Sample records for disaster relief

  1. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster exists...

  2. A disaster relief exercise

    Quagliotti, Fulvia; Novaro Mascarello, Laura


    The Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) is an effective tool for military applications, both for properly military operations, such as research missions and road surveillance, and for civilian support after natural disasters, like landslides, floods, and earthquakes, when reaching victims is often hard or it would take too much time for their survival. Information are needed without hazarding the life of the military troops. When roads, bridges and other communication ways are usually not available, the unmanned platform is the only easy and fast way to contact people. It can be launched directly from the operation site and it could take crucial information or carry medication, necessaries and everything that could help rescue teams. The unmanned platform can also be used for the first aid in an emergency situation when the use of a helicopter is too dangerous and other troops could be involved in heavy fighting. The RPAS has some advantages. First is the reduced cost, compared to traditional aircraft, that could enable the user to have several operating units. Secondly, pilots are not on board and therefore, if needed, the crew' rotation and rest do not imply the need to stop operations. The third fact is that, depending on the type of delivery that is used, the operations may take place on a twenty-four hours' base. The main benefit achieved with these three facts is that continuous operation may take place and eventually make up the capacity difference. To sum up, the main motivation behind this employment of UAS is to replace human lives on the cockpits and to assure the execution of Dangerous, Dull and Dirty missions. In May 2015, the ERIDANO Exercise was performed in Moncalieri city, near Turin (Italy) and it was a joint exercise between the Italian Army, National Emergency Service and Politecnico of Turin. The aim was the control and management of emergency situations due to natural disasters. In particular, a flood was simulated. A multicopter was used

  3. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief


    Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief Mark Roberts1, Thomas Apker2, Benjamin Johnson1, Bryan Auslander3, Briana Wellman4 & David W...for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief operations. We demonstrate that the SDP responds to a dynamic, open world while ensuring that vehicles...facilitate such information gathering tasks, freeing humans to perform more critical tasks in Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR

  4. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Donna J. Duerst


    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  5. Technology and information sharing in disaster relief

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter;


    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under...... database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led...

  6. A node architecture for disaster relief networking

    Hoeksema, F.W.; Heskamp, M.; Schiphorst, R.; Slump, C.H.


    In this paper we present node architecture for a personal node in a cognitive ad-hoc disaster relief network. This architecture is motivated from the network system requirements, especially single-hop distance and jamming-resilience requirements. It is shown that the power consumption of current-day

  7. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  8. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar


    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  9. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar


    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  10. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.


    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  11. Doubly Optimal Secure Multicasting: Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network : Disaster Relief

    Garimella, Rama Murthy; Singhal, Deepti


    Recently, the world has witnessed the increasing occurrence of disasters, some of natural origin and others caused by man. The intensity of the phenomenon that cause such disasters, the frequency in which they occur, the number of people affected and the material damage caused by them have been growing substantially. Disasters are defined as natural, technological, and human-initiated events that disrupt the normal functioning of the economy and society on a large scale. Areas where disasters have occurred bring many dangers to rescue teams and the communication network infrastructure is usually destroyed. To manage these hazards, different wireless technologies can be launched in the area of disaster. This paper discusses the innovative wireless technologies for Disaster Management. Specifically, issues related to the design of Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network (arising in the communication network for disaster relief) are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul


    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  13. Turning the Tide on Domestic Disaster Relief


    INTRODUCTION After a decade of some of the worst shaking ( Loma Prieta 1989 and Northridge 1994, California), blowing (Hurricanes Hugo 1989, Andrew...assistance when three conditions are met. First, the disaster must be of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond state and local...with the language of the National Security Strategy. FEMA’s stated priorities are risk reduction and rapid and effective domestic disaster response

  14. Measured Maritime Responses to Disaster Relief Scenarios in the Pacific


    organized response to urban disaster was possible due to well-developed civil relief institutions despite the lack of what many in the international...expressways leading to the impacted areas.66 MLIT’s planners diverted much if not all of the rail traffic from the Tohoku JR line to lines along the...assistance within the humanitarian disaster from his counterparts in Australia, Malaysia , New Zealand, Singapore, and the United States.111 A number

  15. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    On behalf of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine's Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief


    Full Text Available Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention.To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1 epidemiology of injury and disability, (2 impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3 the assessment and measurement of disability.Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis.Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI, and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested.Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related rehabilitation following

  16. Technology and information sharing in disaster relief

    Bjerge, Benedikte Alkjærsig; Clark, Nathan Edward; Fisker, Peter Kielberg;


    database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led...

  17. Calling the Cavalry: Disaster Relief and the American Military


    regulators influence others. This model is the framework I use to determine expectations of federal disaster relief efforts. It is hypothesized that...entered 1 Federal Emergency Management Agency, "National Response Framework ," ed... Hofsteder suggests that the quantity of power one has is determined by the individual but measured by society. Power distance is based on a

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    DeBusk, Wesley M.


    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  19. A Communications Strategy for Disaster Relief


    government. inReach Communication capabilities rely on the Iridium satellite network. The inReach Extreme product uses the Iridium Global Satellite System... Iridium Communication between satellites and handsets is done using a TDMA and FDMA based system using L-band spectrum between 1,616 and 1,626.5... attacks on the United States and to support civil authorities in mitigating the effects of potential attacks and natural disasters.”29 Another key

  20. Natural Disasters and Disaster Relief in China in 2000

    JI Mingxin


    @@ 1 Natural disastersIn 2000, the country suffered a lot from natural disasters, including droughts, floods, hails,typhoons, earthquakes, dust devils, snow, microtherms and cool injuries and so on. According to the 2000 statistics checked and ratified jointly by the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MOCA), State Statistical Administration (SSA), China Meteorological Administration (CMA) and the National Office of Headquarters for Flood Control and Drought Resistance, the country suffered a disasterhit crop area of 54 690 000 hectares, 34 370 000 hectares of which seriously affected and 10 150 000 hectares being a total crop failure, up 9%, 28. 5% and 49. 2% respectively from 1999; a total of 456 000 000 people were affected, up 29.1% from the previous year; 279 000 000 people were seriously affected, up 23. 4% from the year before; 3 014 persons died from the disasters, increasing by 18 persons; 4 671 000 victims were urgently transferred for resettlement,down 29. 7% from the year before; and 1 473 000 houses collapsed, reduced by 15.5% compared with the last year. In partial areas, damages were done at varying degrees to industrial & mining enterprises and public facilities.

  1. Optimal Organizational Hierarchies: Source Coding: Disaster Relief

    Murthy, G Rama


    ulticasting is an important communication paradigm for enabling the dissemination of information selectively. This paper considers the problem of optimal secure multicasting in a communication network captured through a graph (optimal is in an interesting sense) and provides a doubly optimal solution using results from source coding. It is realized that the solution leads to optimal design (in a well defined optimality sense) of organizational hierarchies captured through a graph. In this effort two novel concepts : prefix free path, graph entropy are introduced. Some results of graph entropy are provided. Also some results on Kraft inequality are discussed. As an application Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network is utilized as a model of structured Mobile Adhoc network for utility in Disaster Management. Several new research problems that naturally emanate from this research are summarized.

  2. Principles and practice of disaster relief: lessons from Haiti.

    Benjamin, Ernest; Bassily-Marcus, Adel M; Babu, Elizabeth; Silver, Lester; Martin, Michael L


    Disaster relief is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the organizational processes that help prepare for and carry out all emergency functions necessary to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters caused by all hazards, whether natural, technological, or human-made. Although it is an important function of local and national governing in the developed countries, it is often wanting in resource-poor, developing countries where, increasingly, catastrophic disasters tend to occur and have the greatest adverse consequences. The devastating January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake is a case study of the impact of an extreme cataclysm in one of the poorest and most unprepared settings imaginable. As such, it offers useful lessons that are applicable elsewhere in the developing world. Emergency preparedness includes 4 phases: mitigation or prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Periods of normalcy are the best times to develop disaster preparedness plans. In resource-poor countries, where dealing with the expenses of daily living is already a burden, such planning is often neglected; and, when disasters strike, it is often with great delay that the assistance from international community can be deployed. In this increasingly interconnected world, the Haiti earthquake and the important international response to it make a strong case for a more proactive intervention of the international community in all phases of emergency management in developing countries, including in mitigation and preparedness, and not just in response and recovery. Predisaster planning can maximize the results of the international assistance and decrease the human and material tolls of inevitable disasters. There should be a minimum standard of preparedness that every country has to maintain and the international assistance to achieve that. International academic medical centers interested in global health could strengthen their programs by prospectively

  3. Backup Communication Routing Through Internet Satellite, WINDS for Transmitting of Disaster Relief Data

    Kohei Arai


    Full Text Available A countermeasure for round trip delay which occurs in between satellite and ground with network accelerator is investigated together with operating system dependency on effectiveness of accelerator. Also disaster relief data transmission experiments are conducted for mitigation of disaster together with acceleration of disaster related data transmission between local government and disaster prevention center. Disaster relief information including remote sensing satellite images and information from the disaster occurred areas to local government for creation of evacuation information is accelerated so that it becomes possible to send them to the residents in the suffered areas due to disaster through data broadcasting in the digital TV channel.

  4. A Leagile Supply Chain Framework for Post-Disaster Relief Supplies Management in China

    Zhao, Huilin


    Purpose- This paper is to investigate the definition and the best practice of leagility. Meanwhile, this paper also exposes the situations of China in disaster response. The main purpose of this dissertation is to apply leagility into relief supplies distribution after earthquake. Methodology- The review of literature related with leagility, disaster relief, and the case studies of Dell, disaster relief in China on this paper is from journal articles, books and websites. In the chapter o...

  5. A Disaster Relief Inventory Model Based on Transshipment

    Pedro Reyes


    Full Text Available This research study is an effort to shed light on how transshipment may help improve the management of inventory in a disaster relief system. System dynamics simulation was used to compare inventory control and costs in a humanitarian supply chain without transshipment vs. one with transshipment. A framework for this approach is given along with the results of simulations on a system consisting of two warehouses where transshipment is allowed compared to the alternative where transshipment is not allowed. The preliminary results of this study indicate that transshipment can reduce costs and improve service to disaster victims based on inventory levels maintained in the warehouses. In some cases, transshipment may be more expensive, but this assumes the cost of replenishing inventory as a result of emergency purchase costs.

  6. Survey on Disaster Relief Activities to the Pharmacists Belonging to Kobe-city Pharmaceutical Organization.

    Yasuhara, Tomohisa; Kondo, Hiroki; Nagata, Misa; Iwata, Kana; Kushihata, Taro; Katsuragi, Satoko; Ikeuchi, Junko; Sone, Tomomichi


     In 2014, there were about 160 thousands community pharmacists in Japan. Community pharmacists are health care workers who help victims in a disaster and are potential resources who can provide disaster relief. However, currently the disaster relief activities of community pharmacists are merely a resourceful and flexible demonstration of their professional abilities and not a specifically organized activity. Therefore, disaster relief education programs for community pharmacists are being explored and studies are still in the nascent stage. In this study, pharmacists of a pharmaceutical organization in Kobe City were asked to reply to a questionnaire survey so that their hopes and ideas about the disaster relief activities that they carry out can help build effective educational programs to enhance relief activities. Finally, 8 factors (cumulative contribution rate: 90.9%) were extracted by factor analysis (maximum likelihood method, the diagonal elements: squared multiple correlation, quartimin rotation) of the 25 questions. In addition, a hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward method) by the factor scores of the extracted 8 factors resulted in 7 groups. The findings revealed the groups into which the community pharmacists were divided and their hopes and ideas about disaster relief. We expect that these results could bring awareness about the disaster relief activities suitable for each community pharmacist, provide appropriate training opportunities for those who volunteer, and motivate daily studies and preparations for disaster relief activities among community pharmacists.

  7. Coordinating efficiency and equity in disaster relief logistics via information updates

    Zhan, Sha-lei; Liu, Nan; Ye, Yong


    This paper addresses a multi-supplier, multi-affected area, multi-relief, and multi-vehicle relief allocation problem in disaster relief logistics. A multi-objective optimisation model based on disaster scenario information updates is proposed in an attempt to coordinate efficiency and equity through timely and appropriate decisions regarding issues such as vehicle routing and relief allocation. An optimal stopping rule is also proposed to determine the optimum period of delay before responding to disaster, because decision making requires accurate disaster information. The main contribution of this paper is solving relief allocation problem in a novel way by correlating operational research with statistical decision making and Bayesian sequential analysis. Finally, a case is presented based on the post-disaster rescue in Eastern China after supertyphoon Saomai to test the applicability and show the potential advantages of the proposed model.

  8. Pemanfaatan Frekuensi Untuk Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR

    Diah Yuniarti


    Full Text Available Penanganan kejadian yang terkait dengan Public Protection and Disaster Relief (PPDR di Indonesia yang merupakan negara yang rawan terhadap bencana dan permasalahan sosial membutuhkan komunikasi yang intensif. Penelitian ini mengkaji mengenai kondisi pemanfaatan frekuensi PPDR di Indonesia dan strategi pengembangan ke depannya dengan menggunakan analisis SWOT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sistem komunikasi pada instansi PPDR di Indonesia tidak mendukung interoperabilitas dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang terkoordinasi. Selain itu, pita frekuensi yang digunakan merupakan pita sempit yang tidak mendukung aplikasi video dan data kecepatan tinggi yang dibutuhkan dalam penanganan kejadian PPDR yang lebih efektif. Oleh karena itu, dalam perencanaan alokasi frekuensi ke depannya, pemerintah perlu mengintegrasikan pita lebar ke dalam perencanaan sistem Government Radio Network (GRN.

  9. Disaster Management in Indonesia: Logistical Coordination and Cooperation to Create Effective Relief Operations

    Joost van Rossum


    Full Text Available Indonesia has in the past often been struck by natural disasters. After these disasters, the disaster relief operations turned out to be ineffective in most cases. This study focuses on the main problems in disaster relief operations in Indonesia and tries to deliver a general model to deal with those. Literature studies showed that the main problem occurred in the field of organization, communication and logistical processes. Literature studies on relief operations in other countries showed that cooperation with private parties can be effective in these operations. The result of this study is a model which handles with the main problems and has the potential to create effective disaster relief operations.

  10. An emergency dispatch model considering the urgency of the requirement for reliefs in different disaster areas

    Liu Sheng


    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: Frequent sudden-onset disasters which have threatened the survival of human and the development of society force the public to pay an increasing attention to emergency management. A challenging task in the process of emergency management is emergency dispatch of reliefs. An emergency dispatch model considering the urgency of the requirement for reliefs in different disaster areas is proposed in this paper to dispatch reliefs reasonably and reduce the effect of sudden-onset disasters. Design/methodology/approach: Firstly, quantitative assessment on the urgency of the requirement for reliefs in different disaster areas is done by an evaluation method based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation and improved Evidence Reasoning which is proposed in this paper. And then based the quantitative results, an emergency dispatch model aiming to minimize the response time, the distribution cost and the unsatisfied rate of the requirement for reliefs is proposed, which reflects the requests of disaster areas under emergency, including the urgency of requirement, the economy of distribution and the equity of allocation. Finally, the Genetic Algorithm is improved based on the adaptive crossover and mutation probability function to solve the emergency dispatch model. Findings and Originality/value: A case that the Y hydraulic power enterprise carries on emergency dispatch of reliefs under continuous sudden-onset heavy rain is given to illustrate the availability of the emergency dispatch model proposed in this paper. The results show that the emergency dispatch model meets the distribution priority requirement of disaster area with the higher urgency, so thatreliefs are supplied more timely. Research limitations/implications: The emergency dispatch model faced to large scale sudden-onset disasters is complex. The quantity of reliefs that disaster area requires and the running time of vehicles are viewed as available information, and the problem

  11. Medical rehabilitation in disaster relief: Towards a new perspective

    Bhasker Amatya


    Full Text Available With increasing frequency of natural disasters, there has been greater focus recently on the importance and role of rehabilitation services in disaster management. In past disasters, rehabilitative needs were often neglected, with emphasis on acute response plans focused on saving lives and treating acute injuries. There was a lack of, or inadequate, rehabilitation-inclusive disaster response plans and rehabilitation services in many disaster-prone developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO Emergency Medical Team (EMT initiative recognizes rehabilitation as an integral part of medical response and patient-centred care in disaster settings. Current developments under this initiative include: the development of minimum standards for rehabilitation in emergencies to allow rapid, professional, coordinated medical response by both national and international EMTs. These guidelines ensure that EMTs deliver effective and coordinated patient care during disasters and continuum of care beyond their departure. The aim is to strengthen national capacity, foster an environment of self-empowerment of EMTs and local health services, and work in rehabilitation within defined coordination mechanisms in disaster-affected areas. A brief overview of rehabilitation in natural disasters, highlighting current developments, challenges; and gaps in the implementation of WHO guidelines for Minimum Standards for Rehabilitation in Emergencies is discussed in order to improve care for victims of future disasters.

  12. Optimizing hurricane disaster relief goods distribution: model development and application with respect to planning strategies.

    Horner, Mark W; Downs, Joni A


    Over the last few years, hurricane emergencies have been among the most pervasive major disruptions in the United States, particularly in the south-east region of the country. A key aspect of managing hurricane disasters involves logistical planning to facilitate the distribution and transportation of relief goods to populations in need. This study shows how a variant of the capacitated warehouse location model can be used to manage the flow of goods shipments to people in need. In this application, the model is used with protocols set forth in Florida's Comprehensive Emergency Plan and tested in a smaller city in north Florida. Scenarios explore the effects of alternate goods distribution strategies on the provision of disaster relief. Results show that measures describing people's accessibility to relief goods are affected by the distribution infrastructure used to provide relief, as well as assumptions made regarding the population(s) assumed to be in need of aid.

  13. Disaster relief in post-earthquake Haiti: unintended consequences of humanitarian volunteerism.

    Jobe, Kathleen


    This article provides an overview of US humanitarian relief efforts in Haiti following the earthquake on January 12, 2010. Humanitarian aid arrived rapidly from many sources and was largely provided by organized and skilled humanitarian volunteers. There are however multiple impacts on the existing health care systems, as well as the pharmaceutical and medical supply chain created by massive relief efforts involving personnel, medicines, supplies and equipment that should be considered even in the immediate post-disaster period. Additionally the consequences of short-term medical missions by secular and non-secular NGOs should be considered carefully both in the post-disaster period and as ongoing support to underserved populations.

  14. Decentralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.


    Disaster relief networks need to be highly adaptable and resilient in order to encompass the emergency service demands. Cognitive Radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has...... been the target of intensive research, of which the main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, the use of spectrum sensing...

  15. Centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.


    Disaster relief networks have to be highly adaptable and resilient. Cognitive radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture have been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing is the cornerstone of the cognitive radio paradigm, and it has been the target of intensive research....... The main common conclusion was that the achievable spectrum sensing accuracy can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. When considering applying Cognitive Radio to ad-hoc disaster relief networks, spectrum sensing cooperative schemes are paramount. A centralized cluster...

  16. Analysis of United States Marine Corps operations in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief

    Gastrock, Jared R.; Iturriaga, Juan J.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In order to improve the effectiveness of the United States Marine Corps (USMC) response to future international humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) missions, an analysis of the demands created by such disasters as well as the capabilities of the USMC is necessary. This research focuses on the primary response organization within the USMC, the Marine expeditionary unit (MEU),and those resources available to the MEU to condu...

  17. Chinese nurses' relief experiences following two earthquakes: implications for disaster education and policy development.

    Wenji, Zhou; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A


    Disasters require well trained nurses but disaster nursing education is very limited in China and evidence is urgently required for future planning and implementation of specialized disaster education. This describes the themes arising from narratives of Chinese registered nurses who worked in disaster relief after two major earthquakes. In-depth interviews were held with 12 registered nurses from Hubei Province. Riessman's narrative inquiry method was used to develop individual stories and themes, and socio-cultural theory informed this study. Five themes emerged: unbeatable challenges; qualities of a disaster nurse; mental health and trauma; poor disaster planning and co-ordination; and urgently needed disaster education. Participants were challenged by rudimentary living conditions, a lack of medical equipment, earthquake aftershocks, and cultural differences in the people they cared for. Participants placed importance on the development of teamwork abilities, critical thinking skills, management abilities of nurses in disasters, and the urgency to build a better disaster response system in China in which professional nurses could more actively contribute their skills and knowledge. Our findings concur with previous research and emphasize the urgency for health leaders across China to develop and implement disaster nursing education policies and programs.

  18. Experiences in disaster-related mental health relief work: An exploratory model for the interprofessional training of psychological relief workers.

    Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei


    The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.

  19. Cordaid's post-disaster shelter strategy in Haiti: Linking relief and development

    Janse, H.C.; Van der Flier, C.L.


    Haiti was struck by a heavy earthquake in 2010 and international aid poured into the country. News reports in 2011 were not very positive about the results of post-disaster reconstruction: “The relief efforts are only putting Haiti on lifesupport instead of evolving into the next stage of developmen

  20. Cordaid's post-disaster shelter strategy in Haiti: Linking relief and development

    Janse, H.C.; Van der Flier, C.L.


    Haiti was struck by a heavy earthquake in 2010 and international aid poured into the country. News reports in 2011 were not very positive about the results of post-disaster reconstruction: “The relief efforts are only putting Haiti on lifesupport instead of evolving into the next stage of developmen

  1. Dead letter or living document? Ten years Code of Conduct for Disaster Relief

    Hilhorst, D.J.M.


    This paper examines the present value of the Code of Conduct for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Disaster Relief, in view of discussions on neutrality and the Western bias of the humanitarian aid system, and assesses how it can retai

  2. Size and structure of disaster relief when state capacity is limited: China's 1823 flood

    Uebele, Martin; Ni, Yuping


    This paper presents new archival evidence about amount and structure of central government disaster relief during China’s devastating flood of 1823. While the flood affected 20 percent of China’s counties, spending per capita was sizable and distributed between provinces depending on the intensity o

  3. A novel robust chance constrained possibilistic programming model for disaster relief logistics under uncertainty

    Maryam Rahafrooz


    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel multi-objective robust possibilistic programming model is proposed, which simultaneously considers maximizing the distributive justice in relief distribution, minimizing the risk of relief distribution, and minimizing the total logistics costs. To effectively cope with the uncertainties of the after-disaster environment, the uncertain parameters of the proposed model are considered in the form of fuzzy trapezoidal numbers. The proposed model not only considers relief commodities priority and demand points priority in relief distribution, but also considers the difference between the pre-disaster and post-disaster supply abilities of the suppliers. In order to solve the proposed model, the LP-metric and the improved augmented ε-constraint methods are used. Second, a set of test problems are designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed robust model against its equivalent deterministic form, which reveales the capabilities of the robust model. Finally, to illustrate the performance of the proposed robust model, a seismic region of northwestern Iran (East Azerbaijan is selected as a case study to model its relief logistics in the face of future earthquakes. This investigation indicates the usefulness of the proposed model in the field of crisis.

  4. Potential role of remote sensing in disaster relief management

    Rush, M.; Holguin, A.; Vernon, S.


    Baseline or predisaster data which would be useful to decision making in the immediate postdisaster period were suggested for the six areas of public health concern along with guidelines for organizing these data. Potential sources of these data are identified. In order to fully assess the impact of a disaster on an area, information about its predisaster status must be known. Aerial photography is one way of acquiring and recording such data.

  5. Helping the Helpers: Assisting Staff and Volunteer Workers Before, During, and After Disaster Relief Operations.

    Quevillon, Randal P; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Jacobs, Gerard A


    Self-care strategies and system supports employed in preparation for, during, and after disaster relief operations (DROs) are crucial to relief worker well-being and the overall effectiveness of relief efforts. Relief organizations and management must structure DROs in a manner that promotes self-care and workers must implement proper self-care strategies. Proper self-care before, during, and after a DRO can reduce negative reactions to stressful emergency work and promote growth, mastery, and self-efficacy after the experience. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to discuss the importance of organizational supports and self-care strategies in disaster relief settings. This article emphasizes the role of both individual and management participation and commitment to relief worker support and positive experience in DROs and provides suggestions for doing so. These suggestions are derived from the empirical and experiential literature and extensions from the theoretical background, and from our experience as managers in DROs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Stressors of Korean Disaster Relief Team Members during the Nepal Earthquake Dispatch: a Consensual Qualitative Research Analysis.

    Lee, Kangeui; Lee, So Hee; Park, Taejin; Lee, Ji Yeon


    We conducted in-depth interviews with 11 Korean Disaster Relief Team (KDRT) members about stress related to disaster relief work and analyzed the interview data using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method in order to evaluate difficulties in disaster relief work and to develop solutions to these problems in cooperation with related organizations. Results showed that members typically experienced stress related to untrained team members, ineffective cooperation, and the shock and aftermath of aftershock experiences. Stress tended to stem from several factors: difficulties related to cooperation with new team members, the frightening disaster experience, and the aftermath of the disaster. Other stressors included conflict with the control tower, diverse problems at the disaster relief work site, and environmental factors. The most common reason that members participated in KDRT work despite all the stressors and difficulties was pride about the kind of work it involved. Many subjects in this study suffered from various stresses after the relief work, but they had no other choice than to attempt to forget about their experiences over time. It is recommended that the mental health of disaster relief workers will improve through the further development of effective treatment and surveillance programs in the future.

  7. Robust Cooperative Spectrum Sensing for Disaster Relief Networks in Correlated Environments

    Pratas, Nuno; Prasad, Neeli Rashmi; Rodrigues, Antonio; Prasad, Ramjee


    Disaster relief networks are designed to be adaptable and resilient so to encompass the demands of the emergency service. Cognitive Radio enhanced ad-hoc architecture has been put forward as a candidate to enable such networks. Spectrum sensing, the cornerstone of the Cognitive Radio paradigm, has been the focus of intensive research, from which the main conclusion was that its performance can be greatly enhanced through the use of cooperative sensing schemes. To apply the Cognitive Radio paradigm to Ad-hoc disaster relief networks, the design of effective cooperative spectrum sensing schemes is essential. In this paper we propose a cluster based orchestration cooperative sensing scheme, which adapts to the cluster nodes surrounding radio environment state as well as to the degree of correlation observed between those nodes. The proposed scheme is given both in a centralized as well as in a decentralized approach. In the centralized approach, the cluster head controls and adapts the distribution of the cluste...



    the picture at the beginning of this chapter. Note that there are zero USAF air mobility aircraft on the apron, but rather all international and...airport to the tsunami’s ground zero . The Japanese government and military were able to provide extensive search and rescue, as well as relief...for natural disasters. They have extensive knowledge and experience in prepping for and responding to contingencies. In the case of the Great

  9. Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations


    goal programming model , and we used Excel/ VBA to create an auto- matic, user-friendly interface with the decision maker for model input and analysis of...ARL-TR-7229•MAR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Multicriteria Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and...Cost Assessment and Logistics Modeling for Military Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Aerial Delivery Operations by Nathaniel Bastian

  10. Humanitarian and Disaster Relief Operations: Winning the Hearts and Minds of the Africans


    HEARTS AND MINDS OF THE AFRICANS by Jerry R. Hickey, Major, USAF A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the...countries, giving sole access to China instead of putting it on the open markets . 8 This counters the free and open markets championed by U.S...disaster relief operations, the U.S. can help win the hearts and minds of the African people, and over time increase American influence within Africa

  11. Strategy to achieve energy and water sustainability in Latin America through humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations

    Romps, William D.M.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States is a leader in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, and the Department of Defense is called upon by Department of Defense Directive 5105.65 to lead efforts to assist nations in need of education support, health support, disaster preparedness, and basic infrastructure. Latin America is a strategic neighbor of the United States and is susceptible to man-made and natural disasters. Many of the countries that make...

  12. Metaheuristic Algorithm for Solving Biobjective Possibility Planning Model of Location-Allocation in Disaster Relief Logistics

    Farnaz Barzinpour


    Full Text Available Thousands of victims and millions of affected people are hurt by natural disasters every year. Therefore, it is essential to prepare proper response programs that consider early activities of disaster management. In this paper, a multiobjective model for distribution centers which are located and allocated periodically to the damaged areas in order to distribute relief commodities is offered. The main objectives of this model are minimizing the total costs and maximizing the least rate of the satisfaction in the sense of being fair while distributing the items. The model simultaneously determines the location of relief distribution centers and the allocation of affected areas to relief distribution centers. Furthermore, an efficient solution approach based on genetic algorithm has been developed in order to solve the proposed mathematical model. The results of genetic algorithm are compared with the results provided by simulated annealing algorithm and LINGO software. The computational results show that the proposed genetic algorithm provides relatively good solutions in a reasonable time.

  13. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VII: The Relief/Recovery Framework.

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P


    The principal goal of research relative to disasters is to decrease the risk that a hazard will result in a disaster. Disaster studies pursue two distinct directions: (1) epidemiological (non-interventional); and (2) interventional. Both interventional and non-interventional studies require data/information obtained from assessments of function. Non-interventional studies examine the epidemiology of disasters. Interventional studies evaluate specific interventions/responses in terms of their effectiveness in meeting their respective objectives, their contribution to the overarching goal, other effects created, their respective costs, and the efficiency with which they achieved their objectives. The results of interventional studies should contribute to evidence that will be used to inform the decisions used to define standards of care and best practices for a given setting based on these standards. Interventional studies are based on the Disaster Logic Model (DLM) and are used to change or maintain levels of function (LOFs). Relief and Recovery interventional studies seek to determine the effects, outcomes, impacts, costs, and value of the intervention provided after the onset of a damaging event. The Relief/Recovery Framework provides the structure needed to systematically study the processes involved in providing relief or recovery interventions that result in a new LOF for a given Societal System and/or its component functions. It consists of the following transformational processes (steps): (1) identification of the functional state prior to the onset of the event (pre-event); (2) assessments of the current functional state; (3) comparison of the current functional state with the pre-event state and with the results of the last assessment; (4) needs identification; (5) strategic planning, including establishing the overall strategic goal(s), objectives, and priorities for interventions; (6) identification of options for interventions; (7) selection of the most

  14. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Assessment Teams for First Responders in Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR) Missions

    Bell, Andrew T.


    Immediately following a natural disaster requiring Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief (HA/DR), a myriad of organizations respond. Typically, these early responders send small assessment teams to determine critical needs, which are then paired with the resources available. The needs can range from basic subsistence (food, shelter, and water) to transportation and infrastructure, yet the paramount factor among each team is the need to communicate. To assist in this effort, an Information a...

  15. The Activities of UN Specialized Agencies in the Area of Disaster Relief of Population and Territories against Disasters in the beginning of the XXI century

    Aleksey Vladimirovich Kuvshinov


    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the structure and main directions of the activities of UN specialized agencies as well as other international organizations and entities such as ICDO aimed at the organization of the measures for disaster relief and civil defence. The urgency of the article is in the fact that it is for the first time in Russian academic literature devoted to this topic with the specific examples of conducting of such measures. The main conclusions of the article stresses that the specialized U.N. agencies and other international and national entities have already demonstrated the urgent nature and efficiency of providing disaster relief to affected countries and population in the beginning of the XXI century but they should upgrade their potential in that regard in the coming years.

  16. Saving and Re-building Lives: Determinants of Short-term and Long-term Disaster Relief

    Geethanjali SELVARETNAM


    Full Text Available We analyse both theoretically and empirically, the factors that influence the amount of humanitarian aid received by countries which are struck by natural disasters, particularly distinguishing between immediate disaster relief and long term humanitarian aid. The theoretical model is able to make predictions as well as explain some of the peculiarities in the empirical results. We show that both short and long term humanitarian aid increases with number of people killed, financial loss and level of corruption, while GDP per capita had no effect. More populated countries receive more humanitarian aid. Earthquake, tsunami and drought attract more aid.

  17. Disaster relief and recovery after a landslide at a small, rural hospital in Guatemala.

    Peltan, Ithan D


    Though many reports have assessed hospital emergency responses during a disaster that affected the facility's operations, relatively little work has been dedicated to identifying factors that aid or impede the recovery of such hospitals. On 05 October 2005, Hurricane Stan triggered landslides that buried an impoverished Mayan community in Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. The six-bed Hospitalito Atitlán also was in the landslide's path. Though opened just months earlier, the institution maintained 24-hour services until reopening in a new facility only 15 days after the landslides. This qualitative study examined the Hospitalito Atitlán's disaster recovery using unstructured interviews with key hospital personnel and community members. Participant observation provided information about institutional and cultural dynamics affecting the hospital's recovery. Data were collected retrospectively during June-September 2006 and June 2007. The Hospitalito's emergency responses and recovery were distinct endeavors that nonetheless overlapped in time. The initial 12 hours of disorganized emergency relief work was quickly succeeded by an organized effort by the institution to provide inpatient and clinic-based care to the few severely injured and many worried-well patients. As international aid started arriving 2-3 days post-landslide, the Hospitalito's 24-hour clinical services made it an integral organization in the comprehensive health response. Meanwhile, a subset of the Hospitalito's non-clinical staff initiated rebuilding efforts by Day 2 after the event, joined later by medical staff as outside aid allowed them to hand off clinical duties. Effective use of the Internet and conventional media promoted donations of money and supplies, which provided the raw materials used by a group determined to reopen their hospital. Early work by a recovery-focused team coupled with a shared understanding of the Hospitalito as an institution that transcended its damaged building drove

  18. Optimizing Transportation of Disaster Relief Material to Support U.S. Pacific Command Foreign Humanitarian Assistance Operations


    2013 Thesis Advisor: W. Matthew Carlyle Second Reader: Walter DeGrange THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form...Approved by: W. Matthew Carlyle, Professor Thesis Advisor Walter DeGrange, CDR, SC, USN Second Reader Robert F. Dell Chair...x THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Disaster Relief Airlift Planner results for Malaysia cyclone scenario with

  19. Pain of Sustainability: Limiting the Number of Times Homeowners Can Receive Disaster Relief

    Michael R. Greenberg


    Full Text Available A sustainable future for communities that are highly vulnerable to natural hazard events means not locating new sensitive land uses, requiring existing land uses to be retrofitted in order to obtain insurance, and implementing other restrictive policies. Our objective was to measure the willingness of U.S. adult residents of New Jersey, a state devastated three times by major tropical storms in 1999, 2011, and 2012, to agree with a very restrictive policy—placing a limit on the number of times homeowners may receive financial disaster relief from natural hazard events. Using random digit dialing for landline (65% and cell phone (35%, the authors collected 875 surveys of New Jersey residents in 2013, four months after Hurricane Sandy devastated much of New Jersey. Fifty-nine percent of respondents agreed with this painful policy. They disproportionately were older males who were fiscally conservative, and they took this stance despite personally believing that global climate change-related natural hazard events are real and are a threat. In New Jersey and other states, officials and others responsible for securing public agreement with these programs face a difficult challenge of implementing these programs because of public mistrust of state and federal government as initiators and implementers.

  20. Active detection of drivable surfaces in support of robotic disaster relief missions

    Wang, Maxwell B.; Chu, Albert; Bush, Lawrence A.; Williams, Brian C.

    Over the past few decades, the usage of unmanned vehicles has grown exponentially, expanding into applications such as the automation of industrial processes and automobiles. However, their utility has often been limited by operational concerns. Fully controlled unmanned vehicles require multiple human operators, while their fully autonomous counterparts lack the ability to handle the complex maneuvers necessary in natural disaster relief and/or search and rescue situations. Semi-autonomous UAVs offer a feasible compromise between the two extremes. In this scenario, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sends birds-eye images of the terrain beneath it to a computing cluster, which will identify easily traversable terrain and generate a path of least risk to an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). If the path's risk is below a certain threshold, then the UGV will be permitted to proceed on its own. Otherwise, a human operator will be notified, so that he or she may control the UGV directly until it exits the most dangerous terrain. This paradigm allows a single operator to manage several UAVs simultaneously.


    Gutierrez, Christian X.


    Setting up reliable communications after a disaster is an extremely difficult yet crucial requirement for coordinating relief efforts. Lessons learned from recent humanitarian disasters point to major difficulties in establishing communications to quickly and accurately assess responder needs in the affected area and communicating this information to first responders from government relief agencies, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the military. The militarys growing role in Humanita...

  2. A Robust Programming Approach to Bi-objective Optimization Model in the Disaster Relief Logistics Response Phase

    Mohsen Saffarian


    Full Text Available Accidents and natural disasters and crises coming out of them indicate the importance of an integrated planning to reduce their effected. Therefore, disaster relief logistics is one of the main activities in disaster management. In this paper, we study the response phase of the disaster management cycle and a bi-objective model has been developed for relief chain logistic in uncertainty condition including uncertainty in traveling time an also amount of demand in damaged areas. The proposed mathematical model has two objective functions. The first one is to minimize the sum of arrival times to damaged area multiplying by amount of demand and the second objective function is to maximize the minimum ratio of satisfied demands in total period in order to fairness in the distribution of goods. In the proposed model, the problem has been considered periodically and in order to solve the mathematical model, Global Criterion method has been used and a case study has been done at South Khorasan.

  3. Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.

    Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog


    The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster.

  4. Preliminary Discussion on Standard System of Service on Natural Disaster Relief%自然灾害救助服务标准体系初探

    张宝军; 胡俊锋; 吴建安


    Standards of service on natural disaster relief as the important constituent of standard system on comprehensive disaster prevention and mitigation, is the foundation of natural disaster relief service working scientific and standardized. Discuss on building of standard system of natural disaster relief service and propose the compilation basis, principles and coding method about standard system of natural disaster relief through the literature retrieve and present situation analysis of construction on. disaster prevention and mitigation, standards establishing and revising on disaster prevention, mitigation and relief, and construction of standardization organization on disaster prevention and mitigation. Preliminary study on the establishment of the standard system framework of natural disaster relief with the common basic standards of service as the basis, with the service ensuring and service providing standards of natural disaster relief preparation, emergency relief, post-disaster relief, relief fund and materials management as the core. Scientific and reasonable to build a standard system of service on natural disaster relief under the guidance of standardization principle and guided by the natural disaster relief service demand, powerful and orderly promote the establish and revision of each standard, will greatly enhance the science and technology support level from the standardization of natural disaster relief service.%自然灾害救助服务标准作为综合防灾减灾标准体系的重要组成部分,是推进自然灾害救助服务工作科学化和规范化的基础.通过查阅和分析防灾减灾标准体系建设、防灾减灾标准及自然灾害救助标准制修订和防灾减灾标准化组织建设现状,探讨自然灾害救助服务标准体系建设思路,提出自然灾害救助服务标准体系表编制依据、编制原则和编码方法.初步构建了以服务通用基础标准为基础,以自然灾害救助准备、应急救

  5. Analysis of the Navy’s Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Program Performance


    USN can have air capable ships off the coast of a country affected by natural disaster . Those aircraft can then immediately begin ferrying supplies...of the countries where we conduct HADR missions were not great before the natural disaster hit,” according to Lt Col Lang.” Lt Col Lang noticed it... natural disasters taking place. The Planning staffs at SOUTHCOM understand witch potential events to plan for and therefore establish country specific

  6. A consortium approach for disaster relief and technology research and development: Fire station earth

    Ling, Douglas C.


    A new paradigm is proposed for alleviating the chronic problem of inadequate response to natural and man-made disasters. Fundamental flaws and weaknesses in the current disaster mitigation system point to the need for an international consortium involving governments, academia, industry, and businesses. Recent changes in social and political framework offer a unique opportunity of rethink and reform the existing disaster response mechanism. Benefits of a collaborative consortium approach may include commercial incentives, improved cost effectiveness, coherence in research and development efforts, conduciveness for long-term planning, and improved deployment of technology for disaster mitigation.

  7. Prepared for the Worst Measures are taken to enhance disaster relief



    According to a joint statement issued by the Ministry of Civil Affairs (MOCA) and the National Disaster Reduction Commiss on (NDRC) on October 10,natural disasters left 1,074 people dead or missing across China in the first nine months of this year.

  8. Location Optimization of Mobile Cold-Formed Steel Systems to Provide Humanitarian Relief After Natural Disasters


    after a disaster event. The research utilizes data from Manabi province, Ecuador . 15 IV. MODEL METHODOLOGY A. MODEL SELECTION The data...2 C. RESEARCH QUESTIONS .......................................................................6 D...18 V. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH

  9. Factors predicting crisis counselor referrals to other crisis counseling, disaster relief, and psychological services: a cross-site analysis of post-Katrina programs.

    Rosen, Craig S; Matthieu, Monica M; Norris, Fran H


    An important aspect of crisis counseling is linking survivors with services for their unmet needs. We examined determinants of referrals for disaster relief, additional crisis counseling, and psychological services in 703,000 crisis counseling encounters 3-18 months after Hurricane Katrina. Referrals for disaster relief were predicted by clients' losses, age (adults rather than children), and urbanicity. Referrals for additional counseling and psychological services were predicted by urbanicity, losses and trauma exposure, prior trauma, and preexisting mental health problems. Counseling and psychological referrals declined over time despite continuing mental health needs. Results confirm large urban-rural disparities in access to services.

  10. Developing post-disaster physical rehabilitation: role of the World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.

    Gosney, James; Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan


    This special report presents the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief (CRDR) of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in developing an enhanced physical rehabilitation relief response to large-scale natural disasters. The CRDR has stated that disaster rehabilitation is an emerging subspecialty within physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). In reviewing the existing literature it was found that large natural disasters result in many survivors with disabling impairments, that these survivors may have better clinical outcomes when they are treated by PRM physicians and teams of rehabilitation professionals, that the delivery of these rehabilitation services to disaster sites is complicated, and that their absence can result in significant negative consequences for individuals, communities and society. To advance its agenda, the CRDR sponsored an inaugural Symposium on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief as a concurrent scientific session at the 2011 ISPRM 6th World Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The symposium included oral and poster presentations on a range of relevant topics and concluded with an international non-governmental organization panel discussion that addressed the critical question "How can rehabilitation actors coordinate better in disaster?" Building upon the symposium, the CRDR is developing a disaster rehabilitation evidence-base, which will inform and educate the global professional rehabilitation community about needs and best practices in disaster rehabilitation. The Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (JRM) has commissioned this special report to announce a series of papers on disaster rehabilitation from the symposium's scientific programme. Authors are invited to submit papers on the topic for inclusion in this special series. JRM also encourages expert commentary in the form of Letters to the Editor.


    E. Van Wyk


    Full Text Available ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Natural disasters – and even those caused by people – are largely unpredictable. So disasters need to be researched and their impact fully understood, so that the aid supplies required to ensure survival during and after disaster events will be available. The member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC are the countries of interest for this paper, as insufficient research has been conducted into inventory pre-positioning for disaster response in these countries. It is vital to anticipate the needs of disaster victims in potential disasters. These needs are evaluated according to the types and amounts of aid supplies required. This paper proposes a stochastic inventory model that can be applied in a generic way to any SADC country, providing a means to improve disaster preparedness through keeping aid supplies in pre-positioned facilities in the SADC region, at reasonable and affordable cost.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Natuurlike en mensgemaakte rampe is grootliks onvoorspelbaar. Gevolglik moet rampe nagevors en hul impak ten volle begryp word, sodat noodvoorrade wat benodig word vir oorlewing doeltreffend beplan kan word vir aanwending tydens en na rampgebeure. Die lede van die Suid-Afrikaanse Ontwikkelingsgemeenskap (SAOG is die lande van belang vir hierdie artikel omrede navorsing oor voorraadhouding vir rampreaksie in hierdie betrokke lande tot nog toe onvoldoende was. Dit is noodsaaklik om doeltreffend in die behoeftes van rampslagoffers te voorsien. Hierdie behoeftes word beoordeel na aanleiding van die aard en hoeveelhede van noodvoorrade wat benodig mag word in ramptoestande. Hierdie artikel stel ’n stochastiese voorraadmodel voor vir toepassing op ’n generiese wyse in enige SAOG land, om sodoende ’n metode te verskaf om rampvoorbereiding te verbeter deur die opgaar van noodvoorrade in vooraf-geïdentifiseerde fasiliteite binne die SAOG, teen redelike en bekostigbare koste.


  12. 灾后救援供应链信息沟通网络设计%Design of disaster relief supply chain network of communication

    蒲国利; 苏秦


    Disaster relief supply chain has become an emerging research field. Timely and effective information commu-nication under disaster situations is key to respond quickly for the enterprises of disaster relief supply chain. In this paper, covering theory of graph and network theory are employed. The concept and characteristics of covering theory among enter-prises of disaster relief supply chain are discussed;the existence of stable information communication network is investigated;based on cooperation and non-cooperation of information communication, minimum stable information communication network of disaster relief supply chain is obtained. The result may be helpful to explore the rapid and effective information communication among enterprises of disaster relief supply chain.%灾后救援供应链逐渐成为一个新兴研究领域。灾害情况下如何进行及时有效的信息沟通,是灾后救援供应链各节点企业能否做出快速响应的关键所在。以图论及网络中的覆盖理论为基础,讨论灾后救援供应链网络节点企业之间覆盖的概念及特性,探讨其稳定信息沟通网络的存在性问题,基于信息沟通合作和非合作两种情况,寻求最小稳定灾后救援供应链信息沟通网络。以期对灾后救援供应链各节点企业间快速有效的信息沟通做出有益的探索。

  13. Why are older peoples' health needs forgotten post-natural disaster relief in developing countries? A healthcare provider survey of 2005 Kashmir, Pakistan earthquake.

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang


    Although older people may be recognized as a vulnerable group post-natural disasters, their particular needs are rarely met by the providers of emergency services. Studies about older people's health needs post disasters in the South East Asia Tsunami, Kashmir, Pakistan, China, and United States has revealed the lack of concern for older people's health needs. Recent study of older people's health needs post the Kashmir Pakistan earthquake (2005) found older peoples' health needs were masked within the general population. This survey study examines the providers' perceptions of older people's vulnerabilities post-2005 Pakistan earthquake. It aims to understand the awareness of geriatric issues and issues related to current service provision/planning for older people's health needs post disasters. Specifically, service delivery patterns will be compared among different relief agencies. Cross-sectional, structured stakeholder interviews were conducted within a 2 weeks period in February 2006, 4 months post-earthquake in Pakistan-administrated Kashmir. Health/medical relief agencies of three different types of organizational nature: international nongovernmental organization (INGO), national organization, and local/community group were solicited to participate in the study. Descriptive analysis was conducted. Important issues identified include the need to sensitize relief and health workers about older people's health needs post disaster the development of relevant clinical guidelines for chronic disease management postdisaster in developing countries and the advocacy of building in geriatric related components in natural disaster medical relief programs. To effectively address the vulnerability of older people, it is important for governments, relief agencies, and local partners to include and address these issues during their relief operations and policy planning.

  14. Disaster relief volunteerism: Evaluating cities' planning for the usage and management of spontaneous volunteers.

    Rivera, Jason David; Wood, Zachary David


    This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature. The authors found significant discrepancies between what is stated in the disaster plans of cities and what emergency managers claim is covered in their plans. Of the managers surveyed, only a handful mention spontaneous volunteers in their plans at all, and even fewer cities discuss them extensively. In addition, stated perceptions of the value of spontaneous volunteers may impact both how we plan for them and the value they provide.

  15. Complete Assessment of Disaster Reduction and Relief Standards in China%中国自然灾害减灾救灾标准完备性评价

    周扬; 李宁; 吴吉东; 吉中会; 范碧航; 金宝森


    Exploring the inadequate and completeness of disaster mitigation and relief standards in China is of great significance to the improvement of existing disaster mitigation and relief standard systems. The difference in disaster reduction and relief standards between China and the USA, in quantity, was analyzed. Standard fault tree analysis for natural disaster mitigation and relief standards was used to evaluate the completeness of China' s standards. The standard fault tree comprised comprehensive disasters, disaster monitoring and early warnings, disaster response preparedness, disaster emergency responses, disaster recovery and reconstruction, and disaster reduction. The results reveal a significant difference between China and the USA for existing disaster mitigation and relief standards. China has 779 related disaster standards and the USA has 263. In addition to the fire and marine disaster standards, China has done more research into floods and droughts, and meteorological, biological, earthquake and geological disasters than the USA. The number of national, industry, local and enterprise standards across China was 180, 358, 233 and 8 respectively. There had 664 currently valid standards in China: the number of mandatory, recommended standards and guidance documents is 150, 493, and 1, respectively. The completeness of standards was related to the number of existing standards and the total completeness of China' s disaster mitigation and relief relevant standards was 77.9%. The completeness of flood and drought standards was 67.9%, meteorological was 75.0%, biological was 88.2%, geological was 60.3% , earthquake was 89.1%, fire was 76.5% and marine disaster standards was 51.0%. These results suggest that the disaster mitigation and relief standards for earthquake and biological disasters are relatively complete, and relatively incomplete for marine disasters. As a major maritime country, China should strengthen its research and the development of marine

  16. Measuring the way forward in Haiti: grounding disaster relief in the legal framework of human rights.

    Klasing, Amanda M; Moses, P Scott; Satterthwaite, Margaret L


    This article provides results from an online survey of humanitarian workers and volunteers that was conducted in May and June 2010. The purpose of the survey was to understand how the humanitarian aid system adopts or incorporates human rights into its post-natural disaster work and metrics. Data collected from Haiti suggest that humanitarians have embraced a rights-based approach but that they do not agree about how this is defined or about what standards and indicators can be considered rights-based. This disagreement may reveal that humanitarians are aware of a mismatch between the rights-based approach to post-disaster humanitarian work and the legal framework of human rights. Using participation and accountability as examples, this article identifies and examines this mismatch and suggests that the humanitarian aid system should more fully embrace engagement with the human rights framework. To do so, the article concludes, humanitarian actors and the human rights community should have an open dialogue about the development of metrics that accurately reflect and monitor adherence to the legal framework of human rights. This would allow the humanitarian aid system to ensure its interventions enhance the capacity of the disaster-affected state to fulfill its human rights obligations, and would allow humanitarian and human rights actors alike to measure the impact of such interventions on the realization of human rights in post-natural disaster settings.

  17. Simulation study of relief goods delivery and information sharing by epidemic transmission in disaster areas

    Miyakita, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Keisuke; Yamashita, Masashi; Tamura, Hiroshi


    During large-scale disasters, some regions can become isolated from critical informationexchanges due to problems with communication infrastructures. In this paper,we consider information exchange among isolated shelters in such cases using epidemictransmission, which distributes information without infrastructure by direct communicationbetween nodes and their movements. As mobile nodes for epidemic transmission, weconsider transport vehicles that are leaving a distribution center to deliver ...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart S of... - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...


    ... and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614 Banks and... Requirements Pt. 614, Subpt. S, App. A Appendix A to Subpart S of Part 614—Sample Form of Notice of Special... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a special flood hazard area using FEMA's Flood Insurance Rate Map...

  19. The Relative Effects of Logistics, Coordination and Human Resource on Humanitarian Aid and Disaster Relief Mission Performance

    Aida Idris


    Full Text Available Most studies on humanitarian aid and disaster relief (HADR missions suggest that the quality of logistics, coordination and human resource management will affect their performance. However, studies in developing countries are mainly conceptual and lack the necessary empirical evidence to support these contentions. The current paper thereby aimed to fill this knowledge gap by sta- tistically examining the effects of the abovementioned factors on such missions. Focusing on the Malaysian army due to its extensive experience in HADR operations, the paper opted for a quantita- tive approach to allow for a more objective analysis of the issues. The results show that there are other potential determinants of mission success which deserve due attention in future studies. They also suggest that human resource is not easily measured as a construct, and that this limitation in methodology must be overcome to derive more accurate conclusions regarding its effect on HADR mission performance.

  20. Analysis of U.S. Military Helicopter Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief


    49 VI. ALLOCATION OF HELICOPTERS TO ROUTES .............................................51 A. MODEL 2: HEURISTIC APPROACH... Heuristic Distribution.......................................................................................53 Table 16. Priority the villagers needed (JLLIS, 2008d). Aircrew debriefs on safe and acceptable landing zones were critical to the tsunami relief success

  1. Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster-Relief Operations: Lessons Learned and Best Practices


    with the Taiwanese government, military, and relief personnel before rede - ploying to Sasebo. So, to review: first and foremost, the commodore and his...2011 11:04:30 AM Color profile: Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen • Aggressively use social media and web pages, accessible to

  2. Improving the Taiwan Military’s Disaster Relief Response to Typhoons


    time and location: prepositioning, preemptive federal action, time-phased deployment, and surge transportation. His approach employs an earlier...emergency supplies after disasters strike . They use a combination of optimization tools for modeling the supply chain and distribution method, and link...typhoon strikes . Figure 5. Monthly distribution of the study data set. The direction of a typhoon’s movement is generally subject to the control

  3. Private-Public Disaster Relief: What Is the Military’s Role?


    arrive on the scene of a disaster within hours after it happens, including the DR1, DR2, and the EMOC . Figure 6. DR1 DR1 is an 83 foot part Truck... EMOC ) was a Military Field Hospital in Afghanistan in its former life. It consists of two 25ft x 26ft tents, a 18ft x 25ft tent and a 14ft x 25ft

  4. The Impacts of Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Operations on the Mental Health of Marines


    tragedy, trauma or disaster has been prevalent in the world of psychology for hundreds of years. Following the end of the Civil War , soldiers returning...Freedom OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom PTSD Post-traumatic Stress Disorder SADR Standard Ambulatory Data Record SIDR Standard Inpatient Data Record...of continuous armed conflict since the Vietnam War . From the point when the United States entered Afghanistan in October 2001 and Iraq in 2003, more

  5. Experiments Toward the Application of Multi-Robot Systems to Disaster-Relief Scenarios


    robot that wades through a flooded disaster site to extinguish a critical fire, we believe a heterogeneous, multi-robot team that can quickly navigate...prior maps of the environment, a classical formulation would suffice. Initially it could be as a well-studied Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP): with known...GTSAM software library developed at Georgia Tech.25 Our technique leverages the Generalized Iterative Closet Point (ICP) algorithm26 for dense inter

  6. An Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations


    The Fritz Institute uses Haas, Kates, and Bowden’s model of emergency recovery to create its own illustration of the different phases a supply chain...Humanitarian logistics: Enabling disaster response. San Francisco, CA: The Fritz Institute. Tomasini, R., & Van Wassenhove, L. N. (^qb p`elli  Outsourcing the Pearl Harbor MK-48 Intermediate Maintenance Activity  Pallet Management System  PBL (4)  Privatization-NOSL

  7. Particle Swarm Optimization/Greedy-Search Algorithm for Helicopter Mission Assignment in Disaster Relief

    Andreeva-Mori, Adriana; KOBAYASHI, Keiji; Shindo, Masato; アンドレエバ森, アドリアナ; 小林, 啓二; 真道, 雅人


    In the immediate aftermath of a large-scale disaster, optimal helicopter rescue mission assignment is critical to saving many lives. However, the current practice in the field is mostly human centered. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has been developing a decision support system for aircraft operation in order to promptly plan and execute rescue missions. The current research focuses on evacuation missions in particular and investigates the potential of particle swarm optimization with...

  8. Renal disaster relief in Europe: the experience at L'Aquila, Italy, in April 2009.

    Vanholder, Raymond; Stuard, Stefano; Bonomini, Mario; Sever, Mehmet Sukru


    On 6 April 2009, an earthquake struck the city of L'Aquila and the surrounding Abruzzo mountains. The disaster left 66,000 people homeless, while 1500 were wounded and 298 died. Although Europe as a whole is not so often affected by massive earthquakes, Italy is an exception with 12 earthquakes with an intensity >6.0 on the Richter scale during the last 100 years. This article offers preliminary information on the L'Aquila earthquake. For the time being, nine AKI patients who needed dialysis treatment are known. In all of them, kidney function recovered. This positive result can be attributed to the efficient and intensive rescue efforts coupled to the availability of disaster plans that had been developed in advance. This article stresses the importance of (i) advance planning of disaster rescue; (ii) the inclusion in these plans of approaches for kidney problems and their complications; (iii) the formulation of recommendations supporting (para-)medical professionals in their preventive, therapeutic and logistic approach to massive incidences of crush.

  9. Web-based data delivery services in support of disaster-relief applications

    Jones, B.K.; Risty, R.R.; Buswell, M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center responds to emergencies in support of various government agencies for human-induced and natural disasters. This response consists of satellite tasking and acquisitions, satellite image registrations, disaster-extent maps analysis and creation, base image provision and support, Web-based mapping services for product delivery, and predisaster and postdisaster data archiving. The emergency response staff are on call 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and have access to many commercial and government satellite and aerial photography tasking authorities. They have access to value-added data processing and photographic laboratory services for off-hour emergency requests. They work with various Federal agencies for preparedness planning, which includes providing base imagery. These data may include digital elevation models, hydrographic models, base satellite images, vector data layers such as roads, aerial photographs, and other predisaster data. These layers are incorporated into a Web-based browser and data delivery service that is accessible either to the general public or to select customers. As usage declines, the data are moved to a postdisaster nearline archive that is still accessible, but not in real time.

  10. Operation Unified Response: A Case Study of the Military’s Role in Foreign Disaster Relief Operations


    disaster issue see Stuart Mathison, Microfinance and Disaster Management, (Brisbane,.Australia: The Foundation for Development Cooperation, 2003...Mathison, Stuart. Microfinance and Disaster Management. Brisbane, Australia: The Foundation for Developf!len~ Cooperation, 2003. Miles, Donna

  11. Integrated disaster relief logistics: a stepping stone towards viable civil-military networks?

    Tatham, Peter; Rietjens, Sebastiaan Bas


    The twenty-first century has seen a significant rise in all forms of disasters and this has resulted in military and humanitarian organisations becoming more frequently engaged in the provision of support to those affected. Achieving an efficient and effective logistic preparation and response is one of the key elements in mitigating the impact of such events, but the establishment of mechanisms to deliver an appropriately integrated civil-military approach remains elusive. Not least because of the high percentage of assistance budgets spent on logistics, this area is considered to represent fertile ground for developing improved processes and understanding. In practice, the demands placed on civilian and military logisticians are broadly similar, as is the solution space. Speaking a common language and using common concepts, it is argued, therefore, that the logistic profession should be in the vanguard of the development of an improved civil-military interface.

  12. A matter of life or limb? A review of traumatic injury patterns and anesthesia techniques for disaster relief after major earthquakes.

    Missair, Andres; Pretto, Ernesto A; Visan, Alexandru; Lobo, Laila; Paula, Frank; Castillo-Pedraza, Catalina; Cooper, Lebron; Gebhard, Ralf E


    All modalities of anesthetic care, including conscious sedation, general, and regional anesthesia, have been used to manage earthquake survivors who require urgent surgical intervention during the acute phase of medical relief. Consequently, we felt that a review of epidemiologic data from major earthquakes in the context of urgent intraoperative management was warranted to optimize anesthesia disaster preparedness for future medical relief operations. The primary outcome measure of this study was to identify the predominant preoperative injury pattern (anatomic location and pathology) of survivors presenting for surgical care immediately after major earthquakes during the acute phase of medical relief (0-15 days after disaster). The injury pattern is of significant relevance because it closely relates to the anesthetic techniques available for patient management. We discuss our findings in the context of evidence-based strategies for anesthetic management during the acute phase of medical relief after major earthquakes and the associated obstacles of devastated medical infrastructure. To identify reports on acute medical care in the aftermath of natural disasters, a query was conducted using MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, as well as an online search engine (Google Scholar). The search terms were "disaster" and "earthquake" in combination with "injury," "trauma," "surgery," "anesthesia," and "wounds." Our investigation focused only on studies of acute traumatic injury that specified surgical intervention among survivors in the acute phase of medical relief. A total of 31 articles reporting on 15 major earthquakes (between 1980 and 2010) and the treatment of more than 33,410 patients met our specific inclusion criteria. The mean incidence of traumatic limb injury per major earthquake was 68.0%. The global incidence of traumatic limb injury was 54.3% (18,144/33,410 patients). The pooled estimate of the proportion of limb injuries was calculated to be 67.95%, with a

  13. Detecting tents to estimate the displaced populations for post-disaster relief using high resolution satellite imagery

    Wang, Shifeng; So, Emily; Smith, Pete


    Estimating the number of refugees and internally displaced persons is important for planning and managing an efficient relief operation following disasters and conflicts. Accurate estimates of refugee numbers can be inferred from the number of tents. Extracting tents from high-resolution satellite imagery has recently been suggested. However, it is still a significant challenge to extract tents automatically and reliably from remote sensing imagery. This paper describes a novel automated method, which is based on mathematical morphology, to generate a camp map to estimate the refugee numbers by counting tents on the camp map. The method is especially useful in detecting objects with a clear shape, size, and significant spectral contrast with their surroundings. Results for two study sites with different satellite sensors and different spatial resolutions demonstrate that the method achieves good performance in detecting tents. The overall accuracy can be up to 81% in this study. Further improvements should be possible if over-identified isolated single pixel objects can be filtered. The performance of the method is impacted by spectral characteristics of satellite sensors and image scenes, such as the extent of area of interest and the spatial arrangement of tents. It is expected that the image scene would have a much higher influence on the performance of the method than the sensor characteristics.

  14. Integrating oral health into Haiti's National Health Plan: from disaster relief to sustainable development.

    Estupiñán-Day, Saskia; Lafontant, Christina; Acuña, Maria Cecilia


    In 2010, Haiti suffered three devastating national emergencies: a 7.0 magnitude earthquake that killed over 200 000 and injured 300 000; a cholera outbreak that challenged recovery efforts and caused more deaths; and Hurricane Tomas, which brought additional destruction. In the aftermath, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reoriented its technical cooperation to face the myriad of new challenges and needs. Efforts included support and technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and Population of Haiti and coordination of actions by the United Nations Health Cluster. This Special Report focuses specifically on the PAHO Regional Oral Health Program's call to action in Haiti and the institutional partnerships that were developed to leverage resources for oral health during this critical time and beyond. To date, achievements include working with Haiti's private sector, dental schools, public health associations, and other stakeholders, via the Oral Health of Haiti (OHOH) Coalition. The OHOH aims to meet the immediate needs of the dental community and to rebuild the oral health component of the health system; to provide dental materials and supplies to oral health sites in affected areas; and to ensure that the "Basic Package of Health Services" includes specific interventions for oral health care and services. The experience in Haiti serves as a reminder to the international community of how important linking immediate/short-term disaster-response to mid- and longterm strategies is to building a health system that provides timely access to health services, including oral health. Haiti's humanitarian crisis became an important time to rethink the country's health system and services in terms of the right to health and the concepts of citizenship, solidarity, and sustainable development.

  15. Damage Assessment for Disaster Relief Efforts in Urban Areas Using Optical Imagery and LiDAR Data

    Bahr, Thomas


    Imagery combined with LiDAR data and LiDAR-derived products provides a significant source of geospatial data which is of use in disaster mitigation planning. Feature rich building inventories can be constructed from tools with 3D rooftop extraction capabilities, and two dimensional outputs such as DSMs and DTMs can be used to generate layers to support routing efforts in Spatial Analyst and Network Analyst workflows. This allows us to leverage imagery and LiDAR tools for disaster mitigation or other scenarios. Software such as ENVI, ENVI LiDAR, and ArcGIS® Spatial and Network Analyst can therefore be used in conjunction to help emergency responders route ground teams in support of disaster relief efforts. This is exemplified by a case study against the background of the magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti's capital city of Port-au-Prince on January 12, 2010. Soon after, both LiDAR data and an 8-band WorldView-2 scene were collected to map the disaster zone. The WorldView-2 scene was orthorectified and atmospherically corrected in ENVI prior to use. ENVI LiDAR was used to extract the DSM, DTM, buildings, and debris from the LiDAR data point cloud. These datasets provide a foundation for the 2D portion of the analysis. As the data was acquired over an area of dense urbanization, the majority of ground surfaces are roads, and standing buildings and debris are actually largely separable on the basis of elevation classes. To extract the road network of Port-au-Prince, the LiDAR-based feature height information was fused with the WorldView-2 scene, using ENVI's object-based feature extraction approach. This road network was converted to a network dataset for further analysis by the ArcGIS Network Analyst. For the specific case of Haiti, the distribution of blue tarps, used as accommodations for refugees, provided a spectrally distinct target. Pure blue tarp pixel spectra were selected from the WorldView-2 scene and input as a reference into ENVI's Spectral Angle

  16. 军队医院灾害医学救援能力建设的思考%Medical Support Capability Construction of Military Hospital in Disaster Relief

    张军勇; 丁迎周; 张美进


    Objective Seeking for ways to coping with the emergency medical support of increasingly grow natural disasters, and enhancing the support capabilities of military hospitals. Methods The features of natural disasters in the spot were introduced mainly. The casualties caused by disasters and the difficulties of disaster relief were also analyzed. Results Four issues of enhancing the capacity of emergency medical rescue in disasters are discussed. Conclusion Through the capability construction, military hospital can achieve the objective of precise, rapid and efficient support.%目的 针对日益增多的自然灾害现状,寻求途径方法,为提升军队医院灾害应急医学救援能力提供支持.方法 重点介绍灾害现场的主要特点,并分析灾害所致伤情和灾害救援的难点.结果 对提升应急医学救援能力建设应重点关注的四方面问题进行了探讨.结论 军队医院通过能力建设,可以实现灾害中精确、快速、高效的救援能力.

  17. Operational Use of the US Army Reserve in Foreign Disaster Relief to Support the United States Government’s Strategic Use of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response


    in military operations over the last two decades are foundational for the USAR’s institutional agility and flexibility. Reservists are also...Assistance and Disaster Response A Monograph by MAJ Kelly J. Pajak United States Army Reserve School of Advanced Military ...PERFORMING ORG REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellowship, Advanced Military

  18. 依据自然灾害风险区划的应急救援物资储备数量管理--以北京风雹灾为例%Quantitative Management on Emergency Relief Materials Reserve Based on Natural Disaster Risk Zoning---Taking Wind and Hail Disasters in Beijing as an Example

    郗蒙浩; 赵秋红; 王凤京; 陈龙杰; 于汐


    自然灾害发生时,应急救援行动是拯救生命、减少损失的重要手段之一,而应急救援物资储备管理是决定应急救援行动成败与否的关键环节。该文以北京市为研究区域,依据防灾、减灾、救灾的基本需求和根本目标,构建区域自然灾害风险评估模型,确定区域自然灾害综合风险值和风险区划图;以北京市风雹灾为例,提出区域自然灾害应急救援物资储备管理的数理模型和集成优化策略。从理论上,为区域自然灾害应急救援物资储备管理决策提供建议。%When natural disasters occur, emergency rescue operation is one of the important means to save lives and reduce losses, and management on emergency relief materials reserve is a key link of the operation.Tak-ing Beijing city as the study area, according to the basic demand and goal of disaster prevention, disaster reduction and disaster relief, the regional natural disaster risk assessment model is constructed firstly, determining the com-prehensive regional natural disaster risk value and risk zoning map.In addition, taking wind and hail disasters in Beijing as an example, mathematical model and integrated optimization strategy of management one emergency relief materials reserve for regional natural disasters are put forward.Theoretically, suggestions for management decision on regional natural disaster emergency relief materials reserve are provided.

  19. A Chance in Hell: Evaluating the Efficacy of U.S. Military Health Systems in Foreign Disaster Relief


    economy . Free pharmaceuticals created a black market and aggressive evacuation created 219U.S. Department of the Navy, Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster...262 In 2004, such a capability could have dispatched assessment teams from the joint task-force headquarters near Bangkok , Thailand directly to

  20. The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations


    Disaster Assistance PREPO Prepositioned stocks SCM Supply Chain Management STRAT AIR Strategic Airlift STRAT SEA Strategic Sealift UN...prepositioning sources. Important outcomes of this examination identify advantages and disadvantages of logistical enablers i.e. supply chain management and...interest to the study. Furthermore, the case studies recognized above continues to identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with HADR

  1. Disaster Risks, Welfare Costs and the Optimal Disaster Relief Policy of Government%灾害风险、福利损失与政府最优救助计划

    田玲; 高俊


    To study the optimal relief behavior of the government, we introduce a dynamic stochastic control model which considers the catastrophe risk, consumers' risk preference, budget constraint, and the government's fiscal costs. The model shows that the optimal relief behavior of the government is a trade-off between the benefit of the consumers' welfare and the government' s fiscal costs. And it exits multidimensional optimal frontiers of the government behavior. That is to say, the optimal subsidy scales are different if the change occurs among the param-eters, even if they are the uniform catastrophe. Consequently, there are conclusions following: Firstly, the larger of the loss the catastrophe cause, the worse of the anti-disaster ability consumers' have. It would lead to larger optimal subsidy scale, and the government financial burden is heavier. Secondly, the more consumers disguise risk, the more carefully they make the decision. And it would bring about more compensation required for the catastrophe loss. Hence the scale of the optimal relief policy would be larger. It is to pay more money for the government. Thirdly, if the production of our economy is more effective, the optimal relief scale would be less, and the money which the government pays for the catastrophe would be less too. Finally, the appropriate relief (optimal relief) scale help to improve the level of social welfare. Following the increasing risk aversion, the effects of the govern-ment relief to the catastrophe are better.According to our conclusion, to reduce expenditure, heighten the relief effects, improve the whole social welfare, we make some recommendations, such as strengthening the Riskbearing capacity, improving production efficiency, as well as reducing the catastrophe loss. And we see that the government should take three measures to re-live their catastrophe assistance pressure. First of all, the government should encourage people transfer the stress of risk

  2. 高海拔灾难医学救援的探讨%Exploring disaster relief medicine in high altitude region

    王振华; 万立东; 徐腾达


    2010年4月14日7:49,里氏6.9级的地震袭击了位于青藏高原的青海省玉树县.中国政府在第一时间发起一级应急救援响应.尽管如此,高海拔和灾后极端的天气条件仍然为救援工作带来了极大的困难.如何在高海拔地区实施救援?如何应对高原地震所带来的独特的地理环境的挑战?值得进一步研究和讨论.由于其高海拔的特殊条件,从远距离或低海拔地区调动救援队可能是不现实的.有必要建立一个整体的灾难救援反应体系,以及能够专门应对各种特殊地理环境的灾害救援快速反应小组.在这篇文章中,笔者强调了在高海拔地区灾难救援的处置中,制定国家级高原救灾计划和建立反应迅速的专业救援队的重要性.此外,高海拔灾难救援需要更好的规划和研究,并预防救援人员发生高海拔相关疾病.%On April 14th, 2010 at 7:49 a.m., An earthquake (Richter magnitude scale 6.9) struck the Yushu County, Tibetan Plateau. Even the competent authorities initiated level 1 emergency response for the quake relief immediately, the high altitude and post-quake extreme weather conditions were challenging the rescue efforts. The challenges to our rescue mission of the unique geographic environment requested us to give a further consideration on disaster relief mission in high altitude regions. Given the unique conditions of high altitude plateau, it may be unrealistic to mobilize rescue teams from remote region or low-land. The 2010 Yushu earthquake display a demand of establishing an overall disaster response plan, as well as developing a disaster rapid response teams specific to each geographic region. In this article, the importance of developing a national Plateau Disaster Plan and building professional medical rescue teams with ability to rapidly respond to the mass casualty incident in high altitude region were emphasized. Furthermore, an attention shall be paid on how to prevent high altitude

  3. Research on internet mobilization patterns in disaster relief%灾害救助网络动员模式研究

    刘晓岚; 李军


    As one of the nwe emerging ways of mobilization,Internet mobilization plays an important role in disaster relief.This paper gives a deep-going analysis of the current situation of Internet mobilization patterns in China:the coexistence of the improvement of the public's information attainments and the inadequacy of the government supervision,and the coexistence of Internet public opinion mobilization and Internet action mobilization as well.In addition,this paper proposes that for constructing an ideal pattern of Internet mobilization in disaster relief,it is necessary to cultivate some plural and authoritative Internet mobilization subjects,to grasp the identity af Internet mobilization subject and supervisor,and to establish a multi-dimensional guarantee system incorporating legal basis,policy supervision,public supervision and media intervention.%网络动员作为一种新兴的动员方式,在灾害救助中发挥着重要的作用。深入分析了现阶段我国网络动员模式中公众信息素养提升与政府监管力度不足并存,网络舆论动员与网络行动动员共举的现状,提出建构灾害救助网络动员的理想模式需要培养多元化与权威性的网络动员主体,把握网络动员主体也是监管者的双重身份,建立法律依据、政策监管、公众监督和媒体干预的立体保障。

  4. Reliability Analysis to Market Collection System of Disaster Relief Materials%赈灾物资市场筹集系统的可靠度分析

    黄星; 王绍玉; 袁明


    以赈灾物资市场筹集系统的可靠性问题为研究对象,在分析赈灾物资市场筹集系统基本特征的基础上,首先提出了有利于系统可靠度提高的串-并联逻辑结构;然后就系统在规定时间受物流量或成本约束下寻求串-并联系统各构成单元和整个系统的最优可靠度;最后在综合考虑分配单元的重要度与复杂度基础上,对初次优化后不满足预期可靠度指标的系统单元进行了再次优化,达到进一步优化系统可靠性的目的。%In this paper, the goal of the research is the reliability problems of market collection system of disaster relief ma-terials, through analyzing the basic characteristics of market collection system of disaster relief materials. First of all, it pro-posed the series-parallel logical structure that was advantageous to enhance reliability of the system;And then, in scheduled time, researched the reliability of each unit of series-parallel system and the whole system under logistics flow or cost con-straints;Finally, in considering the allocation unit of importance and complexity, it is expected that reliable indicators of the system units was not qualified to base on initial optimization and optimized again to achieve the objective of optimized system reliability.

  5. Ren Jia Zhuang coal mine disaster relief asylum cavern construction experience%任家庄煤矿井下救灾避难硐室建设经验

    刘旭; 王忠寿; 马国军


    对任家庄煤矿建设矿井救灾避难硐室经验进行总结。通过对建设过程中硐室位置的选择、硐室防水处理、管线布置、电器设备布置、地面钻孔布置、噪音处理及排水系统建设方面进行充分考虑、分析及研究,总结建设救灾功能较为完善,各个系统运行良好,满足人员避灾生存需求的救灾避难硐室所需考虑因素。对再建矿井救灾避难硐室具有一定的指导意义。%The paper summarized experience in the construction of ren jia zhuang coal mine disaster relief asylum cavern. Through fully consider,analysis and research on the choice of the location,cavern waterproof processing,pipeline layout、electri-cal equipment layout,ground borehole layout,noise processing and construction of drainage system in the process of mine di-saster relief asylum cavern construction ,summarizes the construction of disaster relief function more complete,the system runs well and meet the demand of personnel to avoid disaster survival needed relief asylum cavern factor. To build the mine disas-ter relief asylum cavern has the great guiding significance.

  6. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren


    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  7. Modeling Relief Demands in an Emergency Supply Chain System under Large-Scale Disasters Based on a Queuing Network

    He, Xinhua


    This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model. PMID:24688367

  8. Modeling relief demands in an emergency supply chain system under large-scale disasters based on a queuing network.

    He, Xinhua; Hu, Wenfa


    This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites) located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.

  9. Time-history simulation of civil architecture earthquake disaster relief- based on the three-dimensional dynamic finite element method

    Liu Bing


    Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.

  10. Modeling Relief Demands in an Emergency Supply Chain System under Large-Scale Disasters Based on a Queuing Network

    Xinhua He


    Full Text Available This paper presents a multiple-rescue model for an emergency supply chain system under uncertainties in large-scale affected area of disasters. The proposed methodology takes into consideration that the rescue demands caused by a large-scale disaster are scattered in several locations; the servers are arranged in multiple echelons (resource depots, distribution centers, and rescue center sites located in different places but are coordinated within one emergency supply chain system; depending on the types of rescue demands, one or more distinct servers dispatch emergency resources in different vehicle routes, and emergency rescue services queue in multiple rescue-demand locations. This emergency system is modeled as a minimal queuing response time model of location and allocation. A solution to this complex mathematical problem is developed based on genetic algorithm. Finally, a case study of an emergency supply chain system operating in Shanghai is discussed. The results demonstrate the robustness and applicability of the proposed model.

  11. Self-Sufficient Healthcare Logistics Systems and Responsiveness: Ten Cases of Foreign Field Hospitals Deployed to Disaster Relief Supply Chains

    Michael Naor


    Full Text Available Recent disasters around the globe illustrate the unpredictability of their timing and the severity of their impact, making aid operations highly uncertain and complex. The aftermath of sudden-impact disasters, such as civil conflicts, wars, and natural disasters, are typically characterized by chaos and the urgent need for medical care for a massive number of casualties; however, damage to local healthcare infrastructures usually render them unable to deliver needed services. Foreign field hospitals, innovative self-sufficient emergency healthcare logistics systems deployed outside the hospitals’ country, constitute a temporary solution until the local facilities are repaired or rebuilt. These types of healthcare logistics system have been deployed with great success. However, not much is known about factors that may account for their success in the supply chain literature. In this study, we investigate military foreign field hospitals and explore general factors that may account for their effectiveness. Specifically, we look into military healthcare logistics systems, specifically foreign field hospitals (FFHs, to explore factors that may account for their responsiveness. We examine ten successful deployments of an experienced and effective military FFH through an exploratory case analysis to shed light into factors that may account for its success. Various propositions and avenues for future research are developed.

  12. Three phases of disaster relief in Haiti--pediatric surgical care on board the United States Naval Ship Comfort.

    Walk, Ryan M; Donahue, Timothy F; Sharpe, Richard P; Safford, Shawn D


    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced the western hemisphere's worst-ever natural disaster. Within 24 hours, the United States Naval Ship Comfort received orders to respond, and a group of more than 500 physicians, nurses, and staff undertook the largest and most rapid triage and treatment since the inception of hospital ships. These data represent pediatric surgical patients treated aboard the United States Naval Ship Comfort between January 19 and February 27, 2010. Prospective databases managed by patient administration, radiology, blood bank, laboratory services, and surgical services were combined to create an overall patient care database that was retrospectively reviewed for this analysis. Two hundred thirty-seven pediatric surgical patients were treated, representing 27% of the total patient population. These patients underwent a total of 213 operations composed of 243 unique procedures. Orthopedic procedures represented 71% of the total caseload. Patients returned to the operating room up to 11 times and required up to 28 days for completion of surgical management. This represents the largest cohort of pediatric surgical patients in an earthquake response. Our analysis provides a model for anticipating surgical caseload, injury patterns, and duration of surgical course in preparing for future disaster response missions. Moreover, we propose a 3-phased response to disaster medicine that has not been previously described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Use of remote sensing techniques for mitigation and relief action of the main disaster concerns in Syria

    Dalati, M.

    The main disaster concern in Syria is the Earthquakes since that Northwest of Syria is part of one of the very active deformation belt on the Earth today This area and the western part of Syria are located along the great rift Afro-Arabian rift System Those areas are tectonically active and cause time to time a lot of seismically events This faulting zone system represent a unique structural feature in the Mediterranean Region The system formed initially as a result of the break up of the Arabian plate from the African plate since the mid-Cenozoic The other disaster concern in Syria is Landslides whom caused significant damaging in Syria during the last decades especially in the Northwestern and Southwestern regions Landslide disasters killed some people and destroyed many mud and cement houses coastal mountains and cut off some roads few years ago It is known that many of the earthquakes and landslides that ever happened on our planet are located in active faults zones So it is of most important to obtain detailed information on regional tectonic structures The main approach of active faults survey at present is to use geological and geophysical methods such as in-situ measuring drilling and analysis of gravity and magnetic fields However because of the magnitude of the work there are still many uncertainties that we cannot figure out by traditional approaches Remote sensing has been brought forward for many years and has applications in many hazard

  14. To Build An Interlinked Social Participation Mechanism in Disaster Relief & Reduction%论减灾救灾中的社会联动参与机制

    孔新峰; 褚松燕; 邓名奋


    The participation of social forces including individual citizens and social or economic organizations is an important guarantee to ensure success in disaster relief and reduction.Although a basic structure with the traits of 'governmental leading,social participating,advantages complementing,and cooperative working' has roughly been shaped,there still exist many problems.In order to solve these problems,we should borrow ideas from the experiences of some developed countries and try to speed up institutional and mechanism construction.An interlinked social participation mechanism should be set up,in which social forces participate in the overall process of disaster relief and reduction,and a network that unites'self-help,mutual-help and public-help' can be built.The government runs like a conductor and coordinator,and the social forces such as voluntary citizens,social organizations,and communities act as nerves in the process,especially in the sharing of information and the mobilization and coordination of activities.This type of mechanism building should be sustainable and linked with community-building and other civil society innovations.%社会力量参与是减灾救灾取得成效的重要保障。尽管我国目前已初步形成政府主导、社会参与、优势互补、协同配合的减灾救灾格局,但仍存在诸多问题。针对这些问题,借鉴发达国家经验,应在转变减灾救灾观念的同时加快配套制度建设,构建社会联动参与机制,在减灾救灾中实现社会力量全过程参与,打造"自救、互救、公救"相结合的减灾救灾网络,即建立政府居中指挥协调,以社区、社会组织、志愿者等社会力量为神经,一点动,全线动的全社会联动参与的减灾救灾机制。

  15. Pedestrian flow-path modeling to support tsunami evacuation and disaster relief planning in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Wood, Nathan J.; Jones, Jeanne M.; Schmidtlein, Mathew; Schelling, John; Frazier, T.


    Successful evacuations are critical to saving lives from future tsunamis. Pedestrian-evacuation modeling related to tsunami hazards primarily has focused on identifying areas and the number of people in these areas where successful evacuations are unlikely. Less attention has been paid to identifying evacuation pathways and population demand at assembly areas for at-risk individuals that may have sufficient time to evacuate. We use the neighboring coastal communities of Hoquiam, Aberdeen, and Cosmopolis (Washington, USA) and the local tsunami threat posed by Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes as a case study to explore the use of geospatial, least-cost-distance evacuation modeling for supporting evacuation outreach, response, and relief planning. We demonstrate an approach that uses geospatial evacuation modeling to (a) map the minimum pedestrian travel speeds to safety, the most efficient paths, and collective evacuation basins, (b) estimate the total number and demographic description of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas, and (c) determine which paths may be compromised due to earthquake-induced ground failure. Results suggest a wide range in the magnitude and type of evacuees at predetermined assembly areas and highlight parts of the communities with no readily accessible assembly area. Earthquake-induced ground failures could obstruct access to some assembly areas, cause evacuees to reroute to get to other assembly areas, and isolate some evacuees from relief personnel. Evacuation-modeling methods and results discussed here have implications and application to tsunami-evacuation outreach, training, response procedures, mitigation, and long-term land use planning to increase community resilience.

  16. Disaster in Crisis

    Illner, Peer

    Since the inception of disaster studies in academia after WWII, two kinds of actors have been distinguished as involved in disasters. On the one hand, disasters involve formal actors, such as professional aid workers employed by state-run relief agencies; on the other hand, disasters involve...... initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...

  17. 军队地震灾害应急医学救援组织指挥体制结构设想%Assumption on structure of military organization command system for emergency medical relief in earthquake disaster

    公斌; 孔兵; 郭树森; 刘思含; 孙志宏; 罗耀钦; 韩冰


    According to the characteristics of earthquake disaster, the system structure of military organization command system for emergency medical relief in earthquake disaster, including command organization system, staff composition and the function, relationship between organizations, in order to provide the certain supporting theory for military organization command work of earthquake relief in the future.%根据地震灾害发生后的特点,阐述了我军地震灾害应急医学救援组织指挥的体制结构,包含组织指挥体系、人员组成及职能,以及组织之间的关系。以期为军队以后的抗震救灾组织指挥工作提供一定的理论支撑。

  18. Decision-making study on post-earthquake disaster relief system in urban area%城市震后救灾系统救灾决策研究

    焦双健; 柳春光; 史文谱; 刘殿魁


    The evaluation methods and models for post-earthquake disaster relief system are summarized in this paper.By means of the Monte Carlo simulation method and optimization theory,the reliability analysis of network for post-earthquake disaster relief,rescue and transport is developed and taking the feilure probability as parameter the route optimization is established.Finally,through analysis of network in certain city the method for decision-making of post-earthquake disaster relief is presented.%论述了震后救灾系统模型及评估方法,采用MonteCarlo模拟和最优化技术理论,建立了城市震后救灾、救护、运输网络系统的可靠性分析方法和以失效概率为控制参数的最佳路径优化方法,并以某城市网络系统为例通过分析研究,给出了震后救灾决策方法.

  19. 中美两军人道主义救援减灾交流启示%Reflectionson the Joint Humanitarian Rescue and Disaster Relief between China and USA

    陈劲松; 吉洪标; 叶锋


    对赴美参加中美两军人道主义救援减灾联合实兵演练和第十一次研讨交流活动介绍。中美两军相互学习救援减灾技能,彼此分享经验,提升双方共同应对人道主义灾难救援能力。学习美军先进的卫勤保障模式和理念方法。两军之间的互动交流促进中美新型军事关系的发展。%In this paper,we introduced the real field maneuver and the 11th seminar of the Chinese repre-sentatives who went to the US for the joint exercises of humanitarian rescue and disaster relief between China and USA.By sharing the experiences and learning from each other in the skills of rescue and disaster relief, the ability of humanitarian rescue and disaster relief was improved for both sides.We also learned the advanced mode and idea of health support of the US army.The communication promoted the deveopment of new Sino -US military relationship.

  20. Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Helicopter Mission Planning in Disaster Relief and Military Operations (Outil informatique d’aide a la decision pour la planification des missions d’helicopteres dans des operations militaires et de secours en cas de catastrophe)


    TR-SAS-045 Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Helicopter Mission Planning in Disaster Relief and Military Operations (Outil informatique ...Computer Based Decision Support Tool for Helicopter Mission Planning in Disaster Relief and Military Operations (Outil informatique d’aide à la...RTO-TR-SAS-045 Outil informatique d’aide à la décision pour la planification des missions d’hélicoptères dans des opérations militaires et de

  1. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...


    马玉玲; 袁艺; 程姚英


    自然灾害救助应急响应是减轻自然灾害风险的重要途径,也是政府的重要职责,2005年被纳入《国家自然灾害救助应急预案》,反映了我国自然灾害救助工作的发展变化和"以预防为主"的应急管理新思路。收集整理2005~2010年国家启动的历次自然灾害救助应急响应情况,对应急响应的时间变化特征进行分析讨论。结果表明:(1)2005~2010年,国家共针对130次重大灾害事件启动应急响应235次,各级别响应的比例与灾害发生的频次比例相当;(2)近年应急响应以洪涝、台风及其引发的滑坡和泥石流灾害为主,高发重发期在汛期(6~9月),尤以7月为最;而旱灾、低温冷冻和雪灾以及风雹灾害的关键期分别为春夏秋三季、冬春季节和春末夏初;(3)应急响应特征研究启示减灾救灾工作要因时、因地、因灾制宜,并加快基于过程的灾害风险评估和脆弱性机理研究等。%Emergency responses for natural disaster relief is a critical approach to reduce natural disaster risks,also it is one of the governments important responsibilities.It had been incorporated into the National Emergency Plan for Natural Disaster Relief of China since the year of 2005.After collecting and sorting information of natural disaster emergency responses which were launched during 2005-2010,calculating the response frequency,and making comparison with disaster damages and losses information,the temporal variation characteristics of emergency responses had been analyzed and discussed.The main conclusions were as follows.(1) During 2005-2010,altogether 235 national emergency responses were launched targeting all 130 major disasters.Among them,the ratio between high-grade responses-grade I or II-for catastrophic disasters and low-grade responses-grade III and IV-for normal major disasters was matching the disaster occurrence frequency,complying with the fundamental law of the major

  3. 基于FCM的灾难救援团队中快速信任的推理分析%An Analysis of Swift Trust in Disaster Relief Teams Based on the Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    李海燕; 冯春; 张怡


    Swift trust in disaster relief team can solve the problem of poor coordination in rescue such that the efficiency and effectiveness of the rescue can be improved. Thus, swift trust in disaster relief team is a hot topic in disaster management. Swift trust and the relationship between it and the factors that have effect on it are analyzed in the light of organization and individual levels. By introducing fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) theory, whole fuzzy cognitive map of swift trust in disaster relief team is built. Then, based on the dynamic characteristics of swift trust, analysis is carried out by using the reasoning mechanism of FCM. Results show that swift trust in disaster relief team is a high level of initial trust. There are two trends in its development; one is the stable development, and the other is a process of trust declining and trust repai-ring/ reconstruction.%灾难救援团队中快速信任的研究现已成为灾难管理领域研究的焦点,它可以解决救援中协同不佳的问题,从而提高救援的效率和效益.从组织层面和个体层面分析灾难救援团队中快速信任与影响因素的相关关系,引入模糊认知图理论,并构建灾难救援团队快速信任的整体模糊认知图.然后基于快速信任的动态性,采用模糊认知图的推理机理进行分析,结果表明灾难救援团队的快速信任是一种高水平的初始信任,在其发展过程中存在两种发展趋势:一是稳定发展;二是存在一个信任水平下降和信任修复/重建过程.

  4. Natural Disaster and Disaster Relief in the Three-Year Difficult Time--Taking Liangshan County in Shandong Province as an Example%三年困难时期的自然灾害与应对--以山东省梁山县为例



    三年困难时期,旱、蝗、水等自然灾害对梁山县农业生产和人民生活造成严重破坏和影响,导致百姓缺粮断炊、人口大量外流、水肿病流行,梁山县通过发放救灾款、节约用粮、灭蝗除害、抗旱排涝、生产救灾等措施加以应对。就三年困难时期梁山县自然灾害及应对进行研究,不仅能使我们深刻认识三年困难时期的自然灾害,还能深入了解三年经济困难的原因,对当今的防灾、减灾和救灾也具有借鉴意义。%In the Three-Year Difficult Time, drought, locust, water and other natural disasters caused serious damage and influence to agricultural production and people’ s life, leading food-deficit to people, large population outflow, edema disease popular and many people starve to death.To deal with the natural disasters Liangshan County issued relief money, save food, perish locust, drought relief.The study not only make us deeply understand the natural disasters in the Three -Year Difficult Time, but also understand the reasons of three years of economic difficulty, to today’ s disaster prevention, disaster reduction and relief also has important significance.

  5. 灾害救援中护理人员岗位胜任力指标体系的构建%Construction of a performance evaluation index system for disaster relief competency of nurses

    郭晓萱; 李红玉; 孙培阳; 李春静; 刘超


    Objective To establish a performance evaluation index system for disaster relief competency of nurses, and to provide references for training programs aimed at cultivating qualified disaster relief nurses. Methods Through literature review, semi-structure interviews and expert consultation, a tentative index system framework of evaluating nurse disaster relief competency was developed. Then the index system was verified by using Delphi method which involved 26 experts in 2 rounds of consultation. The weight of every index was set up by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and expert rating. Results The expert response rates for for two rounds of consultation were 86. 67% and 100% respectively. The coefficients of authority were 0. 88 and 0. 89,of variation were 0. 29 and 0. 18,and of coordination were 0. 38 and 0. 41 respectively for the first and second round. The final version of the index system consisted of 4 level 1 indicators (professional skills, professional quality, professional knowledge, and comprehensive quality, with the weights ranging 0. 2065 to 0. 3224), 12 second level indicators (disaster nursing fundamentals, disaster nursing skills, observation, mentality, etc, with the weights ranging 0.0302 to 0. 1625) and 56 third level indicators. Conclusion The experts consultation in the system construction is typical of its kind, and good credibility is achieved. The constructed performance evaluation index system for disaster relief competency of nurses, connects the characteristics of nursing work and disaster relief requirements closely, which makes it scientific and practical.%目的 构建一套适合评价灾害救援护士胜任能力的指标体系,为制定科学合理的灾害护士培训计划提供参考.方法 通过查阅文献、半结构式访谈、专家咨询的方法,初步拟定灾害救援护士胜任力评价指标体系;运用Delphi专家函询法对26名专家进行2轮函询,验证评价指标体系,并运用AHP层次分

  6. 基于直觉模糊距离法的堰塞湖减灾方案选优%Excellent Selection for Barrier Lakes Disaster Relief Schemes Based on Intuitionist Fuzzy Method

    王绍玉; 黄星


    针对堰塞湖减灾群决策信息的不确定性与模糊性,为解决不完全信息条件下属性指标及专家之间存在的相互关联群决策问题,综合运用直觉模糊集理论、海明距离原理和熵权理论,将直觉模糊距离群决策方法运用到堰塞湖减灾决策过程中.工程实例研究表明,运用直觉模糊距离法决策出的最优方案具有较高的区分度和敏感性,增强了决策的客观性、科学性,能为堰塞湖减灾决策提供更为可靠的依据,具有较强的实用价值.%According to the uncertainty and fuzzy of group decision information of barrier lake disaster relief, and in order to solve the correlation between the indicators and group decision experts under the condition of incomplete information, intuitionist fuzzy sets theory, Harming distance principle and entropy theory are comprehensively applied to solve the problems of barrier lake disaster relief decision in the decision-making process. Cases show that intuitionist fuzzy distance methods have a higher degree of differentiation and sensitivity and enhance the objectivity, science of the decision-making, the model can provide reliable bases for the barrier lake disaster relief decision-making and has a strong practical value.

  7. Fairness of vehicle allocation for disaster relief materials based on relative deprivation theory%基于相对剥夺理论的救灾物资运输车辆分配公平性

    胡志华; 董盼; 李清


    在救灾物资运输车辆分配问题上,重点关注车辆分配对灾区灾民心理的影响。基于相对剥夺模型对配送车辆进行分配,利用横向和纵向相对剥夺感评价车辆分配的公平性。首先,利用横向相对剥夺感评价不同种类物资运输车辆的分配公平性,分析救灾物资运输车辆分配失衡的原因;然后利用纵向相对剥夺感评价不同受灾地区车辆分配的公平性,得到均衡分配车辆的方法,使救灾物资的配送更加符合灾民需求。该方法可为决策者提供救灾物资运输车辆分配的依据,也可增强救灾物资配送的公平性。%On vehicle allocation for disaster relief materials,the psychological influence of vehicle alloca-tion on victims in disaster area is paid attention to. The vehicles are allocated based on the relative depri-vation theory,and the fairness of vehicle allocation is evaluated by the transverse and longitudinal relative deprivation. First,the fairness of vehicle allocation for different types of materials is evaluated by the transverse relative deprivation,and the reasons for unbalanced allocation of vehicles are identified. Then, the fairness of vehicle allocation for different disaster areas is evaluated by the longitudinal relative depri-vation,and the method to balanced allocation of vehicles is figured out,which make the resource alloca-tion meet the need of victims. This method provides reference for decision makers to allocate the vehicles for disaster relief materials,and enhances the allocation fairness of disaster relief materials.

  8. Disaster Relief and Recovery Services

    ... all-inclusive app. Find it in the Apple App Store or Google Play . © 2017 The American National Red Cross Terms & Conditions Privacy Policy Contact Us FAQ Mobile Apps x Sorry, we didn't recognize the zip ...

  9. Translocal disaster interventions:

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher


    to provide equal as well as equitable relief. Drawing attention to the practice of excluding the migrants households of origin from the receipt of targeted relief, the article suggests that disaster management should re-consider the assumption that such households are automatically (the sole) recipients......The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major point of origin of migrants worldwide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investigates citizens’ responses to the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I examine how individual migrants channel relief...... to their neighborhoods of origin through their networks of social relations abroad and within the areas of impact, and how these individual relief channels both complement and conflict with official disaster responses. Focusing on inter-household resource flows, I argue that individual relief channels form part of local...

  10. What Relief Agencies Should Know about the Educational Rights of Children and Youth Displaced by Disaster. Connecting Schools and Displaced Students Brief Series

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2015


    After disasters, displaced families long to return to a sense of normalcy. As such, reconnecting children and youth to school is especially important during this time. By providing the structure of the educational setting, schools can help children and youth overcome the trauma of a disaster and regain their academic and social stability. Once…

  11. 75 FR 52964 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ... a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and... a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance..., Harrison, Holt, Howard, Jackson, Lafayette, Lewis, Livingston, Mercer, Nodaway, Putnam, Ray, Schuyler...

  12. 78 FR 50436 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief..., Howard, Iron, Knox, Lewis, ] Lincoln, Maries, Marion, Miller, Montgomery, Osage, Perry, Pike, Putnam...

  13. 76 FR 44028 - Indiana; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency..., Jennings, Knox, Martin, Monroe, Ohio, Orange, Parke, Perry, Pike, Posey, Putnam, Ripley, Scott, Spencer...

  14. Relief Preparation Plan for Natural Disasters: a Stochastic Programming Model and Case%面向自然灾害的救援准备计划:随机规划模型与案例

    秦绪伟; 刘晓; 李凯


    在自然灾害频发区预置足够的救援设施和物资是灾后有效执行救援行动的基石.在有限救灾预算下,提出一个以最小化灾民伤亡期望人数为目标的两层随机规划模型.上层为灾前战略性决策,包括医院和临时安置点的能力扩展、储备库选址、物资储备量和各类车辆能力配置;下层为各灾难情景的应急作业性决策,包括伤员从灾难点到医院的转移、灾民从灾难点到安置点的运送、医疗物资从储备库到医院的补给和生活物资从储备库到安置点的配送.最后说明性案例验证救援准备计划随机模型的有效性.%The relief preparation of adequate facilities and resources in areas frequently struck by natural disasters is a cornerstone that guarantees the effective execution of relief operations. Within a limited budget, a two-stage stochastic programming model is developed with an aim to minimizing the expected number of casualties. The first stage of the model is focused on pre- disaster strategic decisions including the expansion of hospitals and shelters, the site selection of warehouses, the allocation of emergency supplies and relief vehicles, and the second stage is concerned with operational decisions on emergency logistics plans, including taking the wounded from disaster areas to hospitals, transferring the victims from disaster areas to shelters, sending the medical supplies from warehouses to hospitals and shelters, and dispatching the living materials from warehouses to resettlement areas. The computational results of an illustrative case prove the validity of the proposed stochastic optimization model.

  15. Post-traumatic stress disorder and depression prevalence and associated risk factors among local disaster relief and reconstruction workers fourteen months after the Great East Japan Earthquake: a cross-sectional study.

    Sakuma, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yoko; Ueda, Ikki; Sato, Hirotoshi; Katsura, Masahiro; Abe, Mikika; Nagao, Ayami; Suzuki, Yuriko; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuji, Ichiro; Matsuoka, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Kazunori


    Many local workers have been involved in rescue and reconstruction duties since the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) on March 11, 2011. These workers continuously confront diverse stressors as both survivors and relief and reconstruction workers. However, little is known about the psychological sequelae among these workers. Thus, we assessed the prevalence of and personal/workplace risk factors for probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and high general psychological distress in this population. Participants (N = 1294; overall response rate, 82.9%) were workers (firefighters, n = 327; local municipality workers, n = 610; hospital medical workers, n = 357) in coastal areas of Miyagi prefecture. The study was cross-sectional and conducted 14 months after the GEJE using a self-administered questionnaire which included the PTSD Checklist-Specific Version, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the K6 scale. Significant risk factors from bivariate analysis, such as displacement, dead or missing family member(s), near-death experience, disaster related work, lack of communication, and lack of rest were considered potential factors in probable PTSD, probable depression, and high general psychological distress, and were entered into the multivariable logistic regression model. The prevalence of probable PTSD, probable depression, and high general psychological distress was higher among municipality (6.6%, 15.9%, and 14.9%, respectively) and medical (6.6%, 14.3%, and 14.5%, respectively) workers than among firefighters (1.6%, 3.8%, and 2.6%, respectively). Lack of rest was associated with increased risk of PTSD and depression in municipality and medical workers; lack of communication was linked to increased PTSD risk in medical workers and depression in municipality and medical workers; and involvement in disaster-related work was associated with increased PTSD and depression risk in municipality workers. The present results

  16. 明清徽州火灾及徽商的救助%Fire Disasters in Hui Region and Hui Business People’ s Relief in Ming and Qing Dynasties



    The fire disasters in Hui region are usually seasonal and regional though it may caused by people or nature .The fire disaster here is partly due to its own characters .The busi-ness people of Hui were humanistic and often provided aid for precaution and relief after disas -ters and therefore ease the disasters .%徽州地区的火灾具有季节集中性和地点集中性,发生的原因有人为的,也有自然的。由于徽州地区自身因素,徽州火灾的危害也极为严重。然而,具有儒士品格的徽商在火灾发生之前的预防举措和灾后的救助,使这里的火灾受害程度得以减轻。徽商对徽州地区火灾救助给予了很大的帮助。

  17. Soon After the Disaster

    LI LI


    @@ China's disaster relief departments have initiated a first-class emergency response for disaster relief in the wake of a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that hit Qinghai Province at 7:49 a.m.on April 14. The decision was made by the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Committee for Disaster Reduction at noon of the same day.As of 4:30 p.m.April 15,the shallow earthquake with its epicenter in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in the province has left at least 760 people dead,11,477 others injured and around 100,000 homeless,local authorities say.

  18. 基于灾情信息更新的应急物资配送多目标随机规划模型%Multi-objective stochastic programming model for relief allocation based on disaster scenario information updates

    詹沙磊; 刘南


    This paper addressed a multi-supplier multi-affected area multi-relief and multi-vehicle emer-gency vehicles location, path selection and relief allocation problem. Considering the inherent trade-off between disaster forecast accuracy and logistics cost efficiency, a multi-objective stochastic programming model was proposed. The features were: the demand and availability of relief-allocation path were stochas-tic, and there were coverage limits for relief suppliers to cover affected areas. The multi-objective program-ming model was transformed into a single-objective programming model by the use of a weighted Bayes risk; and the proposed model was transformed into an optimal stopping problem by designing a decision rule. The model was solved by using Xpress. Numerical results indicate the velocity and accuracy of the model and software, and demonstrate the superiority of two-stage stochastic programming and disaster scenario information updates respectively.%研究了多出救点、多受灾点、多物资、多车型的应急车辆选址、路径选择和物资配送问题.考虑到灾害预测准确性和物流成本效率之间的悖反关系,从多目标规划和随机规划的角度,建立了应急物资配送的多目标随机规划模型.建模中同时考虑需求和配送路径连通性的随机性,以及出救点对受灾点的最大覆盖范围限制.将统计决策与运筹规划相结合,设计一个加权贝叶斯风险将多目标规划问题转化为单目标规划问题,以及设计一个决定最优停止观测时刻的决策规则使原问题转化为最优停止问题.通过Xpress软件编程求解.最后,算例分析表明了模型和软件的求解速率与精度,并分别证明了两阶段随机规划和灾情信息更新的优势.

  19. Analysis on the responsibility of nurses in disaster relief%灾害救援护士职责的分析

    张燕飞; 张继红; 吴超; 高恩香; 刘子泉


    In recent years, the increasing natural and man-made disasters all have a certain impact on countries around the world. As an important partner in rescue team, nurses together with other professionals are active at the forefront of disaster, and make a significant contribution to promote and maintain the physical and mental health of the affected people through their own professional knowledge and skills. The author mainly discussed nurses’ responsibility from the aspects of disaster preparedness and response, etc. in order to strengthen the ability of nurses’ social prevention and response to a variety of disasters.%近些年来,自然灾害及人为灾害的不断增加,对世界各国均产生了一定的影响。护士作为重要的合作伙伴与团队成员,同其他专业人员共同活跃在灾害最前沿,通过自身专业知识及技能的展现,为促进、维护受灾群众的身心健康做出了重大贡献。笔者主要从灾害预防准备、应对等方面阐述护士职责,强化护士的社会预防与应对各种灾害的能力。

  20. Analysis of the Capabilities Supporting Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations of the Indonesian Navy (TNI AL) and the United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit (USMC MEU)


    provides a cost effective means to protect the nation’s interest while maintaining a deterrent posture through global power projection. The United...Preemptive Deployment of Assets  Phased Deployment of Assets  Surge of Supplies and Services  Logistics Posture Disaster Lifecycle Response Phase...necessary shelter and hygienic resources 21 required to prevent the loss of life from exposure to the elements or unsanitary conditions. B. INDONESIAN

  1. Developing a Fly-Away-Kit (FLAK) to Support Hastily Formed Networks (HFN) for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR)


    most people will agree that the global response to this disaster was unprecedented. It is the author’s belief that the greatest lesson learned is that...interface connecting to the satellite connection first before any remote configuring could be accomplished. The following list of lessons learned is...James L.; Perry, Michael W. Comunication During ComplexHmanitarian Emergencies: Using Technology to Bridge the Gap. Master Thesis. Naval

  2. The great East Japan earthquake disaster: a compilation of published literature on health needs and relief activities, march 2011-september 2012.

    Ochi, Sae; Murray, Virginia; Hodgson, Susan


    Objective To provide an overview of the health needs following the Great East Japan Earthquake Disaster and the lessons identified. Methods The relevant of peer review and grey literature articles in English and Japanese, and books in Japanese, published from March 2011 to September 2012 were searched. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and HMIC were searched for journal articles in English, CiNii for those in Japanese, and for books. Descriptions of the health needs at the time of the disaster were identified using search terms and relevant articles were reviewed. Findings 85 English articles, 246 Japanese articles and 13 books were identified, the majority of which were experience/activity reports. Regarding health care needs, chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes were reported to be the greatest burden from the early stages of the disaster. Loss of medication and medical records appeared to worsen the situation. Many sub-acute symptoms were attributed to the contaminated sludge of the tsunamis and the poor living environment at the evacuation centres. Particularly vulnerable groups were identified as the elderly, those with mental health illnesses and the disabled. Although the response of the rescue activities was prompt, it sometimes failed to meet the on-site needs due to the lack of communication and coordination. Conclusion The lessons identified from this mega-disaster highlighted the specific health needs of the vulnerable populations, particularly the elderly and those with non-communicable diseases. Further research is needed so that the lessons identified can be incorporated into future contingency plans in Japan and elsewhere.

  3. Enhancing Trilateral Disaster Preparedness and Relief Cooperation between Japan, U.S. and Australia: Approaches from Various Civil-Military Perspectives


    not well coordinated, as in the case of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, where key stakeholders were sometimes preoccupied with carving up disaster zones...Southeast Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines , Vietnam) and Pacific Island countries. This ongoing commitment positions Australia as the 9th largest overall...Forces serving as the linchpin. This implies that the ROK, Thailand and the Philippines , also allied countries with the U.S., may also have the

  4. Study on Post-Earthquake Disaster Relief Material Distribution Based on Accessibile Road Network%基于震后可用路网的应急救援物资配送路径方案研究

    李悦; 翁迅


    This paper proposes the framework for a 3-step model for decision-making in post-earthquake relief material distribution, with time optimization as the main concern. The paper first analyzes the characteristics of the different stages of disaster relief and recovery. Then it builds the accessible road network by statistical inference of the network connectivity after the earthquake using Monte Carb simulation and evaluates the transferring time by using wave theory and thus obtains the road network diagram weighted by access time from multiple distribution centers to the stricken area. Finally after comprehensively analyzing and comparing multiple optional routes, the paper arrives at the distribution route with the shortest possible relief time and the longest possible length of accessible road.%提出了决策震后应急救援物资配送路径方案三步骤理论,以时间效益最大目标为原则,建模分析了不同阶段救灾物资配送特点.首先运用Monte Carb模拟技术对网络连通性进行统计判断,形成对震后可用路网的重新构建.接着运用波动理论进行通行时间评估,得到全国多个物资配送中心多条到需求灾区的基于时间权值的可用路网图.最后对多个配送路线进行综合分析,建立最长救助时间最短的配送路线选择模型.

  5. Optimization model and its algorithm for mobilization of disaster relief of non-war operations%面向抢险救灾非战争军事行动的动员优化模型及算法

    刘亚杰; 张涛; 雷洪涛; 郭波


    鉴于抢险救灾非战争军事行动应急动员的组织和调度不仅面临多种不确定性因素的影响,还要考虑多救援品的前送、伤病员的后送以及受灾群众的转移等多类需求,建立了一个两阶段多目标随机整数规划模型.以最大化系统的综合满意度期望值且最小化系统的总体期望动员成本,其决策对象包括各类救援品、医疗设施、临时安置场的扩容水平等非情景变量以及每种情景下的运输调度总体预案,并根据模型的结构特点提出了一种基于情景分解的快速求解算法.最后,通过数据实例对所建模型和所提算法的有效性进行了验证.%In organizing and scheduling the mobilization of disaster relief of non-war operations, some necessary issues, i.e. , the uncertainty environment conditions, the varied requirements on forward-transportation of multi-commodities, backward-delivery of wounded people and the transfer of displaced population, must be concerned. A two-stage stochastic mixed integer model with multiple objectives for disaster relief mobilization is proposed to determine the scenario-independent decision variables that include the expandable levels of relief commodities, medical facilities and temporary shelters, as well as the overall transportation plans under each scenario. The objectives of the proposed model are to maximize the overall expected satisfaction ratio while minimizing the expected cost of the mobilization system. Furthermore, an efficient heuristic algorithm with the concept of scenario decomposition is developed according to the structure of the proposed model. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed model and the algorithm is validated by a data case.

  6. 玉树地震伤病员空中急救转运初论%The role of air channel in disaster relief and medical rescue: experience from Yushu Earthquake



    On 14 April 2010 a Richter magnitude 7 earthquake occurred in Yushu Pefecture, Qinghai Province, and caused heavy disruption in traffic and communications, health facilities, and electrical and water supply.In addition, there was a shortage of medical staff.Many seriously ill and injured persons needed to be transferred to proper hospitals.Three hours after the earthquake, the Yushu Batang Airport was open again, and 8 hours later the first professional rescue team and the first batch of disaster relief materials, including first aid equipments, stretchers, and drugs, and then daily necessities, arrived.During 72 hours 1100 severely injured patients were evacuated to Xining, the provincial capital, and then to the hospitals there, a small part was sent to Xi' an or Lanzhou via highway transportation.During 14 April to 7 May, altogether 14178 person-times of disaster relief staff members and 4458 injured persons were transported by airplanes.The practice showed that the air channel is very important in disaster relief and medical rescue.The Civil Aviation Administration of China has already developed a pre-plan for medical rescue in emergent public events.Disasters and accidents often occur in China.The civil aviation shoulders a heavy responsibility%目的 探讨"空中急救"的必要性和紧迫性.方法 对2010年青海玉树地震的空中急救进行回顾性分析,提出了空中救援体系建设的展望.结果 自2010年4月14日~5月7日,民航运送各类抗震救灾人员14 178人次,物资1 406吨,转运伤员4 459人次,无一例空中转运死亡病例,也未造成一例因转运不当所致的伤病员二次损伤.结果 表明,传统的、封闭的、单一的救护活动已无法满足当代社会生活工作的特点和日益增加的急救需求,政府统一指挥,各方救援力量团结协作,救援方案科学、有效落实,实现了民航应急救护参加社会救援的重大突破.结论 "空中急救"是一个系统的组织架构、

  7. 75 FR 58419 - Tennessee; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ... Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Cocke, Hardin, Jackson, Macon, Overton, Pickett, Putnam, Smith, and Wayne Counties for Public Assistance...

  8. National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service


    @@ The groundbreaking ceremony for National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service was held on January 22,2008 in Beijing.The establishment of the center will further improve the disaster monitoring system using remote sensing technology and provides a platform for the application of remote sensing technology and satellite constellation in China's disaster reduction and relief services.

  9. 明清时期陕北疫灾及其社会应对述论%On the Plagues and the Relevant Disaster Relief in Northern Shaanxi in Ming and Qing Dynasties



    明清时期,受自然、社会等因素的影响,陕北地区鼠疫、霍乱、天花等疫灾频发。这些疫灾大多爆发于春、夏、秋季节,且在空间分布上表现出鲜明的地域性特征。面对频发多变的各种疫灾,明清朝野采取了蠲免赋税等一系列应对措施。但宥于时代,尤其是陕北地区相对落后的社会经济以及有限的救灾能力,各种疫灾仍给陕北地区造成了很大危害,甚而加剧了社会矛盾,成为引发陕北农民起义的重要因素之一。%Due to its natural and social factors during Ming and Qing dynasties,plagues broke out frequently in northern Shaanxi,such as pestilence,cholera,smallpox and so forth,which mainly erupted in Spring,Autumn and Winter,but there were evident differences among areas.Faced with the complicated plagues,the governments of the Ming and Qing took a series of measures to provide disaster relief,such as tax-exempt,as well as the local governments and the local people.However,limited by the actuality of that age,especially the relatively backward society and economy and the limited ability of relief,plagues still caused great damage to the folks of the northern Shaanxi,and also intensified the social contradictions and become one of the most important factors which initiated peasant rebellions of northern Shaanxi.

  10. 赴川救灾志愿者替代性创伤调查研究%Investigations on the Status of Vicarious Trauma of Disaster Relief Volunteers in the Wenchuan Earthquake

    李丽娜; 崔向军; 高志华; 张珊珊; 杨莉莉; 苑杰


    Objective To explore the status of vicarious trauma among disaster relief volunteers in the Wenchuan earthquake.Methods A total of 300 volunteers who had participated in the disaster relief work during Wenchuan earthquake were investigated using " vicarious traumatization questionnaire" hy Han Xue.Results Of the 291 volunteers.11 ( 3.80% ) showed total scores for vicarious trauma higher than the theoretical median, 69 ( 23.70% ) showed belief - in - life scores higher than the theoretical median, 36 ( 12.40% ) showed cognitive response scores higher than the theoretical median, with significant differences ( P < 0.05 ).Females scored higher in total scores, emotional response.behavior response.belief - in - life.and physical response with significant differences ( P < 0.05 ); volunteers with lower degrees of education scored higher than those with higher degrees in total scores.emotional response, cognitive response, and physical response physical response ( P <0.05 ); single volunteers scored higher than married ones in helief - in - life, but lower in physical response ( P <0.05 ).Volunteers who had worked for l ~ 2 weeks in the disaster area scored higher than those who had worked in the disaster area for more than a month in emotional response, cognitive response , physical response and total score for vicarious trauma ( P <0.05 ) ; volunteers who had worked for l ~ 2 weeks in the disaster area scored higher than those who had worked in the disaster area for 3 ~4 weeks in cognitive response and total score ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Vicarious trauma status tend to be more serious in females.lower education population, and single volunteers; volunteers who had shorter working experiences in the disaster area showed more serious vicarious trauma than those with longer experiences.%目的 探讨赴川救灾志愿者替代性创伤状况.方法 对300名参加汶川地震的救灾志愿者采用 "灾难救助者替代性

  11. 49 CFR 601.41 - Petitions for relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for relief. 601.41 Section 601.41... Transportation Systems § 601.41 Petitions for relief. In the case of a national or regional emergency or disaster... for temporary relief from the provisions of any policy statement, circular, guidance document or rule. ...

  12. Applying Disaster Medicine Theory in Medical Rescue in Earthquake Relief%灾难医学理论在抗震救灾医疗救援中的应用

    樊震林; 周伟平; 连斌


    In the situation of serious earthquake, numerous disadvantages may occur, such as the wide distribution of the in-juries, the vile condition of medical treatment as well as the heavy traffic jams etc and all these factors make it difficult for com-manders to direct the troops, so the earthquake relief seems troublesome. The article probed into the way to use the theories of dis-aster medicine to direct the relieving mission under the terrible condition, and try to achieve the goal of scientific organization, ra-tional rescue and to play the medical troops' role to the full.%在特大地震灾害条件下,由于人员伤亡分布广,医疗环境简陋,加上交通受阻等因素,造成组织指挥难度大,抗震救灾医疗救治任务艰巨.探讨了在这种条件下,运用灾难医学理论指导抗震救灾医疗救援工作,旨在做到科学组织,理性救治,最大程度发挥医疗队作用.

  13. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1-5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts.

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram


    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1-5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need.

  14. Depth relief

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van


    A study is reported of the depth relief in a simple three-dimensional scene consisting of a white, rough sphere on a planar support, illuminated in a natural manner. Viewing conditions included monocular and binocular as well as 'synoptical' viewing. In the synoptical condition the eyes are

  15. Empirical Study on the Evaluation of Marine Disaster Relief Capability in China --A case study of Shanghai storm surge%我国海洋灾害救助能力评价的实证研究——以上海风暴潮为例

    黄瑞芬; 王燕; 夏帆


    借鉴相关学者构建的地震灾害应急准备能力评价指标体系,针对海洋灾害特点和当前海洋灾害救助体系结构内容,建立海洋灾害救助的三级评价模型。然后选择上海风暴潮进行灾害救助能力的实证分析、评价。结果表明,上海灾害救助体系较为完善,具有较强的救助能力。%This article is based on the emergency capability evaluation system against earthquake established by schorlars. According to the characters of current marine disaster and the system of marine disaster relief, we build a three-level evaluation model for m

  16. 武警部队参与抢险救灾组织指挥的程序和重点问题%Key points and procedures of organization and command of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force participating in rescue and disaster relief

    何敬和; 郭季平; 王寻


    为实现抢险救灾行动的组织指挥能力的全面提升,需要具备高效快速的指挥机构和完善的信息化指挥网络,并加快构建灾情资源信息保障和支持系统,实行现场指挥和联合决策,做到快速反应、动态调控。笔者主要探讨了抢险救灾组织指挥程序的关键环节及组织指挥应该把握的重点问题,为全面提高武警部队遂行抢险救灾行动的组织指挥能力,建立健全信息化指挥网络和快速高效的指挥机构提供参考。%In order to achieve the goal of improving organization and command of disaster rescue and disaster relief, it’s essential to build up a highly efficient rapid commanding agency and perfect information network, and speed up the construction of disaster information resources and support system. The author mainly presented the key link and important points of organization and command, so as to comprehensively improve the competency of organization and command in rescue and disaster relief of Chinese People’s Armed Police Force, establish and strengthen information command network and rapid and efficient commanding agency.

  17. Method of disposal of dead bodies of victims and disease prevention during disaster relief%海地地震中搜救现场尸体的终末处置与疾病预防

    曹力; 侯世科; 樊毫军; 韩伟


    Objective To explore methods of disposal of dead bodies of victims and disease prevention dur-ing disaster relief. Method After the Haiti earthquake, the Chinese government dispatched a Chinese internation-al rescue team on a chartered plane to help Haiti out of the aftermath of Tuesday' s magnitude - 7.3 earthquake.Rescue personnel implemented the search and rescue activities in Port-an-associated collapse of the ruins. They es-tablished the process of disposal of dead bodies, including identification, disinfection, bagging, mourning, cold storage, transport, and so on. Results Chinese international rescue team duged out 15 bodies. They disposed the dead bodies scientifically, and didn' t cause infectious diseases on the rescue personnel. Conclusions The dis-posal of dead bodies during search is different from that in hospital. Rescue personnel should prevent such disease as blood-borne infectious diseases, intestinal infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, and also carry out the early intervention for psychological crisis.%目的 探讨在灾害救援中遇难者尸体终末处置与疾病预防的方法.方法 2010年1月13日海地地震发生后,中国政府紧急派出中国国际救援队前往赴海地受灾国进行人道主义救援.搜救人员在太子港联海团坍塌废墟现场实施搜救过程,并建立搜救现场状态下的尸体终末处置流程:辨认、消毒、包裹、再消毒、装袋、搬运、转运、悼念、冷藏、运输(转运).结果 中国国际救援队陆续挖掘出15具尸体,科学处置尸体,未造成直接救援人员感染性疾病.结论 在搜救现场尸体终末处置不同与医院内.搜救人员要预防血源性传染病、肠道传染病、呼吸系统疾病等,同时还要进行早期心理危机干预.

  18. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz


    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  19. International community rallies for disaster relief


    Jaapanis toimunud ÜRO konverentsi teemadeks olid kliima soojenemine ja katastroofide ennetamine. Konverentsil Leedu delegatsiooni juhtinud siseministeeriumi ametniku sõnul asub riik suhteliselt väiksema riskiga looduskatastroofide riski piirkonnas, samas puudub Leedul vajalik tehnoloogia loodusõnnetuste prognoosimiseks

  20. International community rallies for disaster relief


    Jaapanis toimunud ÜRO konverentsi teemadeks olid kliima soojenemine ja katastroofide ennetamine. Konverentsil Leedu delegatsiooni juhtinud siseministeeriumi ametniku sõnul asub riik suhteliselt väiksema riskiga looduskatastroofide riski piirkonnas, samas puudub Leedul vajalik tehnoloogia loodusõnnetuste prognoosimiseks

  1. 76 FR 19117 - Missouri; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Miller, Moniteau, Monroe, Montgomery, Morgan, Newton, Osage, Pettis, Platte, Polk, Pulaski, Putnam, Ralls...

  2. 77 FR 54600 - Ohio; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ... 20, 2012, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Muskingum, Noble, Paulding, Perry, Pickaway, Pike, Putnam, Shelby, Van Wert, and Washington Counties for...

  3. 76 FR 19116 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations


    ..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and...Donough, McHenry, Menard, Mercer, Morgan, Moultrie, Ogle, Peoria, Pike, Putnam, Richland, Rock Island...

  4. 绩效管理理论在护士灾害救援综合素质培养中应用价值探讨%Application of performance management on overall training quality training for the nurse who participating in disaster relief mission

    白妙春; 冯春燕; 吴翔; 孙晓莎


    Objective Explore the theory of performance management in the training for the nurses who participate in disaster rescue mission in order to improve their quality of the service.Methods Used questionnaires,matching research methods,the use of quantitative evaluation of pedormance management systems,disaster relief comprehensive ability of nurses dynamic testing,disaster relief training results overall quality of the application narrative case reduction method to evaluate the form of the rescue team,and with the previous regular training results of comparative studies.Results This research study period lasted for two years,training the initial value,final value,the difference is the statistical analysis,the difference was significant,all the recent disaster relief training of nurses overall quality objective evaluation,subjective evaluation,the results were to achieve the desired objectives.Conclusion Enhanced process management is to enhance the overall quality of nursing class research an important guarantee to be implemented in practice,focus on results--effective two-way dynamic process management that performance management form,the overall quality of disaster relief nurse refine,quantify,operationalized,is to improve the management of nursing training execution of an important idea and methodology from the performance management theory.Performance management theory,especially in this theory,derived on the basis of performance management dynamic,quantitative evaluation system in disaster relief nurses overall quality of training applications have a definite value,worthy of promotion.%目的 探讨绩效管理理论在培养护士灾害救援能力,提高护士灾害救援综合素质方面的应用价值.方法 采用问卷调查、配对研究方法,运用绩效管理量化评价系统,对护士灾害救援综合能力进行动态测试,灾害救援综合素质的培训结果应用叙事性案例还原法,以团队救援形式评价,

  5. 78 FR 8691 - Notice of Availability of Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy


    ... reimbursed under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Stafford Act, 42 U.S.C... under section 401 of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5170... a 100 percent Federal share: Bronx, Kings, Orange, Nassau, New York, Putnam, Queens, Richmond...

  6. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...


    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902... Employment and Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief...

  7. 将儿童心理危机干预纳入灾难心理救援教学体系的意义和模式探讨%Discussion on the Significance and Mode of Inserting Children Psychological Crisis Intervention Into Teaching System of Disaster Psychological Relief

    崔永华; 闫俊娟


    我国目前的灾难心理救援工作尚不太成熟,其对应的教学体系还有很多需要完善的方面,其中儿童心理危机干预是最薄弱的一环。灾后儿童心理危机干预模式有很多不同于成人心理危机干预模式的地方,所以深入进行灾后儿童心理危机干预模式的研究,对于不断完善灾难心理救援教学体系将具有重要意义。%Psychological relief work of disaster and corresponding teaching system is still not impeccable now in China, in which child psychological crisis intervention is the most feeble. There are a lot of differences in the mode of psychological crisis intervention between children and adults. It is very important to make great efforts to study the mode of child psychological crisis intervention, which will contribute to the perfection of teaching system of disaster psychological relief.

  8. 20 CFR 416.1237 - Assistance received on account of major disaster.


    ... disaster. 416.1237 Section 416.1237 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... on account of major disaster. (a) Assistance received under the Disaster Relief and Emergency... declared to be a major disaster by the President of the United States or comparable assistance...

  9. 20 CFR 416.1150 - How we treat income received because of a major disaster.


    ... major disaster. 416.1150 Section 416.1150 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Disasters § 416.1150 How we treat income received because of a major disaster. (a) General. The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act...

  10. Health after disaster: A perspective of psychological/health reactions to disaster

    Ursula Martin


    Full Text Available Superstorm Sandy, which affected millions of people in 2012, was a disaster in structural, financial, medical, and emotional terms. Many survivors experienced post-storm health psychology impacts. Depression levels increased by 25%, and physician visits were elevated by a significant amount. Clearly, large-scale disasters have a profound effect on the physical and emotional health of survivors. Understanding these effects can improve future disaster relief programs and policies. Exploration of post-disaster issues can inform government entities and non-government organizations to assist communities and individuals left in the aftermath of natural disasters.

  11. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An


    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  12. 从三一重工的救灾事件看工业品牌的营销策略%An Analysis of the Industrial Brand Marketing Strategy from Disaster Relief Event of Sany Heavy Industry



    In March 2011,the 9.0 magnitude earthquake occurred in Japan,resulting in a serious nuclear leakage event.Japanese government urgently bought pump trucks for nuclear power plants from Sany Heavy Industry and this corporation volunteered to present extra-long pump trucks to the government for disaster relief purpose.Sany's event marketing has won a high attention both at home and abroad and enhanced its product sales and corporate brand image.Event marketing is an important brand communication means of industrial brand.Final consuming groups of industrial brand are industrial enterprises.So the industrial brand event marketing must highlight the core competitiveness of its products.Industrial brand event marketing must carefully choose marketing events.Publicity and planning of events marketing must focus on the correlation of enterprise,product and event.Industrial enterprises should establish coping mechanisms for event marketing,actively utilize amplification and seize the chance to propagate,integrate various media resources and conduct long-term product publicity and brand communication in order to create a good brand image and effectively promote the sale of industrial products.%2011年3月日本发生9级大地震,造成了严重的核泄漏事件,日本政府紧急向三一重工购买核电站注水泵车,三一重工主动为日本赠送超长泵车救灾,三一重工的救灾事件营销赢得了国内外的高度关注,提升了三一重工的产品销量与企业品牌形象。事件营销是工业品牌的重要品牌传播手段,工业品牌的终端消费群体为工业企业,因此,工业品牌的事件营销必须重点突出其产品的核心竞争力。工业品牌的事件营销必须慎重选择营销事件,事件营销的宣传与策划必须注意企业、产品、事件的关联性,工业企业要建立事件营销应对机制,积极利用造势和借势传播,整合各类媒介资源,对工业品牌进行长期的产品宣传与品牌传

  13. The evaluation and intervention of psychological trauma of the fire fighters took part in WENCHUAN earthquake post-disaster relief%对参加汶川地震救援的消防战士心理创伤的评估与干预

    赵长江; 黎雪松; 谢国军; 容倩华; 伍丽华


    Objective To assessment the mental health status and the effects of implementation of psychological intervention on the maintenance of health, treatment and prevention of secondary psychological trauma of the fire fighters take part in post-disaster relief. Methods 33 fire fighters who took part in postdisaster relief was set as Study Group, and then randomly selected 33 fire fighters who did not take part in post-disaster relief as the control group. The Study Group used collective, group and one-to-one psychological counseling for psychological intervention. Six months later, evaluate the psychological condition of the study group. Results After psychological intervention, the fire fighters who took part in post-disaster relief feel better than before, emotional stability, and flashback symptoms disappeared; the experience of anxiety and fear rapid alleviated. Psychological intervention can assist them in passing through the psychological trauma, reducing the adverse effects of post-disaster psychological stimulate factors and protect and enhance the mental health level of fire fighters. Conclusion Early psychological intervention for fire fighters psychological problems and psychological trauma occurred in the course of relief has a significant effect. psychological intervention can help the fire fighters proventing the secondary psychological traumas.%目的 了解参加灾后救援的消防战士的心理健康状况和实施心理干预对维护健康、治疗与防范二级心理创伤的效果.方法 将33名参加灾后救援的消防战士设为研究组,再随机抽取33名未参加救援的消防战士设为对照驵,对研究组采用集体心理辅导、小组心理辅导和一对一心理辅导进行心理干预;半年后对研究组重新进行心理评估.结果 参加救援消防战士心理干预感受良好,情绪减低、闪回症状基本消失,焦虑、恐惧体验等迅速缓解,心理干预能够帮助他们渡过心理创伤,减少灾后

  14. Human Response to Natural Disasters

    Dara Nix-Stevenson


    Full Text Available This study elaborates on the connection between socioeconomic status, education, and the ability to respond to natural disasters. Using the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and other natural disasters as teachable moments, I foreground how uneven access to resources and capital leave some people more vulnerable than others to natural disasters and how marginal communities inevitably bear the accompanying repercussions of who gets what, when, and how much in the postdisaster emergency relief and reconstruction phase. This occurs not necessarily and merely through a “natural” disaster, as the Boxer Day Tsunami or Hurricane Katrina, but through processes of social, political, and economic disempowerment associated with prior racialized histories and inequitable access to cultural capital.

  15. Historical and projected costs of natural disasters

    Engi, D.


    Natural disasters cause billions of dollars of damage and thousands Of deaths globally each year. While the magnitude is clear, the exact costs (in damage and fatalities) are difficult to clearly identify. This document reports on the results of a survey of data on the costs associated with significant natural disasters. There is an impressive amount of work and effort going into natural disaster research, mitigation, and relief. However, despite this effort, there are surprisingly few consistent and reliable data available regarding the effects of natural disasters. Even lacking consistent and complete data, it is clear that the damage and fatalities from natural disasters are increasing, both in the United States, and globally. Projections using the available data suggest that, in the United States alone, the costs of natural disasters between 1995 and 2010 will be in the range of $90 billion (94$) and 5000 lives.

  16. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang


    relief experience. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:310-317).

  17. Reflection on Disaster and Disaster Economy

    LIU Zhonggui


    The paper mainly deals with disaster and presents a discussion and analysis of disaster economy study and its development. It also addresses some noteworthy issues in disaster economy study with a view to promoting disaster prevention and reduction.

  18. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response


    events ranging from the contamination of the Love Canal, the Cuban refugee crisis, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Loma ... Prieta Earthquake, and Hurricane Andrew. In 1993, during the Clinton Administration, FEMA initiated reforms that both streamlined disaster and relief...deploy teams and resources to maximize the speed and effectiveness of the anticipated federal response and, when necessary, performs preparedness and

  19. Disaster Research

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around ke...

  20. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy


    ... significant spending cuts known as sequestration and is unavailable for Hurricane Sandy disaster relief. The... January 29, 2013. FTA announced individual allocations on a rolling basis beginning March 6, 2013. Table...

  1. Research progress in disaster nursing competency framework of nurses in China

    Si-Mu Li


    Full Text Available All types of frequent natural disasters, which seriously threaten the safety of human life and property, have become a great challenge all over the world. The dangerous and changeable environment in emergency rescue demands higher requirements for competency of the nurses who respond to a disaster. Disaster nursing combines medical science, sociology, psychology, and other disciplines; thus, it has become a comprehensive interdisciplinary branch of nursing. Disaster nursing has just recently been introduced to our country and is still in the stage of exploration. Nurses comprise the largest rescue force on disaster relief teams; therefore, disaster nursing competency is influential on the disaster response and recovery of victims after a disaster. Thus, this paper defines the concepts and elements of disaster nursing, including disaster nursing skill requirements and architectural framework. It will provide an important contribution to improving the overall level and comprehensive quality of disaster nursing competency of nurses in China.

  2. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... your ability to function, you don't find relief from OTC drugs, or you experience allergy symptoms ...


    Himanshu A. Joshi


    Full Text Available With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various natural disasters, which strikes causing devastating impact on human life, economy and environment. Though it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damaged caused by the disaster it is possible to minimize potential risks by developing early warning strategies. “Efficient management of Disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad.” Hospitals play a key role in Management of the affected population by providing immediate and effective treatment at the site and in the hospital. Considering the wide range of disasters and no bar for time, place and people it requires immediate intervention, and this management would be an extension of emergency or casualty services of hospital. It adds an extra load to hospital, functions, and to cope up this situation it requires to have a systematic, planned and effective approach. In this article, I have discussed a model disaster management plan for a hospital, clinical principles of management of casualties and specific problems of Disaster Management. A guide line for operational framework to face disaster in the form of Disaster manual is suggested for each hospital. A preplanned disaster management plan according to this guideline would provide an edge to a hospital in such crucial situations and in turn will serve the humanity & society.

  4. Emergency Vehicle Scheduling Problem with Time Utility in Disasters

    Xiaobing Gan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible emergency rescue system which is chiefly composed of three parts, namely, disaster assistance center, relief vehicles, and disaster areas. A novel objective of utility maximization is used to evaluate the entire system in disasters. Considering the uncertain road conditions in the relief distribution, we implement triangular fuzzy number to calculate the vehicle velocity. As a consequence, a fuzzy mathematical model is built to maximize the utility of emergency rescue system and then converted to the crisp counterpart. Finally, the results of numerical experiments obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO prove the validity of this proposed mathematical model.

  5. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  6. The research and application of earthquake disaster comprehensive evaluation

    Guo, Hongmei; Chen, Weifeng


    All disaster relief operations of the government after a destructive earthquake are dependent on earthquake disaster information, including command decision、rescue force deployment、dispatch of relief supplies etc. Earthquake disaster information is the most important requirements during earthquake emergency response and emergency disposal period. The macro disaster information, including distribution of disaster area 、personnel casualty scale etc,determines the disaster relief scale and response level. The specific disaster information determines the process and details of specific rescue operations. In view of the importance of earthquake disaster information, experts have been devoted to the study of seismic hazard assessment and acquisition, mainly from two aspects: improving the pre-assessment accuracy of the disaster and enriching the disaster information acquisition means. The problem is that the experts have carried out in-depth research from a certain aspect, they usually focus on optimizing pre-evaluation method、refining and updating basic data、 establishing new disaster information access channels, while ignoring the comprehensive use of various methods and means。 According to several devastating earthquake emergency disposal experience of sichuan province in recent years, this paper presents a new earthquake disaster comprehensive evaluation technology, in which Multi-disaster information source coordination, multi-faceted research field expert's complementarity coordination, rear and on-site coordination, multi-sectoral multi-regional coordination were taken into account. On this basis, Earthquake disaster comprehensive evaluation system with expert experience has been established. Based on the pre-assessment, the system can combine the background information of the disaster area such as seismic geological background and socioeconomic backgrounds, with disaster information from various sources to realize the fusion and mining of multi

  7. The German approach to emergency/disaster management.

    Domres, B; Schauwecker, H H; Rohrmann, K; Roller, G; Maier, G W; Manger, A


    Disaster control and disaster relief in Germany are public tasks. But the government has shifted the responsibility of the administration of these tasks to the 16 states, the so called "Lander", because the EFG is a federal republic. The same is valid for the civil defense and the civil protection in the case of military or international risks. The 16 states are also responsible for the legislation of rescue service, fire fighting service and disaster control (natural and technical disasters). Counties and district-free cities are responsible for the organisation of these services. The German system is based on the principle of subsidiary between official and private institutions. A lot of official and private relief organisations are responsible for the execution of disaster relief tasks. In Germany the following organisations exist: Official (GO): Technisches Hilfswerk (THW/Federal Technical Support Service), Feuerwehren (Fire Brigades/professionals and volunteers) Academie of Emergency Planning and Civil Defense Private (NGO): Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund Deutschland (ASB/Workers' Samaritan Association Germany), Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbruchiger (DGzRS, German Lifesaving Association), Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross), Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe (JUH/St. John's Ambulance), Malteser Hilfsdienst (MEID/Maltese-Relief-Organisation). ASB, DRK, JUH and MHD are specialised in the field of rescue, medical and welfare services and medical disaster relief. 80% of the German rescue service and 95% of the German disaster medical relief are realised by these NGO's. NGO's and GO's employ more than 1.2 million volunteers and appr. 100,000 professionals. Rescue service is carried out by professionals, disaster relief by volunteers. The German constitution allows to call the federal army in case of disaster, to support the disaster relief organisations (for example: flood Oder River 1997, train-crash "ICE" 1998). In all counties and district free cities

  8. 基于德尔菲法的武警部队卫生应急救援分队灾害救援能力评价指标体系构建%Evaluation Indicator System of Disaster Relief Capability Building for People's Armed Police Force Corps-Level Health Emergency Rescue Unit by Using Delphi Method

    沈昫; 李三强; 王心


    Objective:To build evaluation indicator system capability of disaster relief for People Armed Police Force (PAP) Corps-level health emergency rescue unit in order to provide standards for the construction and evaluation of health emergency rescue unit. Methods:30 ex ̄perts were consulted 2 rounds using Delphi method. Results:An evaluation indicator system including 6 primary indicators,12 secondary indica ̄tors and 40 third-level indicators was built. Conclusion: The evaluation indicator system capability of disaster relief for People Armed Police Force (PAP) Corps-level health emergency rescue unit had a relatively high reliability and accuracy. The system would provide reference and standard for next capability evaluating.%目的::构建武警部队卫生应急救援分队灾害救援能力评价指标体系,为卫生应急救援分队的评价和建设提供标准。方法:运用文献分析法等初步确定评价指标,采用德尔菲法对30名专家进行2轮咨询。结果:经过2轮专家咨询,构建的武警部队卫生应急救援分队灾害救援能力评价指标体系包括组织指挥与管理、伤病救治、分类后送、医技保障、后勤保障、基础支撑等能力的6个一级指标、12个二级指标和40个三级指标。结论:本研究建立的灾害救援能力评价指标体系具有较高的可靠性和准确性,可为武警部队卫生应急救援分队的灾害救援能力评价提供参考和标准。

  9. Hurricane Relief Operations in the Caribbean: Is the Use of the Military in Hurricane Relief Operations


    Caribbean hurricanes are a type of tropical cyclone . They originate in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa and affect the Caribbean and 2 the...that will prove to be more suitable in disaster relief situations. Matthew Yarrow also shares Dynes’ view. He believes that soldiers are ill-suited... Haiti operations, in part due to the battalion commander’s lack of authority over troops from different countries. However, the performance of the

  10. GIS的发展趋势与数字地震应急救灾的实现技术%Trends of GIS Development and Technique for Digitalized Earthquake Disaster Relief

    李东平; 姚远


    随着数字地球(Digital Earth)的提出与实施,GIS的发展已经进人成熟期,数据多维化(3D & 4D GIS)、平台网络化(Web GIS),集成化成为GI.S的发展方向.GIS新技术应用于数字地震应急救灾,可以在后方逼真地模拟地震现场,为指挥者提供更丰富和更直观的救援信息,为现场救援提供强大的技术支持,为指挥员决策提供更科学的决策模型.文中就建设一个数字地震应急救灾系统提供了方法和理论支持,并在系统建设中作了些初步探索,应用GIS新技术与数字地震应急救灾结合建设一个信息平台.%With the proposal and application of Digital Earth, the development of GIS has entered the mature stage. The Mobile GIS and the Grid GIS are developing rapidly. The 3D&4D GIS,the WebGIS and the integrated GIS are the new direction of the development of GIS. The application of new GIS technology in digital earthquake emergency rescue may simulate realistic scene of earthquake. For the commanders, it may provide more richer and intuitionistic rescue information. For the site relief, it may provide powerful technological support. For the commander, it may provide more intelligent decision-making model. In this paper, building a digital earthquake emergency relief system provides methods and theoretical support, and construction in the system made some exploration.

  11. Optimal qualifications, staffing and scope of practice for first responder nurses in disaster.

    Yin, Huahua; He, Haiyan; Arbon, Paul; Zhu, Jingci; Tan, Jing; Zhang, Limei


    To explore: the selection criteria for first responder nurses during disaster; scope of practice for disaster relief nurses; appropriate nurse - medical practitioner ratio at the disaster site. Nurses are key members of disaster response medical teams. A scarcity of literature exists relating to nurses attending disasters, their qualifications, experience, scope of practice and appropriate staffing ratios. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected via survey using self-developed questionnaires. Participants were 95 medical workers, who participated in emergency rescue teams following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. A response rate of 93·7% achieved. The questionnaire included questions relating to nurses: previous experience in disaster relief; scope of practice at the disaster site; optimal ratio of medical practitioners to nurses in disaster relief teams. Following a disaster, first responder nurses considered most suitable were those with at least three years clinical experience, particularly in the emergency department or having emergency rescue skills training. The scope of practice for disaster relief nurses was different to that of nurses working in a hospital. The majority of participants reported insufficient nurses during the relief effort, concluding the optimal ratio of medical practitioner to nurse should range between 1:1-1:2 depending on the task and situation. At the scene of disaster, the preferred first responder nurses were nurses: with emergency rescue training; experienced in the emergency department; with at least three years clinical experience. The scope of practice for first responder nurses needs to be extended. Appropriate nurse - medical practitioner ratios in responding medical teams is dependant on the specific medical requirements of the disaster. The recommendations made by this study provide a guide to ensure that nurses can contribute effectively as essential members of first responder emergency disaster relief teams

  12. Disasters and development in agricultural input markets: bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch.

    Mainville, Denise Y


    The bulk of developing countries' populations and poor depend on agriculture for food and income. While rural economies and people are generally the most severely affected by natural disasters, little is known about how disasters and subsequent relief activities affect agricultural markets with differing levels of development. The article addresses this gap, drawing evidence from bean seed markets in Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Case studies are used to address hypotheses about a disaster's effects on supply and demand in seed markets, farmers' responses and the performance of relief interventions in markets showing differing levels of development. The results show the importance of tailoring relief interventions to the markets that they will affect and to the specific effects of a disaster; the potential to use local and emerging seed distribution channels in a relief intervention; and opportunities for relief activities to strengthen community seed systems.

  13. Analysis on a survey of emergency knowledge and skills for disaster relief%某军队三级甲等医院护理人员灾害应急知识现状调查与分析

    黄叶莉; 李书梅; 韩金凤


    目的:了解某军队医院护理人员灾害应急知识掌握现状,评估护理人员灾害应急知识培训需求,以便针对性地加强护理人员的培训,为医院储备灾害救援护理人才,提高护理人员的灾害应急水平。方法采用自行设计的护理人员灾害应急知识问卷对北京市某三级甲等医院的219名护理人员进行调查。结果219名护理人员综合平均得分为(3.25±0.72)分,其中对特殊护理及隔离和去污方面得分最低为(2.91±0.45)分;不同学历、继续教育学分、工作岗位差异有统计学意义,不同年龄、职称、工作年限差异无统计学意义。结论护理人员普遍掌握灾害应急知识一般,需加强低学历护士的灾害应急知识学习,鼓励不同科室的护士参加灾害护理方面的继续教育,提高护士的灾害应急能力,为医院储备灾害护理人才。%Objective To explore nursing personnel’s current understanding level of emergency nursing knowledge and their demand for grasping all related knowledge in order to provide effective training program and enhance the service quality as a whole. Methods 219 nursing staff were surveyed with a self-designed disaster emergency nursing knowledge questionnaire, Results It reflected an average score of (3.436 ± 0.33) on the comprehensive survey, of which a lowest average score of(2.81 ± 0.90)was found in nuclear, biological and chemical pollution decontamination requirements. Different levels of education, continuing education credits, and different job responsibilities made a statistical difference, difference in age, title reflected no statistical difference on the survey. Conclusion Nursing personnel needs to improve their emergency knowledge and skills due to a low score reflected in the survey. It is also suggested that nurses in different departments participate in disaster nursing continuing education to improve the levels of disaster emergency

  14. U.S. Geological Survey disaster response and the International Charter for space and major disasters

    Stryker, Timothy S.; Jones, Brenda K.


    In 1999, an international consortium of space agencies conceived and approved a mechanism to provide satellite information in support of worldwide disaster relief. This group came to be known as the 'International Charter?Space and Major Disasters' and has become an important resource for the use of satellite data to evaluate and provide support for response to natural and man-made disasters. From the Charter's formative days in 1999, its membership has grown to 10 space organizations managing more than 20 earth-observing satellites.

  15. Natural disasters and gender dynamics

    Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo


    . Men, on the other side, feel more often prepared to overcome the crises, but what emerges from the stress and the losses caused by disasters are different types of violence (self-harm and interpersonal violence). It is therefore necessary to recognize violence and mental health pathologies as part of the negative consequences that occur after natural disasters and that can be part of people's vulnerability if those events recur frequently. Living conditions, demographic, economic attributes, behaviours and beliefs reflect gender power relations in the disaster context. Failing to recognize it, may lead to inefficient community-based risk management plans. Gender dynamics in the disaster context should be the interest not only of non-governmental and/or international organizations. They should be a priority for researchers that have to contribute more in their studies to find a gendered differentiation, without limiting gender to an isolated attribute. This will help public authorities to develop sensitive management plans in order to let the disaster relief an easy process to achieve. This work will contribute to the scientific recognition of gender in the disaster management context, in order to raise further investigations on this topic. World Bank (2010) Natural Hazards, Unnatural Disasters: The Economics of Effective Prevention. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Reports.

  16. [Disaster medicine].

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline


    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  17. Surviving Disasters

    Henke, Karen Greenwood


    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  18. Challenges in disaster data collection during recent disasters.

    Morton, Melinda; Levy, J Lee


    Gathering essential health data to provide rapid and effective medical relief to populations devastated by the effects of a disaster-producing event involves challenges. These challenges include response to environmental hazards, security of personnel and resources, political and economic issues, cultural barriers, and difficulties in communication, particularly between aid agencies. These barriers often impede the timely collection of key health data such as morbidity and mortality, rapid health and sheltering needs assessments, key infrastructure assessments, and nutritional needs assessments. Examples of these challenges following three recent events: (1) the Indian Ocean tsunami; (2) Hurricane Katrina; and (3) the 2010 earthquake in Haiti are reviewed. Some of the innovative and cutting-edge approaches for surmounting many of these challenges include: (1) the establishment of geographical information systems (GIS) mapping disaster databases; (2) establishing internet surveillance networks and data repositories; (3) utilization of personal digital assistant-based platforms for data collection; (4) involving key community stakeholders in the data collection process; (5) use of pre-established, local, collaborative networks to coordinate disaster efforts; and (6) exploring potential civil-military collaborative efforts. The application of these and other innovative techniques shows promise for surmounting formidable challenges to disaster data collection.

  19. CAS scientists active in earthquake relief operation


    @@ Soon after the devastating earthquake taking place on last 12 May in Sichuan, the CAS leadership promptly mobilized its researchers to dedicate their expertise to the nationwide drive of the disaster's relief and reduction. A leading group was established to coordinate the Academy's efforts in this regard. All of the eight CAS institutions located in Sichuan were organized to do everything possible to reduce their losses to the minimum. At the same time, a trans-departmental and interdisciplinary taskforce was formed to provide a powerful S&T backing for the nationwide drive.

  20. Innovative Methods for the Benefit of Public Health Using Space Technologies for Disaster Response.

    Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan


    Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system.

  1. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    ... Submit Home > Menopause > Menopause symptom relief and treatments Menopause Menopause symptom relief and treatments Working with your doctor ... on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not need treatment ...

  2. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Kris Kodrich


    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  3. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.


    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  4. International Charter "Space and Major Disasters": Typical Examples of Disaster Management Including Asian Tsunami

    Cubero-Castan, Eliane; Bequignon, Jerome; Mahmood, Ahmed; Lauritson, Levin; Soma, P.; Platzeck, Gabriel; Chu, Ishida


    The International Charter 'Space and Major Disaster', now entering its 5th year of operation, has been activated nearly 80 times to provide space-based data and information in response to natural disasters. The disasters ranged from volcanic eruption in Columbia, floods in Europe, Argentina, Sudan to earthquakes in Iran, from landslides in Philippines to the tragic tsunami in Asia, all resulting in major loss of life and property. The Charter provided imagery and the related information were found to be useful in disaster relief and assessment. Since July 1st 2003, a framework cooperation agreement has been allowing United Nations organizations involved in disaster response to request activation of the Charter.The purpose of the Charter is to provide assistance in situations of emergencies caused by natural and technological disasters by pooling together the space and associated ground resources of the Charter participants, which are currently the European (ESA), French (CNES), Canadian (CSA), Indian (ISRO), American (NOAA), Argentinean (CONAE) and Japanese (JAXA) space organizations.This paper will point out some of the best cases of Charter activation for different disasters leading to change detection imagery and damage assessment products which could be used for disaster reduction in close co-ordination with the end users after the crisis period.

  5. Reconsidering information management roles and capabilities in disaster response decision-making units

    Bharosa, N.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.


    When disaster strikes, the emerging task environment requires relief agencies to transform from autonomous mono-disciplinary organizations into interdependent multidisciplinary decision-making units. Evaluation studies reveal that adaptation of information management to the changing task environment

  6. 赴北川抗震救灾某部官兵急性心理应激障碍及影响因素调查%Acute stress disorder and related factors in a troop after participating in disaster re-lief in Beichuan county after Wenchuan earthquake

    胡光涛; 李学成; 王国威; 贺英; 杨兰; 谭孝琼


    目的 探讨赴北川抗震救灾部队官兵急性应激障碍(acute stress disorder,ASD)发生情况、临床特征及相关危险因素.方法 采用自编一般情况问卷、创伤后应激反应症状自评量表(post-traumatic stress symptoms self-rating scale,PCL-C)、领悟社会支持量表(perceived social support scale,PSSS)、应对方式问卷(coping style questionnaires,SCSQ)对126名赴北川抗震救灾部队某部官兵进行评定,结合半结构式访谈,确定ASD组和对照组,进行对照分析及相关因素分析.结果 救灾官兵ASD患病率为13.49%,主要症状表现为:反复闯入性痛苦性回忆,噩梦,创伤事件场景的重现,强烈的心理痛苦烦恼,兴趣下降,睡眠障碍和情绪不稳定.ASD主要症状之间相互影响,积极的应对方式和良好的社会支持可减少ASD的发生.结论 在急性应激阶段(1个月)部分抗震救灾官兵已存在ASD症状,应加强必要的心理评估和综合性的心理干预,减缓灾难所致的心理创伤,预防和减少ASD转化为创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic Stress disorder,PTSD).%Objective To investigate the occurrence circumstance of acute stress disorder (ASD), clinical features and related risk factors, in the officers and soldiers who had gone to Beichuan county to provide disaster relief. Methods We used the self-general questionnaire, post-traumatic stress symptoms self-rating scale (PCL-C), perceived social support scale (PSSS), and coping style questionnaires (SCSQ) to assess the 126 subjects, combining with semi-structured interviews to determine and compare the ASD group and control group, and then analyzed the related factors. Results The prevalence rate of ASD officers and soldiers was 13.49%, with main symptoms of repeatedly breaking into painful memories, nightmares, reproducing the scenes of traumatic events, strong trouble of psychological pain, decreased interest, sleep disorders and emotional instability. These main symptoms of ASD

  7. Adjustable safety relief valve

    Taylor, W.L.


    This patent describes a pressure relief valve having a relief set pressure. It comprises: a valve body having a fluid inlet and outlet, a spherical, metal valve seat associated with the inlet and a valve member comprising at least a portion of a spherical,metal ball attached to a ball holding element, the valve member being biased against the valve seat and thus providing a metal-to-metal seal preventing the passage of fluids past the valve seat when the fluid pressure in the inlet is below the relief pressure setting of the valve.

  8. 2nd International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters

    Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos


    This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...

  9. 财政波动风险与保险平滑机制:以地震灾害救助为例%Public Budget’s Volatility Risk and Insurance Apportionment Mechanism:Taking Earthquake Disaster Relief as an Example

    许闲; 张涵博; 陈卓苗


    Based on the real background that severe earthquakes easily cause fierce vol‐atility of public budget ,this paper draws lessons from internationally generally employed insurance mechanism instead of fiscal subsidies and constructs the accumulative model for the earthquake recovery payment burden of government budget through the historical data of earthquakes in China .Then ,it stimulates the accumulative earthquake recovery pay‐ment burden level for China’s public budget between 2014 and 2020 under different insur‐ance amounts ,and tests the smoothing role of insurance in public budget’s volatility .It comes to the conclusion that government purchase of insurance can effectively smooth the volatility risk of the earthquake recovery payment burden of public budget ,and the volatil‐ity risk is reverse to the insurance coverage .Assuming 98% confidence interval and 10%payment ratio ,10 billion RMB coverage of earthquake insurance can lower the upper and lower intervals of the earthquake recovery payment burden of public budget by 0 8.% and 1 2.% respectively ;while 100 billion RMB coverage of earthquake insurance can nearly e‐liminate the volatility of the earthquake recovery payment burden of public budget .T his paper shows that the establishment of catastrophe insurance institution can improve the stability of the economy ,and help the governments to optimize the disaster management , increase the disaster relief efficiency and develop a market-oriented disaster insurance sys‐tem in China .%文章基于我国重大地震灾害易引起财政剧烈波动的现实背景,借鉴国际上普遍采用的保险机制替代财政救灾的方式,根据我国地震相关历史数据,通过构建地震灾害财政救灾支出负担的积累模型,模拟了在不同保险金额下2014-2020年我国地震灾害财政积累救灾支出负担的变动情况,并以此检验保险如何平滑财政波动风险的事例。研究结果表明:政府购

  10. Debris removal during disaster response phase : a case for Turkey


    Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 88-93. In this study, a methodology to provide emergency relief supplies to the disaster affected regions is developed. As a result of destructive effects of disasters, debris, which is the ruin and wreckage of the structures, occurs. Proper removal of debris h...

  11. Preparing routine health information systems for immediate health responses to disasters.

    Aung, Eindra; Whittaker, Maxine


    During disaster times, we need specific information to rapidly plan a disaster response, especially in sudden-onset disasters. Due to the inadequate capacity of Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS), many developing countries face a lack of quality pre-disaster health-related data and efficient post-disaster data processes in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. Considering the significance of local capacity during the early stages of disaster response, RHIS at local, provincial/state and national levels need to be strengthened so that they provide relief personnel up-to-date information to plan, organize and monitor immediate relief activities. RHIS professionals should be aware of specific information needs in disaster response (according to the Sphere Project's Humanitarian Minimum Standards) and requirements in data processes to fulfil those information needs. Preparing RHIS for disasters can be guided by key RHIS-strengthening frameworks; and disaster preparedness must be incorporated into countries' RHIS. Mechanisms must be established in non-disaster times and maintained between RHIS and information systems of non-health sectors for exchanging disaster-related information and sharing technologies and cost.

  12. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A


    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  13. Enhancing SAARC disaster management: a comparative study with ASEAN coordinating centre for humanitarian assistance on disaster management

    Lamichhane, Sharad


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The devastating earthquakes that ravaged Nepal in the spring of 2015 demonstrated the risk of disaster that affects all of South Asia. They also demonstrated the real limits to a regional disaster management and response. According to The Kathmandu Post, almost 4175 troops from 18 countries were deployed for rescue and relief operations. All South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) member states except Afghanistan and M...

  14. Post Disaster Assessment with Decision Support System

    May Florence J. Franco


    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop an online system that would expedite the response of agencies after disaster strikes; generate a list of the kinds and volume of relief aids needed per family affected for a fair, precise and timely distribution; implement community-based ICT by remotely gathering all the necessary data needed for disaster assessment; and adhere to ISO 9126 standards. The system was designed to calculate the effects of disaster in human lives and economy. Integrated into the system were Goggle Maps, Mines and GeoSciences Bureau Hazard Maps, SMS sending features, best passable routes calculations, and decision support on the needs that has to be addressed. The system was made live at to allow remote data entry. The functionality and usability of the system were evaluated by 19 potential users by computing for the arithmetic Mean and Standard Deviation of the survey. The result showed that most of them strongly agreed that the system is acceptable based on these criteria. A group of IT experts also evaluated the system’s conformance to ISO 9126 standards using the same method. The result showed that majority of them strongly agreed that the system conforms to this international standard. The system is seen as a valuable tool for the Provincial Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (PDRRMC and the National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council (NDRRMC for it could help expedite the assessment of the effects of disasters and the formulation of response plans and strategies.

  15. Principles of disaster management lesson. 12: structuring organizations.

    Cuny, F C


    This lesson discusses various structures for organizations that have functional roles in disaster responses, relief, and/or management activities. It distinguishes between pyramidal and matrix structures, and notes the advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to disasters. Span of control issues are dissected including the impact of the "P" factor on the performance of disaster managers and workers including its relationship to the coordination and control function. The development of a Table of Organization and how it relates to departmentalization within an organization also is provided.

  16. [Role of pharmacists during serious natural disasters: report from Ishinomaki, the disaster-struck city].

    Tanno, Yoshiro


    On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.

  17. space technology and nigerian national challenges in disaster management

    O. Akinyede, J., , Dr.; Abdullahi, R.

    One of the sustainable development challenges of any nation is the nation s capacity and capabilities to manage its environment and disaster According to Abiodun 2002 the fundamental life support systems are air clean water and food or agricultural resources It also includes wholesome environment shelter and access to energy health and education All of these constitute the basic necessities of life whose provision and preservation should be a pre-occupation of the visionary leaders executive legislative and judiciary of any nation and its people in order to completely eradicate ignorance unemployment poverty and disease and also increase life expectancy Accordingly many societies around the globe including Nigeria are embarking on initiatives and developing agenda that could address redress the threats to the life supporting systems Disaster prevention management and reduction therefore present major challenges that require prompt attention locally nationally regionally and globally Responses to disasters vary from the application of space-derived data for disaster management to the disbursement of relief to the victims and the emplacement of recovery measures The role of space technology in particular in all the phases of disaster management planning against disaster disaster early warning risk reduction preparedness crises and damage assessment response and relief disbursement and recovery and reconstruction cannot be overemphasized Akinyede 2005 Therefore this paper seeks to focus on space

  18. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.


    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  19. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy


    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy.

  20. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin


    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  1. Department of Defense Road Ahead for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief


    would need to be prearranged by OFDA. DOD currently fields the following systems: HyperLite, SWAN, and BGAN which can provide Satellite accelerator (for SIPR and NIPR) Linkway IP modems-TDMA 43 Data below on BGAN accessed on 14 March 2011 from: 14_BGAN_integrated_terminal_datasheet_033.pdf AN/PSC-14 BGAN Integrated Manpack Terminal lnmarsat BGAN Satellite Communications

  2. Applying Aerodynamics Inspired Organizational Dynamic Fit Model Disaster Relief Endeavors


    abstraction (Sauser, Boardman, & Verma, 2010; von Bertalanffy , 1969). Here the abstraction is much more about the design of airplanes and organizations...Building ambidextrous organizations: Forming your own "skunk works". Health Forum Journal, 42(2), 20. von Bertalanffy , L. (1969). General systems

  3. Remotely Piloted Aircraft: An Integrated Domestic Disaster Relief Plan


    Defense (DOD) should coordinate with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to integrate its RPAs... emergency response. The Department of Defense (DOD) should coordinate with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Federal Emergency Management...such as localized emergencies requiring search and rescue assets, especially if they do not detract from the DOD’s mission. One example would be a

  4. civil-military relations in disaster rescue and relief activities


    unhealthy civil-military relations when compared to counterterrorism, law .... Development or its local equivalent is needed for them to operate in specific areas. ... politicians, civilians, NGOs and the media, is an important component of this.

  5. Operationalizing Mobile Applications for Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief Missions


    Lighthouse ( Android ) Open the se ngs of the app by touching the secondary menu bu on and input your username, password, and uncheck the ‘Sync on...interoperability, command and control, and coordination among responders between all agencies involved. 14. SUBJECT TERMS HA/DR, Mobile Apps , Applications...deployed to field respondents to enable secure access of complete reports that are securely stored in the cloud (Naval Postgraduate School, 2013). While

  6. Relief Aid Carefully Audited


    In a recent interview with the national TV broadcaster CCTV,Wang Zhongxin,Director of the Social Security Audit Department at the National Audit Office,talks about the procedures that are in effect to ensure relief supplies for the Wenchuan earthquake victims reach the end users. Excerpts of

  7. Paper relief architecture

    Latka, J.F.


    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which wa

  8. Vent Relief Valve Test


    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  9. Experiences from tsunami relief activity: implications for medical training

    Sudharsanam Manni Balasubramaniam


    Full Text Available A tsunami struck the coast of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry on 26 December 2004. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, (JIPMER in Pondicherry played a vital role in providing medical relief. The experiences from the relief activities revealed areas of deficiency in medical education in regards to disaster preparedness. A qualitative study using focus group discussion was employed to find the lacunae in skills in managing medical relief measures. Many skills were identified; the most important of which was addressing the psychological impact of the tsunami on the victims. Limited coordination and leadership skills were also identified. It is recommended that activity-based learning can be included in the curriculum to improve these skills.

  10. Defining Flexible Standards for Post-Disaster Emergency Sheltering

    Tafahomi, M.; Egyedi, T.M.


    Post-disaster emergency-sheltering requires that various relief agencies and other actors with different backgrounds cooperate in a tremendously short amount of time and under very different circumstances. Lives depend on the quality of aid and, specifically, on the quality of sheltering. Standards

  11. The Chennai floods of 2015: urgent need for ethical disaster management guidelines.

    Mariaselvam, Suresh; Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad


    India has suffered several natural disasters in recent years. The super cyclone of Orissa in 1999 and the tsunami on the southeastern coast in 2004, both led to major developments in disaster management abilities in the country. Almost a decade after the last major disaster that hit south India, the recent floods in Chennai in 2015 brought to the fore a whole set of ethical considerations. There were issues of inequity in the relief and response activities, conflicts and lack of coordination between the government and non-government relief and response, more emphasis on short-term relief activities rather than rehabilitation and reconstruction, and lack of crisis standards of care in medical services. This paper highlights these ethical issues and the need for ethical guidelines and an ethical oversight mechanism for disaster management and response.

  12. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose ...

  13. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... action for patients who have had inadequate symptom relief with antihistamines and topical nasal steroids. Through injection ...

  14. Wildfire Disasters and Nursing.

    Hanes, Patricia Frohock


    Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle.

  15. Transformative experiences for Hurricanes Katrina and Rita disaster volunteers.

    Clukey, Lory


    The massive destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 provided an opportunity for many volunteers to be involved with disaster relief work. Exposure to devastation and personal trauma can have long-lasting and sometimes detrimental effects on people providing help. This qualitative study explored the experience of volunteer relief workers who provided disaster relief services after the hurricanes. Three major themes emerged: emotional reactions that included feelings of shock, fatigue, anger and grief as well as sleep disturbances; frustration with leadership; and life-changing personal transformation. Stress reactions were noted but appeared to be mitigated by feelings of compassion for the victims and personal satisfaction in being able to provide assistance. Suggestions are provided for further research.

  16. Research on Emergency-meeting and Operational Management Mechanism of Disaster Prevention and Relief in Flood-storing Region from Perspective of Multi-subject’ s Participation:Taking Flood-storing Region of Huaihe River Basin as An Example%多元主体参与视角下行蓄洪区防灾救灾应急与运行管理机制研究--以淮河流域行蓄洪区为例



    行蓄洪区是江河防洪体系重要的组成部分,是保障重点地区防洪安全、减轻洪水灾害的有效措施。我国目前行蓄洪区管理机制还存在管理主体单一化、管理方式碎片化等问题。该文从多元视角出发,对参与行蓄洪区防灾救灾管理的主体进行了定位与相关性分析,构建出多元协同管理机制,并对该机制的运行提出了相应的建议,以保障其顺利运转。%The flood-storing region is an important part of river flood prevention and control system , and it is an effective measure for safeguarding the flood control safety of key areas and mitigating flood disaster .At present, the management mechanism of flood-storing region in China still has many problems , such as single management subject and fragmented management mode . From multi-perspectives , this paper positioned the management subjects of disaster prevention and relief in flood -storing region , carried out the correlation analysis , constructed the multi -element coordinated management mechanism , and proposed the corre-sponding suggestions for the smooth operation of this mechanism .

  17. Mobile satellite services for public safety, disaster mitigation and disaster medicine

    Freibaum, Jerry

    Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.

  18. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel


    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  19. Pet Disaster Preparedness

    ... Safety Checklist – Arabic Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – Chinese Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – French Pets and ... Cross serves in the US, its territories and military installations around the world. Please try again. Your ...

  20. Disaster Case Management

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Disaster Case Management Program (DCM) is a time-limited process that involves a partnership between a case manager and a disaster survivor (also known as a...

  1. Disaster Reduction in the Last Decade by the Ministry of Health

    Ministry of Health


    @@ The Ministry of Health has been an active participant in the activities of the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. Following the assignment of the Government, the Ministry has taken the responsibility of conducting disaster relief and disease prevention in cooperation with departments concerned, and effectively prevented the happening and spreading of major epidemic diseases whenever the country suffered a catastrophic natural disaster. It has secured the health and safety of the people, avoided serious epidemics in disastrous years, and won great victories over disasters and diseases. The work of the Ministry is summarized as follows:

  2. Communications mode(ls and disasters: from word of mouth to ICTs

    Maria Paradiso


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies present significant advances in spatially-related information and communication systems. They may greatly enhance disaster prevention and crisis management. However, the ways by which ICTs culturally affect people-environment relations (hazard perception, citizen preparedness, relief, recovery, and resilience have not been sufficiently investigated. This paper attempts to compare people’s behaviour when coping with hazards and disasters along three ages: oral word, mass media mediation, and ICTs mediation. The paper then presents an overarching model of coping with disasters and guidelines for ICT uses in a full disaster cycle.

  3. Building a Capabilities Network to Improve Disaster Preparation Efforts in the European Command (EUCOM) Area of Responsibility


    communicable diseases , and improving quality of life. EUCOM countries currently working in or have worked in previously: Azerbaijan. 22. The Salvation...livelihood, and focus on women and children . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Relief, Humanitarian...and focus on women and children . vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION

  4. Humanitarian relief supply chain: a multi-objective model and solution



    This paper models a humanitarian relief chain that includes a relief goods supply chain and an evacuation chain in case of a natural disaster. Optimum network flow is studied for both the chains by considering three conflicting objectives, namely demand satisfaction in relief chain, demand satisfaction in evacuation chain and overall logistics cost.The relief goods supply chain consists of three echelons: suppliers, relief camps and affected areas. The evacuation chain consists of two echelons: evacuation camps and affected areas. The model has been made more resilient by considering multiple paths between any two locations and disruptionof camps and paths due to natural factors. The Mixed Integer Programming problem has been solved using NSGA-III and results have been compared to those from benchmark algorithms. The model has been successfully tested on generated real-life-like data.

  5. Suspended Disbelief: The Role of the Department of Defense in Interagency Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Response


    Relief: Operation Damayan,” 8. 70 Center For Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response ( CFE - DMHR), “Lessons from Civil-Military...74 CFE -DMHR, “Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and Humanitarian Response to Typhoon Haiyan... ssiteid=465, 3. 76 CFE -DMHR, “Lessons from Civil-Military Disaster Management and

  6. Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response

    Girard, Trevor


    Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information

  7. Policy development in disaster preparedness and management: lessons learned from the January 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India.

    Bremer, Rannveig


    During the last decades, several humanitarian emergencies have occurred, with an increasing number of humanitarian organizations taking part in providing assistance. However, need assessments, medical intelligence, and coordination of the aid often are sparse, resulting in the provision of ineffective and expensive assistance. When an earthquake with the strength of 7.7 on the Richter scale struck the state of Gujarat, India, during the early morning on 26 January 2001, nearly 20,000 persons were killed, nearly 170,000 were injured, and 600,000 were rendered homeless. This study identifies how assigned indicators to measure the level of health care may improve disaster preparedness and management, thus, reducing human suffering. During a two-week mission in the disaster area, the disaster relief provided to the disaster-affected population of Gujarat was evaluated. Vulnerability due to climate, geography, culture, religion, gender, politics, and economy, as each affected the outcome, was studied. By assigning indicators to the eight ELEMENTS of the Primary Health Care System as advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO), the level of public health and healthcare services were estimated, an evaluation of the impact of the disaster was conducted, and possible methods for improving disaster management are suggested. Representatives of the major relief organizations involved were interviewed on their relief policies. Strategies to improve disaster relief, such as policy development in the different aspects of public health/primary health care, were sought. Evaluation of the pre-event status of the affected society revealed a complex situation in a vulnerable society with substantial deficiencies in the existing health system that added to the severity of the disaster. Most of the civilian hospitals had collapsed, and army field hospitals provided medical care to most of the patients under primitive conditions using tents. When the foreign field hospitals arrived

  8. Forensic odontology involvement in disaster victim identification.

    Berketa, John William; James, Helen; Lake, Anthony W


    Forensic odontology is one of three primary identifiers designated by Interpol to identify victims of mass casualty events. Forensic odontology is involved in all five phases-Scene, Postmortem, Antemortem, Reconciliation and Debrief. Forward planning, adequate funding, international cooperation and standardization are essential to guarantee an effective response. A Standard Operation Procedure should be utilized to maximize quality, facilitate occupation and health issues, maintain security and form a structure to the relief program. Issues that must be considered in the management of the forensic odontology component of disaster victim identification are given in "Appendix 1". Each stage of the disaster, from initial notification to debrief, is analyzed and a comprehensive checklist of actions suggested.

  9. a Task-Driven Disaster Data Link Approach

    Qiu, L. Y.; Zhu, Q.; Gu, J. Y.; Du, Z. Q.


    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, cases data, simulation data, disaster products and so on. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly serious due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, data searching mainly relies on artificial experience based on simple metadata index, whose high time-consuming and low accuracy cannot satisfy the requirements of disaster products on velocity and veracity. In this paper, a task-oriented linking method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service, with the objectives of 1) putting forward ontologies of disaster task and data to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the degree of correlation between each data and a target task. The method breaks through traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a base for intelligent retrieval and active push of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method with a flood emergency relief task.

  10. a Task-Oriented Disaster Information Correlation Method

    Linyao, Q.; Zhiqiang, D.; Qing, Z.


    With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1) putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2) identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1), and 3) linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.


    Q. Linyao


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of sensor networks and Earth observation technology, a large quantity of disaster-related data is available, such as remotely sensed data, historic data, case data, simulated data, and disaster products. However, the efficiency of current data management and service systems has become increasingly difficult due to the task variety and heterogeneous data. For emergency task-oriented applications, the data searches primarily rely on artificial experience based on simple metadata indices, the high time consumption and low accuracy of which cannot satisfy the speed and veracity requirements for disaster products. In this paper, a task-oriented correlation method is proposed for efficient disaster data management and intelligent service with the objectives of 1 putting forward disaster task ontology and data ontology to unify the different semantics of multi-source information, 2 identifying the semantic mapping from emergency tasks to multiple data sources on the basis of uniform description in 1, and 3 linking task-related data automatically and calculating the correlation between each data set and a certain task. The method goes beyond traditional static management of disaster data and establishes a basis for intelligent retrieval and active dissemination of disaster information. The case study presented in this paper illustrates the use of the method on an example flood emergency relief task.

  12. Principles of disaster planning for the pediatric population.

    Allen, Gwenn M; Parrillo, Steven J; Will, Jean; Mohr, Johnathon A


    Unique physiological, developmental, and psychological attributes of children make them one of the more vulnerable populations during mass-casualty incidents. Because of their distinctive vulnerabilities, it is crucial that pediatric needs are incorporated into every stage of disaster planning. Individuals, families, and communities can help mitigate the effects of disasters on pediatric populations through ongoing awareness and preventive practices. Mitigation efforts also can be achieved through education and training of the healthcare workforce. Preparedness activities include gaining Emergency Medical Services for Children Pediatric Facility Recognition, conducting pediatric disaster drills, improving pediatric surge capacity, and ensuring that the needs of children are incorporated into all levels of disaster plans. Pediatric response can be improved in a number of ways, including: (1) enhanced pediatric disaster expertise; (2) altered decontamination protocols that reflect pediatric needs; and (3) minimized parent-child separation. Recovery efforts at the pediatric level include promoting specific mental health therapies for children and incorporating children into disaster relief and recovery efforts. Improving pediatric emergency care needs should be at the forefront of every disaster planner's agenda.

  13. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Suner, Selim


    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  14. Phytotherapy for pain relief.

    Zareba, Grazyna


    Pain is considered the third most common healthcare problem disabling more individuals than heart disease and cancer together. Although pharmacological pain management offers a significant relief in several pain-related diseases, many patients turn to its supplementation with complementary and alternative medicine. Botanicals used in pain therapy can contribute to restoring the quality of life to a patient and may effect and enhance conventional pain management. Herbal analgesic use in several pain-related diseases such as rheumatologic diseases, back pain, cancer, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and migraine will be discussed. In addition, this review describes botanicals with known analgesic activity for which randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials assessing their efficacy in different pain-related diseases have been published and which have been recently evaluated in many systematic reviews with well-described methodology.

  15. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Kelman, Ilan


    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  16. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele


    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  17. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section... relief. Requests for relief from surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-purchased utilities, or from... appropriate. The PHA's criteria for granting such relief, and procedures for requesting such relief, shall be...

  18. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立


    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  19. Disaster mental health

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter


    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  20. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Colber, Judith


    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  1. Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Estimates Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster Assistance, and Civic Aid


    109,731 2,300 -4,369 107,662 * The FY 2010/2011 Actual column includes obligations for the Haiti Earthquake and Pakistan Flooding Disaster Relief...of severe natural and man-made disasters such as the Pacific Tsunami (2005), Pakistan Earthquake (2006), Burma Cyclone (2007), Georgia conflict (2008... Haiti Earthquake (2010), and Pakistan Flooding (2010) the U.S. military has and will continue to be called upon to provide aid and assistance

  2. Quick-Relief Medications for Lung Diseases

    ... relief medications are used to treat asthma, other lung disease symptoms or an acute episode (such as an ... about the following quick-relief asthma and other lung disease medications: Anticholinergics Anticholinergics are quick-relief asthma and ...

  3. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  4. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.


    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  5. A Disaster Response and Management Competency Mapping of Community Nurses in China

    Yu Luo


    Full Text Available Background: It is widely accepted in many parts of the world that community nurses are of vital importance in various phases of disaster response and management. In China, however, it is not clear whether the Chinese community nurses are able to assume disaster-related duties due to the lack of a systematic assessment.Methods: A pre-designed and well-tested questionnaire was employed to evaluate the competency in disaster response and management among 205 valid registered Chinese community nurses between September and October 2009. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS Version 13.0 using one way ANOVA, Least Significant Difference (LSD and multiple stepwise regression analysis.Results: This group of Chinese community nurses scored at an intermediate level of competency (a score of 3.68 (SD 0.48 out of a perfect score of 5 in disaster response and management, suggesting that they have the basic ability to participate in disaster-related nursing. Four factors, namely, Experiences in Disaster Relief, Participation in Disaster Training, the Age and Duration in Job, were identified to be the predominant factors contributing significantly to the integrated competency in disaster response and management of an individual.Conclusion: Most of the Chinese community nurses have basic qualifications and competencies to undertake the responsibilities of disaster response and management. However, more targeted disaster training including virtual-reality based drills should be provided in order to improve their competency

  6. Geographic Situational Awareness: Mining Tweets for Disaster Preparedness, Emergency Response, Impact, and Recovery

    Qunying Huang


    Full Text Available Social media data have emerged as a new source for detecting and monitoring disaster events. A number of recent studies have suggested that social media data streams can be used to mine actionable data for emergency response and relief operation. However, no effort has been made to classify social media data into stages of disaster management (mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, and recovery, which has been used as a common reference for disaster researchers and emergency managers for decades to organize information and streamline priorities and activities during the course of a disaster. This paper makes an initial effort in coding social media messages into different themes within different disaster phases during a time-critical crisis by manually examining more than 10,000 tweets generated during a natural disaster and referencing the findings from the relevant literature and official government procedures involving different disaster stages. Moreover, a classifier based on logistic regression is trained and used for automatically mining and classifying the social media messages into various topic categories during various disaster phases. The classification results are necessary and useful for emergency managers to identify the transition between phases of disaster management, the timing of which is usually unknown and varies across disaster events, so that they can take action quickly and efficiently in the impacted communities. Information generated from the classification can also be used by the social science research communities to study various aspects of preparedness, response, impact and recovery.

  7. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VI: Interventional Research and the Disaster Logic Model.

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Kushner, Jennifer


    Disaster-related interventions are actions or responses undertaken during any phase of a disaster to change the current status of an affected community or a Societal System. Interventional disaster research aims to evaluate the results of such interventions in order to develop standards and best practices in Disaster Health that can be applied to disaster risk reduction. Considering interventions as production functions (transformation processes) structures the analyses and cataloguing of interventions/responses that are implemented prior to, during, or following a disaster or other emergency. Since currently it is not possible to do randomized, controlled studies of disasters, in order to validate the derived standards and best practices, the results of the studies must be compared and synthesized with results from other studies (ie, systematic reviews). Such reviews will be facilitated by the selected studies being structured using accepted frameworks. A logic model is a graphic representation of the transformation processes of a program [project] that shows the intended relationships between investments and results. Logic models are used to describe a program and its theory of change, and they provide a method for the analyzing and evaluating interventions. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is an adaptation of a logic model used for the evaluation of educational programs and provides the structure required for the analysis of disaster-related interventions. It incorporates a(n): definition of the current functional status of a community or Societal System, identification of needs, definition of goals, selection of objectives, implementation of the intervention(s), and evaluation of the effects, outcomes, costs, and impacts of the interventions. It is useful for determining the value of an intervention and it also provides the structure for analyzing the processes used in providing the intervention according to the Relief/Recovery and Risk-Reduction Frameworks.

  8. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  9. The changing emphasis of disasters in Bangladesh NGOs.

    Matin, N; Taher, M


    Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affected by cyclones and floods, as well as chronic hazards such as arsenic poisoning. NGOs have played a major role in bringing concerns related to risk management on to the national agenda and promoting a shift of focus from mere relief response to disaster mitigation and preparedness. The government has, after earlier scepticism, now accepted NGOs as major partners in these tasks. Innovative approaches, such as the use of microfinance, have been applied; many of which are related to preserving the gains of development efforts as part of rehabilitation. NGOs have pressured for better coordination with government. Improved structures are now approved, but it is still too early to judge their impact. Despite progress, neither NGOs nor governmental agencies have clearly defined roles in the effort to link disaster management priorities. This will ensure that longer-term development efforts build on local capacities and reduce vulnerabilities.

  10. Effects of Natural Disaster Trends: A Case Study for Expanding the Pre-Positioning Network of CARE International

    Serhan Duran


    Full Text Available The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  11. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan


    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  12. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.


    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  13. Financial Protection Against Natural Disasters

    World Bank Group


    The primary objective of this report is to take stock of the global progress on financial protection against natural disasters over the last decade and bring together the latest thinking on disaster risk financing and insurance. Disaster risk financing and insurance helps minimize the cost and optimize the timing of meeting post-disaster funding needs without compromising development goals...

  14. Bushfire Disaster Monitoring System Using Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN

    James Jin Kang


    Full Text Available Some applications, including disaster monitoring and recovery networks, use low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN. LPWAN sensors capture data bits and transmit them to public carrier networks (e.g., cellular networks via dedicated gateways. One of the challenges encountered in disaster management scenarios revolves around the carry/forward sensed data and geographical location information dissemination to the disaster relief operatives (disaster relief agency; DRA to identify, characterise, and prioritise the affected areas. There are network topology options to reach its destination, including cellular, circuit switched, and peer-to-peer networks. In the context of natural disaster prediction, it is vital to access geographical location data as well as the timestamp. This paper proposes the usage of Pseudo A Number (PAN, that is, the calling party address, which is used by every network to include the location information instead of the actual calling party address of the gateway in LPWAN. This PAN information can be further analysed by the DRA to identify the affected areas and predict the complications of the disaster impacts in addition to the past history of damages. This paper aims to propose a solution that can predict disaster proceedings based on propagation and the velocity of impact using vector calculation of the location data and the timestamp, which are transmitted by sensors through the PAN of the gateway in LPWAN.

  15. [A new stream of the next disaster response with a variety of hospital ship in Japan].

    Kato, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro


    In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake. The archipelago structure of Japan is easy terrain that provides approach from the shore to any place in the country; this makes it possible to plan effective relief operations. Therefore, in preparing for the next large-scale disaster, the use of a hospital ship has been discussed as one of the strong bases to combat collapse of infrastructure. For effective utilization of the ship, we will discuss the main points collated from experience of past disaster responses and training.

  16. [Pharmaceutical Service after the Fukushima Disaster: A Case Report of Soma General Hospital].

    Fukunaga, Hisanori; Momonoi, Toshiyuki; Kumakawa, Hiromi


      Despite being damaged by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster, Soma General Hospital, located approximately 40 km north of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, was able to fulfill its role as a key regional hospital in northeast Fukushima. To elucidate the pharmaceutical service in response to the disaster, we investigated the hospital's operations in 2011 according to the medical records and prescriptions. One of the difficulties that the department of pharmaceutical service faced at that time was the increase in emergency healthcare requests by evacuated patients from other hospitals and clinics. Herein, we propose the following countermeasures to be considered in future disaster preparations: (1) establishing a medical and pharmaceutical service coordinator for disaster relief; (2) sharing all local patients' medical information in emergencies (at least contraindicated drugs or allergy history); and (3) reviewing disaster stockpiles, especially pharmaceuticals (both at the hospital and in nearby locations).

  17. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.


    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  18. Location Tracking Strategy Indicating Sufferers' Positions under Disaster in the Buildings

    Ok, Min-Hwan

    The advancement of location-based services now covers indoor location positioning. Under disaster in the building, the sufferer might faint, be wounded, or enclosed by structures in the dark. In the cases, the sufferer could not let the relief team know her position in the building. The LBS server provides location tracking or positioning of her device for quick relief. In the service UltraWideBand is used by its good penetrability. In dead-reckoning operation that the device is lost on the sensor network, the relief team traces logged profiles of location tracks. The strategy regards the privacy concerns.

  19. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760.106 Agriculture... Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by... accordance with the FCIA (7 U.S.C. 1501-1524) or (ii) Application closing date for NAP. (b) Equitable relief...

  20. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M


    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  1. Resilience in disaster research

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel


    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  2. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  3. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Vento, Carla J.


    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  4. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  5. Reproductive Health Education and Services Needs of Internally Displaced Persons and Refugees following Disaster

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.


    Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…

  6. Prepared for Disaster? Improving the Department of Defense’s Immediate Response Authority


    continued functioning during emergencies. 1953 E.O. 10427 (Federal Register, vol. 18, Jan . 20, 1953, p. 407). Emergency management authorities...2006. Bazan , Elizabeth. Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in

  7. Asian tsunami relief: Department of Defense public health response: policy and strategic coordination considerations.

    Tarantino, Dave


    The Asian tsunami of December 26, 2004, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in modern history. In particular, this disaster created massive, unique, public health threats, necessitating equally massive public health response efforts. The U.S. government (USG), including the Department of Defense (DoD), played a pivotal role in the response. This article examines some of the central policy issues and strategic coordination and planning measures involved in the public health response. The nearly unanimous consensus of international public health experts has been that the potential public health crisis in the aftermath of the Asian tsunami was averted largely because of the coordinated efforts of host nation officials and professionals, international and nongovernmental health organizations, and bilateral donors, especially the USG, including the DoD. The DoD played a central role in public health efforts through coordination and communication assistance, logistical and materiel support, disease surveillance activities, health needs assessments, and the contributions of the USS Mercy hospital ship. The core lessons involve the importance of an early, dedicated, public health response as a component of the overall disaster relief effort, as well as seamless coordination of health sector stakeholders in the USG and with those of the international community and affected host nations, which allows each organization to play to its strengths and to avoid duplication. The Asian tsunami relief effort highlighted the value of civil-military cooperation in disaster relief, particularly in the area of public health. The prominent role of the DoD in tsunami relief efforts, including public health efforts, also yielded beneficial secondary effects by bolstering security cooperation and winning "hearts and minds" in the region.

  8. Development of a Disaster Information Visualization Dashboard: A Case Study of Three Typhoons in Taiwan in 2016

    Su, Wen-Ray; Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Huang, Kuei-Chin; Hsieh, Ching-En


    To facilitate disaster response and enhance the effectiveness of disaster prevention and relief, people and emergency response personnel should be able to rapidly acquire and understand information when disasters occur. However, in existing disaster platforms information is typically presented in text tables, static charts, and maps with points. These formats do not make it easy for users to understand the overall situation. Therefore, this study converts data into human-readable charts by using data visualization techniques, and builds a disaster information dashboard that is concise, attractive and flexible. This information dashboard integrates temporally and spatially correlated data, disaster statistics according to category and county, lists of disasters, and any other relevant information. The graphs are animated and interactive. The dashboard allows users to filter the data according to their needs and thus to assimilate the information more rapidly. In this study, we applied the information dashboard to the analysis of landslides during three typhoon events in 2016: Typhoon Nepartak, Typhoon Meranti and Typhoon Megi. According to the statistical results in the dashboard, the order of frequency of the disaster categories in all three events combined was rock fall, roadbed loss, slope slump, road blockage and debris flow. Disasters occurred mainly in the areas that received the most rainfall. Typhoons Nepartak and Meranti mainly affected Taitung, and Typhoon Megi mainly affected Kaohsiung. The towns Xiulin, Fengbin, Fenglin and Guangfu in Hualian County were all issued with debris flow warnings in all three typhoon events. The disaster information dashboard developed in this study allows the user to rapidly assess the overall disaster situation. It clearly and concisely reveals interactions between time, space and disaster type, and also provides comprehensive details about the disaster. The dashboard provides a foundation for future disaster visualization

  9. Digital Society : A Review of E-Service and Mobile Technology in Earthquakes Relief Operations

    Kazeem Oluwakemi OSENI


    Full Text Available Developing countries lacking technology infrastructures experience most disasters such as tsunami, hurricane Katrina, earthquakes. Even though, many lives are saved in developed countries through the use of high-level or sophisticated technology, only the technology that is easy to use, inexpensive, durable and field-tested should be introduced and used during the relief operation. The effect of climate change and rapid population growth are probably exposed people inhabiting areas to substantial environmental risks. The authors highlight and identify current practices, particularities, and challenges in earthquakes relief operations with the aims of reviewing the roles E-Service and Mobile Technology tools in real-life situations and practices could do to help in disaster operations. This study focuses on victims of earthquakes worldwide. The study will review and provide insights into the roles of E-Service and Mobile Technologies in earthquakes relief operations and how the internally displaced person could benefit from these services. The limitations of these services will be discussed and how the technology could be used to further predict natural disaster such as earthquakes is also considered.

  10. Pressure relief valve/safety relief valve testing

    Murray, W.A.; Hamm, E.R.; Barber, J.R.


    Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonconformances found by third parties Westinghouse Hanford Company initiated a task team to develop a pressure safety program. This paper reveals their findings.

  11. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Kieffer, Susan W.


    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  12. A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan

    C.-H. Li


    Full Text Available The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic–ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity. Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region

  13. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick Skip; Archer, Frank


    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  14. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji


    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  15. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    М.В. Карускевич


    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  16. Stress relief of transition zones

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.


    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  17. Iranian nurses' experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study.

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza


    Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.

  18. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian


    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  19. Disaster Mental Health and Positive Psychology: An Afterward to the Special Issue.

    Southwick, Steven M; Satodiya, Ritvij; Pietrzak, Robert H


    The articles in this Special Issue are devoted to integrating the fields of disaster mental health and positive psychology. Their focus on resilience building, individual and community preparation, meaning making, and posttraumatic growth represents an important new development in disaster mental health. The overarching goal of this effort is to inform strategies to help both individuals-including children, adolescent, adult disaster survivors, and relief workers-and communities prepare for, respond to, recover from, and possibly even grow stronger in the face of adversity. To achieve this goal, this body of literature suggests that it is important for disaster mental health workers to partner with community leaders, organizations, and the population at large to understand community vulnerabilities, take advantage of existing strengths, and respect cultural factors implicated in disaster recovery. It further suggests that an effective community-based approach to disaster recovery will make psychosocial support and skill-building programs available to large numbers of survivors, which is critical for responding to future national and international disasters. Continued high-quality research that is comprehensive and considers not only relevant psychological, social, cultural, and biological factors but also interrelations between individuals, organizations and communities is needed to advance this relatively new and important direction of the disaster mental health field. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Study Links Disasters to Dementia

    ... news/fullstory_161672.html Study Links Disasters to Dementia Losing home was tied to greater mental decline ... Earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters may raise dementia risk for seniors forced to leave their homes, ...

  1. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part II: The Disaster Health Conceptual Framework Revisited.

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro


    A Conceptual Framework upon which the study of disasters can be organized is essential for understanding the epidemiology of disasters, as well as the interventions/responses undertaken. Application of the structure provided by the Conceptual Framework should facilitate the development of the science of Disaster Health. This Framework is based on deconstructions of the commonly used Disaster Management Cycle. The Conceptual Framework incorporates the steps that occur as a hazard progresses to a disaster. It describes an event that results from the changes in the release of energy from a hazard that may cause Structural Damages that in turn, may result in Functional Damages (decreases in levels of function) that produce needs (goods and services required). These needs can be met by the goods and services that are available during normal, day-to-day operations of the community, or the resources that are contained within the community's Response Capacity (ie, an Emergency), or by goods and services provided from outside of the affected area (outside response capacities). Whenever the Local Response Capacity is unable to meet the needs, and the Response Capacities from areas outside of the affected community are required, a disaster occurs. All responses, whether in the Relief or Recovery phases of a disaster, are interventions that use the goods, services, and resources contained in the Response Capacity (local or outside). Responses may be directed at preventing/mitigating further deterioration in levels of functions (damage control, deaths, injuries, diseases, morbidity, and secondary events) in the affected population and filling the gaps in available services created by Structural Damages (compromise in available goods, services, and/or resources; ie, Relief Responses), or may be directed toward returning the affected community and its components to the pre-event functional state (ie, Recovery Responses). Hazard Mitigation includes interventions designed to

  2. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Zubair, L.


    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  3. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies during different phases of natural disasters

    Vrba, Jaroslav


    The establishment of water governance in emergency situations supports timely and effective reaction with regard to the risk and impact of natural disasters on drinking-water supplies and populations. Under such governance, emergency activities of governmental authorities, rescue and aid teams, water stakeholders, local communities and individuals are coordinated with the objective to prevent and/or mitigate disaster impact on water supplies, to reduce human suffering due to drinking-water failure during and in the post-disaster period, and to manage drinking-water services in emergency situations in an equitable manner. The availability of low-vulnerability groundwater resources that have been proven safe and protected by geological features, and with long residence time, can make water-related relief and rehabilitation activities during and after an emergency more rapid and effective. Such groundwater resources have to be included in water governance and their exploration must be coordinated with overall management of drinking-water services in emergencies. This paper discusses institutional and technical capacities needed for building effective groundwater governance policy and drinking-water risk and demand management in emergencies. Disaster-risk mitigation plans are described, along with relief measures and post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction activities, which support gradual renewal of drinking-water services on the level prior to the disaster. The role of groundwater governance in emergencies differs in individual phases of disaster (preparedness, warning, impact/relief, rehabilitation). Suggested activities and actions associated with these phases are summarized and analysed, and a mode of their implementation is proposed.

  4. [Role of pharmacists in disaster medicine: required knowledge and skills].

    Nakura, Hironori


    Immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, Okayama University dispatched a medical assistance team based on the request of Iwate Prefecture. The first team was followed by 12 medical teams. I was one of the members of the fourth and fifth medical teams sent to Rikuzen-takata and Ofunato for a week beginning March 16th to support medical relief operations as a pharmacist during the sub-acute phase of the disaster. As a member of the team at the temporary clinic in Rikuzen-takata, pharmacists such as myself required physical assessment skills to perform related tasks, along with expertise in drug dispensing and consultation. In my next medical team, which headed the pneumonia unit at Oofunato Hospital, I played a critical role in the effective use of medicine reserved/provided for disasters, including antibiotics. Throughout the relief operations, strong clinical reasoning and decision making, as well as good teamwork, proved vital, especially in emergency situations. For future community medical systems, emergency/disaster medicine should be included in pharmacy education. The School of Pharmacy at Okayama University will establish emergency medicine program in the next school year, in cooperation with the Medical, Dental and Health Care Departments.

  5. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    ... Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... with her quality of life, and acupuncture brought relief from severe shoulder pain. "I'm functional again. ...

  6. Inverted Relief in volcanic landscapes, an old idea with new observations in the Chaîne des Puys

    van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin; Karátson, Dávid


    The concept of volcanic inverted relief is almost as old as geology. It was identified by Desmarest (1870) in Central France, and by Whitney (1879) in California, and quickly began to be used as a tool in the uniformitarianism / catastrophism argument. In the 20th century inverted relief was identified and described in many volcanic fields by Cotton, later explored in Australia by Ollier, and most of the known examples presented in their textbooks are from Australia.Study continued in Central France, in the 19th and 20th centuries, notably on the Montagne de la Serre at the southern end of the Chaîne des Puys. This latter site has the advantage of having multiple ages of inverted relief stacked closely together over a rift margin fault. This creates especially clear and intricate inverted relief types. However, apart from these studies inverted relief has received little attention, yet is acknowledged to be present in most volcanic environments to some degree. The advent of planetary geology has partly brought inverted relief back to the fore, as it is clearly present on Mars. We review the characteristics of inverted relief and discuss their use as a tracer of long-term landscape evolution. At a broad scale it can be used for determining differential erosion rates. In turn, these can be used for assessing feedback processes between erosion, exhumation and mantle melting in rifts. Inverted relief also protects surfaces that can then record tectonic movement. This is used to clarify the structure of the Limagne Rift margin. At a more local scale, the inverted relief is often characterised by landsliding and deep seated gravitational deformation that is an important hazard in volcanic terrains. Several inverted relief related landslide disasters are recorded in the French Massif Central, and a landslide map is presented for the Chaîne des Puys - Limagne fault area. Finally a global review of inverted relief geosites is presented.

  7. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.


    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  8. Natural disasters and human mobility

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.


    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  9. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.


    ... similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap LEC excludes all contract tariff offerings from price... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in §§ 69.709(c) or 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I...

  10. 7 CFR 1465.33 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1465.33 Section 1465.33 Agriculture... § 1465.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of any authorized NRCS... participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635, section 635.3. The financial or...

  11. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relief. 36.504 Section 36.504 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including...

  12. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  13. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim relief. 1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the agency appeals and the case... interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of paragraph (a)(1...

  14. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture... Injunctive relief. (a) General. If FNS determines that a State agency has failed to comply with the Food... Secretary may seek injunctive relief against the State agency to require compliance. The Secretary may...

  15. 20 CFR 627.803 - Relief.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief. 627.803 Section 627.803 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING PROGRAMS... Relief. In ordering relief, the ALJ shall have the full authority of the Secretary under section 164 of...

  16. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44... § 7.44 Interim relief. (a) When the Department appeals and the case involves removal, separation, or... outcome of the Department appeal. The employee may decline the offer of interim relief. (b) Service under...

  17. 7 CFR 1466.33 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1466.33 Section 1466.33 Agriculture... Administration § 1466.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of any... relief, to the extent it is deemed desirable by NRCS, to provide a fair and equitable treatment because...

  18. 7 CFR 1470.34 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1470.34 Section 1470.34 Agriculture... § 1470.34 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of NRCS and did not... be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635. The financial or technical liability for any...

  19. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the Board appeals... offer of interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of...

  20. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 636.20 Section 636.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a... as meeting program requirements and grant relief because of the good-faith reliance on the part of...

  1. 7 CFR 795.24 - Relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relief. 795.24 Section 795.24 Agriculture Regulations... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.24 Relief. If a producer relied... reviewing authority makes a more restrictive determination, the Deputy Administrator may grant relief only...

  2. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Injunctive relief. 516.19 Section 516.19 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs... injunctive relief: (1) Plaintiff's likelihood of success on the merits. (2) Whether plaintiff will be...

  3. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional relief. 281... Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under § 281.210 or otherwise) a request for... aggrieved by such action may file a request for relief from curtailment under § 385.206 of this chapter. The...

  4. 49 CFR 1108.4 - Relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 1108.4 Section 1108.4 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.4 Relief. (a) Subject to specification in the complaint, as provided in § 1108.7 herein, an Arbitrator may grant the following types of relief: (1) Monetary damages, to the extent...

  5. Study on Earthquake Emergency Relief Efficiency%地震应急救灾效能研究

    高娜; 聂高众


    地震应急救灾效能是不同救援队震后救灾效果的最直接反映,救援队伍到达灾区的时间长短是影响救灾效能的最直接因素。该文首先分析了地震救援中被埋压人员的存活率问题,并将震后的救援力量分为三组:当地民众自救互救能力,当地及灾区周边的军队、武警、消防官兵的救援能力和地震专业救援队的救援能力,探讨了这三组救援队在地震救援过程中的救灾效能,及地震灾区的气温对救灾效能的影响。%Earthquake emergency rescue efficiency is the most direct reflection of post earthquake relief effects of different rescue teams.Time of a rescue team arrived at the disaster area is a direct factor to affect its efficiency of disaster relief.Survival rate of buried personnel in earthquake disaster is analyzed.The earthquake rescue forces are divided into three groups: self and mutual rescue ability of local people, disaster rescue ability of the army, armed police, fire officers of the local and surrounding and rescue ability of professional seismic rescue team.Dis-aster relief efficiencies of the three groups in the earthquake relief and effects of temperature on relief are discussed.

  6. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh


    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  7. Tracking the evolution of the disaster management cycle: A general system theory approach

    Christo Coetzee


    Full Text Available Officials and scholars have used the disaster management cycle for the past 30 years to explain and manage impacts. Although very little understanding and agreement exist in terms of where the concept originated it is the purpose of this article to address the origins of the disaster management cycle. To achieve this, general system theory concepts of isomorphisms, equifinality, open systems and feedback arrangements were applied to linear disaster phase research (which emerged in the 1920s and disaster management cycles. This was done in order to determine whether they are related concepts with procedures such as emergency, relief, recovery and rehabilitation.

  8. Affected parents' and other stakeholders' perception of a fire disaster management in India: a situational analysis.

    Satapathy, Sujata; Walia, Ajinder


    Fires that result in a large number of deaths and injuries are quite common in India, presenting many complex emergency management challenges. While significant improvement in disaster management has been noted in recent years, full integration of government emergency management initiatives at the provincial level is still in its infancy. This article presents the findings of a study of a school fire in India that resulted in the deaths of 93 children. The effective provincial level management of this fire, in the absence of a well-defined disaster management plan, was quite encouraging and provides guidance for other disaster managers in the country. The purpose of the study was to analyze the factors leading to the tragedy, the response of the stakeholders, the relief and rehabilitation support provided to the affected families, and the perceptions of the affected parents regarding their level of satisfaction with the management of this disaster. Extensive visits were made to the damaged school, schools where the rescued and evacuated children were relocated, affected households, injured children, various stakeholders and institutions playing a significant role in managing the incident, and nongovernment organizations working in the field. The study methodology included structured interviews to determine the parents' level of satisfaction with the different elements of the response, participant observations, intensive interaction with the members of the affected families, and focused group discussion with different relevant government officials. The findings indicate a high level of parent and stakeholder satisfaction in the majority of response and relief efforts associated with the disaster. Also reinforced were the importance of adherence to school safety regulations; the role of effective relief and rehabilitation; public-private partnership in disaster management; and the importance of media management, humanitarian assistance during crisis management and

  9. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Thompson, Neil


    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  10. Food for Disasters


    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  11. Disaster Risk Profile

    World Bank


    Afghanistan’s rugged mountain landscape and generally arid climate make it prone to several natural hazards. Climate change also poses threat to Afghanistan’s natural resources, of which the majority of Afghans depend for their livelihood. The country’s low level of socio-economic development makes it extremely vulnerable to disasters, resulting in frequent loss of lives, livelihoods, and ...

  12. Resilience in disaster research

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel;


    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims of disa...

  13. Mold After a Disaster

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  14. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Thompson, Neil


    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  15. When Facing Natural Disasters

    Liu Xinwen


    @@ China last experienced a strong earthquake in 1976 in Tang Shan, Hehei Province. At the beginning of this year, severe snow storms struck more than half of China. What impact have these natural disasters left on China, especially the latest earthquake in Sichuan? Let's do a comparison.

  16. Disaster Changes Us


    On scientists confirming that sex is a channel for HIV AIDS infection, the sexual emancipation that had flourished in America and Europe since the middle of the last century subsided. More stress has since been placed on family issues. A disaster can thus change moral standards and senses of value, as well as behavior.

  17. Implementation of telemedicine services in the earthquake disaster relief: the best medical experts provide direct medical service to the affected people%地震救援中实施远程医疗服务:把最好的医学专家送到灾区人民身边

    黎檀实; 柴家科


    Objective and Method To sum up the experience and significance of the remote medical consultation system used by the PLA General Hospital in 4 ·20 Sichuan Lushan earthquake medical rescue in 2013.Results and conclusions After the Lushan earthquake in April 20,2013,the expert medical rescue team of the PLA General Hospital immediately took the wireless portable telemedicine system to the converge hospital which had received many wounds in earthquake and had been connected with other hospitals,medical rescue teams and rescue ambulances to open the remote medical consultation system for disaster services including intensive care,emergency treatment,orthopedics,cerebral surgery,hepatobiliary surgery,obstetrics,gynecology and other related professional remote assistance services.The experts put forward the diagnosis and treatment for victims and had a benign interaction between the experts in disaster site and rear experts,as a result improved the ability of treatment of the disaster expert medical team.The PLA General Hospital treated more than 110 patients by remote medical consultation system in the Lushan earthquake and achieved real-time HD consultation and on-site operation guide.The using of remote medical consultation system achieved the connection between multimedia communication system and medical information system of the hospital and the interconnection of video,audio,data and medical services among each united hospitals,which can provide the significant experience of using remote medical consultation system in our disaster medical rescue activities.%目的和方法 总结解放军总医院远程医疗会诊系统在2013年“4·20”四川芦山地震救援中发挥其远程医疗服务的经验,探讨远程医疗会诊系统在灾难救援中的作用.结果和结论 在2013年4月20日四川芦山地震后,解放军总医院专家医疗队及时将无线便携式远程医疗会诊系统发送至地震灾区伤员集合点医院,第一时间组织开通

  18. A network perspective on the calamity, induced inaccessibility of communities and the robustness of centralized, landbound relief efforts

    Valenzuela, Jesus Felix; Legara, Erika Fille; Fu, Xiuju; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; de Souza, Robert; Monterola, Christopher


    We examine the robustness of centralized, landbound relief operations' capability to promptly reach areas affected by a disaster event from a network perspective. We initially look at two idealized road networks: a two-dimensional grid and a scale-free network, and compare them to an actual road network obtained from OpenStreetMap. We show that, from a node designated as the center for relief operations (a "relief center"), damage to a road network causes a substantial fraction of the other nodes (about 20% in the three networks we examined) to become initially inaccessible from any relief effort, although the remaining majority can still be reached readily. Furthermore, we show the presence of a threshold in the two idealized road networks but not in the real one. Below this threshold, all nodes can robustly be reached in a short span of time, and above it, not only the partitioning mentioned above sets in, but also the time needed to reach the nodes becomes susceptible to the amount of damage sustained by the road network. Under damage sustained by random segments of the network, this threshold is higher in the scale-free network compared to the grid, due to the robustness of the former against random attacks. Our results may be of importance in formulating contingency plans for the logistics of disaster relief operations.

  19. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway


    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts——the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models——a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  20. Prevention of debris flow disasters on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

    Wang, W; Xu, W L; Liu, S J


    Chengdu-Kunming Railway is an important transport line on southwestern China. However, this railway's safety is often threatened by debris flows. How to effectively forecast and alarm the debris flow disasters and reduce the losses is the aim to study the prevention system in this paper. The factors to cause or influence debris flow are divided into four parts--the basin environmental factors, the basin meteoric factors, the prevention work's elements and the flood-relief work's elements, and the prevention system is made up of three models--a judgment model to assess the debris flow gully's seriousness, a forecast model to predict the debris flow's occurrence and an alarm model to evaluate the debris flow's disaster. Afterwards, a concise structure chart is worked out and verified by the field data from Chengdu-Kunming Railway. This prevention system will provide beneficial reference for the debris flow's monitoring network to be executed on Chengdu-Kunming Railway.

  1. Social media processes in disasters: Implications of emergent technology use.

    Murthy, Dhiraj; Gross, Alexander J


    This article seeks to extend social science scholarship on social media technology use during disruptive events. Though social media's role in times of crisis has been previously studied, much of this work tends to focus on first-responders and relief organizations. However, social media use during disasters tends to be decentralized and this organizational structure can promote different types of messages to top-down information systems. Using 142,786 geo-tagged tweets collected before and after Hurricane Sandy's US landfall as a case study, this article seeks to explore shifts in social media behavior during disruptive events and highlights that though Sandy disrupted routine life within Twitter, users responded to the disaster by employing humor, sharing photos, and checking into locations. We conclude that social media use during disruptive events is complex and understanding these nuanced behaviors is important across the social sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Emergency response networks for disaster monitoring and detection from space

    Vladimirova, Tanya; Sweeting, Martin N.; Vitanov, Ivan; Vitanov, Valentin I.


    Numerous man-made and natural disasters have stricken mankind since the beginning of the new millennium. The scale and impact of such disasters often prevent the collection of sufficient data for an objective assessment and coordination of timely rescue and relief missions on the ground. As a potential solution to this problem, in recent years constellations of Earth observation small satellites and in particular micro-satellites (techniques. For a large number of applications the resulting delay between image capture and delivery is not acceptable, in particular for rapid response remote sensing aiming at disaster monitoring and detection. In such cases almost instantaneous data availability is a strict requirement to enable an assessment of the situation and instigate an adequate response. Examples include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, forest fires and oil spills. The proposed solution to this issue are low-cost networked distributed satellite systems in low Earth orbit capable of connecting to terrestrial networks and geostationary Earth orbit spacecraft in real time. This paper discusses enabling technologies for rapid response disaster monitoring and detection from space such as very small satellite design, intersatellite communication, intelligent on-board processing, distributed computing and bio-inspired routing techniques.

  3. Disaster mythology and fact: Hurricane Katrina and social attachment.

    Jacob, Binu; Mawson, Anthony R; Payton, Marinelle; Guignard, John C


    Misconceptions about disasters and their social and health consequences remain prevalent despite considerable research evidence to the contrary. Eight such myths and their factual counterparts were reviewed in a classic report on the public health impact of disasters by Claude de Ville de Goyet entitled, The Role of WHO in Disaster Management: Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991), and two additional myths and facts were added by Pan American Health Organization. In this article, we reconsider these myths and facts in relation to Hurricane Katrina, with particular emphasis on psychosocial needs and behaviors, based on data gleaned from scientific sources as well as printed and electronic media reports. The review suggests that preparedness plans for disasters involving forced mass evacuation and resettlement should place a high priority on keeping families together--and even entire neighborhoods, where possible--so as to preserve the familiar and thereby minimize the adverse effects of separation and major dislocation on mental and physical health.

  4. Active Disaster Response System for a Smart Building

    Chun-Yen Lin


    Full Text Available Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS, which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m.

  5. Improving Disaster Governance : Proposals for a Multi-Level Human Rights Disaster Governance Matrix

    Lane, Charlotte; Hesselman, Marlies


    'Good’ (natural) disaster governance faces multiple challenges given the broad range of resources, skills, expertise and international cooperation that adequate disaster response commands. Disaster governance needs coordinated action across space and time, at different levels and in the full disaste

  6. Towards "DRONE-BORNE" Disaster Management: Future Application Scenarios

    Tanzi, Tullio Joseph; Chandra, Madhu; Isnard, Jean; Camara, Daniel; Sebastien, Olivier; Harivelo, Fanilo


    Information plays a key role in crisis management and relief efforts for natural disaster scenarios. Given their flight properties, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) provide new and interesting perspectives on the data gathering for disaster management. A new generation of UAVs may help to improve situational awareness and information assessment. Among the advantages UAVs may bring to the disaster management field, we can highlight the gain in terms of time and human resources, as they can free rescue teams from time-consuming data collection tasks and assist research operations with more insightful and precise guidance thanks to advanced sensing capabilities. However, in order to be useful, UAVs need to overcome two main challenges. The first one is to achieve a sufficient autonomy level, both in terms of navigation and interpretation of the data sensed. The second major challenge relates to the reliability of the UAV, with respect to accidental (safety) or malicious (security) risks. This paper first discusses the potential of UAV in assisting in different humanitarian relief scenarios, as well as possible issues in such situations. Based on recent experiments, we discuss the inherent advantages of autonomous flight operations, both lone flights and formation flights. The question of autonomy is then addressed and a secure embedded architecture and its specific hardware capabilities is sketched out. We finally present a typical use case based on the new detection and observation abilities that UAVs can bring to rescue teams. Although this approach still has limits that have to be addressed, technically speaking as well as operationally speaking, it seems to be a very promising one to enhance disaster management efforts activities.

  7. Flood disaster risk assessment of rural housings--a case study of Kouqian Town in China.

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun


    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and "3S" technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  8. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Qi Zhang


    Full Text Available Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems, taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area.

  9. Digital disaster evaluation and its application to 2015 Ms 8.1 Nepal Earthquake

    WANG, Xiaoqing; LV, Jinxia; DING, Xiang; DOU, Aixia


    The purpose of the article is to probe the technique resolution of disaster information extraction and evaluation from the digital RS images based on the internet environment and aided by the social and geographic information. The solution is composed with such methods that the fast post-disaster assessment system will assess automatically the disaster area and grade, the multi-phase satellite and airborne high resolution digital RS images will provide the basis to extract the disaster areas or spots, assisted by the fast position of potential serious damage risk targets according to the geographic, administrative, population, buildings and other information in the estimated disaster region, the 2D digital map system or 3D digital earth system will provide platforms to interpret cooperatively the damage information in the internet environment, and further to estimate the spatial distribution of damage index or intensity, casualties or economic losses, which are very useful for the decision-making of emergency rescue and disaster relief, resettlement and reconstruction. The spatial seismic damage distribution of 2015 Ms 8.1 Nepal earthquake, as an example of the above solution, is evaluated by using the high resolution digital RS images, auxiliary geographic information and ground survey. The results are compared with the statistical disaster information issued by the ground truth by field surveying, and show good consistency.

  10. Flood Disaster Risk Assessment of Rural Housings — A Case Study of Kouqian Town in China

    Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jiquan; Jiang, Liupeng; Liu, Xingpeng; Tong, Zhijun


    Floods are a devastating kind of natural disaster. About half of the population in China lives in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the flood disaster risk of rural housings. The results are valuable for guiding the rescue and relief goods layout. In this study, we take the severe flood disaster that happened at Kouqian Town in Jilin, China in 2010 as an example to build an risk assessment system for flood disaster on rural housings. Based on the theory of natural disaster risk formation and “3S” technology (remote sensing, geography information systems and global positioning systems), taking the rural housing as the bearing body, we assess the flood disaster risk from three aspects: hazard, exposure and vulnerability. The hazard presented as the flood submerging range and depth. The exposure presented as the values of the housing and the property in it. The vulnerability presented as the relationship between the losses caused by flood and flood depth. We validate the model by the field survey after the flood disaster. The risk assessment results highly coincide with the field survey losses. This model can be used to assess the risk of other flood events in this area. PMID:24705363

  11. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.


    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development fo

  12. An activity theory analysis of boundary objects in cross-border information systems development for disaster management

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.; Rao, H.R.


    One of the main challenges in cross-border disaster management is the development and use of information systems that cater the needs of heterogeneous relief agencies, policies, activities and cultures. Drawing upon activity theory, this paper examines cross-border information systems development

  13. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...

  14. Disaster Response in India


    and preventative measures. The cumulative effects of deforestation, erosion, water-logging, salinity and nutrient depletion all over the country have...and the Sahel (Mali, Niger); and 1982-86 drought in the Sahel (Sudan, Ethiopia). during disasters) in terms of migration and loss of employment but...attribute drought in the country to the following major causes: • El Niño effect, the periodic appearance of warm and saline oce- anic currents in the

  15. 抗震救灾医护人员心理干预研究进展%Research progress on psychological intervention for medical personnel of earthquake relief

    杨馥瑜; 刘喜文


    从救灾医护人员身心健康状况、影响因素、地震心理卫生服务的一般手段、危机心理干预模式、灾后心理重建、灾后心理干预存在的问题、完善心理卫生服务系统等方面阐述了抗震救灾医护人员心理干预研究进展.%It expounded the research progress on psychological intervention for medical personnel of earthquake relief from aspects of the physical and mental health and its influencing factors of disaster relief medical personnel, general means of earthquake psychological health services, crisis psychological intervention mode,post -disaster psychological reconstruction,existing problems in post - disaster psychological intervention and perfecting mental health service system.

  16. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R


    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  17. Robust Disaster Recovery System Model


    Highly security-critical system should possess features of continuous service. We present a new Robust Disaster Recovery System Model (RDRSM). Through strengthening the ability of safe communications, RDRSM guarantees the secure and reliable command on disaster recovery. Its self-supervision capability can monitor the integrality and security of disaster recovery system itself. By 2D and 3D real-time visible platform provided by GIS, GPS and RS, the model makes the using, management and maintenance of disaster recovery system easier. RDRSM possesses predominant features of security, robustness and controllability. And it can be applied to highly security-critical environments such as E-government and bank. Conducted by RDRSM, an important E-government disaster recovery system has been constructed successfully. The feasibility of this model is verified by practice. We especially emphasize the significance of some components of the model, such as risk assessment, disaster recovery planning, system supervision and robust communication support.

  18. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members

    Hunt, Matthew; Tansey, Catherine M.


    Background Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs), in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries. Methods We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques. Results Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process. Conclusion Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However

  19. The Challenge of Timely, Responsive and Rigorous Ethics Review of Disaster Research: Views of Research Ethics Committee Members.

    Matthew Hunt

    Full Text Available Research conducted following natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods or hurricanes is crucial for improving relief interventions. Such research, however, poses ethical, methodological and logistical challenges for researchers. Oversight of disaster research also poses challenges for research ethics committees (RECs, in part due to the rapid turnaround needed to initiate research after a disaster. Currently, there is limited knowledge available about how RECs respond to and appraise disaster research. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the experiences of REC members who had reviewed disaster research conducted in low- or middle-income countries.We used interpretive description methodology and conducted in-depth interviews with 15 respondents. Respondents were chairs, members, advisors, or coordinators from 13 RECs, including RECs affiliated with universities, governments, international organizations, a for-profit REC, and an ad hoc committee established during a disaster. Interviews were analyzed inductively using constant comparative techniques.Through this process, three elements were identified as characterizing effective and high-quality review: timeliness, responsiveness and rigorousness. To ensure timeliness, many RECs rely on adaptations of review procedures for urgent protocols. Respondents emphasized that responsive review requires awareness of and sensitivity to the particularities of disaster settings and disaster research. Rigorous review was linked with providing careful assessment of ethical considerations related to the research, as well as ensuring independence of the review process.Both the frequency of disasters and the conduct of disaster research are on the rise. Ensuring effective and high quality review of disaster research is crucial, yet challenges, including time pressures for urgent protocols, exist for achieving this goal. Adapting standard REC procedures may be necessary. However, steps should be

  20. Comparison on Domestic and Foreign Mobilization Mode of Civil-military Integrated Health Service for Sudden Disaster Relief%突发灾害救援军民融合卫生动员模式国内外比较与思考

    谢峻; 王虎; 赵育新


    Objective To discuss the civil-military integrated mode of medical service for sudden disaster rescue. Methods The current situations of the domestic and foreign medical service mobilization were compared. The insufficiency of domestic medical service and ists essentials were analysed. Results The measurements were presented including formulating policies and regulations of civil-military integrated medical service mobilization, perfecting emergency command system,standardizing the information network construction, establishing the state reserve system of emergency medical materials, and strengthening the preplan establishment and personnel training. Conclusion It is essential to develop the legal system,construct the state informatization resource sharing system and perfect the state reserve system of emergency medical materials so as to implement civil-military integrated mobilization of medical service.%目的 探讨突发灾害救援中,军民融合的卫生动员模式.方法 比较国内外突发灾害救援卫生动员现状,分析我国现行灾害救援卫生动员模式的不足,思考实施军民融合卫生动员模式的重点内容.结果 提出了建立军民融合卫生动员政策法规体系;完善应急指挥管理机制;规范信息网络建设;建立国家级应急医疗物资储备体系;强化预案制定和人员培训等做好灾害救援卫生动员的举措.结论 完善相关立法、构建资源共享的国家级信息系统与完善的国家应急医疗物资储备体系是实现灾害救援中军民融合卫生动员的关键.

  1. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary -shp

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  2. FEMA Disaster Declaration Summary - API

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists all official FEMA Disaster Declarations. This is raw, unedited data from FEMA's National Emergency Management Information System (NEMIS) and as...

  3. A Capacitated Location-Allocation Model for Flood Disaster Service Operations with Border Crossing Passages and Probabilistic Demand Locations

    Mirzapour, S. A.; Wong, K. Y.; Govindan, K.


    , a p-center location problem is considered in order to determine the locations of some relief rooms in a city and their corresponding allocation clusters. This study presents a mixed integer nonlinear programming model of a capacitated facility location-allocation problem which simultaneously considers......Potential consequences of flood disasters, including severe loss of life and property, induce emergency managers to find the appropriate locations of relief rooms to evacuate people from the origin points to a safe place in order to lessen the possible impact of flood disasters. In this research...... the probabilistic distribution of demand locations and a fixed line barrier in a region. The proposed model aims at minimizing the maximum expected weighted distance from the relief rooms to all the demand regions in order to decrease the evacuation time of people from the affected areas before flood occurrence...

  4. Women's Mental Health and Intimate Partner Violence Following Natural Disaster: A Scoping Review.

    Bell, Sue Anne; Folkerth, Lisa A


    Introduction Survivors of natural disasters in the United States experience significant health ramifications. Women particularly are vulnerable to both post-disaster posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, and research has documented that these psychopathological sequelae often are correlated with increased incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV). Understanding the link between these health concerns is crucial to informing adequate disaster response and relief efforts for victims of natural disaster. Purpose The purpose of this review was to report the results of a scoping review on the specific mental health effects that commonly impact women following natural disasters, and to develop a conceptual framework with which to guide future research. A scoping review of mental and physical health effects experienced by women following natural disasters in the United States was conducted. Articles from 2000-2015 were included. Databases examined were PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane, JSTOR, Web of Science, and databases available through ProQuest, including ProQuest Research Library. A total of 58 articles were selected for inclusion, out of an original 149 that were selected for full-text review. Forty-eight articles, or 82.8%, focused on mental health outcomes. Ten articles, or 17.2%, focused on IPV. Discussion Certain mental health outcomes, including PTSD, depression, and other significant mental health concerns, were recurrent issues for women post-disaster. Despite the strong correlation between experience of mental health consequences after disaster and increased risk of domestic violence, studies on the risk and mediating factors are rare. The specific challenges faced by women and the interrelation between negative mental health outcomes and heightened exposure to IPV following disasters require a solid evidence base in order to facilitate the development of effective interventions. Additional research informed by theory on probable health impacts is

  5. A sigh of relief or a sigh of expected relief: Sigh rate in response to dyspnea relief.

    Vlemincx, Elke; Meulders, Michel; Luminet, Olivier


    Research has suggested that sighs may serve a regulatory function during stress and emotions by facilitating relief. Evidence supports the hypotheses that sighs both express and induce relief from stress. To explore the potential role of sighs in the regulation of symptoms, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sighs and relief of symptoms, and relief of dyspnea, specifically. Healthy volunteers participated in two studies (N = 44, N = 47) in which dyspnea was induced by mild (10 cmH2 O/l/s) or high (20 cmH2 0/l/s) inspiratory resistances. Dyspnea relief was induced by the offset of the inspiratory resistances (transitions from high and mild inspiratory resistance to no resistance). Control comparisons included dyspnea increases (transitions from no or mild inspiratory resistance to high inspiratory resistance) and dyspnea continuations (continuations of either no resistance or a high resistance). In Experiment 1, dyspnea levels were cued. In Experiment 2, no cues were provided. Sigh rate during dyspnea relief was significantly higher compared to control conditions, and sigh rate increased as self-reported dyspnea decreased. Additionally, sigh rate was higher during cued dyspnea relief compared to noncued dyspnea relief. These results suggest that sighs are important markers of dyspnea relief. Moreover, sighs may importantly express dyspnea relief, as they are related to experiential dyspnea decreases and occur more frequently during expected dyspnea relief. These findings suggest that sighs may not only be important in the regulation of stress and emotions, but also may be functional in the regulation of dyspnea. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. The Design and Verification of Disaster Recovery Strategies in Cloud Disaster Recovery Center

    Gang Li


    Full Text Available  Disaster recovery is an important means to ensure business continuity. However, the disaster recovery investment is so huge that the cloud disaster recovery becomes a best choice for enterprises, especially for SMEs. This paper discusses the necessity and importance of the cloud disaster recovery center and the vital indicators of disaster recovery by analyzing the classification and selecting principle of cloud disaster recovery strategy, developing disaster recovery strategy based on major disaster recovery strategy finally. In the end, this paper verifies the feasibility of the disaster recovery strategy by two specific cases of disaster recovery implementation.

  7. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  8. Modeling financial disaster risk management in developing countries

    Mechler, R.; Hochrainer, S.; Pflug, G.; Linnerooth-Bayer, J.


    The public sector plays a major role in reducing the long-term economic repercussions of disasters by repairing damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to households and businesses. If critical infrastructure is not repaired in a timely manner, there can be serious effects on the economy and the livelihoods of the population. The repair of public infrastructure, however, can be a significant drain on public budgets especially in developing and transition countries. Developing country governments frequently lack the liquidity, even including international aid and loans, to fully repair damaged critical public infrastructure or provide sufficient support to households and businesses for their recovery. The earthquake in Gujarat, and other recent cases of government post-disaster liquidity crises, have sounded an alarm, prompting financial development organizations, such as the World Bank, among others, to call for greater attention to reducing financial vulnerability and increasing the resilience of the public sector. This talk reports on a model designed to illustrate the tradeoffs and choices a developing country must make in financially managing the economic risks due to natural disasters. Budgetary resources allocated to pre-disaster risk management strategies, such as loss mitigation measures, a catastrophe reserve fund, insurance and contingent credit arrangements for public assets, reduce the probability of financing gaps - the inability of governments to meet their full obligations in providing relief to private victims and restoring public infrastructure - or prevent the deterioration of the ability to undertake additional borrowing without incurring a debt crisis. The model -which is equipped with a graphical interface - can be a helpful tool for building capacity of policy makers for developing and assessing public financing strategies for disaster risk by indicating the respective costs and consequences of financing alternatives.

  9. An UAV scheduling and planning method for post-disaster survey

    Li, G. Q.; Zhou, X. G.; Yin, J.; Xiao, Q. Y.


    Annually, the extreme climate and special geological environments lead to frequent natural disasters, e.g., earthquakes, floods, etc. The disasters often bring serious casualties and enormous economic losses. Post-disaster surveying is very important for disaster relief and assessment. As the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing with the advantage of high efficiency, high precision, high flexibility, and low cost, it is widely used in emergency surveying in recent years. As the UAVs used in emergency surveying cannot stop and wait for the happening of the disaster, when the disaster happens the UAVs usually are working at everywhere. In order to improve the emergency surveying efficiency, it is needed to track the UAVs and assign the emergency surveying task for each selected UAV. Therefore, a UAV tracking and scheduling method for post-disaster survey is presented in this paper. In this method, Global Positioning System (GPS), and GSM network are used to track the UAVs; an emergency tracking UAV information database is built in advance by registration, the database at least includes the following information, e.g., the ID of the UAVs, the communication number of the UAVs; when catastrophe happens, the real time location of all UAVs in the database will be gotten using emergency tracking method at first, then the traffic cost time for all UAVs to the disaster region will be calculated based on the UAVs' the real time location and the road network using the nearest services analysis algorithm; the disaster region is subdivided to several emergency surveying regions based on DEM, area, and the population distribution map; the emergency surveying regions are assigned to the appropriated UAV according to shortest cost time rule. The UAVs tracking and scheduling prototype is implemented using SQLServer2008, ArcEnginge 10.1 SDK, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  10. Vulnerability Assessment of Snow Disaster Based on Traffic System: A Case Study of Chenzhou City in Hunan Province, China

    Xu Xiaoge; Wang Jingai


    The article establishes the patterns of urban snow di-saster system and disaster chain based on the theory of regional disaster system. The patterns indicate that urban snow disaster is exacerbated mainly through the traffic system. In addition, the paper sets up the vulnerability assessment index system and synthetically vulnerability assessment model of urban snow disaster which are mainly based on traffic system, and applies them in Chenzhou City. The results of assessment indicate that obvious geographical differences exist in the vulnerability of snow disaster bearing bodies: vulnerability of Chenzhou section of the Beijing-Zhuhai expressway is the highest in Chenzhou City, and the southeastern counties are more vulnerable than the northwest region. Furthermore, according to the snow disaster vulnerability dynamic process analysis, the vulnerability of Chenzhou City obviously increased in 2008 winter compared with that in 2007. Finally, the paper presents some suggestions for the locations of the emergency commands and the reserves of relief materials based on the evaluation results, and points out that disaster monitoring and relevant technical level should be strengthened for the minimization of traffic system's vulner-ability.

  11. Oxycodone combinations for pain relief.

    Raffa, R B; Pergolizzi, J V; Segarnick, D J; Tallarida, R J


    No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment.

  12. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  13. Pain relief can be painful

    Ashish Bindra


    Full Text Available Mandibular nerve block is periodically used procedure used to treat neuralgic pain in the distribution of trigeminal nerve. It is a commonly performed block in outpatient settings at our institute. We present a case of an elderly edentulous patient with trigeminal neuralgia who suffered recurrent temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation following mandibular nerve block. The patient presented with complaints of severe pain, inability to close mouth, and eat food since 2 days. Anterior closed reduction of TMJ resulted in reduction of joint and immediate pain relief. However, the maneuver failed due to recurrent dislocation of the joint. A Barton dressing was applied to prevent another dislocation. This was followed by autologous blood injection into the joint. This case focuses on the preponderance of clinical evaluation and accentuates the need for additional forethought to be taken during pain procedures, particularly in the geriatric population.

  14. Reputation Management System for Fostering Trust in Collaborative and Cohesive Disaster Management

    Sabeen Javed; Hammad Afzal; Fahim Arif; Awais Majeed


    The best management of a disaster requires knowledge, skills and other resources not only for relief and rehabilitation but also for recovery and mitigation of its effects. These multifaceted goals cannot be achieved by a single organization and require collaborative efforts in an agile manner. Blind trust cannot be applied while selecting collaborators/team members/partners therefore good reputation of a collaborator is mandatory. Currently, various Information and Communication Technology b...

  15. Effects of Public Compensation for Disaster Damages on Private Insurance and Forest Management Decisions

    Marielle Brunette; Stephane Couture


    Politicians have a tendency to compensate victims of natural disasters. This article explores the impact of such public relief programmes on a non-industrial private forest owner’s insurance expenditures or on forest management activities. We develop a theoretical model of insurance demand or forest management activities in a risky context with a finite number of states of nature and a loss proportional to the forest value. The model predicts the optimal private expenditures of insurance and ...

  16. Economic development and natural disasters

    Klomp, Jeroen


    In this study we examine the impact of large-scale natural disasters on economic development. A major obstacle in exploring this relationship is the poor data quality on GDP per capita in low-income countries, while at the same time more than 90% of all disasters that happen worldwide occur in th

  17. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

    Fitrianie , S.; Rothkrantz , L.J.M.


    Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

  18. [Disaster medicine, organization and management].

    Spiette, Catherine; Houzé-Cerfon, Vanessa; Ducassé, Jean-Louis


    A disaster situation requires an organised command of the emergency services as well as of the treatment of victims and their orientation. The aim is to avoid any deterioration in the quality of the emergency care provided to the patients. A medical speciality, disaster medicine requires specific training.

  19. Longitudinal health effects of disasters.

    Yzermans, C.J.


    Background: We carry out prospective, longitudinal studies on the possible health effects of two disasters in the Netherlands: the explosion of fireworks depot in a residential area (Enschede) and a fire in discotheque in Volendam. Learning from the chaotic aftermath previous disasters, the Dutch g

  20. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    Frankewich, P. A.


    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  1. 44 CFR 68.12 - Relief.


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 68.12 Section 68.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Relief. The final determination may be appealed by the appellant(s) to the United States district court...

  2. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... and Obligations-Projects Project Mortgage Insurance § 220.753 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where...

  3. 47 CFR 1.6009 - Relief.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 1.6009 Section 1.6009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of Section 325(e) of the... Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6009 Relief. If the Commission determines that a satellite...

  4. 24 CFR 236.255 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 236.255 Section 236.255 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance § 236.255 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where the mortgage is in default, the mortgagor and...

  5. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.761 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where the mortgage is in default, the mortgagor and the...

  6. Timing and type of disaster severity data available on Internet following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake.

    Wefer, Agnes; Von Schreeb, Johan


    Background To adequately plan relief, adequate information that describe and quantify the severity of a disaster, and estimate the number of affected population, is rapidly needed. However, needs assessments describing the severity of the disaster has been shown to be conducted too late in order to guide the first days relief interventions. The aim of this study was to assess availability of early disaster severity information on Internet during the first seven days following the 2010 Haiti earthquake and assess to which extent the information was consistent with later revelations. Methods We searched the well acknowledged web portal Relief Web for all Haiti postings during the first seven days (12 -18 January 2010) after the earthquake. A form was created to classify and quantify extracted severity variables found in the postings. The results were compiled, analysed and compared with CRED (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disaster) official data made available later. Findings A total of 822 reports were posted where of 15 % provided a numerical estimate of the affected population, while 10% had an estimate on the number of dead. On day four 200 000 dead was reported, which is of the same magnitud compared to later official estimates (CRED data). Not a single report described the data collection method. Conclusions Within a few days of the 2010 Haiti earthquake it was possible to find surprisingly accurate information regarding severity of the earthquake but the available data must be questioned as no method was reported. More specialized and independent needs assessment agencies may improve availability of strategic information in the early onset of a disaster.

  7. Of timelines and timeliness: lessons from Typhoon Haiyan in early disaster response.

    Santiago, J Sedfrey S; Manuela, Wilfred S; Tan, Marion Lara L; Sañez, Siegfried Kiel; Tong, Aldo Zelig U


    Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines on 8 November 2013 with maximum sustained winds of 235 kilometres per hour, adversely affecting at least 11 million people and displacing some 673,000 in the central regions of the country. The disaster clearly overwhelmed the Philippine government despite its seemingly well-crafted disaster management plan. Using timelines of different organisations, this paper identifies gaps in the government's response, mainly due to its failure in coordinating and managing relief operations, which adversely affected its effectiveness and efficiency in the delivery of critical goods and services following the disaster. The paper also demonstrates how non-governmental organisations (NGOs), the United Nations, foreign governments and other organisations provided assistance, mainly through aid niching, to cover the government's shortcomings. The paper recommends a paradigm shift in the government's disaster response by integrating collaborative arrangements between government agencies and NGOs, and giving local governments the lead role, with the national government as support, in disaster planning and response. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  8. Disastrous assumptions about community disasters

    Dynes, R.R. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Disaster Research Center


    Planning for local community disasters is compounded with erroneous assumptions. Six problematic models are identified: agent facts, big accident, end of the world, media, command and control, administrative. Problematic assumptions in each of them are identified. A more adequate model centered on problem solving is identified. That there is a discrepancy between disaster planning efforts and the actual response experience seems rather universal. That discrepancy is symbolized by the graffiti which predictably surfaces on many walls in post disaster locations -- ``First the earthquake, then the disaster.`` That contradiction is seldom reduced as a result of post disaster critiques, since the most usual conclusion is that the plan was adequate but the ``people`` did not follow it. Another explanation will be provided here. A more plausible explanation for failure is that most planning efforts adopt a number of erroneous assumptions which affect the outcome. Those assumptions are infrequently changed or modified by experience.

  9. Managing Disaster in the Ionian Sea: Planning and Optimizing Logistics for Disaster Relief Operations for the Island of Kefalonia


    that geologists call tectonic plates . The movement of these plates against each other causes earthquakes along their edges. This shift can be very...Earthquake Magnitude As Professor Papazachos stated (and was presented in Chapter III) the Ionian tectonic fault (where the European plate meets the (Greece) is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. Furthermore, the topography of Greece, with its mountainous terrain and

  10. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  11. Disaster management following explosion.

    Sharma, B R


    Explosions and bombings remain the most common deliberate cause of disasters involving large numbers of casualties, especially as instruments of terrorism. These attacks are virtually always directed against the untrained and unsuspecting civilian population. Unlike the military, civilians are poorly equipped or prepared to handle the severe emotional, logistical, and medical burdens of a sudden large casualty load, and thus are completely vulnerable to terrorist aims. To address the problem to the maximum benefit of mass disaster victims, we must develop collective forethought and a broad-based consensus on triage and these decisions must reach beyond the hospital emergency department. It needs to be realized that physicians should never be placed in a position of individually deciding to deny treatment to patients without the guidance of a policy or protocol. Emergency physicians, however, may easily find themselves in a situation in which the demand for resources clearly exceeds supply and for this reason, emergency care providers, personnel, hospital administrators, religious leaders, and medical ethics committees need to engage in bioethical decision-making.

  12. Disaster event: Window of opportunity to implement global disaster policies?

    Siambabala B. Manyena


    Full Text Available Disasters have been predominantly construed as destructive events causing loss of lives, livelihoods and hard-won development. Much less attention has been paid to the constructive nature of disasters as creating potential windows of opportunities to address the overlooked and neglected aspects of disaster risk reduction. Using material from Zimbabwe, this article examines whether the humanitarian crisis, as manifested in the cholera disaster of 2008–2009, created a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action. The findings suggest that the humanitarian crisis did not necessarily create a window of opportunity to accelerate the implementation of the framework, owing to (1 inadequate authority and power of the agency responsible for disaster risk reduction, (2 an inadequate legal and institutional framework that outlines clear coordination, accountability mechanisms, resource mobilisation, community participation, and integration of development with regard to disaster risk reduction and (3 a lack of an integrated evidence-based approach to advocate disaster risk reduction in Zimbabwe.

  13. Disaster and Sociolegal Studies

    Susan Sterett


    Full Text Available Disasters are treated as independent events external to law. However, social processes define the beginning, end and extent of those events for mitigation, adaptation and response and recovery; those processes include the mobilization of law by people and organizations. Within the sociology of disaster, it is tempting to treat law as a problem-solving tool. Sociolegal analysis approaches law more skeptically: legal actors face problems and defer to the decisions others have made, or discount future problems as much as other institutions do and thereby contribute to problems, or offer compensation that does not ameliorate the inequality within and among countries that disaster can exacerbate. Law can signal that it is doing something about problems via national or supranational rights; for it actually to help requires legal actors to mobilize. Finally, the site of law has been displaced: from law being within public authority enacted through institutions to law as a matter of individual, self-governance set in expectation of disaster, and humanitarian assistance done through non-governmental organizations. This collection contributes analyses of individuals and organizations' action in disaster through legal processes. Los desastres se tratan como hechos independientes externos al derecho. Sin embargo, los procesos sociales definen el principio, el final y el alcance de esos acontecimientos en lo que respecta a su mitigación, adaptación, respuesta y recuperación; esos procesos incluyen la movilización del derecho por personas y organizaciones. En el ámbito de la sociología de los desastres, es tentador tratar el derecho como una herramienta para la resolución de problemas. Sin embargo, los análisis sociojurídicos se aproximan al derecho de forma más escéptica: los actores legales se enfrentan a problemas y se adhieren a decisiones que otros han tomado, o descartan problemas futuros de la misma forma que otras instituciones, aumentando

  14. Damage assessment framework for landslide disaster based on very high-resolution images

    Sun, Bo; Xu, Qihua; He, Jun; Liu, Zhen; Wang, Ying; Ge, Fengxiang


    It is well known that rapid building damage assessment is necessary for postdisaster emergency relief and recovery. Based on an analysis of very high-resolution remote-sensing images, we propose an automatic building damage assessment framework for rainfall- or earthquake-induced landslide disasters. The framework consists of two parts that implement landslide detection and the damage classification of buildings, respectively. In this framework, an approach based on modified object-based sparse representation classification and morphological processing is used for automatic landslide detection. Moreover, we propose a building damage classification model, which is a classification strategy designed for affected buildings based on the spectral characteristics of the landslide disaster and the morphological characteristics of building damage. The effectiveness of the proposed framework was verified by applying it to remote-sensing images from Wenchuan County, China, in 2008, in the aftermath of an earthquake. It can be useful for decision makers, disaster management agencies, and scientific research organizations.

  15. Reliable Path Selection Problem in Uncertain Traffic Network after Natural Disaster

    Jing Wang


    Full Text Available After natural disaster, especially for large-scale disasters and affected areas, vast relief materials are often needed. In the meantime, the traffic networks are always of uncertainty because of the disaster. In this paper, we assume that the edges in the network are either connected or blocked, and the connection probability of each edge is known. In order to ensure the arrival of these supplies at the affected areas, it is important to select a reliable path. A reliable path selection model is formulated, and two algorithms for solving this model are presented. Then, adjustable reliable path selection model is proposed when the edge of the selected reliable path is broken. And the corresponding algorithms are shown to be efficient both theoretically and numerically.

  16. Wasted Resources: Volunteers and Disasters


    included using proven human resource management techniques, to include screening and providing handbooks of what to expect before volunteers are...the relief & recovery stages.  Operates volunteer centers to serve as clearing houses for relief teams. American Radio Relay League ( ARRL ...cellular and other infrastructure-dependent systems.  ARRL volunteers act as communications volunteers with local public safety organizations. In

  17. New Orleans After Hurricane Katrina: An Unnatural Disaster?

    McNamara, D.; Werner, B.; Kelso, A.


    Motivated by destruction in New Orleans following hurricane Katrina, we use a numerical model to explore how natural processes, economic development, hazard mitigation measures and policy decisions intertwine to produce long periods of quiescence punctuated by disasters of increasing magnitude. Physical, economic and policy dynamics are modeled on a grid representing the subsiding Mississippi Delta region surrounding New Orleans. Water flow and resulting sediment erosion and deposition are simulated in response to prescribed river floods and storms. Economic development operates on a limited number of commodities and services such as agricultural products, oil and chemical industries and port services, with investment and employment responding to both local conditions and global constraints. Development permitting, artificial levee construction and pumping are implemented by policy agents who weigh predicted economic benefits (tax revenue), mitigation costs and potential hazards. Economic risk is reduced by a combination of private insurance, federal flood insurance and disaster relief. With this model, we simulate the initiation and growth of New Orleans coupled with an increasing level of protection from a series of flooding events. Hazard mitigation filters out small magnitude events, but terrain and hydrological modifications amplify the impact of large events. In our model, "natural disasters" are the inevitable outcome of the mismatch between policy based on short-time-scale economic calculations and stochastic forcing by infrequent, high-magnitude flooding events. A comparison of the hazard mitigation response to river- and hurricane-induced flooding will be discussed. Supported by NSF Geology and Paleontology and the Andrew W Mellon Foundation.

  18. Assessment of disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM, Khuzestan: 2012

    Effat Jahanbani


    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Disasters are scarce events; nevertheless, to prepare organizations for events and return to normal condition the accurate planning and education is essential. This study aimed to assess disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in Khuzestan Province in 2012. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, statistical population involved the top managers of the crisis management unit, emergency medicine services (EMS and relief and rescuing center of the West Country in the Khuzestan Province. Because of the limited number of the statistical population, a census method was used. The data were collected using a checklist developed by reviewing literature and through observation and interview. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage and mean percentage and using by SPSS v.18. Results: The results indicated that generally the status of planning of humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in the response phase was good. Emergency Medicine Services (EMS and center of relief and rescuing were ranked respectively in the moderate and good situations. The dimensions of human resource and the control were respectively in the best and the worst condition. Conclusions: According to findings, disaster planning in humanitarian supply chain management (HSCM in the response phase requires more attention in aspect of control. Generally, at the occurrence of disasters stage, particularly in supervision and control, paying attention to HSCM is necessary. So, we stress on the necessary reform of the program to ensure the proper supply of resources and cover the needs.

  19. 13 CFR 123.2 - What are disaster loans and disaster declarations?


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? 123.2 Section 123.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.2 What are disaster loans and disaster declarations? SBA offers...

  20. The public health dimension of disasters: health outcome assessment of disasters.

    Berg, B. van den; Grievink, L.; Gutschmidt, K.; Lang, T.; Palmer, S.; Ruijten, M.; Stumpel, R.; Yzermans, J.


    A broad range of health problems are related to disasters. Insight into these health problems is needed for targeted disaster management. Disaster health outcome assessment can provide insight into the health effects of disasters. During the 15th World Congress on Disaster and Emergency Medicine in

  1. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.


    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  2. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan

    World Bank


    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  3. 75 FR 60588 - Immediate Disaster Assistance Program


    ... disaster business loans, and Military Reservist EIDL loans. SBA also has authority under Section 7(b) to... Military Reservist economic injury disasters (Sec. 123.500 et seq.). Disaster declarations under section... Declarations. The Military Reservist economic injury disaster loan (MREIDL) program is a specialized...

  4. Investigating the significance of disaster information management

    Mukundi Mutasa


    Full Text Available Disaster information informs disaster risk management interventions. However, it is the systematic management of this key resource that has not yet been fully embraced. In some cases, information is still haphazardly collected, analysed, managed and disseminated. This paper, utilising mainly secondary literature sources, explores the importance of disaster information and its systematic management in disaster risk management programming. It presents challenges associated with information management in disaster situations and critiques the trend whereby the collection, management and dissemination of information are usually limited to disaster situations. This only serves to further marginalise post-disaster recovery processes, which are integral with regard to generating knowledge essential for the formulation of future disaster mitigation strategies. The paper concludes by arguing for the integration of disaster information management into current disaster risk management curriculum.

  5. Assessment of Costs for a Global Climate Fund Against Public Sector Disaster Risks

    Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mechler, Reinhard; Pflug, Georg; Williges, Keith


    National governments are key actors in managing climate variability and change, yet, many countries, faced with exhausted tax bases, high levels of indebtedness and limited donor assistance, have been unable to raise sufficient and timely capital to replace or repair damaged assets and restore livelihoods following major disasters exacerbating the impacts of disaster shocks on poverty and development. For weather extremes, which form a subset of the adaptation challenge and are supposed to increase in intensity and frequency with a changing climate, we conduct an assessment of the costs of managing and financing today's public sector risks on a global scale for more than 180 countries. A countries financial vulnerability is defined as a function of its financial resilience and its exposure to disaster risk. While disaster risk is estimated in terms of asset loss distributions based on catastrophe modeling approaches, financial resilience is operationalized as the public sector's ability to pay for relief to the affected population and support the reconstruction of affected assets and infrastructure for a given event. We consider governments financially vulnerable to disasters if they cannot access sufficient funding after a disaster to cover their liabilities. We operationalize this concept by the term resource gap, which we define the net loss associated with a disaster event after exhausting all possible ex-post and ex ante financing sources. Extending this approach for all possible disaster events, the risk that a resource gap will occur over a given time-span can be calculated for each country individually and dependent on the risk level different risk instruments may have to be applied. Furthermore, our estimates may inform decisions pertaining to a "climate insurance fund" absorbing "high level" country risks exceeding the ability of any given country to pay in the case of an extreme event. Our estimates relate to today's climate, yet we suggest that

  6. C41SR and Urban Disasters Disaster Response & Recovery Tools

    Brouillette, Greg A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Risk Analysis and Decision Support Group


    These are slides for various presentations on C41SR and urban disasters disasters response and recovery tools. These are all mainly charts and images of disaster response and recovery tools. Slides included have headings such as the following: vignette of a disaster response, situational awareness and common operating picture available to EOC, plume modeling capability, Program ASPECT Chemical Response Products, EPA ASPECT - Hurricane RITA Response 9/25/2005, Angel Fire Imagery, incident commander's view/police chief's view/ EMS' view, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training capability, systems diagram, Austere Challenge 06 Sim/C4 Requirements, common situational awareness and collaborative planning, exercise, training environment, common situational awareness, real world, crisis response, and consequence management.

  7. Post-traumatic Stress and Growth Among Medical Student Volunteers After the March 2011 Disaster in Fukushima, Japan: Implications for Student Involvement with Future Disasters.

    Anderson, David; Prioleau, Phoebe; Taku, Kanako; Naruse, Yu; Sekine, Hideharu; Maeda, Masaharu; Yabe, Hirooki; Katz, Craig; Yanagisawa, Robert


    The March 2011 "triple disaster" (earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident) had a profound effect on northern Japan. Many medical students at Fukushima Medical University volunteered in the relief effort. We aimed to investigate the nature of students' post-disaster involvement and examine the psychological impact of their experiences using a survey containing elements from the Davidson Trauma Scale and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. We collected 494 surveys (70 % response rate), of which 132 students (26.7 %) had volunteered. Volunteers were more likely to be older, have witnessed the disaster in person, had their hometowns affected, and had a family member or close friend injured. In the month after 3/11, volunteers were more likely to want to help, feel capable of helping, and report an increased desire to become a physician. Both in the month after 3/11 and the most recent month before the survey, there were no significant differences in distressing symptoms, such as confusion, anger, or sadness, between volunteers and non-volunteers. Volunteers reported a significantly higher level of posttraumatic growth than non-volunteers. Participating in a greater variety of volunteer activities was associated with a higher level of posttraumatic growth, particularly in the Personal Strength domain. There may be self-selection in some criteria, since students who were likely to be resistant to confusion/anxiety/sadness may have felt more capable of helping and been predisposed to volunteer. However, participation in post-disaster relief efforts did not appear to have a harmful effect on medical students, an important consideration for mobilizing volunteers after future disasters.

  8. A geographic investigation of hazards, disasters and recovery using satellite imagery

    Keys-Mathews, Lisa D.

    Disaster recovery is depicted on the landscape by change through time. Given the classic uses of remote sensing for detecting change, this dissertation assessed the applicability of remote sensing image analysis to the study of long-term recovery from disasters. Because recovery is complex and dynamic a framework was that established that divided the recovery landscape into three components: the built, relief, and natural environments. Four study sites were selected for this research representing three types of hazard events (earthquakes, tsunami and hurricane), three climatic environments (tropical, dry and humid subtropical), and four cultures (Iran, Indonesia, Peru and the United States). The four disasters occurred between 2001 and 2005 with each a catastrophic event. To begin the research, a list of diagnostic features of recovery was created through field observations, reconnaissance reports, descriptions of disaster recovery case studies, and current literature. These features were then documented in the satellite imagery as examples of their portrayal on the landscape. Second, elements of each environment (built, relief, and natural) were explored through application of digital image processing techniques including: principal components analysis, texture analysis, normalized differenced vegetation index, and digital image classification. Each of these techniques was applied to the imagery with the final results being a digital analysis through time. Finally, the analysis was integrated to determine if differential recovery was visible through the analysis of satellite imagery. This neighborhood scale investigation compared satellite imagery findings to a rapid visual assessment in Gulfport and synthesized the findings toward an understanding of differential recovery. This dissertation determined that satellite imagery and remote sensing techniques supported by fieldwork are appropriate and valuable tools in the study of disaster recovery. Features and

  9. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E


    Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  10. Patterns and Limitations of Urban Human Mobility Resilience under the Influence of Multiple Types of Natural Disaster.

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Natural disasters pose serious threats to large urban areas, therefore understanding and predicting human movements is critical for evaluating a population's vulnerability and resilience and developing plans for disaster evacuation, response and relief. However, only limited research has been conducted into the effect of natural disasters on human mobility. This study examines how natural disasters influence human mobility patterns in urban populations using individuals' movement data collected from Twitter. We selected fifteen destructive cases across five types of natural disaster and analyzed the human movement data before, during, and after each event, comparing the perturbed and steady state movement data. The results suggest that the power-law can describe human mobility in most cases and that human mobility patterns observed in steady states are often correlated with those in perturbed states, highlighting their inherent resilience. However, the quantitative analysis shows that this resilience has its limits and can fail in more powerful natural disasters. The findings from this study will deepen our understanding of the interaction between urban dwellers and civil infrastructure, improve our ability to predict human movement patterns during natural disasters, and facilitate contingency planning by policymakers.

  11. D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management: Core Results of Ditac Project

    Kaptan, K.; Kavlak, U.; Yilmaz, O.; Celik, O. T.; Manesh, A. K.; Fischer, P.; Lupescu, O.; Ingrassia, P. L.; Ammann, W. J.; Ashkenazi, M.; Arculeo, C.; Komadina, R.; Lechner, K.; Arnim, G. v.; Hreckovski, B.


    According to statistical data, natural disasters as well as the number of people affected by them are occurring with increasing frequency compared to the past. This situation is also seen in Europe Union; So, Strengthening the EU capacity to respond to Disasters is very important. This paper represents the baseline results of the FP-7 founded DITAC project, which aims to develop a holistic and highly structured curriculum for responders and strategic crisis managers. Up-to-date geospatial information is required in order to create an effective disaster response plan. Common sources for geospatial information such as Google Earth, GIS databases, and aerial surveys are frequently outdated, or insufficient. This limits the effectiveness of disaster planning. Disaster Management has become an issue of growing importance. Planning for and managing large scale emergencies is complex. The number of both victims and relief workers is large and the time pressure is extreme. Emergency response and triage systems with 2D user interfaces are currently under development and evaluation. Disasters present a number of spatially related problems and an overwhelming quantity of information. 3D user interfaces are well suited for intuitively solving basic emergency response tasks. Such tasks include commanding rescue agents and prioritizing the disaster victims according to the severity of their medical condition. Further, 3D UIs hold significant potential for improving the coordination of rescuers as well as their awareness of relief workers from other organizations. This paper describes the outline of a module in a Disaster Management Course related to 3D Applications in Disaster Mitigation and Management. By doing this, the paper describes the gaps in existing systems and solutions. Satellite imageries and digital elevation data of Turkey are investigated for detecting sites prone to natural hazards. Digital image processing methods used to enhance satellite data and to produce

  12. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  13. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  14. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    PATIENT EDUCATION Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  15. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  16. Enveloping Relief Surfaces of Landslide Terrain


    Two relief surfaces that envelop the rock fall region in a part of Garhwal Himalayas around Chamoli have been identified. Relative relief and absolute relief have been analyzed and the enveloping surfaces recorded at two levels of relief in the landscape. All landslide activity lies within these surfaces. The lower enveloping surface (800 m) dips due south by 7-8 degrees, due to an elevation rise of 100 meters within 12 km from south to north, i.e., a gradient of 8 percent. The nature of the surface is smooth. The upper enveloping surface (> 2500 m) is almost parallel to the lower one but its surface is undulatory due to landslides and denudation. The area has been a seismically active region and has undergone seismic activity up until recently, as evidenced by the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999. The effects of earthquakes are seen at higher levels in the form of landslide imprints on the terrain.

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  19. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher; Porreca, Frank


    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex, activation of midbrain dopamine neurons and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute and chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  20. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    ... and prepare a disaster kit for your pet. Leaving pets out of evacuation plans can put pets, ... during an evacuation Contact your local emergency management office and ask if they offer accommodations for owners ...

  1. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Recovery

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  2. Natural disasters and IDPs’ rights

    Walter Kälin


    Full Text Available In the understandable rush to provide assistance to the survivors of the tsunami, insufficient attention has been devoted to protecting the human rights of those forcibly displaced by the disaster.

  3. Disaster Debris Recovery Database - Landfills

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 6,000 composting facilities, demolition contractors, transfer stations,...

  4. FEMA Current Disaster Declarations -shp

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists the current Disaster Declarations in Shapefile. This data was compiled and distributed by FEMA Mapping and Analysis Center (MAC). Metadata file...

  5. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers - KML

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a KML file for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  6. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    H.C.M. Vorst


    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  7. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    Awata, Shuichi


    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide.

  8. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald


    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  9. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald


    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  10. Earthquake Disaster Management and Insurance


    As one of the most powerful tools to reduce the earthquake loss, the Earthquake Disaster Management [EDM] and Insurance [EI] have been highlighted and have had a great progress in many countries in recent years. Earthquake disaster management includes a series of contents, such as earthquake hazard and risk analysis, vulnerability analysis of building and infrastructure, earthquake aware training, and building the emergency response system. EI, which has been included in EDM after this practice has been...

  11. Information Management and Disaster Archives

    Odabaş, Hüseyin; Odabaş, Z. Yonca; Polat, Coşkun


    Information management is a discipline which gives opportunity the collection of every kind of explicit or tacit information reresource appearing in the result of past activities and experience, sharing it by passing through suitable processes and achieving useful results from them. Disaster is a fact that affects both individual and social lives in negative ways. In order to mitigate these effects the concept of disaster management provides many opportunities. As a result of these processes ...

  12. Safety/relief-valve test program

    Hunter, J.A.


    In response to the NRC's Task 2.1.2 following the TMI-2 accident, government and industry programs were formulated to address the performance of safety and relief valve systems for pressurized and boiling water reactors. Objective is to demonstrate by testing and analysis that safety and relief valve systems in the reactor coolant system are qualified for the anticipated full range of reactor operating and accident conditions. The EPRI PWR program tested PWR safety valves and power operated relief valves (PORVs) under steam, liquid, and steam/liquid transition conditions. The program also tested PWR PORV block valves under steam conditions. The GE BWR program tested BWR relief and safety/relief valves under high pressure steam and low pressure liquid conditions. EG and G Idaho recent activities have focused on the evaluation of the industry test data, evaluation and modification of analytical codes for safety/relief valve system analysis, and initial evaluation of utility responses to US NRC program requirements.

  13. Li Minxiu and Ji County Famine Relief Association%李敏修与汲县救荒公所



    In 1920, a drought happened in the north of Henan,most of the people in Ji and other counties nearby fled from the famine,but the government didn't organize people to provide disaster relief. Li Min-xiu and other civilians launched Ji County Famine Relief Association immediately,and set up a relatively complete organization to manage the famine relief. Based on the famine research,the Ji County Famine Relief Association took pointed measures,set up Dig Well group and Cheer Civilians group,and gave different relief to the victims of vary rank.%1920年,豫北大旱,汲县及其周围数县逃荒的人很多,而当局没有人出面组织抗灾。李敏修等人当即发起成立汲县救荒公所,并设立了比较完备的组织机构以领导抗灾。汲县救荒公所在查振的基础上有针对性地救灾,设立“凿井”社和“振民”社等。这样,汲县不同层次的灾民施以不同程度的救济。

  14. NASA's Applied Sciences: Natural Disasters Program

    Kessler, Jason L.


    Fully utilize current and near-term airborne and spaceborne assets and capabilities. NASA spaceborne instruments are for research but can be applied to natural disaster response as appropriate. NASA airborne instruments can be targeted specifically for disaster response. Could impact research programs. Better flow of information improves disaster response. Catalog capability, product, applicable disaster, points of contact. Ownership needs to come from the highest level of NASA - unpredictable and irregular nature of disasters requires contingency funding for disaster response. Build-in transfer of applicable natural disaster research capabilities to operational functionality at other agencies (e.g., USFS, NOAA, FEMA...) at the outset, whenever possible. For the Decadal Survey Missions, opportunities exist to identify needs and requirements early in the mission design process. Need to understand additional needs and commitments for meeting the needs of the disaster community. Opportunity to maximize disaster response and mitigation from the Decadal Survey Missions. Additional needs or capabilities may require agency contributions.

  15. Core Competencies in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance: A Systematic Review.

    Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Gotz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fisher, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Stal, Marc; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi


    Disaster response demands a large workforce covering diverse professional sectors. Throughout this article, we illustrate the results of a systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to identify existing competency sets for disaster management and humanitarian assistance that would serve as guidance for the development of a common disaster curriculum. A systematic review of English-language articles was performed on PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, ERIC, and Cochrane Library. Studies were included if reporting competency domains, abilities, knowledge, skills, or attitudes for professionals involved disaster relief or humanitarian assistance. Exclusion criteria included abstracts, citations, case studies, and studies not dealing with disasters or humanitarian assistance. Thirty-eight papers were analyzed. Target audience was defined in all articles. Five references (13%) reported cross-sectorial competencies. Most of the articles (81.6%) were specific to health care. Eighteen (47%) papers included competencies for at least 2 different disciplines and 18 (47%) for different professional groups. Nursing was the most widely represented cadre. Eighteen papers (47%) defined competency domains and 36 (94%) reported list of competencies. Nineteen articles (50%) adopted consensus-building to define competencies, and 12 (31%) included competencies adapted to different professional responsibility levels. This systematic review revealed that the largest number of papers were mainly focused on the health care sector and presented a lack of agreement on the terminology used for competency-based definition.

  16. Operation of emergency operating centers during mass casualty incidents in taiwan: a disaster management perspective.

    Wen, Jet-Chau; Tsai, Chia-Chou; Chen, Mei-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Ta


    On April 27, 2011, a train derailed and crashed in Taiwan, causing a mass casualty incident (MCI) that was similar to a previous event and with similar consequences. In both disasters, the emergency operating centers (EOCs) could not effectively integrate associated agencies to deal with the incident. The coordination and utilization of resources were inefficient, which caused difficulty in command structure operation and casualty evacuation. This study was designed to create a survey questionnaire with problem items using disaster management phases mandated by Taiwan's Emergency Medical Care Law (EMCL), use statistical methods (t test) to analyze the results and issues the EOCs encountered during the operation, and propose solutions for those problems. Findings showed that EOCs lacked authority to intervene or coordinate with associated agencies. Also, placing emphasis on the recovery phase should improve future prevention and response mechanisms. To improve the response to MCIs, the EMCL needs to be amended to give EOCs the lead during disasters; use feedback from the recovery phase to improve future disaster management and operation coordination; and establish an information-sharing platform across agencies to address all aspects of relief work.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6).

  17. From disaster to development: a systematic review of community-driven humanitarian logistics.

    Bealt, Jennifer; Mansouri, S Afshin


    A plethora of untapped resources exist within disaster-affected communities that can be used to address relief and development concerns. A systematic review of the literature relating to community participation in humanitarian logistics activities revealed that communities are able to form ad hoc networks that have the ability to meet a wide range of disaster management needs. These structures, characterised as Collaborative Aid Networks (CANs), have demonstrated efficient logistical capabilities exclusive of humanitarian organisations. This study proposes that CANs, as a result of their unique characteristics, present alternatives to established humanitarian approaches to logistics, while also mitigating the challenges commonly faced by traditional humanitarian organisations. Furthermore, CANs offer a more holistic, long-term approach to disaster management, owing to their impact on development through their involvement in humanitarian logistics. This research provides the foundation for further theoretical analysis of effective and efficient disaster management, and details opportunities for policy and practice. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  18. Reputation Management System for Fostering Trust in Collaborative and Cohesive Disaster Management

    Sabeen Javed


    Full Text Available The best management of a disaster requires knowledge, skills and other resources not only for relief and rehabilitation but also for recovery and mitigation of its effects. These multifaceted goals cannot be achieved by a single organization and require collaborative efforts in an agile manner. Blind trust cannot be applied while selecting collaborators/team members/partners therefore good reputation of a collaborator is mandatory. Currently, various Information and Communication Technology based artifacts, for collaborative disaster management, have been developed; however, they do not employ trust and reputation as their key factor. In this paper, a framework of reputation based trust management system is proposed for the support of disaster management. The key features of framework are Meta model, Reputation Indicator Matrix and Computational algorithm, deployed using Service Oriented Architecture. To evaluate the efficacy of the artifact, a prototype is implemented. Furthermore, an industrial survey is carried out to get the feedback on the proposed framework. The results support that the proposed reputation management system provides significant support in collaborative disaster management by assisting in agile and smart decision making in all phases of disaster management cycle.

  19. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...

  20. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.


    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2 to 8 weeks, 39% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 33% reported significant pain relief, and 28% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Six months to one year postlaparoscopy, 49% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 15% reported significant pain relief, and 36% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Two to five years after laparoscopic enterolysis, 37% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 30% reported significant pain relief, and 33% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Some patients required between 1 and 3 subsequent laparoscopic adhesiolysis. A total of 3 enterotomies and 2 cystotomies occurred, all of which were repaired laparoscopically. Conclusion: We conclude that laparoscopic enterolysis may offer significant long-term relief of chronic pelvic pain in some patients. PMID:11051185

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN... or components intended to be imported in order to ensure that relief from import duties is obtained...

  2. 7 CFR 635.5 - Forms of relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 635.5 Section 635.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING EQUITABLE RELIEF FROM INELIGIBILITY § 635.5 Forms of relief. (a) The Chief... land covered by the program; and (5) Receive such other equitable relief as determined to be...

  3. 37 CFR 41.120 - Notice of basis for relief.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of basis for relief... Notice of basis for relief. (a) The Board may require a party to provide a notice stating the relief it requests and the basis for its entitlement to relief. The Board may provide for the notice to be maintained...

  4. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motions for temporary relief. 210.52 Section 210... IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief. Requests for temporary relief under section 337 (e) or (f) of the Tariff Act of 1930 shall be made through...

  5. 43 CFR 4.1367 - Request for temporary relief.


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for temporary relief. 4.1367... temporary relief. (a) Where review is requested pursuant to § 4.1362, any party may file a request for temporary relief at any time prior to a decision by an Administrative Law Judge, so long as the relief...

  6. 7 CFR 718.305 - Forms of relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 718.305 Section 718.305 Agriculture... Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.305 Forms of relief. (a) The Administrator of FSA, Executive Vice... all or part of the land covered by the program; and (5) Receive such other equitable relief as...

  7. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam


    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  8. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  9. Promoting a culture of disaster preparedness.

    Medina, Angeli


    Disasters from all hazards, ranging from natural disasters, human-induced disasters, effects of climate change to social conflicts can significantly affect the healthcare system and community. This requires a paradigm shift from a reactive approach to a disaster risk management 'all-hazards' approach. Disaster management is a joint effort of the city, state, regional, national, multi-agencies and international organisations that requires effective communication, collaboration and coordination. This paper offers lessons learned and best practices, which, when taken into consideration, can strengthen the phases of disaster risk management.

  10. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  11. Supply Positioning in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations


    Defense Support of Civil Authorities xiv EMF Expeditionary Medical Facilities EUCOM European Command FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency...days Surgical Capacity General Thoracic Urology Gynecology Orthopedics Neurosurgery Ophthalmology Anesthesiology Oral surgery...aid logistics: Supply chain management in high gear. Journal of Operational Research Society, 57(5), 475–489. Vice Chairman Joint Chief of Staff

  12. Mobile Tracking and Location Awareness in Disaster Relief and Humanitarian Assistance Situations


    OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AGIS Advanced Ground Information Systems APK Android Application Packages BFT Blue Force Tracker COTS...Packages [ APK ]). The Maps API includes the basic function for viewing maps on a touch screen. It includes the ability for the user to use touch

  13. Situation Desperate: U.S. Army Engineer Disaster Relief Operations, Origins to 1950


    the abuse of the free ration issues also circulated. Col. Lansing Beach of the Corps of Engineers, stationed at Jackson Barracks near New Orleans...his experience that federal issuance of free rations did more harm than good. Percy Quin of Mississippi took umbrage at that idea. “Mr. Humphreys...upon returning Soldiers of the 359th Engineer General Service Regiment repaired a slough in the Jackson Bayou levee along the White River during the

  14. Lessons from DoD Disaster Relief Efforts in the Asia-Pacific Region


    the Indian-Australian, Pacific, and the Philip- pines tectonic plates .1 As a result, Indonesia has experienced 38 earth- quakes of magnitude 6.3 or...familiar. The Indonesian archipelago is located on the so-called Ring of Fire, an area particularly prone to seismic activity due to the collision of

  15. Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): Science, Triage and Treatment (STAT)


    Thoracotomy, to Maintain Cardiac Output in a Porcine Model of Cardiogenic and Hemorrhagic Shock (Frazier, Radovancevic) .3 S. W. Casscells, M.D...injury (Chiu score by blinded observer) and myeloperoxidase activity. Tissue water was determined using the wet to dry weight ratio to assess gut edema ...Colucci W, Braunwald E. Clinical aspects of heart failure: high-output failure; pulmonary edema . In: Braunwald E, editor. Heart Disease: A Textbook of

  16. Designing Inter-Organisational Collectivities for Dynamic Fit: Stability, maneuvrability and Application in Disaster Relief Endeavours


    organising . He views work, technology, organisation and people as an integrated design problem, and has concentrated for years on research to understand and...organisational collectivity. In the divisionalised structure, alternatively, such organisations would coordinate more formally with a central authority and work

  17. United States Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Costs: A Preliminary Study


    concentration in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism from Temple University. Dr. Keenan D. Yoho Graduate School of Business & Public Policy Naval Postgraduate...December 26, 2004, an undersea earthquake of 9.1 magnitude earthquake struck off the west coast of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia . Seven days after...reports) >20,000 >10,000 Displaced >1,500,000 >1,100,000 >300,000 1. In Indonesia , more than 25% of Aceh Province’s villages were destroyed 1

  18. Enhancing Joint Warfighting Readiness Through Conduct of Foreign Disaster Relief Operations


    across thick coral reefs blocking traditional landing craft from reaching some of the islands. 23 Although some of the innovative uses of the...coastline. Consequences included almost a quarter of a million people killed or missing and near total destruction and isolation of towns and villages...Damage to Port-au-Prince included disablement of the Toussaint L’Ouverture International Airport control tower and destruction of over half the

  19. Optimizing Disaster Relief: Real-Time Operational and Tactical Decision Support


    data preparation is aided by the provision from published sources of standard data for many foreseeable tasks; this data can be quickly accessed via visual icons on a computer screen and customized for the actual work at hand.

  20. Assessment of Disaster Relief Preparedness Capabilities Networks in the EUCOM, PACOM, and SOUTHCOM Areas of Responsibility


    International RNRN Registered Nurse Response Network SCM supply chain management SOUTHCOM U.S. Southern Command UCSD PDS University of California San...collaborative networks are a fundamental component of any emergency response” (p. 134). Responding humanitarian agencies can improve efficiencies while...chain management ( SCM ). Commodities and associated costs are well-managed using impartial, transparent and responsive systems (The Sphere

  1. Rotorcraft Use in Disaster Relief and Mass Casualty Incidents - Case Studies


    ground-fault within a combustible concealed space in a waitresses serving station of The Deli. Following full involvement of The Deli, a flame front...entirely limited to the Casino level and second floor office area. There was minor flame damage on one or two guest rooms on the fifth floor and heat and...smoke damage on upper floors , but the major damage by fire was in the Main Casino, the lobby areas at the main and Flamingo Road entrances, the hotel

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs, The Armed Forces Disaster Relief Effort in Armenia.


    According to the Yerevan seismic station, the tremors measured more than force 10 in the epicenter, which was in the area of the city of Leninakan. for over 100,000 people, 22,000 padded jackets and trousers (mainly for the rural regions), and thousands of hats with earflaps and warm mittens

  3. FY2010 Supplemental for Wars, Disaster Assistance, Haiti Relief, and Other Programs


    Jacobson , “Class-Size Reductions Seen As Limited Help on Achievement Gap,” Education Week, February 21, 2008. 169 For more information on the State...and oversight. 170 Written by Nathan James, Analyst in Crime Policy, 707-0264, Domestic Social Policy Division. 171 Authorized at 42 U.S.C. §3796dd...CHRP) Announcement Toolkit, p. 2, provided to Nathan James, Analyst in Crime Policy, by the COPS Office. 174 Written by Lennard Kruger, Specialist

  4. Disaster Relief and Emergency Medical Services Project (DREAMS TM): Digital EMS


    unless so designated by other documentation. Form Approved PublicO R reportingIO buAde for this colcino0n7maini4siae t vrg orpe epne nuin h...79 Figur B-23. Paramedic-Mobile Station Run Record Transport and Crew...during transport to monitor multiple patient vital signs using a set of sensors attached to the patient. Interfacing with the monitor is done using one

  5. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Communications for the 21st Century


    hard drives for open internet use – after a HADR operation is complete, commands can be electronically wipe and store them for future missions. Also...policy for unclassified Internet use , which leads to the third aspect, policy. 15 Rather than have each unified command determine their policy for... internet use for HADR operations, it should doctrine from the U.S. Joint level. Although the Joint Publication on foreign HA implies Internet use , it

  6. Macrocognition in Teams and Analysis of Information Flow During the Haiti Disaster Relief


    TIE Is the United Nations new information portal for coordinating the U.N. cluster system IIG IIG IIG 1. What is OneResponse? IIG IIG IIG...challenges. TIE TKS TIE The global institute for disruptive events (GIDE) is supporting epidemic situational awareness (Operational Biosurveillance ) for...Docycycline and Mefloquine. TIE TIE TIE 90 Information can be followed at the Haiti Operational Biosurveillance website address. TIE TIE TIE From

  7. Disaster, relief and political change in southern Ethiopia : developments from within Suri society

    Abbink, J.; Sorenson, J.


    This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in Käfa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to env

  8. An Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Operations (Briefing charts)


    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Cyclone Sidr. Nov 15, 2007 2 Probability of Mission Source: Nix, D., (2011, January) The Spectrum of Operations...Cumulative Critical Capability Unified Assistance,  IO Tsunami JTF Katrina Unified Response,  Haiti Free HandCurve Generalizing the Levelof USNavy

  9. Analysis of United States Marine Corps Operations in Support of Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief


    unit (MEU), Bangladesh Cyclone Sidr, Operation Sea Angel II, Haiti earthquake 2010, Operation Unified Response, Great East Japan earthquake and...with respect to the conduct of HA/DR missions. We have collected data for the 2007 cyclone on the southwest coast of Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti ...responded to the 2007 cyclone in Bangladesh, the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the 2011 Japanese earthquake and subsequent tsunami, respectively. These

  10. The Military in Disaster Relief After the Explosion in Halifax, Nova Scotia, December 1917


    right, the normal side. When the two ships were in sight of each other, they blew their whistles to indicate the direction of passage, as was...with German heritage or German sounding names.46 A German attack, unlike an accidental explosion, meant further explosions must be imminent. Suspicion...exploded. Carstens, 360; he wrote that there were 400-500 people that totally lost their sight due to the explosion. 163 Tooke, 313-316. 164 Ibid

  11. Cost Analysis of U.S. Navy Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Missions


    underwater topography of the area. This situation would strongly increase the value in sending a Hydrographic Survey Ship (T-AGS) to investigate the...such as drones may be valuable assets in the HA/DR mission. Providing a model for how many may be required may assist future planners in their

  12. Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief Policies in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations


    Industrial Estate with teams from Brunei, Cambodia, Malaysia , Philippines, and Singapore assisting Thai responders. ERAT members were also involved, as... Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect

  13. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru


    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  14. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru


    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  15. Reshaping US Navy Pacific response in mitigating disaster risk in South Pacific Island nations: adopting community-based disaster cycle management.

    Reaves, Erik J; Termini, Michael; Burkle, Frederick M


    The US Department of Defense continues to deploy military assets for disaster relief and humanitarian actions around the world. These missions, carried out through geographically located Combatant Commands, represent an evolving role the US military is taking in health diplomacy, designed to enhance disaster preparedness and response capability. Oceania is a unique case, with most island nations experiencing "acute-on-chronic" environmental stresses defined by acute disaster events on top of the consequences of climate change. In all Pacific Island nation-states and territories, the symptoms of this process are seen in both short- and long-term health concerns and a deteriorating public health infrastructure. These factors tend to build on each other. To date, the US military's response to Oceania primarily has been to provide short-term humanitarian projects as part of Pacific Command humanitarian civic assistance missions, such as the annual Pacific Partnership, without necessarily improving local capacity or leaving behind relevant risk-reduction strategies. This report describes the assessment and implications on public health of large-scale humanitarian missions conducted by the US Navy in Oceania. Future opportunities will require the Department of Defense and its Combatant Commands to show meaningful strategies to implement ongoing, long-term, humanitarian activities that will build sustainable, host nation health system capacity and partnerships. This report recommends a community-centric approach that would better assist island nations in reducing disaster risk throughout the traditional disaster management cycle and defines a potential and crucial role of Department of Defense's assets and resources to be a more meaningful partner in disaster risk reduction and community capacity building.

  16. Natural disasters and suicide: evidence from Japan.

    Matsubayashi, Tetsuya; Sawada, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Michiko


    Previous research shows no consensus as to whether and how natural disasters affect suicide rates in their aftermath. Using prefecture-level panel data of natural disasters and suicide in Japan between 1982 and 2010, we estimate both contemporaneous and lagged effects of natural disasters on the suicide rates of various demographic groups. We find that when the damage caused by natural disasters is extremely large, as in the case of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in 1995, suicide rates tend to increase in the immediate aftermath of the disaster and several years later. However, when the damage by natural disasters is less severe, suicide rates tend to decrease after the disasters, especially one or two years later. Thus, natural disasters affect the suicide rates of affected populations in a complicated way, depending on the severity of damages as well as on how many years have passed since the disaster. We also find that the effects of natural disasters on suicide rates vary considerably across demographic groups, which suggests that some population subgroups are more vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters than others. We then test the possibility that natural disasters enhance people's willingness to help others in society, an effect that may work as a protective factor against disaster victims' suicidal risks. We find that natural disasters increase the level of social ties in affected communities, which may mitigate some of the adverse consequence of natural disasters, resulting in a decline in suicide rates. Our findings also indicate that when natural disasters are highly destructive and disruptive, such protective features of social connectedness are unlikely to be enough to compensate for the severe negative impact of disasters on health outcomes.

  17. Disaster management in flash floods in Leh (Ladakh: A case study

    Preeti Gupta


    Full Text Available Background: On August 6, 2010, in the dark of the midnight, there were flash floods due to cloud burst in Leh in Ladakh region of North India. It rained 14 inches in 2 hours, causing loss of human life and destruction. The civil hospital of Leh was badly damaged and rendered dysfunctional. Search and rescue operations were launched by the Indian Army immediately after the disaster. The injured and the dead were shifted to Army Hospital, Leh, and mass casualty management was started by the army doctors while relief work was mounted by the army and civil administration. Objective: The present study was done to document disaster management strategies and approaches and to assesses the impact of flash floods on human lives, health hazards, and future implications of a natural disaster. Materials and Methods: The approach used was both quantitative as well as qualitative. It included data collection from the primary sources of the district collectorate, interviews with the district civil administration, health officials, and army officials who organized rescue operations, restoration of communication and transport, mass casualty management, and informal discussions with local residents. Results: 234 persons died and over 800 were reported missing. Almost half of the people who died were local residents (49.6% and foreigners (10.2%. Age-wise analysis of the deaths shows that the majority of deaths were reported in the age group of 25-50 years, accounting for 44.4% of deaths, followed by the 11-25-year age group with 22.2% deaths. The gender analysis showed that 61.5% were males and 38.5% were females. A further analysis showed that more females died in the age groups <10 years and ≥50 years. Conclusions: Disaster preparedness is critical, particularly in natural disasters. The Army′s immediate search, rescue, and relief operations and mass casualty management effectively and efficiently mitigated the impact of flash floods, and restored normal

  18. Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.

    Leknes, Siri; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene


    Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a primary process and a slow 'opponent process' of opposite valence, the purpose of which is to reduce the deviation from homeostatic balance. Here, opponent process theory provided a framework to explore the interaction between pain, relief and reward. We devised three psychophysical studies examining the temporal (Experiment I) and magnitude (Experiments I and II) relationships between pain severity and its subsequent relief. In Experiment III, we further manipulated the magnitude and pleasantness of relief experienced by applying innocuous cooling following noxious heat stimulation of capsaicin-sensitized skin. Results confirmed predictions from opponent process theory and showed that pain intensity reduction was significantly stronger than relief intensity ratings. Furthermore, continuous relief ratings appeared to reflect the speed of pain intensity reduction. Varying pain intensity parametrically confirmed that relief increases with pain intensity. That innocuous cooling following primary hyperalgesia intervention significantly increased the intensity, pleasantness and duration of relief provides further evidence that pain relief encapsulates more than a reduction in pain intensity. Importantly, the high relief pleasantness ratings confirmed the hypothesized link between relief and reward.

  19. Education and research on disaster nursing in Japan.

    Yamamoto, Aiko


    The educational and research program "Disaster Nursing in a Ubiquitous Society in Japan" has facilitated the development of various networks for disaster nursing, disaster nursing care strategies, and disaster nursing education. Replication of these activities related to disaster nursing are encouraged globally to improve disaster outcomes.

  20. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2012

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2012 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  1. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mobile; Pike. Contiguous Counties: Alabama:...

  2. 78 FR 44187 - Montana Disaster # MT-00079


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montana Disaster MT-00079 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Blaine,...

  3. 78 FR 45283 - Missouri Disaster #MO-00066


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Missouri Disaster MO-00066 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Barton; Callaway; Cape Girardeau; Chariton;...

  4. 78 FR 15796 - Michigan Disaster #MI-00038.


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Michigan Disaster MI-00038. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Mecosta. Contiguous Counties: Michigan:...

  5. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2005

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2005 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  6. SBA Disaster Loan Data FY2004

    Small Business Administration — SBA Disaster Loan Data for FY 2004 provides verified loss and approved loan amount totals for both home and business disaster loans, segmented by city, county, zip...

  7. Disaster Management System of Iran--Need to Eliminate Weaknesses and Problems

    H Seyedin


    response. Recovery after major incidents includes psychology, jobs, homes, and treatment matters. There is a need for planning in this period. Finally, every phase of DM should comprise a cycle of comprehensive planning, execution and feedback. Any type of crisis planning needs sufficient information from databases. Lack of Access to great databases like spatial database information and Geographic Database Information and communication among organizations to interchange information are major problems for disaster managers before and after disasters. Another problem is fiscal affaires after disasters. In developed countries, insurance plays a main role in risk transfer and Funds for rebuilding. Finally, Experiences recognized education as a major part of reducing vulnerability. People need appropriate public education in self-protecting behaviors, relief aids, mitigation etc. Except some maneuvers and limited educations, we have not done much education to improve effectiveness of DM. Conclusion: there are some challenges In DMS: firstly, creation of an independent NDMO in President’s Office is a necessity. Secondly, in disaster management, all aspects must be considered in the same importance and as a whole not separately. Thirdly, disaster databases such as SDI or GDI should be created and finally insurance and education of people should consume great deal of efforts.

  8. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Blaedel, K.L.


    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  9. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    Tomita, Hiroaki


    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  10. Construction and operation of a system for secure and precise medical material distribution in disaster areas after Wenchuan earthquake.

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Xu, Jiankang; Ma, Jian; Cheng, Shusen; Shi, Yingkang


    After the Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th , 2008, under the strong leadership of the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, the People's Government of Sichuan Province, and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Medical Security Team working at the Sichuan Provincial Headquarters for Wenchuan Earthquake and Disaster Relief Work constructed a secure medical material distribution system through coordination and interaction among and between regions, systems, and departments.

  11. [Current organization of disaster medicine].

    Julien, Henri


    The concept of disaster medicine, derivedfrom medical management of casualties caused by terrorist attacks or earthquakes, began to be taught in medical school in 1982. It adapts military intervention tactics to civilian practices, and differentiates major disasters (in which preformed teams are sent to the scene) from disasters with limited effects (predefined plans form the backbone of the rescue organization). Management of blast and crush syndromes, triage, care of numerous burn victims, on-site amputation, necrotomy, medicopsychological support, mass decontamination, and rescue management are some of the aspects with which physicians should be familiar. Predefined intervention teams and ad hoc materials have been created to provide autonomous logistic support. Regulations, ethical aspects and managerial methods still need to be refined, and research and teaching must be given a new impetus.

  12. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability.

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John


    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research.

  13. Indicators of Disaster Risk and Risk Management

    Omar D. Cardona


    This document is the summary report of the IDB-sponsored system of disaster risk and risk management indicators presented at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe, Japan, 2005. The indices estimate disaster risk loss, distribution, vulnerability and management for 12 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The objective of this program is to facilitate access to relevant information on disaster risk and risk management by national decision-makers, thus making possible the i...

  14. Tweeting Supertyphoon Haiyan: Evolving Functions of Twitter during and after a Disaster Event.

    Clarissa C David

    Full Text Available When disaster events capture global attention users of Twitter form transient interest communities that disseminate information and other messages online. This paper examines content related to Typhoon Haiyan (locally known as Yolanda as it hit the Philippines and triggered international humanitarian response and media attention. It reveals how Twitter conversations about disasters evolve over time, showing an issue attention cycle on a social media platform. The paper examines different functions of Twitter and the information hubs that drive and sustain conversation about the event. Content analysis shows that the majority of tweets contain information about the typhoon or its damage, and disaster relief activities. There are differences in types of content between the most retweeted messages and posts that are original tweets. Original tweets are more likely to come from ordinary users, who are more likely to tweet emotions, messages of support, and political content compared with official sources and key information hubs that include news organizations, aid organization, and celebrities. Original tweets reveal use of the site beyond information to relief coordination and response.

  15. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian


    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.

  16. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    McNutt, M. K.


    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  17. Recent trends in the international relief system.

    Borton, J


    Since 1991 the international relief system has been undergoing a process of rapid and fundamental change associated with the end of the Cold War period. The principal changes concern (i) the international community's approach to national sovereignty and the 'right' of armed intervention in support of humanitarian objectives, and (ii) organisatwnal changes aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of the response by donor organisations and the United Nations. This paper describes these changes and attempts to place them in the context of earlier trends within the international relief system, notably the enhanced role of non-governmental organisations, which occurred during the 1980s.

  18. Moderating effects of empathic concern and personal distress on the emotional reactions of disaster volunteers.

    Cristea, Ioana A; Legge, Emanuele; Prosperi, Marta; Guazzelli, Mario; David, Daniel; Gentili, Claudio


    This study examines stress and mood outcomes in community volunteers who undertook one week's worth of post-disaster relief work in L'Aquila, Italy, which had been hit by an earthquake four months earlier. The study team obtained pre- and post-relief work data from 130 volunteers involved in activities such as preparing food for the displaced, cleaning the camps and distributing clean linen. The Perceived Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Profile of Mood States were administered at the start and at the end of the aid activities. Psychopathological symptoms and empathy were assessed in the beginning, using the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, respectively. The results show that, following the assistance work, volunteers displayed decreases in perceived stress, general distress, anxiety and anger, as well as increases in positive emotions. The empathy facets empathic concern and personal distress showed different patterns in modulating the post-disaster relief work adaptation for some of the mood outcomes.

  19. 77 FR 16314 - Kansas Disaster # KS-00062


    ... ADMINISTRATION Kansas Disaster KS-00062 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Kansas dated 03/12/2012... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  20. 75 FR 42470 - Wyoming Disaster #WY-00014


    ... ADMINISTRATION Wyoming Disaster WY-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...