Sample records for disaster response matrices

  1. Disaster mitigation: initial response. (United States)

    Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel


    The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.

  2. Integrated simulation of emergency response in disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Taro; Furuta, Kazuo


    An integrated simulation system of emergency response in disasters is under development that can consider various factors of disasters, such as disaster phenomena, activities of response organizations, resident behavior, and their environment. The aim of this system is to provide support for design and assessment of disaster management systems. This paper introduces the conceptual design of the entire system and presents simulators of organizational behavior in nuclear and earthquake disasters. (author)

  3. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  4. Academic Responses to Fukushima Disaster. (United States)

    Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Yuko; Kamiya, Kenji; Miyatani, Rie; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Sakai, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy; Abdel-Wahab, May; Ohtsuru, Akira


    Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters. The first program concentrates on radiation disaster medicine for medical students at the Fukushima Medical University, together with a science, technology, and society module comprising various topics, such as public risk communication, psychosocial consequences of radiation anxiety, and decision making for radiation disaster. The second program is a Phoenix Leader PhD degree at the Hiroshima University, which aims to develop future leaders who can address the associated scientific, environmental, and social issues. The third program is a Joint Graduate School of Master's degree in the Division of Disaster and Radiation Medical Sciences at the Nagasaki University and Fukushima Medical University.

  5. Imagery for Disaster Response and Recovery (United States)

    Bethel, G. R.


    Exposing the remotely sensed imagery for disaster response and recovery can provide the basis for an unbiased understanding of current conditions. Having created consolidated remotely sensed and geospatial data sources documents for US and Foreign disasters over the past six years, availability and usability are continuing to evolve. By documenting all existing sources of imagery and value added products, the disaster response and recovery community can develop actionable information. The past two years have provided unique situations to use imagery including a major humanitarian disaster and response effort in Haiti, a major environmental disaster in the Gulf of Mexico, a killer tornado in Joplin Missouri and long-term flooding in the Midwest. Each disaster presents different challenges and requires different spatial resolutions, spectral properties and/or multi-temporal collections. The community of data providers continues to expand with organized actives such as the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters and acquisitions by the private sector for the public good rather than for profit. However, data licensing, the lack of cross-calibration and inconsistent georeferencing hinder optimal use. Recent pre-event imagery is a critial component to any disaster response.

  6. Technology of disaster response robot and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Satoshi


    The needs, function structure , ability of disaster response robot are stated. Robots are classified by move mode such as Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV), Legged Robots, Exoskeleton, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Wall Climbing Robots, robots for narrow space. Quince, disaster response robot, collected at first information in the building of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. Functions of rescue robots and technical problems under disaster conditions, shape and characteristics of robots and TRL, PackBot, Pelican, Quince, scope camera, and three-dimensional map made by Quince are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  7. Government Disaster Response and Narrative Retrospection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier


    that voters did not appear to immediately punish the Danish and Swedish governments for the Tsunami despite the severe impacts and the widespread public disapproval of the governments’ disaster responses. The concept of narrative retrospection shows how there was limited pressure to politicize the government’s...... disaster management efforts in Denmark, while the brunt of the political blame in Sweden occurred more than a year after the Tsunami.......This paper investigates the nexus between disaster response and voting behaviour through a comparative study of the electoral dynamics in the immediate aftermath of the 2004 Tsunami in Denmark and Sweden. The paper addresses three hypotheses of retrospection: (i) blind retrospection where voters...

  8. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters. (United States)

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz


    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  9. Setting Foundations for Developing Disaster Response Metrics. (United States)

    Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda


    There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:505-509).

  10. Disaster Rescue and Response Workers (United States)

    ... of disaster responders. Preventive Medicine, 75, 70-74. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.03.017 Pietrzak, R. H., ... effort.. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 835-842. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.03.011 Pietrzak, R. H., ...

  11. Disaster Response and Planning for Libraries. (United States)

    Kahn, Miriam B.

    Providing a customized disaster response plan to assist libraries in quick recovery, this resource also outlines step to minimize damage and protect materials before trouble strikes. The first section of the book, "Response," contains information how to handle small jobs in-house and suggestions for working with contractors--with an…

  12. Inter-organisational response to disasters. (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Stewart R; Albanese, Joseph; Waite, Geraldine


    Inter-organisational communication failures during times of real-world disasters impede the collaborative response of agencies responsible for ensuring the public's health and safety. In the best of circumstances, communications across jurisdictional boundaries are ineffective. In times of crisis, when communities are grappling with the impact of a disaster, communications become critically important and more complex. Important factors for improving inter-organisational communications are critical thinking and problem-solving skills; inter-organisational relationships; as well as strategic, tactical and operational communications. Improving communication, critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making requires a review of leadership skills. This discussion begins with an analysis of the existing disaster management research and moves to an examination of the importance of inter-organisational working relationships. Before a successful resolution of a disaster by multiple levels of first responders, the group of organisations must have a foundation of trust, collegiality, flexibility, expertise, openness, relational networking and effective communications. Leaders must also be prepared to improve leadership skills through continual development in each of these foundational areas.

  13. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response (United States)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.


    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  14. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley Shoaf


    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  15. Why a disaster is not just normal business ramped up: Disaster response among ED nurses. (United States)

    Hammad, Karen S; Arbon, Paul; Gebbie, Kristine; Hutton, Alison


    The emergency department (ED) is a familiar place for the emergency nurse who spends their working days inside it. A disaster threatens that familiarity and creates changes that make working in the ED during a disaster response different from the everyday experience of working in the ED. This research reports on an aspect of the findings from a larger study about the experience of working as a nurse in the ED during a disaster response. Thirteen nurses from 8 different countries were interviewed about their experience. The findings from this research demonstrate that a disaster event leads to a chain reaction of changes in process, space and practice. Nurses' respond to the news of a disaster event with shock and disbelief. The ED may change as a result of the event requiring nurses to work in an altered environment or a completely different setting. These changes provoke nurses to alter their behaviour and practice and reflect on the experience after the response. Emergency nurses have a high likelihood of participating in disaster response and as such should be adequately prepared. This highlights how disaster response is different and leads to recommendations to enhance training for emergency nurses which will better prepare them Disasterresponse is not normal business ramped up. There are a number of challenges and changes that should be considered when preparing emergency nurses for the realities of disaster response. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. All rights reserved.

  16. School Mental Health's Response to Terrorism and Disaster. (United States)

    Weist, Mark D.; Sander, Mark A.; Lever, Nancy A.; Rosner, Leah E.; Pruitt, David B.; Lowie, Jennifer Axelrod; Hill, Susan; Lombardo, Sylvie; Christodulu, Kristin V.


    Explores the response of school mental health to terrorism and disaster, reviewing literature on child and adult reactions to trauma, discussing the development of crisis response teams, and presenting strategies for schools to respond to crises and disaster. One elementary school's experiences in response to the September 11th attacks are…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum


    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  18. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Kodrich


    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  19. Moments of disaster response in the emergency department (ED). (United States)

    Hammad, Karen S; Arbon, Paul; Gebbie, Kristine; Hutton, Alison


    We experience our lives as a series of memorable moments, some good and some bad. Undoubtedly, the experience of participating in disaster response, is likely to stand out as a memorable moment in a nurses' career. This presentation will describe five distinct moments of nursing in the emergency department (ED) during a disaster response. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological approach informed by van Manen underpins the research process. Thirteen nurses from different countries around the world participated in interviews about their experience of working in the ED during a disaster. Thematic analysis resulted in five moments of disaster response which are common to the collective participant experience. The 5 themes emerge as Notification (as a nurse finds out that the ED will be receiving casualties), Waiting (waiting for the patients to arrive to the ED), Patient Arrival (the arrival of the first patients to the ED), Caring for patients (caring for people affected by the disaster) and Reflection (the moment the disaster response comes to an end). This paper provides an in-depth insight into the experience of nursing in the ED during a disaster response which can help generate awareness and inform future disaster preparedness of emergency nurses. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A "community as resource" strategy for disaster response.


    Lichterman, J D


    Natural and technological disasters present significant threats to the public's health. The emergency response capabilities of government and private relief organizations are limited. With a strategy in which residents of urban areas are trained in search and rescue, first aid, fire suppression, care and shelter, emergency communications, and disaster mental health, the community becomes a "resource" rather than a "victim."

  1. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademipour


    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  2. Supply Chain Management in Disaster Response (United States)


    In todays society that disasters seem to be striking all corners of the United States and the globe, the importance of emergency management is undeniable. Much human loss and unnecessary destruction of infrastructure can be avoided with more fores...

  3. Technology disaster response and recovery planning a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mallery, Mary


    Featuring contributions from librarians who offer hard-won advice gained from personal experience, this compendium leads readers through a step-by-step process of creating a library technology disaster response and recovery plan.

  4. A Strategic Look at the Federal Medical Response to Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutson, Vivian T


    ...), which has a mission of medical response to supplement state and local healthcare resources, evacuation of patients from the disaster area, and the provision of definitive care hospital beds to care for victims...

  5. Real-time Responsiveness for Ethics Oversight During Disaster Research. (United States)

    Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Hunt, Matthew


    Disaster research has grown in scope and frequency. Research in the wake of disasters and during humanitarian crises--particularly in resource-poor settings--is likely to raise profound and unique ethical challenges for local communities, crisis responders, researchers, and research ethics committees (RECs). Given the ethical challenges, many have questioned how best to provide research ethics review and oversight. We contribute to the conversation concerning how best to ensure appropriate ethical oversight in disaster research and argue that ethical disaster research requires of researchers and RECs a particular sort of ongoing, critical engagement which may not be warranted in less exceptional research. We present two cases that typify the concerns disaster researchers and RECs may confront, and elaborate upon what this ongoing engagement might look like--how it might be conceptualized and utilized--using the concept of real-time responsiveness (RTR). The central aim of RTR, understood here as both an ethical ideal and practice, is to lessen the potential for research conducted in the wake of disasters to create, perpetuate, or exacerbate vulnerabilities and contribute to injustices suffered by disaster-affected populations. Well cultivated and deployed, we believe that RTR may enhance the moral capacities of researchers and REC members, and RECs as institutions where moral agency is nurtured and sustained. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Disaster Response Regional Architectures: Assessing Future Possibilities (United States)


    and Artificial Intelligence to make sense of information quickly by training algorithms to automatically identify all relevant images and avian influenza and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), cybersecurity , and disaster management (Jackson, 2015). Since its inception in...By February 22, GoF had received sufficient intelligence to warrant a request for interna- tional assistance. All security sectors were on standby

  7. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App. (United States)

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E


    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices.

  8. Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Services in China (United States)

    Wu, J.; Han, X.; Zhou, Y.; Yue, P.; Wang, X.; Lu, J.; Jiang, W.; Li, J.; Tang, H.; Wang, F.; Li, X.; Fan, J.


    The Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service(DIMERS) project was kicked off in 2017 in China, with the purpose to improve timely responsive service of the institutions involved in the management of natural disasters and man-made emergency situations with the timely and high-quality products derived from Space-based, Air-based and the in-situ Earth observation. The project team brought together a group of top universities and research institutions in the field of Earth observations as well as the operational institute in typical disaster services at national level. The project will bridge the scientific research and the response services of massive catastrophe in order to improve the emergency response capability of China and provide scientific and technological support for the implementation of the national emergency response strategy. In response to the call for proposal of "Earth Observation and Navigation" of 2017 National Key R&D Program of China, Professor Wu Jianjun, the deputy chairman of Faculty of Geographical Science of Beijing Normal University, submitted the Disaster Monitoring and Emergency Response Service (DIMERS) project, jointly with the experts and scholars from Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan University, China Institute of Earthquake Forecasting of China Earthquake Administration and China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Science. After two round evaluations, the proposal was funded by Ministry of Science and Technology of China.

  9. The response to September 11: a disaster case study. (United States)

    Crane, Michael A; Levy-Carrick, Nomi C; Crowley, Laura; Barnhart, Stephanie; Dudas, Melissa; Onuoha, Uchechukwu; Globina, Yelena; Haile, Winta; Shukla, Gauri; Ozbay, Fatih


    The response to 9/11 continues into its 14th year. The World Trade Center Health Program (WTCHP), a long-term monitoring and treatment program now funded by the Zadroga Act of 2010, includes >60,000 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster responders and community members ("survivors"). The aim of this review is to identify several elements that have had a critical impact on the evolution of the WTC response and, directly or indirectly, the health of the WTC-exposed population. It further explores post-disaster monitoring efforts, recent scientific findings from the WTCHP, and some implications of this experience for ongoing and future environmental disaster response. Transparency and responsiveness, site safety and worker training, assessment of acute and chronic exposure, and development of clinical expertise are interconnected elements determining efficacy of disaster response. Even in a relatively well-resourced environment, challenges regarding allocation of appropriate attention to vulnerable populations and integration of treatment response to significant medical and mental health comorbidities remain areas of ongoing programmatic development. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. All rights reserved.

  10. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters (United States)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.


    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  11. WORKPAD : process management and geo-collaboration help disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catarci, T.; Leoni, de M.; Marrella, A.; Mecella, M.; Russo, A.; Steinmann, R.; Bortenschlager, M.


    In complex emergency/disaster scenarios, persons from teams from various emergency-response organizations collaborate to achieve a common goal. In these scenarios, the use of smart mobile devices and applications can improve the collaboration dynamically. The lack of basic interaction principles can

  12. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin


    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  13. Space systems for disaster warning, response, and recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Madry, Scott


    This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called “Disaster Cycle.” This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applica...

  14. Social media for disaster response during floods (United States)

    Eilander, D.; van de Vries, C.; Baart, F.; van Swol, R.; Wagemaker, J.; van Loenen, A.


    During floods it is difficult to obtain real-time accurate information about the extent and severity of the hazard. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. Currently, real-time information is derived from few sources such as field reports, traffic camera's, satellite images and areal images. However, getting a real-time and accurate picture of the situation on the ground remains difficult. At the same time, people affected by natural hazards increasingly share their observations and their needs through digital media. Unlike conventional monitoring systems, Twitter data contains a relatively large number of real-time ground truth observations representing both physical hazard characteristics and hazard impacts. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at almost 900 tweets per minute during floods in early 2015. Flood events around the world in 2014/2015 yielded large numbers of flood related tweets: from Philippines (85.000) to Pakistan (82.000) to South-Korea (50.000) to Detroit (20.000). The challenge here is to filter out useful content from this cloud of data, validate these observations and convert them to readily usable information. In Jakarta, flood related tweets often contain information about the flood depth. In a pilot we showed that this type of information can be used for real-time mapping of the flood extent by plotting these observations on a Digital Elevation Model. Uncertainties in the observations were taken into account by assigning a probability to each observation indicating its likelihood to be correct based on statistical analysis of the total population of tweets. The resulting flood maps proved to be correct for about 75% of the neighborhoods in Jakarta. Further cross-validation of flood related tweets against (hydro-) meteorological data is to likely improve the skill of the method.

  15. Active Disaster Response System for a Smart Building (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T.-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W. S.


    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  16. Food selection criteria for disaster response planning in urban societies. (United States)

    Wien, Michelle; Sabaté, Joan


    Nutrition professionals that have menu planning and disaster management responsibilities should consider factors that have transcended from ancient to current times, in addition to recognizing societal trends that have led to our current increased vulnerability in the event of a disaster. Hence, we proceeded to develop a set of "Disaster Response Diets" (DRDs) for use in urban societies inclusive of the aforementioned considerations. A three-phase multidimensional approach was used to identify food groups suitable for creating a set of DRDs. Phase One consisted of calculating the percent daily nutrient intake and Drewnowski's naturally nutrient rich (NNR) score for an individual or mean composite for one serving of food from 11 specific food groups. In Phase Two, in addition to nutrient density, the 11 food groups were evaluated and scored based on the following DRD planning criteria: storage and handling properties, preparation ease and, cultural acceptance/individual tolerance. During Phase Three, three DRDs were developed based upon the data retrieved from Phases one and two. In Phase One, the NNR scores ranged from 2.1 for fresh fruits to 28.1 for dry cereals, a higher score indicating a higher nutrient density. During Phase Two, a maximum score of 12 was possible based on appropriateness for a disaster situation. Five plant-based food groups (dry cereals, nuts, dried fruits, grains and legumes) achieved a score ranging between 7 and 12, whereas the five fresh food groups were deemed ineligible due to sanitation and perishability concerns. During Phase Three, three DRDs (milk-inclusive, milk-free and Grab-and-Go) were developed as benchmarks for disaster response planning. Plant-based DRDs are universally acceptable and tolerated across cultures and religions. Therefore, we suggest nutrition professionals consider using a plant-based approach for creating DRDs for public health institutions and organizations.

  17. Dental care as a vital service response for disaster victims. (United States)

    Mosca, Nicholas G; Finn, Emanuel; Joskow, Renée


    Hurricane Katrina's impact on the infrastructure of public health and the health care system in the affected areas was unprecedented in the United States. Many dental offices were flood-bound in New Orleans and over 60% of dental practices were partially or completely damaged in affected counties in Mississippi. Most needs assessments conducted during the initial recovery operations did not include questions about access to oral health care. However, the extent of the destruction of the health care infrastructure demonstrated the need for significant state and federal support to make dental treatment accessible to survivors and evacuees. The Katrina response is one of the few times that state and federal government agencies responded to provide dental services to victims as part of disaster response and recovery. The purpose of this paper is to share our experiences in Mississippi and the District of Columbia providing urgent dental care to disaster victims as part of a crisis response.

  18. Capturing Real-Time Data in Disaster Response Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban Yagci Sokat


    Full Text Available The volume, accuracy, accessibility and level of detail of near real-time data emerging from disaster-affected regions continue to significantly improve. Integration of dynamically evolving in-field data is an important, yet often overlooked, component of the humanitarian logistics models. In this paper, we present a framework for real-time humanitarian logistics data focused on use in mathematical modeling along with modeling implications of this framework. We also discuss how one might measure the attributes of the framework and describe the application of the presented framework to a case study of near real-time data collection in the days following the landfall of Typhoon Haiyan. We detail our first-hand experience of capturing data as the post-disaster response unfolds starting on November 10, 2013 until March 31, 2014 and assess the characteristics and evolution of data pertaining to humanitarian logistics modeling using the proposed framework. The presented logistical content analysis examines the availability of data and informs modelers about the current state of near real-time data. This analysis illustrates what data is available, how early it is available, and how data changes after the disaster. The study describes how our humanitarian logistics team approached the emergence of dynamic online data after the disaster and the challenges faced during the collection process, as well as recommendations to address these challenges in the future (when possible from an academic humanitarian logistics perspective.

  19. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.


    Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. NASA remote sensing assets on the station began collecting International Disaster Charter (IDC) response data in May 2012. The initial NASA ISS sensor systems responding to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), mounted in the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF); the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility, where the crew collects imagery using off-the-shelf handheld digital cameras; and the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), a visible to near-infrared system mounted externally on the Japan Experiment Module Exposed Facility. The ISSAC completed its primary mission in January 2013. It was replaced by the very high resolution ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) Pathfinder, a visible-wavelength digital camera, telescope, and pointing system. Since the start of IDC response in 2012 there have been 108 IDC activations; NASA sensor systems have collected data for thirty-two of these events. Of the successful data collections, eight involved two or more ISS sensor systems responding to the same event. Data has also been collected by International Partners in response to natural disasters, most notably JAXA and

  20. Pediatric disaster response in developed countries: ten guiding principles. (United States)

    Brandenburg, Mark A; Arneson, Wendy L


    Mass casualty incidents and large-scale disasters involving children are likely to overwhelm a regional disaster response system. Children have unique vulnerabilities that require special considerations when developing pediatric response systems. Although medical and trauma strategies exist for the evaluation and treatment of children on a daily basis, the application of these strategies under conditions of resource-constrained triage and treatment have rarely been evaluated. A recent report, however, by the Institute of Medicine did conclude that on a day-to-day basis the U.S. healthcare system does not adequately provide emergency medical services for children. The variability, scale, and uncertainty of disasters call for a set of guiding principles rather than rigid protocols when developing pediatric response plans. The authors propose the following guiding principles in addressing the well-recognized, unique vulnerabilities of children: (1) terrorism prevention and preparedness, (2) all-hazards preparedness, (3) postdisaster disease and injury prevention, (4) nutrition and hydration, (5) equipment and supplies, (6) pharmacology, (7) mental health, (8) identification and reunification of displaced children, (9) day care and school, and (10) perinatology. It is hoped that the 10 guiding principles discussed in this article will serve as a basic framework for developing pediatric response plans and teams in developed countries.

  1. The Military and Domestic Disaster Response: Lead Role Revealed Through the Eye of Hurricane Katrina?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walker, Juliana M


    .... During and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina however the slow and perceived inept response to the massive disaster prompted a national debate on the appropriate role of the military in major domestic disasters...

  2. A quick earthquake disaster loss assessment method supported by dasymetric data for emergency response in China (United States)

    Xu, Jinghai; An, Jiwen; Nie, Gaozong


    Improving earthquake disaster loss estimation speed and accuracy is one of the key factors in effective earthquake response and rescue. The presentation of exposure data by applying a dasymetric map approach has good potential for addressing this issue. With the support of 30'' × 30'' areal exposure data (population and building data in China), this paper presents a new earthquake disaster loss estimation method for emergency response situations. This method has two phases: a pre-earthquake phase and a co-earthquake phase. In the pre-earthquake phase, we pre-calculate the earthquake loss related to different seismic intensities and store them in a 30'' × 30'' grid format, which has several stages: determining the earthquake loss calculation factor, gridding damage probability matrices, calculating building damage and calculating human losses. Then, in the co-earthquake phase, there are two stages of estimating loss: generating a theoretical isoseismal map to depict the spatial distribution of the seismic intensity field; then, using the seismic intensity field to extract statistics of losses from the pre-calculated estimation data. Thus, the final loss estimation results are obtained. The method is validated by four actual earthquakes that occurred in China. The method not only significantly improves the speed and accuracy of loss estimation but also provides the spatial distribution of the losses, which will be effective in aiding earthquake emergency response and rescue. Additionally, related pre-calculated earthquake loss estimation data in China could serve to provide disaster risk analysis before earthquakes occur. Currently, the pre-calculated loss estimation data and the two-phase estimation method are used by the China Earthquake Administration.

  3. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES): A Plan to Improve Global Disaster Response by Privatizing the Assessment Component. (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V


    Emergency medicine personnel frequently respond to major disasters. They expect to have an effective and efficient management system to elegantly allocate available resources. Despite claims to the contrary, experience demonstrates this rarely occurs. This article describes privatizing disaster assessment using a single-purposed, accountable, and well-trained organization. The goal is to achieve elegant disaster assessment, rather than repeatedly exhorting existing groups to do it. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES) would quickly and efficiently assess a postdisaster population's needs. It would use an accountable nongovernmental agency's teams with maximal training, mobility, and flexibility. Designed to augment the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's 2015 Emergency Response Preparedness Plan, RaDES would provide the initial information needed to avoid haphazard and overlapping disaster responses. Rapidly deployed teams would gather information from multiple sources and continually communicate those findings to their base, which would then disseminate them to disaster coordinators in a concise, coherent, and transparent way. The RaDES concept represents an elegant, minimally bureaucratic, and effective rapid response to major disasters. However, its implementation faces logistical, funding, and political obstacles. Developing and maintaining RaDES would require significant funding and political commitment to coordinate the numerous agencies that claim to be performing the same tasks. Although simulations can demonstrate efficacy and deficiencies, only field tests will demonstrate RaDES' power to improve interagency coordination and decrease the cost of major disaster response. At the least, the RaDES concept should serve as a model for discussing how to practicably improve our current chaotic disaster responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Empirically Determined Response Matrices for On-Line Orbit and Energy Correction at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh Harwood; Alicia Hofler; Michele Joyce; Valeri Lebedev; David Bryan


    Jefferson Lab uses feedback loops (less than 1 hertz update rate) to correct drifts in CEBAF's electron beam orbit and energy. Previous incarnations of these loops used response matrices that were computed by a numerical model of the machine. Jefferson Lab is transitioning this feedback system to use empirically determined response matrices whereby the software introduces small orbit or energy deviations using the loop's actuators and measures the system response with the loop's sensors. This method is in routine use for orbit correction. This paper will describe the orbit correction system and future plans to extend this method to energy correction

  5. Disaster Response Modeling Through Discrete-Event Simulation (United States)

    Wang, Jeffrey; Gilmer, Graham


    Organizations today are required to plan against a rapidly changing, high-cost environment. This is especially true for first responders to disasters and other incidents, where critical decisions must be made in a timely manner to save lives and resources. Discrete-event simulations enable organizations to make better decisions by visualizing complex processes and the impact of proposed changes before they are implemented. A discrete-event simulation using Simio software has been developed to effectively analyze and quantify the imagery capabilities of domestic aviation resources conducting relief missions. This approach has helped synthesize large amounts of data to better visualize process flows, manage resources, and pinpoint capability gaps and shortfalls in disaster response scenarios. Simulation outputs and results have supported decision makers in the understanding of high risk locations, key resource placement, and the effectiveness of proposed improvements.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities in Geocuration for Disaster Response (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Burks, J. E.; McGrath, K.; Ramachandran, R.; Goodman, H. M.


    Following a significant disaster event, a wide range of resources and science teams are leveraged to aid in the response effort. Often, these efforts include the acquisition and use of non-traditional data sets, or the generation of prototyped products using new image analysis techniques. These efforts may also include acquisition and hosting of remote sensing data sets from domestic and international partners - from the public or private sector - which differ from standard remote sensing holdings, or may be accompanied by specific licensing agreements that limit their use and dissemination. In addition, at time periods well beyond the initial disaster event, other science teams may incorporate airborne or field campaign measurements that support the assessment of damage but also acquire information necessary to address key science questions about the specific disaster or a broader category of similar events. The immediate need to gather data and provide information to the response effort can result in large data holdings that require detailed curation to improve the efficiency of response efforts, but also ensure that collected data can be used on a longer time scale to address underlying science questions. Data collected in response to a disaster event may be thought of as a "field campaign" - consisting of traditional data sets managed through physical or virtual holdings, but also a larger number of ad hoc data collections, derived products, and metadata, including the potential for airborne or ground-based data collections. Appropriate metadata and documentation are needed to ensure that derived products have traceability to their source data, along with documentation of algorithm authors, versions, and outcomes so that others can reproduce their results, and to ensure that data sets remain available and well-documented for longer-term analysis that may in turn create new products relevant to understanding a type of disaster, or support future recovery efforts

  7. Towards a politics of disaster response: presidential disaster instructions in China, 1998-2012. (United States)

    Tao, Peng; Chen, Chunliang


    China's disaster management system contains no law-based presidential disaster declarations; however, the national leader's instructions (pishi in Chinese) play a similar role to disaster declarations, which increase the intensity of disaster relief. This raises the question of what affects presidential disaster instructions within an authoritarian regime. This research shows that China's disaster politics depend on a crisis threshold system for operation and that the public and social features of disasters are at the core of this system. China's political cycle has no significant impact on disaster politics. A change in the emergency management system has a significant bearing on presidential disaster instructions, reflecting the strong influence of the concept of rule of law and benefiting the sustainable development of the emergency management system. In terms of disaster politics research, unlocking the black box of China's disaster politics and increasing the number of comparative political studies will benefit the development of empirical and theoretical study. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  8. Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Response: There's An App for That. (United States)

    Bachmann, Daniel J; Jamison, Nathan K; Martin, Andrew; Delgado, Jose; Kman, Nicholas E


    Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps. A systematic review of these apps was conducted. A search of the Apple iTunes store (Version 12; Apple Inc.; Cupertino, California USA) was performed using the following terms obtained from the PubMed Medical Subject Headings Database: Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Responders, Disaster, Disaster Planning, Disaster Medicine, Bioterrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). After excluding any unrelated apps, a working list of apps was formed and categorized based on topics. Apps were grouped based on applicability to responders, the lay public, or regional preparedness, and were then ranked based on iTunes user reviews, value, relevance to audience, and user interface. This search revealed 683 applications and was narrowed to 219 based on relevance to the field. After grouping the apps as described above, and subsequently ranking them, the highest quality apps were determined from each group. The Community Emergency Response Teams and FEMA had the best apps for National Disaster Medical System responders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had high-quality apps for emergency responders in a variety of fields. The National Library of Medicine's Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) app was an excellent app for HazMat responders. The American Red Cross had the most useful apps for natural

  9. Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response: a literature review. (United States)

    Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Bruce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Kitto, Simon


    Natural disasters impose a significant burden on society. Current disaster training programmes do not place an emphasis on equipping surgeons with non-technical skills for disaster response. This literature review sought to identify non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response through an examination of four categories of literature: "disaster"; "surgical"; "organisational management"; and "interprofessional". Literature search criteria included electronic database searches, internet searches, hand searching, ancestry searching and networking strategies. Various potential non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response were identified including: interpersonal skills such as communication, teamwork and leadership; cognitive strategies such flexibility, adaptability, innovation, improvisation and creativity; physical and psychological self-care; conflict management, collaboration, professionalism, health advocacy and teaching. Such skills and the role of interprofessionalism should be considered for inclusion in surgical disaster response training course curricula.

  10. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A..


    Natural disasters - including such events as tropical storms, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires -effect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and also cause billions of dollars (USD) in damage to the global economy. Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to free-flyer based, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. While several nations have well-developed terrestrial remote sensing programs and assets for data collection, many developing nations do not have ready access to such resources. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC; addresses this disparity. It is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data of natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. The lead US agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request or "activation" is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, the Earth Sciences and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit, part of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science

  11. Recent innovation of geospatial information technology to support disaster risk management and responses (United States)

    Une, Hiroshi; Nakano, Takayuki


    Geographic location is one of the most fundamental and indispensable information elements in the field of disaster response and prevention. For example, in the case of the Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, aerial photos taken immediately after the earthquake greatly improved information sharing among different government offices and facilitated rescue and recovery operations, and maps prepared after the disaster assisted in the rapid reconstruction of affected local communities. Thanks to the recent development of geospatial information technology, this information has become more essential for disaster response activities. Advancements in web mapping technology allows us to better understand the situation by overlaying various location-specific data on base maps on the web and specifying the areas on which activities should be focused. Through 3-D modelling technology, we can have a more realistic understanding of the relationship between disaster and topography. Geospatial information technology can sup-port proper preparation and emergency responses against disasters by individuals and local communities through hazard mapping and other information services using mobile devices. Thus, geospatial information technology is playing a more vital role on all stages of disaster risk management and responses. In acknowledging geospatial information's vital role in disaster risk reduction, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, adopted at the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, repeatedly reveals the importance of utilizing geospatial information technology for disaster risk reduction. This presentation aims to report the recent practical applications of geospatial information technology for disaster risk management and responses.

  12. Response capabilities of the National Guard: a focus on domestic disaster medical response. (United States)

    Bochicchio, Daniel


    The National Guard has a 373-year history of responding to the nation's call to duty for service both at home and abroad (The National Guard Bureau Web site: Available at aspx.). The National Guard (NG) is a constitutionally unique organization (United States Constitution, US Government Printing Office Web site: Available at Today's Guard conducts domestic disaster response and civilian assistance missions on a daily basis. Yet, the NG's role, mission, and capabilities are not well-known or understood. The National Response Framework (NRF) places significant responsibility on the local and state disaster planners (Department of Homeland Security: National Response Framework. US Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC, January 2008). The public health professionals are an integral component of the disaster planning community. It is critical that the public health community be knowledgeable of types and capabilities of all the response assets at their disposal.

  13. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data (United States)

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle


    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  14. Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise: Lessons Learned and Progress Toward Key Goals. (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Jordan, John J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Gaye, Dame B; Beadling, Charles W


    The Republic of Senegal Disaster Preparedness and Response Exercise was held from June 2-6, 2014, in Dakar, Senegal. The goal was to assist in familiarizing roles and responsibilities within 3 existing plans and to update the National Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan. There were 60 participants in the exercise, which was driven by a series of evolving disaster scenarios. During the separate Disaster Management Strategic Work Plan review, participants refined a list of projects, including specific tasks to provide a "road map" for completing each project, project timelines, and estimated resource requirements. Project staff administered a survey to conference participants. A total of 86% of respondents had improved knowledge of Senegal disaster plans as a result of the exercise. A total of 89% of respondents had a better understanding of their ministry's role in disaster response, and 92% had a better understanding of the role of the military during a pandemic. Participants also generated ideas for disaster management system improvement in Senegal through a formal "gap analysis." Participants were in strong agreement that the exercise helped them to better understand the contents of their disaster response plans, build relationships across ministerial lines, and effectively enhance future disaster response efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:183-189).

  15. TAGGS: Grouping Tweets to Improve Global Geoparsing for Disaster Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, J.A.; de Moel, H.; Jongman, B.; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Aerts, J.C.J.H.


    Timely and accurate information about ongoing events are crucial for relief organizations seeking to effectively respond to disasters. Recently, social media platforms, especially Twitter, have gained traction as a novel source of information on disaster events. Unfortunately, geographical

  16. Development and evaluation of fixed phrase registration function for disaster response management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu; Tsuda, Teppei


    It is important that three elements such as what happened, how it will advance, and how people should act are intelligibly transferred in disaster information from administrative organs to local residents. In this paper, authors developed the fixed phrase registration function and it was implemented in disaster response management system authors have previously developed. The system was applied to disaster response exercise in Mitsuke City, Niigata prefecture and the function was highly evaluated by employees of Mitsuke City. (author)

  17. The use of UAS in disaster response operations (United States)

    Gkotsis, I.; Eftychidis, G.; Kolios, P.


    The use of UAS by the emergency services has been received with great interest since UAS provide both informant and helper support in a flexible, effective and efficient manner. This is due to the fact that, UAS can strengthen the operational capabilities related to: prevention (e.g., patrolling of large and hard to reach areas), early detection (e.g., mapping of vulnerable elements), disaster preparedness (e.g., incident inspection), response (mapping damages, search and rescue, provide an ad hoc communication network, monitor evacuation, etc). Through PREDICATE, a project concerning civilian use of drones, the necessary methodologies to guide the selection and operational use of UAS in emergencies, are developed. To guide UAS selection, the project performed a detailed needs assessment in cooperation with civil protection and law enforcement agencies. As a result of this assessment, currently available technologies and market solutions were reviewed leading to the development of an online user-friendly tool to support selection of UAS based on operational requirements. To guide the use of UAS, PREDICATE developed an intelligent path planning toolkit to automate the operation of UAS and ease their use for the various civil protection operations. By employing the aforementioned tools, emergency services will be able to better understand how to select and make use of UAS for watch-keeping and patrolling of their own disaster-prone Regions of Interest. The research, innovation and applicability behind both these tools is detailed in this work.

  18. E-DECIDER Decision Support Gateway For Earthquake Disaster Response (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Stough, T. M.; Parker, J. W.; Burl, M. C.; Donnellan, A.; Blom, R. G.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Ma, Y.; Rundle, J. B.; Yoder, M. R.


    Earthquake Data Enhanced Cyber-Infrastructure for Disaster Evaluation and Response (E-DECIDER) is a NASA-funded project developing capabilities for decision-making utilizing remote sensing data and modeling software in order to provide decision support for earthquake disaster management and response. E-DECIDER incorporates earthquake forecasting methodology and geophysical modeling tools developed through NASA's QuakeSim project in order to produce standards-compliant map data products to aid in decision-making following an earthquake. Remote sensing and geodetic data, in conjunction with modeling and forecasting tools, help provide both long-term planning information for disaster management decision makers as well as short-term information following earthquake events (i.e. identifying areas where the greatest deformation and damage has occurred and emergency services may need to be focused). E-DECIDER utilizes a service-based GIS model for its cyber-infrastructure in order to produce standards-compliant products for different user types with multiple service protocols (such as KML, WMS, WFS, and WCS). The goal is to make complex GIS processing and domain-specific analysis tools more accessible to general users through software services as well as provide system sustainability through infrastructure services. The system comprises several components, which include: a GeoServer for thematic mapping and data distribution, a geospatial database for storage and spatial analysis, web service APIs, including simple-to-use REST APIs for complex GIS functionalities, and geoprocessing tools including python scripts to produce standards-compliant data products. These are then served to the E-DECIDER decision support gateway (, the E-DECIDER mobile interface, and to the Department of Homeland Security decision support middleware UICDS (Unified Incident Command and Decision Support). The E-DECIDER decision support gateway features a web interface that

  19. Variations in disaster evacuation behavior: public responses versus private sector executive decision-making processes. (United States)

    Drabek, T E


    Data obtained from 65 executives working for tourism firms in three sample communities permitted comparison with the public warning response literature regarding three topics: disaster evacuation planning, initial warning responses, and disaster evacuation behavior. Disaster evacuation planning was reported by nearly all of these business executives, although it was highly variable in content, completeness, and formality. Managerial responses to post-disaster warnings paralleled the type of complex social processes that have been documented within the public response literature, except that warning sources and confirmation behavior were significantly affected by contact with authorities. Five key areas of difference were discovered in disaster evacuation behavior pertaining to: influence of planning, firm versus family priorities, shelter selection, looting concerns, and media contacts.

  20. Time for a revolution: smart energy and microgrid use in disaster response. (United States)

    Callaway, David Wayne; Noste, Erin; McCahill, Peter Woods; Rossman, A J; Lempereur, Dominique; Kaney, Kathleen; Swanson, Doug


    Modern health care and disaster response are inextricably linked to high volume, reliable, quality power. Disasters place major strain on energy infrastructure in affected communities. Advances in renewable energy and microgrid technology offer the potential to improve mobile disaster medical response capabilities. However, very little is known about the energy requirements of and alternative power sources in disaster response. A gap analysis of the energy components of modern disaster response reveals multiple deficiencies. The MED-1 Green Project has been executed as a multiphase project designed to identify energy utilization inefficiencies, decrease demands on diesel generators, and employ modern energy management strategies to expand operational independence. This approach, in turn, allows for longer deployments in potentially more austere environments and minimizes the unit's environmental footprint. The ultimate goal is to serve as a proof of concept for other mobile medical units to create strategies for energy independence.

  1. To enhance effectiveness of response to emergency situations following earthquakes, tsunamis, and nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Jiro; Tase, Choichiro; Tsukada, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Arifumi; Ikegami, Yukihiro; Iida, Hiroshi


    From the immediate aftermath of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami and the ensuing Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. Fukushima Medical University Hospital urgently needed to operate as both a core disaster hospital and a secondary radiation emergency hospital. The disaster drills and emergency simulation training that had been undertaken to prepare for such a scenario proved to be immensely helpful. However, due to the fact that the disaster caused much more damage than expected putting that preparation perfectly into practice was impossible. In any disaster, it is important to collect human intelligence. Therefore, simulating the collection of human intelligence is necessary in order to supplement drills and training and improve rapid response following a disaster. (author)

  2. A survey of optometry leadership: participation in disaster response. (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Glotzer, David L; Weiserbs, Kera Fay; Baek, Linda S; Karloopia, Rajiv


    A study was completed to assess the academic and state-level professional optometry leadership views regarding optometry professionals as surge responders in the event of a catastrophic event. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a 21-question, self-administered, structured questionnaire. All U.S. optometry school deans and state optometric association presidents were mailed a questionnaire and instructions to return it by mail on completion; 2 repeated mailings were made. Descriptive statistics were produced and differences between deans and association presidents were tested by Fisher exact test. The questionnaire response rate was 50% (25 returned/50 sent) for the state association presidents and 65% (11/17) for the deans. There were no statistically significant differences between the leadership groups for any survey questions. All agreed that optometrists have the skills, are ethically obligated to help, and that optometrists should receive additional training for participation in disaster response. There was general agreement that optometrists should provide first-aid, obtain medical histories, triage, maintain infection control, manage a point of distribution, prescribe medications, and counsel the "worried well." Starting intravenous lines, interpreting radiographs, and suturing were less favorably supported. There was some response variability between the 2 leadership groups regarding potential sources for training. The overall opinion of optometry professional leadership is that with additional training, optometrists can and should provide an important reserve pool of catastrophic event responders. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Unpredictable, unpreventable and impersonal medicine: global disaster response in the 21st century. (United States)

    Andrews, Russell J; Quintana, Leonidas M


    The United Nations has recognized the devastating consequences of "unpredictable, unpreventable and impersonal" disasters-at least US $2 trillion in economic damage and more than 1.3 million lives lost from natural disasters in the last two decades alone. In many disasters (both natural and man-made) hundreds-and in major earthquakes, thousands-of lives are lost in the first days following the event because of the lack of medical/surgical facilities to treat those with potentially survivable injuries. Disasters disrupt and destroy not only medical facilities in the disaster zone but also infrastructure (roads, airports, electricity) and potentially local healthcare personnel as well. To minimize morbidity and mortality from disasters, medical treatment must begin immediately, within minutes ideally, but certainly within 24 h (not the days to weeks currently seen in medical response to disasters). This requires that all resources-medical equipment and support, and healthcare personnel-be portable and readily available; transport to the disaster site will usually require helicopters, as military medical response teams in developed countries have demonstrated. Some of the resources available and in development for immediate medical response for disasters-from portable CT scanners to telesurgical capabilities-are described. For immediate deployment, these resources-medical equipment and personnel-must be ready for deployment on a moment's notice and not require administrative approvals or bureaucratic authorizations from numerous national and international agencies, as is presently the case. Following the "trauma center/stroke center" model, disaster response incorporating "disaster response centers" would be seamlessly integrated into the ongoing daily healthcare delivery systems worldwide, from medical education and specialty training (resident/registrar) to acute and subacute intensive care to long-term rehabilitation. The benefits of such a global disaster

  4. Medium-induced change of the optical response of metal clusters in rare-gas matrices (United States)

    Xuan, Fengyuan; Guet, Claude


    Interaction with the surrounding medium modifies the optical response of embedded metal clusters. For clusters from about ten to a few hundreds of silver atoms, embedded in rare-gas matrices, we study the environment effect within the matrix random phase approximation with exact exchange (RPAE) quantum approach, which has proved successful for free silver clusters. The polarizable surrounding medium screens the residual two-body RPAE interaction, adds a polarization term to the one-body potential, and shifts the vacuum energy of the active delocalized valence electrons. Within this model, we calculate the dipole oscillator strength distribution for Ag clusters embedded in helium droplets, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon matrices. The main contribution to the dipole surface plasmon red shift originates from the rare-gas polarization screening of the two-body interaction. The large size limit of the dipole surface plasmon agrees well with the classical prediction.

  5. Understanding information exchange during disaster response: Methodological insights from infocentric analysis (United States)

    Toddi A. Steelman; Branda Nowell; Deena. Bayoumi; Sarah. McCaffrey


    We leverage economic theory, network theory, and social network analytical techniques to bring greater conceptual and methodological rigor to understand how information is exchanged during disasters. We ask, "How can information relationships be evaluated more systematically during a disaster response?" "Infocentric analysis"—a term and...

  6. Telematic Requirements for Emergency and Disaster Response derived from Enterprise Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widya, I.A.; Vierhout, P.A.M.; Vierhout, P.A.M.; Jones, Valerie M.; Bults, Richard G.A.; van Halteren, Aart; Peuscher, J.; Konstantas, D.; Istepanian, R.S.H.; Laxminarayan, S.; Pattichis, C.S.


    One of the prime objectives in disaster response management is to achieve full control of the situation as rapidly as possible. Coordination and communication facility therefore plays an essential role in managing disasters. This chapter discusses Enterprise Models that capture the invariant

  7. [A new stream of the next disaster response with a variety of hospital ship in Japan]. (United States)

    Kato, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro


    In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake. The archipelago structure of Japan is easy terrain that provides approach from the shore to any place in the country; this makes it possible to plan effective relief operations. Therefore, in preparing for the next large-scale disaster, the use of a hospital ship has been discussed as one of the strong bases to combat collapse of infrastructure. For effective utilization of the ship, we will discuss the main points collated from experience of past disaster responses and training.

  8. "Social, technological, and research responses to potential erosion and sediment disasters in the western United States, with examples from California" (United States)

    R. M. Rice


    Synopsis - Examples from California are used to illustrate typical responses to erosion and debris flow disasters the United States. Political institutions leave virtually all responsibility for disaster prevention to the lowest levels of government or to individuals. Three circumstances in which disasters occur are discussed: urbanized debris cones, urbanized unstable...

  9. Social, technological, and research responses to potential erosion and sediment disasters in the western United States, with examples from California (United States)

    R. M. Rice


    Examples from California are used to illustrate typical responses to erosion and debris flow disasters in the United States. Political institutions leave virtually all responsibility for disaster prevention to the lowest levels of government or to individuals. Three circumstances in which disasters occur are discussed: urbanized debris cones, urbanized unstable...

  10. USGS Imagery Applications During Disaster Response After Recent Earthquakes (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Brooks, B. A.; Glennie, C. L.; Finnegan, D. C.


    rapidly improving our system, which includes the sensor package and software for all steps in acquiring, processing and differencing repeat-pass lidar and electro-optical imagery, and the GRiD metadata and point cloud database standard, already used during disaster response surge events by other agencies (e.g., during Hurricane Sandy in 2012).

  11. Ethical Responsibility of Governance for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Development (United States)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya


    The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.

  12. Cloud-Based Social Media Visual Analytics Disaster Response System, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a next-generation cloud-based social media visual analytics disaster response system that will enable decision-makers and first-responders to obtain...

  13. The Inverse Response Law: Theory and Relevance to the Aftermath of Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Phibbs


    Full Text Available The Inverse Care Law is principally concerned with the effect of market forces on health care which create inequities in access to health services through privileging individuals who possess the forms of social capital that are valued within health care settings. The fields of disaster risk reduction need to consider the ways in which inequities, driven by economic and social policy as well as institutional decision-making, create vulnerabilities prior to a disaster, which are then magnified post disaster through entrenched structural differences in access to resources. Drawing on key principles within the Inverse Care Law, the Inverse Response Law refers to the idea that people in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to be impacted and to experience disparities in service provision during the disaster response and recovery phase. In a market model of recovery, vulnerable groups struggle to compete for necessary services creating inequities in adaptive capacity as well as in social and wellbeing outcomes over time. Both the Inverse Care Law and the Inverse Response Law focus on the structural organisation of services at a macro level. In this article, the Inverse Care Law is outlined, its application to medical treatment following disasters considered and an explanation of the Inverse Response Law provided. Case studies from recent disasters, in London, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and Mexico City are examined in order to illustrate themes at work relating to the Inverse Response Law.

  14. Travelling without a helmet: tourists' vulnerabilities and responses to disasters in Indonesia. (United States)

    Rindrasih, Erda; Hartmann, Thomas; Witte, Patrick; Spit, Tejo; Zoomers, Annelies


    Tourists are particularly vulnerable when natural disasters occur in regions that they are visiting. It is assumed that they lack awareness and understanding of the actions that they need to take in such circumstances. This study examines the responses of tourists in times of disaster, building on empirical data collected through large-scale surveys conducted in Bali and Yogyakarta, Indonesia, in 2015. Both are important tourist destinations in the country that have suffered major disasters in recent years. The different types of responses to these events are framed using a grid/group analysis stemming from cultural theory. The study resulted in three key findings: (i) current disaster management planning largely follows a single rationale; (ii) tourists are not a homogeneous group, but rather a complex, diverse, and dynamic body of stakeholders; and (iii) the focus of disaster management planning should shift from a single rationale to a polyrational methodology. Disaster managers need to consider, therefore, these different aspects in the context of preparedness. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  15. 3.5 square meters: Constructive responses to natural disasters (United States)

    Vinitsky, Maya


    Natural disasters and their consequences dominate the news almost on a daily basis. Quick-impact preventive and aid measures are essential for the victims to survive. This volume presents a selection of projects which demonstrate impressively how both cutting-edge technology and locally available materials and resources can be used for this purpose.

  16. Reflections on the Opportunities and Challenges of Disaster Response (United States)

    Juntunen, Cindy L.


    This reaction article applauds the authors of the Major Contribution for their thoughtful and thorough consideration of the myriad issues that accompany disaster mental health work. The reaction highlights three themes that emerged in the articles of the contribution: opportunities for collaboration, opportunities for the application of social…

  17. Do markets love misery? Stock prices and corporate disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.R.; Kräussl, R.


    While companies have emerged as very proactive donors in the wake of recent major disasters like Hurricane Katrina, it remains unclear whether that corporate generosity generates benefits to firms themselves. The literature on strategic philanthropy suggests that such philanthropic behavior may be

  18. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review. (United States)

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana


    Local health departments are often at the forefront of a disaster response, attending to the immediate trauma inflicted by the disaster and also the long term health consequences. As the frequency and severity of disasters are projected to rise, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts are critical to help local health departments consolidate past experiences and improve future response efforts. Local health departments often conduct M&E work post disaster, however, many of these efforts fail to improve response procedures. We undertook a rapid realist review (RRR) to examine why M&E efforts undertaken by local health departments do not always result in improved disaster response efforts. We aimed to complement existing frameworks by focusing on the most basic and pragmatic steps of a M&E cycle targeted towards continuous system improvements. For these purposes, we developed a theoretical framework that draws on the quality improvement literature to 'frame' the steps in the M&E cycle. This framework encompassed a M&E cycle involving three stages (i.e., document and assess, disseminate and implement) that must be sequentially completed to learn from past experiences and improve future disaster response efforts. We used this framework to guide our examination of the literature and to identify any context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations which describe how M&E may be constrained or enabled at each stage of the M&E cycle. This RRR found a number of explanatory CMO configurations that provide valuable insights into some of the considerations that should be made when using M&E to improve future disaster response efforts. Firstly, to support the accurate documentation and assessment of a disaster response, local health departments should consider how they can: establish a culture of learning within health departments; use embedded training methods; or facilitate external partnerships. Secondly, to enhance the widespread dissemination of lessons learned and facilitate

  19. Innovative Methods for the Benefit of Public Health Using Space Technologies for Disaster Response. (United States)

    Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan


    Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system.

  20. USGS GNSS Applications to Earthquake Disaster Response and Hazard Mitigation (United States)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Murray, J. R.; Minson, S. E.


    Rapid characterization of earthquake rupture is important during a disaster because it establishes which fault ruptured and the extent and amount of fault slip. These key parameters, in turn, can augment in situ seismic sensors for identifying disruption to lifelines as well as localized damage along the fault break. Differential GNSS station positioning, along with imagery differencing, are important methods for augmenting seismic sensors. During response to recent earthquakes (1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, 2010 El Mayor - Cucapah, 2012 Brawley Swarm and 2014 South Napa earthquakes), GNSS co-seismic and post-seismic observations proved to be essential for rapid earthquake source characterization. Often, we find that GNSS results indicate key aspects of the earthquake source that would not have been known in the absence of GNSS data. Seismic, geologic, and imagery data alone, without GNSS, would miss important details of the earthquake source. That is, GNSS results provide important additional insight into the earthquake source properties, which in turn help understand the relationship between shaking and damage patterns. GNSS also adds to understanding of the distribution of slip along strike and with depth on a fault, which can help determine possible lifeline damage due to fault offset, as well as the vertical deformation and tilt that are vitally important for gravitationally driven water systems. The GNSS processing work flow that took more than one week 25 years ago now takes less than one second. Formerly, portable receivers needed to be set up at a site, operated for many hours, then data retrieved, processed and modeled by a series of manual steps. The establishment of continuously telemetered, continuously operating high-rate GNSS stations and the robust automation of all aspects of data retrieval and processing, has led to sub-second overall system latency. Within the past few years, the final challenges of

  1. Social media and disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research. (United States)

    Houston, J Brian; Hawthorne, Joshua; Perreault, Mildred F; Park, Eun Hae; Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Halliwell, Michael R; Turner McGowen, Sarah E; Davis, Rachel; Vaid, Shivani; McElderry, Jonathan A; Griffith, Stanford A


    A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012-13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research. © 2014 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  2. Development of procedure for emergency response in the combined disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Lessons learned from operating experience at the emergency after a East Japan Great Earthquake, have shown that development of decision making procedure and criteria for protective action implementation would be important at the emergency in the combined disaster such as nuclear accidents caused by natural disasters (including tsunami, flood, heavy snow, fire, etc.). In this study, the problemdefinition, the concept of operation and the data development were planned for three years since fiscal year 2011. In tins year, trial calculation of evacuation time estimate (ETE) for the wide area was performed. Moreover, the basic concept and procedure for carrying out ETE condidering the combined emergency were developed based on the last year results. (author)

  3. Developing Global Building Exposure for Disaster Forecasting, Mitigation, and Response (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.


    Nongovernmental organizations and governments are recognizing the importance of insurance penetration in developing countries to mitigate the tremendous setbacks that follow natural disasters., but to effectively manage risk stakeholders must accurately quantify the built environment. Although there are countless datasets addressing elements of buildings, there are surprisingly few that are directly applicable to assessing vulnerability to natural disasters without skewing the spatial distribution of risk towards known assets. Working with NASA center partners Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University in New York (, ImageCat have developed a novel method of developing Global Exposure Data (GED) from EO sources. The method has been applied to develop exposure datasets for GFDRR, CAT modelers, and aid in post-earthquake allocation of resources for UNICEF.

  4. Development of a Mobile Application for Disaster Information and Response (United States)

    Stollberg, B.


    The Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) started exploring current technology and internet trends in order to answer the question if post-disaster situation awareness can be improved by community involvement. An exploratory research project revolves around the development of an iPhone App to provide users with real-time information about disasters and give them the possibility to send information in the form of a geo-located image and/or text back. Targeted users include professional emergency responders of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS), as well as general users affected by disasters. GDACS provides global multi-hazard disaster monitoring and alerting for earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones, floods and volcanoes. It serves to consolidate and improve the dissemination of disaster-related information, in order to improve the coordination of international relief efforts. The goal of the exploratory research project is to extract and feedback useful information from reports shared by the community for improving situation awareness and providing ground truth for rapid satellite-based mapping. From a technological point of view, JRC is focusing on interoperability of field reporting software and is working with several organizations to develop standards and reference implementations of an interoperable mobile information platform. The iPhone App developed by JRC provides on one hand information about GDACS alerts and on the other hand the possibility for the users to send reports about a selected disaster back to JRC. iPhones are equipped with a camera and (apart from the very first model) a GPS receiver. This offers the possibility to transmit pictures and also the location for every sent report. A test has shown that the accuracy of the location can be expected to be in the range of 50 meters (iPhone 3GS) and respectively 5 meters (iPhone 4). For this reason pictures sent by the new iPhone generation can be very

  5. Development of procedure for emergency response in the combined disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Lessons learned from operating experience at the emergency after a East Japan Great Earthquake, have shown that development of decision making procedure and criteria for protective action implementation would be important at the emergency in the combined disaster such as nuclear accidents caused by natural disasters (including tsunami, flood, heavy snow, fire, etc.). In this study, the problemdefinition, the concept of operation and the data development were planned for three years since fiscal year 2011. In tins year, trial calculation of evacuation time estimate (ETE) for the wide area was performed. Moreover, the basic concept and procedure for carrying out ETE condidering the combined emergency were developed based on the last year results. (author)

  6. Social response to technological disaster: the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, B.B.


    Until recently the sociological study of man environment relations under extreme circumstances has been restricted to natural hazards (e.g., floods, hurricanes, tornadoes). Technological disasters are becoming more commonplace (e.g., Times Beach, MO, Love Canal, TMI-2) and are growing as potential sources of impact upon human populations. However, theory regarding the social impact of such disasters has not been developed. While research on natural disasters is in part applicable to technological disasters, theory adapted from environmental sociology and psychology are also utilized to develop a theory of social response to extreme environmental events produced by technology. Hypotheses are developed in the form of an empirically testable model based on the literature reviewed

  7. Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response: a qualitative study of the Australian perspective. (United States)

    Willems, Anneliese; Waxman, Buce; Bacon, Andrew K; Smith, Julian; Peller, Jennifer; Kitto, Simon


    Interprofessional non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response have not yet been developed. The aims of this study were to identify the non-technical skills required of surgeons in disaster response and training for disaster response and to explore the barriers and facilitators to interprofessional practice in surgical teams responding to disasters. Twenty health professionals, with prior experience in natural disaster response or education, participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. A qualitative matrix analysis design was used to thematically analyze the data. Non-technical skills for surgeons in disaster response identified in this study included skills for austere environments, cognitive strategies and interprofessional skills. Skills for austere environments were physical self-care including survival skills, psychological self-care, flexibility, adaptability, innovation and improvisation. Cognitive strategies identified in this study were "big picture" thinking, situational awareness, critical thinking, problem solving and creativity. Interprofessional attributes include communication, team-player, sense of humor, cultural competency and conflict resolution skills. "Interprofessionalism" in disaster teams also emerged as a key factor in this study and incorporated elements of effective teamwork, clear leadership, role adjustment and conflict resolution. The majority of participants held the belief that surgeons needed training in non-technical skills in order to achieve best practice in disaster response. Surgeons considerring becoming involved in disaster management should be trained in these skills, and these skills should be incorporated into disaster preparation courses with an interprofessional focus.

  8. Knowledge to Action - Understanding Natural Hazards-Induced Power Outage Scenarios for Actionable Disaster Responses (United States)

    Kar, B.; Robinson, C.; Koch, D. B.; Omitaomu, O.


    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 identified the following four priorities to prevent and reduce disaster risks: i) understanding disaster risk; ii) strengthening governance to manage disaster risk; iii) investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience and; iv) enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. While forecasting and decision making tools are in place to predict and understand future impacts of natural hazards, the knowledge to action approach that currently exists fails to provide updated information needed by decision makers to undertake response and recovery efforts following a hazard event. For instance, during a tropical storm event advisories are released every two to three hours, but manual analysis of geospatial data to determine potential impacts of the event tends to be time-consuming and a post-event process. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a Spatial Decision Support System that enables real-time analysis of storm impact based on updated advisory. A prototype of the tool that focuses on determining projected power outage areas and projected duration of outages demonstrates the feasibility of integrating science with decision making for emergency management personnel to act in real time to protect communities and reduce risk.

  9. Emergency Response of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters: A Practical Framework for Improvement. (United States)

    Janati, Ali; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Hasanpoor, Edris; Sokhanvar, Mobin; HaghGoshyie, Elaheh; Salehi, Abdollah


    Hospital emergency management is a continuous process that requires monolithic integration of planning and response attempts with local and national schemes. The aim of the current study is to evaluate emergency response by hospitals against potential disasters in Tabriz, north-west Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the city of Tabriz, in Iran, in 2016. The study population included all hospitals in Tabriz. A total of 18 hospitals were assessed. The hospital emergency response checklist was used to collect data. Tool components included command and control, communication, safety and security, triage, surge capacity, continuity of essential services, human resources, logistics and supply management, and post-disaster recovery. Data entry and analysis were carried out using SPSS software (version 20). The results showed that the emergency response rate of hospitals was 54.26% in Tabriz. The lowest response rates were for Shafaa hospital (18.89%) and the highest response rates were for Razi Hospital (91.67%). The components of hospital emergency response were assessed to be between 48.07% (surge capacity) and 58.95% (communication). On the basis of the World Health Organization checklist, the emergency response rate for hospitals in Tabriz was only 54.26%. Therefore, hospital emergency responses against disasters have to be improved and must be made to reach 100%. It is essential to design a comprehensive framework for hospital emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:166-171).

  10. Factors affecting the United Nations' response to natural disasters: what determines the allocation of the Central Emergency Response Fund? (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Oliveira, Thiago M; Kayden, Stephanie


    Natural disasters can overwhelm the domestic response of a country, leaving it dependent on external humanitarian relief. The Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) of the United Nations centralises humanitarian funding and thus allows for a rapid response. This study combined data to analyse the factors that affected the allocation of CERF funding to countries that suffered a natural disaster between 2007 and 2013. It generated descriptive statistics and information on relative risks, and performed regressions of CERF funding across countries. There were 4,346 disasters in total in 188 countries between 2007 and 2013. CERF provided USD 2.98 billion to 87 countries, comprising 3.3 per cent of their total humanitarian funding. CERF more frequently supplied aid to countries in North Africa and the Middle East, and to those that had suffered geophysical disasters. Appropriately, it funds vulnerable countries experiencing severe natural disasters, yet its funding may be affected by variables beyond severity and vulnerability. Further investigation is warranted, therefore. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  11. Nurses’ roles, knowledge and experience in national disaster pre-paredness and emergency response: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Grochtdreis


    Results: The sub-themes of the first main theme (a roles of nurses during emergency response include the expectations of the hospital and the public, general and special roles of nurses, assignments of medical tasks, special role during a pandemic influenza, role conflicts during a disaster, willingness to respond to a disaster. For (b disaster preparedness knowledge of nurses, the corresponding sub-themes include the definition of a disaster, core competencies and curriculum, undergraduate nursing education and continuing education programs, disaster drills, training and exercises, preparedness. The sub-themes for the last theme (c disaster experiences of nurses include the work environment, nursing care, feelings, stressors, willingness to respond as well as lessons learned and impacts. Conclusion: There is consensus in the literature that nurses are key players in emergency response. However, no clear mandate for nurses exists concerning their tasks during a disaster. For a nurse, to be able to respond to a disaster, personal and professional preparedness, in terms of education and training, are central. The Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies of the WHO and ICN, broken down into national core competencies, will serve as a sufficient complement to the knowledge and skills of nurses already acquired through basic nursing curricula. During and after a disaster, attention should be applied to the work environment, feelings and stressors of nurses, not only to raise the willingness to respond to a disaster. Where non-existent, national directives and concepts for disaster nursing should be developed and nurses should be aware of their duties. Nursing educators should prepare nurses for disasters, by adjusting the curricula and by meeting the increased need for education and training in disaster nursing for all groups of nurses. The appropriateness of theoretical and practical preparation of disaster nursing competencies in undergraduate nursing courses and

  12. Supporting Disaster Assessment and Response with the VIIRS Day-Night Band (United States)

    Schultz, Lori A.; Cole, Tony; Molthan, Andrew L.


    When meteorological or man-made disasters occur, first responders often focus on impacts to the affected population and other human activities. Often, these disasters result in significant impacts to local infrastructure and power, resulting in widespread power outages. For minor events, these power outages are often short-lived, but major disasters often include long-term outages that have a significant impact on wellness, safety, and recovery efforts within the affected areas. Staff at NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center have been investigating the use of the VIIRS day-night band for monitoring power outages that result from significant disasters, and developing techniques to identify damaged areas in near real-time following events. In addition to immediate assessment, the VIIRS DNB can be used to monitor and assess ongoing recovery efforts. In this presentation, we will highlight previous applications of the VIIRS DNB following Superstorm Sandy in 2012, and other applications of the VIIRS DNB to more recent disaster events, including detection of outages following the Moore, Oklahoma tornado of May 2013 and the Chilean earthquake of April 2014. Examples of current products will be shown, along with future work and other goals for supporting disaster assessment and response with VIIRS capabilities.

  13. Iranian nurses' experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study. (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza


    Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.

  14. Multi-Satellite Observation Scheduling for Large Area Disaster Emergency Response (United States)

    Niu, X. N.; Tang, H.; Wu, L. X.


    an optimal imaging plan, plays a key role in coordinating multiple satellites to monitor the disaster area. In the paper, to generate imaging plan dynamically according to the disaster relief, we propose a dynamic satellite task scheduling method for large area disaster response. First, an initial robust scheduling scheme is generated by a robust satellite scheduling model in which both the profit and the robustness of the schedule are simultaneously maximized. Then, we use a multi-objective optimization model to obtain a series of decomposing schemes. Based on the initial imaging plan, we propose a mixed optimizing algorithm named HA_NSGA-II to allocate the decomposing results thus to obtain an adjusted imaging schedule. A real disaster scenario, i.e., 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, is revisited in terms of rapid response using satellite resources and used to evaluate the performance of the proposed method with state-of-the-art approaches. We conclude that our satellite scheduling model can optimize the usage of satellite resources so as to obtain images in disaster response in a more timely and efficient manner.

  15. Nonclinical core competencies and effects of interprofessional teamwork in disaster and emergency response training and practice: a pilot study. (United States)

    Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon


    To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).

  16. Ultrasound-responsive gene-activated matrices for osteogenic gene therapy using matrix-assisted sonoporation. (United States)

    Nomikou, N; Feichtinger, G A; Saha, S; Nuernberger, S; Heimel, P; Redl, H; McHale, A P


    Gene-activated matrix (GAM)-based therapeutics for tissue regeneration are limited by efficacy, the lack of spatiotemporal control and availability of target cells, all of which impact negatively on their translation to the clinic. Here, an advanced ultrasound-responsive GAM is described containing target cells that facilitates matrix-assisted sonoporation (MAS) to induce osteogenic differentiation. Ultrasound-responsive GAMs consisting of fibrin/collagen hybrid-matrices containing microbubbles, bone morphogenetic protein BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids together with C2C12 cells were treated with ultrasound either in vitro or following parenteral intramuscular implantation in vivo. Using direct measurement for alkaline phosphatase activity, von Kossa staining and immunohistochemical analysis for osteocalcin expression, MAS-stimulated osteogenic differentiation was confirmed in the GAMs in vitro 7 days after treatment with ultrasound. At day 30 post-treatment with ultrasound, ectopic osteogenic differentiation was confirmed in vivo using X-ray microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Osteogenic differentiation was indicated by the presence of ectopic bone structures in all animals treated with MAS. In addition, bone volumes in this group were statistically greater than those in the control groups. This novel approach of incorporating a MAS capability into GAMs could be exploited to facilitate ex vivo gene transfer with subsequent surgical implantation or alternatively provide a minimally invasive means of stimulating in situ transgene delivery for osteoinductive gene-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. [El niño phenomenon and natural disasters: public health interventions for disaster preparedness and response]. (United States)

    Hijar, Gisely; Bonilla, Catherine; Munayco, Cesar V; Gutierrez, Ericson L; Ramos, Willy


    This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.

  18. More is not Always Better: The Relation between Item Response and Item Response Time in Raven’s Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer


    Full Text Available The role of response time in completing an item can have very different interpretations. Responding more slowly could be positively related to success as the item is answered more carefully. However, the association may be negative if working faster indicates higher ability. The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of each assumption for reasoning items considering the mode of processing. A total of 230 persons completed a computerized version of Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results revealed that response time overall had a negative effect. However, this effect was moderated by items and persons. For easy items and able persons the effect was strongly negative, for difficult items and less able persons it was less negative or even positive. The number of rules involved in a matrix problem proved to explain item difficulty significantly. Most importantly, a positive interaction effect between the number of rules and item response time indicated that the response time effect became less negative with an increasing number of rules. Moreover, exploratory analyses suggested that the error type influenced the response time effect.

  19. Challenges Encountered During the Veterinary Disaster Response: An Example from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Garde


    Full Text Available Large-scale disasters have immeasurable effects on human and animal communities. Evaluating and reporting on the response successes and difficulties encountered serves to improve existing preparedness documents and provide support to those in the process of developing plans. Although the majority of disasters occur in low and middle income nations, less than 1% of the disaster literature originates from these countries. This report describes a response to a disease outbreak in domestic dogs in Dichato, Chile following the 2010 earthquake/tsunami. With no national plan coordinating the companion animal response, there was a chaotic approach among animal welfare organizations towards rescue, diagnosis, treatment and record-keeping. Similar to the medical response following the 1985 earthquake near Santiago, we experienced problems within our own teams in maintenance of data integrity and protocol compliance. Loss of infrastructure added complications with transportation, communications and acquisition of supplies. Similar challenges likely occur in most disasters, but can be reduced through pro-active planning at national and local levels. There is sufficient information to support the human and animal welfare benefits of including companion animals in national planning, and lessons learned through this and other experiences can assist planners in the development of comprehensive and locally relevant contingency plans.

  20. Fire scar mapping for disaster response in KwaZulu-Natal South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the potential of the new Landsat 8 multispectral imagery in rapidly mapping fire scars to aid disaster management response teams in emergency efforts. Maximum likelihood and iso cluster algorithms where used to classify burnt and unburnt areas in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The Landsat 8 sensor ...

  1. The Tsunami's CSR Effect: MNEs and Philanthropic Responses to the Disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteman, G.; Muller, A.R.; van der Voort, J.; van Wijk, J.; Meijs, L.; Pique, C.


    'This paper contributes to the literature on CSR and International Business by linking firm internationalization to corporate philanthropy. Considering the 2004 Tsunami disaster as a highly relevant case of an international societal issue, we analyze the characteristics of the corporate response to

  2. Airborne Platforms for Emergency Communications and Reconnaissance in Domestic Disaster Response (United States)


    primarily focused in the areas of tourism , port operations, and educational services. 3 Telecommunications are foundational in our nation’s...concerted effort to successfully integrate these airborne platforms into domestic disaster response operations must be undertaken, or we are doomed to

  3. Handbook. Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook: Observations, Insights, and Lessons (United States)


    military specialists trained in foreign animal disease diagnosis, epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, entomology , pathology, and public health... Forensic dental pathology. • Forensic anthropology methods. 93 DISASTER RESPONSE • Processing. • Preparation. • Disposition of remains. DMORTs are...OPEO). Teams are composed of funeral directors, medical examiners, coroners, pathologists, forensic anthropologists, medical records technicians and

  4. Designing, developing, and deploying systems to support human-robot teams in disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijff, G.J.M.; Kruijff-Korbayová, I.; Keshavdas, S.; Larochelle, B.; Janíček, M.; Colas, F.; Liu, M.; Pomerleau, F.; Siegwart, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Looije, R.; Smets, N.J.J.M.; Mioch, T.; Diggelen, J. van; Pirri, F.; Gianni, M.; Ferri, F.; Menna, M.; Worst, R.; Linder, T.; Tretyakov, V.; Surmann, H.; Svoboda, T.; Reinštein, M.; Zimmermann, K.; Petříček, T.; Hlaváč, V.


    This paper describes our experience in designing, developing and deploying systems for supporting human-robot teams during disaster response. It is based on R&D performed in the EU-funded project NIFTi. NIFTi aimed at building intelligent, collaborative robots that could work together with humans in

  5. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead (United States)

    Colber, Judith


    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  6. RE-PLAN: An Extensible Software Architecture to Facilitate Disaster Response Planning (United States)

    O’Neill, Martin; Mikler, Armin R.; Indrakanti, Saratchandra; Tiwari, Chetan; Jimenez, Tamara


    Computational tools are needed to make data-driven disaster mitigation planning accessible to planners and policymakers without the need for programming or GIS expertise. To address this problem, we have created modules to facilitate quantitative analyses pertinent to a variety of different disaster scenarios. These modules, which comprise the REsponse PLan ANalyzer (RE-PLAN) framework, may be used to create tools for specific disaster scenarios that allow planners to harness large amounts of disparate data and execute computational models through a point-and-click interface. Bio-E, a user-friendly tool built using this framework, was designed to develop and analyze the feasibility of ad hoc clinics for treating populations following a biological emergency event. In this article, the design and implementation of the RE-PLAN framework are described, and the functionality of the modules used in the Bio-E biological emergency mitigation tool are demonstrated. PMID:25419503

  7. Students' response to disaster: a lesson for health care professional schools. (United States)

    Reyes, Humberto


    The response of medical students, young physicians, and other health professionals to the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami in Chile provides important lessons about health care delivery during disasters and about the development of professionalism. Tertiary and secondary care of victims of these disasters was possible because local and national resources were available and field hospitals provided by Chile's armed forces and foreign countries replaced damaged hospitals. However, primary care of persons living on the outskirts of towns and in small villages and coves that were destroyed and isolated by the disaster required the involvement of volunteer groups that were largely composed of students and other young members of the health professions, all of whom were motivated by solidarity, compassion, and social commitment. This experience, similar to previous catastrophes in Chile and elsewhere, reinforces that medical and other health professional schools must instill in graduates an understanding that the privileges of being a health professional come with responsibilities to society. Beyond providing high-quality scientific and technological education, curricula in these schools should include training that enables graduates to meaningfully contribute in the setting of unexpected disasters and that nurtures a sense of responsibility to do so.

  8. Soil salinity and matric potential interaction on water use, water use efficiency and yield response factor of bean and wheat. (United States)

    Khataar, Mahnaz; Mohhamadi, Mohammad Hossien; Shabani, Farzin


    We studied the effects of soil matric potential and salinity on the water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE) and yield response factor (Ky), for wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Mahdavi) and bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris cv. COS16) in sandy loam and clay loam soils under greenhouse conditions. Results showed that aeration porosity is the predominant factor controlling WU, WUE, Ky and shoot biomass (Bs) at high soil water potentials. As matric potential was decreased, soil aeration improved, with Bs, WU and Ky reaching maximum value at -6 to -10 kPa, under all salinities. Wheat WUE remained almost unchanged by reduction of matric potential under low salinities (EC ≤ 8 dSm -1 ), but increased under higher salinities (EC ≥ 8 dSm -1 ), as did bean WUE at all salinities, as matric potential decreased to -33 kPa. Wheat WUE exceeds that of bean in both sandy loam and clay loam soils. WUE of both plants increased with higher shoot/root ratio and a high correlation coefficient exists between them. Results showed that salinity decreases all parameters, particularly at high potentials (h = -2 kPa), and amplifies the effects of waterlogging. Further, we observed a strong relationship between transpiration (T) and root respiration (Rr) for all experiments.

  9. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions about disaster preparedness and response in Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Öztekin, Seher Deniz; Larson, Eric Edwin; Yüksel, Serpil; Altun Uğraş, Gülay


    Although the awareness of disasters has increased among nurses, the concept of disaster preparedness and response has not been sufficiently explored with undergraduate nursing students. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the perceptions of students regarding disaster preparedness and response that live in different earthquake-prone cities; Istanbul, Turkey and Miyazaki, Japan. A cross-sectional study employing seven questions was conducted in a final group of 1053 nursing students from Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan. Most study respondents were female, aged 18-22 years, with a high proportion of second year students in both cities. Istanbul's students had more knowledge about disaster preparedness and response in relation to age and year of university, showing statistically significant differences. Istanbul's highest rated responses to disaster characteristics were on structural elements and injuries/deaths, while Miyazaki's was "unpredictable/sudden/disorganized". Respondents in Istanbul identified earthquakes as the disaster most likely to occur, while respondents in Miyazaki identified typhoon/hurricane. Study participants responded that they could provide caregiver roles during a disaster event rather than triage or managerial roles as disaster responders. Disaster characteristics were not described by one third of the students. Of the two-thirds that were described, most were of events that were highly predictable because of their frequencies in the given areas. Universities need to target and then focus on high-risk factors in their areas and have disaster plans for students who can provide triage and managerial nursing roles as disaster responders. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  10. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  11. Enhancing Earth Observation and Modeling for Tsunami Disaster Response and Management (United States)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Post, Joachim


    In the aftermath of catastrophic natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, our society has experienced significant difficulties in assessing disaster impact in the limited amount of time. In recent years, the quality of satellite sensors and access to and use of satellite imagery and services has greatly improved. More and more space agencies have embraced data-sharing policies that facilitate access to archived and up-to-date imagery. Tremendous progress has been achieved through the continuous development of powerful algorithms and software packages to manage and process geospatial data and to disseminate imagery and geospatial datasets in near-real time via geo-web-services, which can be used in disaster-risk management and emergency response efforts. Satellite Earth observations now offer consistent coverage and scope to provide a synoptic overview of large areas, repeated regularly. These can be used to compare risk across different countries, day and night, in all weather conditions, and in trans-boundary areas. On the other hand, with use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, the great advances of real-time simulation have been achieved. The data and information derived from satellite Earth observations, integrated with in situ information and simulation modeling provides unique value and the necessary complement to socio-economic data. Emphasis also needs to be placed on ensuring space-based data and information are used in existing and planned national and local disaster risk management systems, together with other data and information sources as a way to strengthen the resilience of communities. Through the case studies of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster, we aim to discuss how earth observations and modeling, in combination with local, in situ data and information sources, can support the decision-making process before, during and after a disaster strikes.

  12. Seismic structural response analysis using consistent mass matrices having dynamic coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, D.E.


    The basis for the theoretical development of this paper is the linear matrix equations of motion for an unconstrained structure subject to support excitation. The equations are formulated in terms of absolute displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors. By means of a transformation of the absolute response vectors into displacements, velocities and accelerations relative to the support motions, the homogeneous equations become non-homogeneous and the non-homogeneous boundary conditions become homogeneous with relative displacements, velocities and accelerations being zero at support points. The forcing function or inertial loading vector is shown to consist of two parts. The first part is comprised of the mass matrix times the suppport acceleration function times a vector of structural displacements resulting from a unit vector of support displacements in the direction of excitation. This inertial loading corresponds to the classical seismic loading vector and is indeed the only loading vector for lumped-mass systems. The second part of he inertial loading vectors consists of the mass matrix times the support acceleration function times a vector of structural accelerations resulting from unit support accelerations in the direction of excitation. This term is not present in classical seismic analysis formulations and results from the presence of off-diagonal terms in the mass matrices which give rise to dynamic coupling through the mass matrix. Thus, for lumped-mass models, the classical formulation of the inertial loading vector is correct. However, if dynamic coupling terms are included through off-diagonal terms in the mass matrix, an additional inertia loading vector must be considered

  13. Combining Human Computing and Machine Learning to Make Sense of Big (Aerial) Data for Disaster Response. (United States)

    Ofli, Ferda; Meier, Patrick; Imran, Muhammad; Castillo, Carlos; Tuia, Devis; Rey, Nicolas; Briant, Julien; Millet, Pauline; Reinhard, Friedrich; Parkan, Matthew; Joost, Stéphane


    Aerial imagery captured via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is playing an increasingly important role in disaster response. Unlike satellite imagery, aerial imagery can be captured and processed within hours rather than days. In addition, the spatial resolution of aerial imagery is an order of magnitude higher than the imagery produced by the most sophisticated commercial satellites today. Both the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the European Commission's Joint Research Center (JRC) have noted that aerial imagery will inevitably present a big data challenge. The purpose of this article is to get ahead of this future challenge by proposing a hybrid crowdsourcing and real-time machine learning solution to rapidly process large volumes of aerial data for disaster response in a time-sensitive manner. Crowdsourcing can be used to annotate features of interest in aerial images (such as damaged shelters and roads blocked by debris). These human-annotated features can then be used to train a supervised machine learning system to learn to recognize such features in new unseen images. In this article, we describe how this hybrid solution for image analysis can be implemented as a module (i.e., Aerial Clicker) to extend an existing platform called Artificial Intelligence for Disaster Response (AIDR), which has already been deployed to classify microblog messages during disasters using its Text Clicker module and in response to Cyclone Pam, a category 5 cyclone that devastated Vanuatu in March 2015. The hybrid solution we present can be applied to both aerial and satellite imagery and has applications beyond disaster response such as wildlife protection, human rights, and archeological exploration. As a proof of concept, we recently piloted this solution using very high-resolution aerial photographs of a wildlife reserve in Namibia to support rangers with their wildlife conservation efforts (SAVMAP project, ). The

  14. NASP and ISPA Response to the Japanese Natural Disaster (United States)

    Pfohl, Bill; Cowan, Katherine


    The authors have worked together with the NASP (National Association of School Psychologists) National Emergency Assistance Team (NEAT) for a decade to help coordinate communications around large-scale crisis response efforts. The massive earthquake and tsunami that devastated the northeastern part of Japan and the subsequent response represented…

  15. A robust optimization model for distribution and evacuation in the disaster response phase (United States)

    Fereiduni, Meysam; Shahanaghi, Kamran


    Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, affect thousands of people and can cause enormous financial loss. Therefore, an efficient response immediately following a natural disaster is vital to minimize the aforementioned negative effects. This research paper presents a network design model for humanitarian logistics which will assist in location and allocation decisions for multiple disaster periods. At first, a single-objective optimization model is presented that addresses the response phase of disaster management. This model will help the decision makers to make the most optimal choices in regard to location, allocation, and evacuation simultaneously. The proposed model also considers emergency tents as temporary medical centers. To cope with the uncertainty and dynamic nature of disasters, and their consequences, our multi-period robust model considers the values of critical input data in a set of various scenarios. Second, because of probable disruption in the distribution infrastructure (such as bridges), the Monte Carlo simulation is used for generating related random numbers and different scenarios; the p-robust approach is utilized to formulate the new network. The p-robust approach can predict possible damages along pathways and among relief bases. We render a case study of our robust optimization approach for Tehran's plausible earthquake in region 1. Sensitivity analysis' experiments are proposed to explore the effects of various problem parameters. These experiments will give managerial insights and can guide DMs under a variety of conditions. Then, the performances of the "robust optimization" approach and the "p-robust optimization" approach are evaluated. Intriguing results and practical insights are demonstrated by our analysis on this comparison.



    Xiaodong Qiu


    This paper examines whether the decision and amount of firm charitable giving in response to catastrophic events are related to firm post-performance, and whether firm ownership type moderates this relationship. Using data on Chinese firms’ philanthropic response to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, we find that firm future sales growth and ROA change are positively associated with both the probability and the amount of corporate giving. The results also indicate that this positive philanthropic...

  17. What does nature have to do with it? Reconsidering distinctions in international disaster response frameworks in the Danube basin (United States)

    McClain, Shanna N.; Secchi, Silvia; Bruch, Carl; Remo, Jonathan W. F.


    This article examines the international policy and institutional frameworks for response to natural and man-made disasters occurring in the Danube basin and the Tisza sub-basin, two transnational basins. Monitoring and response to these types of incidents have historically been managed separately. We discuss whether the policy distinctions in response to natural and man-made disasters remain functional given recent international trends toward holistic response to both kinds of disasters. We suggest that these distinctions are counterproductive, outdated, and ultimately flawed, illustrate some of the specific gaps in the Danube and the Tisza, and conclude by proposing an integrated framework for disaster response in the Danube basin and Tisza sub-basin.

  18. What does nature have to do with it? Reconsidering distinctions in international disaster response frameworks in the Danube basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. McClain


    Full Text Available This article examines the international policy and institutional frameworks for response to natural and man-made disasters occurring in the Danube basin and the Tisza sub-basin, two transnational basins. Monitoring and response to these types of incidents have historically been managed separately. We discuss whether the policy distinctions in response to natural and man-made disasters remain functional given recent international trends toward holistic response to both kinds of disasters. We suggest that these distinctions are counterproductive, outdated, and ultimately flawed, illustrate some of the specific gaps in the Danube and the Tisza, and conclude by proposing an integrated framework for disaster response in the Danube basin and Tisza sub-basin.

  19. Responsibilities of the USDA-Food and Nutrition Service in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters. (United States)

    Abernathy, Toni


    USDA makes sure that nutritious USDA Foods are made available to States, Indian Tribal Organizations and Emergency Feeding Organizations to help feed survivors of natural disasters and other emergencies when needed.

  20. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, H.


    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f xc from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the propagation

  1. Time-dependent quantum many-body systems. Linear response, electronic transport, and reduced density matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, H.


    In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the

  2. How to Choose? Using the Delphi Method to Develop Consensus Triggers and Indicators for Disaster Response. (United States)

    Lis, Rebecca; Sakata, Vicki; Lien, Onora


    To identify key decisions along the continuum of care (conventional, contingency, and crisis) and the critical triggers and data elements used to inform those decisions concerning public health and health care response during an emergency. A classic Delphi method, a consensus-building survey technique, was used with clinicians around Washington State to identify regional triggers and indicators. Additionally, using a modified Delphi method, we combined a workshop and single-round survey with panelists from public health (state and local) and health care coalitions to identify consensus state-level triggers and indicators. In the clinical survey, 122 of 223 proposed triggers or indicators (43.7%) reached consensus and were deemed important in regional decision-making during a disaster. In the state-level survey, 110 of 140 proposed triggers or indicators (78.6%) reached consensus and were deemed important in state-level decision-making during a disaster. The identification of consensus triggers and indicators for health care emergency response is crucial in supporting a comprehensive health care situational awareness process. This can inform the creation of standardized questions to ask health care, public health, and other partners to support decision-making during a response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:467-472).

  3. Traditional Coping Strategies and Disaster Response: Examples from the South Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Fletcher


    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to disasters and climate changes. This paper describes five common strategies employed in PICs as understood through this research: recognition of traditional methods; faith and religious beliefs; traditional governance and leadership; family and community involvement; and agriculture and food security. While this study does not trial the efficacy of these methods, it provides an indication of what methods are being used and therefore a starting point for further research into which of these traditional strategies are beneficial. These findings also provide important impetus for Pacific Island governments to recognise traditional approaches in their disaster preparedness and response processes.

  4. Task force St. Bernard: operational issues and medical management of a National Guard disaster response operation. (United States)

    Bonnett, Carl J; Schock, Tony R; McVaney, Kevin E; Colwell, Christopher B; Depass, Christopher


    After Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the United States on 29 August 2005, it became obvious that the country was facing an enormous national emergency. With local resources overwhelmed, governors across the US responded by deploying thousands of National Guard soldiers and airmen. The National Guard has responded to domestic disasters due to natural hazards since its inception, but an event with the magnitude of Hurricane Katrina was unprecedented. The deployment of >900 Army National Guard soldiers to St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana in the aftermath of the Hurricane was studied to present some of the operational issues involved with providing medical support for this type of operation. In doing so, the authors attempt to address some of the larger issues of how the National Guard can be incorporated into domestic disaster response efforts. A number of unforeseen issues with regards to medical operations, medical supply, communication, preventive medicine, legal issues, and interactions with civilians were encountered and are reviewed. A better understanding of the National Guard and how it can be utilized more effectively in future disaster response operations can be developed.

  5. Long Term Recovery in Disaster Response and the Role of Non-Profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor B Flatt


    Full Text Available The Legal Framework of Disaster Response does not deal as well with long term recovery. In particular, the role of non-profits is unexamined. This paper examines the role of non-profits in disaster recovery and argues for a legal framework acknowledging its important role. El marco legal de las respuestas ante desastres no tiene en cuenta la recuperación a largo plazo. En particular, no se analiza el papel de las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro. Este artículo estudia el papel de las organizaciones sin ánimo de lucro en la recuperación de desastres, y se muestra a favor de establecer un marco legal que reconozca la importancia de su papel.

  6. Strategic science: new frameworks to bring scientific expertise to environmental disaster response (United States)

    Stoepler, Teresa Michelle; Ludwig, Kristin A.


    Science is critical to society’s ability to prepare for, respond to, and recover from environmental crises. Natural and technological disasters such as disease outbreaks, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, oil spills, and tsunamis require coordinated scientific expertise across a range of disciplines to shape effective policies and protocols. Five years after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, new organizational frameworks have arisen for scientists and engineers to apply their expertise to disaster response and recovery in a variety of capacities. Here, we describe examples of these opportunities, including an exciting new collaboration between the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO) and the Department of the Interior’s (DOI) Strategic Sciences Group (SSG).

  7. NASA Earth Science Disasters Program Response Activities During Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria in 2017 (United States)

    Bell, J. R.; Schultz, L. A.; Molthan, A.; Kirschbaum, D.; Roman, M.; Yun, S. H.; Meyer, F. J.; Hogenson, K.; Gens, R.; Goodman, H. M.; Owen, S. E.; Lou, Y.; Amini, R.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Brentzel, K. W.; Stefanov, W. L.; Green, D. S.; Murray, J. J.; Seepersad, J.; Struve, J. C.; Thompson, V.


    The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season included a series of storms that impacted the United States, and the Caribbean breaking a 12-year drought of landfalls in the mainland United States (Harvey and Irma), with additional impacts from the combination of Irma and Maria felt in the Caribbean. These storms caused widespread devastation resulting in a significant need to support federal partners in response to these destructive weather events. The NASA Earth Science Disasters Program provided support to federal partners including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the National Guard Bureau (NGB) by leveraging remote sensing and other expertise through NASA Centers and partners in academia throughout the country. The NASA Earth Science Disasters Program leveraged NASA mission products from the GPM mission to monitor cyclone intensity, assist with cyclone center tracking, and quantifying precipitation. Multispectral imagery from the NASA-NOAA Suomi-NPP mission and the VIIRS Day-Night Band proved useful for monitoring power outages and recovery. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1 satellites operated by the European Space Agency were used to create flood inundation and damage assessment maps that were useful for damage density mapping. Using additional datasets made available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System and the activation of the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, the NASA Earth Science Disasters Program created additional flood products from optical and radar remote sensing platforms, along with PI-led efforts to derive products from other international partner assets such as the COSMO-SkyMed system. Given the significant flooding impacts from Harvey in the Houston area, NASA provided airborne L-band SAR collections from the UAVSAR system which captured the daily evolution of record flooding, helping to guide response and mitigation decisions for critical infrastructure and public safety. We

  8. The development and psychometric testing of a Disaster Response Self-Efficacy Scale among undergraduate nursing students. (United States)

    Li, Hong-Yan; Bi, Rui-Xue; Zhong, Qing-Ling


    Disaster nurse education has received increasing importance in China. Knowing the abilities of disaster response in undergraduate nursing students is beneficial to promote teaching and learning. However, there are few valid and reliable tools that measure the abilities of disaster response in undergraduate nursing students. To develop a self-report scale of self-efficacy in disaster response for Chinese undergraduate nursing students and test its psychometric properties. Nursing students (N=318) from two medical colleges were chosen by purposive sampling. The Disaster Response Self-Efficacy Scale (DRSES) was developed and psychometrically tested. Reliability and content validity were studied. Construct validity was tested by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was tested by internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The DRSES consisted of 3 factors and 19 items with a 5-point rating. The content validity was 0.91, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.912, and the intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.953. The construct validity was good (χ 2 /df=2.440, RMSEA=0.068, NFI=0.907, CFI=0.942, IFI=0.430, pself-efficacy in disaster response for Chinese undergraduate nursing students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Assisting older victims of disasters: roles and responsibilities for social workers. (United States)

    Torgusen, Barbra L; Kosberg, Jordan I


    The tumultuous catastrophic tragedies of the Oklahoma bombing in 1995 and September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon have caused urgency for the profession of social work to be ready to respond to unexpected crises whether directed to an individual, group, or nation. While there has always been the possibility of tragedies in the U.S. caused by nature (so-called "acts of God") or the spontaneous or planned acts of criminals or the deranged, the increased awareness of catastrophes includes, as never before, disasters that are perpetrated by terrorist acts from within or outside of the U.S. The creation of the Department of Homeland Security, in 2003, underscores the need for awareness and for preparation on the part of the nation. Based upon its skills and values, social workers have significant roles to play in the face of potential and actual disasters; yet, gerontological social workers have additional responsibilities for addressing the needs of older persons. It is the purpose of this article to provide an overview of issues to be considered by social workers, in general, and gerontological social workers, in particular, with regard to preparation for possible disasters and the consequences from such catastrophes that affect older persons.

  10. Establishing Esri ArcGIS Enterprise Platform Capabilities to Support Response Activities of the NASA Earth Science Disasters Program (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Seepersad, J.; Shute, J.; Carriere, L.; Duffy, D.; Tisdale, B.; Kirschbaum, D.; Green, D. S.; Schwizer, L.


    NASA's Earth Science Disasters Program promotes the use of Earth observations to improve the prediction of, preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural and technological disasters. NASA Earth observations and those of domestic and international partners are combined with in situ observations and models by NASA scientists and partners to develop products supporting disaster mitigation, response, and recovery activities among several end-user partners. These products are accompanied by training to ensure proper integration and use of these materials in their organizations. Many products are integrated along with other observations available from other sources in GIS-capable formats to improve situational awareness and response efforts before, during and after a disaster. Large volumes of NASA observations support the generation of disaster response products by NASA field center scientists, partners in academia, and other institutions. For example, a prediction of high streamflows and inundation from a NASA-supported model may provide spatial detail of flood extent that can be combined with GIS information on population density, infrastructure, and land value to facilitate a prediction of who will be affected, and the economic impact. To facilitate the sharing of these outputs in a common framework that can be easily ingested by downstream partners, the NASA Earth Science Disasters Program partnered with Esri and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) to establish a suite of Esri/ArcGIS services to support the dissemination of routine and event-specific products to end users. This capability has been demonstrated to key partners including the Federal Emergency Management Agency using a case-study example of Hurricane Matthew, and will also help to support future domestic and international disaster events. The Earth Science Disasters Program has also established a longer-term vision to leverage scientists' expertise in the development and delivery of

  11. Aggregation Tool to Create Curated Data albums to Support Disaster Recovery and Response (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Maskey, M.; Li, X.; Flynn, S.


    Economic losses due to natural hazards are estimated to be around 6-10 billion dollars annually for the U.S. and this number keeps increasing every year. This increase has been attributed to population growth and migration to more hazard prone locations. As this trend continues, in concert with shifts in weather patterns caused by climate change, it is anticipated that losses associated with natural disasters will keep growing substantially. One of challenges disaster response and recovery analysts face is to quickly find, access and utilize a vast variety of relevant geospatial data collected by different federal agencies. More often analysts may be familiar with limited, but specific datasets and are often unaware of or unfamiliar with a large quantity of other useful resources. Finding airborne or satellite data useful to a natural disaster event often requires a time consuming search through web pages and data archives. The search process for the analyst could be made much more efficient and productive if a tool could go beyond a typical search engine and provide not just links to web sites but actual links to specific data relevant to the natural disaster, parse unstructured reports for useful information nuggets, as well as gather other related reports, summaries, news stories, and images. This presentation will describe a semantic aggregation tool developed to address similar problem for Earth Science researchers. This tool provides automated curation, and creates "Data Albums" to support case studies. The generated "Data Albums" are compiled collections of information related to a specific science topic or event, containing links to relevant data files (granules) from different instruments; tools and services for visualization and analysis; information about the event contained in news reports, and images or videos to supplement research analysis. An ontology-based relevancy-ranking algorithm drives the curation of relevant data sets for a given event. This

  12. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods. (United States)

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin


    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  13. ASTER and USGS EROS disaster response: emergency imaging after Hurricane Katrina (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael


    The value of remotely sensed imagery during times of crisis is well established, and the increasing spatial and spectral resolution in newer systems provides ever greater utility and ability to discriminate features of interest (International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, 2005). The existing suite of sensors provides an abundance of data, and enables warning alerts to be broadcast for many situations in advance. In addition, imagery acquired soon after an event occurs can be used to assist response and remediation teams in identifying the extent of the affected area and the degree of damage. The data characteristics of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refl ection Radiometer (ASTER) are well-suited for monitoring natural hazards and providing local and regional views after disaster strikes. For this reason, and because of the system fl exibility in scheduling high-priority observations, ASTER is often tasked to support emergency situations. The Emergency Response coordinators at the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) work closely with staff at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC) at EROS and the ASTER Science Team as they fulfi ll their mission to acquire and distribute data during critical situations. This article summarizes the role of the USGS/EROS Emergency Response coordinators, and provides further discussion of ASTER data and the images portrayed on the cover of this issue

  14. Hazard responses in the pre-industrial era: vulnerability and resilience of traditional societies to volcanic disasters and the implications for present-day disaster planning (United States)

    Sangster, Heather


    A major research frontier in the study of natural hazard research involves unravelling the ways in which societies have reacted historically to disasters, and how such responses influence current policies of disaster reduction. For societies it is common to classify responses to natural hazards into: pre-industrial (folk); industrial; and post-industrial (comprehensive) responses. Pre-industrial societies are characterised by: a pre-dominantly rural location; an agricultural economic focus; artisan handicrafts rather than industrial production, parochialism, with people rarely travelling outside their local area and being little affected by external events and a feudal or semi-feudal social structure. In the past, hazard assessment focused on the physical processes that produced extreme and potentially damaging occurrences, however from the middle of the twenty-first century research into natural hazards has been cast within a framework defined by the polarities (or opposites) of vulnerability and resilience, subject to a blend of unique environmental, social, economic and cultural forces in hazardous areas, that either increase or decrease the impact of extreme events on a given society. In the past decade research of this type has been facilitated by a 'revolution' of source materials across a range of languages and in a variety of electronic formats (e.g. official archives; major contemporary and near-contemporary publications - often available as reprints; national and international newspapers of record; newsreel-films; and, photographs) and in the introduction of more reliable translation software (e.g. Systrans) that provides far more scope to the researcher in the study of natural hazards than was the case even a few years ago. Knowledge of hazard responses in the pre-industrial era is, not only important in its own right because it reveals indigenous strategies of coping, but also informs present-day disaster planners about how people have reacted to past

  15. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response. (United States)

    Little, Charles M; McStay, Christopher; Oeth, Justin; Koehler, April; Bookman, Kelly


    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations. There is a recurrent challenge of identified problems not being resolved and repeated in subsequent events. A process improvement technique called a rapid improvement event (RIE) was used to conduct an AAR following a complete information technology (IT) outage at a large urban hospital. Using RIE methodology to conduct the AAR allowed for the rapid development and implementation of major process improvements to prepare for future IT downtime events. Thus, process improvement methodology, particularly the RIE, is suited for conducting AARs following disasters and holds promise for improving outcomes in emergency management. Little CM , McStay C , Oeth J , Koehler A , Bookman K . Using rapid improvement events for disaster after-action reviews: experience in a hospital information technology outage and response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):98-100.

  16. Improving Role of Construction Industry for More Effective Post-Disaster Emergency Response To Road Infrastructure in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pribadi Krishna S.


    Full Text Available Geo- and hydro-meteorological disasters typically caused disruptive impact to road networks due to damaged road infrastructure, which in turn disconnect access to and isolate the disaster affected areas. Road clearing work and emergency road recovery operation are considered a priority to reconnect the access during post-disaster emergency response. However, the operation is not always smooth and in many cases delayed due to various problems. An investigation is conducted to understand the current practice of post-disaster emergency road recovery operation in Indonesia and to study possible participation of construction industry in order to improve its effectiveness. In-depth interviews with Local Disaster Management Agencies (BPBDs and local road agencies in West Java Province were conducted to understand current practices in emergency road recovery operation and to view perspectives on local contractor participation. The surveys showed supports from the local governments for contractor involvement as long as it is still under guidance of related agencies (Ministry of Public Works and Housing despite some possible obstacles from the current regulation that may hamper contractors’ participation, which indicate that there is a potential role of construction industry for more effective post-disaster emergency response, provided that contractor associations are involved and existing procurement regulation is improved.

  17. Geographic Information System Technology Leveraged for Crisis Planning, Emergency, Response, and Disaster Management (United States)

    Ross, A.; Little, M. M.


    NASA's Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) is piloting the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology that can be leveraged for crisis planning, emergency response, and disaster management/awareness. Many different organizations currently use GIS tools and geospatial data during a disaster event. ASDC datasets have not been fully utilized by this community in the past due to incompatible data formats that ASDC holdings are archived in. Through the successful implementation of this pilot effort and continued collaboration with the larger Homeland Defense and Department of Defense emergency management community through the Homeland Infrastructure Foundation-Level Data Working Group (HIFLD WG), our data will be easily accessible to those using GIS and increase the ability to plan, respond, manage, and provide awareness during disasters. The HIFLD WG Partnership has expanded to include more than 5,900 mission partners representing the 14 executive departments, 98 agencies, 50 states (and 3 territories), and more than 700 private sector organizations to directly enhance the federal, state, and local government's ability to support domestic infrastructure data gathering, sharing and protection, visualization, and spatial knowledge management.The HIFLD WG Executive Membership is lead by representatives from the Department of Defense (DoD) Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense and Americas' Security Affairs - OASD (HD&ASA); the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate's Office of Infrastructure Protection (NPPD IP); the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) Integrated Working Group - Readiness, Response and Recovery (IWG-R3); the Department of Interior (DOI) United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP), and DHS Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  18. Aggregation Tool to Create Curated Data albums to Support Disaster Recovery and Response (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kulkarni, Ajinkya; Maskey, Manil; Bakare, Rohan; Basyal, Sabin; Li, Xiang; Flynn, Shannon


    Despite advances in science and technology of prediction and simulation of natural hazards, losses incurred due to natural disasters keep growing every year. Natural disasters cause more economic losses as compared to anthropogenic disasters. Economic losses due to natural hazards are estimated to be around $6-$10 billion dollars annually for the U.S. and this number keeps increasing every year. This increase has been attributed to population growth and migration to more hazard prone locations such as coasts. As this trend continues, in concert with shifts in weather patterns caused by climate change, it is anticipated that losses associated with natural disasters will keep growing substantially. One of challenges disaster response and recovery analysts face is to quickly find, access and utilize a vast variety of relevant geospatial data collected by different federal agencies such as DoD, NASA, NOAA, EPA, USGS etc. Some examples of these data sets include high spatio-temporal resolution multi/hyperspectral satellite imagery, model prediction outputs from weather models, latest radar scans, measurements from an array of sensor networks such as Integrated Ocean Observing System etc. More often analysts may be familiar with limited, but specific datasets and are often unaware of or unfamiliar with a large quantity of other useful resources. Finding airborne or satellite data useful to a natural disaster event often requires a time consuming search through web pages and data archives. Additional information related to damages, deaths, and injuries requires extensive online searches for news reports and official report summaries. An analyst must also sift through vast amounts of potentially useful digital information captured by the general public such as geo-tagged photos, videos and real time damage updates within twitter feeds. Collecting and aggregating these information fragments can provide useful information in assessing damage in real time and help direct

  19. Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters (United States)

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

  20. Analysis of Jordan's Proposed Emergency Communication Interoperability Plan (JECIP) for Disaster Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alzaghal, Mohamad H


    ... country. It is essential to build a robust and interoperable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure before the disaster, which will facilitate patch/restore/reconstruct it when and after the disaster hits...

  1. Welcoming a monster to the world: Myths, oral tradition, and modern societal response to volcanic disasters (United States)

    Cashman, Katharine V.; Cronin, Shane J.


    Volcanic eruptions can overwhelm all senses of observers in their violence, spectacle and sheer incredibility. When an eruption is catastrophic or unexpected, neither individuals nor communities can easily assimilate the event into their world view. Psychological studies of disaster aftermaths have shown that trauma can shake the very foundations of a person's faith and trigger a search - supernatural, religious, or scientific - for answers. For this reason, the ability to rapidly comprehend a traumatic event by "accepting" the catastrophe as part the observer's world represents an important component of community resilience to natural hazards. A relationship with the event may be constructed by adapting existing cosmological, ancestral, or scientific frameworks, as well as through creative and artistic expression. In non-literate societies, communal perceptions of an event may be transformed into stories that offer myth-like explanations. As these stories make their way into oral traditions, they often undergo major changes to allow transmission through generations and, in some cases, to serve political or religious purposes. Disaster responses in literate societies are no different, except that they are more easily recorded and therefore are less prone to change over time. Here we explore ways in which the language, imagery and metaphor used to describe volcanic events may link disparate societies (both present and past) in their search for understanding of volcanic catastrophes. Responses to modern eruptions (1980 Mount St Helens, USA, and 1995-present Soufriere Hills, Montserrat) provide a baseline for examining the progression to older historic events that have already developed oral traditions (1886 Tarawera, New Zealand) and finally to oral traditions many hundreds of years old in both the Pacific Northwest US and New Zealand (NZ). We see that repeated volcanism over many generations produces rich webs of cosmology and history surrounding volcanoes. NZ Maori

  2. Integration of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Imagery and Derived Products into Severe Weather Disaster Response (United States)

    Schultz, L. A.; Molthan, A.; Nicoll, J. B.; Bell, J. R.; Gens, R.; Meyer, F. J.


    Disaster response efforts leveraging imagery from NASA, USGS, NOAA, and the European Space Agency (ESA) have continued to expand as satellite imagery and derived products offer an enhanced overview of the affected areas, especially in remote areas where terrain and the scale of the damage can inhibit response efforts. NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been supporting the NASA Earth Science Disaster Response Program by providing both optical and SAR imagery products to the NWS and FEMA to assist during domestic response efforts. Although optical imagery has dominated, the availability of ESA's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel 1-A/B satellites offers a unique perspective to the damage response community as SAR imagery can be collected regardless of the time of day or the presence of clouds, two major hindrances to the use of satellite optical imagery. Through a partnership with the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and the collocated Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), NASA's SAR Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), SPoRT has been investigating the use of SAR imagery products to support storm damage surveys conducted by the National Weather Service after any severe weather event. Additionally, products are also being developed and tested for FEMA and the National Guard Bureau. This presentation will describe how SAR data from the Sentinel 1A/B satellites are processed and developed into products. Examples from multiple tornado and hail events will be presented highlighting both the strengths and weaknesses of SAR imagery and how it integrates and compliments more traditional optical imagery collected post-event. Specific case study information from a large hail event in South Dakota and a long track tornado near Clear Lake, Wisconsin will be discussed as well as an overview of the work being done to support FEMA and the National Guard.

  3. The role of social toxicity in responses to a slowly-evolving environmental disaster: the case of amphibole asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA. (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Chung, Jae Eun; Hernandez, Tanis


    Experiencing a disaster has significant negative effects on psychological adjustment. Case study accounts point to two consistent trends in slowly-evolving environmental disasters: (a) patterns of negative social dynamics, and (b) relatively worse psychological outcomes than in natural disasters. Researchers have begun to explicitly postulate that the social consequences of slowly-evolving environmental disasters (e.g., community conflict) have their own effects on victims' psychological outcomes. This study tested a model of the relationship between those social consequences and psychological adjustment of victims of a slowly-evolving environmental disaster, specifically those whose health has been compromised by the amphibole asbestos disaster in Libby, MT. Results indicate that experiencing greater community conflict about the disaster was associated with greater family conflict about the disaster which, in turn, was associated with greater social constraints on talking with others about their disease, both directly and indirectly through experiencing stigmatization. Experiencing greater social constraints was associated with worse psychological adjustment, both directly and indirectly through failed social support. Findings have implications for understanding pathways by which social responses create negative effects on mental health in slowly-evolving environmental disasters. These pathways suggest points for prevention and response (e.g., social support, stigmatization of victims) for communities experiencing slowly-evolving environmental disasters.

  4. Disaster Coverage Predication for the Emerging Tethered Balloon Technology: Capability for Preparedness, Detection, Mitigation, and Response. (United States)

    Alsamhi, Saeed H; Samar Ansari, Mohd; Rajput, Navin S


    A disaster is a consequence of natural hazards and terrorist acts, which have significant potential to disrupt the entire wireless communication infrastructure. Therefore, the essential rescue squads and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. To provide efficient communication services, and to reduce casualty mortality and morbidity during the catastrophic events, we proposed the Tethered Balloon technology for disaster preparedness, detection, mitigation, and recovery assessment. The proposed Tethered Balloon is applicable to any type of disaster except for storms. The Tethered Balloon is being actively researched and developed as a simple solution to improve the performance of rescues, facilities, and services of emergency medical communication in the disaster area. The most important requirement for rescue and relief teams during or after the disaster is a high quality of service of delivery communication services to save people's lives. Using our proposed technology, we report that the Tethered Balloon has a large disaster coverage area. Therefore, the rescue and research teams are given higher priority, and their performance significantly improved in the particular coverage area. Tethered Balloon features made it suitable for disaster preparedness, mitigation, and recovery. The performance of rescue and relief teams was effective and efficient before and after the disaster as well as can be continued to coordinate the relief teams until disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:222-231).

  5. Automated Detection of Buildings from Heterogeneous VHR Satellite Images for Rapid Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaodan Li


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically detecting buildings from multiple heterogeneous and uncalibrated very high-resolution (VHR satellite images for a rapid response to natural disasters. In the proposed method, a simple and efficient visual attention method is first used to extract built-up area candidates (BACs from each multispectral (MS satellite image. After this, morphological building indices (MBIs are extracted from all the masked panchromatic (PAN and MS images with BACs to characterize the structural features of buildings. Finally, buildings are automatically detected in a hierarchical probabilistic model by fusing the MBI and masked PAN images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to supervised classification methods in terms of recall, precision and F-value.

  6. A Paradigm Shift from Emergency Response to Reconstruction and Rehabilitation: Creation of Peak National Body for Disaster Management in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahed Khan


    Full Text Available The earthquake of 8 October 2005, an unprecedented disaster in the history of Pakistan, led to an equally exceptional national response. Reconstruction and rehabilitation of affected areas was indeed a herculean task. The Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority (ERRA was immediately established as a peak national body with extraordinary powers and mandate to ensure coordinated actions for rescue, relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation. The national institutional set up was forced to readjust rapidly to convert this adversity into an opportunity to improve its capability to deal with disasters. This paper aims to provide an overview of the institutional strategy and measures undertaken in the wake of the 2005 earthquake. It looks at the strengths and weaknesses of installing an efficient entity largely adopting a command and control approach to efficiently and effectively deliver reconstruction projects on the ground. The paper seeks to derive lessons that can be useful for governments considering the setting up of comprehensive proactive disaster management systems.

  7. Science Diplomacy: U.S. Response to the LUSI Disaster, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia (United States)

    McClelland, C. R.; Loree, J.; Williams, V.


    The U.S. is recognized globally for its leadership in science and technology. Scientific cooperation is an important tool in the application of "smart power" to create partnerships with countries around the world. The State Department's Office of the Science Advisor works to increase the number of scientists engaged in diplomacy through coordination with the American Association of the Advancement of Science, Science Diplomacy Fellows, Jefferson Science Fellowships, and the Embassy Science Fellows Program. In addition, scientific cooperation occurs at all levels through relationships between science faculties, scientific institutions, and technical assistance programs. President Obama made increased collaboration on science and technology, the appointment of new science envoys, and the opening of new scientific centers of excellence in Africa, and the Middle East, and Southeast Asia a central component of his Cairo speech. Indonesia, science diplomacy crosses myriad programs. Negotiations on a bilateral Science and Technology Agreement between the U.S. and Indonesia will begin in September. USAID provides assistance in volcano/earthquake monitoring, forest management and reduction of illegal logging with DOJ, clean water and sanitation, the Coral Triangle Initiative to sustain Indonesia's marine biodiversity, coastal resilience with NOAA, clean energy, clean air initiatives with EPA, and emergency disaster response. The LUSI mudflow disaster, located just 27 km south of the U.S. Consulate in Surabaya, has already displaced thousands, has contributed to environmental degradation, and threatens critical transportation infrastructure. U.S. assistance to Indonesia to mitigate the impact of the LUSI mudflow on surrounding communities and the environment was complicated by questions surrounding the cause of the mud: industrial accident or natural disaster. But, the devastating impact on the local environment, population, and businesses was unquestioned. Experts from the

  8. Fusing Mobile In Situ Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing of Chemical Release Emissions to Improve Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Leifer


    Full Text Available Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and spacebased remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Chemical release disasters have serious consequences, disrupting ecosystems, society, and causing significant loss of life. Mitigating the destructive impacts relies on identification and mapping, monitoring, and trajectory forecasting. Improvements in sensor capabilities are enabling airborne and space-based remote sensing to support response activities. Key applications are improving transport models in complex terrain and improved disaster response.Understanding urban atmospheric transport in the Los Angeles Basin, where topographic influences on transport patterns are significant, was improved by leveraging the Aliso Canyon leak as an atmospheric tracer. Plume characterization data was collected by the AutoMObile trace Gas (AMOG Surveyor, a commuter car modified for science. Mobile surface in situ CH4 and winds were measured by AMOG Surveyor under Santa Ana conditions to estimate an emission rate of 365±30% Gg yr-1. Vertical profiles were collected by AMOG Surveyor by leveraging local topography for vertical profiling to identify the planetary boundary layer at ~700 m. Topography significantly constrained plume dispersion by up to a factor of two. The observed plume trajectory was used to validate satellite aerosol optical depth-inferred atmospheric transport, which suggested the plume first was driven offshore, but then veered back towards land. Numerical long-range transport model predictions confirm this interpretation. This study demonstrated a novel application of satellite aerosol remote

  9. Factors influencing readiness to deploy in disaster response: findings from a cross-sectional survey of the Department of Veterans Affairs Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System. (United States)

    Zagelbaum, Nicole K; Heslin, Kevin C; Stein, Judith A; Ruzek, Josef; Smith, Robert E; Nyugen, Tam; Dobalian, Aram


    The Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System (DEMPS) program provides a system of volunteers whereby active or retired Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) personnel can register to be deployed to support other VA facilities or the nation during national emergencies or disasters. Both early and ongoing volunteer training is required to participate. This study aims to identify factors that impact willingness to deploy in the event of an emergency. This analysis was based on responses from 2,385 survey respondents (response rate, 29%). Latent variable path models were developed and tested using the EQS structural equations modeling program. Background demographic variables of education, age, minority ethnicity, and female gender were used as predictors of intervening latent variables of DEMPS Volunteer Experience, Positive Attitude about Training, and Stress. The model had acceptable fit statistics, and all three intermediate latent variables significantly predicted the outcome latent variable Readiness to Deploy. DEMPS Volunteer Experience and a Positive Attitude about Training were associated with Readiness to Deploy. Stress was associated with decreased Readiness to Deploy. Female gender was negatively correlated with Readiness to Deploy; however, there was an indirect relationship between female gender and Readiness to Deploy through Positive Attitude about Training. These findings suggest that volunteer emergency management response programs such as DEMPS should consider how best to address the factors that may make women less ready to deploy than men in order to ensure adequate gender representation among emergency responders. The findings underscore the importance of training opportunities to ensure that gender-sensitive support is a strong component of emergency response, and may apply to other emergency response programs such as the Medical Reserve Corps and the American Red Cross.

  10. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr


    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  11. Preparation and response to radiation and nuclear emergencies in case of natural disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegueria, Pablo Jerez; Lafortune, J.F.


    The impact of natural disasters in cities and communities has grown by different causes in different parts of the world. There are several examples of the impact that have caused extreme natural events in facilities and activities in which ionizing radiation are used. The recent example of the accident at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daichi with release of radioactive substances to the environment caused by an earthquake and a tsunami show the need of the increasing improvement in the safety of facilities and activities that use ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in general. Planning and response to events of this nature is another aspect that is important and needs attention. The IAEA documents offer a comprehensive and effective guide to achieve an appropriate degree of readiness to respond to nuclear and radiological emergencies in any situation. However, there are specific challenges for planning and response posed a radiological emergency caused by an extreme natural event or occurring simultaneously with this. The present work deals with essential aspects to take into account by the authorities who coordinate the planning and response to radiological emergencies to deal with extreme natural events

  12. Disaster in Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illner, Peer

    initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...... contextualise this withdrawal in the US government’s general turn to austerity in response to the economic crisis of the 1970s. My account couples the notion of disaster with that of economic crisis on the one hand and structural violence on the other to examine disasters as a specific problem for social...

  13. Preparation and response in case of natural disasters: Cuban programs and experience. (United States)

    Mas Bermejo, Pedro


    Inadequate preparation for national disasters is frequently particularly devastating in lower income countries. The Cuba's location has a diversity of potential natural disasters, including hurricanes, non-tropical depressions, tropical storms, tropical cyclones, and severe local storms, all with intense rains and winds, earthquakes and droughts. Cuban preparation, at all levels, is geared to these predominant threats. Planning for natural disasters is integral to the political and economic life of Cuba, nationally and locally. On several occasions, United Nations (UN) officials have pointed to Cuba as a model for developing countries preparing for hurricanes and other natural disasters. A global policy for managing the risks of natural disasters could improve continuity of assistance for development and reduce the necessity of humanitarian aid. Planning in advance of disasters is a feasible way of helping people, by reducing expenses of emergencies, recuperation, and reconstruction. As climate changes accelerate, many researchers fear a period of irreversible and uncontrollable change. While the atmosphere continues to warm, it generates more intense rains, more frequent heat waves, and more ferocious storms. Thus, achieving better protection of developing countries from an increasing onslaught of natural disasters will only grow in importance. Even though Cuba's contribution to know-how has been recognized by United Nations' officials, progress toward more adequate preparation worldwide has been slow. To support other countries beyond conveying the lessons, Cuba now offers specially trained personnel to cooperate immediately with any country suffering a natural disaster.

  14. Serious gaming for user centered innovation and adoption of disaster response information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Kenny; Van De Walle, Bartel A


    Global profusion of information technology has spawned a large and varied number of tools and systems to aid disaster responders in managing disaster-related information. To adequately study the conception, development and deployment of such tools and systems, the user and the operational context in

  15. Community-Based Disaster Management: A Lesson Learned From Community Emergency Response Management in Banyumas, Indonesia (United States)

    Pratama, A. Y.; Sariffuddin, S.


    This article aimed to review community-based disaster management in terms of its independent coordination and disaster management. Community resilience was tested during disaster emergency. While panic, the community is required to be viable and able to evacuate, manage logistic, collect data on damage and the victim, and coordinate with outsiders independently. The community in Gununglurah Village, Banyumas Regency which was hit by a landslide in 2015 provides a lesson learned about community based disaster management. This research used qualitative descriptive methodology with in-depth interview with 23 informants from the community, donor institution, village officers, and government officers. Through traditional and informal methods, the community implemented disaster management that was categorized into 3 mechanisms that were social, functional, and sequential mechanism. These mechanisms controlled different portion in which social mechanism holds the most important role in disaster management, then functional mechanism and sequential mechanism. Various community activities in the village equipped the community with organizational experience to manage logistic, human resource and other coordination. In 2007, in fact, there was vulnerability risk assessment done by the local government, which recommended efforts to be done by the community to reduce the disaster risk, yet it was not implemented. It was interesting to note that in spite of the independent disaster management there was a scientific assessment neglected. Based on this research, a new discussion on how to synchronize the endogenous knowledge with scientific modern knowledge was opened.

  16. Posttraumatic Growth as a Response to Natural Disasters in Children and Adolescents. (United States)

    Bernstein, Melissa; Pfefferbaum, Betty


    This review examines factors thought to be associated with posttraumatic growth (PTG) (demographic variables, exposure, and family and social processes) among youth exposed to natural disasters, describes the relationship between PTG and posttraumatic stress, and discusses psychological processes (rumination and coping) linked to PTG. Guided by PTG theory and the literature on PTG in adults, research has revealed relationships between PTG and child, environmental, and family and social factors among youth though the results are mixed. Youth's subjective exposure to disasters, their level of posttraumatic stress following the disaster, and the type of psychological processes they employ to cope with the disaster appear to be associated with PTG. Research has garnered preliminary support for PTG in children exposed to natural disasters but additional research is needed to fully explicate these relationships and to understand how these relationships change over time.

  17. Fusion Analytics: A Data Integration System for Public Health and Medical Disaster Response Decision Support (United States)

    Passman, Dina B.


    Objective The objective of this demonstration is to show conference attendees how they can integrate, analyze, and visualize diverse data type data from across a variety of systems by leveraging an off-the-shelf enterprise business intelligence (EBI) solution to support decision-making in disasters. Introduction Fusion Analytics is the data integration system developed by the Fusion Cell at the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). Fusion Analytics meaningfully augments traditional public and population health surveillance reporting by providing web-based data analysis and visualization tools. Methods Fusion Analytics serves as a one-stop-shop for the web-based data visualizations of multiple real-time data sources within ASPR. The 24-7 web availability makes it an ideal analytic tool for situational awareness and response allowing stakeholders to access the portal from any internet-enabled device without installing any software. The Fusion Analytics data integration system was built using off-the-shelf EBI software. Fusion Analytics leverages the full power of statistical analysis software and delivers reports to users in a secure web-based environment. Fusion Analytics provides an example of how public health staff can develop and deploy a robust public health informatics solution using an off-the shelf product and with limited development funding. It also provides the unique example of a public health information system that combines patient data for traditional disease surveillance with manpower and resource data to provide overall decision support for federal public health and medical disaster response operations. Conclusions We are currently in a unique position within public health. One the one hand, we have been gaining greater and greater access to electronic data of all kinds over the last few years. On the other, we are working in a time of reduced government spending

  18. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters (United States)

    Johnson, L.


    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  19. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  20. Gas response behaviour and photochemistry of borondiketonate in acrylic polymer matrices for sensing applications. (United States)

    Arias Espinoza, Juan Diego; Sazhnikov, Viacheslav; Smits, Edsger C P; Ionov, Dmirity; Kononevich, Yuriy; Yakimets, Iryna; Alfimov, Mikael; Schoo, Herman F M


    The fluorescent spectra in combination with gas response behavior of acrylic polymers doped with dibenzoyl(methanato)boron difluoride (DBMBF2) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence lifetime. The role of acrylic matrix polarity upon the fluorescence spectra and fluorescence lifetime was analyzed. Changes in emission of the dye doped polymers under exposure to toluene, n-hexane and ethanol were monitored. The fluorescence lifetimes were measured for the singlet excited state as well as the exciplex formed between DBMBF2 and toluene. A reduction of the transition energy to the first singlet-excited state in the four polymers was observed, compared to solution. Reversible exciplex formation, viz. a red shifted fluorescence emission was perceived when exposing the polymers to toluene, while for hexane and ethanol only reversible reduction of the fluorescence occurred. Longer singlet and shorter exciplex lifetimes were observed for non-polar matrixes. The latter mechanism is explained in function of the lower charge transfer character of the exciplex in non-polar matrixes. Additionally, the quantum yield of the dye in the polymer matrix increased almost seventh-fold compared to values for solution.

  1. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Taglialegna


    Full Text Available Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  2. Networks in disasters: Multidisciplinary communication and coordination in response and recovery to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake (Invited) (United States)

    McAdoo, B. G.; Augenstein, J.; Comfort, L.; Huggins, L.; Krenitsky, N.; Scheinert, S.; Serrant, T.; Siciliano, M.; Stebbins, S.; Sweeney, P.; University Of Pittsburgh Haiti Reconnaissance Team


    The 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti demonstrates the necessity of understanding information communication between disciplines during disasters. Armed with data from a variety of sources, from geophysics to construction, water and sanitation to education, decision makers can initiate well-informed policies to reduce the risk from future hazards. At the core of this disaster was a natural hazard that occurred in an environmentally compromised country. The earthquake itself was not solely responsible for the magnitude of the disaster- poor construction practices precipitated by extreme poverty, a two centuries of post-colonial environmental degradation and a history of dysfunctional government shoulder much of the responsibility. Future policies must take into account the geophysical reality that future hazards are inevitable and may occur within the very near future, and how various institutions will respond to the stressors. As the global community comes together in reconstruction efforts, it is necessary for the various actors to take into account what vulnerabilities were exposed by the earthquake, most vividly seen during the initial response to the disaster. Responders are forced to prioritize resources designated for building collapse and infrastructure damage, delivery of critical services such as emergency medical care, and delivery of food and water to those in need. Past disasters have shown that communication lapses between the response and recovery phases results in many of the exposed vulnerabilities not being adequately addressed, and the recovery hence fails to bolster compromised systems. The response reflects the basic characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System, where new agents emerge and priorities within existing organizations shift to deal with new information. To better understand how information is shared between actors during this critical transition, we are documenting how information is communicated between critical sectors during the

  3. Low Latency DESDynI Data Products for Disaster Response, Resource Management and Other Applications (United States)

    Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.; Lou, Yunling


    We are developing onboard processor technology targeted at the L-band SAR instrument onboard the planned DESDynI mission to enable formation of SAR images onboard opening possibilities for near-real-time data products to augment full data streams. Several image processing and/or interpretation techniques are being explored as possible direct-broadcast products for use by agencies in need of low-latency data, responsible for disaster mitigation and assessment, resource management, agricultural development, shipping, etc. Data collected through UAVSAR (L-band) serves as surrogate to the future DESDynI instrument. We have explored surface water extent as a tool for flooding response, and disturbance images on polarimetric backscatter of repeat pass imagery potentially useful for structural collapse (earthquake), mud/land/debris-slides etc. We have also explored building vegetation and snow/ice classifiers, via support vector machines utilizing quad-pol backscatter, cross-pol phase, and a number of derivatives (radar vegetation index, dielectric estimates, etc.). We share our qualitative and quantitative results thus far.

  4. Conceptualizing Cold Disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning


    In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...

  5. A Robust Programming Approach to Bi-objective Optimization Model in the Disaster Relief Logistics Response Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saffarian


    Full Text Available Accidents and natural disasters and crises coming out of them indicate the importance of an integrated planning to reduce their effected. Therefore, disaster relief logistics is one of the main activities in disaster management. In this paper, we study the response phase of the disaster management cycle and a bi-objective model has been developed for relief chain logistic in uncertainty condition including uncertainty in traveling time an also amount of demand in damaged areas. The proposed mathematical model has two objective functions. The first one is to minimize the sum of arrival times to damaged area multiplying by amount of demand and the second objective function is to maximize the minimum ratio of satisfied demands in total period in order to fairness in the distribution of goods. In the proposed model, the problem has been considered periodically and in order to solve the mathematical model, Global Criterion method has been used and a case study has been done at South Khorasan.

  6. Natural disasters and the lung. (United States)

    Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry


    As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.


    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included

  8. [Survey about responsiveness of third-level hospitals to a medical disaster: after the pandemic influenza in Mexico]. (United States)

    Serna-Ojeda, Juan Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Macías, Alejandro E; Mansilla-Olivares, Armando; Domínguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Polanco-González, Carlos


    The recent pandemic influenza AH1N1 virus made it clear that planning for medical disaster response is critical. To know the responsiveness of a sample of highly specialized hospitals in Mexico to a medical disaster, with the previous pandemic influenza AH1N1 as reference. A survey was conducted among the Medical Directors of a sample of highly specialized hospitals, covering: previous experience with the pandemic influenza, space considerations, material resources, staff, logistics, and current general perspectives. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. A 95% response was obtained from the institutions (19 hospitals). Of these, 47.4% considered that the medical institution was not ready to respond to pandemic influenza. The median surge capacity for the Intensive Care Unit beds was 30% (range 0 to 32 beds). The least reserve in medication was found in the antivirals (26.3%). Only 47.4% considered having enough intensive care nurses and 57.9% enough respiratory technicians; 42.1% would not have an easy access to resources in an emergency. Prevention is key in responsiveness to medical disasters, and therefore the basic steps for planning strategies must be considered.

  9. 802.11 Wireless Infrastructure To Enhance Medical Response to Disasters (United States)

    Arisoylu, Mustafa; Mishra, Rajesh; Rao, Ramesh; Lenert, Leslie A.


    802.11 (WiFi) is a well established network communications protocol that has wide applicability in civil infrastructure. This paper describes research that explores the design of 802.11 networks enhanced to support data communications in disaster environments. The focus of these efforts is to create network infrastructure to support operations by Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) units and Federally-sponsored regional teams that respond to mass casualty events caused by a terrorist attack with chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological weapons or by a hazardous materials spill. In this paper, we describe an advanced WiFi-based network architecture designed to meet the needs of MMRS operations. This architecture combines a Wireless Distribution Systems for peer-to-peer multihop connectivity between access points with flexible and shared access to multiple cellular backhauls for robust connectivity to the Internet. The architecture offers a high bandwidth data communications infrastructure that can penetrate into buildings and structures while also supporting commercial off-the-shelf end-user equipment such as PDAs. It is self-configuring and is self-healing in the event of a loss of a portion of the infrastructure. Testing of prototype units is ongoing. PMID:16778990

  10. Responses to disasters, natural and man-made, and interventions with social supports. (United States)


    This volume focuses on the effects of a range of traumatic events: a natural disaster (Hurricane Andrew), working with the dead (dental identification of bodies following the Mt. Carmel conflagration), and the trauma attendant to the diagnosis of a l...

  11. Reconsidering information management roles and capabilities in disaster response decision-making units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.


    When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment

  12. When a disaster strikes without warning: how effective is your response plan? (United States)

    Steiner, P J


    When an outside high-pressure natural gas line was cut near the intakes to a hospital's ventilation system, gas was quickly dispersed throughout the building. The facility's disaster management plan faced a real-life test.

  13. 75 FR 38683 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-035, Registry of Disaster Response Contractors (United States)


    ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Civilian . This is a significant regulatory action and, therefore, was subject to...

  14. Development, Testing, and Psychometric Qualities of the Nash Duty to Care Scale for Disaster Response. (United States)

    Nash, Tracy Jeanne


    Although nurses struggle with the decision to report for work during disaster events, there are no instruments to measure nurses' duty to care for disaster situations. The purpose of this study was to describe the development, testing, and psychometric qualities of the Nash Duty to Care Scale. A convenience sample of 409 registered nurses were recruited from 3 universities in the United States. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 19-item, 4-factor model explaining 67.34% of the variance. Internal consistency reliability was supported by Cronbach's alpha ranging from .81 to .91 for the 4-factor subscales and .92 for the total scale. The psychometrically sound instrument for measuring nurses' perceived duty to care for disasters is applicable to contemporary nursing practice, institutional disaster management plans, and patient health outcomes worldwide.

  15. IDRL in Italy: A Study on Strengthening Legal Preparedness for International Disaster Response


    Gatti, Mauro


    This report seeks to identify the main obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy: It does so by looking to the Guidelines for the Domestic Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance (hereinafter the IDRL Guidelines) and to the EU Host Nation Support Guidelines (HNSG). The analysis seeks to point out solutions (mostly legislative ones) that may contribute to enhancing international coo...

  16. The orientation of disaster donations: differences in the global response to five major earthquakes. (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Marinova, Dora


    This study analyses the influence of gift giving, geographical location, political regime, and trade openness on disaster donation decisions, using five severe earthquakes that occurred between 2008 and 2012 as case studies. The results show that global disaster donation is not dominated by only philanthropy or trade interests, and that the determinants of donation decisions vary with the scale of the natural disaster and the characteristics of the disaster-affected countries. While gift giving exists in the case of middle-size earthquakes, political regimes play a very important part in the overall donation process. Countries with higher perceived corruption may donate more frequently, but those that are more democratic may be more generous in their donations. Generosity based on geographical proximity to the calamity is significant in the decision-making process for most natural disasters, yet it may have a negative effect on donations in Latin America and the Caribbean. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  17. Collective response to public health emergencies and large-scale disasters: putting hospitals at the core of community resilience. (United States)

    Paturas, James L; Smith, Deborah; Smith, Stewart; Albanese, Joseph


    Healthcare organisations are a critical part of a community's resilience and play a prominent role as the backbone of medical response to natural and manmade disasters. The importance of healthcare organisations, in particular hospitals, to remain operational extends beyond the necessity to sustain uninterrupted medical services for the community, in the aftermath of a large-scale disaster. Hospitals are viewed as safe havens where affected individuals go for shelter, food, water and psychosocial assistance, as well as to obtain information about missing family members or learn of impending dangers related to the incident. The ability of hospitals to respond effectively to high-consequence incidents producing a massive arrival of patients that disrupt daily operations requires surge capacity and capability. The activation of hospital emergency support functions provides an approach by which hospitals manage a short-term shortfall of hospital personnel through the reallocation of hospital employees, thereby obviating the reliance on external qualified volunteers for surge capacity and capability. Recent revisions to the Joint Commission's hospital emergency preparedness standard have impelled healthcare facilities to participate actively in community-wide planning, rather than confining planning exclusively to a single healthcare facility, in order to harmonise disaster management strategies and effectively coordinate the allocation of community resources and expertise across all local response agencies.

  18. Development of procedure for emergency response in the case of combined disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    It has been discussed that there were many differences to international standards and the delay for prior planning implementation of nuclear emergency preparedness. Based on this points, since fiscal year 2011, the framework for execution of the precautionary action etc. in consideration of the international standard to the Guide 'Emergency Preparedness for Nuclear Facilities' has been implemented by NSC (Nuclear Safety Commission) of Japan. On the other hand, it was clarified that there would be many problems for decision making strategies of protective actions at the nuclear disaster (combined disaster) when the natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis, the flood, the heavy snow, and the large-scale fire, etc. occurred, and implementation of criteria and procedure for protective action execution through the experience with protective actions after the East Japan large-scale earthquake. The problem arrangements and data preparations to develop the emergency protective action procedure for the emergency preparedness manuals corresponding to the combined disasters are scheduled to be executed in this study for three years from the fiscal year 2011 based on the experience and the finding in the East Japan large-scale earthquake. Development and verification of the method of Evacuation Time Estimate (ETE) at the combined disaster are executed in this year. (author)

  19. Risk Perception as the Quantitative Parameter of Ethics and Responsibility in Disaster Study (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy; Movchan, Dmytro


    Intensity of impacts of natural disasters is increasing with climate and ecological changes spread. Frequency of disasters is increasing, and recurrence of catastrophes characterizing by essential spatial heterogeneity. Distribution of losses is fundamentally non-linear and reflects complex interrelation of natural, social and environmental factor in the changing world on multi scale range. We faced with new types of risks, which require a comprehensive security concept. Modern understanding of complex security, and complex risk management require analysis of all natural and social phenomena, involvement of all available data, constructing of advanced analytical tools, and transformation of our perception of risk and security issues. Traditional deterministic models used for risk analysis are difficult applicable for analysis of social issues, as well as for analysis of multi scale multi-physics phenomena quantification. Also parametric methods are not absolutely effective because the system analyzed is essentially non-ergodic. The stochastic models of risk analysis are applicable for quantitative analysis of human behavior and risk perception. In framework of risk analysis models the risk perception issues were described. Risk is presented as the superposition of distribution (f(x,y)) and damage functions (p(x,y)): P →δΣ x,yf(x,y)p(x,y). As it was shown risk perception essentially influents to the damage function. Basing on the prospect theory and decision making under uncertainty on cognitive bias and handling of risk, modification of damage function is proposed: p(x,y|α(t)). Modified damage function includes an awareness function α(t), which is the system of risk perception function (rp) and function of education and log-term experience (c) as: α(t) → (c - rp). Education function c(t) describes the trend of education and experience. Risk perception function rp reflects security concept of human behavior, is the basis for prediction of socio-economic and

  20. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study. (United States)

    Shigemura, Jun; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nomura, Soichiro; Yoshino, Aihide


    The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD), to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR). A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580) 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%). The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; pdisaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  1. The road less taken: modularization and waterways as a domestic disaster response mechanism. (United States)

    Donahue, Donald A; Cunnion, Stephen O; Godwin, Evelyn A


    Preparedness scenarios project the need for significant healthcare surge capacity. Current planning draws heavily from the military model, leveraging deployable infrastructure to augment or replace extant capabilities. This approach would likely prove inadequate in a catastrophic disaster, as the military model relies on forewarning and an extended deployment cycle. Local equipping for surge capacity is prohibitively costly while movement of equipment can be subject to a single point of failure. Translational application of maritime logistical techniques and an ancient mode of transportation can provide a robust and customizable approach to disaster relief for greater than 90 percent of the American population.

  2. Mapping knowledge investments in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: a new approach for assessing regulatory agency responses to environmental disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frickel, Scott; Campanella, Richard; Vincent, M. Bess


    In the aftermath of large-scale disasters, the public's dependency on federal and state agencies for information about public safety and environmental risk is acute. While formal rules and procedures are in place to guide policy decisions in environmental risk assessment of spatially concentrated hazards such as regulated waste sites or vacant city lots, standard procedures for risk assessment seem potentially less well-suited for urban-scale disaster zones where environmental hazards may be widely dispersed and widely varying. In this paper we offer a new approach for the social assessment of regulatory science in response to large-scale disaster, illustrating our methodology through a socio-spatial analysis of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hazard assessment in New Orleans, Louisiana, following Hurricane Katrina in 2005. We find that the agency's commitment of epistemic resources or 'knowledge investments' varied considerably across the flood-impacted portion of the city, concentrating in poorer and disproportionately African American neighborhoods previously known to be heavily contaminated. We address some of the study's social and policy implications, noting the multidimensionality and interactive nature of knowledge investments and the prospects for deepening and extending this approach through comparative research

  3. Disaster Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...

  4. The Tsunami’s CSR Effect: MNEs and Philanthropic Responses to the Disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Whiteman (Gail); A.R. Muller (Allan); J. van der Voort (Judith); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); L.C.P.M. Meijs (Lucas); C. Piqué


    textabstractThis paper contributes to the literature on CSR and International Business by linking firm internationalization to corporate philanthropy. Considering the 2004 Tsunami disaster as a highly relevant case of an international societal issue, we analyze the characteristics of the corporate

  5. The 2011 Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Japanese Citizens’ Role in the Pursuit of Criminal Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, E.D.


    This article examines the charges pressed in 2012 by citizens against Japanese government officials and members of nuclear power plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Company, in the wake of the earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster of March 11, 2011 ("311"). It further examines prosecutors’

  6. Continuities in crisis : everyday practices of disaster response and climate change adaptation in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artur, L.


    Mozambiqueis a poor country located in the South-East coast of Africa. Due to its prevailing poverty and geographical location along the coastline of the Indian Ocean, and downstream of major regional rivers, the country experiences, in average, one disaster of great magnitude every

  7. A Qualitative Study of Paramedic Duty to Treat During Disaster Response. (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Burkle, Frederick; Gebbie, Kristine; Ford, David; Bensimon, Cécile


    Disasters place unprecedented demands on emergency medical services and can test paramedics personal commitment as health care professionals. Despite this challenge, guidelines and codes of ethics are largely silent on the issue, providing little to no guidance on what is expected of paramedics or how they ought to approach their duty to treat in the face of risk. The objective of this research is to explore how paramedics view their duty to treat during disasters. The authors employed qualitative methods to gather Australian paramedic perspectives. Our findings suggest that paramedic decisions around duty to treat will largely depend on individual perception of risk and competing obligations. A code of ethics for paramedics would be useful, but ultimately each paramedic will interpret these suggested guidelines based on individual values and the situational context. Coming to an understanding of the legal issues involved and the ethical-social expectations in advance of a disaster may assist paramedics to respond willingly and appropriately. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 6).

  8. Response of selected binomial coefficients to varying degrees of matrix sparseness and to matrices with known data interrelationships (United States)

    Archer, A.W.; Maples, C.G.


    Numerous departures from ideal relationships are revealed by Monte Carlo simulations of widely accepted binomial coefficients. For example, simulations incorporating varying levels of matrix sparseness (presence of zeros indicating lack of data) and computation of expected values reveal that not only are all common coefficients influenced by zero data, but also that some coefficients do not discriminate between sparse or dense matrices (few zero data). Such coefficients computationally merge mutually shared and mutually absent information and do not exploit all the information incorporated within the standard 2 ?? 2 contingency table; therefore, the commonly used formulae for such coefficients are more complicated than the actual range of values produced. Other coefficients do differentiate between mutual presences and absences; however, a number of these coefficients do not demonstrate a linear relationship to matrix sparseness. Finally, simulations using nonrandom matrices with known degrees of row-by-row similarities signify that several coefficients either do not display a reasonable range of values or are nonlinear with respect to known relationships within the data. Analyses with nonrandom matrices yield clues as to the utility of certain coefficients for specific applications. For example, coefficients such as Jaccard, Dice, and Baroni-Urbani and Buser are useful if correction of sparseness is desired, whereas the Russell-Rao coefficient is useful when sparseness correction is not desired. ?? 1989 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  9. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime


    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  10. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Logistics Networks During the Immediate Response Phase of Three Different Natural Disasters (United States)


    Conference. Washington: IEEE. Mankiw , N. (2007). Essentials of economics . Mason: Thomson South-Western. Margesson, R., & Taft-Morales, M. (2010). Haiti...last decade affected the global demographic, social, and economic environment in a way that had not happened before. The size of many disasters...homeless. The demographic, social, and economic impact varied from domestic to international in scope as well. The effects were devastating, especially

  11. Climate Change: Potential Effects on Demands for US Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response (United States)


    helicopters limited the number as well as the oper- ational tempo of those deployed to Pakistan [101]. Likewise, most aid groups operate trucks and ground ...all the rapid-onset disasters that the US military responds to. It has also responded to non-weather events, such as the 2005 Pakistan earthquake [16...ecosystem impacts, any increase in fire intensity or duration would increase atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Currently, biomass burning produces up

  12. Assessment of Disaster Relief Preparedness Capabilities Networks in the EUCOM, PACOM, and SOUTHCOM Areas of Responsibility (United States)


    25 b. Competency: Food Security and Nutrition ...........................28 c. Competency: Shelter, Settlements, and Non-food Items...impacts of global warming on U.S Military HA/DR operations: Between the 20th and 21st centuries there was a 12% decrease in number of warming could have on the frequency and intensity of future rapid-onset natural disasters, it is more critical now than ever that the U.S

  13. Do markets love misery? Stock prices and corporate philanthropic disaster response


    Muller, Alan; Kräussl, Roman


    While companies have emerged as very proactive donors in the wake of recent major disasters like Hurricane Katrina, it remains unclear whether that corporate generosity generates benefits to firms themselves. The literature on strategic philanthropy suggests that such philanthropic behavior may be valuable because it can generate direct and indirect benefits to the firm, yet it is not known whether investors interpret donations in this way. We develop hypotheses linking the strategic characte...

  14. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    made disaster must ... use of foreign military assets in disaster response. To balance concerns, the .... 5 In the literature, disaster response pertains to actions undertaken during emergency ... These changes also reflected the underlying shift in the.

  15. Associations between disaster exposures, peritraumatic distress, and posttraumatic stress responses in Fukushima nuclear plant workers following the 2011 nuclear accident: the Fukushima NEWS Project study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Shigemura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The nearby Daini plant also experienced substantial damage but remained intact. Workers for the both plants experienced multiple stressors as disaster victims and workers, as well as the criticism from the public due to their company's post-disaster management. Little is known about the psychological pathway mechanism from nuclear disaster exposures, distress during and immediately after the event (peritraumatic distress; PD, to posttraumatic stress responses (PTSR. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 1,411 plant employees (Daiichi, n = 831; Daini, n = 580 2-3 months post-disaster (total response rate: 80.2%. The socio-demographic characteristics and disaster-related experiences were assessed as independent variables. PD and PTSR were measured by the Japanese versions of Peritraumatic Distress Inventory and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, respectively. The analysis was conducted separately for the two groups. Bivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the relationships between independent variables, PD, and PTSR. Significant variables were subsequently entered in the multiple regression analyses to explore the pathway mechanism for development of PTSR. RESULTS: For both groups, PTSR highly associated with PD (Daiichi: adjusted β, 0.66; p<0.001; vs. Daini: adjusted β, 0.67; p<0.001. PTSR also associated with discrimination/slurs experience (Daiichi: 0.11; p<0.001; vs. Daini, 0.09; p = 0.005 and presence of preexisting illness(es (Daiichi: 0.07; p = 0.005; vs. Daini: 0.15; p<.0001. Other disaster-related variables were likely to be associated with PD than PTSR. CONCLUSION: Among the Fukushima nuclear plant workers, disaster exposures associated with PD. PTSR was highly affected by PD along with discrimination/slurs experience.

  16. A social activity and physical contact-based routing algorithm in mobile opportunistic networks for emergency response to sudden disasters (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Lin, Yaguang; Zhang, Shanshan; Cai, Zhipeng


    Sudden disasters such as earthquake, flood and hurricane necessitate the employment of communication networks to carry out emergency response activities. Routing has a significant impact on the functionality, performance and flexibility of communication networks. In this article, the routing problem is studied considering the delivery ratio of messages, the overhead ratio of messages and the average delay of messages in mobile opportunistic networks (MONs) for enterprise-level emergency response communications in sudden disaster scenarios. Unlike the traditional routing methods for MONS, this article presents a new two-stage spreading and forwarding dynamic routing algorithm based on the proposed social activity degree and physical contact factor for mobile customers. A new modelling method for describing a dynamic evolving process of the topology structure of a MON is first proposed. Then a multi-copy spreading strategy based on the social activity degree of nodes and a single-copy forwarding strategy based on the physical contact factor between nodes are designed. Compared with the most relevant routing algorithms such as Epidemic, Prophet, Labelled-sim, Dlife-comm and Distribute-sim, the proposed routing algorithm can significantly increase the delivery ratio of messages, and decrease the overhead ratio and average delay of messages.

  17. Satellite and Aerial Remote Sensing in Support of Disaster Response Operations Conducted by the Texas Division of Emergency Management (United States)

    Wells, G. L.; Tapley, B. D.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Howard, T.; Porter, B.; Smith, S.; Teng, L.; Tapley, C.


    The effective use of remote sensing products as guidance to emergency managers and first responders during field operations requires close coordination and communication with state-level decision makers, incident commanders and the leaders of individual strike teams. Information must be tailored to meet the needs of different emergency support functions and must contain current (ideally near real-time) data delivered in standard formats in time to influence decisions made under rapidly changing conditions. Since 2003, a representative of the University of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) has served as a member of the Governor's Emergency Management Council and has directed the flow of information from remote sensing observations and high performance computing modeling and simulations to the Texas Division of Emergency Management in the State Operations Center. The CSR team has supported response and recovery missions resulting from hurricanes, tornadoes, flash floods, wildfires, oil spills and other natural and man-made disasters in Texas and surrounding states. Through web mapping services, state emergency managers and field teams have received threat model forecasts, real-time vehicle tracking displays and imagery to support search-and-clear operations before hurricane landfall, search-and-rescue missions following floods, tactical wildfire suppression, pollution monitoring and hazardous materials detection. Data servers provide near real-time satellite imagery collected by CSR's direct broadcast receiving system and post data products delivered during activations of the United Nations International Charter on Space and Major Disasters. In the aftermath of large-scale events, CSR is charged with tasking state aviation resources, including the Air National Guard and Texas Civil Air Patrol, to acquire geolocated aerial photography of the affected region for wide area damage assessment. A data archive for each disaster is available online for years following

  18. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program (United States)

    Kessler, Jason L.


    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  19. All-Russian service of disaster medicine organizes response of radiative accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avetisov, G.M.; Goncharov, S.F.; Grachev, M.I.


    Theoretical base to establish the All-Russian service for disaster medicine (ARSDM) is elaborated. The arrangement system for medical aid for the population of the Chernobyl NPP (including the aspects of planning and management) is proved in action. COnclusion is made about the necessity to introduce special structure of measures aimed at provision of medical aid of accident victims, of their evacuation and treatment under elimination of radiation accidents. This structure requires to unify all abilities and means of health service into the single system for Medical Provision of population under the emergencies. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  1. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  2. Disaster response team FAST skills training with a portable ultrasound simulator compared to traditional training: pilot study. (United States)

    Paddock, Michael T; Bailitz, John; Horowitz, Russ; Khishfe, Basem; Cosby, Karen; Sergel, Michelle J


    Pre-hospital focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) has been effectively used to improve patient care in multiple mass casualty events throughout the world. Although requisite FAST knowledge may now be learned remotely by disaster response team members, traditional live instructor and model hands-on FAST skills training remains logistically challenging. The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effectiveness of a novel portable ultrasound (US) simulator with traditional FAST skills training for a deployed mixed provider disaster response team. We randomized participants into one of three training groups stratified by provider role: Group A. Traditional Skills Training, Group B. US Simulator Skills Training, and Group C. Traditional Skills Training Plus US Simulator Skills Training. After skills training, we measured participants' FAST image acquisition and interpretation skills using a standardized direct observation tool (SDOT) with healthy models and review of FAST patient images. Pre- and post-course US and FAST knowledge were also assessed using a previously validated multiple-choice evaluation. We used the ANOVA procedure to determine the statistical significance of differences between the means of each group's skills scores. Paired sample t-tests were used to determine the statistical significance of pre- and post-course mean knowledge scores within groups. We enrolled 36 participants, 12 randomized to each training group. Randomization resulted in similar distribution of participants between training groups with respect to provider role, age, sex, and prior US training. For the FAST SDOT image acquisition and interpretation mean skills scores, there was no statistically significant difference between training groups. For US and FAST mean knowledge scores, there was a statistically significant improvement between pre- and post-course scores within each group, but again there was not a statistically significant difference between

  3. Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea Volcano, Puna District, Hawaii (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.


    The Puna District, Hawaii, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed

  4. Dynamic temperature and humidity environmental profiles: impact for future emergency and disaster preparedness and response. (United States)

    Ferguson, William J; Louie, Richard F; Tang, Chloe S; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Kost, Gerald J


    During disasters and complex emergencies, environmental conditions can adversely affect the performance of point-of-care (POC) testing. Knowledge of these conditions can help device developers and operators understand the significance of temperature and humidity limits necessary for use of POC devices. First responders will benefit from improved performance for on-site decision making. To create dynamic temperature and humidity profiles that can be used to assess the environmental robustness of POC devices, reagents, and other resources (eg, drugs), and thereby, to improve preparedness. Surface temperature and humidity data from the National Climatic Data Center (Asheville, North Carolina USA) was obtained, median hourly temperature and humidity were calculated, and then mathematically stretched profiles were created to include extreme highs and lows. Profiles were created for: (1) Banda Aceh, Indonesia at the time of the 2004 Tsunami; (2) New Orleans, Louisiana USA just before and after Hurricane Katrina made landfall in 2005; (3) Springfield, Massachusetts USA for an ambulance call during the month of January 2009; (4) Port-au-Prince, Haiti following the 2010 earthquake; (5) Sendai, Japan for the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami with comparison to the colder month of January 2011; (6) New York, New York USA after Hurricane Sandy made landfall in 2012; and (7) a 24-hour rescue from Hawaii USA to the Marshall Islands. Profiles were validated by randomly selecting 10 days and determining if (1) temperature and humidity points fell inside and (2) daily variations were encompassed. Mean kinetic temperatures (MKT) were also assessed for each profile. Profiles accurately modeled conditions during emergency and disaster events and enclosed 100% of maximum and minimum temperature and humidity points. Daily variations also were represented well with 88.6% (62/70) of temperature readings and 71.1% (54/70) of relative humidity readings falling within diurnal patterns. Days

  5. Developing AN Emergency Response Model for Offshore Oil Spill Disaster Management Using Spatial Decision Support System (sdss) (United States)

    Balogun, Abdul-Lateef; Matori, Abdul-Nasir; Wong Toh Kiak, Kelvin


    Environmental resources face severe risks during offshore oil spill disasters and Geographic Information System (GIS) Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are increasingly being used as response tools to minimize the huge impacts of these spills. However, ESI maps are generally unable to independently harmonize the diverse preferences of the multiple stakeholders' involved in the response process, causing rancour and delay in response time. This paper's Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) utilizes the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model to perform tradeoffs in determining the most significant resources to be secured considering the limited resources and time available to perform the response operation. The AHP approach is used to aggregate the diverse preferences of the stakeholders and reach a consensus. These preferences, represented as priority weights, are incorporated in a GIS platform to generate Environmental sensitivity risk (ESR) maps. The ESR maps provide a common operational platform and consistent situational awareness for the multiple parties involved in the emergency response operation thereby minimizing discord among the response teams and saving the most valuable resources.

  6. Department of Defense Doctrine Should Incorporate Sixty Years of Disaster Research in Order to Realistically Plan and Effectively Execute Disaster Response (United States)


    community. During Hurricane Hugo more than 90% of all homes in St. Croix in the Virgin Islands were destroyed. The situation in St. Croix prevented...recent or present disaster studies that have occurred within the United States; Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and Hurricane Hugo in St. Croix.17...particular targets as opposed to targets of opportunity.21 In the case of the Hurricane Hugo and the catastrophe that resulted in St Croix, there are

  7. Citizen Science for Earth Observation: Applications in Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Response (United States)

    Kotovirta, V.; Toivanen, T.; Tergujeff, R.; Hame, T.; Molinier, M.


    Citizen science is a promising way to increase temporal and spatial coverages of in-situ data, and to aid in data processing and analysis. In this paper, we present how citizen science can be used together with Earth observation, and demonstrate its value through three pilot projects focusing on forest biomass analysis, data management in emergencies and water quality monitoring. We also provide recommendations and ideas for follow-up activities. In the forest biomass analysis pilot, in the state of Durango (Mexico), local volunteers make in-situ forest inventory measurements with mobile devices. The collected data is combined with Landsat-8 imagery to derive forest biomass map of the area. The study area includes over 390 permanent sampling plots that will provide reference data for concept validation and verification. The emergency data management pilot focuses in the Philippines, in the areas affected by the typhoons Haiyan in November 2013 and Hagupit in December 2014. Data collected by emergency workers and citizens are combined with satellite data (Landsat-8, VHR if available) to intensify the disaster recovery activities and the coordination efforts. Simple processes for citizens, nongovernmental organisations and volunteers are developed to find and utilize up to date and freely available satellite imagery for coordination purposes and for building new not-for-profit services in disaster situations. In the water quality monitoring pilot, citizens around the Baltic Sea area contribute to the algae situation awareness by collecting algae observations using a mobile application. In-situ observations are compared with surface algal bloom products based on the satellite imagery, e.g. Aqua MODIS images with 500 meter resolution. As an outcome, the usability of the citizen observations together with satellite data in the algae monitoring will be evaluated.

  8. Barriers to and Facilitators of Inter-Organizational Coordination in Response to Disasters: A Grounded Theory Approach. (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Zaboli, Rouhollah; Ravangard, Ramin; Malmir, Isa


    Coordination is a major challenge in the field of health in disasters, mostly because of the complex nature of health-related activities. This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory approach. A total of 22 experts in the field of health in disasters participated in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and literature review. The collected data were then analyzed by use of MAXQDA 2010 software (VERBI Software GmbH). The lack of a strategic view in the field of health in disasters, a lack of coordination of necessities and infrastructures, insufficient enforcement, a higher priority given to an organizational approach rather than a national approach, and the field of disasters not being a priority in the health system were noted as barriers to inter-organizational coordination. The facilitators of inter-organizational coordination noted were the importance of public participation in the field of health in disasters, having a process and systematic view in the field of health in disasters, the necessity of understanding and managing resources and information in the field of health in disasters, and having a feedback and evaluation system in the health system after disasters. It is recommended that developing common beliefs and goals be given priority in making plans and policies in the field of health in disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:318-325).

  9. Developing Initial Response Products Using Data from Optical and SAR Earth Observing Platforms for Natural Disaster Response (United States)

    Bell, J. R.; Molthan, A.; Dabboor, M.


    After a disaster occurs, decision makers require timely information to assist decision making and support. Earth observing satellites provide tools including optical remote sensors that sample in various spectral bands within the visible, near-infrared, and thermal infrared. However, views from optical sensors can be blocked when clouds are present, and cloud-free observations can be significantly delayed depending upon on their repeat cycle. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers several advantages over optical sensors in terms of spatial resolution and the ability to map the Earth's surface whether skies are clear or cloudy. In cases where both SAR and cloud-free optical data are available, these instruments can be used together to provide additional confidence in what is being observed at the surface. This presentation demonstrates cases where SAR imagery can enhance the usefulness for mapping natural disasters and their impacts to the land surface, specifically from severe weather and flooding. The Missouri and Mississippi River flooding from early in 2016 and damage from hail swath in northwestern Iowa on 17 June 2016 are just two events that will be explored. Data collected specifically from the EO-1 (optical), Landsat (optical) and Sentinel 1 (SAR) missions are used to explore several applicable methodologies to determine which products and methodologies may provide decision makers with the best information to provide actionable information in a timely manner.

  10. Applications of NASA and NOAA Satellite Observations by NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Response to Natural Disasters (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Burks, Jason E.; McGrath, Kevin M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.


    NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center supports the transition of unique NASA and NOAA research activities to the operational weather forecasting community. SPoRT emphasizes real-time analysis and prediction out to 48 hours. SPoRT partners with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and National Centers to improve current products, demonstrate future satellite capabilities and explore new data assimilation techniques. Recently, the SPoRT Center has been involved in several activities related to disaster response, in collaboration with NOAA s National Weather Service, NASA s Applied Sciences Disasters Program, and other partners.

  11. Prediction of Unmet Primary Care Needs for the Medically Vulnerable Post-Disaster: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis of Health System Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Martin


    Full Text Available Disasters serve as shocks and precipitate unanticipated disturbances to the health care system. Public health surveillance is generally focused on monitoring latent health and environmental exposure effects, rather than health system performance in response to these local shocks. The following intervention study sought to determine the long-term effects of the 2005 chlorine spill in Graniteville, South Carolina on primary care access for vulnerable populations. We used an interrupted time-series approach to model monthly visits for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, an indicator of unmet primary care need, to quantify the impact of the disaster on unmet primary care need in Medicaid beneficiaries. The results showed Medicaid beneficiaries in the directly impacted service area experienced improved access to primary care in the 24 months post-disaster. We provide evidence that a health system serving the medically underserved can prove resilient and display improved adaptive capacity under adverse circumstances (i.e., technological disasters to ensure access to primary care for vulnerable sub-groups. The results suggests a new application for ambulatory care sensitive conditions as a population-based metric to advance anecdotal evidence of secondary surge and evaluate pre- and post-health system surge capacity following a disaster.

  12. Towards a Location-based Service for Early Mental Health Interventions in Disaster Response Using Minimalistic Tele-operated Android Robots Technology (United States)

    Vahidi, H.; Mobasheri, A.; Alimardani, M.; Guan, Q.; Bakillah, M.


    Providing early mental health services during disaster is a great challenge in the disaster response phase. Lack of access to adequate mental-health professionals in the early stages of large-scale disasters dramatically influences the trend of a successful mental health aid. In this paper, a conceptual framework has been suggested for adopting cellphone-type tele-operated android robots in the early stages of disasters for providing the early mental health services for disaster survivors by developing a locationbased and participatory approach. The techniques of enabling GI-services in a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) environment were studied to overcome the limitations of current centralized services. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to add more flexibility and autonomy to GI web services (WMS, WFS, WPS, etc.) and alleviate to some degree the inherent limitations of these centralized systems. A P2P system Architecture is presented for the location-based service using minimalistic tele-operated android robots, and some key techniques of implementing this service using BestPeer were studied for developing this framework.

  13. Coping with the challenges of early disaster response: 24 years of field hospital experience after earthquakes. (United States)

    Bar-On, Elhanan; Abargel, Avi; Peleg, Kobi; Kreiss, Yitshak


    To propose strategies and recommendations for future planning and deployment of field hospitals after earthquakes by comparing the experience of 4 field hospitals deployed by The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Medical Corps in Armenia, Turkey, India and Haiti. Quantitative data regarding the earthquakes were collected from published sources; data regarding hospital activity were collected from IDF records; and qualitative information was obtained from structured interviews with key figures involved in the missions. The hospitals started operating between 89 and 262 hours after the earthquakes. Their sizes ranged from 25 to 72 beds, and their personnel numbered between 34 and 100. The number of patients treated varied from 1111 to 2400. The proportion of earthquake-related diagnoses ranged from 28% to 67% (P earthquakes, patient caseload and treatment requirements varied widely. The variables affecting the patient profile most significantly were time until deployment, total number of injured, availability of adjacent medical facilities, and possibility of evacuation from the disaster area. When deploying a field hospital in the early phase after an earthquake, a wide variability in patient caseload should be anticipated. Customization is difficult due to the paucity of information. Therefore, early deployment necessitates full logistic self-sufficiency and operational versatility. Also, collaboration with local and international medical teams can greatly enhance treatment capabilities.

  14. Telemedicine and international disaster response. Medical consultation to Armenia and Russia via a Telemedicine Spacebridge. (United States)

    Houtchens, B A; Clemmer, T P; Holloway, H C; Kiselev, A A; Logan, J S; Merrell, R C; Nicogossian, A E; Nikogossian, H A; Rayman, R B; Sarkisian, A E


    The Telemedicine Spacebridge, a satellite-mediated, audio-video-fax link between four United States and two Armenian and Russian medical centers, permitted remote American consultants to assist Armenian and Russian physicians in the management of medical problems following the December 1988 earthquake in Armenia and the June 1989 gas explosion near Ufa. During 12 weeks of operations, 247 Armenian and Russian and 175 American medical professionals participated in 34 half-day clinical conferences. A total of 209 patients were discussed, requiring expertise in 20 specialty areas. Telemedicine consultations resulted in altered diagnoses for 54, new diagnostic studies for 70, altered diagnostic processes for 47, and modified treatment plans for 47 of 185 Armenian patients presented. Simultaneous participation of several US medical centers was judged beneficial; quality of data transmission was judged excellent. These results suggest that interactive consultation by remote specialists can provide valuable assistance to on-site physicians and favorably influence clinical decisions in the aftermath of major disasters.

  15. Telemedicine and international disaster response: medical consultation to Armenia and Russia via a Telemedicine Spacebridge. (United States)

    Houtchens, B A; Clemmer, T P; Holloway, H C; Kiselev, A A; Logan, J S; Merrell, R C; Nicogossian, A E; Nikogossian, H A; Rayman, R B; Sarkisian, A E; Siegel, J H


    The Telemedicine Spacebridge, a satellite-mediated, audio-video-fax link between four United States and two Armenian and Russian medical centers, permitted remote American consultants to assist Armenian and Russian physicians in the management of medical problems following the December 1988 earthquake in Armenia and the June 1989 gas explosion near Ufa. During 12 weeks of operations, 247 Armenian and Russian and 175 American medical professionals participated in 34 half-day clinical conferences. A total of 209 patients were discussed, requiring expertise in 20 specialty areas. Telemedicine consultations resulted in altered diagnoses for 54, new diagnostic studies for 70, altered diagnostic processes for 47, and modified treatment plans for 47 of 185 Armenian patients presented. Simultaneous participation of several US medical centers was judged beneficial; quality of data transmission was judged excellent. These results suggest that interactive consultation by remote specialists can provide valuable assistance to on-site physicians and favorably influence clinical decisions in the aftermath of major disasters.

  16. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G


    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  17. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills]. (United States)

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An


    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  18. Disaster Response Contracting in a Post-Katrina World: Analyzing Current Disaster Response Strategies and Exploring Alternatives to Improve Processes for Rapid Reaction to Large Scale Disasters within the United States (United States)


    TELECOMMUTING / TELEWORKING..................................................60 E. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL GLOBAL INFORMATION NETWORK ARCHITECTURE...issues. Much concern points to DHS’s failure to provide the broad federal oversight required by the National Response Plan (NRP). The NRP had only...Acquisition Officer did urgently request assistance from the DHS Office of the Inspector General (DHS-IG) for procurement oversight , and DHS-IG assigned

  19. Assessment of emergency response planning and implementation in the aftermath of major natural disasters and technological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, Patricia A.; Jones, Joseph; Walton, F.; Smith, J.D.


    Emergency planning around nuclear power plants represents some of the most mature and well developed emergency planning in the United States. Since the implementation of NUREG-0654 / FEMA-REP-1, Rev. 1, A Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants (NRC, 1980a) the licensees, local, and State agencies have developed detailed Radiological Emergency Response Programs. An important component of these plans is the evacuation of the population in the event of a general emergency condition at the plant. In January 2005, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published the landmark report, 'Identification and Analysis of Factors Affecting Emergency Evacuations' (NUREG/CR 6864/), which represented the most comprehensive investigation of public evacuations in the United States in more than 15 years. Since the completion of this research, several high profile evacuations have occurred, including Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Hurricane Rita in Houston, as well as major wildfires across the western U.S. The NRC commissioned an update to its 2005 evacuation case study publication to evaluate the evacuation experience of the selected communities (e.g., timeliness, related injuries, hazard avoidance); the level of preplanning that was in place for the affected areas and extent that the pre planned requirements were implemented during the emergency response; the critical factors contributing to the efficiency of or impediments to the evacuations (e.g., training, drills, preparedness, experience, resources, facilities, and organizational structure); and additional factors that may have contributed to less than satisfactory public response (i.e., availability of personal transportation, use of public transportation, lack of availability of shelters, etc.). The comprehensive report will be published in fall of 2008 as NUREG/CR-6981, Assessment of Emergency Response Planning and

  20. Cloud-Based Numerical Weather Prediction for Near Real-Time Forecasting and Disaster Response (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Case, Jonathan; Venners, Jason; Schroeder, Richard; Checchi, Milton; Zavodsky, Bradley; Limaye, Ashutosh; O'Brien, Raymond


    activities in environmental monitoring and prediction across a growing number of regional hubs throughout the world. Capacity-building applications that extend numerical weather prediction to developing countries are intended to provide near real-time applications to benefit public health, safety, and economic interests, but may have a greater impact during disaster events by providing a source for local predictions of weather-related hazards, or impacts that local weather events may have during the recovery phase.

  1. Numerical Differentiation Methods for Computing Error Covariance Matrices in Item Response Theory Modeling: An Evaluation and a New Proposal (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Cai, Li; Thissen, David; Xin, Tao


    In item response theory (IRT) modeling, the item parameter error covariance matrix plays a critical role in statistical inference procedures. When item parameters are estimated using the EM algorithm, the parameter error covariance matrix is not an automatic by-product of item calibration. Cai proposed the use of Supplemented EM algorithm for…

  2. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER) (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar


    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  3. Development and evaluation of a new simulation model for interactive training of the medical response to major incidents and disasters. (United States)

    Lennquist Montán, K; Hreckovski, B; Dobson, B; Örtenwall, P; Montán, C; Khorram-Manesh, A; Lennquist, S


    The need for and benefit of simulation models for interactive training of the response to major incidents and disasters has been increasingly recognized during recent years. One of the advantages with such models is that all components of the chain of response can be trained simultaneously. This includes the important communication/coordination between different units, which has been reported as the most common cause of failure. Very few of the presently available simulation models have been suitable for the simultaneous training of decision-making on all levels of the response. In this study, a new simulation model, originally developed for the scientific evaluation of methodology, was adapted to and developed for the postgraduate courses in Medical Response to Major Incidents (MRMI) organized under the auspices of the European Society for Trauma and Emergency Surgery (ESTES). The aim of the present study was to describe this development process, the model it resulted in, and the evaluation of this model. The simulation model was based on casualty cards giving all information normally available for the triage and primary management of traumatized patients. The condition of the patients could be changed by the instructor according to the time passed since the time of injury and treatments performed. Priority of the casualties as well as given treatments could be indicated on the cards by movable markers, which also gave the time required for every treatment. The exercises were run with real consumption of time and resources for all measures performed. The magnetized cards were moved by the trainees through the scene, through the transport lines, and through the hospitals where all functions were trained. For every patient was given the definitive diagnosis and the times within certain treatments had to be done to avoid preventable mortality and complications, which could be related to trauma-scores. The methodology was tested in nine MRMI courses with a total of

  4. Roles of National and Local Governments and the Dietetic Association in Nutrition Assistance Response to Natural Disasters: Systems and Experiences in Japan and the USA. (United States)

    Sudo, Noriko


    In the first half of this symposium, the disaster response system in Japan will be introduced. The ultimate aim of nutrition assistance is to keep people in disaster areas healthy. This is a task for the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the health departments of prefectural governments. Our first speaker, Dr. Yasuhiro Kanatani, National Institute of Public Health, will briefly overview the disaster response system in Japan and its related laws. He will also mention how the Ministry responded to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In the second presentation, I will play one chapter of DVD that we released in last September. In that chapter, Ms. Makiko Sawaguchi, a registered dietitian working for a public health center in the area affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake, talks about her experience in supporting disaster victims. As an employee of Iwate Prefectural Government, she helped affected municipal governments and coordinated outside support. One type of outside support was registered dietitians dispatched by the Japan Dietetic Association (JDA). Dr. Nobuyo Tsuboyama-Kasaoka will report what those dietitians did in the affected areas. She will also explain the aim and training of the JDA-Disaster Assistance Team. Provision of food is essential in nutrition assistance. This is a task for the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Our fourth speaker, Mr. Kunihiro Doi, analyzed the government procurement data and will discuss the limitations of government emergency food supplies and lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake. As for the systems and experiences in the US, we invited Ms. Toni Abernathy from the Office of Emergency Management, Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), United States Department of Agriculture.

  5. A Primer on a Domestic Catastrophic Disaster Response for the Joint Logistics Enterprise (United States)


    collectively referred to as the Joint Logistics Enterprise (JLEnt) [2]. Participation in the JLEnt is fluid and depends on the situation, the area affected by...seamless collaboration [3]. An appreciation and understanding of the different JLEnt agencies’ response mechanisms can help mitigate roadblocks to...responses by providing shelter, emergency supplies, food , water, medical supplies, and other life-saving provisions through their own funding lines

  6. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters (United States)

    Chhabra, Vivek


    Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe PMID:19561968

  7. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  8. The Ability of the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force (TTDF) Logistics Infrastructure to Support Requirements in Response to Humanitarian and Disaster Relief (HADR) (United States)


    Jamaica Coalition of Service Industries, “Trained Household Helpers Can Now move Freely Across the Region,” Jamaica Observer, 14 February 2014, accessed...17 April 2017, helpers -can-now-move-freely-across- the-region/. 6 The CARICOM’s main purposes are to...three response sectors that the military is especially capable of assuming during a disaster mission: 1. Special skills corresponding to assistance

  9. Disaster Response Preparedness and Training: A Capabilities Assessment of the Asia Pacific Military Health Exchange (United States)


    responses revealed major themes of need for additional training in leadership /communication, austere/realistic training environment, interoperability...casualties. Since the military is best equipped to manage global operations, medical military members of the Indo-Asia Pacific nations initiated efforts...three previously separate medical, nursing, and leadership information exchanges into a single event. APHME was developed to foster information and

  10. Ad hoc networking and ambient intelligence to support future disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.


    We present a vision of how ambient intelligent environments may be used in future to support the emergency services during first response to a major incident. A futuristic scenario is presented where, for each of the emergency services, Ambient Intelligence (AmI) technologies are used to support

  11. Ad hoc networking and ambient intelligence to support future disaster response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Valerie M.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Afifi, H.; Zeghlache, D.

    We present a vision of how ambient intelligent environments may be used in future to support the emergency services during first response to a major incident. A futuristic scenario is presented where, for each of the emergency services, Ambient Intelligence (AmI) technologies are used to support

  12. Bioinspired thermo- and pH-responsive polymeric amines: multimolecular aggregates in aqueous media and matrices for silica/polymer nanocomposites. (United States)

    Danilovtseva, Elena N; Aseyev, Vladimir; Belozerova, Olga Yu; Zelinskiy, Stanislav N; Annenkov, Vadim V


    Polymeric amines have been intensively studied for application in smart systems and as matrices for the design of composite materials, including bioinspired substances. A new thermo- and pH-responsive polymer was obtained by radical polymerization of N-(3-(diethylamino)propyl)-N-methylacrylamide. Upon heating, the polymer precipitated from aqueous solutions above pH 9; the observed cloud point was dependent on the polymer concentration and decreased from 95°C at pH 9 to 40°C at pH 11. The basicity of the polymer decreased at elevated temperatures owing to an increase in the hydrophobicity-driven compaction of the macromolecules. Dynamic light scattering analysis demonstrated that the formation of large multimolecular associates with radius 1000-2000 nm was initiated from 1 to 2°C below the cloud point. The new polymer is demonstrated to be an effective matrix for various siliceous composite structures, including 200-300 nm solid spherical raspberry-like particles and hollow hemispherical particles of more than 1000 nm diameter. Condensation of silicic acid in the presence of polymeric amines is a model reaction in biosilicification studies, and the obtained data are also discussed from the perspective of the matrix hypothesis for biosilica formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan W.


    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  14. The New COIN of the Domestic Realm: How the Military Services Can Combine Emerging Warfighting Doctrine with Innovative Methods of Interagency Coordination to Provide Improved Disaster Response and Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildebrand, Steven J


    ... for the establishment of basic services that underpin the counterinsurgency warfighting model can be successfully transferred to the task of providing support to civil authorities during disaster response operations...

  15. Workplace disaster preparedness and response: the employee assistance program continuum of services. (United States)

    Paul, Jan; Blum, Dorothy


    Response programs for workplace critical and traumatic events are becoming an acknowledged and sought after standard of care. The current trauma literature recognizes what goes on in the workplace between the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) and management. The authors have taken this intra-organizational relationship, assimilated the information, and developed a model that recognizes and supports management throughout the continuum of response to workplace traumatic events. The model recognizes the EAP as an important workplace resource and tool in management's ability to strike the balance of managing the workforce while assisting in recovery following workplace trauma. The introduced concept defines the continuum and highlights the before, during, and after phases, showing how EAP supports management in most effectively doing their job.

  16. A Logistical Response to Assist in Answering the Call of Defense Support to Civilian Authorities in Disaster Response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Britton, Jeffrey J


    .... The public began to question the responsibility and requirements of the United States (US) government in responding to the total devastation of New Orleans as the media continually showed the death and destruction...

  17. Food for Disasters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  18. Realm of Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    harmonic analysis and complex analysis, in ... gebra describes not only the study of linear transforma- tions and .... special case of the Jordan canonical form of matrices. ..... Richard Bronson, Schaum's Outline Series Theory And Problems Of.

  19. Country logistics performance and disaster impact. (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Alain; Haavisto, Ira


    The aim of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact. The relationship is analysed through correlation analysis and regression models for 117 countries for the years 2007 to 2012 with disaster impact variables from the International Disaster Database (EM-DAT) and logistics performance indicators from the World Bank. The results show a significant relationship between country logistics performance and disaster impact overall and for five out of six specific logistic performance indicators. These specific indicators were further used to explore the relationship between country logistic performance and disaster impact for three specific disaster types (epidemic, flood and storm). The findings enhance the understanding of the role of logistics in a humanitarian context with empirical evidence of the importance of country logistics performance in disaster response operations. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  20. Hospital ships adrift? Part 1: a systematic literature review characterizing US Navy hospital ship humanitarian and disaster response, 2004-2012. (United States)

    Licina, Derek


    United States foreign policy is tied extensively to health initiatives, many related to the use of military assets. Despite substantial resource investment by the US Department of Defense (DoD) in hospital ship humanitarian assistance and disaster response missions, the impact of this investment is unclear. A systematic literature review of both peer-reviewed and grey literature using eight databases representing the international community and multiple sectors was conducted. Data on the characteristics of missions directly related to US Navy hospital ship humanitarian assistance and disaster response from 2004-2012 were extracted and documented. Of the 1445 sources reviewed, a total of 43 publications met criteria for review. Six (13.9%) met empirical documentation criteria and 37 (86.0%) were considered nonempirical expert opinions and anecdotal accounts that were primarily descriptive in nature. Overall, disaster response accounted for 67.4% (29/43) and humanitarian assistance 25.6% (11/43). Public and private sector participants produced 79.0% (34/43) and 20.9% (9/43) of the publications respectively. Of private sector publications, 88.9% (8/9) focused on disaster response compared to 61.8% (21/34) from the public sector. Of all publications meeting inclusion criteria, 81.4% (35/43) focused on medical care, 9.3% (4/43) discussed partnerships, 4.7% (2/43) training, and 4.7% (2/43) medical ethics and strategic utilization. No primary author publications from the diplomatic, development, or participating host nations were identified. One (2.3%) of the 43 publications was from a partner nation participant. Discussion Without rigorous research methods yielding valid and reliable data-based information pertaining to Navy hospital ship mission impact, policy makers are left with anecdotal reports to influence their decision-making processes. This is inadequate considering the frequency of hospital ship deployments used as a foreign policy tool and the considerable

  1. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying


    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  2. The Role of the Technical Specialist in Disaster Response and Recovery (United States)

    Curtis, J. C.


    Technical Specialists provide scientific expertise for making operational decisions during natural hazards emergencies. Technical Specialists are important members of any Incident Management Team (IMT) as is described in in the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that has been designed to respond to emergencies. Safety for the responders and the threatened population is the foremost consideration in command decisions and objectives, and the Technical Specialist is on scene and in the command post to support and promote safety while aiding decisions for incident objectives. The Technical Specialist's expertise can also support plans, logistics, and even finance as well as operations. This presentation will provide actual examples of the value of on-scene Technical Specialists, using National Weather Service "Decision Support Meteorologists" and "Incident Meteorologists". These examples will demonstrate the critical role of scientists that are trained in advising and presenting life-critical analysis and forecasts during emergencies. A case will be made for local, state, and/or a national registry of trained and deployment-ready scientists that can support emergency response.

  3. The 2015 Nepal Earthquake(s): Lessons Learned From the Disability and Rehabilitation Sector's Preparation for, and Response to, Natural Disasters. (United States)

    Landry, Michel D; Sheppard, Phillip S; Leung, Kit; Retis, Chiara; Salvador, Edwin C; Raman, Sudha R


    The frequency of natural disasters appears to be mounting at an alarming rate, and the degree to which people are surviving such traumatic events also is increasing. Postdisaster survival often triggers increases in population and individual disability-related outcomes in the form of impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions, all of which have an important impact on the individual, his or her family, and their community. The increase in postdisaster disability-related outcomes has provided a rationale for the increased role of the disability and rehabilitation sector's involvement in emergency response, including physical therapists. A recent major earthquake that has drawn the world's attention occurred in the spring of 2015 in Nepal. The response of the local and international communities was large and significant, and although the collection of complex health and disability issues have yet to be fully resolved, there has been a series of important lessons learned from the 2015 Nepal earthquake(s). This perspective article outlines lessons learned from Nepal that can be applied to future disasters to reduce overall disability-related outcomes and more fully integrate rehabilitation in preparation and planning. First, information is presented on disasters in general, and then information is presented that focuses on the earthquake(s) in Nepal. Next, field experience in Nepal before, during, and after the earthquake is described, and actions that can and should be adopted prior to disasters as part of disability preparedness planning are examined. Then, the emerging roles of rehabilitation providers such as physical therapists during the immediate and postdisaster recovery phases are discussed. Finally, approaches are suggested that can be adopted to "build back better" for, and with, people with disabilities in postdisaster settings such as Nepal. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  4. How Investment in #GovTech Tools Helped with USGS Disaster Response During Hurricane Harvey (United States)

    Shah, S.; Pearson, D. K.


    Hurricane Harvey was an unprecedented storm event that not only included a challenge to decision-makers, but also the scientific community to provide clear and rapid dissemination of changing streamflow conditions and potential flooding concerns. Of primary importance to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center was to focus on the availability of accessible data and scientific communication of rapidly changing water conditions across Texas with regards to heavy rainfall rates, rising rivers, streams, and lake elevations where USGS has monitoring stations. Infrastructure modernization leading to advanced GovTech practices and data visualization was key to the USGS role in providing data during Hurricane Harvey. In the last two years, USGS has released two web applications, "Texas Water Dashboard" and "Water-On-The-Go", which were heavily utilized by partners, local media, and municipal government officials. These tools provided the backbone for data distribution through both desktop and mobile applications as decision support during flood events. The combination of Texas Water Science Center web tools and the USGS National Water Information System handled more than 5-million data requests over the course of the storm. On the ground local information near Buffalo Bayou and Addicks/Barker Dams, as well as statewide support of USGS real-time scientific data, were delivered to the National Weather Service, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, FEMA, Harris County Flood Control District, the general public, and others. This presentation will provide an overview of GovTech solutions used during Hurricane Harvey, including the history of USGS tool development, discussion on the public response, and future applications for helping provide scientific communications to the public.

  5. Disaster Management: Mental Health Perspective. (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C


    Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.

  6. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ARZIMAN


    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a “Field” in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed. Keywords: Field organization, disaster, medical team, DMAT

  7. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness (United States)

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy


    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  8. Resource-poor settings: response, recovery, and research: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement. (United States)

    Geiling, James; Burkle, Frederick M; West, T Eoin; Uyeki, Timothy M; Amundson, Dennis; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Gomersall, Charles D; Lim, Matthew L; Luyckx, Valerie; Sarani, Babak; Christian, Michael D; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan


    Planning for mass critical care in resource-poor and constrained settings has been largely ignored, despite large, densely crowded populations who are prone to suffer disproportionately from natural disasters. As a result, disaster response has been suboptimal and in many instances hampered by lack of planning, education and training, information, and communication. The Resource-Poor Settings panel developed five key question domains; defining the term resource poor and using the traditional phases of the disaster cycle (mitigation/preparedness/response/recovery). Literature searches were conducted to identify evidence to answer the key questions in these areas. Given a lack of data on which to develop evidence-based recommendations, expert-opinion suggestions were developed, and consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi process. The five key questions were as follows: definition, capacity building and mitigation, what resources can we bring to bear to assist/surge, response, and reconstitution and recovery of host nation critical care capabilities. Addressing these led the panel to offer 33 suggestions. Because of the large number of suggestions, the results have been separated into two sections: part I, Infrastructure/Capacity in the accompanying article, and part II, Response/Recovery/Research in this article. A lack of rudimentary ICU resources and capacity to enhance services plagues resource-poor or constrained settings. Capacity building therefore entails preventative strategies and strengthening of primary health services. Assistance from other countries and organizations is often needed to mount a surge response. Moreover, the disengagement of these responding groups and host country recovery require active planning. Future improvements in all phases require active research activities.

  9. The Role of Citizen Science in Risk Mitigation and Disaster Response: A Case Study of 2015 Nepalese Earthquake Using OpenStreetMap (United States)

    Rieger, C.; Byrne, J. M.


    Citizen science includes networks of ordinary people acting as sensors, observing and recording information for science. OpenStreetMap is one such sensor network which empowers citizens to collaboratively produce a global picture from free geographic information. The success of this open source software is extended by the development of freely used open databases for the user community. Participating citizens do not require a high level of skill. Final results are processed by professionals following quality assurance protocols before map information is released. OpenStreetMap is not only the cheapest source of timely maps in many cases but also often the only source. This is particularly true in developing countries. Emergency responses to the recent earthquake in Nepal illustrates the value for rapidly updated geographical information. This includes emergency management, damage assessment, post-disaster response, and future risk mitigation. Local disaster conditions (landslides, road closings, bridge failures, etc.) were documented for local aid workers by citizen scientists working remotely. Satellites and drones provide digital imagery of the disaster zone and OpenStreetMap participants shared the data from locations around the globe. For the Nepal earthquake, OpenStreetMap provided a team of volunteers on the ground through their Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team (HOT) which contribute data to the disaster response through smartphones and laptops. This, combined with global citizen science efforts, provided immediate geographically useful maps to assist aid workers, including the Red Cross and Canadian DART Team, and the Nepalese government. As of August 2014, almost 1.7 million users provided over 2.5 billion edits to the OpenStreetMap map database. Due to the increased usage of smartphones, GPS-enabled devices, and the growing participation in citizen science projects, data gathering is proving an effective way to contribute as a global citizen. This paper

  10. Community strengthening and mental health system linking after flooding in two informal human settlements in Peru: a model for small-scale disaster response. (United States)

    Contreras, C; Aguilar, M; Eappen, B; Guzmán, C; Carrasco, P; Millones, A K; Galea, J T


    Mental health is an important factor in responding to natural disasters. Observations of unmet mental health needs motivated the subsequent development of a community-based mental health intervention following one such disaster affecting Peru in 2017. Two informal human settlements on the outskirts of Lima were selected for a mental health intervention that included: (1) screening for depression and domestic violence, (2) children's activities to strengthen social and emotional skills and diminish stress, (3) participatory theater activities to support conflict resolution and community resilience, and (4) community health worker (CHW) accompaniment to government health services. A total of 129 people were screened across both conditions, of whom 12/116 (10%) presented with depression and 21/58 (36%) reported domestic violence. 27 unique individuals were identified with at least one problem. Thirteen people (48%) initially accepted CHW accompaniment to government-provided services. This intervention provides a model for a small-scale response to disasters that can effectively and acceptably identify individuals in need of mental health services and link them to a health system that may otherwise remain inaccessible.

  11. “The hope – the one hope – is that your generation will prove wiser and more responsible than mine.” Constructions of guilt in a selection of disaster texts for young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Braithwaite


    Full Text Available This paper explores a range of definitions of guilt, and argues that fiction for young adults which is set after a major disaster that has been caused by humans has surprisingly little emphasis on guilt. Focusing on Brother in the Land by Robert Swindells, Nuclear War Diary by James E. Sanford (Jr, The Last Children by Gudrun Pausewang, The Carbon Diaries 2015 by Saci Lloyd and its sequel, The Carbon Diaries 2017, and Days Like This by Alison Stewart, the paper argues that in post-nuclear texts for young adults the emphasis tends to be on the perceived responsibility of the young adult reader's generation to work towards preventing the disaster from becoming reality, rather than on the guilt of the adult generation that caused the disaster. However, in texts dealing with environmental disaster, the young adult reader's generation can be seen to have some measure of culpability, and so the issues of guilt and responsibility become more complex.

  12. Earth, Wind, Flu, Flood and Fire: Early Evolution of U.S. National Policy for Natural Disaster Response (United States)


    Man-made disasters include engineering failures, transportation accidents, industrial accidents, or weapons of mass destruction. Historical...chemical, biological , radiological, nuclear, and high yield explosive incidents. Another exemption is Commander’s Emergency Authority, which authorizes...Pandemic.” In From Birth to Death and Bench to Clinic: The Hastings Center Bioethics Briefing Book for Journalists, Policymakers, and Campaigns. ed. Mary

  13. Comparative Analysis of Immediate Response by National Disaster Management Systems of the U.S., Pakistan, and Turkey (United States)


    the existence of a regional or national disaster management system) include the U.S., the UK, Brazil , and New Zealand (Coppola 2006). 2...two big hotels , with 40 additional fatalities. In addition, 33,016 buildings, 28,532 housings, 2,440 workplaces, and 8,254 yarns were collapsed or

  14. Chemiluminescence in cryogenic matrices (United States)

    Lotnik, S. V.; Kazakov, Valeri P.


    The literature data on chemiluminescence (CL) in cryogenic matrices have been classified and correlated for the first time. The role of studies on phosphorescence and CL at low temperatures in the development of cryochemistry is shown. The features of low-temperature CL in matrices of nitrogen and inert gases (fine structure of spectra, matrix effects) and the data on the mobility and reactivity of atoms and radicals at very low temperatures are examined. The trends in the development of studies on CL in cryogenic matrices, such as the search for systems involving polyatomic molecules and extending the forms of CL reactions, are followed. The reactions of active nitrogen with hydrocarbons that are accompanied by light emission and CL in the oxidation of carbenes at T >= 77 K are examined. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  15. Response to Comment on Preconditioning of matrices partitioned in 2 2 block form: Eigenvalue estimates and Schwarz DD for mixed FEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Blaheta, Radim


    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2013), s. 536-539 ISSN 1070-5325 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : saddle point matrices * inverses * preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.424, year: 2013

  16. Matrices in Engineering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, Marvin


    This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo

  17. Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.


    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a

  18. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.; Bhatt, U. S.; Lindsey, S. D.; Plumb, E. W.; Thoman, R. L.


    In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of river ice breakup, and

  19. Interdisciplinary approach to hydrological hazard mitigation and disaster response and effects of climate change on the occurrence of flood severity in central Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Kontar


    Full Text Available In May 2013, a massive ice jam on the Yukon River caused flooding that destroyed much of the infrastructure in the Interior Alaska village of Galena and forced the long-term evacuation of nearly 70% of its residents. This case study compares the communication efforts of the out-of-state emergency response agents with those of the Alaska River Watch program, a state-operated flood preparedness and community outreach initiative. For over 50 years, the River Watch program has been fostering long-lasting, open, and reciprocal communication with flood prone communities, as well as local emergency management and tribal officials. By taking into account cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic features of rural Alaskan communities, the River Watch program was able to establish and maintain a sense of partnership and reliable communication patterns with communities at risk. As a result, officials and residents in these communities are open to information and guidance from the River Watch during the time of a flood, and thus are poised to take prompt actions. By informing communities of existing ice conditions and flood threats on a regular basis, the River Watch provides effective mitigation efforts in terms of ice jam flood effects reduction. Although other ice jam mitigation attempts had been made throughout US and Alaskan history, the majority proved to be futile and/or cost-ineffective. Galena, along with other rural riverine Alaskan communities, has to rely primarily on disaster response and recovery strategies to withstand the shock of disasters. Significant government funds are spent on these challenging efforts and these expenses might be reduced through an improved understanding of both the physical and climatological principals behind river ice breakup and risk mitigation. This study finds that long term dialogue is critical for effective disaster response and recovery during extreme hydrological events connected to changing climate, timing of

  20. ASTER and USGS EROS emergency imaging for hurricane disasters: Chapter 4D in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005 (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Michael


    Satellite images have been extremely useful in a variety of emergency response activities, including hurricane disasters. This article discusses the collaborative efforts of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Joint United States-Japan Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Science Team, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in responding to crisis situations by tasking the ASTER instrument and rapidly providing information to initial responders. Insight is provided on the characteristics of the ASTER systems, and specific details are presented regarding Hurricane Katrina support.

  1. Infinite matrices and sequence spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Richard G


    This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi

  2. Capture Matrices Handbook (United States)


    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  3. Hospital organizational response to the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island: implications for future-oriented disaster planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, C.


    The 1979 nuclear accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, caused severe organizational problems for neighboring health care institutions. Dauphin County, just north of TMI, contained four hospitals ranging in distance from 9.5 to 13.5 miles from the stricken plant. Crash plans put into effect within 48 hours of the initial incident successfully reduced hospital census to below 50 per cent of capacity, but retained bedridden and critically ill patients within the risk-zone. No plans existed for area-wide evacuation of hospitalized patients. Future-oriented disaster planning should include resource files of host institution bed capacity and transportation capabilities for the crash evacuation of hospitalized patients during non-traditional disasters

  4. Operation Unified Response: A Case Study of the Military’s Role in Foreign Disaster Relief Operations (United States)


    disease danger was exacerbated by the introduction of cholera into post-earthquake Haiti, likely by Nepalese United Nation aiel workers, which caused... Mexico ," MSNBC; 5 September 2007.· U.S. Agency for International Development Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, Fact Sheet #25, Fiscal Year...March 2011. 29 47 Matt Gutman, "Haiti: As Cholera Spreads, Frustration Builds," ABC News; 18 November 2010. 48 LTC James Ware (US Army, Retired

  5. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo


    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  6. ARISTOTLE (All Risk Integrated System TOward The hoListic Early-warning): a multi-hazard expert advice system for the EU disaster response (United States)

    Michelini, A.; Wotawa, G.; Arnold-Arias, D.


    ARISTOTLE ( is a Pilot Project funded by the DG ECHO (EU Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection) that provides expert scientific advice on natural disasters around the world that may cause a country to seek international help to the EU's Emergency Response Coordination Centre (ERCC) and, consequently, to the Union Civil Protection Mechanism Participating States. The EU is committed to providing disaster response in a timely and efficient manner and to ensure European assistance meets the real needs in the population affected, whether in Europe or beyond. When a disaster strikes, every minute counts for saving lives and rapid, coordinated and pre-planned response is essential. The ARISTOTLE consortium includes 15 partner institutions (11 from EU Countries; 2 from non-EU countries and 2 European organizations) operating in the Meteorological and Geophysical domains. The project coordination is shared among INGV and ZAMG for the geophysical and meteorological communities, respectively. ARISTOTLE harnesses operational expertise from across Europe to form a multi-hazard perspective on natural disasters related to volcanoes, earthquake (and resulting tsunami), severe weather and flooding. Each Hazard Group brings together experts from the particular hazard domain to deliver a `collective analysis' which is then fed into the partnership multi-hazard discussions. Primary target of the pilot project has been the prototyping and the implementation of a scalable system (in terms of number of partners and hazards) capable of providing to ERCC the sought advice. To this end, the activities of the project have been focusing on the establishment of a "Multi-Hazard Operational Board" that is assigned the 24*7 operational duty regulated by a "Standard Operating Protocol" and the implementation of a dedicated IT platform to assembly the resulting reports. The project has reached the point where the routine and emergency advice services are being provided and

  7. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T


    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  8. Preparing for creative responses to “beyond assumed level” disasters: lessons from the ICT management in the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihoko Sakurai


    Full Text Available A survey of the municipal government ICT divisions during and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami crisis reveals the need for creative responses for “beyond assumed level” disasters. Complexity and diversity of the damage were simply too great for any plans to assume. Resident needs toward the municipal governments were also diverse and changed quickly as the time went by. The research also indicates that there would be ways to strengthen the capabilities to execute such spontaneous responses. Creative solutions executed during the 3.11 crisis were supported by the existence of open source software available on the net and skilled engineers that were capable of exploiting them. Frugal information system will be useful to improve preparedness for creative responses

  9. Appropriate Natural Disaster Handling Policy To Guarantee Effectiveness Of Post-Disaster Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Boediningsih


    Full Text Available Indonesia is a very rich country fascinating the beauty of the panoramic so attract much foreign tourists to come and see its beauty. Furthermore Indonesia is a country that often experience natural disasters ranging from floods mount erupted until to Tsunami Indonesia Located in a geographical location that is prone to disaster. Disasters can be caused by both natural and behavioral factors that are not responsible for utilizing and managing natural resources and the environment. In some areas of Indonesia disasters examples that hit the country. So far there are available disaster management regulation tools namely Law Number 24 Year 2007 which provides disaster management framework Pre-disaster comprehend emergency response and post-disaster. Although the law has outlined comprehensive disaster management provisions so far is still focused on the emergency response period. Further actions such as mitigation rehabilitation and reconstruction appear not to be a top priority of disaster management activities. Other issues that are still scattered are coordination rescue aid appropriateness of assistance and distribution spread evenly. Institutional On the mandate of Law 242007 also institutional had been formed National Disaster Management Agency BNPB at the local level throughout and Indonesia.BNPB also set up a technically existing technical unit UPTD of 12 units. A BNPB Institution supported by trained human resources HR trained to be deployed to even the most difficult terrain.

  10. Graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bapat, Ravindra B


    This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

  11. Public-private partnerships in local disaster management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    and effective response and post-disaster recovery.31 Essentially, the DMA regulates disaster management ..... face the visible effects of climate change and the growing demand for improved ...... (Ministry of Foreign Affairs Netherlands 2013) ...

  12. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    military's task in disaster response; (2) whether said framework invests authoritative decisions to a ... conflict or political instability. In the latter, security is a .... The Philippine emergency-management framework rests on disaster coordinating ...

  13. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction


    RK Kamble; Abhinav Walia; MG Thakare


    India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disruptin...

  14. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.


    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  15. Library as safe haven disaster planning, response, and recovery a how-to-do-it manual for librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Halsted, Deborah D; Wilson, Daniel T


    Libraries have always played a special role in times of disaster by continuing to provide crucial information and services. The Stafford Act of 2011, a federal government directive, designates libraries as among the temporary facilities delivering essential services, making a Continuity of Operations Plan imperative for libraries. Peppered with informative first-person narratives from librarians recounting emergency situations, Halsted, Clifton, and Wilson cover such topics as:An eight-step approach to developing a risk assessment planHow to draft a one-page service continuity planInformation

  16. A framework and methodology for navigating disaster and global health in crisis literature. (United States)

    Chan, Jennifer L; Burkle, Frederick M


    Both 'disasters' and 'global health in crisis' research has dramatically grown due to the ever-increasing frequency and magnitude of crises around the world. Large volumes of peer-reviewed literature are not only a testament to the field's value and evolution, but also present an unprecedented outpouring of seemingly unmanageable information across a wide array of crises and disciplines. Disaster medicine, health and humanitarian assistance, global health and public health disaster literature all lie within the disaster and global health in crisis literature spectrum and are increasingly accepted as multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary disciplines. Researchers, policy makers, and practitioners now face a new challenge; that of accessing this expansive literature for decision-making and exploring new areas of research. Individuals are also reaching beyond the peer-reviewed environment to grey literature using search engines like Google Scholar to access policy documents, consensus reports and conference proceedings. What is needed is a method and mechanism with which to search and retrieve relevant articles from this expansive body of literature. This manuscript presents both a framework and workable process for a diverse group of users to navigate the growing peer-reviewed and grey disaster and global health in crises literature. Disaster terms from textbooks, peer-reviewed and grey literature were used to design a framework of thematic clusters and subject matter 'nodes'. A set of 84 terms, selected from 143 curated terms was organized within each node reflecting topics within the disaster and global health in crisis literature. Terms were crossed with one another and the term 'disaster'. The results were formatted into tables and matrices. This process created a roadmap of search terms that could be applied to the PubMed database. Each search in the matrix or table results in a listed number of articles. This process was applied to literature from PubMed from

  17. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.


    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Basri


    Full Text Available Secara geografis, Indonesia merupakan negara yang sangat berpotensi atau rawan terjadi bencana baik berupa bencana alam (natural disaster maupun bencana akibat ulah kelalaian manusia (man-made disaster. Namun sayang sekali, para akademisi dan para peneliti masih sedikit yang tertarik untuk lebih jauh mengkaji bencana utamanya dalam perpektif ilmu-ilmu sosial. Sebagai salah satu upaya memulai kajian bencana di negeri ini, thesis ini diharapkan menjadi titik awal pengembangan ilmu-ilmu sosial dalam kajian bencana. Paper ini menyimpulkan bahwa proses kontestasi pemaknaan masyarakat dalam merespon bencana gempa dipengaruhi oleh tiga aspek, yaitu agama (religious meaning, Budaya Jawa (Javanese meaning, dan penjelasan sains (scientific meaning. Walaupun ketiga aspek tersebut saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain, berdasarkan respon masyarakat Wonokromo, aspek agama sangat mendominasi pikiran mereka. Ada empat variasi pemaknaan yang didasarkan pada aspek agama, yakni bencana sebagai hukuman, cobaan, tes, dan surat cinta dari Tuhan. Respon ini secara implisit masih problematis terutama jika dikaitkan dengan masalah theodicy (problem of evil di dalam teologi dan proses pemulihan bencana karena pandangan seperti ini cenderung memojokkan korban (blaming the victims.

  19. Lectures on matrices

    CERN Document Server

    M Wedderburn, J H


    It is the organization and presentation of the material, however, which make the peculiar appeal of the book. This is no mere compendium of results-the subject has been completely reworked and the proofs recast with the skill and elegance which come only from years of devotion. -Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society The very clear and simple presentation gives the reader easy access to the more difficult parts of the theory. -Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik In 1937, the theory of matrices was seventy-five years old. However, many results had only recently evolved from sp

  20. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans


    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  1. Intermittency and random matrices (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.


    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  2. Dimension from covariance matrices. (United States)

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M


    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  3. [Emergency and disaster response in critical care unit in the Mexican Social Security Institute: triage and evacuation]. (United States)

    Echevarría-Zuno, Santiago; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Elizondo-Argueta, Sandra; Martínez Valdés, Everardo; Franco-Bey, Rubén; Méndez-Sánchez, Luis Miguel


    Providing medical assistance in emergencies and disaster in advance makes the need to maintain Medical Units functional despite the disturbing phenomenon that confronts the community, but conflict occurs when the Medical Unit needs support and needs to be evacuated, especially when the evacuation of patients in a Critical Care Unit is required. In world literature there is little on this topic, and what is there usually focuses on the conversion of areas and increased ability to care for mass casualties, but not about how to evacuate if necessary, and when a wrong decision can have fatal consequences. That is why the Mexican Social Security Institute gave the task of examining these problems to a working group composed of specialists of the Institute. The purpose was to evaluate and establish a method for performing a protocol in the removal of patients and considering always to safeguard both staff and patients and maintain the quality of care.

  4. Records and Information Disaster Preparedness in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study looked at the availability of rules and regulations governing access to and use of records; threats to records management; disaster response plan; extent to which organizations are committed in four major stages of disaster management in organizations in Uganda. In gathering the data, structured questionnaire ...

  5. Disaster preparedness and response improvement: comparison of the 2010 Haiti earthquake-related diagnoses with baseline medical data. (United States)

    van Berlaer, Gerlant; Staes, Tom; Danschutter, Dirk; Ackermans, Ronald; Zannini, Stefano; Rossi, Gabriele; Buyl, Ronald; Gijs, Geert; Debacker, Michel; Hubloue, Ives


    Disaster medicine research generally lacks control groups. This study aims to describe categories of diagnoses encountered by the Belgian First Aid and Support Team after the 2010 Haiti earthquake and extract earthquake-related changes from comparison with comparable baseline data. The hypothesis is that besides earthquake-related trauma, medical problems emerge soon, questioning an appropriate composition of Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits. Using a descriptive cohort study design, diagnoses of patients presenting to the Belgian field hospital were prospectively registered during 4 weeks after the earthquake and compared with those recorded similarly by Médecins Sans Frontières in the same area and time span in previous and later years. Of 7000 triaged postearthquake patients, 3500 were admitted, of whom 2795 were included and analysed. In the fortnight after the earthquake, 90% suffered from injury. In the following fortnight, medical diseases emerged, particularly respiratory (23%) and digestive (14%). More than 53% developed infections within 3 weeks after the event. Médecins Sans Frontières registered 6407 patients in 2009; 6033 in 2011; and 7300 in 2012. A comparison indicates that postearthquake patients suffered significantly less from violence, but more from wounds, respiratory, digestive and ophthalmological diseases. This is the first comparison of postearthquake diagnoses with baseline data. Within 2 weeks after the acute phase of an earthquake, respiratory, digestive and ophthalmological problems will emerge to the prejudice of trauma. This fact should be anticipated when composing Foreign Medical Teams and Interagency Emergency Health Kits to be sent to the disaster site.

  6. Occupational and public health considerations for work-hour limitations policy regarding public health workers during response to natural and human-caused disasters. (United States)

    Berkowitz, Murray R


    This article examines the occupational health considerations that might impact the health and wellbeing of public health workers during responses to natural (eg, floods and hurricanes) and human-caused (eg, terrorism, war, and shootings) disasters. There are a number of articles in the medical literature that argue the impact of how working long hours by house staff physicians, nurses, and first-responders may pose health and safety concerns regarding the patients being treated. The question examined here is how working long hours may pose health and/or safety concerns for the public health workers themselves, as well as to those in the communities they serve. The health problems related to sleep deprivation are reviewed. Current policies and legislations regarding work-hour limitations are examined. Policy implications are discussed.

  7. Managing anaesthetic provision for global disasters. (United States)

    Craven, R M


    The numbers of people affected by large-scale disasters has increased in recent decades. Disasters produce a huge burden of surgical morbidity at a time when the affected country is least able to respond. For this reason an international disaster response is often required. For many years this disaster response was not coordinated. The response consisted of what was available not what was needed and standards of care varied widely producing a healthcare lottery for the affected population. In recent years the World Health organisation has initiated the Emergency Medical Team programme to coordinate the response to disasters and set minimum standards for responding teams. Anaesthetists have a key role to play in Level 2 Surgical Field Hospitals. The disaster context produces a number of logistical challenges that directly impact on the anaesthetist requiring adaptation of anaesthetic techniques from their everyday practice. The context in which they will be working and the wider scope of practice that will be expected from them in the field mandates that deploying anaesthetists should be trained for disaster response. There have been significant improvements in recent years in the speed of response, equipment availability, coordination and training for disasters. Future challenges include increasing local disaster response capacity, agreeing international standards for training and improving data collection to allow for future research and improvement in disaster response. The goal of this review article is to provide an understanding of the disaster context and what logistical challenges it provides. There has been a move during the last decade from a globally uncoordinated, unregulated response, with no consensus on standards, to a globally coordinated response through the World Health Organisation (WHO). A classification system for responding Emergency Medical Teams (EMTs) and a set of agreed minimum standards has been defined. This review outlines the scope of

  8. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness (United States)

    McNutt, M. K.


    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  9. Unpacking the social construction of 'natural' disaster through policy discourses and institutional responses in Mexico: the case of Chalco Valley's floods, State of Mexico


    Aragón-Durand, F. d. J.


    This research analyses 'natural' disaster policies for Mexico. The objective is to demonstrate that 'natural' disaster and the policies oriented to prevent them are socially constructed. It adopts a constructionist perspective because it is concerned with the understanding of collective social constructions of meaning and knowledge that are determined by political and social processes. This study focuses on the relation between the discourses of disaster causality, policy problem construction...

  10. Complex Wedge-Shaped Matrices: A Generalization of Jacobi Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnětynková, Iveta; Plešinger, M.


    Roč. 487, 15 December (2015), s. 203-219 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Keywords : eigenvalues * eigenvector * wedge-shaped matrices * generalized Jacobi matrices * band (or block) Krylov subspace methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  11. [Disaster Control and Civil Protection in Germany]. (United States)

    Kippnich, Maximilian; Kowalzik, Barbara; Cermak, Rudolf; Kippnich, Uwe; Kranke, Peter; Wurmb, Thomas


    The train crash of Bad Aibling/Germany in February 2016 and the terrorist attacks of the recent years in Europe have demonstrated the urgent need to be prepared for such disastrous events. Disaster preparedness and disaster control are very important governmental duties, as are civil protection and civil defense. In Germany the responsibility for those tasks are divided between the 16 "Länder" and the Federation. While the Federation takes care of the civil protection and disaster assistance, the Länder are responsible for disaster control. The presented article focuses on these issues and gives valuable insights into the German system of disaster control and civil protection with a focus on health protection. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Nuclear power plant disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.


    The possibility of a nuclear power plant disaster is small but not excluded: in its event, assistance to the affected population mainly depends on local practitioners. Already existing diseases have to be diagnosed and treated; moreover, these physicians are responsible for the early detection of those individuals exposed to radiation doses high enough to induce acute illness. Here we present the pathogenesis, clinical development and possible diagnostic and therapeutical problems related to acute radiation-induced diseases. The differentiation of persons according to therapy need and prognosis is done on the sole base of the clinical evidence and the peripheral blood count. (orig.) [de

  13. Simultaneous assessment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against multiple viral infections by combined usage of optimal epitope matrices, anti- CD3 mAb T-cell expansion and "RecycleSpot"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Johnson T


    Full Text Available Abstract The assessment of cellular anti-viral immunity is often hampered by the limited availability of adequate samples, especially when attempting simultaneous, high-resolution determination of T cell responses against multiple viral infections. Thus, the development of assay systems, which optimize cell usage, while still allowing for the detailed determination of breadth and magnitude of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses, is urgently needed. This study provides an up-to-date listing of currently known, well-defined viral CTL epitopes for HIV, EBV, CMV, HCV and HBV and describes an approach that overcomes some of the above limitations through the use of peptide matrices of optimally defined viral CTL epitopes in combination with anti-CD3 in vitro T cell expansion and re-use of cells from negative ELISpot wells. The data show that, when compared to direct ex vivo cell preparations, antigen-unspecific in vitro T cell expansion maintains the breadth of detectable T cell responses and demonstrates that harvesting cells from negative ELISpot wells for re-use in subsequent ELISpot assays (RecycleSpot, further maximized the use of available cells. Furthermore when combining T cell expansion and RecycleSpot with the use of rationally designed peptide matrices, antiviral immunity against more than 400 different CTL epitopes from five different viruses can be reproducibly assessed from samples of less than 10 milliliters of blood without compromising information on the breadth and magnitude of these responses. Together, these data support an approach that facilitates the assessment of cellular immunity against multiple viral co-infections in settings where sample availability is severely limited.

  14. Generalisations of Fisher Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Heavens


    Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.

  15. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)


    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  16. Radiation accident/disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Yoshiko; Hirohashi, Nobuyuki; Tanigawa, Koichi


    Described are the course of medical measures following Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) Accident after the quake and tsunami (Mar. 11, 2011) and the future task for radiation accident/disaster. By the first hydrogen explosion in FNPP (Mar. 12), evacuation of residents within 20 km zone was instructed, and the primary base for measures of nuclear disaster (Off-site Center) 5 km afar from FNPP had to work as a front base because of damage of communicating ways, of saving of injured persons and of elevation of dose. On Mar. 13, the medical arrangement council consisting from stuff of Fukushima Medical University (FMU), National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Nuclear Safety Research Association and Prefectural officers was setup in residents' hall of Fukushima City, and worked for correspondence to persons injured or exposed, where communication about radiation and between related organizations was still poor. The Off-site Center's head section moved to Prefectural Office on Mar. 15 as headquarters. Early in the period, all residents evacuated from the 20 km zone, and in-hospital patients and nursed elderly were transported with vehicles, >50 persons of whom reportedly died mainly by their base diseases. The nation system of medicare for emergent exposure had consisted from the network of the primary to third facilities; there were 5 facilities in the Prefecture, 3 of which were localized at 4-9 km distance from FNPP and closed early after the Accident; and the secondary facility of FMU became responsible to all exposed persons. There was no death of workers of FNPP. Medical stuff also measured the ambient dose at various places near FNPP, having had risk of exposure. At the Accident, the important system of command, control and communication was found fragile and measures hereafter should be planned on assumption of the worst scenario of complete damage of the infrastructure and communication. It is desirable for Disaster Medical Assistance Team which

  17. Administrative issues involved in disaster management in India. (United States)

    Kaur, Jagdish


    India as a country is vulnerable to a number of disasters, from earthquakes to floods. Poor and weaker members of the society have always been more vulnerable to various types of disasters. Disasters result in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality amongst the affected population. Damage to infrastructure and reduction in revenues from the affected region due to low yield add to the economic losses. Poor co-ordination at the local level, lack of early-warning systems, often very slow responses, paucity of trained dedicated clinicians, lack of search and rescue facilities and poor community empowerment are some of the factors, which have been contributing to poor response following disasters in the past. The first formal step towards development of policies relating to disaster care in India was the formulation of the National Disaster Response Plan (NDRP) which was formulated initially by the Government of India for managing natural disasters only. However, this was subsequently amended to include man-made disasters as well. It sets the scene for formulating state and district level plans in all states to bring cohesiveness and a degree of uniform management in dealing with disasters. A National Disaster Management Authority has been constituted which aims to provide national guidelines and is headed by the Prime Minister of India. It is the highest decision-making body for the management of disasters in the country. The authority has the responsibility for co-ordinating response and post-disaster relief and rehabilitation. Each state is required to set up Disaster Management Authorities and District Disaster Management Committees for co-ordination and close supervision of activities and efforts related to the management of disasters.

  18. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan


    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  19. Diagonalization of the mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.S.


    It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)

  20. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria


    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  1. Disaster waste management: a review article. (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica


    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Disaster waste management: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica


    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems.

  3. Preparation and response to radiation and nuclear emergencies in case of natural disasters; Preparacion y respuesta a emergencias nucleares y radiologicas en caso de desastres naturales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vegueria, Pablo Jerez, E-mail: [Centro Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear (CNSN), La Habana (Cuba); Lafortune, J.F., E-mail: [VP International Affairs, International Safety Research (Canada)


    The impact of natural disasters in cities and communities has grown by different causes in different parts of the world. There are several examples of the impact that have caused extreme natural events in facilities and activities in which ionizing radiation are used. The recent example of the accident at the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daichi with release of radioactive substances to the environment caused by an earthquake and a tsunami show the need of the increasing improvement in the safety of facilities and activities that use ionizing radiation and radioactive materials in general. Planning and response to events of this nature is another aspect that is important and needs attention. The IAEA documents offer a comprehensive and effective guide to achieve an appropriate degree of readiness to respond to nuclear and radiological emergencies in any situation. However, there are specific challenges for planning and response posed a radiological emergency caused by an extreme natural event or occurring simultaneously with this. The present work deals with essential aspects to take into account by the authorities who coordinate the planning and response to radiological emergencies to deal with extreme natural events.

  4. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  5. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang


    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  6. Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane


    Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.

  7. Disaster imminent--Hurricane Hugo. (United States)

    Guynn, J B


    Response to a disaster situation depends upon the type of circumstances presented. In situations where the disaster is the type that affects the hospital as well as a wide surrounding area directly, the hospital and pharmacy itself may be called upon to continue functioning for some period of time without outside assistance. The ability to function for prolonged periods of time requires the staff to focus on the job at hand and the administrative staff to provide security, compassion, and flexibility. Plans for a disaster of the nature of a hurricane require that attention be paid to staffing, medication inventories, supplies, and services being rendered. Recognition of the singular position occupied by a hospital in the community and the expectations of the local population require that hospitals and the pharmacy department have the ability to respond appropriately.

  8. Rebuilding sustainable communities for children and families after disaster: recommendations from symposium participants in response to the April 27th, 2011 tornadoes. (United States)

    Rush, S Craig; Houser, Rick; Partridge, Ashley


    Tuscaloosa, Alabama experienced a significant disaster, an EF4 tornado with 190 mile an hour winds on April 27, 2011. Fifty-two people were killed and more than 5,000 homes were severely damaged. Twelve percent of the city was destroyed and 7,000 people were immediately unemployed. This was a disaster of significant proportion and impacted everyone in the community of over 80,000. In an effort to address the needs of the community after this disaster a symposium was organized with a focus on helping children and families. More than 40 professionals and community members attended the symposium which was led by an international expert on disaster. Recommendations were established and distributed to the community and governmental organizations. The process for planning and implementing the symposium also may serve as a model for addressing future disasters.

  9. Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.


    We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)

  10. Study on vulnerability matrices of masonry buildings of mainland China (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Zhang, Guixin


    The degree and distribution of damage to buildings subjected to earthquakes is a concern of the Chinese Government and the public. Seismic damage data indicates that seismic capacities of different types of building structures in various regions throughout mainland China are different. Furthermore, the seismic capacities of the same type of structure in different regions may vary. The contributions of this research are summarized as follows: 1) Vulnerability matrices and earthquake damage matrices of masonry structures in mainland China were chosen as research samples. The aim was to analyze the differences in seismic capacities of sample matrices and to present general rules for categorizing seismic resistance. 2) Curves relating the percentage of damaged masonry structures with different seismic resistances subjected to seismic demand in different regions of seismic intensity (VI to X) have been developed. 3) A method has been proposed to build vulnerability matrices of masonry structures. The damage ratio for masonry structures under high-intensity events such as the Ms 6.1 Panzhihua earthquake in Sichuan province on 30 August 2008, was calculated to verify the applicability of this method. This research offers a significant theoretical basis for predicting seismic damage and direct loss assessment of groups of buildings, as well as for earthquake disaster insurance.

  11. A Communications Strategy for Disaster Relief (United States)


    there were “ pockets ” of cellular coverage in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, thus enabling some critical life-saving SMS traffic.105 4...Accessed 30 October 2014. Oxford Learners Dictionary . “Definition of Wicked.” Oxford University...Press. Assessed 02 September 2014. definition/ english /wicked_1. Pacific Disaster Center. “Disaster Response

  12. Role of a database-driven web site in the immediate disaster response and recovery of Academic Health Center: the Katrina experience. (United States)

    Fordis, Michael; Alexander, J Douglas; McKellar, Julie


    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina's landfall on August 29, 2005, and the subsequent levee failures, operations of Tulane University School of Medicine became unsustainable. As New Orleans collapsed, faculty, students, residents, and staff were scattered nationwide. In response, four Texas medical schools created an alliance to assist Tulane in temporarily relocating operations to south Texas. Resuming operations in a three- to four-week time span required developing and implementing a coordinated communication plan in the face of widespread communication infrastructure disruptions. A keystone of the strategy involved rapidly creating a "recovery Web site" to provide essential information on immediate recovery plans, mechanisms for reestablishing communications with displaced persons, housing relocation options (over 200 students, faculty, and staff were relocated using Web site resources), classes and residency training, and other issues (e.g., financial services, counseling support) vitally important to affected individuals. The database-driven Web site was launched in four days on September 11, 2005, by modifying an existing system and completing new programming. Additional functions were added during the next week, and the site operated continuously until March 2006, providing about 890,000 pages of information in over 100,000 visitor sessions. The site proved essential in disseminating announcements, reestablishing communications among the Tulane family, and supporting relocation and recovery. This experience shows the importance of information technology in collaborative efforts of academic health centers in early disaster response and recovery, reinforcing recommendations published recently by the Association of Academic Health Centers and the National Academy of Sciences.

  13. Recovery and resilience after a nuclear power plant disaster: a medical decision model for managing an effective, timely, and balanced response. (United States)

    Coleman, C Norman; Blumenthal, Daniel J; Casto, Charles A; Alfant, Michael; Simon, Steven L; Remick, Alan L; Gepford, Heather J; Bowman, Thomas; Telfer, Jana L; Blumenthal, Pamela M; Noska, Michael A


    Resilience after a nuclear power plant or other radiation emergency requires response and recovery activities that are appropriately safe, timely, effective, and well organized. Timely informed decisions must be made, and the logic behind them communicated during the evolution of the incident before the final outcome is known. Based on our experiences in Tokyo responding to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant crisis, we propose a real-time, medical decision model by which to make key health-related decisions that are central drivers to the overall incident management. Using this approach, on-site decision makers empowered to make interim decisions can act without undue delay using readily available and high-level scientific, medical, communication, and policy expertise. Ongoing assessment, consultation, and adaption to the changing conditions and additional information are additional key features. Given the central role of health and medical issues in all disasters, we propose that this medical decision model, which is compatible with the existing US National Response Framework structure, be considered for effective management of complex, large-scale, and large-consequence incidents.

  14. A Web-Based Course on Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response: Survey Among Students and Faculty (United States)

    Tam, Greta; Liu, Sida


    Background Web-based public health courses are becoming increasingly popular. “Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response” is a unique Web-based course in Hong Kong. This course aimed to fill a public health training gap by reaching out to postgraduates who are unable to access face-to-face learning. Objective The aim of this paper was to use a structured framework to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based course according to Greenhalgh et al’s quality framework and the Donabedian model to make recommendations for program improvement. Methods An interim evaluation of the first cohort of students in 2014 was conducted according to the Donabedian model and a quality framework by Greenhalgh et al using objective and self-reported data. Results Students who registered for the first cohort (n=1152) from June 16, 2014 to December 15, 2014 (6 months) were surveyed. Two tutors and the course director were interviewed. The Web-based course was effective in using technology to deliver suitable course materials and assessment and to enhance student communication, support, and learning. Of the total number of students registered, 59.00% (680/1152) were nonlocal, originating from 6 continents, and 72.50% (835/1152) possessed a bachelor’s or postgraduate degree. The completion rate was 20.00% (230/1152). The chi-square test comparing students who completed the course with dropouts showed no significant difference in gender (P=.40), age (P=.98), occupation (P=.43), or qualification (P=.17). The cost (HK $272 per student) was lower than that of conducting a face-to-face course (HK $4000 per student). Conclusions The Web-based course was effective in using technology to deliver a suitable course and reaching an intended audience. It had a higher completion rate than other Web-based courses. However, sustainable sources of funding may be needed to maintain the free Web-based course. PMID:29374007

  15. Democracy, GDP, and the Impact of Natural Disasters (United States)

    van der Vink, G.; Brett, A. P.; Burgess, E.; Cecil-Cockwell, D.; Chicoine, A.; Difiore, P.; Harding, J.; Millian, C.; Olivi, E.; Piaskowy, S.; Sproat, J.; van der Hoop, H.; Walsh, P.; Warren, A.; West, L.; Wright, G.


    In 1998 Amartya Sen won the Nobel Prize in economics for the observation that there has never been a famine in a nation with a democratic form of government and a free press. We find that a similar relationship can be demonstrated for all natural disasters. Data from the United Nations Food Programme and the United States Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance is used to display strong correlations between the democracy index, GDP, and the humanitarian impact of natural disasters. We find that nations in which disasters have high humanitarian impact, approximated by lives lost, are also nations which are below the median per capita GDP and the median democracy level. While the response to natural disasters varies from country to country, several additional global trends are observed. Since 1964, the number of recorded natural disasters has increased by a factor of five. During this same time period the number of deaths has decreased significantly. In particular, the humanitarian impact of the 'typical' natural disaster has decreased by a factor of five. Post-disaster foreign aid is the common response from the international community when a natural disaster strikes. Our study also compares the history of foreign aid grants distributed by the US Office of Foreign Disaster Aid (OFDA) with the number of deaths worldwide from natural disasters. We find that the amount of aid given is responsive to the degree of global humanitarian impact.

  16. Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R


    This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co

  17. dLOGIS: Disaster Logistics Information System (United States)

    Koesuma, Sorja; Riantana, Rio; Siswanto, Budi; Aji Purnomo, Fendi; Lelono, Sarjoko


    There are three timing of disaster mitigation which is pre-disaster, emergency response and post-disaster. All of those is important in disaster mitigation, but emergency response is important when we are talking about time. Emergency response has limited time when we should give help. Rapid assessment of kind of logistic, the number of survivors, number children and old people, their gender and also for difable person. It should be done in emergency response time. Therefore we make a mobile application for logistics management system. The name of application is dLOGIS, i.e. Disaster Logistics Information System. The application is based on Android system for mobile phone. Otherwise there is also website version. The website version is for maintenance, data input and registration. So the people or government can use it directly when there is a disaster. After login in dLOGIS, there is five main menus. The first main menu shows disaster information, refugees conditions, logistics needed, available logistics stock and already accepted logistics. In the second menu is used for entering survivors data. The field coordinator can enter survivors data based on the rapid assessment in disaster location. The third menu is used for entering kind of logistic. Number and kind of logistics are based on the BNPB needed standard for the survivor. The fourth menu displays the logistics stock available in field coordinator. And the last menu displays the logistics help that already accepted and sent by donation. By using this application when a disaster happened, field coordinator or local government can use maintenance distribution of logistics base on their needs. Also for donor people who will give help to survivor, they can give logistics with the corresponding of survivor needs.

  18. The invariant theory of matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Concini, Corrado De


    This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...

  19. Quantum matrices in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.


    Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)

  20. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Kunugita, Naoki; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, E.R.


    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no death or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious disease. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. (author)

  1. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems (United States)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  2. Keyword: help! Online resources for disaster preparedness. (United States)

    Hart, Amadie H; Cushman, Margaret J


    Health care organizations such as home care agencies should have post-disaster contingency plans in place that include contacts with the local, county, or state emergency management office, local branch of the Red Cross, and a clearly identified point person within the agency to coordinate disaster response efforts. Home care agencies must plan for the far-reaching effects that disasters can have on people in the community. This article provides some online resources to help you, your organization, and your family prepare for unexpected events.

  3. Medical rehabilitation after natural disasters: why, when, and how? (United States)

    Rathore, Farooq A; Gosney, James E; Reinhardt, Jan D; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan; DeLisa, Joel A


    Natural disasters can cause significant numbers of severe, disabling injuries, resulting in a public health emergency and requiring foreign assistance. However, since medical rehabilitation services are often poorly developed in disaster-affected regions and not highly prioritized by responding teams, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has historically been underemphasized in global disaster planning and response. Recent development of the specialties of "disaster medicine" and "disaster rehabilitation" has raised awareness of the critical importance of rehabilitation intervention during the immediate postdisaster emergency response. The World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has authored this report to assess the role of emergency rehabilitation intervention after natural disasters based on current scientific evidence and subject matter expert accounts. Major disabling injury types are identified, and spinal cord injury, limb amputation, and traumatic brain injury are used as case studies to exemplify the challenges to effective management of disabling injuries after disasters. Evidence on the effectiveness of disaster rehabilitation interventions is presented. The authors then summarize the current state of disaster-related research, as well as lessons learned from PRM emergency rehabilitation response in recent disasters. Resulting recommendations for greater integration of PRM services into the immediate emergency disaster response are provided. This report aims to stimulate development of research and practice in the emerging discipline of disaster rehabilitation within organizations that provide medical rehabilitation services during the postdisaster emergency response. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervov, A; Falqui, G


    In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [M ij , M kl ] [M kj , M il ] (e.g. [M 11 , M 22 ] = [M 21 , M 12 ]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: det(∂ z -L gaudin (z)), det(1-e -∂z T Yangian (z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U crit (gl-hat n )) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system

  5. International Charter "Space and Major Disasters": Typical Examples of Disaster Management Including Asian Tsunami (United States)

    Cubero-Castan, Eliane; Bequignon, Jerome; Mahmood, Ahmed; Lauritson, Levin; Soma, P.; Platzeck, Gabriel; Chu, Ishida


    The International Charter 'Space and Major Disaster', now entering its 5th year of operation, has been activated nearly 80 times to provide space-based data and information in response to natural disasters. The disasters ranged from volcanic eruption in Columbia, floods in Europe, Argentina, Sudan to earthquakes in Iran, from landslides in Philippines to the tragic tsunami in Asia, all resulting in major loss of life and property. The Charter provided imagery and the related information were found to be useful in disaster relief and assessment. Since July 1st 2003, a framework cooperation agreement has been allowing United Nations organizations involved in disaster response to request activation of the Charter.The purpose of the Charter is to provide assistance in situations of emergencies caused by natural and technological disasters by pooling together the space and associated ground resources of the Charter participants, which are currently the European (ESA), French (CNES), Canadian (CSA), Indian (ISRO), American (NOAA), Argentinean (CONAE) and Japanese (JAXA) space organizations.This paper will point out some of the best cases of Charter activation for different disasters leading to change detection imagery and damage assessment products which could be used for disaster reduction in close co-ordination with the end users after the crisis period.

  6. The Epidemiology of Operation Stress during Continuing Promise 2011: A Humanitarian Response and Disaster Relief Mission aboard a US Navy Hospital Ship. (United States)

    Scouten, William T; Mehalick, Melissa L; Yoder, Elizabeth; McCoy, Andrea; Brannock, Tracy; Riddle, Mark S


    /MH complaints increased as the mission progressed, were more prevalent in certain groups, and appeared to be related to ship's movement. These findings document the pattern of operational stress in a ship-based medical humanitarian mission and confirm unique ship-based stressors. This information may be used by planners of similar missions to develop mitigation strategies for known stressors and by preventive medicine, behavioral health specialists, and mission leaders to develop sensitive surveillance tools to better detect and manage operational stress while on mission. Scouten WT , Mehalick ML , Yoder E , McCoy A , Brannock T , Riddle MS . The epidemiology of operation stress during Continuing Promise 2011: a humanitarian response and disaster relief mission aboard a US Navy hospital ship. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):393-402.

  7. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov


    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  8. Practitioner Perspectives on a Disaster Management Architecture (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.


    The Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) is constructing a high-level reference model for the use of satellites, sensors, models, and associated data products from many different global data and service providers in disaster response and risk assessment. To help streamline broad, effective access to satellite information, the reference model provides structured, shared, holistic views of distributed systems and services - in effect, a common vocabulary describing the system-of-systems building blocks and how they are composed for disaster management. These views are being inferred from real-world experience, by documenting and analyzing how practitioners have gone about using or providing satellite data to manage real disaster events or to assess or mitigate hazard risks. Crucial findings and insights come from case studies of three kinds of experience: - Disaster response and recovery (such as the 2008 Sichuan/Wenchuan earthquake in China; and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan); - Technology pilot projects (such as NASA's Flood Sensor Web pilot in Namibia, or the interagency Virtual Mission Operation Center); - Information brokers (such as the International Charter: Space and Major Disasters, or the U.K.-based Disaster Management Constellation). Each of these experiences sheds light on the scope and stakeholders of disaster management; the information requirements for various disaster types and phases; and the services needed for effective access to information by a variety of users. They also highlight needs and gaps in the supply of satellite information for disaster management. One need stands out: rapid and effective access to complex data from multiple sources, across inter-organizational boundaries. This is the near-real-time challenge writ large: gaining access to satellite data resources from multiple organizationally distant and geographically disperse sources, to meet an

  9. Financing Naval Support for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response: An Analysis of Cost Drivers and Cash Flows (United States)


    2011). Special halal meals were provided in response to the floods in Pakistan in 2010 (Rogers, 2011). 12 However, as was the case in the...delivered 2,700 tons of food , water, and medicine, and evacuated 3,000 people (Elleman, 2007). The other important characteristic of the swine. Expired food was sent throughout the area. These items were not only worthless to the recipients but actually provided negative value

  10. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Sterett


    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  11. Proceedings of the international conference on disaster management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.S. Ramachandra; Partheeban, P.; Asha, P.; Raju, H. Prasad


    Disasters disrupt progress and destroy the hard-earned fruits of painstaking developmental efforts, often pushing nations, in quest for progress, back by several decades. Efficient management of disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad. This is as much a result of the recognition of the increasing frequency and intensity of disasters as it is an acknowledgement that good governance, in a caring and civilized society, needs to deal effectively with the devastating impact of disasters. India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a large number of natural as well as man-made disasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of lend) is prone to floods and river erosion; of the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of the cultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hilly areas are at risk from landslides and avalanches. 'Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) origin also exists. Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks can be related to expanding population, urbanization and industrialization, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation and climate change. The National Policy on disaster management enacted as Disaster Management Act in 2005, envisages capacity building on various aspects of disaster management at various levels. Disaster management includes measures for disaster prevention, disaster mitigation, disaster preparation, response and reconstruction. The present status and gaps in knowledge on the above topics are discussed during the conference. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Disaster cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Power News is the Staff newspaper of the Central Electricity Generating Board. This issue was produced to let CEGB staff and others know about the causes and consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl 4 reactor on April 26 1986. The information is taken from the reports provided by the Russian scientists to the Vienna conference organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Emphasis is placed on the design weaknesses and operator errors. These were such that a similar accident could not happen in a British reactor. A detailed timetable of the accident is given. The Russian response to the accident is described as 'fast and efficient'. (UK)

  13. After the disaster: the hydrogeomorphic, ecological, and biological responses to the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Crisafulli, Charlie; Bishop, John


    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens caused instantaneous landscape disturbance on a grand scale. On 18 May 1980, an ensemble of volcanic processes, including a debris avalanche, a directed pyroclastic density current, voluminous lahars, and widespread tephra fall, abruptly altered landscape hydrology and geomorphology, and created distinctive disturbance zones having varying impacts on regional biota. Response to the geological and ecological disturbances has been varied and complex. In general, eruption-induced alterations in landscape hydrology and geomorphology led to enhanced stormflow discharge and sediment transport. Although the hydrological response to landscape perturbation has diminished, enhanced sediment transport persists in some basins. In the nearly 30 years since the eruption, 350 million (metric) tons of suspended sediment has been delivered from the Toutle River watershed to the Cowlitz River (roughly 40 times the average annual preeruption suspended-sediment discharge of the Columbia River). Such prodigious sediment loading has wreaked considerable socioeconomic havoc, causing significant channel aggradation and loss of flood conveyance capacity. Significant and ongoing engineering efforts have been required to mitigate these problems. The overall biological evolution of the eruption-impacted landscape can be viewed in terms of a framework of survivor legacies. Despite appearances to the contrary, a surprising number of species survived the eruption, even in the most heavily devastated areas. With time, survivor “hotspots” have coalesced into larger patches, and have served as stepping stones for immigrant colonization. The importance of biological legacies will diminish with time, but the intertwined trajectories of geophysical and biological successions will influence the geological and biological responses to the 1980 eruption for decades to come.

  14. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble


    Full Text Available India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82 DOI:

  15. Spectra of sparse random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Reimer


    We compute the spectral density for ensembles of sparse symmetric random matrices using replica. Our formulation of the replica-symmetric ansatz shares the symmetries of that suggested in a seminal paper by Rodgers and Bray (symmetry with respect to permutation of replica and rotation symmetry in the space of replica), but uses a different representation in terms of superpositions of Gaussians. It gives rise to a pair of integral equations which can be solved by a stochastic population-dynamics algorithm. Remarkably our representation allows us to identify pure-point contributions to the spectral density related to the existence of normalizable eigenstates. Our approach is not restricted to matrices defined on graphs with Poissonian degree distribution. Matrices defined on regular random graphs or on scale-free graphs, are easily handled. We also look at matrices with row constraints such as discrete graph Laplacians. Our approach naturally allows us to unfold the total density of states into contributions coming from vertices of different local coordinations and an example of such an unfolding is presented. Our results are well corroborated by numerical diagonalization studies of large finite random matrices

  16. Three-Dimensional Maps for Disaster Management (United States)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.


    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to property, improve the monitoring of these disasters, and facilitate estimates of the damages and losses resulting from them. The maintenance and accessibility of spatial information has improved enormously with the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs), especially with second-generation SDIs, in which the original product-based SDI was improved to a process-based SDI. Through the use of SDIs, geo-information is made available to local, national and international organisations in regions affected by natural disasters as well as to volunteers serving in these areas. Volunteer-based systems for information collection (e.g., Ushahidi) have been created worldwide. However, the use of 3D maps is still limited. This paper discusses the applicability of 3D geo-information to disaster management. We discuss some important aspects of maps for disaster management, such as user-centred maps, the necessary components for 3D maps, symbols, and colour schemas. In addition, digital representations are evaluated with respect to their visual controls, i.e., their usefulness for the navigation and exploration of the information. Our recommendations are based on responses from a variety of users of these technologies, including children, geospecialists and disaster managers from different countries.

  17. Disaster mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter


    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  18. The real governance of disaster risk management in peri-urban Senegal: Delivering flood response services through co-production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaer, Caroline; Hahonou, Eric Komlavi


    Disastrous and recurring floods have impacted West African urban centres over the last decade, accentuating already existing vulnerabilities in poor neighbourhoods. Climate change-induced changing weather patterns and more extreme weather events are only part of the explanation for this situation......, as large segments of the urban population in West Africa are not offered the public services, infrastructure and protective regulations needed in order to respond to floods. Through an empirically grounded approach, the article shows that the ability to respond to floods is formed largely outside the realm....... The article concludes that weak state capacity is not equivalent to non-existent of ungoverned collective services linked to floods. While flood response service delivery through co-production, may constitute the best available options in a context of poor resources, because of the negotiated character...

  19. Enhanced change detection index for disaster response, recovery assessment and monitoring of buildings and critical facilities-A case study for Muzzaffarabad, Pakistan (United States)

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi A.; So, Emily


    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors and a growing image archive that is frequently updated, allows the use of change detection in post-disaster recovery and monitoring for robust and rapid results. The proposed semi-automated GIS object-based method uses readily available pre-disaster GIS data and adds existing knowledge into the processing to enhance change detection. It also allows targeting specific types of changes pertaining to similar man-made objects such as buildings and critical facilities. The change detection method is based on pre/post normalized index, gradient of intensity, texture and edge similarity filters within the object and a set of training data. More emphasis is put on the building edges to capture the structural damage in quantifying change after disaster. Once the change is quantified, based on training data, the method can be used automatically to detect change in order to observe recovery over time in potentially large areas. Analysis over time can also contribute to obtaining a full picture of the recovery and development after disaster, thereby giving managers a better understanding of productive management and recovery practices. The recovery and monitoring can be analyzed using the index in zones extending from to epicentre of disaster or administrative boundaries over time.

  20. Health Sector Coordination in Disasters: Barriers & Facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadkarim Bahadori


    Full Text Available Background: Coordination is a critical factor in successful organization and appropriate response to disasters. In this regard, a centralized coordination mechanism is the first step towards an effective, efficient, and sustainable response in order to be ensured of the short- and long-term recovery. Thus, this study aimed to identify and prioritize the barriers and facilitators of coordination in disasters. Materials and Methods: This research was a descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016. The participants comprised 22 experts in field of disaster. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire according to the analytical hierarchy process approach. For data analysis, we used Expert Choice software. Results: Based on the results, “dominance of organizational approach instead of national points of view when addressing the health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.344 among the barriers. Furthermore, among the facilitators, “having a processive and organizational view in health management during disasters,” took the first priority rank, earning the score of 0.374. Conclusion: To increase the effective coordination in health area, we should develop infrastructure and structural measures, which include bolstering authorities’ belief about the health system’s role in the response to disasters, reinforcing the national approach rather than organizational approach in the field of health at disasters, implementing the coordination requirements, attending sufficiently and specifically to public participation, reducing the organizational friction in the health field for sharing resources and information, raising the level of readiness with a focus on people and training programs, and finally creating an evolutionary process in the health field at disasters.

  1. Free probability and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, James A


    This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.

  2. Chequered surfaces and complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.R.; Southampton Univ.


    We investigate a large-N matrix model involving general complex matrices. It can be reinterpreted as a model of two hermitian matrices with specific couplings, and as a model of positive definite hermitian matrices. Large-N perturbation theory generates dynamical triangulations in which the triangles can be chequered (i.e. coloured so that neighbours are opposite colours). On a sphere there is a simple relation between such triangulations and those generated by the single hermitian matrix model. For the torus (and a quartic potential) we solve the counting problem for the number of triangulations that cannot be quechered. The critical physics of chequered triangulations is the same as that of the hermitian matrix model. We show this explicitly by solving non-perturbatively pure two-dimensional ''chequered'' gravity. The interpretative framework given here applies to a number of other generalisations of the hermitian matrix model. (orig.)

  3. Research on Disaster Early Warning and Disaster Relief Integrated Service System Based on Block Data Theory (United States)

    Yang, J.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Tang, D.


    With the continuous development of social economy, the interaction between mankind and nature has become increasingly evident. Disastrous global catastrophes have occurred from time to time, causing huge losses to people's lives and property. All governments recognize the importance of the establishment of disaster early warning and release mechanisms, and it is also an urgent issue to improve the comprehensive service level of emergency response and disaster relief. However, disaster early warning and emergency relief information is usually generated by different departments, and the diverse data sources, difficult integration, and limited release speed have always been difficult issues to be solved. Block data is the aggregation of various distributed (point data) and segmentation (data) big data on a specific platform and make them happen continuous polymerization effect, block data theory is a good solution to cross-sectoral, cross-platform Disaster information data sharing and integration problems. This paper attempts to discuss the integrated service mechanism of disaster information aggregation and disaster relief based on block data theory and introduces a location-based integrated service system for disaster early warning and disaster relief.

  4. Radiation occupational health interventions offered to radiation workers in response to the complex catastrophic disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. (United States)

    Shimura, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Terada, Hiroshi; Okuda, Kengo; Svendsen, Erik Robert; Kunugita, Naoki


    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) 1 was severely damaged from the chain reaction of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami on 11 March 2011, and the consequent meltdown and hydrogen gas explosions. This resulted in the worst nuclear accident since the Chernobyl accident of 1986. Just as in the case of Chernobyl, emergency workers were recruited to conduct a wide range of tasks, including disaster response, rescuing activities, NPP containment, and radiation decontamination. This paper describes the types and efficacy of the various occupational health interventions introduced to the Fukushima NPP radiation workers. Such interventions were implemented in order to prevent unnecessary radiation overexposure and associated adverse health effects and work injuries. Less than 1% of all emergency workers were exposed to external radiation of >100 mSv, and to date no deaths or health adversities from radiation have been reported for those workers. Several occupational health interventions were conducted, including setting of new regulatory exposure limits, improving workers' radiation dosimetry, administration of stable iodine, running an occupational health tracking system, and improving occupational medicine and preventative care. Those interventions were not only vital for preventing unnecessary radiation, but also for managing other general health issues such as mental health, heat illness and infectious diseases. Long-term administration of the aforementioned occupational health interventions is essential to ensure the ongoing support and care for these workers, who were put under one of the most severe occupational health risk conditions ever encountered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  5. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China. (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu


    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  6. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings. (United States)

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems.

  7. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu


    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs, particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  8. Are hospitals ready to response to disasters? Challenges, opportunities and strategies of Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS). (United States)

    Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein; Atighechian, Golrokh; Shams, Lida; Haghshenas, Abbas


    Applying an effective management system in emergency incidents provides maximum efficiency with using minimum facilities and human resources. Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS) is one of the most reliable emergency incident command systems to make hospitals more efficient and to increase patient safety. This research was to study requirements, barriers, and strategies of HEICS in hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). This was a qualitative research carried out in Isfahan Province, Iran during 2008-09. The study population included senior hospital managers of IUMS and key informants in emergency incident management across Isfahan Province. Sampling method was in non-random purposeful form and snowball technique was used. The research instrument for data collection was semi-structured interview; collected data was analyzed by Colaizzi Technique. Findings of study were categorized into three general categories including requirements (organizational and sub-organizational), barriers (internal and external) of HEICS establishment, and providing short, mid and long term strategies. These categories are explained in details in the main text. Regarding the existing barriers in establishment of HEICS, it is recommended that responsible authorities in different levels of health care system prepare necessary conditions for implementing such system as soon as possible via encouraging and supporting systems. This paper may help health policy makers to get reasonable framework and have comprehensive view for establishing HEICS in hospitals. It is necessary to consider requirements and viewpoints of stakeholders before any health policy making or planning.

  9. Loop diagrams without γ matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Rebhan, A.


    By using a quantum-mechanical path integral to compute matrix elements of the form left-angle x|exp(-iHt)|y right-angle, radiative corrections in quantum-field theory can be evaluated without encountering loop-momentum integrals. In this paper we demonstrate how Dirac γ matrices that occur in the proper-time ''Hamiltonian'' H lead to the introduction of a quantum-mechanical path integral corresponding to a superparticle analogous to one proposed recently by Fradkin and Gitman. Direct evaluation of this path integral circumvents many of the usual algebraic manipulations of γ matrices in the computation of quantum-field-theoretical Green's functions involving fermions

  10. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.


    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  11. Are hospitals ready to response to disasters? Challenges, opportunities and strategies of Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Yarmohammadian


    Full Text Available Background: Applying an effective management system in emergency incidents provides maximum efficiency with using minimum facilities and human resources. Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (HEICS is one of the most reliable emergency incident command systems to make hospitals more efficient and to increase patient safety. This research was to study requirements, barriers, and strategies of HEICS in hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS. Methods: This was a qualitative research carried out in Isfahan Province, Iran during 2008-09. The study population included senior hospital managers of IUMS and key informants in emergency incident management across Isfahan Province. Sampling method was in non-random purposeful form and snowball technique was used. The research in-strument for data collection was semi-structured interview; collected data was analyzed by Colaizzi Technique. Results: Findings of study were categorized into three general categories including requirements (organizational and sub-organizational, barriers (internal and external of HEICS establishment, and providing short, mid and long term strategies. These categories are explained in details in the main text. Conclusions: Regarding the existing barriers in establishment of HEICS, it is recommended that responsible authori-ties in different levels of health care system prepare necessary conditions for implementing such system as soon as possible via encouraging and supporting systems. This paper may help health policy makers to get reasonable frame-work and have comprehensive view for establishing HEICS in hospitals. It is necessary to consider requirements and viewpoints of stakeholders before any health policy making or planning.

  12. Heavy precipitation and the responses within emergency management - a new approach for emergency planning and disaster prevention by utilizing fire brigade operation data (United States)

    Kutschker, Thomas; Glade, Thomas


    industrial and traffic infrastructure. This new concept might support a sophisticated emergency planning and also better disaster prevention efforts for the authorities. Especially municipal civil protection authorities are liable to prepare new strategies and emergency plans for their particular field of responsibility, regarding their neighbor communities and to cope the "German national adaption strategy to the climate change" as a future goal. Keywords: municipal emergency planning, critical infrastructure, heavy-precipitation

  13. Science-Driven Approach to Disaster Risk and Crisis Management (United States)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.


    Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional

  14. Report focuses on improving resilience to disasters (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    Disaster resilience is everyone's business,” states a new report that calls for a series of local and national measures to increase resilience in the face of an increasingly costly toll from natural disasters to human lives and the economy. In 2011 natural disasters were responsible for damages in the United States exceeding $55 billion, and costs could increase with more people and structures located in harm's way and with the effects of extreme events, according to the report, Disaster Resilience: A National Imperative, issued by a committee of the U.S. National Academies on 1 August. Among the recommendations is for federal government agencies to incorporate national resilience as an organizing principle to guide federal government actions and programs. The report defines resilience as “the ability to prepare and plan for, absorb, recover from, and more successfully adapt to adverse events.”

  15. Post Disaster Assessment with Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Florence J. Franco


    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.

  16. Considering Time in Orthophotography Production: from a General Workflow to a Shortened Workflow for a Faster Disaster Response (United States)

    Lucas, G.


    This article overall deals with production time with orthophoto imagery with medium size digital frame camera. The workflow examination follows two main parts: data acquisition and post-processing. The objectives of the research are fourfold: 1/ gathering time references for the most important steps of orthophoto production (it turned out that literature is missing on this topic); these figures are used later for total production time estimation; 2/ identifying levers for reducing orthophoto production time; 3/ building a simplified production workflow for emergency response: less exigent with accuracy and faster; and compare it to a classical workflow; 4/ providing methodical elements for the estimation of production time with a custom project. In the data acquisition part a comprehensive review lists and describes all the factors that may affect the acquisition efficiency. Using a simulation with different variables (average line length, time of the turns, flight speed) their effect on acquisition efficiency is quantitatively examined. Regarding post-processing, the time references figures were collected from the processing of a 1000 frames case study with 15 cm GSD covering a rectangular area of 447 km2; the time required to achieve each step during the production is written down. When several technical options are possible, each one is tested and time documented so as all alternatives are available. Based on a technical choice with the workflow and using the compiled time reference of the elementary steps, a total time is calculated for the post-processing of the 1000 frames. Two scenarios are compared as regards to time and accuracy. The first one follows the "normal" practices, comprising triangulation, orthorectification and advanced mosaicking methods (feature detection, seam line editing and seam applicator); the second is simplified and make compromise over positional accuracy (using direct geo-referencing) and seamlines preparation in order to achieve

  17. Analysis and Optimisation of Orbit Correction Configurations Using Generalised Response Matrices and its Application to the LHC Injection Transfer Lines TI 2 and TI 8

    CERN Document Server

    Chao Yu Chiu


    The LHC injection transfer lines TI 2 and TI 8 will transport intense high-energy beams over considerable distances. In their regular part a FODO lattice is used with 4 bending magnets per half-cell and a half-cell length of 30.3 m, similar to that of the SPS. The relatively tight apertures in these lines require precise trajectory control. Following an earlier study a baseline correction scheme was chosen where two out of every four consecutive quadrupoles are complemented with correctors and beam position monitors ("2-in-4"). With the ordering of the equipment approaching, a further in-depth investigation has been made using a newly developed analytic method. This method evaluates, based on the design specifications, the global performance of an orbit correction system in terms of observability, correctability, correction range and response singularity. In addition, orbit and error envelopes are obtained over the full beam line in an efficient and rigorous manner, providing insights not easily accessible wi...

  18. International Charter `Space and Major Disasters' Collaborations (United States)

    Jones, B. K.


    The International Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to national disaster authorities of countries affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each of the sixteen Member Agencies has committed resources to support the objectives of the Charter and thus helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property, getting critical information into the hands of the disaster responders so that they can make informed decisions in the wake of a disaster. The Charter Member Agencies work together to provide remotely sensed imagery to any requesting country that is experiencing a natural or man-made disaster. The Space Agencies contribute priority satellite taskings, archive retrievals, and map production, as well as imagery of the affected areas. The imagery is provided at no cost to the affected country and is made available for the immediate response phase of the disaster. The Charter also has agreements with Sentinel Asia to submit activation requests on behalf of its 30+ member countries and the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs (UN OOSA) and United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)/ United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) to submit activations on behalf of United Nations relief agencies such as UNICEF and UNOCHA. To further expand accessibility to the Charter Member Agency resources, the Charter has implemented the Universal Access initiative, which allows any country's disaster management authority to submit an application, attend a brief training session, and after successful completion, become an Authorized User able to submit activation requests without assistance from Member Agencies. The data provided by the Charter is used for many purposes including damage assessments, reference maps, evacuation route planning, search and rescue operations, decision maker briefings, scientific evaluations, and other response activities.

  19. Disaster Mythology and Availability Cascades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Grow Sun


    Full Text Available Sociological research conducted in the aftermath of natural disasters has uncovered a number of “disaster myths” – widely shared misconceptions about typical post-disaster human behavior. This paper discusses the possibility that perpetuation of disaster mythology reflects an “availability cascade,” defined in prior scholarship as a “self-reinforcing process of collective belief formation by which an expressed perception triggers a chain reaction that gives the perception increasing plausibility through its rising availability in public discourse.” (Kuran and Sunstein 1999. Framing the spread of disaster mythology as an availability cascade suggests that certain tools may be useful in halting the myths’ continued perpetuation. These tools include changing the legal and social incentives of so-called “availability entrepreneurs” – those principally responsible for beginning and perpetuating the cascade, as well as insulating decision-makers from political pressures generated by the availability cascade. This paper evaluates the potential effectiveness of these and other solutions for countering disaster mythology. Las investigaciones sociológicas realizadas tras los desastres naturales han hecho evidentes una serie de “mitos del desastre”, conceptos erróneos ampliamente compartidos sobre el comportamiento humano típico tras un desastre. Este artículo analiza la posibilidad de que la perpetuación de los mitos del desastre refleje una “cascada de disponibilidad”, definida en estudios anteriores como un “proceso de auto-refuerzo de la formación de una creencia colectiva, a través del que una percepción expresada produce una reacción en cadena que hace que la percepción sea cada vez más verosímil, a través de una mayor presencia en el discurso público” (Kuran y Sunstein 1999. Enmarcar la propagación de los mitos del desastre como una cascada de disponibilidad sugiere que ciertas herramientas pueden ser

  20. Innovative shelter for disasters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.A.; Akkerman, M.S.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Brouwer, E.R.P.


    Disasters cause tremendous material and immaterial damage to people and their habitat. During the first days after the disaster the victims have to be provided with food, shelter, security, health care and registration. For sheltering, depending on the local circumstances, tents are often used for a

  1. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel


    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum-of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  2. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel


    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum -of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016

  3. Epidemics after Natural Disasters (United States)

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.


    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  4. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective (United States)

    Chung, Gunhui


    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  5. Three-dimensional maps for disaster management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandrova, T.; Zlatanova, S.; Konecny, M.


    Geo-information techniques have proven their usefulness for the purposes of early warning and emergency response. These techniques enable us to generate extensive geo-information to make informed decisions in response to natural disasters that lead to better protection of citizens, reduce damage to

  6. The modified Gauss diagonalization of polynomial matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.


    The Gauss algorithm for diagonalization of constant matrices is modified for application to polynomial matrices. Due to this modification the diagonal elements become pure polynomials rather than rational functions. (author)

  7. Double stochastic matrices in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louck, J.D.


    The general set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n corresponding to ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanical transition probability matrices is given. Lande's discussion of the nonquantal origin of such matrices is noted. Several concrete examples are presented for elementary and composite angular momentum systems with the focus on the unitary symmetry associated with such systems in the spirit of the recent work of Bohr and Ulfbeck. Birkhoff's theorem on doubly stochastic matrices of order n is reformulated in a geometrical language suitable for application to the subset of quantum mechanical doubly stochastic matrices. Specifically, it is shown that the set of points on the unit sphere in cartesian n'-space is subjective with the set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n. The question is raised, but not answered, as to what is the subset of points of this unit sphere that correspond to the quantum mechanical transition probability matrices, and what is the symmetry group of this subset of matrices

  8. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.


    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices hat H with Gaussian independent random entries Higeqj is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with langle|Hii|2rangle ~ 1 and langle|Hi\

  9. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni


    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  10. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)


    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.

  11. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda. (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo


    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  12. Phenomenological mass matrices with a democratic warp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.


    Taking into account all available data on the mass sector, we obtain unitary rotation matrices that diagonalize the quark matrices by using a specific parametrization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. In this way, we find mass matrices for the up- and down-quark sectors of a specific, symmetric form, with traces of a democratic texture.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurlia Dian Paramita


    Full Text Available This research analyses how the existence of the character occurred in one of disaster management phases which is an emergency response. In addition, it aims to discuss and see the relationship between authority institutions in the disaster management which are Kesbanglinmas & PB Kab. Sleman, Muhammadiyah Disaster Management Centre (MDMC, and Merapi Circle Information Network (JALIN MERAPI. This research uses qualitative method. The data about the policy and survivor handling are got through interviews with representatives from Pakem, Turi, and Cangkringan. They are head of sub districts, head of villages, and head of country-sides. The findings of this research show that the disaster regime character is fatalist-individualist and the authority relation is substitution (acts as a substitute. Therefore, humanity-based point of view is important to see the risk. It will empower the capacity of government institutions. The last, involving civil society (CSO is also significant to streamline the role of disaster management regime guide. Therefore, the synergy between government and CSO will easily be achieved to implement Community-Based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM. CSO is the government’s partner to reduce disaster.

  14. Nurses respond to Hurricane Hugo victims' disaster stress. (United States)

    Weinrich, S; Hardin, S B; Johnson, M


    Hugo, a class IV hurricane, hit South Carolina September 22, 1989, and left behind a wake of terror and destruction. Sixty-one nursing students and five faculty were involved in disaster relief with families devastated by the hurricane. A review of the literature led these authors to propose a formulation of the concept of disaster stress, a synthesis of theories that explains response to disaster as a crisis response, a stress response, or as posttraumatic stress. With the concept of disaster stress serving as a theoretical foundation, the nurses observed, assessed, and intervened with one population of hurricane Hugo victims, noting their immediate psychosocial reactions and coping mechanisms. Victims' reactions to disaster stress included confusion, irritability, lethargy, withdrawal, and crying. The most frequently observed coping strategy of these hurricane Hugo victims was talking about their experiences; other coping tactics involved humor, religion, and altruism.

  15. [Water and sanitation in disaster situations.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kjær Mackie; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Konradsen, Flemming


    When implementing water and sanitation in a disaster situation, it is of crucial importance that the intervention is grounded in the local cultural and socioeconomic context. The assistance provided in the response phase should facilitate short and long-term recovery and sustainable development...... of the affected community. The new model for disaster management which comprises an integrated continuous risk reduction phase, calls for a cross-disciplinary approach which combines the known life-saving response methods with modern development practices. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Jan...

  16. S-matrices and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardelli, Diego


    In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU (2), SU (3) chiral Gross–Neveu models. (topical review)

  17. A Situational Analysis of Priority Disaster Hazards in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poverty, gender, lack of information, and lack of resilience measures were some of the factors promoting vulnerability to disasters. Conclusion: As Uganda develops a disaster risk reduction and response plan, it ought to prioritize epidemics of infectious diseases, drought/famine, conflicts and environmental degradation as ...

  18. Psychological consequences of disaster analogies for the nuclear case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.


    No disaster experienced in recorded history resembles the potential destruction of major nuclear war. Nonetheless, past disasters can give us pointers to the likely responses of those who survive the immediate effects, though it will always be necessary to interpret the findings carefully with due allowance for the differences that restrict the applicability of the comparison

  19. Public health protection after nuclear and radiation disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Liqing; Liu Qiang; Fan Feiyue


    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan combined with massive earthquake and immense tsunami, Some crucial lessons were reviewed in this paper, including emergency response for natural technological disasters, international effects, public psychological health effects and communication between the government and public. (authors)

  20. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.G.


    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  1. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States. (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R


    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  2. Innovations in disaster mental health services and evaluation: national, state, and local responses to Hurricane Katrina (introduction to the special issue). (United States)

    Norris, Fran H; Rosen, Craig S


    The severe consequences of Hurricane Katrina on mental health have sparked tremendous interest in improving the quality of mental health care for disaster victims. In this special issue, we seek to illustrate the breadth of work emerging in this area. The five empirical examples each reflect innovation, either in the nature of the services being provided or in the evaluation approach. Most importantly, they portray the variability of post-Katrina mental health programs, which ranged from national to state to local in scope and from educational to clinical in intensity. As a set, these papers address the fundamental question of whether it is useful and feasible to provide different intensities of mental health care to different populations according to presumed need. The issue concludes with recommendations for future disaster mental health service delivery and evaluation.

  3. Latino Disaster Vulnerability: The Dissemination of Hurricane Mitigation Information among Florida's Homeowners (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.


    When a natural or man-made disaster strikes, there is usually little time for citizens to prepare and protect themselves. In September 2003, the U.S. Department of Homeland Defense implemented a National Response Plan dealing with many forms of disaster. However, when a disaster hits, not all citizens are equally prepared or protected. A sample of…

  4. The psychosocial aspects of nuclear threat and nuclear war: Analogies from disaster research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.


    The report is about the human reaction to disasters. No disaster experienced in recorded history resembles the potential destruction of major nuclear war. Nevertheless, past disasters can give us pointers to the likely responses of those who survive the immediate effects. Refs, 1 tab

  5. 3D Geo-Information requirements for disaster and emergency management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demir Ozbek, E.; Zlatanova, S.; Ates Aydar, S.; Yomralioglu, T


    A conceptual approach is proposed to define 3D geo-information requirement for different types of disasters. This approach includes components such as Disaster Type-Sector-Actor-Process-Activity-Task-Data. According to disaster types processes, activities, tasks, sectors, and responsible and

  6. Coping with Disaster (United States)

    ... or friends. On-going stress from the secondary effects of disaster, such as temporarily living elsewhere, loss of friends and social networks, loss of personal property, parental unemployment, and costs ...

  7. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  8. Resilience in disaster research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel


    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  9. Disaster Distress Helpline: Wildfires (United States)

    ... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...

  10. Disaster Distress Helpline (United States)

    ... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...

  11. Disaster mobile health technology: lessons from Haiti. (United States)

    Callaway, David W; Peabody, Christopher R; Hoffman, Ari; Cote, Elizabeth; Moulton, Seth; Baez, Amado Alejandro; Nathanson, Larry


    Mobile health (mHealth) technology can play a critical role in improving disaster victim tracking, triage, patient care, facility management, and theater-wide decision-making. To date, no disaster mHealth application provides responders with adequate capabilities to function in an austere environment. The Operational Medicine Institute (OMI) conducted a qualitative trial of a modified version of the off-the-shelf application iChart at the Fond Parisien Disaster Rescue Camp during the large-scale response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The iChart mHealth system created a patient log of 617 unique entries used by on-the-ground medical providers and field hospital administrators to facilitate provider triage, improve provider handoffs, and track vulnerable populations such as unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, traumatic orthopedic injuries and specified infectious diseases. The trial demonstrated that even a non-disaster specific application with significant programmatic limitations was an improvement over existing patient tracking and facility management systems. A unified electronic medical record and patient tracking system would add significant value to first responder capabilities in the disaster response setting.

  12. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program. (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W


    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  13. Crowdsourced bi-directional disaster reporting and alerting on smartphones in Lao PDR


    Frommberger, Lutz; Schmid, Falko


    Natural disasters are a large threat for people especially in developing countries such as Laos. ICT-based disaster management systems aim at supporting disaster warning and response efforts. However, the ability to directly communicate in both directions between local and administrative level is often not supported, and a tight integration into administrative workflows is missing. In this paper, we present the smartphone-based disaster and reporting system Mobile4D. It allows for bi-directio...

  14. Australasian disasters of national significance: an epidemiological analysis, 1900-2012. (United States)

    Bradt, David A; Bartley, Bruce; Hibble, Belinda A; Varshney, Kavita


    A regional epidemiological analysis of Australasian disasters in the 20th century to present was undertaken to examine trends in disaster epidemiology; to characterise the impacts on civil society through disaster policy, practice and legislation; and to consider future potential limitations in national disaster resilience. A surveillance definition of disaster was developed conforming to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) criteria (≥10 deaths, ≥100 affected, or declaration of state emergency or appeal for international assistance). The authors then applied economic and legislative inclusion criteria to identify additional disasters of national significance. The surveillance definition yielded 165 disasters in the period, from which 65 emerged as disasters of national significance. There were 38 natural disasters, 22 technological disasters, three offshore terrorist attacks and two domestic mass shootings. Geographic analysis revealed that states with major population centres experienced the vast majority of disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis revealed an increasing incidence of disasters since the 1980s, which peaked in the period 2005-2009. Recent seasonal bushfires and floods have incurred the highest death toll and economic losses in Australasian history. Reactive hazard-specific legislation emerged after all terrorist acts and after most disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis reveals an increasing incidence in natural disasters over the past 15 years, with the most lethal and costly disasters occurring in the past 3 years. Vulnerability to disaster in Australasia appears to be increasing. Reactive legislation is a recurrent feature of Australasian disaster response that suggests legislative shortsightedness and a need for comprehensive all-hazards model legislation in the future. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  15. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea. (United States)

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy


    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Lessons learned from DMAT medical activities in the great disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Koichi


    Lessons learned from actions taken by DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistant Team) at the Great East Japan Disaster (Mar. 11) are reported. One unit of DMAT consists from 2 doctors, 2 nurses and 1 logistics clerk, who all had education and training authorized by Japan MHLW. On the disaster, MHLW and suffering prefectures can order DMAT to gather at the disaster base hospital or SCU (Staging Care Unit) like an airport nearby. DMAT missions are firstly to grasp the medical state of the disaster and its report to the MHLW through EMIS (Emergency Medical Information System), and then to estimate the possible numbers of serious patients, their transporting systems and further DMAT needed. Within 3 days after the Disaster, 32 base hospitals in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures received 2,092 patients including 752 serious ones. Needs for DMAT were rather scarce within 48 hr after the Disaster and 103 DMAT in total within Mar. 14 in the 3 prefectures decreased to 50 of 840 patients in the area of 20 km distance from the Plant died during urgent evacuation without medicare staff due to deterioration of the basal disease, dehydration, hypothermia, etc., suggesting necessity of the more flexible action of DMAT, of which responsibility has been defined to be essentially within 48 hr after the disaster. Probably, DMAT should have assumption that complicated disaster with natural and atomic courses can occur at the earthquake in future. (T.T.)

  17. Report of the Project Research on Disaster Reduction using Disaster Mitigating Information Sharing Technology (United States)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu

    For the purpose of reducing disaster damage by applying information sharing technologies, "the research on disaster reduction using crisis-adaptive information sharing technologies" was carried out from July, 2004 through March 2007, as a three year joint project composed of a government office and agency, national research institutes, universities, lifeline corporations, a NPO and a private company. In this project, the disaster mitigating information sharing platform which is effective to disaster response activities mainly for local governments was developed, as a framework which enables information sharing in disasters. A prototype of the platform was built by integrating an individual system and tool. Then, it was applied to actual local governments and proved to be effective to disaster responses. This paper summarizes the research project. It defines the platform as a framework of both information contents and information systems first and describes information sharing technologies developed for utilization of the platform. It also introduces fields tests in which a prototype of the platform was applied to local governments.

  18. Localization of post-disaster psychosocial care in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Zhang


    Full Text Available Disaster is not independent of society and culture and always happens in specific cultural and social contexts. Cultural and social characteristics influence the responses of people affected by disaster, as well as the process of disaster relief.As one of the countries in the world that suffer most from natural disasters, various ethnic groups in China vary greatly in psychology and behavior characteristics after major disasters due to different geographical environments and economic and political conditions. To launch an effective post-disaster psychosocial care, 1 it is necessary to consider how to satisfy material, health, and other fundamental biological needs of affected people; 2 it is necessary to relieve disaster victims of their mental pain (spiritual in Chinese and help them restore their psychological health; 3 it is necessary to revitalize the seriously unbalanced communities affected by disasters so that these communities would burst with vitality again. In addition, it is necessary to take specific ethnic and regional culture into account when helping people in these areas gradually achieve social adaptation and cultural identification. All these require us to intensify our efforts in the following four aspects: 1 to strengthen legislation and institutional construction in this field; 2 to help citizens master the most fundamental psychological principles and methods of coping with disasters to enable timely self-aid and mutual-aid; 3 to build a national database of the post-disaster psychosocial care teams; 4 to continue the research on disaster psychology, so as to provide a scientific basis as well as techniques and methods for implementing disaster relief efforts in a scientific way.

  19. Healthcare in Disasters and the Role of RFID. (United States)

    Madanian, Samaneh; Parry, David; Norris, Tony


    Disasters either natural or man-made are inevitable, and therefore disaster management has always been an important function of government. Since during a disaster healthcare is often adversely affected, a lot of effort has been made in terms of researching effective responses and ways of improving the quality of delivered care to direct casualties and the rest of the community. In this regard, information technology plays an important role to help healthcare systems achieve this goal. One of these technologies that has become popular recently is Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID). This paper explores the relationship between emergency management and disaster healthcare and examines the role of RFID. It is suggested that RFID will become an integral part of disaster healthcare and a means of improving response performance.

  20. Disaster healthcare system management and crisis intervention leadership in Thailand--lessons learned from the 2004 Tsunami disaster. (United States)

    Peltz, Rami; Ashkenazi, Issac; Schwartz, Dagan; Shushan, Ofer; Nakash, Guy; Leiba, Adi; Levi, Yeheskel; Goldberg, Avishay; Bar-Dayan, Yaron


    Quarantelli established criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of disaster management. The objectives of this study were to analyze the response of the healthcare system to the Tsunami disaster according to the Quarantelli principles, and to validate these principles in a scenario of a disaster due to natural hazards. The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) Home Front Command Medical Department sent a research team to study the response of the Thai medical system to the disaster. The analysis of the disaster management was based on Quarantelli's 10 criteria for evaluating the management of community disasters. Data were collected through personal and group interviews. The three most important elements for effective disaster management were: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership. Although pre-event preparedness was for different and smaller scenarios, medical teams repeatedly reported a better performance in hospitals that recently conducted drills. In order to increase effectiveness, disaster management response should focus on: (1) the flow of information; (2) overall coordination; and (3) leadership.

  1. Leadership success within disaster restoration projects. (United States)

    Rapp, Randy R; Baroudi, Bassam


    Successful project managers draw their performance from essential leadership traits, as guided by their core values.Within disaster recovery, contractors who mitigate, repair, and reconstruct the built environment are often faced with challenges exceeding the norm. The effective leader is commonly expected to consider stakeholder motivations within distressing situations as well as other external and environmental factors when seeking to lead the project team to successful outcomes. This research is most concerned with leadership within the context of disaster restoration of the built environment. Its stimulus comes from the Restoration Industry Association (RIA)'s efforts to highlight leadership traits and core values for its Certified Restorer Body of Knowledge but would be of value to others associated with disaster recovery operations. Among organizations whose membership includes thousands of practitioners who restore and reconstruct the built environment after disasters, the RIA is the only one yet to formally and substantially research which core values and leader traits are deemed critical for the success of efforts to manage the means and methods applied on recovery job sites. Forty-six seasoned disaster restoration industry project professionals voluntarily responded to a survey questionnaire that sought their opinions about the traits and core values that they consider most important for successful disaster restoration project leadership. The most important leader traits were effective communication, professional competence, and leadership by example. The most important restoration industry values were integrity, compassion, and trustworthiness. The recognized imperative of compassion was unexpected in light of stereotypes often associated with construction-related contractors. This and other findings permit disaster response and recovery stakeholders to better understand qualities they should wish to see in leaders of contractor organizations, which

  2. Review: Health Management in Disasters with Focusing on Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khankeh


    Full Text Available Disasters should never be considered as routine. Disasters of any kind—natural or manmade—clearly disrupt the normal functioning of any community and frequently overwhelm both personal and community resources. In the post-disaster context, following the initial shock of the disaster, returning lives and livelihoods to normalcy becomes a primary concern of the affected communities and nations. Traditionally, this has been known as the recovery and rehabilitation phase, where "normalcy" refers to the return of the community to the state it was in prior to the disaster event. Rehabilitation is this process of returning the community to “normal” that may extend for many years and involves the physical, social and economic components of the community. Disasters can take on a life of their own, therefore being prepared is the single most effective way to improve outcomes. Proper pre-event planning and providing mechanisms for resource coordination are critical which will be resulted a successful response. It should focus on increasing the participation of civil authorities in order to reestablish local authorities. In order to develop safer communities with fewer deaths, physical injuries, and psycho-social trauma following disasters, health systems must be capable of providing a coordinated response during disasters and of delivering effective mitigation and preparedness programs before disaster impact. The health sector has a vested interest and a key role in this process. In addition, prior to the occurrence of disasters, national, provincial, and local planning should be blueprinted by managers. The public must be educated regarding the importance of individual and family preparation for disaster

  3. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.


    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health

  4. Is previous disaster experience a good predictor for disaster preparedness in extreme poverty households in remote Muslim minority based community in China? (United States)

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y


    Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.

  5. The contribution of ineffective urban planning practices to disaster and disaster risks accumulation in urban areas: the case of former Kunduchi quarry site in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict F. Malele


    Full Text Available This study examined the link between urban planning practices and disaster risks. The study used the former Kunduchi Quarry Site within the City of Dar es Salaam to demonstrate how laxity in enforcing the laid down planning rules, regulations and procedures facilitates the accumulation and occurrence of disaster risks and disasters in urban areas. This undermines one of the central roles of urban planning, which is to protect the lives of people from disaster risks and disasters. In exploring this, the study specifically focused on understanding the rules, regulations and procedures of planning in Tanzania; the extent to which they are followed and, where they are not followed, their implications for disaster risks and disasters; the coping initiatives adopted by local communities to reduce risks and their level of success or failure; and finally the drawing of lessons and recommendations for disaster risk reduction in urban areas. Strongly emerging from this study is the finding that although planning rules and regulations do exist, they are not enforced. As a result urban communities suffer from disaster risks and disasters caused by unregulated activities. The study analyzed the coping initiatives that urban communities apply to reduce disaster risks in their areas. It noted that, while a range of “coping” responses could be observed, these are not lasting solutions to the disaster risks being faced. Sustainable solutions seem to be known by the local community but they are not adopted for fear of compromising or undermining their existing livelihood strategies.

  6. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta


    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  7. The Inverse of Banded Matrices (United States)


    indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower

  8. Fusion algebra and fusing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Li Miao; Yu Ming.


    We show that the Wilson line operators in topological field theories form a fusion algebra. In general, the fusion algebra is a relation among the fusing (F) matrices. In the case of the SU(2) WZW model, some special F matrix elements are found in this way, and the remaining F matrix elements are then determined up to a sign. In addition, the S(j) modular transformation of the one point blocks on the torus is worked out. Our results are found to agree with those obtained from the quantum group method. (author). 24 refs

  9. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.


    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  10. Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy


    This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.

  11. Disaster medicine. Mental care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka


    Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)

  12. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru. (United States)

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott


    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  13. The perception of disasters: Some items from the culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero A, Jose Humberto


    This short reflection on social perception of disasters analyses their implications in the development and evolution of public policies on disaster prevention. Perception is the result of psychological conditions of people made of socially accepted ideas that conforms local culture. Four stages in the development of social perception explain how the impact of disasters is considered. First Christian religions are connected with the idea that disasters are punishment of divinity in response to our sins. Secondly, disasters are the result of the forces of nature, which have led to the idea of constructing the denial as a form of response. Disasters occur, but it doesn't threaten me because my local environment is safe enough. Third perception of security is diminished by the excessive reliance that exists in science and technology. This tends to increase vulnerability to disaster, especially among higher social classes who imagine they can pay the cost of these developments. Lastly short consideration is given to some recent ideas regarding disasters as the result of human intervention, especially with respect to global climate change

  14. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity. (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel


    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  15. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  16. 76 FR 30749 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00038 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident... disaster: Primary Counties: Cumberland. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Adams, Dauphin, Franklin, Perry...

  17. 78 FR 52600 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00063 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Lawrence. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Beaver...

  18. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Montgomery. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Berks...

  19. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident... the disaster: Primary Counties: Philadelphia. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Bucks, Delaware...

  20. 75 FR 71486 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00035 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe... the disaster: Primary Counties: Delaware. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Chester, Montgomery...

  1. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...

  2. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Allegheny. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  3. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064 (United States)


    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Armstrong. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...

  4. Modelling a critical infrastructure-driven spatial database for proactive disaster management: A developing country context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Baloye


    Full Text Available The understanding and institutionalisation of the seamless link between urban critical infrastructure and disaster management has greatly helped the developed world to establish effective disaster management processes. However, this link is conspicuously missing in developing countries, where disaster management has been more reactive than proactive. The consequence of this is typified in poor response time and uncoordinated ways in which disasters and emergency situations are handled. As is the case with many Nigerian cities, the challenges of urban development in the city of Abeokuta have limited the effectiveness of disaster and emergency first responders and managers. Using geospatial techniques, the study attempted to design and deploy a spatial database running a web-based information system to track the characteristics and distribution of critical infrastructure for effective use during disaster and emergencies, with the purpose of proactively improving disaster and emergency management processes in Abeokuta. Keywords: Disaster Management; Emergency; Critical Infrastructure; Geospatial Database; Developing Countries; Nigeria

  5. Eyes of the Storm: Can Fusion Centers Play a Crucial Role During the Response Phase of Natural Disasters Through Collaborative Relationships With Emergency Operations Centers? (United States)


    grown into a national network consisting of 78 centers. The centers are positioned in 49 states, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.4 The...national network consisting of 78 centers. The centers are positioned in 49 states, Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.6 Figure 1 is a map...disasters. Henry Grabar wrote an article that was posted on the Atlantic Cities website that indicated Boston is one of the most prepared U.S. cities

  6. Himalayan/Karakoram Disaster After Disaster: The Pain Will Not Be Ending Anytime Soon (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.


    Are recent natural disasters in the Himalaya/Karakoram partly human-caused? Will disasters diminish or increase in frequency? Natural disasters in this region are nothing new. Earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, and debris flows have occurred in the Himalaya/Karakoram since the mountains first grew from the sea. Simply put, the Himalaya/Karakoram, being South Asia's 'water tower' and an active plate tectonic collision zone, must shed water and debris to the lowlands and the sea. When this activity occurs swiftly and with high intensity at or near human settlements, the results are often deadly. Remote sensing analysis of recent disasters coupled with demography, news accounts, and field studies indicate that there is a component of human responsibility. Two overarching human elements include (1) settlement and infrastructure encroachment into hazardous mountain areas and (2) aggravation of climate change. Both are substantially responsible--separately or together--for most of the recent tragedies. These conclusions provide the answer to when the disasters will end: not soon. Unfortunately, disasters will almost surely increase. Whether natural disasters have increased in frequency over the region's long historical record may be debated and must be researched. This expected link is a challenge to assess due to the stochastic nature of disasters and their triggering events (e.g., earthquakes and extreme weather events). While Himalayan tectonism, rock mechanics, glaciation, and climate are fundamental causes of the disasters, so are human land uses. Encroaching development into ever-hazardous zones is a paramount cause of much human tragedy. Climate change is harder to pin down specifically as a cause of some of these disasters, because some disasters are linked to rare extreme weather events and mass movements, which may be statistically but not individually attributable in part to climate change. Nevertheless, evidence supports a major role of climate

  7. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies. (United States)

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank


    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  8. a Study of Co-Planing Technology of Spaceborne, Airborne and Ground Remote Sensing Detecting Resource, Driven by Disaster Emergency Task (United States)

    Yu, F.; Chen, H.; Tu, K.; Wen, Q.; He, J.; Gu, X.; Wang, Z.


    Facing the monitoring needs of emergency responses to major disasters, combining the disaster information acquired at the first time after the disaster and the dynamic simulation result of the disaster chain evolution process, the overall plan for coordinated planning of spaceborne, airborne and ground observation resources have been designed. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of major disaster observation tasks, the key technologies of spaceborne, airborne and ground collaborative observation project are studied. For different disaster response levels, the corresponding workflow tasks are designed. On the basis of satisfying different types of disaster monitoring demands, the existing multi-satellite collaborative observation planning algorithms are compared, analyzed, and optimized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela van der Berg


    Full Text Available It is anticipated that the occurrence and intensity of disasters will increase globally and in South Africa where typical disasters include droughts, floods, extreme hailstorms, gales, fires and earthquakes, as well as sinkholes arising from mining activity in dolomitic areas. Disasters such as these result in human suffering and damage to the resources and infrastructure on which South Africans rely for their survival and the maintenance of their quality of life. Section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 affords to everyone the right to an environment that is not harmful to his or her health and well-being. It may be argued that a person's sense of environmental security in relation to the potential risks and dangers of disaster falls within the scope of the protection provided by section 24. The responsibility to intervene for the protection of the interests inherent in the constitutional environmental right lies with the government of South Africa. Disaster management specifically is a functional area of competence of national and provincial government, but practice has shown that the actual implementation of and planning for disaster management happens in the local government sphere. Against the backdrop of these introductory discussions and, given the fact that several municipalities in South Africa are under-resourced, this article very specifically aims to critically discuss and describe from a legal perspective the potential and function of public-private partnerships (PPPs between local government (municipalities and the private sector (such as industries in fulfilling the legally entrenched disaster management mandate of municipalities. Through a critical evaluation of some existing PPPs, this article illustrates that the private sector has a key role to play in assisting municipalities to fulfil their legally entrenched disaster management mandate.

  10. Hypercyclic Abelian Semigroups of Matrices on Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, Adlene; Marzougui, Habib


    We give a complete characterization of existence of dense orbit for any abelian semigroup of matrices on C n . For finitely generated semigroups, this characterization is explicit and is used to determine the minimal number of matrices in normal form over C which forms a hypercyclic abelian semigroup on C n . In particular, we show that no abelian semigroup generated by n matrices on C n can be hypercyclic. (author)

  11. The structure of crisis management and disaster control in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachs, S.


    Disaster control in Austria is in principle a responsibility of the provinces and rests mainly upon volunteer relief and rescue organisations. The provinces have enacted comprehensive disaster relief acts which regulate the scope of action assigned to the individual relief and rescue organisations, identify the action management hierarchy and define performance requirement profiles. Municipalities, district and provincial authorities take part in disaster control and are responsible for the provision of adequate infrastructure and organisation. Since there is no full separation of competencies between the federal an the provincial level in the field of disaster control special responsibilities remain within the competence of the federal government. For the management of supraregional crises a federal crisis management was established in 1986. The most important tasks of this crisis management are to give advice to the federal government in a crisis situation, to co-ordinate all administrative measures for an emergency response an to give information to the public. (orig.) [de

  12. Connecting communities for climate and disaster risk preparedness ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Climate adaptation and disaster risk management and response are ... not only mitigate impact but to improve preparedness, risk management, and climate resilience. ... including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  13. The Department of Defense's Role in Disaster Recovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arn, Mark R


    ... logistical operations on a moment's notice." This paper will examine the historical role of the armed forces in disaster management, the current response plans as well as existing legislation that employ the Department of Defense (DoD...

  14. A Dictionary of Disaster Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...

  15. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  16. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...

  17. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  18. Fatal work injuries involving natural disasters, 1992-2006. (United States)

    Fayard, Gregory M


    Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.

  19. Winged messengers of disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.


    The work of the Soviet ecologists, led by A.I. Il'enko, on birds in the southern Urals area, site of the nuclear disaster in 1958, is discussed. The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in birds, food chains in a large running-water lake, bird migration patterns, and nest conservatism of ducks have been studied. It is pointed out that the existence of migratory species among contaminated species of the southern Urals provides an opportunity for observers in the West to test the truth about the 1958 nuclear disaster in the southern Urals. It is felt that the reports discussed here corroborate the author's original statement that the Urals nuclear disaster involved nuclear waste rather than a major reactor accident. (U.K.)

  20. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P


    Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late

  1. A survey of the practice of nurses' skills in Wenchuan earthquake disaster sites: implications for disaster training. (United States)

    Yin, Huahua; He, Haiyan; Arbon, Paul; Zhu, Jingci


    To determine nursing skills most relevant for nurses participating in disaster response medical teams; make recommendations to enhance training of nurses who will be first responders to a disaster site; to improve the capacity of nurses to prepare and respond to severe natural disasters. Worldwide, nurses play a key role in disaster response teams at disaster sites. They are often not prepared for the challenges of dealing with mass casualties; little research exists into what basic nursing skills are required by nurses who are first responders to a disaster situation. This study assessed the most relevant disaster nursing skills of first responder nurses at the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake disaster site. Data were collected in China in 2008 using a self-designed questionnaire, with 24 participants who had been part of the medical teams that were dispatched to the disaster sites. The top three skills essential for nurses were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage. The three most frequently used skills were: debridement and dressing; observation and monitoring; intravenous insertion. The three skills performed most proficiently were: intravenous insertion; observation and monitoring; urethral catheterization. The top three ranking skills most important for training were: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling. The core nursing skills for disaster response training are: mass casualty transportation; emergency management; haemostasis, bandaging, fixation, manual handling; observation and monitoring; mass casualty triage; controlling specific infection; psychological crisis intervention; cardiopulmonary resuscitation; debridement and dressing; central venous catheter insertion; patient care recording. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Developing disaster resilient housing in Vietnam challenges and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, Tuan Anh


    This book provides a comprehensive understanding on disaster resilient housing within the Vietnam context particularly and the developing world generally. The book has identified the root causes of housing vulnerability, restrictions to safe housing development, concepts of disaster resilient housing, key issues/factors implementers and building designers need to consider, and ways of achieving resilient housing outcomes in actual design projects. The design and development of disaster resilient housing has been framed into three main themes:  (i) community consultation, (ii) the role of built-environment professionals and (iii) design responses for resilience.   To achieve these themes, there is a variety of contextual and intervening conditions that need to be addressed and met to provide an enabling environment for promoting disaster resilient housing. These three themes are among the most arguable issues in recent debates and discussions, academically and practically, regarding disaster risk reduction ...

  3. Natural disasters and human mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.


    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  4. Experiences of rural and remote nurses assisting with disasters. (United States)

    Kulig, Judith C; Penz, Kelly; Karunanayake, Chandima; MacLeod, Martha L P; Jahner, Sharleen; Andrews, Mary Ellen


    Globally, disasters are on the rise. Nurses play a significant role in responding to such events but little is known about rural and remote nurses' experiences. A national cross-sectional survey of regulated nurses (registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and nurse practitioners) in rural and remote Canada provided the data (n=2465) for the logistic regression of predictors of assisting with a disaster event within the last five years. The types of disaster events were also examined and open-ended responses were explored to reveal nurses' perspectives. Nurse type, age, region of employment, employment status, number of rural communities worked, distance to advanced referral centre, remote community, personal-professional boundaries, burnout and work engagement were significant factors related to assisting with a disaster event. Open-ended data alluded to the importance of pre-disaster preparation, and the difficulties experienced when personal-professional relationships are impacted during a disaster. Nursing education curricula needs to include information about disasters and the nurse's role. Continuing education opportunities and preparation for nurses should be offered in the workplace. Psychosocial supports to assist rural nurses who attend to disasters in their workplace will help them deal with issues such as the blurring of personal-professional relationships. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari


    Full Text Available Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management. Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster management rules and responses in emergency conditions. Creating appropriate tools for disaster management assessment makes it correct and precise in higher education systems using the presented conceptual model. The present model was planned so as to cover three phases which exist before, during, and after disaster. Studies were performed in one of the largest higher education centers in Tehran: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University Campus. Results showed high-risk disasters in these centers which must be taken into consideration continuously. The objective of this study was to create appropriate patterns of disaster risk management in these centers.

  6. Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela (United States)

    Burguillos, C.; Deng, H.


    The integration and use of different space technology applications for disasters management, play an important role at the time of prevents the causes and mitigates the effects of the natural disasters. Nevertheless, the space technology counts with the appropriate technological resources to provide the accurate and timely information required to support in the decision making in case of disasters. Considering the aforementioned aspects, in this research is presented the design and implementation of an Emergency Communications Network for Disasters Management in Venezuela. Network based on the design of a topology that integrates the satellites platforms in orbit operation under administration of Venezuelan state, such as: the communications satellite VENESAT-1 and the remote sensing satellites VRSS-1 and VRSS-2; as well as their ground stations with the aim to implement an emergency communications network to be activated in case of disasters which affect the public and private communications infrastructures in Venezuela. In this regard, to design the network several technical and operational specifications were formulated, between them: Emergency Strategies to Maneuver the VRSS-1 and VRSS-2 satellites for optimal images capture and processing, characterization of the VENESAT-1 transponders and radiofrequencies for emergency communications services, technologies solutions formulation and communications links design for disaster management. As result, the emergency network designed allows to put in practice diverse communications technologies solutions and different scheme or media for images exchange between the areas affected for disasters and the entities involved in the disasters management tasks, providing useful data for emergency response and infrastructures recovery.

  7. Media framing of natural disasters in Kwazulu-Natal province: Impact of contigency plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethuel Sibongiseni Ngcamu


    Full Text Available This study explores how the media frame disaster contingency plans which include preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery of the KwaZulu-Natal province before, during and in the aftermath of natural disasters. The province has been stricken by natural disasters. Although newspapers report the disasters they fail to give details of disaster contingency plans that should be available to those who are susceptible to, and the victims of disasters. Based on a content analysis of 114 online newspaper articles between 2000 and 2013 to examine how the media framed the KZN government’s disaster contingency plans. This study concludes that the highest occurrence of disasters (71% was from 2011 onwards as compared to previous years, and most of these were associated with areas that are susceptible to floods (34%. The findings of the study highlight that the media placed an emphasis on disaster response (41% over preparedness (24% and mitigation (7%. The outcomes suggest that newspaper organisations need to appoint a designated reporter responsible for disaster management issues. This is relevant because this study conveys findings that have the potential to persuade government and newspaper organisations to collaborate and to ensure that their officials are multi-skilled and able to cover all phases of disaster management in their articles, in order for these to be understood at all levels of society. This study further adds to the growing body of knowledge regarding quality journalism that meets its objectives.

  8. [Current state of measures to deal with natural disasters at public universities]. (United States)

    Hirouchi, Tomoko; Tanka, Mamoru; Shimada, Ikuko; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi


    The responsibility of a university after a large-scale, natural disaster is to secure the safety of students' and local residents' lives. The present study investigated the current state of measures at public universities to deal with natural disasters in coordination with the local community. A survey was administered at 77 public universities in Japan from March 25 to May 10, 2011. The survey included questions on the existence of local disaster evacuation sites, a disaster manual, disaster equipment storage, emergency drinking water, and food storage. A total of 51% of universities had designated local evacuation sites. Based on responses for the remaining questions, universities with and without the designated disaster response solutions accounted for 42% and 57%, respectively, for disaster manuals; 55% and 33%, respectively, for disaster equipment; 32% and 13%, respectively, for disaster drinking water storage; and 26% and 7%, respectively, for emergency food storage. A majority of public universities have not created disaster manuals, regardless of whether they have a local evacuation site. The survey results also indicated that most universities have no storage of disaster equipment or emergency supplies.

  9. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  10. Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian experience: genesis, reform and transformation. ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ... Key words: disaster management, drought, pre-disaster action, post-disaster action, hazards, disaster, Ethiopian disaster management system, Ethiopia.

  11. Ethics in disaster management (United States)

    Parkash, S.


    Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India

  12. Ethics in disaster management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Parkash


    Full Text Available In any profession, a basic set of moral values needs to be followed to comply with what we call ethics. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise society about the possibilities of natural hazards such as landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, and earthquakes. Geoscientists cannot only assess these hazards, but they can also estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and at a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientists among society and government is lost, due to some unethical practices for short-term gain, or due to incorrect understanding of geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecast by some pseudo-geoscientists, to draw social/ media attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession into disrepute. There is the need to be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in providing information about natural hazards that are not yet fully understood by the professionals themselves. More specifically, the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of society as well as media in the developing countries where the ‘common’ people have different perceptions. Most often, popular myths take over scientific facts among the public, and this can lead to rumors about natural hazards. This article will mention some cases of rumors about natural disasters, and particularly earthquakes, and the response of society, media and government. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the actual situations and the geohazards, to avoid panic caused by rumors from non-specialists or hyperactive pseudo experts. This article indicates the recent rumors about a lake outburst, flash floods, and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M 6.9, September 18

  13. Familiar ethical issues amplified: how members of research ethics committees describe ethical distinctions between disaster and non-disaster research. (United States)

    Tansey, Catherine M; Anderson, James; Boulanger, Renaud F; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Schwartz, Lisa; Hunt, Matthew


    The conduct of research in settings affected by disasters such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes is challenging, particularly when infrastructures and resources were already limited pre-disaster. However, since post-disaster research is essential to the improvement of the humanitarian response, it is important that adequate research ethics oversight be available. We aim to answer the following questions: 1) what do research ethics committee (REC) members who have reviewed research protocols to be conducted following disasters in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) perceive as the key ethical concerns associated with disaster research?, and 2) in what ways do REC members understand these concerns to be distinct from those arising in research conducted in non-crisis situations? This qualitative study was developed using interpretative description methodology; 15 interviews were conducted with REC members. Four key ethical issues were identified as presenting distinctive considerations for disaster research to be implemented in LMICs, and were described by participants as familiar research ethics issues that were amplified in these contexts. First, REC members viewed disaster research as having strong social value due to its potential for improving disaster response, but also as requiring a higher level of justification compared to other research settings. Second, they identified vulnerability as an overarching concern for disaster research ethics, and a feature that required careful and critical appraisal when assessing protocols. They noted that research participants' vulnerabilities frequently change in the aftermath of a disaster and often in unpredictable ways. Third, they identified concerns related to promoting and maintaining safety, confidentiality and data security in insecure or austere environments. Lastly, though REC members endorsed the need and usefulness of community engagement, they noted that there are significant challenges in a disaster

  14. Translocal disaster interventions:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher


    The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major sender of migrants worldwide.Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investi-gates how individual migrants channelled relief to their neighbourhoods of originafter the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I argue that ...

  15. Quantum Hilbert matrices and orthogonal polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Berg, Christian


    Using the notion of quantum integers associated with a complex number q≠0 , we define the quantum Hilbert matrix and various extensions. They are Hankel matrices corresponding to certain little q -Jacobi polynomials when |q|<1 , and for the special value they are closely related to Hankel matrice...

  16. The construction of factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.


    We study the relationships between factorized S-matrices given as representations of the Zamolodchikov algebra and exactly solvable models constructed using the Baxter method. Several new examples of symmetric and non-symmetric factorized S-matrices are proposed. (orig.)

  17. Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.


    The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

  18. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.


    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  19. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo


    Full Text Available Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective.

  20. Exact Inverse Matrices of Fermat and Mersenne Circulant Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Zheng


    Full Text Available The well known circulant matrices are applied to solve networked systems. In this paper, circulant and left circulant matrices with the Fermat and Mersenne numbers are considered. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed. Meanwhile, the exact determinants and inverse matrices of these special matrices are presented.

  1. The 2015 Nepal earthquake disaster: lessons learned one year on. (United States)

    Hall, M L; Lee, A C K; Cartwright, C; Marahatta, S; Karki, J; Simkhada, P


    The 2015 earthquake in Nepal killed over 8000 people, injured more than 21,000 and displaced a further 2 million. One year later, a national workshop was organized with various Nepali stakeholders involved in the response to the earthquake. The workshop provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their experiences and sought to learn lessons from the disaster. One hundred and thirty-five participants took part and most had been directly involved in the earthquake response. They included representatives from the Ministry of Health, local and national government, the armed forces, non-governmental organizations, health practitioners, academics, and community representatives. Participants were divided into seven focus groups based around the following topics: water, sanitation and hygiene, hospital services, health and nutrition, education, shelter, policy and community. Facilitated group discussions were conducted in Nepalese and the key emerging themes are presented. Participants described a range of issues encountered, some specific to their area of expertize but also more general issues. These included logistics and supply chain challenges, leadership and coordination difficulties, impacts of the media as well as cultural beliefs on population behaviour post-disaster. Lessons identified included the need for community involvement at all stages of disaster response and preparedness, as well as the development of local leadership capabilities and community resilience. A 'disconnect' between disaster management policy and responses was observed, which may result in ineffective, poorly planned disaster response. Finding time and opportunity to reflect on and identify lessons from disaster response can be difficult but are fundamental to improving future disaster preparedness. The Nepal Earthquake National Workshop offered participants the space to do this. It garnered an overwhelming sense of wanting to do things better, of the need for a Nepal-centric approach

  2. Properties of Zero-Free Transfer Function Matrices (United States)

    D. O. Anderson, Brian; Deistler, Manfred

    Transfer functions of linear, time-invariant finite-dimensional systems with more outputs than inputs, as arise in factor analysis (for example in econometrics), have, for state-variable descriptions with generic entries in the relevant matrices, no finite zeros. This paper gives a number of characterizations of such systems (and indeed square discrete-time systems with no zeros), using state-variable, impulse response, and matrix-fraction descriptions. Key properties include the ability to recover the input values at any time from a bounded interval of output values, without any knowledge of an initial state, and an ability to verify the no-zero property in terms of a property of the impulse response coefficient matrices. Results are particularized to cases where the transfer function matrix in question may or may not have a zero at infinity or a zero at zero.

  3. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel


    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  4. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges (United States)

    Nabutola, W.


    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  5. Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge (United States)

    Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.


    opportunities they see for Kenyans. EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF MY STUDY • Petition for and inform the need for the establishment and development of an Integrated Disaster Risk Management Centre in Kenya • Enhance a national contingency management bill to cater for the increased frequency and variety of disasters in Kenya • Set up a national awareness campaign of potential risks in Kenyans' daily endeavours, including Early Warning Systems, perhaps with support from those who have had to deal with similar, like the European Union, and devise ways and means to mitigate them when they occur. Better still work on well tested methods of preventing their happening in the first place. • Decentralize the whole issue of management of disasters considering that they can occur anywhere in the country and a response from Nairobi is not useful if it takes hours to reach the point of reference LESSONS LEARNT I am curious to establish what lessons we have learnt to inform the way we manage disasters in general and natural disasters in particular. Disasters are getting more frightening and intense. The advancement in technology should be useful in dealing with disasters. Given the recent events in 2008 alone, we need to commit much more resources to research and development to deal with disasters however they are caused. We should work towards being able to continue with our lives regardless of the risks and disasters that come our way as individuals and as a nation, by designing a strategy and policies that have worked elsewhere.

  6. Liberia national disaster preparedness coordination exercise: Implementing lessons learned from the West African disaster preparedness initiative. (United States)

    Hamer, Melinda J Morton; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W


    In light of the recent Ebola outbreak, there is a critical need for effective disaster management systems in Liberia and other West African nations. To this end, the West Africa Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster management exercise in conjunction with the Liberian national government on November 24-25, 2015. During this tabletop exercise (TTX), interactions within and between the 15 counties and the Liberian national government were conducted and observed to refine and validate the county and national standard operating procedures (SOPs). The exercise took place in three regional locations throughout Liberia: Monrovia, Buchanan, and Bong. The TTX format allowed counties to collaborate utilizing open-source software platforms including Ushahidi, Sahana, QGIS, and KoBoCollect. Four hundred sixty-seven individuals (representing all 15 counties of Liberia) identified as key actors involved with emergency operations and disaster preparedness participated in the exercise. A qualitative survey with open-ended questions was administered to exercise participants to determine needed improvements in the disaster management system in Liberia. Key findings from the exercise and survey include the need for emergency management infrastructure to extend to the community level, establishment of a national disaster management agency and emergency operations center, customized local SOPs, ongoing surveillance, a disaster exercise program, and the need for effective data sharing and hazard maps. These regional exercises initiated the process of validating and refining Liberia's national and county-level SOPs. Liberia's participation in this exercise has provided a foundation for advancing its preparedness, response, and recovery capacities and could provide a template for other countries to use.

  7. Principles of disaster management lesson. 12: structuring organizations. (United States)

    Cuny, F C


    This lesson discusses various structures for organizations that have functional roles in disaster responses, relief, and/or management activities. It distinguishes between pyramidal and matrix structures, and notes the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to disasters. Span of control issues are dissected including the impact of the "P" factor on the performance of disaster managers and workers including its relationship to the coordination and control function. The development of a Table of Organization and how it relates to departmentalization within an organization also is provided.

  8. Ethical and legal challenges associated with disaster nursing. (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Hammad, Karen; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh


    In disaster situations, nurses may face new and unfamiliar ethical and legal challenges not common in their everyday practice. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian nurses' experience of disaster response and their perception of the competencies required by nurses in this environment. This article discusses the findings of a descriptive study conducted in Iran in 2012. This research was conducted in Iran in 2012. Participants included 35 nurses who had experience in healthcare delivery following a disaster event in the past 10 years, either in a hospital or out-of-hospital context. This research study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From this study, five themes emerged as areas that nurses require competence in to work effectively in the disaster setting. This article focusses on one theme, the ethical and legal issues that arise during disaster response. Within the theme of ethical and legal issues, two sub-themes emerged. (1) Professional ethics explores professional responsibility of nurses as well as sense of ethical obligation. (2) Adherence to law refers to nurses' familiarity with and observation of legal requirements. This article adds to a growing pool of literature which explores the role of nurses in disasters. The findings of this study emphasize the need for nurses working in the disaster setting to be aware of professional responsibilities and familiar with legal requirements and the challenges related to observing ethical responsibilities. In highlighting these issues, this article may provide a useful starting point for the development of an educational framework for preparing nurses and other health professionals to work in the disaster setting. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel MacMahon


    Full Text Available A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with “hard” cores and “soft” peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect “soft stocks” that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  10. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices (United States)

    MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego


    A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with "hard" cores and "soft" peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect "soft stocks" that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  11. 2nd International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos


    This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...

  12. Temporary disaster debris management site identification using binomial cluster analysis and GIS. (United States)

    Grzeda, Stanislaw; Mazzuchi, Thomas A; Sarkani, Shahram


    An essential component of disaster planning and preparation is the identification and selection of temporary disaster debris management sites (DMS). However, since DMS identification is a complex process involving numerous variable constraints, many regional, county and municipal jurisdictions initiate this process during the post-disaster response and recovery phases, typically a period of severely stressed resources. Hence, a pre-disaster approach in identifying the most likely sites based on the number of locational constraints would significantly contribute to disaster debris management planning. As disasters vary in their nature, location and extent, an effective approach must facilitate scalability, flexibility and adaptability to variable local requirements, while also being generalisable to other regions and geographical extents. This study demonstrates the use of binomial cluster analysis in potential DMS identification in a case study conducted in Hamilton County, Indiana. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  13. [Role of pharmacists during serious natural disasters: report from Ishinomaki, the disaster-struck city]. (United States)

    Tanno, Yoshiro


    On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.

  14. [Psychosocial care following the firework disaster in Enschede; the lessons from the Bijlmer airline disaster]. (United States)

    Gersons, B P R; Huijsman-Rubingh, R R R; Olff, M


    When the psychosocial-care scheme for victims of the firework explosion in Enschede, the Netherlands (2000) was set up, lessons learned from the Bijlmer airline disaster (Amsterdam 1992) were put into practice. The aftermath of this incident showed that psychological and physical health problems can still occur many years later. The main failure of the aftercare of the Bijlmer disaster lay in the coordination of aid and the monitoring of health problems. In Enschede steps were taken to redress these problems. An information and advice centre (IAC) was set up to monitor the well-being of the victims, and to provide them with information and, where necessary, assistance. It is responsible for limiting the effects of the disaster. A total of 13,000 people have consulted the IAC. A residents' association was formed. This gave the victims a common voice during the process of attempting to restore normality in their lives. A specialized mental health-care unit was founded to treat disaster-related disorders using evidence-based treatments. So far approximately 1,300 people have consulted this body. A longitudinal study has been set up to map the consequences of the disaster and to advise aid organizations. This will also give information on the extent to which these methods have been able to limit the long-term consequences.

  15. Learning from mega disasters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    In Tokyo building on ruins has been its sine qua non ever since the city turned into an enormous urban formation in the seventeenth century: ‘The trauma of urban collapse has been so severe for us in Japan, the inevitability of destruction and rebirth’ (Arate Isozaki 2006 ). But March 2011...... the earthquake was 45 times as great as the 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake in the Tokyo area, which killed approximately 140.000 people. Even though Japan is considered one of the best-prepared countries in the world for handling major disasters the reality of a large nuclear disaster proved to be far worse than...... what was planned for. This paper presentation discusses “The Great East Japan Earthquake” of 2011 with particular focus on what happens to social relations and cultural norms, when uncertainty and crisis is something people are living through and living in....

  16. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei


    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  17. Lessons from nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo


    The most severe and worst of all nuclear disasters is, needless to say, the explosion of an atomic bomb. The WHO committee on the effects of nuclear war, established in 1982, concluded that the only approach to the treatment of the health effects of nuclear warfare is primary prevention, that is, the prevention of nuclear war. Nuclear disasters have also occurred in nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, causing various damage and acute anxiety among the workers and general public, but thus far the related health effects have not always been correctly evaluated. Such problems as exposed population, individual exposed dose and health risks which are associated with these evaluation efforts are discussed here. (author)

  18. Department of Defense Road Ahead for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (United States)


    response to the flood in Pakistan: "According to the [National Disaster Management Authority] NDMA , unusually heavy rainfall and flooding in late July...Widespread flooding affected 82 ofPakistan’s 122 districts, according to the NDMA . As a result, more than 12 million people required humanitarian...MAGTF Marine Air Ground Task Force MEDCAPS Medical Civic Assistance Programs MEU Marine Expeditionary Unit NDMA National Disaster Management

  19. Measuring disaster preparedness of local emergency medical services agencies


    Elliott, Ross W.


    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Emergency Medical Services (EMS) plays a key role in disaster response. Yet, determining how much preparedness is enough to achieve an acceptable level of preparedness is challenging. After conducting an extensive literature review, it is evident no nationally accepted method exists to evaluate an EMS system's level of disaster preparedness systematically. Research was conducted to define the skills and equipmen...

  20. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.


    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Polynomial sequences generated by infinite Hessenberg matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde-Star Luis


    Full Text Available We show that an infinite lower Hessenberg matrix generates polynomial sequences that correspond to the rows of infinite lower triangular invertible matrices. Orthogonal polynomial sequences are obtained when the Hessenberg matrix is tridiagonal. We study properties of the polynomial sequences and their corresponding matrices which are related to recurrence relations, companion matrices, matrix similarity, construction algorithms, and generating functions. When the Hessenberg matrix is also Toeplitz the polynomial sequences turn out to be of interpolatory type and we obtain additional results. For example, we show that every nonderogative finite square matrix is similar to a unique Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrix.

  2. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VI: Interventional Research and the Disaster Logic Model. (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Kushner, Jennifer


    Disaster-related interventions are actions or responses undertaken during any phase of a disaster to change the current status of an affected community or a Societal System. Interventional disaster research aims to evaluate the results of such interventions in order to develop standards and best practices in Disaster Health that can be applied to disaster risk reduction. Considering interventions as production functions (transformation processes) structures the analyses and cataloguing of interventions/responses that are implemented prior to, during, or following a disaster or other emergency. Since currently it is not possible to do randomized, controlled studies of disasters, in order to validate the derived standards and best practices, the results of the studies must be compared and synthesized with results from other studies (ie, systematic reviews). Such reviews will be facilitated by the selected studies being structured using accepted frameworks. A logic model is a graphic representation of the transformation processes of a program [project] that shows the intended relationships between investments and results. Logic models are used to describe a program and its theory of change, and they provide a method for the analyzing and evaluating interventions. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is an adaptation of a logic model used for the evaluation of educational programs and provides the structure required for the analysis of disaster-related interventions. It incorporates a(n): definition of the current functional status of a community or Societal System, identification of needs, definition of goals, selection of objectives, implementation of the intervention(s), and evaluation of the effects, outcomes, costs, and impacts of the interventions. It is useful for determining the value of an intervention and it also provides the structure for analyzing the processes used in providing the intervention according to the Relief/Recovery and Risk-Reduction Frameworks.

  3. Disaster Evacuation from Japan's 2011 Tsunami Disaster and the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Reiko


    The triple disaster that hit the Tohoku region of Japan on 11 March 2011 triggered a massive human displacement: more than 400,000 people evacuated their homes as a gigantic tsunami induced by a magnitude 9.0 earthquake engulfed the coastal areas, and the following nuclear accident in Fukushima released a large amount of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. This study analyses the disaster response, with a particular focus on evacuation of the population, and social consequences of this complex crisis, based on intensive fieldwork carried out one year after the catastrophe. It reveals that the responses of the Japanese authorities and population were significantly different between a natural disaster and an industrial (man-made) accident. Being prone to both earthquakes and tsunamis, Japan had been preparing itself against such risks for many years. A tsunami alert was immediately issued and the population knew how and where to evacuate. In contrast, the evacuation from the nuclear accident was organised in total chaos, as a severe accident or large-scale evacuation had never been envisaged -let alone exercised- before the disaster. The population was thus forced to flee with no information as to the gravity of the accident or radiation risk. In both cases, the risk perception prior to the catastrophe played a key role in determining the vulnerability of the population at the time of the crisis. While tsunami evacuees are struggling with a slow reconstruction process due to financial difficulties, nuclear evacuees are suffering from uncertainty as to their prospect of return. One year after the accident, the Japanese authorities began to encourage nuclear evacuees to return to the areas contaminated by radiation according to a newly established safety standard. This triggered a vivid controversy within the affected communities, creating a rift between those who trust the government's notion of safety and those who do not. The nuclear disaster has thus

  4. Therapeutic approaches for survivors of disaster. (United States)

    Austin, L S; Godleski, L S


    Common psychiatric responses to disasters include depression, PTSD, generalized anxiety disorder, substance-abuse disorder, and somatization disorder. These symptom complexes may arise because of the various types of trauma experienced, including terror or horror, bereavement, and disruption of lifestyle. Because different types of disaster produce different patterns of trauma, clinical response should address the special characteristics of those affected. Traumatized individuals are typically resistant to seeking treatment, so treatment must be taken to the survivors, at locations within their communities. Most helpful is to train and support mental health workers from the affected communities. Interventions in groups have been found to be effective to promote catharsis, support, and a sense of identification with the group. Special groups to be considered include children, injured victims, people with pre-existing psychiatric histories, and relief workers.

  5. Evidence-based point-of-care tests and device designs for disaster preparedness. (United States)

    Brock, T Keith; Mecozzi, Daniel M; Sumner, Stephanie; Kost, Gerald J


    To define pathogen tests and device specifications needed for emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies used in disasters. Surveys included multiple-choice and ranking questions. Multiple-choice questions were analyzed with the chi2 test for goodness-of-fit and the binomial distribution test. Rankings were scored and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Disaster care experts on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Disaster Medicine and the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, and the readers of the POC Journal. Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus were top-ranked pathogens for testing in disaster settings. Respondents felt that disaster response teams should be equipped with pandemic infectious disease tests for novel 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza (disaster care, p disaster settings, respondents preferred self-contained test cassettes (disaster care, p disaster care, p disaster care scenarios, in which Vibrio cholera, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ranked the highest. POC testing should incorporate setting-specific design criteria such as safe disposable cassettes and direct blood sampling at the site of care.

  6. Natural Disasters and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (United States)

    Bernhard, Jon N.; Chan, Edward D.


    Infectious diseases acquired by survivors of large-scale natural disasters complicate the recovery process. During events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and tornados and well into the recovery period, victims often are exposed to water-soil mixtures that have relocated with indigenous microbes. Because nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in water and soil, there is potential for increased exposure to these organisms during natural disasters. In this hypothesis-driven commentary, we discuss the rise in NTM lung disease and natural disasters and examine the geographic overlap of NTM infections and disaster frequencies in the United States. Moreover, we show an increased number of positive NTM cultures from Louisiana residents in the years following three of the relatively recent epic hurricanes and posit that such natural disasters may help to drive the increased number of NTM infections. Finally, we advocate for increased environmental studies and surveillance of NTM infections before and after natural disasters. PMID:25644904

  7. Why are natural disasters not 'natural' for victims?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Yoshitaka; Edwards, John; Carroll, Matthew S.


    Some type of formal or informal social assessment is often carried out in the wake of natural disasters. One often-observed phenomenon in such situations is that disaster victims and their sympathizers tend to focus on those elements of disasters that might have been avoided or mitigated by human intervention and thus assign 'undue' levels of responsibility to human agents. Often the responsibility or blame is directed at the very government agencies charged with helping people cope with and recover from the event. This phenomenon presents particular challenges for those trying to understand the social impacts of such events because of the reflexive nature of such analysis. Often the social analyst or even the government agency manager must sort through such perceptions and behavior and (at least implicitly) make judgments about which assignments of responsibility may have some validity and which are largely the result of the psychology of the disaster itself. This article presents a conceptual framework derived largely from social psychology to help develop a better understand such perceptions and behavior. While no 'magic bullet' formula for evaluating the validity of disaster victims' claims is presented, the conceptual framework is presented as a starting point for understanding this particular aspect of the psychology of natural disasters

  8. Methodology identification in mass disasters


    Ampudia García, Omar


    Major disasters in Perul ack from a treatment plan and adapt to the current reality. Were rare and limited to natural disasters such as major earthquakes, floods, torrential rains, erupting volcanoes, and so on.At first these disasters were limited to certain geographic areas ingeneral,but with the advancement of science and technology these events have soared alarming lyas rail crashes, plane crashes, car crashes going at high speed,and if we add the attacks by fundamentalist groups with car...

  9. Rethinking Disasters: Finding Efficiencies Through Collaboration (United States)


    in FEMA.4 Dating back to 1989 and 1992, catastrophic disasters, such as Hurricane Hugo , the Loma Prieta earthquake, and Hurricanes Andrew and over-engineered resulting in missed opportunities to capitalize on collaborative, decentralized solutions. As Hurricane Sandy ripped through the...generated intense criticism of the federal response effort.5 In 2006, despite recognition of the catastrophic effects caused by Hurricane Katrina

  10. Decellularized matrices for cardiovascular tissue engineering. (United States)

    Moroni, Francesco; Mirabella, Teodelinda


    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The replacement of damaged vessels and valves has been practiced since the 1950's. Synthetic grafts, usually made of bio-inert materials, are long-lasting and mechanically relevant, but fail when it comes to "biointegration". Decellularized matrices, instead, can be considered biological grafts capable of stimulating in vivo migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), recruitment and differentiation of mural cells, finally, culminating in the formation of a biointegrated tissue. Decellularization protocols employ osmotic shock, ionic and non-ionic detergents, proteolitic digestions and DNase/RNase treatments; most of them effectively eliminate the cellular component, but show limitations in preserving the native structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we examine the current state of the art relative to decellularization techniques and biological performance of decellularized heart, valves and big vessels. Furthermore, we focus on the relevance of ECM components, native and resulting from decellularization, in mediating in vivo host response and determining repair and regeneration, as opposed to graft corruption.

  11. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)


    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  12. Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo


    The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.


    Fan, Jianqing; Rigollet, Philippe; Wang, Weichen

    High-dimensional statistical tests often ignore correlations to gain simplicity and stability leading to null distributions that depend on functionals of correlation matrices such as their Frobenius norm and other ℓ r norms. Motivated by the computation of critical values of such tests, we investigate the difficulty of estimation the functionals of sparse correlation matrices. Specifically, we show that simple plug-in procedures based on thresholded estimators of correlation matrices are sparsity-adaptive and minimax optimal over a large class of correlation matrices. Akin to previous results on functional estimation, the minimax rates exhibit an elbow phenomenon. Our results are further illustrated in simulated data as well as an empirical study of data arising in financial econometrics.

  14. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.; Wathen, A. J.


    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle

  15. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management (United States)

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.


    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  16. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  17. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  18. Approaches to Post-disaster Environmental Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Farrokhi


    Full Text Available Background: Environment and its ecosystems are affected by various natural and man-made disasters. The environmental management in disasters tries to protect ecosystems, sustain development, reduce disaster risk, and adapt to or decrease the impact of climate change. This study aimed to investigate the impact of disasters on the environment and methods of reducing these effects. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, Elsevier, UNEP, SID, and Magiran databases using keywords of “environment”, “disasters”, “recovery”, and “lessons learned” from 1999 to 2015. Results: Decrease in surface and groundwater resources, pollution of water resources, deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, air pollution and extinction of animal species are among post-disaster environmental damages. As a result of such changes in the environment and ecosystem, water shortage and drought, loss of vegetation, and food insecurity will ensue. Due to these destructive incidents, the people’s ability to provide necessary resources for living decreases and their very lives are threatened. Consequently, they are forced to immigrate to save their lives. Conclusion: Environmental recovery is one of the effective strategies for achieving sustainable development. In this regard, public and private organizations as well as international ones and people should work together. Responsible organizations, the stakeholders at different levels, and the public must be trained in this area and introduced to the latest international standards. Rules and policies should be reviewed and revised in accordance with today’s needs and international standards.

  19. Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases (United States)

    Vinokur, Marcel


    Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.

  20. Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.


    Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)