayers (thickness in the 25–50 nm range), whose formation is enhanced by the Cu content, is detected. The nanohardness and Young’s modulus decrease monotonically with increasing Cu content. A maximum value of the Young’s modulus of about 255 GPa is obtained for the metal-free film, whereas it drops to about 174 GPa for the film with a Cu content of 28 at.%. In parallel, a 50% drop in the nanohardness from about 28 GPa towards 14 GPa is observed for these coatings. An increase in the Cu content also produces an increment of the coefficient of friction in reciprocating sliding tests performed against a corundum ball counterbody. As compared to the metal free film, a nearly four times higher coefficient of friction value is detected in the case of a Cu content of 28 at.%. Nevertheless, the carbon–copper composite coatings produced a clear surface protection of the substrate despite an overall increase in wear loss with increasing Cu content in the range 3–28 at.%.

  5. Effect of the metal concentration on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of self-organized a-C:Cu hard nanocomposite coatings

    Pardo, A.; Buijnsters, J. G.; Endrino, J. L.; Gómez-Aleixandre, C.; Abrasonis, G.; Bonet, R.; Caro, J.

    2013-09-01

    The influence of the metal content (Cu: 0-28 at.%) on the structural, mechanical and tribological properties of amorphous carbon films grown by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition is investigated. Silicon and AISI 301 stainless steel have been used as substrate materials. The microstructure, composition and bonding structure have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, combined Rutherford backscattered spectroscopy-nuclear reaction analysis, and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The mechanical and tribological properties have been assessed using nanoindentation and reciprocating sliding (fretting tests) and these have been correlated with the elemental composition of the films. A self-organized multilayered structure consisting of alternating carbon and copper metal nanolayers (thickness in the 25-50 nm range), whose formation is enhanced by the Cu content, is detected. The nanohardness and Young’s modulus decrease monotonically with increasing Cu content. A maximum value of the Young’s modulus of about 255 GPa is obtained for the metal-free film, whereas it drops to about 174 GPa for the film with a Cu content of 28 at.%. In parallel, a 50% drop in the nanohardness from about 28 GPa towards 14 GPa is observed for these coatings. An increase in the Cu content also produces an increment of the coefficient of friction in reciprocating sliding tests performed against a corundum ball counterbody. As compared to the metal free film, a nearly four times higher coefficient of friction value is detected in the case of a Cu content of 28 at.%. Nevertheless, the carbon-copper composite coatings produced a clear surface protection of the substrate despite an overall increase in wear loss with increasing Cu content in the range 3-28 at.%.

  6. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  7. Ankle replacement - discharge

    ... total - discharge; Total ankle arthroplasty - discharge; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement - discharge; Osteoarthritis - ankle ... You had an ankle replacement. Your surgeon removed and reshaped ... an artificial ankle joint. You received pain medicine and were ...

  8. Hip fracture - discharge

    ... neck fracture repair - discharge; Trochanteric fracture repair - discharge; Hip pinning surgery - discharge ... in the hospital for surgery to repair a hip fracture, a break in the upper part of ...

  9. Asthma - child - discharge

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  10. Prostate brachytherapy - discharge

    Implant therapy - prostate cancer - discharge; Radioactive seed placement - discharge ... You had a procedure called brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer. Your treatment lasted 30 minutes or more, ...

  11. Sources of organic matter and microbial community structure in the sediments of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, east coat of India

    Harji, R.R; Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.

    Trench at 11,000 m. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 47, 1173- 1182. Fang, J., Kato, C., Sato, T., Chan, O., McKay, D., 2004. Biosynthesis and dietary uptake of polyunsaturated fatty acids by peizophilic bacteria. Comparative... lipids and community structure in estuaries. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 42, 105-117. Hedges, J.I., Keil, R.G., 1995. Sedimentary organic matter preservation: an assessment and speculative synthesis. Marine Chemistry 49, 81-115. Hedges, J.I., Keil, R...

  12. The application of epoxy resin coating in grounding grid

    Hu, Q.; Chen, Z. R.; Xi, L. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, H. F.

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy resin anticorrosion coating is widely used in grounding grid corrosion protection because of its wide range of materials, good antiseptic effect and convenient processing. Based on the latest research progress, four kinds of epoxy anticorrosive coatings are introduced, which are structural modified epoxy coating, inorganic modified epoxy coating, organic modified epoxy coating and polyaniline / epoxy resin composite coating. In this paper, the current research progress of epoxy base coating is analyzed, and prospected the possible development direction of the anti-corrosion coating in the grounding grid, which provides a reference for coating corrosion prevention of grounding materials.

  13. ZnO nanowires coated stainless steel meshes as hierarchical photocatalysts for catalytic photodegradation of four kinds of organic pollutants

    Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Lo, Wei-Ju [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30010, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: ychang0127@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan (China); Guo, Jin-You; Chen, Chien-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-05

    ZnO nanostructures were grown on the stainless steel mesh substrates using an aqueous chemical growth method. The different additives (such as 1,3-diaminopropane and polyethyleneimine) can be used to control the morphology of ZnO nanostructures. ZnO nanowires exhibit very prominent green emission and week UV emission from defect and band gap in the cathodoluminescence spectrum, respectively. The different morphology of ZnO nanostructures on the stainless steel mesh substrates can be used to irradiate UV light for the photocatalytic degradation of four kinds of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue, rhodamine 6G, methyl orange, and 4-nitrophenol. The ZnO nanowires can provide a higher surface-to-volume ratio and stronger defect emission, resulting in their highest photocatalytic performance in 10 W UV light irradiation. The ZnO nanowire arrays on the stainless steel mesh substrates provide a large-scale, facile, low-cost, high surface area, and high photocatalytic efficiency, which shall be of significant value for practical applications of the decomposition of environment pollutants and reusing of wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • ZnO NWs were grown on the stainless steel mesh by aqueous chemical growth method. • Longer ZnO NW arrays have been grown at short reaction time (2 h). • ZnO NWs revealed green emission from surface defect in the CL spectrum. • The different morphologies of ZnO were evaluated organic pollutant degradation. • ZnO NWs were also exhibited great photocatalytic activity and reusability.

  14. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  15. Effect of lithium PFC coatings on NSTX density control

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bush, C.; Gates, D.; Gray, T.; Kaita, R.; Leblanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Zakharov, L.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium coatings on the graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) in NSTX are being investigated as a tool for density profile control and reducing the recycling of hydrogen isotopes. Repeated lithium pellet injection into Center Stack Limited and Lower Single Null ohmic helium discharges were used to coat graphite surfaces that had been pre-conditioned with ohmic helium discharges of the same shape to reduce their contribution to hydrogen isotope recycling. The following deuterium NBI reference discharges exhibited a reduction in density by a factor of about 3 for limited and 2 for diverted plasmas, respectively, and peaked density profiles. Recently, a lithium evaporator has been used to apply thin coatings on conditioned and unconditioned PFCs. Effects on the plasma density and the impurities were obtained by pre-conditioning the PFCs with ohmic helium discharges, and performing the first deuterium NBI discharge as soon as possible after applying the lithium coating

  16. Tannic acid- and natural organic matter-coated magnetite as green Fenton-like catalysts for the removal of water pollutants

    Nadejde, C.; Neamtu, M.; Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Schneider, R. J.; Paul, A.; Ababei, G.; Panne, U.

    2015-01-01

    The use of magnetic materials as heterogeneous catalysts has attracted increasing attention in the last years since they proved to be promising candidates for water treatment. In the present study, two types of surface-modified magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles, coated with non-hazardous naturally occurring agents—either tannic acid (TA) or dissolved natural organic matter—were evaluated as magnetic heterogeneous catalysts. Chemical synthesis (co-precipitation) was chosen to yield the nanocatalysts due to its well-established simplicity and efficiency. Subsequently, the properties of the final products were fully assessed by various characterization techniques. The catalytic activity in heterogeneous oxidation of aqueous solutions containing a model pollutant, Bisphenol A (BPA), was comparatively studied. The effect of operational parameters (catalyst loading, H 2 O 2 dosage, and UV light irradiation) on the degradation performance of the oxidation process was investigated. The optimum experimental parameters were found to be 1.0 g/L of catalysts and 10 mM H 2 O 2 , under UV irradiation. The highest mineralization rates were observed for Fe 3 O 4 -TA catalyst. More than 80 % of BPA was removed after 30 min of reaction time under the specified experimental conditions. The obtained results showed that the two catalysts studied here are suitable candidates for the removal of pollutants in wastewaters by means of heterogeneous reaction using a green sustainable treatment method

  17. Evaluation of Removal Mechanisms in a Graphene Oxide-Coated Ceramic Ultrafiltration Membrane for Retention of Natural Organic Matter, Pharmaceuticals, and Inorganic Salts.

    Chu, Kyoung Hoon; Fathizadeh, Mahdi; Yu, Miao; Flora, Joseph R V; Jang, Am; Jang, Min; Park, Chang Min; Yoo, Sung Soo; Her, Namguk; Yoon, Yeomin

    2017-11-22

    Functionalized graphene oxide (GO), derived from pure graphite via the modified Hummer method, was used to modify commercially available ceramic ultrafiltration membranes using the vacuum method. The modified ceramic membrane functionalized with GO (ceramic GO ) was characterized using a variety of analysis techniques and exhibited higher hydrophilicity and increased negative charge compared with the pristine ceramic membrane. Although the pure water permeability of the ceramic GO membrane (14.4-58.6 L/m 2 h/bar) was slightly lower than that of the pristine membrane (25.1-62.7 L/m 2 h/bar), the removal efficiencies associated with hydrophobic attraction and charge effects were improved significantly after GO coating. Additionally, solute transport in the GO nanosheets of the ceramic GO membrane played a vital role in the retention of target compounds: natural organic matter (NOM; humic acid and tannic acid), pharmaceuticals (ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole), and inorganic salts (NaCl, Na 2 SO 4 , CaCl 2 , and CaSO 4 ). While the retention efficiencies of NOM, pharmaceuticals, and inorganic salts in the pristine membrane were 74.6%, 15.3%, and 2.9%, respectively, these increased to 93.5%, 51.0%, and 31.4% for the ceramic GO membrane. Consequently, the improved removal mechanisms of the membrane modified with functionalized GO nanosheets can provide efficient retention for water treatment under suboptimal environmental conditions of pH and ionic strength.

  18. Chemical, electrical and electrochemical characterization of hybrid organic/inorganic polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} coating deposited on polyester fabrics

    Molina, J.; Fernandez, J.; Rio, A.I. del; Bonastre, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain); Cases, F., E-mail: fjcases@txp.upv.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, EPS de Alcoy, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, 03801 Alcoy (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A study of the stability of conducting fabrics of polyester (PES) coated with polypyrrole/PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-} (organic/inorganic hybrid material) in different pH solutions (1, 7, 13) has been done. Washing tests were also done in views of its possible application in electronic textiles such as antistatic clothing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies have been done to quantify the amount of counter ion that remains in the polymer matrix and determine the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N) after the different tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to observe morphological differences after the different tests. Surface resistivity changes were measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to measure changes in electroactivity after the different tests. Higher pHs caused a decrease of the doping ratio (N{sup +}/N), the loss of part of the counter ions and the decrease of its conducting and electrocatalytic properties. The stability in acid media and neutral media and after the washing test was good. Only at pH 13 the loss of the counter ion was widespread and there was a decrease of its conducting and catalytic properties; although the fabrics continued acting mainly as a conducting material.

  19. Carbon-Coated Fe3O4/VOx Hollow Microboxes Derived from Metal-Organic Frameworks as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wen, Tao; Liang, Kuang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Zhou, Xiao; Shen, Cong-Cong; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-02-01

    As the ever-growing demand for high-performance power sources, lithium-ion batteries with high storage capacities and outstanding rate performance have been widely considered as a promising storage device. In this work, starting with metal-organic frameworks, we have developed a facile approach to the synthesis of hybrid Fe 3 O 4 /VO x hollow microboxes via the process of hydrolysis and ion exchange and subsequent calcination. In the constructed architecture, the hollow structure provides an efficient lithium ion diffusion pathway and extra space to accommodate the volume expansion during the insertion and extraction of Li + . With the assistance of carbon coating, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C microboxes exhibit excellent cyclability and enhanced rate performance when employed as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. As a result, the obtained Fe 3 O 4 /VO x @C delivers a high Coulombic efficiency (near 100%) and outstanding reversible specific capacity of 742 mAh g -1 after 400 cycles at a current density of 0.5 A g -1 . Moreover, a remarkable reversible capacity of 556 mAh g -1 could be retained even at a current density of 2 A g -1 . This study provides a fundamental understanding for the rational design of other composite oxides as high-performance electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Three-dimensional Printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Framework Coated with Cu-BTC Metal-organic Frameworks for the Removal of Methylene Blue

    Wang, Zongyuan; Wang, Jiajun; Li, Minyue; Sun, Kaihang; Liu, Chang-jun

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing was applied for the fabrication of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) framework. Functionalization of the ABS framework was then performed by coating of porous Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene tricarboxylic acid) metal-organic frameworks on it using a step-by-step in-situ growth. The size of the Cu-BTC particles on ABS was ranged from 200 nm to 900 nm. The Cu-BTC/ABS framework can take up most of the space of the tubular reactor that makes the adsorption effective with no need of stirring. Methylene blue (MB) can be readily removed from aqueous solution by this Cu-BTC/ABS framework. The MB removal efficiency for solutions with concentrations of 10 and 5 mg/L was 93.3% and 98.3%, respectively, within 10 min. After MB adsorption, the Cu-BTC/ABS composite can easily be recovered without the need for centrifugation or filtration and the composite is reusable. In addition the ABS framework can be recovered for subsequent reuse. A significant advantage of 3D-printed frameworks is that different frameworks can be easily fabricated to meet the needs of different applications. This is a promising strategy to synthesize new frameworks using MOFs and polymers to develop materials for applications beyond adsorption. PMID:25089616

  1. [Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge specimens for Trichomonas vaginalis and other micro-organisms in 18-45 age group women].

    Keşli, Recep; Pektaş, Bayram; Ozdemir, Mehmet; Günenc, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Erkan; Baykan, Mahmut; Baysal, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoon that causes trichomoniasis which is characterised by a foamy yellowish odorous discharge and superficial defects and necrotic ulcers in vaginal mucosa. Trichomoniasis is transmitted from human to human by sexual contact and can be seen in almost every part of the world. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis in 18-45 years age group women with vaginal discharge complaints who applied to the Gynaecology Outpatient Clinic of Konya Social Insurance Instution Hospital during September 1-December 15 2003. Samples were taken from posterior fornix of the vagina with the aid of a speculum and sterile cotton swabs. All the samples were examined by wet mount preparations, Gram and Giemsa staining method under the light microscope. Of seventy samples 6 (9%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis, 9 (13%) for Gardnerella vaginalis, one for Mobiluncus spp. and 11 (16%) for Candida spp. It is possible to say that, in spite of a definite diagnosis of trichomoniasis made by cultivation method, examining the vaginal smear by direct microscope also has an important role in the diagnosis of infection. Direct microscopic examination will help in deciding whether to begin the treatment of trichomoniasis.

  2. Metal-Organic Framework Thin Film Coated Optical Fiber Sensors: A Novel Waveguide-Based Chemical Sensing Platform.

    Kim, Ki-Joong; Lu, Ping; Culp, Jeffrey T; Ohodnicki, Paul R

    2018-02-23

    Integration of optical fiber with sensitive thin films offers great potential for the realization of novel chemical sensing platforms. In this study, we present a simple design strategy and high performance of nanoporous metal-organic framework (MOF) based optical gas sensors, which enables detection of a wide range of concentrations of small molecules based upon extremely small differences in refractive indices as a function of analyte adsorption within the MOF framework. Thin and compact MOF films can be uniformly formed and tightly bound on the surface of etched optical fiber through a simple solution method which is critical for manufacturability of MOF-based sensor devices. The resulting sensors show high sensitivity/selectivity to CO 2 gas relative to other small gases (H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , and CO) with rapid (optical fiber platform which results in an amplification of inherent optical absorption present within the MOF-based sensing layer with increasing values of effective refractive index associated with adsorption of gases.

  3. Degradation Mechanisms of Military Coating Systems

    Keene, L. T; Halada, G. P; Clayton, C. R; Kosik, W. E; McKnight, S. H

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the development and application of specialized characterization techniques used to study the environmental degradation mechanisms of organic coating systems employed by the United...

  4. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  5. Metabolic Activation of the Organic Fraction Coated Onto Air Pollution PM2.5 and its Genotoxicity in a Co Culture Model of Human Lung Cells

    Abbas, I; Garcon, G; Billet, S.; Verdin, A.; Escande, F.; Saint-Georges, F.; Mulliez, Ph.; Gosset, P.; Shirali, P.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution Particulate Matter (PM 2 .5) is described as one of the major risk factors affecting human health. Hence, the objective of our research project was to evaluate the lung toxicity of PM 2 .5 collected in Dunkerque (France), through the study of the metabolic activation of its organic fraction (e.g. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs; Volatile Organic Compounds, VOCs) and its genotoxicity in two human cell models: embryonic lung epithelial L132 cells and Alveolar Macrophages (AM) isolated from bronchiolo-alveolar lavages of healthy outpatients, in mono- and/or coculture. The coculture system we used allowed the direct exposure of AM to PM 2 .5, and the interaction between the two cell types only through soluble factor diffusion. Exposure to Dunkerque City's PM 2 .5 induced the gene expression of phase I and phase II enzymes (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2F1, NQO1, GSTπ1, GSTμ3) involved in the metabolic activation of PAHS and/or VOCS, in AM, in mono- and coculture, and in L132 cells, only in monoculture. Taken together, these results reinforced the key role of AM in lung defenses, and indicated that particles, as physical vector of the penetration and retention of coated-PAHS and/or VOCS within cells, enabled them to exert a durable toxicity. DNA bulky adduct formation was also reported not only in Dunkerque City's PM 2 .5-exposed AM, in mono- and coculture, but also in L132 cells from PAH-exposed coculture. Loss of Heterozygosity (LOH) and/or MicroSatellite Instability (MSI) of some MicroSatellites (MS) located in multiple critical regions of chromosome 3 were reported in L132 cells from Dunkerque City's PM 2 .5-exposed mono- or cocultures. (author)

  6. Electrochemical genoassays on gold-coated magnetic nanoparticles to quantify genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed as GMO percentage.

    Plácido, Alexandra; Pereira, Clara; Guedes, Alexandra; Barroso, M Fátima; Miranda-Castro, Rebeca; de-Los-Santos-Álvarez, Noemí; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2018-07-01

    The integration of nanomaterials in the field of (bio)sensors has allowed developing strategies with improved analytical performance. In this work, ultrasmall core-shell Fe 3 O 4 @Au magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as the platform for the immobilization of event-specific Roundup Ready (RR) soybean and taxon-specific DNA sequences. Firstly, monodisperse Fe 3 O 4 MNPs were synthesized by thermal decomposition and subsequently coated with a gold shell through reduction of Au(III) precursor on the surface of the MNPs in the presence of an organic capping agent. This nanosupport exhibited high colloidal stability, average particle size of 10.2 ± 1.3 nm, and spherical shape. The covalent immobilization of ssDNA probe onto the Au shell of the Fe 3 O 4 @Au MNPs was achieved through a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) created from mixtures of alkane thiols (6-mercapto-1-hexanol and mercaptohexanoic acid). The influence of the thiols ratio on the electrochemical performance of the resulting electrochemical genoassays was studied, and remarkably, the best analytical performance was achieved for a pure mercaptohexanoic acid SAM. Two quantification assays were designed; one targeting an RR sequence and a second targeting a reference soybean gene, both with a sandwich format for hybridization, signaling probes labelled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), enzymatic amplification and chronoamperometric detection at screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE). The magnetogenoassays exhibited linear ranges from 0.1 to 10.0 nM and from 0.1 to 5.0 nM with similar detection limits of 0.02 nM and 0.05 nM for the event-specific (RR) and the taxon-specific (lectin) targets, respectively. The usefulness of the approach was demonstrated by its application to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in feed and food. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microstructural and superconducting properties of high current metal-organic chemical vapor deposition YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor wires

    Holesinger, T G; Maiorov, B; Ugurlu, O; Civale, L; Chen, Y; Xiong, X; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2009-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on flexible, ion beam assisted deposition MgO templates has been used to produce high critical current density (J c ) (Y,Sm) 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O y (REBCO) films suitable for use in producing practical high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wires. Thick films on tape were produced with sequential additions of 0.7 μm of REBCO via a reel-to-reel progression through a custom-designed MOCVD reactor. Multi-pass processing for thick film deposition is critically dependent upon minimizing surface secondary phase formation. Critical currents (I c s) of up to 600 A/cm width (t = 2.8 μm, J c = 2.6 MA cm -2 , 77 K, self-field) were obtained in short lengths of HTS wires. These high performance MOCVD films are characterized by closely spaced (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoparticle layers that may be tilted relative to the film normal and REBCO orientation. Small shifts in the angular dependence of J c in low and intermediate applied magnetic fields can be associated with the tilted nanoparticle layers. Also present in these films were YCuO 2 nanoplates aligned with the YBCO matrix (short dimension perpendicular to the film normal), threading dislocations, and oriented composite defects (OCDs). The latter structures consist of single or multiple a-axis oriented grains coated on each side with insulating (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 or CuO. The OCDs formed a connected network of insulating phases by the end of the fourth pass. Subsequent attempts at adding additional layers did not increase I c . There is an inconsistency between the measured J c and the observed microstructural degradation that occurs with each additional layer, suggesting that previously deposited layers are improving with each repeated reactor pass. These dynamic changes suggest a role for post-processing to optimize superconducting properties of as-deposited films, addressing issues associated with reproducibility and manufacturing yield.

  8. Functional coatings: the sol-gel approach

    Belleville, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    CEA's sol-gel laboratory is specialized in the development of innovative sol-gel optical coatings and has extended its application field to membrane materials and coatings for energy conversion, to electric coatings for microelectronics devices and to thin films for gas sensing. This article describes, by way of examples, the laboratory's research on sol-gel functional coatings, including nano-material synthesis, organic-inorganic hybrid-based solution preparation as well as deposition process development and prototyping. (author)

  9. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    Bengtson, Arne

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C 2 ). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed

  10. Discharge behaviors during plasma electrolytic oxidation on aluminum alloy

    Liu, Run; Wu, Jie; Xue, Wenbin; Qu, Yao; Yang, Chaolin; Wang, Bin; Wu, Xianying

    2014-01-01

    A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was performed on the 2024 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte to fabricate ceramic coatings under a constant voltage. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to evaluate the characteristics of plasma discharge during PEO process. The plasma electron temperature and density were obtained by analyzing the spectral lines of OES, and the atomic ionization degree in discharge zone was calculated in terms of Saha thermal ionization equation. The illumination intensity of plasma discharge and the temperature in the interior of alloy were measured. Combining the surface morphology and cross-sectional microstructure with the optical emission spectra and illumination at different discharge stage, a discharge model in the growth of PEO ceramic coatings was proposed. It is found that there are two discharge modes of type A with small spark size and type B with large spark size, and the latter only appears in the intermediate stage of PEO process. The illumination intensity has a maximum value in the initial stage of oxidation with many sparks of discharge type A. The electron temperature in plasma discharge zone is about 3000 K–7000 K and atomic ionization degree of Al is about 2.0 × 10 −5 –7.2 × 10 −3 , which depend on discharge stage. The discharge type B plays a key role on the electron temperature and atomic ionization degree. The electron density keeps stable in the range of about 8.5 × 10 21  m −3 –2.6 × 10 22  m −3 . - Highlights: • The characteristics of PEO plasma discharge was evaluated by OES. • Electron temperature, concentration, atomic ionization degree were calculated. • Discharge model for the growth of PEO coatings was proposed. • Temperature in the interior of alloy during PEO process was measured

  11. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  12. Tannic acid- and natural organic matter-coated magnetite as green Fenton-like catalysts for the removal of water pollutants

    Nadejde, C., E-mail: claudianadejde@gmail.com; Neamtu, M., E-mail: mariana.neamtu@uaic.ro [‘Alexandru Ioan Cuza’ University, Interdisciplinary Research Department – Field Science (Romania); Hodoroaba, V.-D.; Schneider, R. J.; Paul, A. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany); Ababei, G. [National Institute of Research and Development for Technical Physics (Romania); Panne, U. [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    The use of magnetic materials as heterogeneous catalysts has attracted increasing attention in the last years since they proved to be promising candidates for water treatment. In the present study, two types of surface-modified magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles, coated with non-hazardous naturally occurring agents—either tannic acid (TA) or dissolved natural organic matter—were evaluated as magnetic heterogeneous catalysts. Chemical synthesis (co-precipitation) was chosen to yield the nanocatalysts due to its well-established simplicity and efficiency. Subsequently, the properties of the final products were fully assessed by various characterization techniques. The catalytic activity in heterogeneous oxidation of aqueous solutions containing a model pollutant, Bisphenol A (BPA), was comparatively studied. The effect of operational parameters (catalyst loading, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dosage, and UV light irradiation) on the degradation performance of the oxidation process was investigated. The optimum experimental parameters were found to be 1.0 g/L of catalysts and 10 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, under UV irradiation. The highest mineralization rates were observed for Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-TA catalyst. More than 80 % of BPA was removed after 30 min of reaction time under the specified experimental conditions. The obtained results showed that the two catalysts studied here are suitable candidates for the removal of pollutants in wastewaters by means of heterogeneous reaction using a green sustainable treatment method.

  13. Electroluminescence color tuning between green and red from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices fabricated by spin-coating of rare-earth (terbium + europium) organic compounds on silicon

    Matsuda, Toshihiro; Hattori, Fumihiro; Iwata, Hideyuki; Ohzone, Takashi

    2018-04-01

    Color tunable electroluminescence (EL) from metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with the rare-earth elements Tb and Eu is reported. Organic compound liquid sources of (Tb + Ba) and Eu with various Eu/Tb ratios from 0.001 to 0.4 were spin-coated on an n+-Si substrate and annealed to form an oxide insulator layer. The EL spectra had only peaks corresponding to the intrashell Tb3+/Eu3+ transitions in the spectral range from green to red, and the intensity ratio of the peaks was appropriately tuned using the appropriate Eu/Tb ratios in liquid sources. Consequently, the EL emission colors linearly changed from yellowish green to yellowish orange and eventually to reddish orange on the CIE chromaticity diagram. The gate current +I G current also affected the EL colors for the medium-Eu/Tb-ratio device. The structure of the surface insulator films analyzed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has four layers, namely, (Tb4O7 + Eu2O3), [Tb4O7 + Eu2O3 + (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x ], (Tb/Eu/Ba)SiO x , and SiO x -rich oxide. The EL mechanism proposed is that electrons injected from the Si substrate into the SiO x -rich oxide and Tb/Eu/Ba-silicate layers become hot electrons accelerated in a high electric field, and then these hot electrons excite Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in the Tb4O7/Eu2O3 layers resulting in EL emission from Tb3+ and Eu3+ intrashell transitions.

  14. Nonhydrolytic sol-gel approach to facile creation of surface-bonded zirconia organic-inorganic hybrid coatings for sample preparation. Ι. Capillary microextraction of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    Alhendal, Abdullah; Mengis, Stephanie; Matthews, Jacob; Malik, Abdul

    2016-10-14

    Nonhydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) route was used for the creation of novel zirconia-polypropylene oxide (ZrO 2 -PPO) sol-gel hybrid sorbents in the form of surface coatings for the extraction and preconcentration of catecholamine neurotransmitters and molecules structurally related to their deaminated metabolites. In comparison to other sorbents made of inorganic transition metal oxides, the presented hybrid organic-inorganic sorbents facilitated reversible sorption properties that allowed for efficient desorption of the extracted analytes by LC-MS compatible mobile phases. The presented sol-gel hybrid sorbents effectively overcame the major drawbacks of traditional silica- or polymer-based sorbents by providing superior pH stability (pH range: 0-14), and a variety of intermolecular interactions. Nonaqueous sol-gel treatment of PPO with ZrCl 4 was employed for the derivatization of the terminal hydroxyl groups on PPO, providing zirconium trichloride-containing end groups characterized by enhanced sol-gel reactivity. NHSG ZrO 2 -PPO sorbent provided excellent microextraction performance for catecholamines, low detection limits (5.6-9.6pM), high run-to-run reproducibility (RSD 0.6-5.1%), high desorption efficiency (95.0-99.5%) and high enrichment factors (∼1480-2650) for dopamine and epinephrine, respectively, extracted from synthetic urine samples. The presented sol-gel sorbents provided effective alternative to conventional extraction media providing unique physicochemical characteristics and excellent extraction capability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  16. New Copolymers Containing Charge Carriers for Organic Devices with ITO Films Treated by UV-Ozone Using High Intensity Discharge Lamp

    Emerson Roberto SANTOS

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available For electroluminescent devices new copolymers were synthesized using a Suzuki cross-coupling reaction based on monomers (fluorine-alt-phenylene in conjugation with quinoline-alt-phenylene units. They were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FTIR. TGA measurements indicated that the copolymers have good thermal properties and no weight loss was observed up to 250 °C. The UV-Vis spectra were characterized by absorptions from the fluorene-alt-phenylene and quinoline-alt-phenylene segments in the backbone, while their photoluminescence (PL spectra dominated by emissions from the fluorene excimer. For devices assembly ITO films were treated using a High Intensity Discharge Lamp (HPMVL without outer bulb presenting high ozone concentration than that conventional germicidal lamp. The device with ITO treated revealed significant decrease of threshold voltage (or turn-on voltage compared by untreated with I-V curves. This decrease can be related by water and carbon dioxide extracted on surface after UV-Ozone treatment revealed by DRIFT measurements.

  17. Vessel Sewage Discharges

    Vessel sewage discharges are regulated under Section 312 of the Clean Water Act, which is jointly implemented by the EPA and Coast Guard. This homepage links to information on marine sanitation devices and no discharge zones.

  18. Electron beam-cured coating

    Kishi, Naoyuki

    1976-01-01

    The method for hardening coatings by the irradiation with electron beams is reviewed. The report is divided into seven parts, namely 1) general description and characteristics of electron beam-cured coating, 2) radiation sources of curing, 3) hardening conditions and reaction behaviour, 4) uses and advantages, 5) latest trends of the industry, 6) practice in the field of construction materials, and 7) economy. The primary characteristics of the electron beam hardening is that graft reaction takes place between base resin and coating to produce strong adhesive coating without any pretreatment. A variety of base resins are developed. High class esters of acrylic acid monomers and methacrylic acid monomers are mainly used as dilutants recently. At present, scanning type accelerators are used, but the practical application of the system producing electron beam of curtain type is expected. The dose rate dependence, the repetitive irradiation and the irradiation atmosphere are briefly described. The filed patent applications on the electron beam hardening were analyzed by the officer of Japan Patent Agency. The production lines for coatings by the electron beam hardening in the world are listed. In the electron beam-cured coating, fifty percent of given energy is consumed effectively for the electron beam hardening, and the solvents discharged from ovens and polluting atmosphere are not used, because the paints of high solid type is used. The running costs of the electron beam process are one sixth of the thermal oven process. (Iwakiri, K.)

  19. Early discharge following birth

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    .26–0.48) and primiparous compared to multiparous had an OR of 0.22 (CI 0.17–0.29) for early discharge. Other predictors for early discharge were: no induction of labour, no epidural painkiller, bleeding less than 500 ml during delivery, higher gestational age, early expected discharge and positive breastfeeding experience...

  20. Heart attack - discharge

    ... and lifestyle Cholesterol - drug treatment Controlling your high blood pressure Deep vein thrombosis - discharge Dietary fats explained Fast food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart attack - what to ask your doctor Heart bypass ... pacemaker - discharge High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor How to read ...

  1. Fiscal 1997 report on the results on the international standardization R and D. Development of chemical methods to analyze/evaluate metallic coatings of surface treated steel coating sheets; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho kokusai hyojun soseigata kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen shori koban mekkiso no kagaku bunseki hyoka hoho no kaihatsu

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper studied the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. Chemical composition and coating thickness (g/m{sup 2}) of 14 kinds of specimens including alloy coatings and organic coating with zinc and aluminum as base were analyzed by the above-mentioned methods to examine the relation between the both. As the chemical analysis method, used was inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. To study the relation between the methods, it was found to be necessary to recognize morphology at the boundary between the coating and base steel using, for example, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electro-probe micro-analysis (EPMA). To measure traceability of the analysis method, with the chemical analysis method as a judgement method, it is necessary to make reference materials by coating materials, to use the calibration graph confirmed by the materials and to adopt the glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. On the basis of such way of thinking, drafts were worked out for the international standardization of the chemical analysis method and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. 7 refs., 117 figs., 33 tabs.

  2. Hard coatings

    Dan, J.P.; Boving, H.J.; Hintermann, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    Hard, wear resistant and low friction coatings are presently produced on a world-wide basis, by different processes such as electrochemical or electroless methods, spray technologies, thermochemical, CVD and PVD. Some of the most advanced processes, especially those dedicated to thin film depositions, basically belong to CVD or PVD technologies, and will be looked at in more detail. The hard coatings mainly consist of oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides or carbon. Over the years, many processes have been developed which are variations and/or combinations of the basic CVD and PVD methods. The main difference between these two families of deposition techniques is that the CVD is an elevated temperature process (≥ 700 C), while the PVD on the contrary, is rather a low temperature process (≤ 500 C); this of course influences the choice of substrates and properties of the coating/substrate systems. Fundamental aspects of the vapor phase deposition techniques and some of their influences on coating properties will be discussed, as well as the very important interactions between deposit and substrate: diffusions, internal stress, etc. Advantages and limitations of CVD and PVD respectively will briefly be reviewed and examples of applications of the layers will be given. Parallel to the development and permanent updating of surface modification technologies, an effort was made to create novel characterisation methods. A close look will be given to the coating adherence control by means of the scratch test, at the coating hardness measurement by means of nanoindentation, at the coating wear resistance by means of a pin-on-disc tribometer, and at the surface quality evaluation by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finally, main important trends will be highlighted. (orig.)

  3. Emerging pollutants in the Esmeraldas watershed in Ecuador: discharge and attenuation of emerging organic pollutants along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas rivers.

    Voloshenko-Rossin, A; Gasser, G; Cohen, K; Gun, J; Cumbal-Flores, L; Parra-Morales, W; Sarabia, F; Ojeda, F; Lev, O

    2015-01-01

    Water quality characteristics and emerging organic pollutants were sampled along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas River and its main water pollution streams in the summer of 2013. The annual flow rate of the stream is 22 000 Mm(3) y(-1) and it collects the wastewater of Quito-Ecuador in the Andes and supplies drinking water to the city of Esmeraldas near the Pacific Ocean. The most persistent emerging pollutants were carbamazepine and acesulfame, which were found to be stable along the San Pedro-Guayllabamba-Esmeraldas River, whereas the concentration of most other organic emerging pollutants, such as caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, and steroidal estrogens, was degraded to a large extent along the 300 km flow. The mass rate of the sum of cocaine and benzoylecgonine, its metabolite, was increased along the stream, which may be attributed to coca plantations and wild coca trees. This raises the possibility of using river monitoring as an indirect way to learn about changes in coca plantations in their watersheds. Several organic emerging pollutants, such as venlafaxine, carbamazepine, sulphamethoxazole, and benzoylecgonine, survived even the filtration treatment at the Esmeraldas drinking water system, though all except for benzoylecgonine are found below 20 ng L(-1), and are therefore not likely to cause adverse health effects. The research provides a way to compare drug consumption in a major Latin American city (Quito) and shows that the consumption of most sampled drugs (carbamazepine, venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, sulphamethoxazole, ethinylestradiol) was below their average consumption level in Europe, Israel, and North America.

  4. Emerging pollutants in the Esmeraldas watershed in Ecuador: discharge and attenuation of emerging organic pollutants along the San Pedro– Guayllabamba–Esmeraldas rivers

    Voloshenko-Rossin, A.; Gasser, G.; Cohen, K.; Gun, J.; Cumbal-Flores, L.; Parra- Morales, W.; Sarabia, F.; Ojeda, F.; Lev, O.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality characteristics and emerging organic pollutants were sampled along the San Pedro–Guayllabamba–Esmeraldas River and its main water pollution streams in the summer of 2013. The annual flow rate of the stream is 22 000 Mm3 y 1 and it collects the wastewater of Quito-Ecuador in the Andes and supplies drinking water to the city of Esmeraldas near the Pacific Ocean. The most persistent emerging pollutants were carbamazepine and acesulfame, which were found to be stable along the San ...

  5. Protective Coatings

    1980-01-01

    General Magnaplate Corporation's pharmaceutical machine is used in the industry for high speed pressing of pills and capsules. Machine is automatic system for molding glycerine suppositories. These machines are typical of many types of drug production and packaging equipment whose metal parts are treated with space spinoff coatings that promote general machine efficiency and contribute to compliance with stringent federal sanitation codes for pharmaceutical manufacture. Collectively known as "synergistic" coatings, these dry lubricants are bonded to a variety of metals to form an extremely hard slippery surface with long lasting self lubrication. The coatings offer multiple advantages; they cannot chip, peel or be rubbed off. They protect machine parts from corrosion and wear longer, lowering maintenance cost and reduce undesired heat caused by power-robbing friction.

  6. White coat hypertension in pediatrics.

    Jurko, Alexander; Minarik, Milan; Jurko, Tomas; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2016-01-15

    The article summarizes current information on blood pressure changes in children during clinic visit. White coat as a general dressing of physicians and health care personnel has been widely accepted at the end of the 19th century. Two problems can be associated with the use of white coat: white coat phenomenon and white coat hypertension. Children often attribute pain and other unpleasant experience to the white coat and refuse afterwards cooperation with examinations. Definition of white coat hypertension in the literature is not uniform. It has been defined as elevated blood pressure in the hospital or clinic with normal blood pressure at home measured during the day by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring system. White coat effect is defined as temporary increase in blood pressure before and during visit in the clinic, regardless what the average daily ambulatory blood pressure values are. Clinical importance of white coat hypertension is mainly because of higher risk for cardiovascular accidents that are dependent on end organ damage (heart, vessels, kidney). Current data do not allow any clear recommendations for the treatment. Pharmacological therapy is usually started in the presence of hypertrophic left ventricle, changes in intimal/medial wall thickness of carotic arteries, microalbuminuria and other cardiovascular risk factors. Nonpharmacological therapy is less controversial and certainly more appropriate. Patients have to change their life style, need to eliminate as much cardiovascular risk factors as possible and sustain a regular blood pressure monitoring.

  7. Organics.

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Organizers.

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  9. Plasma processed coating of laser fusion targets

    Johnson, W.L.; Letts, S.A.; Myers, D.W.; Crane, J.K.; Illige, J.D.; Hatcher, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Coatings for laser fusion targets have been deposited in an inductively coupled discharge device by plasma polymerization. Two feed gases were used: perfluoro-2-butene, which produced a fluorocarbon coating (CF 1 3 ) with a density of 1.8 g/cc, and trans-2-butene which produced a hydrocarbon coating (CH 1 3 ) with a density of 1.0 g/cc. Uniform pin-hole free films have been deposited to a thickness of up to 30 μm of fluorocarbon and up to 110 μm of hydrocarbon. The effect of process variables on surface smoothness has been investigated. The basic defect in the coating has been found to result from shadowing by a small surface irregularity in an anisotropic coating flux

  10. Liquid crystalline thermosetting polymers as protective coatings for aerospace

    Guerriero, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental regulations are driving the development of new aerospace coating systems, mainly to eliminate chromates and reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Among the various potential options for new coating materials, liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) are attractive due to their

  11. Chronic TiO2 nanoparticle exposure to a benthic organism, Hyalella azteca: Impact of solar UV radiation and material surface coatings on toxicity

    The present study examined the chronic toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) to a representative benthic species, Hyalella azteca, using an industry standard, P25, and a coated nano-TiO2 used in commercial products. There is limited information on the chronic effects of nano...

  12. Submicrometer characterization of surfaces of epoxy-based organic-inorganic nanocomposite coatings. A comparison of AFM study with currently used testing techniques

    Špírková, Milena; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bláhová, O.; Farkačová, T.; Benešová, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2006), s. 5763-5774 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : nanocomposite * coating * atomic force microscopy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2006

  13. Organizations

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  14. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae) from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge.

    Sullivan, John P; Zuanon, Jansen; Cox Fernandes, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1) small teeth present on premaxillae; (2) medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3) background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation) distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4) a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5) electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent) and slow pulse repetition rate (3-16 Hz). The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1) subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2) body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3) a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD) waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C) with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus) bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1) a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14-17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2) a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and Brachyhypopomus bennetti is the first

  15. Nanocomposite Coatings: Preparation, Characterization, Properties, and Applications

    Phuong Nguyen-Tri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporation of nanofillers into the organic coatings might enhance their barrier performance, by decreasing the porosity and zigzagging the diffusion path for deleterious species. Thus, the coatings containing nanofillers are expected to have significant barrier properties for corrosion protection and reduce the trend for the coating to blister or delaminate. On the other hand, high hardness could be obtained for metallic coatings by producing the hard nanocrystalline phases within a metallic matrix. This article presents a review on recent development of nanocomposite coatings, providing an overview of nanocomposite coatings in various aspects dealing with the classification, preparative method, the nanocomposite coating properties, and characterization methods. It covers potential applications in areas such as the anticorrosion, antiwear, superhydrophobic area, self-cleaning, antifouling/antibacterial area, and electronics. Finally, conclusion and future trends will be also reported.

  16. SIMS investigations of wall coatings for application in nuclear fusion reactors

    Friedbacher, G.; Virag, A.; Grasserbauer, M.; Esser, H.G.; Wienhold, P.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon coated metals have proven to be useful materials for limiters and the first wall in fusion reactors. In this paper SIMS investigations of a-C:B single coated and a-C:D/a-C:B double coated stainless steel samples, which have been exposed to TOKAMAK discharges in deuterium and helium, are described. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical Properties of Plasma Sprayed Alumina Coatings

    Kovářík, O.; Nohava, Jiří; Siegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 129-145 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/01/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasma sprayed alumina coatings, fatigue test, metalography, fractography, residual stress, microhardness, Young's modulus , four-point bending Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges

    Knoepfel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)

  19. Biocompatible coated magnetosome minerals with various organization and cellular interaction properties induce cytotoxicity towards RG-2 and GL-261 glioma cells in the presence of an alternating magnetic field.

    Hamdous, Yasmina; Chebbi, Imène; Mandawala, Chalani; Le Fèvre, Raphael; Guyot, François; Seksek, Olivier; Alphandéry, Edouard

    2017-10-17

    Biologics magnetics nanoparticles, magnetosomes, attract attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize novel magnetosomes, which were extracted from magnetotactic bacteria, purified to produce apyrogen magnetosome minerals, and then coated with Chitosan, Neridronate, or Polyethyleneimine. It yielded stable magnetosomes designated as M-Chi, M-Neri, and M-PEI, respectively. Nanoparticle biocompatibility was evaluated on mouse fibroblast cells (3T3), mouse glioblastoma cells (GL-261) and rat glioblastoma cells (RG-2). We also tested these nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia treatment of tumor in vitro on two tumor cell lines GL-261 and RG-2 under the application of an alternating magnetic field. Heating, efficacy and internalization properties were then evaluated. Nanoparticles coated with chitosan, polyethyleneimine and neridronate are apyrogen, biocompatible and stable in aqueous suspension. The presence of a thin coating in M-Chi and M-PEI favors an arrangement in chains of the magnetosomes, similar to that observed in magnetosomes directly extracted from magnetotactic bacteria, while the thick matrix embedding M-Neri leads to structures with an average thickness of 3.5 µm 2 per magnetosome mineral. In the presence of GL-261 cells and upon the application of an alternating magnetic field, M-PEI and M-Chi lead to the highest specific absorption rates of 120-125 W/g Fe . Furthermore, while M-Chi lead to rather low rates of cellular internalization, M-PEI strongly associate to cells, a property modulated by the application of an alternating magnetic field. Coating of purified magnetosome minerals can therefore be chosen to control the interactions of nanoparticles with cells, organization of the minerals, as well as heating and cytotoxicity properties, which are important parameters to be considered in the design of a magnetic hyperthermia treatment of tumor.

  20. Glow discharging device

    Maeno, Katsuki; Kawasaki, Kozo; Hiratsuka, Hajime; Kawashima, Shuichi.

    1989-01-01

    In a thermonuclear device, etc. impurities adsorbed to inner walls of a vacuum vessel by glow discharge are released to clean the vacuum vessel for preventing intrusion of the impurities into plasmas. The object of the present invention is to minimize the capacity of a power source equipment for the glow discharge device to the least extent. That is, a stabilization resistance is connected in series between each of a plurality of anodes which are inserted and arranged at the inside of a vacuum vessel as a cathode and a power source respectively. The resistance value R is selected so as to satisfy the relation: R < (Vi - Vm)/Ii, in which Vi: glow discharge starting voltage, Vm: glow discharge keeping voltage, Ii: glow discharge starting current. Accordingly, if a voltage is applied from a power source to a plurality of anodes, scattering of electric discharge between the anodes can be suppressed and the effect of voltage drop during discharge by the stabilization resistance can be eliminated. As a result, it is possible to provide an economically advantageous glow discharge device with the capacity for the power source facility being to the least extent. (K.M.)

  1. Concentration-discharge relationships during an extreme event: Contrasting behavior of solutes and changes to chemical quality of dissolved organic material in the Boulder Creek Watershed during the September 2013 flood: SOLUTE FLUX IN A FLOOD EVENT

    Rue, Garrett P. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Rock, Nathan D. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Gabor, Rachel S. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Pitlick, John [Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA; Tfaily, Malak [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; McKnight, Diane M. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder Colorado USA

    2017-07-01

    During the week of September 10-17, 2013, close to 20 inches of rain fell across Boulder County, Colorado, USA. This rainfall represented a 1000-year event that caused massive hillslope erosion, landslides, and mobilization of sediments. The resultant stream flows corresponded to a 100-year flood. For the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory (BC-CZO), this event provided an opportunity to study the effect of extreme rainfall on solute concentration-discharge relationships and biogeochemical catchment processes. We observed base cation and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at two sites on Boulder Creek following the recession of peak flow. We also isolated three distinct fractions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) for chemical characterization. At the upper site, which represented the forested mountain catchment, the concentrations of the base cations Ca, Mg and Na were greatest at the peak flood and decreased only slightly, in contrast with DOC and K concentrations, which decreased substantially. At the lower site within urban corridor, all solutes decreased abruptly after the first week of flow recession, with base cation concentrations stabilizing while DOC and K continued to decrease. Additionally, we found significant spatiotemporal trends in the chemical quality of organic matter exported during the flood recession, as measured by fluorescence, 13C-NMR spectroscopy, and FTICR-MS. Similar to the effect of extreme rainfall events in driving landslides and mobilizing sediments, our findings suggest that such events mobilize solutes by the flushing of the deeper layers of the critical zone, and that this flushing regulates terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages during the flow recession.

  2. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  3. Modelling electric discharge chemistry

    McFarlane, J.; Wren, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    The chemistry occurring in a electric discharge was modelled to predict how it would be influenced by discharge conditions. The discharge was characterized by a calculated Boltzmann electron-energy distribution, from which rate constants for electron-molecule processes in air were determined. These rate constants were used in a chemical kinetics calculation that also included reactions between neutral molecules, ions, free radicals and electronically excited species. The model describes how the discharge chemistry was influenced by humidity, electric field, electron number density, and concentrations of key reagents identified in the study. The use of an electric discharge to destroy airborne contaminant molecules was appraised, the targeted contaminants being CF 2 Cl 2 , HCN, and SO 2 . The modelling results indicate that an electric discharge should be able to remove HCN and CF 2 Cl 2 effectively, especially if the discharge conditions have been optimized. Effective destruction is achieved with a moderate electric field (over 1 x 10 -15 V.cm 2 ), a substantial electron number density (over 1 x 10 12 cm -3 ), and the presence of H 2 0 in the process air. The residence time in the discharge was also shown to be important in contaminant destruction. An attempt was made to explain the results of the electric discharge abatement of SO 2 , a component of a simulated flue-gas mixture. Results from the model indicate that the discharge parameters that increase the concentration of hydroxyl radical also increase the rate of decomposition of SO 2 . An objective of the study was to explain the apparent enhancement of SO 2 destruction by the presence of a small amount of NO 2 . It was thought that a likely explanation would be the stabilization of HOSO 2 , an important intermediate in the oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 . (49 figs., 14 tabs., 75 refs.)

  4. Protective coatings for commercial particulates

    Kindl, B.; Teng, Y.H.; Liu, Y.L.

    1994-01-01

    SiC/Al composites are in large-scale production with Al-Si alloy matrices. The same composites with pure Al or low Si matrices need diffusion barriers on the SiC reinforcement to control the interfacial reaction. The present paper describes various approaches taken to obtain protective coatings...... of alumina and zirconia on SiC particulates by sol-gel techniques. Aqueous and organic precursors have been used. The extent of the reaction, i.e., the Si and Al4C3 content in the matrix, was determined by differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The reaction rates of some coated particulates...... in liquid Al are decreased by as much as one order of magnitude during the first 15 min of immersion. Pretreatments of the SiC surface, the composition and thickness of the coating interphase and heat treatments of the coated materials have been studied, and are discussed in relation to their effect...

  5. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Herrera, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil-Albarova, Jorge; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Ibarz, Elena; Gabarre, Sergio; Más, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA), calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality. PMID:25802848

  6. Cementless Hydroxyapatite Coated Hip Prostheses

    Antonio Herrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than twenty years ago, hydroxyapatite (HA, calcium phosphate ceramics, was introduced as a coating for cementless hip prostheses. The choice of this ceramic is due to its composition being similar to organic apatite bone crystals. This ceramic is biocompatible, bioactive, and osteoconductive. These qualities facilitate the primary stability and osseointegration of implants. Our surgical experience includes the implantation of more than 4,000 cementless hydroxyapatite coated hip prostheses since 1990. The models implanted are coated with HA in the acetabulum and in the metaphyseal area of the stem. The results corresponding to survival and stability of implants were very satisfactory in the long-term. From our experience, HA-coated hip implants are a reliable alternative which can achieve long term survival, provided that certain requirements are met: good design selection, sound choice of bearing surfaces based on patient life expectancy, meticulous surgical technique, and indications based on adequate bone quality.

  7. Controlling the exciton emission of gold coated GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires with an organic spacer layer

    Kaveh, M.; Gao, Q.; Jagadish, C.; Ge, J.; Duscher, G.; Wagner, H. P.

    2016-12-01

    Excitons are the most prominent optical excitations and controlling their emission is an important step towards new optical devices. We have investigated the exciton emission from uncoated and gold/aluminum quinoline (Alq3) coated GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs core-shell nanowires (NWs) using temperature-, intensity- and polarization dependent photoluminescence (PL). Plasmonic GaAs-AlGaAs-GaAs NWs with a ˜10 nm thick Au coating but without an Alq3 spacer layer reveal a significant reduction of the PL intensity of the exciton emission compared with the uncoated NW sample. Plasmonic NW samples with the same nominal Au coverage and an additional Alq3 interlayer of 3 or 6 nm thickness show a clearly stronger PL intensity which increases with rising Alq3 spacer thickness. Time-resolved (TR) PL measurements reveal an increase of the exciton decay rate by a factor of up to two with decreasing Alq3 spacer thickness suggesting the presence of Förster energy transfer from NW excitons to plasmon oscillations in the gold film. The weak change of the decay time, however, indicates that Förster energy-transfer is only partially responsible for the PL quenching in the gold coated NWs. The main reason for the reduction of the PL emission is attributed to a gold induced band-bending in the GaAs NW core which causes exciton dissociation. With increasing Alq3 spacer thickness the band-bending decreases leading to a reduction of the exciton dissociation and PL quenching. Our interpretation is supported by electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements which show a signal reduction and blue shift of defect (possibly EL2) transitions when gold particles are deposited on NWs compared with bare or Alq3 coated NWs.

  8. Effects of combined organic and inorganic corrosion inhibitors on the nanostructure cerium based conversion coating performance on AZ31 magnesium alloy: Morphological and corrosion studies

    Saei, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Amini, R.; Kalajahi, M. Salami

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Cn-Mn-polyvinyl alcohol conversion coating led to more uniform and crack free film deposition. •The corrosion resistance of Ce film was noticeably improved by using combination of polyvinyl alchol and Mn2+ cations. •A synergistic effect between polyvinyl alchol-Mn2+ resulted in Ce film with enhanced morphology and corrosion resistance. -- Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) AZ31 samples were chemically treated by a series of room temperature nanostructure cerium based conversion coatings containing Mn(NO 3 ) 2 ·4H 2 O, Co(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The microstructure and corrosion protection properties of different samples were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Results demonstrated that the AZ31 Mg alloy sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA showed the highest corrosion resistance. A denser Ce film with lower crack was precipitated on the sample treated by Ce-Mn-PVA conversion coating.

  9. A novel coating strategy towards improving interfacial adhesion strength of Cu–Sn alloy coated steel with vulcanized rubber

    Banerjee, Atanu [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Dutta, Monojit [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Bysakh, Sandip [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K. [Rubber Technology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Laha, Tapas, E-mail: laha@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We propose a double layer Cu–Sn alloy coating strategy on steel to improve adhesion. • Uniform coating with adequate penetration inside micro-roughness was observed. • XPS and GDOES study revealed improved substrate surface coverage by coating. • TEM investigation confirmed compact, uniform and micro-porosity free interface. • Peel test with vulcanized rubber confirmed improved adhesion with cohesive fracture. - Abstract: A comparative assessment in terms of uniformity, coating coverage and coating deposition mechanism has been carried out for two different types of Cu–Sn coatings on steel substrate with varying Sn composition (2–6.5 wt%) deposited via immersion technique, viz. (i) single layer Cu–Sn coating and (ii) double layer coating consisting of a thin Cu strike layer followed by a Cu–Sn layer. Coating morphology, surface coverage, coating-substrate interface, and coating composition at surface and along the depth were studied using laser confocal microscope (OLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitative depth profiling using GDOES and surface compositional analysis via XPS suggested improvement in surface coverage in the case of double layer coatings. SEM-EDS and TEM analysis confirmed that the coating deposition was more uniform with sufficient coating penetration inside the deep roughness troughs resulting in compact and micro-porosity free interface for this type of coatings. Better adhesion strength with less variation in peel force and cohesive mode of fracture within the rubber was observed for the double layer coated samples during the peel test carried out on coated steel samples vulcanized with rubber. On the other hand, the single layer coated samples showed large variation in peel force with adhesive

  10. A novel coating strategy towards improving interfacial adhesion strength of Cu–Sn alloy coated steel with vulcanized rubber

    Banerjee, Atanu; Dutta, Monojit; Bysakh, Sandip; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Laha, Tapas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a double layer Cu–Sn alloy coating strategy on steel to improve adhesion. • Uniform coating with adequate penetration inside micro-roughness was observed. • XPS and GDOES study revealed improved substrate surface coverage by coating. • TEM investigation confirmed compact, uniform and micro-porosity free interface. • Peel test with vulcanized rubber confirmed improved adhesion with cohesive fracture. - Abstract: A comparative assessment in terms of uniformity, coating coverage and coating deposition mechanism has been carried out for two different types of Cu–Sn coatings on steel substrate with varying Sn composition (2–6.5 wt%) deposited via immersion technique, viz. (i) single layer Cu–Sn coating and (ii) double layer coating consisting of a thin Cu strike layer followed by a Cu–Sn layer. Coating morphology, surface coverage, coating-substrate interface, and coating composition at surface and along the depth were studied using laser confocal microscope (OLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitative depth profiling using GDOES and surface compositional analysis via XPS suggested improvement in surface coverage in the case of double layer coatings. SEM-EDS and TEM analysis confirmed that the coating deposition was more uniform with sufficient coating penetration inside the deep roughness troughs resulting in compact and micro-porosity free interface for this type of coatings. Better adhesion strength with less variation in peel force and cohesive mode of fracture within the rubber was observed for the double layer coated samples during the peel test carried out on coated steel samples vulcanized with rubber. On the other hand, the single layer coated samples showed large variation in peel force with adhesive

  11. ELECTRIC DISCHARGE APPARATUS

    Ryan, T.M.

    1962-04-01

    A steel or aluminum small diameter (1/4 in.) tube-type neutron detector containing an inert atmosphere and having a coating of fissionable material on its inner circumference is described. A conducting wire, positioned along the axis of the tube by spaced insulators, is connected to a power source. The coating of fissionable material is brushed onto a nickel foil which is inserted into the tube and supported between the insulators. (AEC)

  12. Sorptive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic framework coated stir bars coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    Hu, Cong; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2014-08-22

    In this work, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, Al-MIL-53-NH₂) were synthesized via the hydrothermal method, and novel polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic framework (PDMS/MOFs, PDMS/Al-MIL-53-NH₂)-coated stir bars were prepared by the sol-gel technique. The preparation reproducibility of the PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.8% to 14.9% (n=7) within one batch and from 6.2% to 16.9% (n=6) among different batches. Based on this fact, a new method of PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and ultrasonic-assisted liquid desorption (UALD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. To obtain the best extraction performance for PAHs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and extraction temperature, were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges and good RSDs (n=7) were obtained. With enrichment factors (EFs) of 16.1- to 88.9-fold (theoretical EF, 142-fold), the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the developed method for the target PAHs were found to be in the range of 0.05-2.94 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAHs in Yangtze River and East Lake water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of coating aging using impedance measurements

    Westing, E.P.M. van; Weijde, D.H. van der; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    This chapter shows the application results of a novel approach to quantify the ageing of organic coatings using impedance measurements. The ageing quantification is based on the typical impedance behaviour of barrier coatings in immersion. This immersion behaviour is used to determine the limiting

  14. Electrosprayed calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical purposes.

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, the suitability of the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD) technique was studied for biomedical purposes, i.e., deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings onto titanium substrates. Using ESD, which is a simple and cheap deposition method for inorganic and organic coatings, it

  15. Modelling biocide release based on coating properties

    Erich, S.J.F.; Baukh, V.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of micro-organisms on coated substrates is a common problem, since it reduces the performance of materials, in terms of durability as well as aesthetics. In order to prevent microbial growth biocides are frequently added to coatings. Unfortunately, early release of these biocides reduces the

  16. Discharge lamp technologies

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  17. Capacitor discharge engineering

    Früngel, Frank B A

    1976-01-01

    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  18. Predicting tile drainage discharge

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Petersen, Rasmus Jes

    used in the analysis. For the dynamic modelling, a simple linear reservoir model was used where different outlets in the model represented tile drain as well as groundwater discharge outputs. This modelling was based on daily measured tile drain discharge values. The statistical predictive model...... was based on a polynomial regression predicting yearly tile drain discharge values using site specific parameters such as soil type, catchment topography, etc. as predictors. Values of calibrated model parameters from the dynamic modelling were compared to the same site specific parameter as used...

  19. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... matrix provides antifouling properties exceeding those of a similar coating based entirely on zinc oxide....

  20. Electric discharge during electrosurgery.

    Shashurin, Alexey; Scott, David; Zhuang, Taisen; Canady, Jerome; Beilis, Isak I; Keidar, Michael

    2015-04-16

    Electric discharge utilized for electrosurgery is studied by means of a recently developed method for the diagnostics of small-size atmospheric plasma objects based on Rayleigh scattering of microwaves on the plasma volume. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the near-electrode sheaths and in the positive column is measured and analyzed. It is found that the electrosurgical system produces a glow discharge of alternating current with strongly contracted positive column with current densities reaching 10(3) A/cm(2). The plasma electron density and electrical conductivities in the channel were found be 10(16) cm(-3) and (1-2) Ohm(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The discharge interrupts every instance when the discharge-driving AC voltage crosses zero and re-ignites again every next half-wave at the moment when the instant voltage exceeds the breakdown threshold.

  1. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  2. Prostate radiation - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  3. Brain injury - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000163.htm Brain injury - discharge To use the sharing features on ... know was in the hospital for a serious brain injury. At home, it will take time for ...

  4. Brain aneurysm repair - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000123.htm Brain aneurysm repair - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. You had a brain aneurysm . An aneurysm is a weak area in ...

  5. Brain radiation - discharge

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  6. Atrial fibrillation - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000237.htm Atrial fibrillation - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... have been in the hospital because you have atrial fibrillation . This condition occurs when your heart beats faster ...

  7. Pneumonia - adults - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000017.htm Pneumonia in adults - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have pneumonia, which is an infection in your lungs. In ...

  8. Knee arthroscopy - discharge

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000199.htm Knee arthroscopy - discharge To use the sharing features on this ... surgery to treat problems in your knee (knee arthroscopy). You may have been checked for: Torn meniscus. ...

  9. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  10. Shoulder surgery - discharge

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000179.htm Shoulder surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had shoulder surgery to repair the tissues inside or around your ...

  11. Hydroxyapatite/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) double coating on magnesium for enhanced corrosion resistance and coating flexibility.

    Jo, Ji-Hoon; Li, Yuanlong; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag

    2013-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite was deposited on pure magnesium (Mg) with a flexible poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer to reduce the corrosion rate of Mg and enhance coating flexibility. The poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer was uniformly coated on Mg by a spraying method, followed by hydroxyapatite deposition on the poly(ε-caprolactone) using an aerosol deposition method. In scanning electron microscopy observations, inorganic/organic composite-like structure was observed between the hydroxyapatite and poly(ε-caprolactone) layers, resulting from the collisions of hydroxyapatite particles into the poly(ε-caprolactone) matrix at the initial stage of the aerosol deposition. The corrosion resistance of the coated Mg was examined using potentiodynamic polarization tests. The hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating remarkably improved the corrosion resistance of Mg in Hank's solution. In the in vitro cell tests, the coated Mg showed better cell adhesion compared with the bare Mg due to the reduced corrosion rate and enhanced biocompatibility. The stability and flexibility of hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy inspections after the coated Mg was deformed. The hydroxyapatite coating on the poly(ε-caprolactone) interlayer revealed enhanced coating stability and flexibility without cracking or delamination during bending and stretching compared with the hydroxyapatite single coating. These results demonstrated that the hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) double coating significantly improved the surface corrosion resistance of Mg and enhanced coating flexibility for use of Mg as a biodegradable implant.

  12. Discharges for lighting

    Stoffels, W W; Nimalasuriya, T; Flikweert, A J; Mulders, H C J

    2007-01-01

    The most common man-made discharge is a lamp. Even though lamps are often considered a mature technology, the discharge physics is often poorly understood. Two recent initiatives discussed here show that plasma research can help to make significant improvements. First we discuss color separation in metal halide lamps, which is a problem that prevents these highly efficient lamps from being used in more applications. Secondly a novel lamp concept is presented that may replace the current mercury based fluorescent lamps

  13. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ{sup 13}C, Δ{sup 14}C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-15

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ{sup 13}C and Δ{sup 14}C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  14. Discharge lamp technologies

    Dakin, J. [GE Lighting, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advance. A general overview of discharge lighting technology can be found in the book of Waymouth (1971). A recent review of low pressure lighting discharge science is found in Dakin (1991). The pioneering paper of Reiling (1964) provides a good introduction to metal halide discharges. Particularly relevant to lighting for plant growth, a recent and thorough treatment of high pressure Na lamps is found in the book by deGroot and vanVliet (1986). Broad practical aspects of lighting application are thoroughly covered in the IES Lighting Handbook edited by Kaufman (1984).

  15. Chaos in gas discharges

    Piel, A.

    1993-01-01

    Many gas discharges exhibit natural oscillations which undergo a transition from regular to chaotic behavior by changing an experimental parameter or by applying external modulation. Besides several isolated investigations, two classes of discharge phenomena have been studied in more detail: ionization waves in medium pressure discharges and potential relaxation oscillations in filament cathode discharges at very low pressure. The latter phenomenon will be discussed by comparing experimental results from different discharge arrangements with particle-in-cell simulations and with a model based on the van-der-Pol equation. The filament cathode discharge has two stable modes of operation: the low current anode-glow-mode and the high current temperature-limited-mode, which form the hysteresis curve in the I(U) characteristics. Close to the hysteresis point of the AGM periodic relaxation oscillations occur. The authors demonstrate that the AGM can be understood by ion production in the anode layer, stopping of ions by charge exchange, and trapping in the virtual cathode around the filament. The relaxation oscillations consist of a slow filling phase and a rapid phase that invokes formation of an unstable double-layer, current-spiking, and ion depletion from the cathodic plasma. The relaxation oscillations can be mode-locked by external modulation. Inside a mode-locked state, a period doubling cascade is observed at high modulation degree

  16. Coating materials

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  17. Microplasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Dey, Arjun

    2015-01-01

    ""This unique book on development of microplasma sprayed HAp coating has been organized in a very compact yet comprehensive manner. This book also highlights the horizons of future research that invites the attention of global community, particularly those in bio-medical materials and bio-medical engineering field. This book will surely act as a very useful reference material for both graduate/post-graduate students and researchers in the field of biomedical, orthopedic and manufacturing engineering and research. I truly believ that this is the first ever effort which covers almost all the

  18. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  19. Corrosion resistant coatings for uranium and uranium alloys

    Weirick, L.J.; Lynch, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    Coatings to prevent the corrosion of uranium and uranium alloys are considered in two military applications: kinetic energy penetrators and aircraft counterweights. This study, which evaluated organic films and metallic coatings, demonstrated that the two most promising coatings are based on an electrodeposited nickel system and a galvanized zinc system

  20. Extraction and Determination of Pb(II by Organic Functionalisation of Graphenes Adsorbed on Surfactant Coated C18 in Environmental Sample

    A. Moghimi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, sensitive and effective method has been developed for preconcentration of lead. This solid-phase extraction adsorbent was synthesized by functionalization of graphenes with covalently linked N-methyl-glycine and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde onto the surfaces of graphite. The method is based on selective chelation of Pb (II on surfactant coated C18, modified with functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH. The adsorbed ions were then eluted with 4 ml of 4 M nitric acid and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS at 283.3 for Pb. The influence of flow rates of sample and eluent solutions, pH, breakthrough volume, effect of foreign ions were investigated on chelation and recovery. 1.5 g of surfactant coated C18 adsorbs 40 mg of the functionalization of graphenes (graphene-f-OH base which in turn can retain15.2±0.8mg of each of the two ions. The limit of detection (3σ for Pb(II was found to be 3.20 ng l -1. The enrichment factor for both ions is 100. The mentioned method was successfully applied on the determination of Pb in different water samples.