Sample records for disaster preparedness

  1. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru


    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  2. Building Networks of Disaster Preparedness Schools in Taiwan

    Chang, Tzu-chau; Lin, Weiru


    The aims of the education for natural disaster preparedness in Taiwan are to prepare every school disaster free and every student with disaster preparedness. The education for disaster preparedness has been through three stages since 2003: project for cultivating professionals for disaster preparedness education (2003-2006), project for disaster preparedness schools (2006- 2010), and building networks of disaster preparedness schools (2011-2014). The framework of the disaster preparedness edu...

  3. Pet Disaster Preparedness

    ... Safety Checklist – Arabic Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – Chinese Pets and Disaster Safety Checklist – French Pets and ... Cross serves in the US, its territories and military installations around the world. Please try again. Your ...

  4. Disaster Preparedness: Guidelines for School Nurses

    Doyle, Janice; Loyacono, Thomas R.


    These guidelines help school nurses understand their role in preparing for disasters and major emergencies. The guidelines are suitable for planning for a variety of emergency and disaster situations. Disaster Preparedness Guidelines for School Nurses is based on the four phases of disaster management as defined by the Federal Emergency Management…

  5. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa


    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  6. Disaster Preparedness Utilization Field/Disaster Preparedness Career Ladder, AFSCs 05XX/242X0



  7. Vested Interest theory and disaster preparedness.

    Miller, Claude H; Adame, Bradley J; Moore, Scott D


    Three studies were designed to extend a combination of vested interest theory (VI) and the extended parallel process model of fear appeals (EPPM) to provide formative research for creating more effective disaster preparedness social action campaigns. The aim was to develop an effective VI scale for assessing individual awareness and 'vestedness' relevant to disaster preparedness. Typical preparedness behaviours are discussed with emphasis on earthquakes and tornados in particular. Brief overviews of VI and the EPPM are offered, and findings are presented from three studies (one dealing with earthquakes, and two with tornados) conducted to determine the factor structure of the key VI components involved, and to develop and test subscales derived from the two theories. The paper finishes with a discussion of future research needs and suggestions on how the new subscales may be applied in the design and execution of more effective disaster preparedness campaigns.

  8. Facilitating disaster preparedness through local radio broadcasting.

    Romo-Murphy, Eila; James, Ross; Adams, Mike


    The 2008 Disaster Mitigation Preparedness (DMP) study took place in Aceh province, Indonesia. It sought to help develop radio programmes and messages to increase resilience to disasters. The role of radio was evaluated during and after the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. The study team interviewed 984 tsunami survivors from nine sub-districts of Banda Aceh, and local nongovernmental organisations convened eight focus groups around the area of Aceh Besar. Six key informant interviews were held with government disaster management agencies. The DMP survey is the first of its kind to interview a representative random sample of Banda Aceh residents. It reveals the importance of community and social networks, during disaster situations, when essential communications are down. A disaster warning information system based on a multi-media approach needs to be developed. The wider community should be involved in the planning, education and training of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar residents to facilitate appropriate personal and community survival strategies.

  9. Disaster Preparedness and the Cooperative Extension Service

    Black, Lynette


    This past decade has recorded an increase in catastrophic events that have led to dramatic changes for Americans. The wake of these disasters has resulted in many lessons being learned. These lessons have been captured by Homeland Security in the First Edition of the National Preparedness Goal. Extension is uniquely positioned to assist with…

  10. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy


    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.

  11. Disaster Preparedness for Your Pet

    ... and prepare a disaster kit for your pet. Leaving pets out of evacuation plans can put pets, ... during an evacuation Contact your local emergency management office and ask if they offer accommodations for owners ...

  12. Medical and Disaster Preparedness of US Marathons.

    Glick, Joshua; Rixe, Jeffrey; Spurkeland, Nancy; Brady, Jodi; Silvis, Matthew; Olympia, Robert P


    Despite the events that occurred at the 2013 Boston Marathon (Boston, Massachusetts USA), there are currently no evidence-based guidelines or published data regarding medical and disaster preparedness of marathon races in the United States. Purpose To determine the current state of medical disaster preparedness of marathons in the US and to identify potential areas for improvement. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from January through May of 2014. The questionnaire was distributed to race directors of US road and trail marathons, as identified by a comprehensive internet database. One hundred twenty-three questionnaires were available for analysis (19% usable response rate). Marathon races from all major regions of the US were represented. Runner medical information was not listed on race bibs in 53% of races. Only 45% of races held group training and planning sessions prior to race day. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) were immediately available on 50% of courses, and medications such as albuterol (30%), oxygen (33%), and IV fluids (34%) were available less frequently. Regarding medical emergencies, 55% of races did not have protocols for the assessment of dehydration, asthma, chest pain, syncope, or exercise-induced cramping. With regard to disaster preparedness, 50% of races did not have protocols for the management of disasters, and 21% did not provide security personnel at start/finish lines, aid stations, road crossings, and drop bag locations. Areas for improvement in the preparedness of US marathons were identified, such as including printed medical information on race bibs, increasing pre-race training and planning sessions for volunteers, ensuring the immediate availability of certain emergency equipment and medications, and developing written protocols for specific emergencies and disasters.

  13. Disaster Preparedness; Need for inclusion in undergraduate nursing education

    Susan Achora; Kamanyire, Joy K.


    With the increasing global frequency of disasters, the call for disaster preparedness training needs to be reinforced. Nurses form the largest group of the healthcare workforce and are often on the frontline in disaster management. Therefore, nurses should be adequately equipped with the knowledge and skills to respond to disasters, starting from their pre-service training to their in-service professional training. However, the inclusion of disaster preparedness education in under...

  14. Preparedness of Iranian Hospitals Against Disasters



    Full Text Available Context Over the past decade the number of accidents and disasters has been growing around the world. In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters also affect service providers. This study aimed to evaluate the readiness of hospitals when confronted with unexpected disasters. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a simple review article, which was conducted via searching different sites, such as: Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed, using different key words such as: Disasters, Crisis, Hospital and preparedness. The relationship between the articles found in relation to our subject was investigated through the title and abstract of articles. The relationship between the articles, which were found in relation to our subject, was investigated through the title and abstract of the articles. Our search included papers published during the period between 2007 and 2015 and we only considered studies that measured the preparedness of hospitals in critical conditions. Among the 30 articles, which were found, 17 were excluded from the study due to lack of relevant data. Hence, 15 papers, which were of proper design and robust data analysis, were included in the current study. Results Hospital preparedness in disaster was evaluated in three dimensions: structural, non-structural factors and vulnerability management performance. A total of readiness of hospitals in three dimensions was mediocre. Conclusions Overall, the results derived from these studies indicated that hospital safety levels in most of the surveyed hospitals were moderate. Although the situation in hospitals is not critical, there is a need to plan and take appropriate measures to improve the safety level of the hospitals.

  15. Integrating protection into disaster risk preparedness in the Dominican Republic

    Andrea Verdeja


    Full Text Available Addressing protection as a key element of community-based disaster risk reduction and preparedness efforts is essential to safeguarding human rights in disaster and emergency settings.

  16. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Hakimeh Vahedparast


    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  17. Exploring the Predictors of Organizational Preparedness for Natural Disasters.

    Sadiq, Abdul-Akeem; Graham, John D


    There is an extensive body of research on the determinants of disaster preparedness at the individual and household levels. The same cannot be said for the organizational level. Hence, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the predictors of organizational preparedness for natural disasters. Since leaders of organizations have an incentive to overstate their level of preparedness and because surveys of organizational leaders suffer from selection bias and low response rates, we take the novel approach of interviewing employees about the organizations that employ them. Using an online survey, we collected information from a national sample of 2,008 U.S. employees and estimated the predictors of preparedness at the organizational level. We find, among other results, that organization size (facility level) is a consistent predictor of preparedness at the organizational level. We conclude with policy recommendations and outline an agenda for future research on organizational preparedness for natural disasters.

  18. Disaster Preparedness Resource Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

    Berne, Rebecca


    This guide offers best practices for disaster management at child welfare agencies. Its recommendations are firmly rooted in published disaster-related research and the advice of human service and preparedness experts. It is not a reinvention of disaster management--much quality work has been done in this field--but a synthesis of experts'…

  19. Disaster Preparedness for University/Community Transit Systems

    Robinson, Geary Lynn


    Public transportation, with its open access, creates an opportunity for masses of people to be hurt while using transit services during human-made or natural disasters. This dissertation reviews the body of academic and professional literature and recent disaster events to characterize the current state of preparedness for disasters affecting…

  20. A Disaster Preparedness Plan for Small Public Libraries, 2002.

    Haines, Jan, Comp.

    The State Library of Ohio designed this disaster preparedness plan to assist small libraries in gathering information that will be invaluable in the event of an emergency. This plan, which focuses on fire and water disaster prevention, is devoted to using simple and inexpensive measures to prevent a disaster or to lessen its effect. The plan…

  1. Disaster preparedness for nurses: a teaching guide.

    Tillman, Paula


    As one of the largest groups of health care providers in the United States, nurses are trained to attend to the physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of their patients, making them highly qualified to influence the outcomes of victims of an emergency situation. Unfortunately, nursing programs offer limited content on delivering care under extreme conditions, and few continuing education programs are available to practicing nurses. This article provides a brief educational presentation that can be used without an extensive time commitment or in-depth instructor knowledge of the subject. The course content has been presented to nurses at the American Red Cross, at local chapter meetings of professional nursing organizations, and to both graduate and undergraduate nursing students. This presentation is not designed to be a comprehensive study of disaster nursing, but serves as a starting point that might lead to further study and encourage active participation in preparedness education and planning.

  2. Investigating factors for disaster preparedness among residents of Kuala Lumpur

    Mohammad-pajooh, E.; Aziz, K. Ab.


    The review of past researches discussed that factors such as climate change and movement toward urbanization will result in more frequent and severe disasters in the near future (Yasuhara et al., 2011). Flash flood is the most common type of disaster that residents of Kuala Lumpur (KL) come across, thus in this study, it was desired to discover the factors affecting preparedness among residents of KL as well as assessing the variation of individual preparedness among residents. With the aid of SPSS analysis, the reliability of data, correlation and regression analysis between the investigated factors and disaster preparedness were obtained. According to this research it was found that level of preparedness of residents of KL is still below average; majority of social demographic indicators such as income, education, age, and property ownership showed significant contribution to the variation of disaster preparedness among the residents. For instance men were much more prepared in comparison to women; residents with high level of income and education had also significantly higher preparedness compared to those with low level of income and education. Race was the only factor that differs from the findings of previous studies; since race does not affect the preparedness.

  3. Rural Community Disaster Preparedness and Risk Perception in Trujillo, Peru.

    Stewart, Matthew; Grahmann, Bridget; Fillmore, Ariel; Benson, L Scott


    Introduction Disasters will continue to occur throughout the world and it is the responsibility of the government, health care systems, and communities to adequately prepare for potential catastrophic scenarios. Unfortunately, low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are especially vulnerable following a disaster. By understanding disaster preparedness and risk perception, interventions can be developed to improve community preparedness and avoid unnecessary mortality and morbidity following a natural disaster. Problem The purpose of this study was to assess disaster preparedness and risk perception in communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. After designing a novel disaster preparedness and risk perception survey based on guidelines from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC; Geneva, Switzerland), investigators performed a cross-sectional survey of potentially vulnerable communities surrounding Trujillo, Peru. Data were entered and analyzed utilizing the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap; Harvard Catalyst; Boston, Massachusetts USA) database. A total of 230 study participants were surveyed, composed of 37% males, 63% females, with ages ranging from 18-85 years old. Those surveyed who had previously experienced a disaster (41%) had a higher perception of future disaster occurrence and potential disaster impact on their community. Overall, the study participants consistently perceived that earthquakes and infection had the highest potential impact of all disasters. Twenty-six percent of participants had an emergency supply of food, 24% had an emergency water plan, 24% had a first aid kit at home, and only 20% of the study participants had an established family evacuation plan. Natural and man-made disasters will remain a threat to the safety and health of communities in all parts of the world, especially within vulnerable communities in LMICs; however, little research has been done to identify disaster perception

  4. Disaster preparedness: an investigation on motivation and barriers.

    Dorasamy, Magiswary; Raman, Murali; Marimuthu, Maran; Kaliannan, Maniam


    This article presents a preliminary investigation on the motivations for and the barriers that hinder preparedness toward disasters in a community. Survey questionnaires were distributed to local individuals in the nine districts of Selangor state in Malaysia. A total of 402 usable questionnaires were analyzed. The initial findings revealed that community members are motivated for disaster preparedness mainly for family safety reason. However, generally they do not know how to be prepared. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of knowledge and information in community preparedness. This research is limited to one state in Malaysia. However, the chosen state has a large effect on the Malaysian gross domestic product; hence, lack of preparedness poses a critical risk to its large population. This study on motivation and barriers for disaster preparedness is intended to increase the effectiveness of community readiness as a whole toward major disasters such as landslide and flood. The result of this study is valuable to the scientific community within the disaster management domain, the government agencies for policy and strategy formulations, and the local community to preempt, deal with, and ultimately survive disasters. This research aims to ensure that the community is continuously prepared and able to meet the evolving needs of the individual citizen as the nation strives toward promoting a knowledgeable society.

  5. Pediatric disaster preparedness and response and the nation's children's hospitals.

    Lyle, Kristin C; Milton, Jerrod; Fagbuyi, Daniel; LeFort, Roxanna; Sirbaugh, Paul; Gonzalez, Jacqueline; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Carmack, Tim; Anderson, Michael


    Children account for 30 percent of the US population; as a result, many victims of disaster events are children. The most critically injured pediatric victims would be best cared for in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. The Children's Hospital Association (CHA) undertook a survey of its members to determine their level of readiness to respond to a mass casualty disaster. The Disaster Response Task Force constructed survey questions in October 2011. The survey was distributed via e-mail to the person listed as an "emergency manager/disaster contact" at each association member hospital and was designed to take less than 15 minutes to complete. The survey sought to determine how children's hospitals address disaster preparedness, how prepared they feel for disaster events, and how CHA could support their efforts in preparedness. One hundred seventy-nine surveys were distributed with a 36 percent return rate. Seventy percent of respondent hospitals have a structure in place to plan for disaster response. There was a stronger level of confidence for hospitals in responding to local casualty events than for those responding to large-scale regional, national, and international events. Few hospitals appear to interact with nonmedical facilities with a high concentration of children such as schools or daycares. Little commonality exists among children's hospitals in approaches to disaster preparedness and response. Universally, respondents can identify a disaster response plan and routinely participate in drills, but the scale and scope of these plans and drills vary substantially.

  6. Disaster Preparedness Among University Students in Guangzhou, China: Assessment of Status and Demand for Disaster Education.

    Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang


    This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster

  7. Preparedness and training in staff responding to a burns disaster.

    May, Jolyon; Colbert, David; Rea, Suzanne; Wood, Fiona; Nara-Venkata, Raghav

    Effective disaster response is preceded by effective disaster planning, and insufficient staff training has been identified as a problem in the preparation of hospitals for major incidents. Despite this, little is known about the exact levels of training doctors and nurses responding to a disaster receive. The authors conducted a six-question survey delivered to staff involved in the hospital response to a burns mass disaster in Western Australia. The occupation, and also the clinical area in which the respondent worked, influenced the level of training they received. Training in formal disaster courses and practical exercises in mock disaster situations needs to be ongoing for all staff members for correct implantation of disaster plans. Findings may be useful in informing current and future efforts to improve hospital preparedness.

  8. Promoting a culture of disaster preparedness.

    Medina, Angeli


    Disasters from all hazards, ranging from natural disasters, human-induced disasters, effects of climate change to social conflicts can significantly affect the healthcare system and community. This requires a paradigm shift from a reactive approach to a disaster risk management 'all-hazards' approach. Disaster management is a joint effort of the city, state, regional, national, multi-agencies and international organisations that requires effective communication, collaboration and coordination. This paper offers lessons learned and best practices, which, when taken into consideration, can strengthen the phases of disaster risk management.

  9. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy


    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy.

  10. 42 CFR 485.727 - Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness.


    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.727 Condition of... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Disaster preparedness. 485.727 Section 485.727 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  11. Disaster Risk Reduction through school learners’ awareness and preparedness

    Takalani S. Rambau


    Full Text Available In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007 initiated a campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and document reviews was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods, fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and disasters is vital and must be expanded.

  12. Pediatric disaster preparedness: best planning for the worst-case scenario.

    Cicero, Mark X; Baum, Carl R


    Natural and man-made disasters are unpredictable but certainly will include children as victims. Increasingly, knowledge of pediatric disaster preparedness is required of emergency and primary care practitioners. A complete pediatric disaster plan comprises the following elements: appropriate personnel and equipment, disaster- and venue-specific training, and family preparedness. Disaster preparedness exercises are crucial for training plan implementation and response evaluation. Exercise content depends on local hazard vulnerabilities and learner training needs. Postexercise evaluations follow a stepwise process that culminates in improved disaster plans. This article will review disaster planning and the design, implementation, and evaluation of pediatric disaster exercises.


    Siegel, David; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Needle, Scott


    Children are the members of our population who are most vulnerable to the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) attack. It has been over 12 years since 9/11 and the majority of clinicians who would be providing care to children in the event of another attack still lack the requisite disaster preparedness training. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the recent developments that will enable the affordable creation of key CBRNE educational and just in time material. In 2011, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) convened a pediatric disaster preparedness conference. Much of the initial groundwork for development of a pediatric disaster preparedness curriculum, including the identification of target audiences and requisite role specific CBRNE curriculum content, was the product of this conference. Much of the needed pediatric education and training content for the diagnosis and treatment of the injurious effects of CBRNE has recently been both developed and well vetted. Bringing together these efforts in an educational program will result in a workforce that is better trained and prepared to address the needs of children impacted by these types of disasters. PMID:25587241

  14. Disaster management among pediatric surgeons: preparedness, training and involvement.

    Chokshi, Nikunj K; Behar, Solomon; Nager, Alan L; Dorey, Fred; Upperman, Jeffrey S


    Contemporary events in the United States (eg, September 2001, school shootings), Europe (eg, Madrid train bombings), and the Middle East have raised awareness of mass casualty events and the need for a capable disaster response. Recent natural disasters have highlighted the poor preparation and infrastructure in place to respond to mass casualty events. In response, public health policy makers and emergency planners developed plans and prepared emergency response systems. Emergency response providers include first responders, a subset of emergency professionals, including firemen, law enforcement, paramedics, who respond to the incident scene and first receivers, a set of healthcare workers who receive the disaster victims at hospital facilities. The role of pediatric surgeons in mass casualty emergency response plans remains undefined. The authors hypothesize that pediatric surgeons' training and experience will predict their willingness and ability to be activated first receivers. The objective of our study was to determine the baseline experience, preparedness, willingness, and availability of pediatric surgeons to participate as activated first receivers. After institutional review board approval, the authors conducted an anonymous online survey of members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association in 2007. The authors explored four domains in this survey: (1) demographics, (2) disaster experience and perceived preparedness, (3) attitudes regarding responsibility and willingness to participate in a disaster response, and (4) availability to participate in a disaster response. The authors performed univariate and bivariate analyses to determine significance. Finally, the authors conducted a logistic regression to determine whether experience or preparedness factors affected the respondent's availability or willingness to respond to a disaster as a first receiver The authors sent 725 invitations and received 265 (36.6 percent) completed surveys. Overall, the

  15. Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.

    Mishra, Vishal; Fuloria, Sanjay; Bisht, Shailendra Singh


    The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a delay in disaster mitigation and recovery efforts, and a consequent loss of human lives and economic resources. It may be possible to expedite recovery and prevent loss of life by mapping out disaster proneness and the availability of resources in advance. This study proposes the development of two indices to do so. The Indian census data of 2001 is used to develop a methodology for creating one index on disaster proneness and one on resourcefulness for administrative units (tehsils). Findings reveal that tehsil residents face an elevated risk of disaster and that they are also grossly under-prepared for such events. The proposed indices can be used to map regional service provision facilities and to assist authorities in evaluating immediate, intermediate, and long-term disaster recovery needs and resource requirements.

  16. Nuclear Disaster Preparedness for the Nuclear Facilities in Japan

    Kim, Jong Soo; Lee, Gun Yub; Khang, Byung Oui; Lee, Hae Cho [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An accident which is resulted a radiological emergency is very rare. However, once it is occurred, the accident will be affected to the near resident from the accident facility due to a radiation exposure. Further more it can be resulted in a negative growth of the nuclear industry. To reduce the exposure from the environment release of the radioactive materials and help the public relation from any vague mental stress, it is possible that the nuclear emergency preparedness is established in advance. Japan, JCO critical accident experienced, is commenced or renewed every year continuously related a law, regulations, manuals and procedures by Japan Nuclear Safety Committee. These are also considerable matters in our nuclear facility in point of view a technic or an arrangement. Therefore, this technical report is described the nuclear disaster preparedness which has published by Japan Nuclear Safety Committee. It will be useful as reference document for more improvement or establishment of the planning on our nuclear emergency preparedness

  17. Saudi EMS Students' Perception of and Attitudes toward Their Preparedness for Disaster Management

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah


    Background: Disasters led not only to the loss of life and destruction of public infrastructures, but also resulted in consequent healthcare delivery concerns. Disaster preparedness is considered one of the key steps in emergency management. EMS students had very scanty knowledge, attitude and practices about disaster preparedness and mitigation.…



    Children are the members of our population who are most vulnerable to the effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive (CBRNE) attack. It has been over 12 years since 9/11 and the majority of clinicians who would be providing care to children in the event of another attack still lack the requisite disaster preparedness training. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the recent developments that will enable the affordable creation of key CBRNE educati...

  19. Disaster Preparedness and Response: Applied Exposure Science

    In 2007, the ISEA, predecessor to ISES, held a special roundtable to discuss lessons learned for exposure science during and following environmental disasters, especially the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina. Since then, environmental agencies have been involved in responses to...

  20. Disaster Medicine : From Preparedness to Follow up

    Marres, G.M.H.


    Providing optimal care for a sudden, unexpected large amount of victims from a disaster or major incident is challenging. It requires an approach different from regular traumacare. The population as a whole, rather than the individual, should be the focus of management. This thesis focuses on medica

  1. Disaster Medicine : From Preparedness to Follow up

    Marres, G.M.H.


    Providing optimal care for a sudden, unexpected large amount of victims from a disaster or major incident is challenging. It requires an approach different from regular traumacare. The population as a whole, rather than the individual, should be the focus of management. This thesis focuses on

  2. A Solutions Network for Disaster Preparedness and Response

    Bhaduri, B.; Tuttle, M.; Fernandez, S.


    Careful planning and management strategies are essential for disaster preparedness and prevention and to the implementation of responses strategies when emergencies do occur. Disasters related to climate and weather extremes, such as hurricanes, floods, wildfires, blizzards, droughts, and tornadoes may have a period for watching and warning within which emergency preparedness measures can be taken to reduce risk to population and critical infrastructures. The ability to effectively address emergency preparedness and response operations is dependent upon a strong global spatial data infrastructure, and geospatial modeling and simulation capabilities that can complement the decision making process at various stages of disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. It is well understood that a strong linkage between data and analytical capabilities are nucleus to effective decision making ability and that disaster consequence management organizations should have access to the best available geospatial technical expertise, global and regional data sets, and modeling and analytical tools. However, such optimal combination of data assets and modeling expertise are often beyond the resources available internally within a single organization but can be accessed through external collaboration with other "Earth science community-of-practice" organizations. This provides an opportunity to develop a solutions network for disaster preparedness and response. However, our current capability and state of general practice in disaster consequence management is, for the most part, built around such networks that are not very well defined, often formed on an ad-hoc basis soon after a disaster, loosely coupled, and functions at less than desirable pace. We will illustrate this concept of a solutions network through the current functions of the Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG) of the Department of Energy, to which multiple national laboratories and other federal agencies

  3. Disaster preparedness education and a Midwest Regional Poison Center.

    Lehman-Huskamp, Kathy; Rebmann, Terri; Walter, Frank G; Weber, Julie; Scalzo, Anthony


    To assess knowledge and comfort related to disaster preparedness and response gained and retained from a disaster medicine workshop given to Certified Specialists in Poison Information (CSPI). A pilot study with a pre-post intervention design. A Midwest Regional Poison Center. All CSPIs employed at the participating Poison Center (N = 27) were recruited. Participation ranged from 44 percent (n = 12) for the 4-month postworkshop knowledge quiz to 78 percent (n = 21) for the preworkshop survey. A disaster medicine workshop was given to the CSPIs. Quizzes and surveys were done preworkshop and then repeated at 1 week, 4 months, and 14 months postworkshop. CSPI knowledge and comfort pertaining to disaster-related calls. CSPIs' comfort levels with calls regarding major chemical or nuclear/radiation disasters significantly increased and stayed elevated during all follow-up periods [Kruskal-Wallis chi2 (3) = 13.1, p = 0.01]. The average preworkshop quiz score was 58.2 percent. A statistically significant increase in mean quiz score was demonstrated amongst preworkshop and postworkshop scores at all tested time intervals (F = 18.8, p educational competencies for CSPIs and disaster response would help to standardize this much needed education.

  4. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy


    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. State of virtual reality based disaster preparedness and response training.

    Hsu, Edbert B; Li, Yang; Bayram, Jamil D; Levinson, David; Yang, Samuel; Monahan, Colleen


    The advent of technologically-based approaches to disaster response training through Virtual Reality (VR) environments appears promising in its ability to bridge the gaps of other commonly established training formats. Specifically, the immersive and participatory nature of VR training offers a unique realistic quality that is not generally present in classroom-based or web-based training, yet retains considerable cost advantages over large-scale real-life exercises and other modalities and is gaining increasing acceptance. Currently, numerous government departments and agencies including the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as well as academic institutions are exploring the unique advantages of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response. Growing implementation of VR-based training for disaster preparedness and response, conducted either independently or combined with other training formats, is anticipated. This paper reviews several applications of VR-based training in the United States, and reveals advantages as well as potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the implementation of such training platform.

  6. [Impact of a disaster preparedness training program on health staff].

    Parra Cotanda, Cristina; Rebordosa Martínez, Mónica; Trenchs Sainz de la Maza, Victoria; Luaces Cubells, Carles


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a disaster preparedness training program in a Paediatric Emergency Department (PED). A quasi-experimental study was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire that was distributed to health care providers of a PED in a tertiary paediatric hospital. The questions concerned the disaster plan (DP), including theoretical and practical aspects. Questionnaires were distributed and completed in January 2014 (period 1) and November 2014 (period 2). The disaster training program includes theoretical and practical sessions. A total of 110 questionnaires were collected in period 1, and 80 in period 2. Almost three-quarters (71.3%) of PED staff attended the theoretical sessions, and 43.8% attended the practical sessions. The application of this training program significantly improved knowledge about the DP, but no improvement was observed in the practical questions. PED staff felt more prepared to face a disaster after the training program (15.5% vs. 41.8%, P<.001). The training program improved some knowledge about the disaster plan, but it has not improved responses in practical situations, which may be due to the low attendance at practical sessions and the time between the training program and the questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Disaster Planning: Preparedness and Recovery for Libraries and Archives: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    Buchanan, Sally A.; Murray, Toby

    This manual provides guidelines for those who are responsible for disaster planning for libraries and archives. Limited to fire-and-water-related disasters involving books, manuscripts, and photographs, the manual is primarily concerned with planning. Divided into two major areas, disaster preparedness and disaster recovery, the manual covers…

  8. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    Barton, T.


    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  9. The Perfect Storm: The Religious Apocalyptic Imagination and Personal Disaster Preparedness


    representative” survey published in the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness journal (Murphy et al., 2009, p. S1) echoes these findings...use of natural hazards information. Prometheus 13(1), pp. 61–71. Grenz, S. J. (1992). The millennial maze: Sorting out evangelical options. Downers...preparedness and compliance. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at

  10. Emergency Preparedness for Disasters and Crises in the Hotel Industry

    Ahmad Rasmi AlBattat


    Full Text Available Safety and security are the most important issues to tourist while traveling and the first aspect they consider is to be protected from hazards. Emergency planning and preparedness for a crisis are the most significant components of dealing with disasters. Hospitality practitioners noticed a rising number of natural and man-made crises that harm the hospitality industry, regarding its vulnerability to crisis and internal and external hazards. By using secondary data, this study aims to shed some light on this issue, contributing to knowledge and awareness on emergency preparedness for the hospitality industry. Moreover, the study aims to explain the management’s commitment to adopt, develop, and update emergency plans. The results of this study explain that tourism as an international mobile industry must respond to internal and external hazards such as disease movement and terrorist attacks. Marketing safety is important to promote hotels and tourist destinations to the guests and holiday advisors. Hotels have a long history of being a soft target for terrorist attacks, as can be seen in several accidents that have shaken the hotel industry in the past few decades. Hotels invest a lot to install protective techniques, but terrorists are becoming more organized. Practitioners propose disaster management frameworks using several measurements. Recovery from crisis and learning help business retention that minimizes negative impacts and prevent losses. Finally, evaluation and feedback are very important to overcome the hazards and return to normal, as well as adopting new ideas to deal with emergencies. Single- and double-loop organizational learning should benefit proactive preparedness.

  11. Quality indicators to self-assess the level of disaster preparedness.

    Spijkers, K.F.J.; Slottje, P.; Yzermans, C.J.


    Introduction: It impossible to predict when or where a disaster will happen next, or what its cause will be. This presentation describes an instrument that was developed to allow hospitals to self-assess their level of disaster preparedness and to prioritize areas for improvement for future disaster

  12. Earth Girl Volcano: An Interactive Game for Disaster Preparedness

    Kerlow, Isaac


    Earth Girl Volcano is an interactive casual strategy game for disaster preparedness. The project is designed for mainstream audiences, particularly for children, as an engaging and fun way to learn about volcano hazards. Earth Girl is a friendly character that kids can easily connect with and she helps players understand how to best minimize volcanic risk. Our previous award-winning game, Earth Girl Tsunami, has seen success on social media, and is available as a free app for both Android and iOS tables and large phones in seven languages: Indonesian, Thai, Tamil, Japanese, Chinese, Spanish, French and English. This is the first public viewing of the Earth Girl Volcano new game prototype.

  13. A survey of flood disaster preparedness among hospitals in the central region of Thailand.

    Rattanakanlaya, Kanittha; Sukonthasarn, Achara; Wangsrikhun, Suparat; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan


    In 2011, Thailand was affected by the one of the worst flood disasters in recent times. Hospitals in Thailand were faced with the challenge of managing the health impacts from this natural disaster. The purpose of this study was to assess flood disaster preparedness among hospitals in the central region of Thailand. A survey questionnaire was given to twenty-seven key people responsible for hospital disaster preparedness that experienced disruptions to health services (severely, moderately and slightly) during the flood disaster in 2011 in the central region of Thailand. Of the twenty-four participating hospitals, not one had satisfied the standards in all the dimensions of flood disaster preparedness. All respondent hospitals were deficiently prepared with regard to surge capacity, the management of healthcare services and the management of the supporting systems. The availability of supplies and equipment were found to be in place but preparations were found to be inadequate in organizing staff at all participating hospitals. Trained staff members regarding disaster response were reported to be present in all respondent hospitals. Hospitals that experienced slightly disruptions to their health services did not elect to do any exercises to meet the set standards. None of the hospitals that experienced slightly disruptions to their health services performed any evaluation and improvement in terms of disaster preparedness. Many hospitals were not up to standard in terms of disaster preparedness. Hospitals should prioritize disaster preparedness to fulfill their responsibility during crisis situations and improve their flood disaster preparedness. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes: a qualitative analysis.

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; Lovell, Sarah; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah


    Disasters are a growing global phenomenon. New Zealand has suffered several major disasters in recent times. The state of healthcare disaster preparedness in New Zealand prior to the Canterbury earthquakes is not well documented. To investigate the challenges of the New Zealand healthcare disaster preparedness prior to the Canterbury earthquakes. Semi-structured interviews with emergency planners in all the District Health Boards (DHBs) in New Zealand in the period between January and March 2010. The interview protocol revolved around the domains of emergency planning adopted by the World Health Organization. Seventeen interviews were conducted. The main themes included disinterest of clinical personnel in emergency planning, the need for communication backup, the integration of private services in disaster preparedness, the value of volunteers, the requirement for regular disaster training, and the need to enhance surge capability of the New Zealand healthcare system to respond to disasters. Prior to the Canterbury earthquakes, healthcare disaster preparedness faced multiple challenges. Despite these challenges, New Zealand's healthcare response was adequate. Future preparedness has to consider the lessons learnt from the 2011 earthquakes to improve healthcare disaster planning in New Zealand.

  15. Assessment of Environmental Literacy, Concern and Disaster Preparedness Among College Students

    Dr. Rosario Clarabel C. Contreras


    Full Text Available Climate change adversely brings about uncontrollable, unpredictable natural calamities. Municipality of Calinog, strategically located at the center of Panay Island, has its share of environmental hazard nightmares. Thus, it is deemed necessary to assess students’ environmental knowledge, concern and disaster preparedness. Participants were 293 students of West Visayas State University Calinog for AY 2012-13. Modified, partly adapted instrument attempted to collect information from respondents. Statistical tools used- Mean; Standard Deviation; t-test; One-Way ANOVA; and Pearson’s r. Respondents’ level of environmental literacy and concern are “knowledgeable” and “very concerned” respectively. Level of disaster preparedness was “most often prepared” in all variables except to course. Significant relationships between the environmental literacy and concern; and between environmental literacy and disaster preparedness have been observed. Generally, students are environmentally literate, concerned, prepared during disasters occurrence. Significant variations occur in environmental literacy, concern, and disaster preparedness among respondents categorized according to course while no variations occurred among others. Environmental literacy is associated with environmental concern and disaster preparedness while environmental concern not associated with disaster preparedness. Hence, educational institutions must do their share.


    David K. Ndetu; Veronica Kaluyu


    The study sought to establish the factors influencing fire disaster preparedness in primary schools in Makueni County in Kenya. Using multiple regression analysis, the findings showed that fire safety policy knowledge had a beta (), fire safety guidelines implementation practices  and fire safety resources provision. This infers that fire safety support resources provision affects fire disaster management preparedness in primary schools to a great extent followed by safety policy knowledge wh...

  17. Households’ Natural Disaster Preparedness: A View from a Second Class Municipality in a Developing Country

    Ricardo T. Bagarinao


    Full Text Available The increasing frequency of natural disasters occurrence and severity of climate change impacts in recent years makes disaster preparedness a vital decision among households especially in developing countries like the Philippines. The study was conducted to characterize households' respondents through the use of selected socio-demographic variables. It also aimed to determine their adoption of pre-determined disaster preparedness plans and if an empirical relationship could be established between the adoption of a plan and the selected household socio-demographic variables. Using a stimulus-response framework, a natural disaster preparedness survey protocol with emphasis on households' preparedness plans was developed and implemented from May-July 2015 in one of the typhoon and flood-prone municipalities in the Philippines. With 577 respondents, the average households in the study site consist of 5 members, are below estimated poverty threshold, and residing in the area for more than 30 years. There is variability on the relationships between the socio-demographic characteristic of the respondents and their decision to adopt disaster preparedness plans. These findings call for the expansion of the current climate change adaptation and disaster risk management programs and initiatives of the municipality to include enhancement of households' capacity to prepare and deal with impacts of natural disasters.

  18. Preparedness for Protecting the Health of Community-Dwelling Vulnerable Elderly People in Eastern and Western Japan in the Event of Natural Disasters.

    Tsukasaki, Keiko; Kanzaki, Hatsumi; Kyota, Kaoru; Ichimori, Akie; Omote, Shizuko; Okamoto, Rie; Kido, Teruhiko; Sakakibara, Chiaki; Makimoto, Kiyoko; Nomura, Atsuko; Miyamoto, Yukari


    We clarified the preparedness necessary to protect the health of community-dwelling vulnerable elderly people following natural disasters. We collected data from 304 community general support centres throughout Japan. We found the following in particular to be challenging: availability of disaster-preparedness manuals; disaster countermeasures and management systems; creation of lists of people requiring assistance following a disaster; evacuation support systems; development of plans for health management following disasters; provision of disaster-preparedness guidance and training; disaster-preparedness systems in the community; disaster information management; the preparedness of older people themselves in requiring support; and support from other community residents.

  19. Primary Health Centre disaster preparedness after the earthquake in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Mansyur Muchtaruddin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The West Sumatra earthquake that occurred on September 30, 2009, caused severe damage in some districts, including Padang Pariaman. As Padang Pariaman is an earthquake-prone area, disaster and emergency management is necessary. Due to the limited health facilities, the health services completely rely on Puskesmas (Primary Health Centres, PHCs. This study is aimed at assessing the preparedness of PHCs to response to potential disasters in their surrounding area. Findings Padang Pariaman district was used in a case study setting to assess the readiness and preparedness of the PHCs there to face disasters. Self-administered questionnaire, key informant interview, and direct observation were used to obtain the data on human resources, facilities preparedness, and the procedures. The investigation focused on measuring four aspects, i.e. human resources, facilities preparedness, standard operating procedure (SOP, and policy. Due to the limited co-operation of the head of the PHCs, three PHCs were directly observed as a subsample. The evaluation was performed six months after the impact phase of the earthquake and three months after the PHCs' health staff training on improving the primary health care services. The number and quality of health staff in Padang Pariaman was far below ideal. Fewer than half of the PHCs had emergency facilities and only one considered the need for triage and fire management, whereas the transportation mode was still limited. An SOP and policy for facing disasters were not available in any of the PHCs. Therefore, promoting disaster preparedness, technical provision, including health staff training, is necessary. Conclusions Padang Pariaman district has not yet prepared its PHCs to face disaster, so it is apparent that PHCs' disaster preparedness in Padang Pariaman and also other earthquake-prone areas in Indonesia should be promoted. This should include increasing the number of doctors, providing training

  20. Promoting community preparedness: lessons learned from the implementation of a chemical disaster tabletop exercise.

    High, Erika H; Lovelace, Kay A; Gansneder, Bruce M; Strack, Robert W; Callahan, Barbara; Benson, Phillip


    Health educators are frequently called on to facilitate community preparedness planning. One planning tool is community-wide tabletop exercises. Tabletop exercises can improve the preparedness of public health system agencies to address disaster by bringing together individuals representing organizations with different roles and perspectives in specific disasters. Thus, they have the opportunity to identify each other's roles, capabilities, and limitations and to problem-solve about how to address the gaps and overlaps in a low-threat collaborative setting. In 2005, the North Carolina Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response developed a series of exercises to test the preparedness for chemical disasters in a metropolitan region in the southeastern United States. A tabletop exercise allowed agency heads to meet in an environment promoting inter- and intraagency public-private coordination and cooperation. The evaluation results reported here suggest ways in which any tabletop exercise can be enhanced through recruitment, planning, and implementation.

  1. Emergency and disaster preparedness for chronically ill patients: a review of recommendations

    Tomio J


    Full Text Available Jun Tomio,1 Hajime Sato2 1Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Health Policy and Technology Assessment, National Institute of Public Health, Wako, Japan Abstract: Recent disasters, especially those in developed countries, have highlighted the importance of disaster preparedness measures for chronic diseases. A number of surviving patients experienced the exacerbation of a chronic illness, such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases, due to disaster-related stress, interruption of care, or both; for some patients, these exacerbations resulted in death. Here, we review reports from recent disasters in developed countries and summarize the recommendations for disaster preparedness of chronically ill patients. A considerable number of recommendations based on the lessons learned from recent disasters have been developed, and they provide practical and essential steps to prevent treatment interruption during and after a disaster. To improve preparedness efforts, we suggest that health care providers should be aware of the following three suggestions: 1 recommendations should be evidence-based; 2 recommendations should contain consistent messages; and 3 recommendations should be feasible. Keywords: disaster, chronic illness, preparedness

  2. Insuring against earthquakes: Simulating the cost-effectiveness of disaster preparedness

    Hoop, T.J. de; Ruben, R.


    Ex-ante measures to improve risk preparedness for natural disasters are generally considered to be more effective than ex-post measures. Nevertheless, most resources are allocated after an event in geographical areas that are vulnerable to natural disasters. This paper analyses the

  3. Examining the importance of incorporating emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into allied health curricula.

    Curtis, Tammy


    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and healthcare professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To date, there is no core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies that have been standardized at all levels across the various allied health curricula disciplines. To identify if emergency preparedness and disaster training content are currently being taught in allied health program courses, to identify possible gaps within allied health curricula, and to explore the perceptions of allied health college educators for implementing emergency preparedness and disaster training core competencies into their existing curricula, if not already included. A quantitative Internet-based survey was conducted in 2013. Convenient sample. Fifty-one allied health college educators completed the survey. Descriptive statistics indicated that the majority of allied health college instructors do not currently teach emergency preparedness and disaster training core competency content within their current allied health discipline; however, their perceived level of importance for inclusion of the competencies was high. The results of this study supported the need for developing and establishing a basic national set of standardized core emergency preparedness and disaster planning competencies at all levels across various allied health curricula disciplines to ensure victims receive the best patient care and have the best possible chance of survival.

  4. Strategic guide to natural disaster planning, preparedness, response and recovery for Naval Supply Center, Oakland, California

    Kibler, Christopher T.; Kerber, James L.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The Specific goal of this thesis is to provide a strategic guide which can be used as a basis by Naval Supply Center (NSC), Oakland, California to formulate a natural disaster planning, preparedness, response and recovery program. The objective of such a aprogram is to reduce the amount of damage caused by a natural disaster, enable effective response to a disaster and facilitate recovery. The plan must be consistent with the supply c...

  5. Disaster Preparedness Medical School Elective: Bridging the Gap Between Volunteer Eagerness and Readiness.

    Patel, Vishnu M; Dahl-Grove, Deanna


    Eager medical students may not be prepared for unanticipated complexities of disaster response. This study aimed to answer 2 questions: does an online disaster preparedness curriculum create a convenient method to educate medical students and motivate them to be better prepared to volunteer? An online disaster preparedness elective was created for medical students. Four modules were created using Softchalk and hosted on the Blackboard Learning Management System. Students completed embedded pre-elective, post-lesson, and post-elective surveys. Fifty-five students completed the elective. When posed with the statement, "I feel prepared for an emergency at the University or the immediate area," 70% stated that they disagreed or strongly disagreed before the elective. Subsequently, only 11% claimed to disagree after the elective. At the conclusion of the elective, 13% of students had prepared a personal emergency kit and 28% had prepared a family communication plan for reunification. Students were surveyed on the statement "I would like to be involved in a community disaster response while continuing my medical training." Ninety-four percent claimed to agree or strongly agree before the elective, and 93% stated the same after elective completion. This disaster preparedness elective was envisioned to be a resource for students. Advantages of online availability are ease of student access and minimal demand on faculty resources. A voluntary, self-paced online elective in disaster preparedness has shown to create a stronger interest in disaster participation in medical students. Student readiness to volunteer improved; however, willingness remained stagnant.

  6. Is previous disaster experience a good predictor for disaster preparedness in extreme poverty households in remote Muslim minority based community in China?

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y


    Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.

  7. The World Trade Center attack. Disaster preparedness: health care is ready, but is the bureaucracy?

    Mattox, K


    When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness.

  8. Surge Capacity of Hospitals in Emergencies and Disasters With a Preparedness Approach: A Systematic Review.

    Sheikhbardsiri, Hojjat; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmood; Rezaei, Fatemeh


    Surge capacity is one of the most important components of hospital preparedness for responding to emergencies and disasters. The ability to provide health and medical care during a sudden increase in the number of patients or victims of disasters is a main concern of hospitals. We aimed to perform a systematic review of hospital surge capacity in emergencies and disasters with a preparedness approach. A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The key words "surge," "surge capacity," "preparedness," "hospital emergency department," "hospital," "surge capability," "emergency," "hazard," "disaster," "catastrophe," "crisis," and "tragedy" were used in combination with the Boolean operators OR and AND. The Google Scholar, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, Ovid, Pro Quest, and Wiley databases were searched. A total of 1008 articles were extracted and 17 articles were selected for final review of surge capacity based on the objective of the study. Seventeen studies (1 randomized controlled trial, 2 qualitative studies, and 14 cross-sectional studies) investigated the surge capacity of hospitals in emergencies and disasters to evaluate the best evidence to date. The results of selected articles indicated that there are various ways to increase the capacity of hospitals in 4 domains: staff, stuff, structure, and system. Surge capacity is a basic element of disaster preparedness programs. Results of the current study could help health field managers in hospitals to prepare for capacity-building based on surge capacity components to improve and promote hospital preparedness programs. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 9).

  9. The integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery.

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Flynn, Brian W; Schonfeld, David; Brown, Lisa M; Jacobs, Gerard A; Dodgen, Daniel; Donato, Darrin; Kaul, Rachel E; Stone, Brook; Norwood, Ann E; Reissman, Dori B; Herrmann, Jack; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Jones, Russell T; Ruzek, Josef I; Ursano, Robert J; Taylor, Robert J; Lindley, David


    The close interplay between mental health and physical health makes it critical to integrate mental and behavioral health considerations into all aspects of public health and medical disaster management. Therefore, the National Biodefense Science Board (NBSB) convened the Disaster Mental Health Subcommittee to assess the progress of the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in integrating mental and behavioral health into disaster and emergency preparedness and response activities. One vital opportunity to improve integration is the development of clear and directive national policy to firmly establish the role of mental and behavioral health as part of a unified public health and medical response to disasters. Integration of mental and behavioral health into disaster preparedness, response, and recovery requires it to be incorporated in assessments and services, addressed in education and training, and founded on and advanced through research. Integration must be supported in underlying policies and administration with clear lines of responsibility for formulating and implementing policy and practice.

  10. The Survey of Hospitals Affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Preparedness Response to Disasters

    Mahmood Nekoei-Moghadam


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Natural and man-made disasters always threaten human lives and properties. Iran as one of the disastrous countries has experienced both natural and man-made disasters. Preparedness is one of the vital elements in response to disasters. So, this study was arranged and carried out with the aim of measuring preparedness of hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences in response to disasters. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in four hospitals affiliated with Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A satisfactorily valid (kappa: 0.8 and reliable checklist was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics in SPSS version 17. Results: The surveyed hospitals with the total score of 67 % were in good condition in response to disasters. The emergency departments (83%, reception (75%, communication (69%, education (70%, supply services (61%, human sources (71% and command (79% also acquired good scores. Discharge units (60%, traffic (55% and security (53% were in moderate condition in preparedness. In necessary fields for response to disasters, the whole research units acquired 67% which showed good condition in this field. Conclusion: The surveyed hospitals were in prepared and suitable condition in the emergency departments, reception, communication, education, human sources and command. In order to improve and enhance the preparedness, a schedule plan should be programmed for some elements such as discharge, transfer, traffic, security and six-crucial elements of the field.

  11. Scenario analysis and disaster preparedness for port and maritime logistics risk management.

    Kwesi-Buor, John; Menachof, David A; Talas, Risto


    System Dynamics (SD) modelling is used to investigate the impacts of policy interventions on industry actors' preparedness to mitigate risks and to recover from disruptions along the maritime logistics and supply chain network. The model suggests a bi-directional relation between regulation and industry actors' behaviour towards Disaster Preparedness (DP) in maritime logistics networks. The model also showed that the level of DP is highly contingent on forecast accuracy, technology change, attitude to risk prevention, port activities, and port environment.

  12. Geographic Situational Awareness: Mining Tweets for Disaster Preparedness, Emergency Response, Impact, and Recovery

    Qunying Huang


    Full Text Available Social media data have emerged as a new source for detecting and monitoring disaster events. A number of recent studies have suggested that social media data streams can be used to mine actionable data for emergency response and relief operation. However, no effort has been made to classify social media data into stages of disaster management (mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, and recovery, which has been used as a common reference for disaster researchers and emergency managers for decades to organize information and streamline priorities and activities during the course of a disaster. This paper makes an initial effort in coding social media messages into different themes within different disaster phases during a time-critical crisis by manually examining more than 10,000 tweets generated during a natural disaster and referencing the findings from the relevant literature and official government procedures involving different disaster stages. Moreover, a classifier based on logistic regression is trained and used for automatically mining and classifying the social media messages into various topic categories during various disaster phases. The classification results are necessary and useful for emergency managers to identify the transition between phases of disaster management, the timing of which is usually unknown and varies across disaster events, so that they can take action quickly and efficiently in the impacted communities. Information generated from the classification can also be used by the social science research communities to study various aspects of preparedness, response, impact and recovery.

  13. Using Insights From Behavioral Economics to Strengthen Disaster Preparedness and Response.

    Linnemayr, Sebastian; O'Hanlon, Claire; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Van Abel, Kristin; Nelson, Christopher


    Behavioral economics is based on the idea that individuals' decisions are affected by systematic and predictable cognitive biases and that these same biases can be leveraged to change behavior and improve decision-making. Insights from behavioral economics have been used to encourage a range of desired behaviors but have rarely been used in disaster preparedness and response, though traditional efforts by public health practitioners have failed to increase adoption of key preparedness behaviors. In this work, we aim to show how some of the key concepts in the behavioral economics literature are applicable to behaviors related to disaster preparedness and response, and we present ideas for behavioral economics-based interventions that we vetted with public health officials. Two of the best-received interventions were applications of social norms approaches, which leverage social influence bias, and commitment devices, which leverage present bias and loss aversion. Although the current evidence base for the applications of concepts from behavioral economics in disaster preparedness and response is weak, behavioral economics has achieved positive results in similar decision-making contexts. The low cost and potentially high impact of behavioral economics-based interventions warrant further investigation and testing. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 7).

  14. Promoting Disaster Science and Disaster Science Communities as Part of Sound Disaster Preparedness

    McNutt, M. K.


    During disasters, effectively engaging the vast expertise of the academic community can help responders make timely and critical decisions. A barrier to such engagement, however, is the cultural gap between reward systems in academia and in the disaster response community. Responders often are focused on ending the emergency quickly with minimal damage. Academic scientists often need to produce peer reviewed publications to justify their use of time and money. Each community is used to speaking to different audiences, and delivering answers on their own time scales. One approach to bridge this divide is to foster a cohesive community of interdisciplinary disaster scientists: researchers who focus on crises that severely and negatively disrupt the environment or threaten human health, and are able to apply scientific methods in a timely manner to understand how to prevent, mitigate, respond to, or recover from such events. Once organized, a disaster science community could develop its own unique culture. It is well known in the disaster response community that all the preparation that takes place before an event ever occurs is what truly makes the difference in reducing response time, improving coordination, and ultimately reducing impacts. In the same vein, disaster scientists would benefit from consistently interacting with the response community. The advantage of building a community for all disasters, rather than for just one type, is that it will help researchers maintain momentum between emergencies, which may be decades or more apart. Every disaster poses similar challenges: Knowing when to speak to the press and what to say; how to get rapid, actionable peer review; how to keep proprietary industry information confidential; how to develop "no regrets" actions; and how to communicate with decision makers and the public. During the Deepwater Horizonspill, I personally worked with members of the academic research community who cared not whether they got a peer

  15. Role of the disaster education laboratory in enhancing preparedness of elementary school student

    Oktari, Rina Suryani


    To examine ways for a sustainable approach to disaster education, a study conducted at 15 public elementary schools in Banda Aceh. The result found that many schools stopped the disaster education activities, because of the image of costly activities and sense of dependency on external actors. This research aimed at: i) exploring the needs of disaster education laboratory for elementary school; ii) determining the sample of disaster education laboratory model and iii) designing the initial draft/ prototype of laboratory model, iv) validating the conceptual theory through focus group discussion, justification and expert judgement, and v) evaluating and revising the prototype. In general, the Disaster Education Prototype Laboratory consist of: i) multimedia corner, ii) mini library, iii) mini expo and iv) disaster visual aids. Resul the first phase of this study showed that the laboratory model prototype helps in enhancing student preparedness against disaster.

  16. Senior Undergraduate Nursing Students' Perceptions of Disaster Preparedness: A Descriptive Study.

    Bayraktar, Nurhan; Yıldırım, Meral


    This descriptive study aimed to determine the disaster preparedness of a senior class of undergraduate nursing students. The study sample was composed of 73 undergraduate nursing school students from Ankara, Turkey. Data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by the researchers and were evaluated with descriptive statistics. More than half (56.1%) of the students stated that the disaster competencies of nurses should include leadership, manager, and coordinator skills; 42.4% of them indicated the competencies of decision-maker, critical thinking, autonomy, and planning skills. Regarding education, 56.4% of the students considered their education on disaster nursing as "efficient"; however, 35.9% of them considered their education as "partly efficient" or "inefficient." Many correct concepts related to the definition, features, competencies, and roles of disaster nurses were stated by students. However, low percentages and insufficient statements showed low preparedness for disasters. Curriculum development or redesign is necessary to include content and clinical experiences related to disasters. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;0:1-5).

  17. The Role of Education on Disaster Preparedness: Case Study of 2012 Indian Ocean Earthquakes on Thailand's Andaman Coast

    Raya Muttarak


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how well residents of the Andaman coast in Phang Nga province, Thailand, are prepared for earthquakes and tsunami. It is hypothesized that formal education can promote disaster preparedness because education enhances individual cognitive and learning skills, as well as access to information. A survey was conducted of 557 households in the areas that received tsunami warnings following the Indian Ocean earthquakes on 11 April 2012. Interviews were carried out during the period of numerous aftershocks, which put residents in the region on high alert. The respondents were asked what emergency preparedness measures they had taken following the 11 April earthquakes. Using the partial proportional odds model, the paper investigates determinants of personal disaster preparedness measured as the number of preparedness actions taken. Controlling for village effects, we find that formal education, measured at the individual, household, and community levels, has a positive relationship with taking preparedness measures. For the survey group without past disaster experience, the education level of household members is positively related to disaster preparedness. The findings also show that disaster-related training is most effective for individuals with high educational attainment. Furthermore, living in a community with a higher proportion of women who have at least a secondary education increases the likelihood of disaster preparedness. In conclusion, we found that formal education can increase disaster preparedness and reduce vulnerability to natural hazards.

  18. Psychosocial Influences on Disaster Preparedness in San Francisco Recipients of Home Care.

    Gershon, Robyn R; Portacolone, Elena; Nwankwo, Ezinne M; Zhi, Qi; Qureshi, Kristine A; Raveis, Victoria H


    Disasters disproportionately impact certain segments of the population, including children, pregnant women, people living with disabilities and chronic conditions and those who are underserved and under-resourced. One of the most vulnerable groups includes the community-dwelling elderly. Post-disaster analyses indicate that these individuals have higher risk of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. They also have suboptimal levels of disaster preparedness in terms of their ability to shelter-in-place or evacuate to a shelter. The reasons for this have not been well characterized, although impaired health, financial limitations, and social isolation are believed to act as barriers to preparedness as well as to adaptability to changes in the environment both during and in the immediate aftermath of disasters. In order to identify strategies that address barriers to preparedness, we recently conducted a qualitative study of 50 elderly home care recipients living in San Francisco. Data were collected during in-home, in-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide that included psychosocial constructs based on the social cognitive preparedness model and a new 13-item preparedness checklist. The mean preparedness score was 4.74 (max 13, range 1-11, SD. 2.11). Over 60 % of the participants reported that they had not made back-up plans for caregiver assistance during times of crisis, 74 % had not made plans for transportation to a shelter, 56 % lacked a back-up plan for electrical equipment in case of power outages, and 44 % had not prepared an emergency contacts list-the most basic element of preparedness. Impairments, disabilities, and resource limitations served as barriers to preparedness. Cognitive processes that underlie motivation and intentions for preparedness behaviors were lacking. There were limitations with respect to critical awareness of hazards (saliency), self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and perceived responsibility. There was also a

  19. Facilitators and Barriers for Effective Academic-Community Collaboration for Disaster Preparedness and Response.

    Dunlop, Anne L; Logue, Kristi M; Vaidyanathan, Lekshmi; Isakov, Alexander P


    For academic institutions to meaningfully contribute to community-disaster preparedness and response, they must effectively collaborate with governmental public health and emergency management agencies. To explore the opinions of leaders of public health and emergency management agencies and academic institutions regarding the facilitators for and barriers to effective collaboration for disaster preparedness and response. We convened focus groups of leaders of state and local public health and emergency management agencies and academic institutions in conjunction with the 2010 Public Health Preparedness Summit and the 2010 Southeastern Center for Emerging Biological Threats Meeting. We employed a semistructured interview guide to elicit information about resources leveraged for community preparedness and response and perceived facilitators and barriers to engagement and on-going collaboration. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim. We performed thematic analysis of the transcripts employing a data-coding scheme based on emergent themes. Academic institutions engaged with public health and emergency management agencies in the provision of an array of resources for community-disaster preparedness and response, ranging from technical expertise to the conduct of training activities, workforce surge capacity, and facility sharing. Recognized barriers to engagement included unfamiliarity of organizational personnel, concerns about ownership of outputs resulting from the collaboration, and differences in organizational culture and modus operandi. On-going relationships through shared training of students and staff and participation in community-level partner meetings facilitated collaboration in disaster response as does having a recognizable point of contact that can comprehensively represent academic institutional resources. Legal issues were identified as both facilitators (eg, contracts) and barriers (eg, liability concerns) to engagement. There are both recognized

  20. Iran's disaster risk: now is the time for community-based public health preparedness.

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Burkle, Frederick M


    The Bandar Bushehr, Iran earthquake of April 9, 2013 gravely illustrates how disaster-prone areas of the world are compounding their risk of disaster and major public health emergencies when there is a geographical convergence of natural and technological hazards. Scientists must emphasize to policy makers that ever-increasing regional industrialization and the broader introduction of nuclear facilities, especially in the Middle East, must parallel sound prevention and community-level public health preparedness planning.

  1. Pediatric disaster preparedness of a hospital network in a large metropolitan region.

    Ferrer, Rizaldy R; Balasuriya, Darshi; Iverson, Ellen; Upperman, Jeffrey S


    We describe pediatric-related emergency experiences and responses, disaster preparation and planning, emergency plan execution and evaluation, and hospital pediatric capabilities and vulnerabilities among a disaster response network in a large urban county in the West Coast of the United States. Using semistructured key informant interviews, the authors conducted qualitative research between March and April 2008. Eleven hospitals and a representative from the community clinic association agreed to participate (86 percent response rate) and a total of 22 key informant interviews were completed. Data were analyzed using ATLAS.ti.v.5.0, a qualitative analytical software program. Although hospitals have infrastructure to respond in the event of a large-scale disaster, well-established disaster preparedness plans have not fully accounted for the needs of children. The general hospitals do not anticipate a surge of pediatric victims in the event of a disaster, and they expect that children will be transported to a children's hospital as their conditions become stable. Even hospitals with well-established disaster preparedness plans have not fully accounted for the needs of children during a disaster. Improved communication between disaster network hospitals is necessary as incorrect information still persists.

  2. Using Pop Culture to Teach Youths Conflict Resolution, Healthful Lifestyles, Disaster Preparedness, and More

    Torretta, Alayne; Black, Lynette Ranney


    Adolescents learn sustainable production techniques, civic engagement, leadership, public speaking, food safety practices, conflict resolution, disaster preparedness, and other life skills through Extension programming. Educators can increase participant interest in such programming by applying a creative pop culture twist, such as a zombie…

  3. Capacity indicators for disaster preparedness in hospitals within Nairobi County, Kenya.

    Simiyu, Cynthia Nekesa; Odhiambo-Otieno, George; Okero, Dominic


    The goal of this study was to assess hospital capacity for disaster preparedness within Nairobi County. This information would be valuable to institutional strategists to resolve weaknesses and reinforce strengths in hospital capacity hence ensure efficient and effective service delivery during disasters. Analytical cross-sectional research design was used. Indicator variables for capacity were hospital equipment, hospital infrastructure, surrounding hospital environment, training, drills, staff knowledge and staff capabilities. Thirty two hospitals were studied of which nine of them were public hospitals. Data analysis was done using SPSS and presented in the form of frequency tables at p hospital capacity to disaster preparedness in Nairobi County existed in 22 (68.88%) hospitals, in 6 (64.95%) public hospitals and 16 (69.64%) private hospitals. The difference in capacity between public and private hospitals within the County was less than 5%. This showed that both public and private hospitals were relatively at par, with regard to the capacity to handle disaster cases. Study findings also revealed that the surrounding hospital environment was the most highly rated indicator while inter hospital training and drills were the least rated. Although existent in hospitals within Nairobi County, for maximum hospital capacity and disaster preparedness within Nairobi County to be achieved, the existent gap in inter hospital training and inter hospital drills, both of which fall under the finance health systems pillar, required addressing.

  4. Application of Behavioral Theories to Disaster and Emergency Health Preparedness: A Systematic Review.

    Ejeta, Luche Tadesse; Ardalan, Ali; Paton, Douglas


    Preparedness for disasters and emergencies at individual, community and organizational levels could be more effective tools in mitigating (the growing incidence) of disaster risk and ameliorating their impacts. That is, to play more significant roles in disaster risk reduction (DRR). Preparedness efforts focus on changing human behaviors in ways that reduce people's risk and increase their ability to cope with hazard consequences. While preparedness initiatives have used behavioral theories to facilitate DRR, many theories have been used and little is known about which behavioral theories are more commonly used, where they have been used, and why they have been preferred over alternative behavioral theories. Given that theories differ with respect to the variables used and the relationship between them, a systematic analysis is an essential first step to answering questions about the relative utility of theories and providing a more robust evidence base for preparedness components of DRR strategies. The goal of this systematic review was to search and summarize evidence by assessing the application of behavioral theories to disaster and emergency health preparedness across the world. The protocol was prepared in which the study objectives, questions, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and sensitive search strategies were developed and pilot-tested at the beginning of the study. Using selected keywords, articles were searched mainly in PubMed, Scopus, Mosby's Index (Nursing Index) and Safetylit databases. Articles were assessed based on their titles, abstracts, and their full texts. The data were extracted from selected articles and results were presented using qualitative and quantitative methods. In total, 2040 titles, 450 abstracts and 62 full texts of articles were assessed for eligibility criteria, whilst five articles were archived from other sources, and then finally, 33 articles were selected. The Health Belief Model (HBM), Extended Parallel Process Model

  5. An Overview of Environmental Disaster in Malaysia and Prepa-redness Strategies



    Full Text Available Malaysia is affected by moderate environmental disasters but seldom affected by severe disaster. Cameron Highland mud floods 2013, Hulu Langat landslide 2011, tsunami 2004 and Highland Tower 1993 are some of environmental disaster in Malaysia. Some of these disasters carry heavy price tags as property and lives are damaged beyond full compensation and repair and health effects as well. This paper was focused on environmental disaster in Malaysia with reference to flood and landslide. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these disasters and how public could be safe from these hazards with preparedness strategies. This paper involved with secondary data collected from journal, proceedings, books, related agencies and internet sources as well. Normally, humankind is capable of saving their self and Earth as well, if they recover the principles of solidarity, complementarity and harmony with nature in contraposition to the reign of competition, profits and rampant consumption of natural resources. They also must strongly support a sustainable development and a sustainable land use concept in order to sustain the environment from degrades. In addition, community-based disaster preparedness is essential in preventing and responding to the full array of environmental disasters in keeping human losses as low as possible. Ways must be found to ensure that a community is strengthened, becoming less fragile and less susceptible to environmental disaster impact. In addition, community needs to be assist in order to survive despite receiving the impact of severe disasters. Keywords: Environmental disaster, Malaysia, Human activity

  6. On Predictive Understanding of Extreme Events: Pattern Recognition Approach; Prediction Algorithms; Applications to Disaster Preparedness

    Keilis-Borok, V. I.; Soloviev, A.; Gabrielov, A.


    We describe a uniform approach to predicting different extreme events, also known as critical phenomena, disasters, or crises. The following types of such events are considered: strong earthquakes; economic recessions (their onset and termination); surges of unemployment; surges of crime; and electoral changes of the governing party. A uniform approach is possible due to the common feature of these events: each of them is generated by a certain hierarchical dissipative complex system. After a coarse-graining, such systems exhibit regular behavior patterns; we look among them for "premonitory patterns" that signal the approach of an extreme event. We introduce methodology, based on the optimal control theory, assisting disaster management in choosing optimal set of disaster preparedness measures undertaken in response to a prediction. Predictions with their currently realistic (limited) accuracy do allow preventing a considerable part of the damage by a hierarchy of preparedness measures. Accuracy of prediction should be known, but not necessarily high.

  7. The preparedness of hospital Health Information Services for system failures due to internal disasters.

    Lee, Cheens; Robinson, Kerin M; Wendt, Kate; Williamson, Dianne


    The unimpeded functioning of hospital Health Information Services (HIS) is essential for patient care, clinical governance, organisational performance measurement, funding and research. In an investigation of hospital Health Information Services' preparedness for internal disasters, all hospitals in the state of Victoria with the following characteristics were surveyed: they have a Health Information Service/ Department; there is a Manager of the Health Information Service/Department; and their inpatient capacity is greater than 80 beds. Fifty percent of the respondents have experienced an internal disaster within the past decade, the majority affecting the Health Information Service. The most commonly occurring internal disasters were computer system failure and floods. Two-thirds of the hospitals have internal disaster plans; the most frequently occurring scenarios provided for are computer system failure, power failure and fire. More large hospitals have established back-up systems than medium- and small-size hospitals. Fifty-three percent of hospitals have a recovery plan for internal disasters. Hospitals typically self-rate as having a 'medium' level of internal disaster preparedness. Overall, large hospitals are better prepared for internal disasters than medium and small hospitals, and preparation for disruption of computer systems and medical record services is relatively high on their agendas.

  8. Big Data Analytics for Disaster Preparedness and Response of Mobile Communication Infrastructure during Natural Hazards

    Zhong, L.; Takano, K.; Ji, Y.; Yamada, S.


    The disruption of telecommunications is one of the most critical disasters during natural hazards. As the rapid expanding of mobile communications, the mobile communication infrastructure plays a very fundamental role in the disaster response and recovery activities. For this reason, its disruption will lead to loss of life and property, due to information delays and errors. Therefore, disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure itself is quite important. In many cases of experienced disasters, the disruption of mobile communication networks is usually caused by the network congestion and afterward long-term power outage. In order to reduce this disruption, the knowledge of communication demands during disasters is necessary. And big data analytics will provide a very promising way to predict the communication demands by analyzing the big amount of operational data of mobile users in a large-scale mobile network. Under the US-Japan collaborative project on 'Big Data and Disaster Research (BDD)' supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and National Science Foundation (NSF), we are going to investigate the application of big data techniques in the disaster preparedness and response of mobile communication infrastructure. Specifically, in this research, we have considered to exploit the big amount of operational information of mobile users for predicting the communications needs in different time and locations. By incorporating with other data such as shake distribution of an estimated major earthquake and the power outage map, we are able to provide the prediction information of stranded people who are difficult to confirm safety or ask for help due to network disruption. In addition, this result could further facilitate the network operators to assess the vulnerability of their infrastructure and make suitable decision for the disaster preparedness and response. In this presentation, we are going to introduce the

  9. Assessing school disaster preparedness by applying a comprehensive school safety framework: A case of elementary schools in Banda Aceh City

    Sakurai, A.; Bisri, M. B. F.; Oda, T.; Oktari, R. S.; Murayama, Y.


    The study assessed the depth of school disaster safety at public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City, Indonesia in terms of comprehensive school safety, especially school location, disaster management and disaster education. The findings indicate that 56% of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City are exposed to high tsunami risk, and most externally driven school disaster preparedness activities were not continued by the schools due to lack of ownership and funding. To realize comprehensive school safety, disaster preparedness programs should neither be brought in by external donors, nor be in a patchwork. Rather, it should be conducted jointly and sustainably by the local school and the community and supported by multi-sectoral support in the city. Comprehensive school safety of public elementary schools in Banda Aceh City could be realized by reviewing, updating and localizing school disaster preparedness programs by all the education partners in the city with strong political will and commitment.

  10. Nurses as Leaders in Disaster Preparedness and Response--A Call to Action.

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Griffin, Anne; Gable, Alicia R; MacIntyre, Linda; Simons, Radm Nadine; Couig, Mary Pat; Walsh, John J; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Dobalian, Aram; Larson, Elaine


    To develop a vision for the future of disaster nursing, identify barriers and facilitators to achieving the vision, and develop recommendations for nursing practice, education, policy, and research. A series of semistructured conference calls were conducted with 14 national subject matter experts to generate relevant concepts regarding national nursing workforce preparedness. An invitational daylong workshop hosted by the Veterans Emergency Management Evaluation Center, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, was held in December 2014 to expand and refine these concepts. Workshop participants included 70 nurses, emergency managers, and a broad range of public health professionals. Conference call notes and audiotapes of the workshop were transcribed and thematic analysis conducted to outline a vision for the future of nursing in disaster preparedness and response, and to articulate an agenda for nursing practice, education, policy, and research to achieve that vision. The group developed a vision for the future of disaster nursing, and identified current barriers and opportunities to advance professional disaster nursing. A broad array of recommendations for nursing practice, education, policy, and research, as well as implementation challenges, are summarized in this article. This project represents an important step toward enhancing nurses' roles as leaders, educators, responders, policymakers, and researchers in disaster preparedness and response. Nurses and the health and human service organizations that employ them are encouraged to engage in an expansive national dialogue regarding how to best incorporate the vision and recommendations into their individual lives and the organizations for which they work. Nurses comprise the largest healthcare workforce, and opportunities exist to strengthen disaster readiness, enhance national surge capacity, and build community resiliency to disasters. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Disaster Preparedness of Hotel Industry Abroad: A Comparative Analysis

    AlBattat Ahmad R.


    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify major emergencies that have the potential to place hotels in emergency and disaster situations; investigate how hotels were prepared for emergencies, how they manage and overcome emergencies when occurred; and limitations and factors influencing successful emergency planning and adoption emergency management in Malaysian and Jordanian hotels. Face-to-face interview for managers from three, four and five star hotels from different backgrounds: local; regional; and International in Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Amman and Petra were undertaken. Results revealed that hotels are exposed to a wide range of natural and man-made disasters, Occurred globally affected locally. Hotels lack proactive emergency planning and a lot of constraints which impede successful emergency planning for disasters in the hotel industry, with emphasizing on the relevant authority’s role to demonstrate emergency management to hotels convincing them to adopt such practices, so they can be able to cope with emergencies effectively.

  12. Disaster preparedness in a complex urban system: the case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Carpenter, Samuel; Grünewald, François


    The city is a growing centre of humanitarian concern. Yet, aid agencies, governments and donors are only beginning to comprehend the scale and, importantly, the complexity of the humanitarian challenge in urban areas. Using the case study of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, this paper examines the analytical utility of recent research on complex urban systems in strengthening scholarly understanding of urban disaster risk management, and outlines its operational relevance to disaster preparedness. Drawing on a literature review and 26 interviews with actors from across the Government of Nepal, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, non-governmental organisations, United Nations agencies, and at-risk communities, the study argues that complexity can be seen as a defining feature of urban systems and the risks that confront them. To manage risk in these systems effectively, preparedness efforts must be based on adaptive and agile approaches, incorporating the use of network analysis, partnerships, and new technologies.

  13. ‘Prevention is better than cure’: Assessing Ghana’s preparedness (capacity for disaster management

    Martin Oteng-Ababio


    Full Text Available This article examines and contributes to the debate on Ghana’s capacity and preparedness to respond to disasters and build safer communities. Having witnessed a series of catastrophic events in recent times, many have questioned the capacity of the National Disaster Management Organisation, an institution mandated to manage disasters in Ghana and whose operations have historically been shaped by external pressures, particularly the populist tendencies of the Provisional National Defense Council government in the 1980s. Analysing the results from the fieldwork and placing them in the context of contemporary disaster management strategies, this article gives an overview of Ghana’s preparedness for emergencies in the face of increasing urbanisation. It finds that the organisation is fixated on a top-down approach with low cooperation, collaboration and coordination with stakeholders, leading to situations where devastation and destruction occur before action is taken. Today, the consensus is that practitioners wean themselves from managing disasters and take to managing risk. Such a redirection of attention calls for the adoption of an appropriate institutional framework: an approach that unites the putative nation beyond competing loyalties to ethnicity, tribe and political entity.

  14. Barriers to disaster preparedness among medical special needs populations

    Leslie eMeyer


    Full Text Available A medical special needs (MSN assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%, Hispanic (92.9%, aged > 45 years (51%, not insured for health (59.2%, and with an MSN (33.2%. Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild to level 4 (most severe. Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness.

  15. Fire disaster preparedness and situational analysis in higher learning institutions of Tanzania

    Jacob M. Kihila


    Full Text Available Fire disasters are accompanied with devastating impact affecting both lives and properties. The magnitude of the impacts has been severe in places with low levels of fire disaster preparedness. A study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, to investigate the level of fire disaster preparedness considering the availability and condition of firefighting facilities as well as the knowledge on fire management among the selected 10 higher learning institutions. Information for the buildings was obtained from the interviews with the managers of the buildings and field observations; information on the user’s preparedness was obtained from interviews using structured questionnaire conducted with the users of the buildings including the visitors. Results from the studied buildings indicated that 60% of the firefighting facilities were not regularly serviced; 50% stored some hazardous materials; 70% of them had not enough water storage for firefighting purposes; 60% had no identifiable fire assembly points; and 90% of the sessions conducted in the buildings involved more than 100 people in a single venue. Further results indicated that 51% of the respondents were not able to operate the installed firefighting facilities; 80.7% of the respondents had never received any training on firefighting and prevention; 95.6% of the respondents had never participated in any fire drills; and 81.5% of them were not aware of the fire responder’s contacts. General situation indicated that higher learning institutions are not well prepared to manage fire outbreaks suggesting that plans to rectify the situation are imperative.

  16. Functional, Structural and Non-Structural Preparedness of Ahvaz Health Centers Against Disasters in 2014 – 2015



    Full Text Available Background Ahvaz metropolitan as an industrial pole and special geopolitical location is vulnerable to miscellaneous disasters. Public health centers are one of the most important units that should have necessary preparedness against disasters and crisis. Objectives The current study aimed to determine functional, structural and non-structural preparedness of public health centers against natural and manmade disasters at all levels, rural health houses, rural and urban health centers and the Iranian health centers. Materials and Methods The current descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on about 47 rural health houses, rural and urban health centers and Iranian health centers of Ahvaz city (western and eastern regions. A checklist of Iran ministry of health, field observation and interview methods were used for data collection. Functional preparedness included crisis management framework, planning, insurance coverage, event management system, public services, education and manure. Non-structural preparedness was assessed in three levels as desirable, mid desirable and undesirable. Structural preparedness included instruments, structures and facilities of the health centers. All calculations were performed by excel software. Results Risk rate, functional, non-structural and structural preparedness and final safety level were 58.62%, 51.48%, 54.82%, 33.97%, and 43.72%, respectively. Conclusions According to the results, the Iranian public health centers preparedness against disasters before, during and after accidents were in safety level 4 from 10, which was undesirable.

  17. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Pizzi, Michael A


    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Development and evaluation of 'disaster preparedness' educational programme for pregnant women.

    Yasunari, T; Nozawa, M; Nishio, R; Yamamoto, A; Takami, Y


    The objective of this study is the development and evaluation of the usability of an educational programme that teaches disaster preparedness to pregnant women. This intervention study examined an intervention group that attended an educational programme and a control group that did not. The subjects were pregnant women in their second trimester. The programme was developed with prior studies and evaluated by self-administered questionnaires that asked about disaster preparedness. The questionnaire was administered twice to the participants in both groups: to the intervention group just before the childbirth class and 1 month after the class, and to the control group at the time of their maternity examination and 1 month afterwards. Two hundred twenty-six members of the intervention group and 262 members of the control group responded to both questionnaires. Of these, 99 of the intervention group and 104 of the control group were primiparous without disaster experience, and the programme was evaluated by comparing these two groups. Effects due to the disaster experience were also analysed within the intervention group. Among primiparous without disaster experience, an intervention effect was found in items concerning awareness modification (five of six items) and behaviour modification (three of seven items). The intervention effect was particularly pronounced in a comparison of primiparous without disaster experience. An intervention effect was found among the pregnant women who took the programme. In particular, it was statistically significant among primiparous without disaster experience, which suggests that the programme should be shaped to reflect this subject demographic. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  19. The Role of Schools in Disaster Preparedness, Response and Recovery: What Can We Learn from the Literature?

    Mutch, Carol


    In order to contextualise the articles in this special issue, this introductory article surveys the relevant literature from recent disasters in mostly developed countries in order to explore the wider role of schools in disaster preparedness, response and recovery. The first section argues that as schools are hubs of their communities, it is…

  20. The Current Crisis in Emergency Care and the Impact on Disaster Preparedness

    Trainer Marcia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Homeland Security Act (HSA of 2002 provided for the designation of a critical infrastructure protection program. This ultimately led to the designation of emergency services as a targeted critical infrastructure. In the context of an evolving crisis in hospital-based emergency care, the extent to which federal funding has addressed disaster preparedness will be examined. Discussion After 9/11, federal plans, procedures and benchmarks were mandated to assure a unified, comprehensive disaster response, ranging from local to federal activation of resources. Nevertheless, insufficient federal funding has contributed to a long-standing counter-trend which has eroded emergency medical care. The causes are complex and multifactorial, but they have converged to present a severely overburdened system that regularly exceeds emergency capacity and capabilities. This constant acute overcrowding, felt in communities all across the country, indicates a nation at risk. Federal funding has not sufficiently prioritized the improvements necessary for an emergency care infrastructure that is critical for an all hazards response to disaster and terrorist emergencies. Summary Currently, the nation is unable to meet presidential preparedness mandates for emergency and disaster care. Federal funding strategies must therefore be re-prioritized and targeted in a way that reasonably and consistently follows need.

  1. Evaluation of disaster preparedness for mass casualty incidents in private hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Bin Shalhoub, Abdullah A; Khan, Anas A; Alaska, Yaser A


    To identify and describe the hospital disaster preparedness (HDP) in major private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is an observational cross-sectional survey study performed in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia between December 2015 and April 2016. Thirteen major private hospitals in Riyadh with more than 100 beds capacity were included in this investigation. Results: The 13 hospitals had HDP plan and reported to have an HDP committee. In 12 (92.3%) hospitals, the HDP covered both internal and external disasters and HDP was available in every department of the hospital. There were agreements with other hospitals to accept patients during disasters in 9 facilities (69.2%) while 4 (30.8%) did not have such agreement. None of the hospitals conducted any unannounced exercises in previous year.  Conclusion: Most of the weaknesses were apparent particularly in the education, training and monitoring of the hospital staff to the preparedness for disaster emergency occasion. Few hospitals had conducted an exercise with casualties, few had drilled evacuation of staff and patients in the last 12 months, and none had any unannounced exercise in the last year.

  2. Nurses’ roles, knowledge and experience in national disaster pre-paredness and emergency response: A literature review

    Thomas Grochtdreis


    Results: The sub-themes of the first main theme (a roles of nurses during emergency response include the expectations of the hospital and the public, general and special roles of nurses, assignments of medical tasks, special role during a pandemic influenza, role conflicts during a disaster, willingness to respond to a disaster. For (b disaster preparedness knowledge of nurses, the corresponding sub-themes include the definition of a disaster, core competencies and curriculum, undergraduate nursing education and continuing education programs, disaster drills, training and exercises, preparedness. The sub-themes for the last theme (c disaster experiences of nurses include the work environment, nursing care, feelings, stressors, willingness to respond as well as lessons learned and impacts. Conclusion: There is consensus in the literature that nurses are key players in emergency response. However, no clear mandate for nurses exists concerning their tasks during a disaster. For a nurse, to be able to respond to a disaster, personal and professional preparedness, in terms of education and training, are central. The Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies of the WHO and ICN, broken down into national core competencies, will serve as a sufficient complement to the knowledge and skills of nurses already acquired through basic nursing curricula. During and after a disaster, attention should be applied to the work environment, feelings and stressors of nurses, not only to raise the willingness to respond to a disaster. Where non-existent, national directives and concepts for disaster nursing should be developed and nurses should be aware of their duties. Nursing educators should prepare nurses for disasters, by adjusting the curricula and by meeting the increased need for education and training in disaster nursing for all groups of nurses. The appropriateness of theoretical and practical preparation of disaster nursing competencies in undergraduate nursing courses and

  3. Community-based disaster preparedness and climate adaptation: local capacity-building in the Philippines.

    Allen, Katrina M


    Community-based disaster preparedness (CBDP) approaches are increasingly important elements of vulnerability reduction and disaster management strategies. They are associated with a policy trend that values the knowledge and capacities of local people and builds on local resources, including social capital. CBDP may be instrumental not only in formulating local coping and adaptation strategies, but also in situating them within wider development planning and debates. In theory, local people can be mobilised to resist unsustainable (vulnerability increasing) forms of development or livelihood practices and to raise local concerns more effectively with political representatives. This paper focuses on the potential of CBDP initiatives to alleviate vulnerability in the context of climate change, and their limitations. It presents evidence from the Philippines that, in the limited forms in which they are currently employed, CBDP initiatives have the potential both to empower and disempower, and warns against treating CBDP as a panacea to disaster management problems.

  4. Disasters and earthquake preparedness of children and schools in Istanbul, Turkey

    Şükrü Ersoy


    Full Text Available Unless decision makers urgently exhibit a proactive approach to earthquake preparedness, Istanbul will be the most vulnerable city for the expected great Marmara Earthquake and Tsunami. Because Istanbul has the highest population density (larger than some European countries and is the commercial/industrial centre of Turkey, the high seismic potential of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF in the Sea of Marmara is a great risk for Istanbul. The Kocaeli and the Düzce earthquakes, which were the last two seismic events to occur in the eastern part of Marmara in 1999, dramatically demonstrated the vulnerability and lack of awareness and preparedness of Istanbul and the Marmara region for natural disasters. Although Istanbul is 90 km from the epicentre of the earthquake that occurred in 1999, it caused severe damage to many buildings and great loss of life. An earthquake of even greater magnitude is now expected to occur within the submarine fault system that extends west of the 1999 ruptured segments under the Sea of Marmara which is near Istanbul. Although Istanbul is susceptible to seismic hazards and a destructive earthquake and tsunami are anticipated to occur in the Marmara Sea, necessary seismic risk mitigations have not been taken. Disaster preparedness studies, which are conducted by the government and the municipality of Istanbul, are not sufficient or rapid enough. School students, especially, in their unsafe school buildings, are the most vulnerable to earthquakes. The disaster-related issues are so serious because of the students >23 million in Turkey or ∼4 million students in Istanbul, and frequently repeated disaster events.

  5. Educational needs concerning disaster preparedness and response: a comparison of undergraduate nursing students from Istanbul, Turkey, and Miyazaki, Japan.

    Oztekın, Seher Deniz; Larson, Eric Edwin; Altun Uğraş, Gülay; Yüksel, Serpil


    To compare 4 year undergraduate nursing students' educational needs concerning disaster preparedness and response in Istanbul and Miyazaki. This was a 13 question descriptive/comparative survey. Females, aged 18-22 years, and in their second year of their nursing programs, rarely participate in disaster preparedness and response courses at their universities (75.2%) or outside (89.8%). Educational needs of Miyazaki's students who had already participated in these courses (85%) were higher than in Istanbul's (67.2%). Of those whose educational needs had not been met, 55.9% were considering taking another lecture/course in one of the following years (Istanbul, 47.4%; Miyazaki, 71.4%). The majority of students from Istanbul reported some knowledge about disaster preparedness and response from courses at their universities while Miyazaki's students showed less. Effective teaching methods/resources were mock drills. Nursing interventions in disaster situations in "response competencies" were preferred issues to be included in course content (Istanbul, 90.4%; Miyazaki, 93.1%). Most student nurses had no expectations on skills that could be gained from a disaster preparedness and response course/culture of disaster lecture (Istanbul, 48.7%; Miyazaki, 34.5%). Nursing students in both cities seem more likely to participate in disaster preparedness and response courses/lectures. The present study also addresses the need to incorporate mass casualty care and disaster management skills into undergraduate curricula. Core contents for nursing curricula in both cities need to be continued. Outcome competencies must be identified and validated through further research. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Practical considerations for disaster preparedness and continuity management in research facilities.

    Mortell, Norman; Nicholls, Sam


    Many research facility managers, veterinarians and directors are familiar with the principles of Good Laboratory Practice, requirements of the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International, tenets of biosecurity and standards of animal welfare and housing but may be less familiar with the ideas of business continuity. But business continuity considerations are as applicable to research facilities as they are to other institutions. The authors discuss how business continuity principles can be applied in the research context and propose that such application, or 'research continuity management,' enables a focused but wide-reaching approach to disaster preparedness.

  7. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Amber Foreman Britt


    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  8. Computer-facilitated assessment of disaster preparedness for remote hospitals in a long-distance, virtual tabletop drill model.

    Gillett, Brian; Silverberg, Mark; Roblin, Patricia; Adelaine, John; Valesky, Walter; Arquilla, Bonnie


    Emergency preparedness experts generally are based at academic or governmental institutions. A mechanism for experts to remotely facilitate a distant hospital's disaster readiness is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop and examine the feasibility of an Internet-based software tool to assess disaster preparedness for remote hospitals using a long-distance, virtual, tabletop drill. An Internet-based system that remotely acquires information and analyzes disaster preparedness for hospitals at a distance in a virtual, tabletop drill model was piloted. Nine hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa designated as receiving institutions for the 2010 FIFA World Cup Games and its organizers, utilized the system over a 10-week period. At one-week intervals, the system e-mailed each hospital's leadership a description of a stadium disaster and instructed them to login to the system and answer questions relating to their hospital's state of readiness. A total of 169 questions were posed relating to operational and surge capacities, communication, equipment, major incident planning, public relations, staff safety, hospital supplies, and security in each hospital. The system was used to analyze answers and generate a real-time grid that reflected readiness as a percent for each hospital in each of the above categories. It also created individualized recommendations of how to improve preparedness for each hospital. To assess feasibility of such a system, the end users' compliance and response times were examined. Overall, compliance was excellent with an aggregate response rate of 98%. The mean response interval, defined as the time elapsed between sending a stimuli and receiving a response, was eight days (95% CI = 8-9 days). A web-based data acquisition system using a virtual, tabletop drill to remotely facilitate assessment of disaster preparedness is efficient and feasible. Weekly reinforcement for disaster preparedness resulted in strong compliance.

  9. Disaster Preparedness and Awareness of Patients on Hemodialysis after Hurricane Sandy.

    Murakami, Naoka; Siktel, Hira Babu; Lucido, David; Winchester, James F; Harbord, Nikolas B


    Patients with ESRD on dialysis live in a complex sociomedical situation and are dependent on technology and infrastructure, such as transportation, electricity, and water, to sustain their lives. Interruptions of this infrastructure by natural disasters can result in devastating outcomes. Between November of 2013 and April of 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted of patients who received maintenance hemodialysis before and after the landfall of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012 in lower Manhattan, New York. The primary outcome was the number of missed dialysis sessions after the storm. Dialysis-specific and general disaster preparedness were assessed using checklists prepared by the National Kidney Foundation and US Homeland Security, respectively. In total, 598 patients were approached, and 357 (59.7%) patients completed the survey. Participants were 60.2% men and 30.0% black, with a median age of 60 years old; 94 (26.3%) participants missed dialysis (median of two sessions [quartile 1 to quartile 3 =1-3]), and 236 (66.1%) participants received dialysis at nonregular dialysis unit(s): 209 (58.5%) at affiliated dialysis unit(s) and 27 (7.6%) at emergency rooms. The percentages of participants who carried their insurance information and detailed medication list were 75.9% and 44.3%, respectively. Enhancement of the dialysis emergency packet after the hurricane was associated with a significantly higher cache of medical records at home at follow-up survey (P<0.001, Fisher's exact test). Multivariate Poisson regression analysis showed that dialysis-specific preparedness (incidence rate ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.98), other racial ethnicity (incidence rate ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.57), dialysis treatment in affiliated units (incidence rate ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.51 to 0.94), and older age (incidence rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 0.99) were associated with a significantly lower

  10. [El niño phenomenon and natural disasters: public health interventions for disaster preparedness and response].

    Hijar, Gisely; Bonilla, Catherine; Munayco, Cesar V; Gutierrez, Ericson L; Ramos, Willy


    This article reviews public health interventions for preparedness and response to natural disasters within the context of El Niño phenomenon using systematic reviews and a review of revisions with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, water-borne diseases, malnutrition, heat stress, drought, flood-associated diseases, mental health problems, vulnerability of the physical health-system infrastructure, as well as long-term policies aimed at protecting the populations of these cases. Environmental interventions were identified, including vector control, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and intradomiciliary water treatment. While these finds are based primarily on systematic reviews, it is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these interventions within the population, according to the context of each region.

  11. Using the Precaution Adoption Process Model to Describe a Disaster Preparedness Intervention among Low-Income Latinos

    Glik, Deborah C.; Eisenman, David P.; Zhou, Qiong; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Asch, Steven M.


    Only 40-50% of households in the United States are currently disaster prepared. In this intervention study, respondent-driven sampling was used to select a sample (n = 187) of low income, Latino residents of Los Angeles County, randomly assigned into two treatment conditions: (i) household preparedness education received through…

  12. A Case Analysis of Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province: Basis for A Comprehensive Intervention Program

    Victoria D. Jurilla


    Full Text Available - This study determined the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province, Philippines in the areas of Dissemination, Implementation, and Resource Utilization and Operation as evaluated by the 390 citizens of the ten (10 selected municipalities from the five (5 Congressional Districts in the Province of Iloilo, Philippines. This descriptive method of research employed researcher-made instruments and random interviews. Descriptive statistics used were the mean and standard deviation while inferential statistics employed Ttest for independent samples and one-way analysis for variance set at .05 level of significances. Findings revealed that Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province, Philippines is “more effective” in terms of dissemination, implementation, and resource utilization and operation according to the assessment of the 390 respondents of the ten (10 selected municipalities from the five (5 Congressional Districts when they were grouped as to personal variables. Finally, the findings revealed that three (3 out of ten (10 municipalities were very effective and among the five (5 districts, first district was very effective as to dissemination and resource utilization and operation of their respective Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness Program but as a whole, Iloilo Province was more effective in its Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness.

  13. Development of a disaster preparedness curriculum for medical students: a pilot study of incorporating local events into training opportunities.

    Pollard, Katherine A; Bachmann, Daniel J; Greer, Marek; Way, David P; Kman, Nicholas E


    Contemporary disasters, like the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa, have piqued the interest of medical students in disaster preparedness. The topic is also a requirement of undergraduate medical education.(1) Yet current literature suggests that disaster preparedness education is lacking. Our objective was to pilot a curriculum to augment medical students' disaster preparedness education by marshalling local resources to provide practical hands-on experiences. This pilot curriculum consisted of lectures; simulations; asynchronous learning materials; a large-scale, regional disaster exercise; and preparation for and participation in a real-time mass gathering. Outcomes were measured by student performance on written tests and evaluations of each activity. Academic Health Center with associated medical school. Fifty-two medical students participated in at least one of the six activities during this voluntary pilot program. Premedical students and residents (n=57) participated in some activities. Forty-one medical students took either the pretest or the post-test over the curriculum. Only eight students took both. A paired t test comparing pretest to post-test scores using imputed missing data (t=-11.72, df=40, p≤0.001) was consistent with an analysis using only complete data (t=-2.35, df=7, p=0.05), implying that student scores improved significantly over time. Evaluations indicated a student preference for hands-on over didactic or independent learning activities. This pilot curriculum was designed to capitalize on practical hands-on training opportunities for our medical students, including participation in a disaster exercise and a mass-gathering event. These opportunities provided effective and engaging disaster preparedness education.

  14. Community perception on climate change and climate-related disaster preparedness in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Simone Sandholz


    Full Text Available Within the last decades, Kathmandu Valley in Nepal has been characterized by rapid population growth and related urbanization processes, leading to environmental degradation, pollution and supply bottlenecks in the metropolitan area. Effects of climate change are now putting additional stress on the urban system. In our research in Kathmandu, we carried out community and household surveys to analyze community perception on climate change and climate-related disaster preparedness. For this purpose, three categories of communities, 12 in all, were surveyed and interviewed: Squatter settlements, agricultural villages, and traditional villages. All settlements are located close to main rivers and therefore especially exposed to floods and droughts, and in slope position also to landslides. As a main result, we can conclude that people are generally aware of climate change and its potential consequences, such as climate change-related disasters. However, in their daily lives, climate change does not play a significant role and most communities have not taken any adaptation measures so far.

  15. Preparedness for a natural disaster: how Coriell planned for hurricane Sandy.

    Mintzer, Joseph L; Kronenthal, Courtney J; Kelly, Victoria; Seneca, Michael; Butler, Gary; Fecenko-Tacka, Karen; Altamuro, Donna; Madore, Steven J


    When a biological specimen is donated to a biobank such as the nonprofit Coriell Institute for Medical Research, regardless of whether that submission is sent directly or through a physician, scientist, foundation, or patient-centered advocacy organization, the donor expects their biomaterial to be processed effectively and stored in proper conditions until distribution to researchers answering scientific questions. The donor and scientific researchers rarely, if ever, consider what might happen to those specimens if the biobank experiences an adverse event, such as a disaster that compromises its business operations, including handling of samples. Management of biomaterials is not simply a laboratory process; their long-term survival is dependent on both the laboratory preparation and the infrastructure designed for maintenance, safety, and security. Coriell Institute has documented disaster preparedness plans since its inception in 1953, and currently manages hundreds of thousands of cell lines and DNA samples under ISO 9001 quality management standards, complete with a robust Emergency Operations Plan. The Institute's recent approach to preparing for Hurricane Sandy, a Category 1 hurricane that struck the East Coast of the United States in late October 2012, was two-fold. It included the validation of its long-term strategies focused on emergency back-up systems, communication solutions, and employee training, and implementation of short-term tactics such as confirming on-call emergency response personnel and safe storage options for working biomaterials and reagents. The purpose of this article is to review several best practices in use at Coriell Institute associated with disaster planning and to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of those elements in coping with Hurricane Sandy.

  16. Full-scale regional exercises: closing the gaps in disaster preparedness.

    Klima, David A; Seiler, Sarah H; Peterson, Jeff B; Christmas, A Britton; Green, John M; Fleming, Greg; Thomason, Michael H; Sing, Ronald F


    Man-made (9/11) and natural (Hurricane Katrina) disasters have enlightened the medical community regarding the importance of disaster preparedness. In response to Joint Commission requirements, medical centers should have established protocols in place to respond to such events. We examined a full-scale regional exercise (FSRE) to identify gaps in logistics and operations during a simulated mass casualty incident. A multiagency, multijurisdictional, multidisciplinary exercise (FSRE) included 16 area hospitals and one American College of Surgeons-verified Level I trauma center (TC). The scenario simulated a train derailment and chemical spill 20 miles from the TC using 281 moulaged volunteers. Third-party contracted evaluators assessed each hospital in five areas: communications, command structure, decontamination, staffing, and patient tracking. Further analysis examined logistic and operational deficiencies. None of the 16 hospitals were compliant in all five areas. Mean hospital compliance was 1.9 (± 0.9 SD) areas. One hospital, unable to participate because of an air conditioner outage, was deemed 0% compliant. The most common deficiency was communications (15 of 16 hospitals [94%]; State Medical Asset Resource Tracking Tool system deficiencies, lack of working knowledge of Voice Interoperability Plan for Emergency Responders radio system) followed by deficient decontamination in 12 (75%). Other deficiencies included inadequate staffing based on predetermined protocols in 10 hospitals (63%), suboptimal command structure in 9 (56%), and patient tracking deficiencies in 5 (31%). An additional 11 operational and 5 logistic failures were identified. The TC showed an appropriate command structure but was deficient in four of five categories, with understaffing and a decontamination leak into the emergency department, which required diversion of 70 patients. Communication remains a significant gap in the mass casualty scenario 10 years after 9/11. Our findings

  17. Filling the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks of urban emergency management: Following the 2013 Seoul Floods.

    Song, Minsun; Jung, Kyujin


    To examine the gap between disaster preparedness and response networks following the 2013 Seoul Floods in which the rapid transmission of disaster information and resources was impeded by severe changes of interorganizational collaboration networks. This research uses the 2013 Seoul Emergency Management Survey data that were collected before and after the floods, and total 94 organizations involving in coping with the floods were analyzed in bootstrap independent-sample t-test and social network analysis through UCINET 6 and STATA 12. The findings show that despite the primary network form that is more hierarchical, horizontal collaboration has been relatively invigorated in actual response. Also, interorganizational collaboration networks for response operations seem to be more flexible grounded on improvisation to coping with unexpected victims and damages. Local organizations under urban emergency management are recommended to tightly build a strong commitment for joint response operations through full-size exercises at the metropolitan level before a catastrophic event. Also, interorganizational emergency management networks need to be restructured by reflecting the actual response networks to reduce collaboration risk during a disaster. This research presents a critical insight into inverse thinking of the view designing urban emergency management networks and provides original evidences for filling the gap between previously coordinated networks for disaster preparedness and practical response operations after a disaster.

  18. Policy development in disaster preparedness and management: lessons learned from the January 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India.

    Bremer, Rannveig


    During the last decades, several humanitarian emergencies have occurred, with an increasing number of humanitarian organizations taking part in providing assistance. However, need assessments, medical intelligence, and coordination of the aid often are sparse, resulting in the provision of ineffective and expensive assistance. When an earthquake with the strength of 7.7 on the Richter scale struck the state of Gujarat, India, during the early morning on 26 January 2001, nearly 20,000 persons were killed, nearly 170,000 were injured, and 600,000 were rendered homeless. This study identifies how assigned indicators to measure the level of health care may improve disaster preparedness and management, thus, reducing human suffering. During a two-week mission in the disaster area, the disaster relief provided to the disaster-affected population of Gujarat was evaluated. Vulnerability due to climate, geography, culture, religion, gender, politics, and economy, as each affected the outcome, was studied. By assigning indicators to the eight ELEMENTS of the Primary Health Care System as advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO), the level of public health and healthcare services were estimated, an evaluation of the impact of the disaster was conducted, and possible methods for improving disaster management are suggested. Representatives of the major relief organizations involved were interviewed on their relief policies. Strategies to improve disaster relief, such as policy development in the different aspects of public health/primary health care, were sought. Evaluation of the pre-event status of the affected society revealed a complex situation in a vulnerable society with substantial deficiencies in the existing health system that added to the severity of the disaster. Most of the civilian hospitals had collapsed, and army field hospitals provided medical care to most of the patients under primitive conditions using tents. When the foreign field hospitals arrived

  19. Telehealth tools for public health, emergency, or disaster preparedness and response: a summary report.

    Alverson, Dale C; Edison, Karen; Flournoy, Larry; Korte, Brenda; Magruder, Charles; Miller, Craig


    Rapid advances in telehealth development and adoption are increasing the spectrum of information and communication technologies that can be applied not only to individual patient care but more broadly to population health as well. Participants in this breakout session were asked to address, from their diverse perspectives, a series of questions relating to the current and potential uses of telehealth applications and networks for public health and emergency/disaster preparedness and response systems. Participants identified several gaps in current understanding and research emphasis. There is a clear need for more and larger outcome studies to assess the impact and cost benefit of telehealth applications in terms of improving public health at the population and community levels. In addition, more research is needed to demonstrate the ability of telehealth tools and technologies to facilitate and extend the reach of major national clinical and public health research initiatives. Perhaps most importantly, the National Institutes of Health should develop and/or strengthen strategic partnerships with other funding agencies with overlapping or complementary interests to accelerate interdisciplinary research in this rapidly evolving but relatively understudied and complex field.

  20. Effectiveness of environmental-based educative program for disaster preparedness and burn management.

    Moghazy, Amr; Abdelrahman, Amira; Fahim, Ayman


    Preparedness is a necessity for proper handling of emergencies and disaster, particularly in Suez Canal and Sinai regions. To assure best success rates, educative programs should be environmentally based. Burn and fire preventive educative programs were tailored to adapt social and education levels of audience. In addition, common etiologies and applicability of preventive measures, according to local resources and logistics, were considered. Presentations were the main educative tool; they were made as simple as possible to assure best understanding. To assure continuous education, brochures and stickers, containing most popular mistakes and questions, were distributed after the sessions. Audience was classified according to their level of knowledge to health professional group; students groups; high-risk group; and lay people group. For course efficacy evaluation, pre- and posttests were used immediately before and after the sessions. Right answers in both tests were compared for statistical significance. Results showed significant acquisition of proper attitude and knowledge in all educated groups. The highest was among students and the least was in health professionals. Comprehensive simple environmental-based educative programs are ideal for rapid reform and community mobilization in our region. Activities should include direct contact, stickers and flyers, and audiovisual tools if possible.

  1. Mapping US pediatric hospitals and subspecialty critical care for public health preparedness and disaster response, 2008.

    Brantley, Mary D; Lu, Hua; Barfield, Wanda D; Holt, James B; Williams, Alcia


    The objective is to describe by geographic proximity the extent to which the US pediatric population (aged 0-17 years) has access to pediatric and other specialized critical care facilities, and to highlight regional differences in population and critical resource distribution for preparedness planning and utilization during a mass public health disaster. The analysis focused on pediatric hospitals and pediatric and general medical/surgical hospitals with specialized pediatric critical care capabilities, including pediatric intensive care units (PICU), pediatric cardiac ICUs (PCICU), level I and II trauma and pediatric trauma centers, and general and pediatric burn centers. The proximity analysis uses a geographic information system overlay function: spatial buffers or zones of a defined radius are superimposed on a dasymetric map of the pediatric population. By comparing the population living within the zones to the total population, the proportion of children with access to each type of specialized unit can be estimated. The project was conducted in three steps: preparation of the geospatial layer of the pediatric population using dasymetric mapping methods; preparation of the geospatial layer for each resource zone including the identification, verification, and location of hospital facilities with the target resources; and proximity analysis of the pediatric population within these zones. Nationally, 63.7% of the pediatric population lives within 50 miles of a pediatric hospital; 81.5% lives within 50 miles of a hospital with a PICU; 76.1% lives within 50 miles of a hospital with a PCICU; 80.2% lives within 50 miles of a level I or II trauma center; and 70.8% lives within 50 miles of a burn center. However, state-specific proportions vary from less than 10% to virtually 100%. Restricting the burn and trauma centers to pediatric units only decreases the national proportion to 26.3% for pediatric burn centers and 53.1% for pediatric trauma centers. This


    Hiruma, Yoshiki; Noda, Kentaro

    In light of the recent disaster, a major theme for corporations is now how to go about disaster preparedness and business continuity undertakings. This survey examines the effectiveness of existing disaster preparedness and business continuity efforts, while also paying consideration to issues that must be overcome or improved in the future. This paper will present a path (requirements) for improving business continuity capacity, and endeavors to link that path to future assistance for recovery and business continuity for corporations by having the path utilized in developing various tools that ameliorate disaster preparedness and business continuity capacity.

  3. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.


    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  4. Disaster Preparedness Information Needs of Individuals Attending an Adult Literacy Center: An Exploratory Study

    Friedman, Daniela; Tanwar, Manju; Yoho, Deborah W.; Richter, Jane V. E.


    Being prepared with accurate, credible, and timely information during a disaster can help individuals make informed decisions about taking appropriate actions. Unfortunately, many people have difficulty understanding health and risk-related resources. This exploratory, mixed methods study assessed disaster information seeking behaviors and…

  5. School Health: an essential strategy in promoting community resilience and preparedness for natural disasters

    Kenzo Takahashi


    Full Text Available Background: The Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction recommended the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030, which aims to achieve substantial risk reduction and to avoid various disaster-associated losses, including human lives and livelihoods, based on the lessons from the implementation of the Hyogo framework. However, the recommendations did not lay enough stress on the school and the Safe School Concept, which are the core components of a disaster response. Objective: To raise the issue of the importance of schools in disaster response. Results: For human capacity building to avoid the damage caused by natural disasters, we should focus on the function of schools in the community and on school health framework. Schools perform a range of functions, which include being a landmark place for evacuation, acting as a participatory education hub among communities (students are usually from the surrounding communities, and being a sustainable source of current disaster-related information. In 2007, the Bangkok Action Agenda (BAA on school education and disaster risk reduction (DRR recommended the integration of DRR into education policy development, the enhancement of participatory mechanisms to improve DRR education, and the extension of DRR education from schools to communities. Based on our discussion and the recommendations of the BAA, we suggest that our existing challenges are to construct a repository of disaster-related lessons, develop training materials based on current information drawn from previous disasters, and disseminate the training to schools and communities. Conclusions: Schools linked with school health can provide good opportunities for DRR with a focus on development of school health policy and a community-oriented participatory approach.

  6. The Role of the National Guard and Civil Preparedness Agency in Time of Natural Disaster


    to serve a useful purpose. Several were assipned to climb telephone poles and sustained injuries in the attempt. L* areas where live power...Preparedness Director. I feel this is not a healty situation. This arrangement would deprive the civilian agencies of their rightful responsibility. 3

  7. Fear of Terrorism and Preparedness in New York City 2 Years After the Attacks: Implications for Disaster Planning and Research

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Figley, Charles R.; Galea, Sandro; Foa, Edna B.


    Objectives To help improve disaster planning and research, we studied psychosocial predictors of terrorism fear and preparedness among New York City residents after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD). Method We conducted a random cross-sectional survey of 1,681 adults interviewed 2 years after the WTCD. Participants were living in New York City at the time of the attack and exposed to ongoing terrorist threats. Results We found 44.9 percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 41.9−47.9) of residents were concerned about future attacks and 16.9 percent (95% CI = 14.7−19.3) reported a fear level of “10” on a 10-point analog scale. Furthermore, 14.8 percent (95% CI = 12.8−17.0) reported they had made some plans for a future attack, a significant increase from the previous year. In addition, although 42.6 percent (95% CI = 39.6−45.7) indicated that they would likely wait for evacuation instructions following a chemical, biological, or nuclear attack, 34.4 percent (95% CI = 31.5−37.3) reported they would evacuate immediately against official advice. Predictors of high terrorism fear in a multivariate model included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, P = .006), lower education (OR = 4.4, P terrorism threats, terrorism fear and preparedness were related to socioeconomic factors, mental health status, terrorism exposure levels, and exposure to stressful life events. PMID:17041297

  8. Learning from UK disaster exercises: policy implications for effective emergency preparedness.

    Kim, Hakkyong


    With a view towards suggesting improvements to the official UK Guidance for disaster exercises, this paper critically examines a representative sample of recent disaster management exercises in the United Kingdom to determine how they are planned, conducted and assessed. Personal observations and in-depth qualitative interviews were used to study three representative multi-agency disaster exercises in the UK: (1) the Hitachi 395 Evacuation Workshop and Exercise Twin Bore, (2) Exercise Saxon Shore and (3) Exercise Operation Safe Return. The research demonstrates that disaster exercises in the UK generally consist of four main approaches: (1) disaster response and adaptability, (2) building-block approach, (3) citizen participation and (4) discussion-based debriefs. While the data demonstrates that each of these approaches has significant merit, it also elucidates key improvements that should be made to the official UK guidance and reflected in future exercises. In particular, the research suggests that the Guidance should highlight the importance of adaptability at the scene of a disaster, advance a building-block methodology to organising exercises and reiterate the need for better debriefings of volunteer participants. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  9. Report: EPA Has Developed Guidance for Disaster Debris but Has Limited Knowledge of State Preparedness

    Report #16-P-0219, June 29, 2016. The EPA can reduce the risk of future unsafe debris disposal practices by improving its understanding and awareness of the quality and completeness of state disaster debris management plans.

  10. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Ho Ting Wong


    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  11. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen


    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term “Big Data”, which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing. PMID:27763525

  12. The Need for a Definition of Big Data for Nursing Science: A Case Study of Disaster Preparedness.

    Wong, Ho Ting; Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Choi, Kup Sze; Loke, Alice Yuen


    The rapid development of technology has made enormous volumes of data available and achievable anytime and anywhere around the world. Data scientists call this change a data era and have introduced the term "Big Data", which has drawn the attention of nursing scholars. Nevertheless, the concept of Big Data is quite fuzzy and there is no agreement on its definition among researchers of different disciplines. Without a clear consensus on this issue, nursing scholars who are relatively new to the concept may consider Big Data to be merely a dataset of a bigger size. Having a suitable definition for nurse researchers in their context of research and practice is essential for the advancement of nursing research. In view of the need for a better understanding on what Big Data is, the aim in this paper is to explore and discuss the concept. Furthermore, an example of a Big Data research study on disaster nursing preparedness involving six million patient records is used for discussion. The example demonstrates that a Big Data analysis can be conducted from many more perspectives than would be possible in traditional sampling, and is superior to traditional sampling. Experience gained from the process of using Big Data in this study will shed light on future opportunities for conducting evidence-based nursing research to achieve competence in disaster nursing.

  13. The Japan Medical Association's disaster preparedness: lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    Ishii, Masami; Nagata, Takashi


    A complex disaster, the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 11, 2011, consisted of a large-scale earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear accident, resulting in more than 15 000 fatalities, injuries, and missing persons and damage over a 500-km area. The entire Japanese public was profoundly affected by "3/11." The risk of radiation exposure initially delayed the medical response, prolonging the recovery efforts. Japan's representative medical organization, the Japan Medical Association (JMA), began dispatching Japan Medical Association Teams (JMATs) to affected areas beginning March 15, 2011. About 1400 JMATs comprising nearly 5500 health workers were launched. The JMA coordinated JMAT operations and cooperated in conducting postmortem examination, transporting large quantities of medical supplies, and establishing a multiorganizational council to provide health assistance to disaster survivors. Importantly, these response efforts contributed to the complete recovery of the health care system in affected areas within 3 months, and by July 15, 2011, JMATs were withdrawn. Subsequently, JMATs II have been providing long-term continuing medical support to disaster-affected areas. However, Japan is at great risk for future natural disasters because of its Pacific Rim location. Also, its rapidly aging population, uneven distribution of and shortage of medical resources in regional communities, and an overburdened public health insurance system highlight the need for a highly prepared and effective disaster response system.

  14. Understanding and Identifying Natural Hazard for Bandung City Preparedness and Mitigation against Natural Disaster

    Raharjo Paulus P.


    Full Text Available Understanding Natural Hazard is an important aspect for the City Planning and Implementation of Policy and Development. The Local Government of Bandung City is developing a map of Hazard and Disasters based on the Natural Condition, Geography and Existing Condition. This paper discuss the scenario of the natural and main emphasis on geological hazard in the City of Bandung related to the Mitigation and Disaster Management as an input that should be adopted by the Local Government. The City is surrounded by active volcanoes and a number of faults that might cause natural disasters including earthquakes, volcano eruptions, flood and landslides. on the other hand the city developement can be directed towards the mitigation and risk reduction against these hazards.

  15. Disaster preparedness and response practices among providers from the Veterans Health Administration and Veterans with spinal cord injuries and/or disorders

    Hogan, Timothy P.; Holmes, Sally A.; Rapacki, Lauren M.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Lindblom, Laurie; Hoenig, Helen; Goldstein, Barry; Hahm, Bridget; Weaver, Frances M.


    Objectives Few empirical studies have examined the disaster preparedness and response practices of individuals with spinal cord injuries and/or disorders (SCI/D) and the healthcare providers who serve them. This study was conducted to understand the experiences of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) providers and Veterans with SCI/D in recent natural disasters, and to identify lessons learned for disaster preparedness and response in the context of SCI/D. Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with providers and Veterans recruited through seven VHA facilities that had sustained a disaster since 2003. Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed; transcripts were analyzed using constant comparative techniques. Results Forty participants completed an interview, including 21 VHA SCI/D providers and 19 Veterans with SCI/D. Disasters experienced by participants were weather related. While many Veterans were evacuated or admitted to nearby VHA facilities, others chose to stay in their communities. All facilities had formal disaster plans and engaged in related training; however, participants explained that many aspects of a response take shape ‘in the moment,’ and must address both provider and Veteran needs. Dispersion of resources hindered well-coordinated care, but effective communication, teamwork, advanced warnings, and VHA's electronic medical record facilitated efforts. Conclusions Even in the case of thorough planning, Veterans with SCI/D and their healthcare providers are faced with pressing needs during disasters, and identifying strategies to coordinate care is critical. The lessons learned are intended to inform the efforts of healthcare providers who may be involved in the care of individuals with SCI/D in future disasters. PMID:21903009

  16. Report of Workshop on Emerging Concerns of Fishing Communities: Issues of Labour, Trade, Gender, Disaster Preparedness Biodiversity and Responsible Fisheries, Fortaleza, Brazil, 04-06 July 2006


    The workshop on "Emerging Concerns of Fishing Communities: Issues of Labour, Trade, Gender, Disaster Preparedness, Biodiversity and Responsible Fisheries", 04 to 06 July 2006, was held in SESC, Fortaleza, Brazil. The workshop was co-hosted by the NGO Instituto Terramar. The document gives a detailed report of the presentations and discussions transpired in the workshop. It is also worth noting that the discussions at the workshop as well as the issues identified, fed directly into ICSF's Gene...

  17. We Need More Focus On Pre-Disaster Preparedness: Early Lessons Learned From Recent Earthquakes in Northwest of Iran

    Abdolreza Shaghaghi


    quake.Iran is located on major earthquake fault line and occurrence of stronger quakes with more destructive consequences is probable in future. The scale of destruction and number of victims both those who survived without major injuries and those who severely injured or passed away as a result of recent quakes was not very much beyond the national and even the local disaster relief capacity.Lack of a complete coordination during rescue and also relief operation is indicating pitfalls and inadequacies we suffer in our pre-disaster phase of preparedness programmes nationally and locally. Prior harmonizing of relief workers, scheduled allocation of funds and equipments and adequate delegation of duties are pivotal for efficient disaster relief governance.

  18. Disaster preparedness of dialysis patients for Hurricanes Gustav and Ike 2008.

    Kleinpeter, Myra A


    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced

  19. Health care workers and disaster preparedness: barriers to and facilitators of willingness to respond.

    Ogedegbe, Chinwe; Nyirenda, Themba; Delmoro, Gary; Yamin, Edward; Feldman, Joseph


    There is limited research on preparation of health care workers for disasters. Prior research addressed systems-level responses rather than specific institutional and individual responses. An anonymous online survey of hospital employees, who were grouped into clinical and non-clinical staff, was conducted. The objective of this study was to compare perceptions of clinical and non-clinical staff with regard to personal needs, willingness to report (WTR) to work, and level of confidence in the hospital's ability to protect safety and provide personal protective equipment (PPE) in the event of a disaster. A total of 5,790 employees were surveyed; 41 % responded (77 % were women and 63 % were clinical staff). Seventy-nine percent either strongly or somewhat agreed that they know what to do in the event of a disaster, and the majority was willing to report for duty in the event of a disaster. The most common barriers included 'caring for children' (55 %) and 'caring for pets' (34 %). Clinical staff was significantly more likely than non-clinical staff to endorse childcare responsibilities (58.9 % vs. 48 %) and caring for pets (36 % vs. 30 %, respectively) as barriers to WTR. Older age was a significant facilitator of WTR [odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95 % CI: 1.27-1.65]. Non-clinical staff was more confident in the hospital's ability to protect safety and provide PPE compared to clinical staff (OR 1.43, 95 % CI: 1.15-1.78). Clinical and non-clinical staff differ in the types of barriers to WTR endorsed, as well as their confidence in the hospital's ability to provide them with PPE and guarantee their safety.

  20. Health care workers and disaster preparedness: barriers to and facilitators of willingness to respond

    Ogedegbe, Chinwe; Nyirenda, Themba; DelMoro, Gary; Yamin, Edward; Feldman, Joseph


    Background There is limited research on preparation of health care workers for disasters. Prior research addressed systems-level responses rather than specific institutional and individual responses. Methods An anonymous online survey of hospital employees, who were grouped into clinical and non-clinical staff, was conducted. The objective of this study was to compare perceptions of clinical and non-clinical staff with regard to personal needs, willingness to report (WTR) to work, and level o...

  1. Open Geosciences Knowledge: foster Information Preparedness in a Disaster Resilience Perspective

    Rapisardi, Elena; Di Franco, Sabina


    Information in science communication is the ability and the capacity to transfer scientific knowledge to enable the understanding of communication content. Particularly, as stated in many documents and programs (e.g. UNISDR, a clear and correct information on hazards and emergency matters is crucial,either for practitioners or population,to cope with disaster and to allow collaboration to take the best decision. The Open Knowledge is defined as a set of criteria and conditions related to production, use and distribution, that include principles for better access to knowledge. However,knowledge is a pillar to understand the world in itself and to guide human actions and interactions with the environment. A free and open access to knowledge in a wider perspective includes also an ethical topic that is strictly connected to the acting in terms of interactions and responsibilities, in other words with the purpose of knowledge. Focusing on "data" as a technical issue, could displace ethics and responsibility as external issues, enhancing the technical value of data. In this perspective "opening" to an open knowledge perspective could not only solve problems related to the téchne, such as functionalities and efficiency, but it should foster sharing and collaboration expressed through ethics (praxis). The web era frees the information, hence the internet "information deluge" brings to the idea of "encyclopedia" (and of Wikipedia) as a tool to "organize, control and filter" knowledge, to allow communication, knowledge transfer, education, and sense-making. Social media and crowdsourcing have considerable promise for supporting collaborative and innovative ways that reshape the information production and distribution. However, the debate is now facing an important concern related to true/false issues, focusing on validation, and liability. Without any doubt the massive use of Social Media during recent major and minor disasters highlighted a huge need of clear, correct

  2. Effectiveness of a primary health care program on urban and rural community disaster preparedness, Islamic Republic of Iran: a community intervention trial.

    Ardalan, Ali; Mowafi, Hani; Malekafzali Ardakani, Hossein; Abolhasanai, Farid; Zanganeh, Ali-Mohammad; Safizadeh, Hossein; Salari, Sirous; Zonoobi, Vahid


    To evaluate the effectiveness of a capacity-building intervention administered through a primary health care (PHC) system on community disaster preparedness in Iran. A controlled community intervention trial with pre- and postassessments was conducted in 2011 in 3 provinces of Iran. In each province, 2 areas were chosen and randomly selected as an intervention or control group. A total of 9200 households were in the intervention area and 10 010 were in the control area. In each study group in each province 250 households were sampled for pre- and postassessment surveys. Community health volunteers led by PHC staff administered an educational intervention covering elements of hazard awareness and preparedness, with a focus on earthquakes and floods. Relative changes for awareness and readiness scores were assessed to demonstrate changes in outcome variables from pre- to postassessments in intervention and control groups. An effectiveness test of significance was based on interaction between time and area. Households in intervention communities exhibited improved disaster awareness and readiness with respect to all outcome measures. Relative changes in awareness in intervention and control areas were 2.94 and -0.08, respectively (P sustainability, community disaster reduction programs must be integrated into routine public health service delivery.

  3. Situating Preparedness Education within Public Pedagogy

    Kitagawa, Kaori


    Both "disaster preparedness" and "public pedagogy" have been broadly defined and diversely utilised. Preparedness has been dealt with in disciplines such as civil engineering, the sociology of disasters, public health and psychology, rather than education. Recently, inquiries into the learning and teaching of preparedness have…

  4. Situating Preparedness Education within Public Pedagogy

    Kitagawa, Kaori


    Both "disaster preparedness" and "public pedagogy" have been broadly defined and diversely utilised. Preparedness has been dealt with in disciplines such as civil engineering, the sociology of disasters, public health and psychology, rather than education. Recently, inquiries into the learning and teaching of preparedness have…

  5. Preparedness and disaster response training for veterinary students: literature review and description of the North Carolina State University Credentialed Veterinary Responder Program.

    Dunning, Dianne; Martin, Michael P; Tickel, Jimmy L; Gentry, William B; Cowen, Peter; Slenning, Barrett D


    The nation's veterinary colleges lack the curricula necessary to meet veterinary demands for animal/public health and emergency preparedness. To this end, the authors report a literature review summarizing training programs within human/veterinary medicine. In addition, the authors describe new competency-based Veterinary Credential Responder training at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine (NCSU CVM). From an evaluation of 257 PubMed-derived articles relating to veterinary/medical disaster training, 14 fulfilled all inclusion requirements (nine were veterinary oriented; five came from human medical programs). Few offered ideas on the core competencies required to produce disaster-planning and response professionals. The lack of published literature in this area points to a need for more formal discussion and research on core competencies. Non-veterinary articles emphasized learning objectives, commonly listing an incident command system, the National Incident Management System, teamwork, communications, and critical event management/problem solving. These learning objectives were accomplished either through short-course formats or via their integration into a larger curriculum. Formal disaster training in veterinary medicine mostly occurs within existing public health courses. Much of the literature focuses on changing academia to meet current and future needs in public/animal health disaster-preparedness and careers. The NCSU CVM program, in collaboration with North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Service, Emergency Programs and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Public Health, operates as a stand-alone third-year two-week core-curriculum training program that combines lecture, online, experiential, and group exercises to meet entry-level federal credentialing requirements. The authors report here its content, outcomes, and future development plans.

  6. NCSE's 13th National Conference on Disasters and Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, Post Conference Follow-up Activities and Dissemination

    Saundry, Peter [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States); Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Kossak, Shelley [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States)


    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) received $15,000 from the US Department of Energy to support post-conference activities of the 13th National Conference on the theme of Disasters and the Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience, held on January 15-17, 2013 at the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC. Over 1,000 participants from the scientific, emergency response, policy, conservation, and business communities, as well as federal and local government officials, and international entities attended the event. The conference developed actionable outcomes that constructively advance the science behind decision-making on environmental disasters, with an intended result of more prepared and resilient communities in light of a changing climate. Disasters and Environment topic was addressed through six organizing themes: Cascading Disasters; Intersection of the Built and Natural Environments; Disasters as Mechanisms of Ecosystem Change; Rethinking Recovery and Expanding the Vision of Mitigation; Human Behavior and its Consequences; and "No Regrets" Resilience. The program featured eight plenary sessions, 24 symposia and 23 breakout workshops and addressed pivotal issues surrounding disasters and environment including lifeline services, the energy, climate, hazard nexus, grid collapse, community vulnerability, and natural resource management. Sessions, symposia and workshops were conducted by over 200 distinguished thought leaders, scientists, government officials, policy experts and international speakers throughout the three day event. Following the conference, NCSE prepared a set of recommendations and results from the workshops and disseminated the results to universities, organizations and agencies, the business community. NCSE’s national dissemination involved organized several targeted trips and meetings to disseminate significant findings to key stakeholder groups.

  7. 77 FR 55097 - National Preparedness Month, 2012


    ..., emergencies and natural disasters have tested the fabric of our country. During National Preparedness Month... recover from natural disasters that have spanned historic drought to devastating wildfires and storms, we... role to play in bolstering our preparedness for disasters of all types--from cyber incidents and...

  8. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    Colber, Judith


    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  9. Disaster Preparedness in the American Academy: A Study of Institutional Context Factors for Compliance with the National Incident Management System

    Wilder, Paul Joseph


    Recent major disaster events at colleges and universities around the nation have demonstrated that change is needed in the way that higher education institutions (HEIs) approach disaster preparation. The comforting notion that HEIs are immune to natural and manmade hazards has been shattered by events such as the Virginia Tech massacre and…

  10. Disaster Preparedness in the American Academy: A Study of Institutional Context Factors for Compliance with the National Incident Management System

    Wilder, Paul Joseph


    Recent major disaster events at colleges and universities around the nation have demonstrated that change is needed in the way that higher education institutions (HEIs) approach disaster preparation. The comforting notion that HEIs are immune to natural and manmade hazards has been shattered by events such as the Virginia Tech massacre and…

  11. Preparedness, response, and recovery considerations for children and families: workshop summary

    Wizemann, Theresa M; Reeve, Megan; Altevogt, Bruce M


    ... Preparedness for Catastrophic Events to discuss disaster preparedness, response, and resilience relative to the needs of children and families, including children with special health care needs...

  12. Risk, Innovation and Development in a Changing Climate: The Role of Drought Preparedness Policies and Disaster Risk Management in Ceara, Brazil.

    Carlos Germano Ferreira Costa


    Full Text Available Droughts are among the most common type of disasters, generating enormous socioeconomic impacts in the world, especially when considering the silent character they have. These phenomena are becoming more frequent, intense and longer lasting, which gives us an idea of ​​what may happen with the accentuation of climate change. This article seeks to provide and overview of the measures and policies addressing drought prevention and preparedness, facing the impacts of climate change, in the State of Ceará, Brazil. This study addresses issues of public policies concerning drought risk management in order to allow a greater understanding of policies and programs, experiences and perspectives by the analysis of the process of elaboration of the Integrated Disaster Risk Management Plan of the State of Ceara, Brazil (PIGRD-CE, as well as of the development of the Early Warning System - Drought Monitor -, while addressing the political coordination, which led to the creation of the Drought Commission (Comitê das Secas. As a result, we understand this strategy, concerning drought preparedness, as a tool able to increase the adaptability and resilience of the political process. In this regard, we present the experiences accumulated by the State of Ceara in drought management processes showing a promising potential for replicability in other Latin American countries also subjected to threats that the changing climate may impose, in combination with the analysis of related risks - political/institutional/cultural -, in the development of public policies to draw together the main conclusions, lessons learned and recommendations.

  13. 灾害救援护理备灾体系的构建与管理%Construction and Management of Disaster Nursing and Emergency Preparedness System

    赵光昱; 朱兴莲; 刘梅瑶; 朱建军


    Objective To study the training of medical multi-disciplinary or interdisciplinary nurses in public emergency rescue. Methods Twelve backbones from nursing staff were selected and trained respectively in Emergency Department, ICU, operating room, obstetrics, blood purification center in and out of the hospital to master first-aid knowledge and skills. Results Disaster nursing and emergency preparedness system, in which nurses ’ role in public emergency rescue was highlighted, played an important role in the research and teaching of the whole hospital. Disaster preparedness nurses ’ average scores of medical theory tests increased from 78.50 to 90.60 after training and their scores of first-aid skills increased from 84.35 to 94.56. The nursing service quality increased significantly and was unanimously approved by doctors, peer nurses and society. Conclusion It is important to set up the disaster nursing and emergency preparedness system to improve nursing disaster rescue ability comprehensively.%目的:探讨培养和储备“一人多能”、“多能一专”、“多学科交叉专病护理”的突发性公共事件紧急医疗救援备灾护士的管理实践。方法从全院考核择优选拔出12名骨干护士,分别在急诊科、ICU、手术室、产科、血液净化中心等进行院内培训、优先参加院外进修学习,重点掌握相关专业急救知识和技能。结果护理备灾体系的建立促进科研教学水平;备灾护士在突发性公共事件的抢救护理中作用地位凸显;备灾护士的急救理论成绩由培训前的平均78.50分上升到90.60分、急救技能则由84.35分提高到94.56分,综合业务素质明显提高,得到医生、同事及社会一致认可。结论构建护理备灾体系对全面提升护士灾害救护能力有重要意义,是体现护理学在救援医学中地位和作用的路径之一。

  14. Lessons learned from the Great East Japan Earthquake: The need for disaster preparedness in the area of disaster mental health for children.

    Kozu, Shuei; Homma, Hiroaki


    The Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011 brought unprecedented challenges to individuals, families, and communities of the Tohoku region in Japan. Children are especially vulnerable to the postdisaster risk factors that impact their ability to heal. The destruction of the infrastructure by the disasters made it more challenging to reach out to children in an area where the stigma against mental illness is persistent. The authors share their experiences, what they heard from patients, and their reflections on lessons learned. The authors recommend the development of a coordinated mental health response system in preparation for the next disaster.

  15. Bridging the ';knowing and doing gap' in disaster risk reduction using design and design thinking; Ideation of concepts to improve hazard preparedness and response

    van Manen, S. M.


    The central goal of disaster risk reduction (DRR) is to reduce the impact and cost of natural hazards, in human, environmental and economic terms. There are numerous approaches that aim to achieve this but recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels. The traditional media of the scientist: education, outreach and increasingly community involvement, have been shown to raise levels of awareness and understanding but generate little change in terms of people's actions. This can be attributed to the differences in hazard perception and the relative weight placed on various aspects by scientists, authorities and communities as a result of non-hazard related factors. Therefore DRR, particularly when placed in its social, environmental and economic contexts, is an excellent example of what is termed a ';wicked problem': a problem that is difficult to formulate, where data to base decisions on are incomplete, the stakeholders are many and they hold contradicting views and the consequences of actions on the wider system are unclear. Although both science and design are geared towards problem solving, design, in drawing equally on art and engineering skills, does so in a fundamentally different but complementary way. Neither design nor science will solve the wicked problem that is DRR, but scientists, engineers and designers can improve the current state of disaster risk reduction by tackling aspects of underlying risk factors. This work will present concepts aimed at engaging people in novel and innovative ways with scientific results, with a specific focus on improving hazard preparedness and tangible, rather than abstract, ways of communicating hazard levels. Key considerations include the need to graft onto existing behaviours or innovate on existing products to simplify implementation, the possibility to co-create and connect through design and balancing desirability with technical and economical

  16. 78 FR 60875 - Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; Notification of a Sole Source Cooperative...


    .... Measuring Individual Disaster Recovery: A Socioecological Framework. Disaster Medicine and Public Health..., Community Engagement, and Recovery in 21st Century Crises. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness... Serious Emotional Disturbance in Children After Hurricane Katrina. Disaster Medicine and Public...

  17. Hospital emergency preparedness

    Tamara Shefer

    preparedness of health systems (WHO, 2007a; WHO, 2007b; World Health ... risk assessments through the establishment of a vulnerability assessment ... April 2003 (Ministry of Health and Social Services, 2003); The Namibia National Disaster Risk ..... involve the Oshikoto Regional council as well as the local community.

  18. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.


    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  19. A stochastic mathematical model to locate field hospitals under disruption uncertainty for large-scale disaster preparedness

    Nezir Aydin


    Full Text Available In this study, we consider field hospital location decisions for emergency treatment points in response to large scale disasters. Specifically, we developed a two-stage stochastic model that determines the number and locations of field hospitals and the allocation of injured victims to these field hospitals. Our model considers the locations as well as the failings of the existing public hospitals while deciding on the location of field hospitals that are anticipated to be opened. The model that we developed is a variant of the P-median location model and it integrates capacity restrictions both on field hospitals that are planned to be opened and the disruptions that occur in existing public hospitals. We conducted experiments to demonstrate how the proposed model can be utilized in practice in a real life problem case scenario. Results show the effects of the failings of existing hospitals, the level of failure probability and the capacity of projected field hospitals to deal with the assessment of any given emergency treatment system’s performance. Crucially, it also specifically provides an assessment on the average distance within which a victim needs to be transferred in order to be treated properly and then from this assessment, the proportion of total satisfied demand is then calculated.

  20. Military Nurses’ Experience in Disaster Response


    preparedness, military nurses need instruction in dealing with media during crises, and psychological support teams should be included in disaster...better pre-deployment disaster training and preparedness. It also identifies the need for psychological support during and after disaster responses to... psychological support 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Debra

  1. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    Vento, Carla J.


    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  2. Evidence-based approach for disaster preparedness authorities to inform the contents of repositories for prescription medications for chronic disease management and control.

    Brown, David W; Young, Stacy L; Engelgau, Michael M; Mensah, George A


    Chronic diseases are major causes of death and disability and often require multiple prescribed medications for treatment and control. Public health emergencies (e.g., disasters due to natural hazards) that disrupt the availability or supply of these medications may exacerbate chronic disease or even cause death. A repository of chronic disease pharmaceuticals and medical supplies organized for rapid response in the event of a public health emergency is desirable. However, there is no science base for determining the contents of such a repository. This study provides the first step in an evidence-based approach to inform the planning, periodic review, and revision of repositories of chronic disease medications. Data from the 2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were used to examine the prescription medication needs of persons presenting to US hospital emergency departments for chronic disease exacerbations. It was assumed that the typical distribution of cases for an emergency department will reflect the patient population treated in the days after a public health emergency. The estimated numbers of prescribed drugs for chronic conditions that represent the five leading causes of death, the five leading primary diagnoses for physician office visits, and the five leading causes of disease burden assessed by disability-adjusted life years are presented. The 2004 NHAMCS collected data on 36,589 patient visits that were provided by 376 emergency departments. Overall, the five drug classes mentioned most frequently for emergency department visits during 2004 were narcotic analgesics (30.7 million), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (25.2 million), non-narcotic analgesics (15.2 million), sedatives and hypnotics (10.4 million), and cephalosporins (8.2 million). The drug classes mentioned most frequently for chronic conditions were: (1) for heart disease, antianginal agents/vasodilators (715,000); (2) for cancer, narcotic analgesics (53

  3. Wildfire Disasters and Nursing.

    Hanes, Patricia Frohock


    Multiple factors contribute to wildfires in California and other regions: drought, winds, climate change, and spreading urbanization. Little has been done to study the multiple roles of nurses related to wildfire disasters. Major nursing organizations support disaster education for nurses. It is essential for nurses to recognize their roles in each phase of the disaster cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Skills learned in the US federal all-hazards approach to disasters can then be adapted to more specific disasters, such as wildfires, and issues affecting health care. Nursing has an important role in each phase of the disaster cycle.

  4. Emergency Preparedness


    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  5. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Associations/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association Disaster Response and Preparedness Course.

    Johnson, Anthony E; Gerlinger, Tad L; Born, Christopher T


    A disaster is a catastrophic event that disrupts normal infrastructure to such a degree that normal response mechanisms and capabilities cannot manage what is required to respond appropriately to the event. Launched after the largest urban disaster in modern history--the 2010 Haiti Earthquake--the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/Society of Military Orthopaedic Surgeons/Orthopaedic Trauma Association/Pediatric Orthopaedic Association of North America (AAOS/SOMOS/OTA/POSNA) Disaster Response Course (DRC) is designed to prepare orthopaedic surgeons for service in disaster response and humanitarian assistance efforts in both the acute phases as well as in the recovery and reconstructions phases. To date, 395 orthopaedic surgeons have completed the DRC and 286 (72.4%) have opted to become registered disaster responders.


    谢磊; 张伟


    [目的]探讨5.12汶川地震受灾地区医院后勤保障的应急准备中存在的问题和缺陷,为医院后勤应急准备工作提供有价值的参考.[方法]通过对地震医疗救援和医院应急准备的文献回顾,对地震灾区11家医院进行问卷调查,并对结果进行分析.[结果]地震灾区医院在应急预案、通讯计划等方面得分较低.[结论]基于以上分析,本文指出了医院现存的问题以及在医院应急准备方面改进的方向.%[Objective] To find the problems and the limitations of hospital logistic emergency preparedness in Wenchuan earthquake and to present some valuable references in the future. [Methods] We have surveyed the literature of earthquake medical relief and hospital emergency preparedness. 11 hospitals have been investigated and analyzed involving by the earthquake. [Results] Most of the hospitals locating earthquake disaster areas had scored low on emergency operations plan, and emergency communication strategies, etc. [Conclusion] Base on above the analysis, the research explains the existing problems and the amelioration direction about hospital logistic emergency preparedness.

  7. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan

    World Bank


    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  8. Tsunami Preparedness

    ... How to Prepare for Emergencies Types of Emergencies Tsunami Preparedness Learn how, why and where to evacuate ... hour away. [Recommendation: Create unique infographic] Before a Tsunami VIDEO: 3 Easy Steps to Prepare Prepare in ...

  9. Emergency preparedness of veterans and nonveterans.

    Geiger, Joseph F Iii

    This study examined statistical differences in levels of disaster preparedness between former members of the US Armed Forces (veterans) and civilians (nonveterans). It was hypothesized that veterans would exhibit a higher degree of disaster preparedness as compared to their nonveteran counterparts as a consequence of their training and life experience. Furthermore, if this were proven to be valid, the finding would identify this cohort as an ideal target audience for emergency and disaster preparedness education efforts. A four-page survey consisting principally of closed-ended questions about emergency preparedness was written to measure these differences. Most of the questions required respondents to rank their answers according to a five-step Likert Scale. The survey could be completed either in hard copy or online from September 2014 to January 2015. Ultimately, 113 surveys were returned for evaluation. Of those respondents, 62 were veterans and 51 were nonveterans. The responses were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance tests for statistical significance using the 95 percent confidence standard for each tested value. The results support that veterans are more prepared for domestic emergencies than nonveterans. In addition, veterans were more willing to provide leadership and direction to others in an effort to assist emergency managers in responding to domestic disasters. It is for these reasons that emergency managers should consider targeting veterans for disaster preparedness training to help ensure effective and efficient responses to emergencies.

  10. Promoting Community Preparedness and Resilience: A Latino Immigrant Community-Driven Project Following Hurricane Sandy.

    Cuervo, Isabel; Leopold, Les; Baron, Sherry


    As community residents and recovery workers, Latino immigrants play important roles after disasters, yet are rarely included in preparedness planning. A community-university-labor union partnership created a demonstration project after Hurricane Sandy to strengthen connections to disaster preparedness systems to increase community resilience among Latino immigrant communities in New York and New Jersey. Building ongoing ties that connect workers and community-based organizations with local disaster preparedness systems provided mutual benefits to disaster planners and local immigrant communities, and also had an impact on national disaster-related initiatives.

  11. Emergency preparedness

    Cennini, E; Oortman Gerlings, P


    On September 19th 2008, a technical fault was at the centre of a sequence of events which hampered the performance of certain equipments of the LHC 3-4 sector. Once the first effects of this sequence of events were detected, the behaviour of the CERN staff confronted to this complex and critical situation became the centre of the risk control process. During such a downward spiral the preparation of all stakeholders is essential and should respect the (apparently) basic principles of emergency preparedness. Preparedness towards normal operation of CERN facilities towards minor up to major emergency situations will be presented. The main technical, organisational and legal frameworks of the CERN emergency preparedness will be recalled, highlighting the CERN risk management and risk control strategy. Then, the sequence of events experienced by different stakeholders on September 19th will be reported, thus starting the learned lessons process.

  12. Connecting care competencies and culture during disasters

    Chhabra Vivek


    Full Text Available Connecting care Competencies and Culture are core fundamentals in responding to disasters. Thick coordination between professionals, communities and agencies in different geographical areas is crucial to the happening of appropriate preparedness and thus efficient response and mitigation of a disaster. In the next few articles, we present diverse examples related to the preparedness and recovery process to adverse disasters across the globe

  13. Examining the Importance of Incorporating Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Training Core Competencies into Allied Health Curricula as Perceived by College Instructors

    Curtis, Tammy


    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and health care professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To…

  14. Examining the Importance of Incorporating Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Training Core Competencies into Allied Health Curricula as Perceived by College Instructors

    Curtis, Tammy


    Preparation for responding to emergency events that does not warrant outside help beyond the local community resources or responding to disaster events that is beyond the capabilities of the local community both require first responders and health care professionals to have interdisciplinary skills needed to function as a team for saving lives. To…

  15. Establishing a Full ‘Cycle of Protection’ for Disaster Victims : Preparedness, Response and Recovery according to Regional and International Human Rights Supervisory Bodies

    Hesselman, Marlies


    This article includes a comprehensive analysis of work currently being carried out by regional and international human rights supervisory bodies in the field of disaster management, being cognizant of the fact that the past decade has seen an increased international concern for the adequate

  16. A Decade After the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: The Progress in Disaster Preparedness and Future Challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives

    Suppasri, Anawat; Goto, Kazuhisa; Muhari, Abdul; Ranasinghe, Prasanthi; Riyaz, Mahmood; Affan, Muzailin; Mas, Erick; Yasuda, Mari; Imamura, Fumihiko


    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was one of the most devastating tsunamis in world history. The tsunami caused damage to most of the Asian and other countries bordering the Indian Ocean. After a decade, reconstruction has been completed with different levels of tsunami countermeasures in most areas; however, some land use planning using probabilistic tsunami hazard maps and vulnerabilities should be addressed to prepare for future tsunamis. Examples of early-stage reconstruction are herein provided alongside a summary of some of the major tsunamis that have occurred since 2004, revealing the tsunami countermeasures established during the reconstruction period. Our primary objective is to report on and discuss the vulnerabilities found during our field visits to the tsunami-affected countries—namely, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives. For each country, future challenges based on current tsunami countermeasures, such as land use planning, warning systems, evacuation facilities, disaster education and disaster monuments are explained. The problem of traffic jams during tsunami evacuations, especially in well-known tourist areas, was found to be the most common problem faced by all of the countries. The readiness of tsunami warning systems differed across the countries studied. These systems are generally sufficient on a national level, but local hazards require greater study. Disaster reduction education that would help to maintain high tsunami awareness is well established in most countries. Some geological evidence is well preserved even after a decade. Conversely, the maintenance of monuments to the 2004 tsunami appears to be a serious problem. Finally, the reconstruction progress was evaluated based on the experiences of disaster reconstruction in Japan. All vulnerabilities discussed here should be addressed to create long-term, disaster-resilient communities.

  17. The effects of the April 2011 tornado outbreak on personal preparedness in Jefferson County, Alabama.

    McCormick, Lisa C; Pevear, Jesse; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a tornado disaster on the personal preparedness of local residents to determine (1) to what extent the tornado outbreak experience had altered preparedness awareness, willingness to act, and levels of personal preparedness of residents as measured by possession of a preparedness kit; and (2) what effect this experience had on the variables associated with having a complete disaster preparedness kit. Two random digit-dialed surveys were completed following the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System protocols. The pre-tornado survey was conducted between October and December 2010 and the post-tornado survey was conducted between January and March 2012. After the April 2011 tornado outbreak, 86.08% of the respondents (n = 1364) reported that they had thought more about personal or family preparedness and 59.65% (n = 907) reported that they had taken actions to increase their level of preparedness. Overall, general awareness of preparedness media campaigns increased significantly (almost 24%; P < .0001), as did the percentage of those having a complete disaster preparedness kit (a 66% increase, not quite doubled from 2010 to 2012; P < .0001). Findings of the study indicate that the disaster had a significant impact on the local residents' (1) awareness of preparedness campaigns, (2) awareness of the need to be prepared, (3) willingness to become better prepared, and (4) possession of a disaster and emergency preparedness kit and its associated items.

  18. Disaster planning: the past, present, and future concepts and principles of managing a surge of burn injured patients for those involved in hospital facility planning and preparedness.

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Alson, Roy L; Cairns, Bruce A


    The 9/11 attacks reframed the narrative regarding disaster medicine. Bypass strategies have been replaced with absorption strategies and are more specifically described as "surge capacity." In the succeeding years, a consensus has coalesced around stratifying the surge capacity into three distinct tiers: conventional, contingency, and crisis surge capacities. For the purpose of this work, these three distinct tiers were adapted specifically to burn surge for disaster planning activities at hospitals where burn centers are not located. A review was conducted involving published plans, other related academic works, and findings from actual disasters as well as modeling. The aim was to create burn-specific definitions for surge capacity for hospitals where a burn center is not located. The three-tier consensus description of surge capacity is delineated in their respective stratifications by what will hereinafter be referred to as the three "S's"; staff, space, and supplies (also referred to as supplies, pharmaceuticals, and equipment). This effort also included the creation of a checklist for nonburn center hospitals to assist in their development of a burn surge plan. Patients with serious burn injuries should always be moved to and managed at burn centers, but during a medical disaster with significant numbers of burn injured patients, there may be impediments to meeting this goal. It may be necessary for burn injured patients to remain for hours in an outlying hospital until being moved to a burn center. This work was aimed at aiding local and regional hospitals in developing an extemporizing measure until their burn injured patients can be moved to and managed at a burn center(s).

  19. Enhancing Trilateral Disaster Preparedness and Relief Cooperation between Japan, U.S. and Australia: Approaches from Various Civil-Military Perspectives


    not well coordinated, as in the case of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, where key stakeholders were sometimes preoccupied with carving up disaster zones...Southeast Asia (Indonesia, the Philippines , Vietnam) and Pacific Island countries. This ongoing commitment positions Australia as the 9th largest overall...Forces serving as the linchpin. This implies that the ROK, Thailand and the Philippines , also allied countries with the U.S., may also have the

  20. Emergency Preparedness Concerns for Older Adults


    This podcast discusses the special concerns many older adults face during a disaster. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 1/26/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER).   Date Released: 1/26/2009.

  1. Food for Disasters


    When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  2. Continuity and Change in Disaster Education in Japan

    Kitagawa, Kaori


    This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…

  3. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin


    schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  4. An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report: Chemical Inhalational Disasters. Biology of Lung Injury, Development of Novel Therapeutics, and Medical Preparedness.

    Summerhill, Eleanor M; Hoyle, Gary W; Jordt, Sven-Eric; Jugg, Bronwen J; Martin, James G; Matalon, Sadis; Patterson, Steven E; Prezant, David J; Sciuto, Alfred M; Svendsen, Erik R; White, Carl W; Veress, Livia A


    This report is based on the proceedings from the Inhalational Lung Injury Workshop jointly sponsored by the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) program on May 21, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The CounterACT program facilitates research leading to the development of new and improved medical countermeasures for chemical threat agents. The workshop was initiated by the Terrorism and Inhalational Disasters Section of the Environmental, Occupational, and Population Health Assembly of the ATS. Participants included both domestic and international experts in the field, as well as representatives from U.S. governmental funding agencies. The meeting objectives were to (1) provide a forum to review the evidence supporting current standard medical therapies, (2) present updates on our understanding of the epidemiology and underlying pathophysiology of inhalational lung injuries, (3) discuss innovative investigative approaches to further delineating mechanisms of lung injury and identifying new specific therapeutic targets, (4) present promising novel medical countermeasures, (5) facilitate collaborative research efforts, and (6) identify challenges and future directions in the ongoing development, manufacture, and distribution of effective and specific medical countermeasures. Specific inhalational toxins discussed included irritants/pulmonary toxicants (chlorine gas, bromine, and phosgene), vesicants (sulfur mustard), chemical asphyxiants (cyanide), particulates (World Trade Center dust), and respirable nerve agents.

  5. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Suner, Selim


    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  6. Based on DG and RAC electric power marketing data disaster preparedness technology%基于DG和RAC的电力营销数据灾备技术

    张涛; 杨凛; 赵文彦


    Data backup is very important measure to keydatabase away from calamity,and it is the only way to prevent the medium failure of Oracle database.Currently,GuiZhou Power Grid marketing technical support to the bureau is concentrated,Later a gradual transition to provincial focus or power south concentration, is extremely important for the data security and the business high applicability.Adopt Oracle 10G RAC architecture and Oracle 10G disaster preparation technology DataGuard,Standby database backup the primary database,this method not only ensure the business high applicability,but aslo ensure data high security.%数据备份是防范数据库灾难的重要手段,也是防止Oracle数据库发生介质故障的惟一方式。目前贵州电网电力营销技术支持采用的是地市局集中.以后逐步过渡到省级集中或南网集中,因此,数据安全和业务高可用性及其重要。采用Oracle10G RAC架构和Oracle 10G DataGuard数据备灾技术,由备库对主库实施备份操作,既保证了业务高可用性、又保证了数据的高安全性。

  7. Emergency Preparedness Education for Nurses: Core Competency Familiarity Measured Utilizing an Adapted Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire.

    Georgino, Madeline M; Kress, Terri; Alexander, Sheila; Beach, Michael


    The purpose of this project was to measure trauma nurse improvement in familiarity with emergency preparedness and disaster response core competencies as originally defined by the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire after a focused educational program. An adapted version of the Emergency Preparedness Information Questionnaire was utilized to measure familiarity of nurses with core competencies pertinent to first responder capabilities. This project utilized a pre- and postsurvey descriptive design and integrated education sessions into the preexisting, mandatory "Trauma Nurse Course" at large, level I trauma center. A total of 63 nurses completed the intervention during May and September 2014 sessions. Overall, all 8 competencies demonstrated significant (P < .001; 98% confidence interval) improvements in familiarity. In conclusion, this pilot quality improvement project demonstrated a unique approach to educating nurses to be more ready and comfortable when treating victims of a disaster.

  8. Radiation Emergency Preparedness Tools: Psychological First Aid


    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.".  Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/13/2011.

  9. TEKNA - preparedness seminary



    The seminary contains several presentations on various aspects of preparedness in the offshore petroleum sector. The authority organization, Norwegian regulations, industrial management, planning and principles are discussed. Risk assessment and preparedness analysis is emphasized. Some technological aspects are also discussed.

  10. Community resilience elements and community preparedness at Bukit Antarabangsa

    Ridzuan, Ahmad Azan; Kadir, Mohd Juraimy Hj; Yaacob, Safar; Oktari, Rina Suryani; Zainol, Noor Azmi Mohd; Zain, Mazura Mat


    This study was conducted to measure the relationship between community resilience elements (community education, community engagement, community leadership) and community preparedness using questionnaires gathered from 318 samples of the Bukit Antarabangsa community at Ampang Jaya Municipal in Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model showed three important findings: firstly, community education significantly correlated with community preparedness. Second, community engagement significantly correlated with community preparedness. Third, community leadership significantly correlated with community preparedness. Statistically, this result confirms that the implementation of community resilience elements such as community education, community engagement, and community leadership act as an important determinant of community preparedness towards disasters in the studied community area sample. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  11. Social media and disasters: a functional framework for social media use in disaster planning, response, and research.

    Houston, J Brian; Hawthorne, Joshua; Perreault, Mildred F; Park, Eun Hae; Goldstein Hode, Marlo; Halliwell, Michael R; Turner McGowen, Sarah E; Davis, Rachel; Vaid, Shivani; McElderry, Jonathan A; Griffith, Stanford A


    A comprehensive review of online, official, and scientific literature was carried out in 2012-13 to develop a framework of disaster social media. This framework can be used to facilitate the creation of disaster social media tools, the formulation of disaster social media implementation processes, and the scientific study of disaster social media effects. Disaster social media users in the framework include communities, government, individuals, organisations, and media outlets. Fifteen distinct disaster social media uses were identified, ranging from preparing and receiving disaster preparedness information and warnings and signalling and detecting disasters prior to an event to (re)connecting community members following a disaster. The framework illustrates that a variety of entities may utilise and produce disaster social media content. Consequently, disaster social media use can be conceptualised as occurring at a number of levels, even within the same disaster. Suggestions are provided on how the proposed framework can inform future disaster social media development and research.

  12. Academic-community partnerships for sustainable preparedness and response systems.

    Isakov, Alexander; O'Neal, Patrick; Prescott, John; Stanley, Joan; Herrmann, Jack; Dunlop, Anne


    Academic institutions possess tremendous resources that could be important for community disaster response and preparedness activities. In-depth exploration of the role of academic institutions in community disaster response has elicited information about particular academic resources leveraged for and essential to community preparedness and response; factors that contribute to the decision-making process for partner engagement; and facilitators of and barriers to sustainable collaborations from the perspectives of academic institutions, public health and emergency management agencies, and national association and agency leaders. The Academic-Community Partnership Project of the Emory University Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Center in collaboration with the Association of Schools of Public Health convened an invitational summit which included leadership from the National Association of County and City Health Officials, Association of State and Territorial Health Officials, Directors of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, CDC Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response, Association of Schools of Public Health, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of Academic Health Centers, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and American Association of Poison Control Centers. From this convention, emerged recommendations for building and sustaining academic-public health-community collaborations for preparedness locally and regionally.

  13. Pediatric terrorism preparedness national guidelines and recommendations: findings of an evidenced-based consensus process.

    Markenson, David; Redlener, Irwin


    A cadre of experts and stakeholders from government agencies, professional organizations, emergency medicine and response, pediatrics, mental health, and disaster preparedness were gathered to review and summarize the existing data on the needs of children in the planning, preparation, and response to disasters or terrorism. This review was followed by development of evidence-based consensus guidelines and recommendations on the needs of children in disasters, including chemical, biological, and radiological terrorism. An evidence-based consensus process was used in conjunction with a modified Delphi approach for selection of topic areas and discussion points. These recommendations and guidelines represent the first national evidence-based standards for pediatric disaster and terrorism preparedness.

  14. Learning from and Teaching about Disaster: The Case of the April 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Ray, Beverly; Hocutt, Martha


    The purpose of this research was to examine how secondary teachers teach about disaster using the media during periods of declared natural disaster and post-disaster in their local communities. Issues of preparedness, pre and post disaster, were examined as well. Secondary teachers were queried in one public school system in the Southeastern…

  15. State of emergency preparedness for US health insurance plans.

    Merchant, Raina M; Finne, Kristen; Lardy, Barbara; Veselovskiy, German; Korba, Caey; Margolis, Gregg S; Lurie, Nicole


    Health insurance plans serve a critical role in public health emergencies, yet little has been published about their collective emergency preparedness practices and policies. We evaluated, on a national scale, the state of health insurance plans' emergency preparedness and policies. A survey of health insurance plans. We queried members of America's Health Insurance Plans, the national trade association representing the health insurance industry, about issues related to emergency preparedness issues: infrastructure, adaptability, connectedness, and best practices. Of 137 health insurance plans queried, 63% responded, representing 190.6 million members and 81% of US plan enrollment. All respondents had emergency plans for business continuity, and most (85%) had infrastructure for emergency teams. Some health plans also have established benchmarks for preparedness (eg, response time). Regarding adaptability, 85% had protocols to extend claim filing time and 71% could temporarily suspend prior medical authorization rules. Regarding connectedness, many plans shared their contingency plans with health officials, but often cited challenges in identifying regulatory agency contacts. Some health insurance plans had specific policies for assisting individuals dependent on durable medical equipment or home healthcare. Many plans (60%) expressed interest in sharing best practices. Health insurance plans are prioritizing emergency preparedness. We identified 6 policy modifications that health insurance plans could undertake to potentially improve healthcare system preparedness: establishing metrics and benchmarks for emergency preparedness; identifying disaster-specific policy modifications, enhancing stakeholder connectedness, considering digital strategies to enhance communication, improving support and access for special-needs individuals, and developing regular forums for knowledge exchange about emergency preparedness.

  16. Recent Earhquake and Tsunami Preparedness training activities in DPEU KOERI

    Puskulcu, Seyhun; Tanırcan, Gulum


    The Disaster Preparedness Education Unit (DPEU) at Bogazici University's Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) that was iestablished after 1999 Kocaeli earthquake and has been continuing to develop high-quality curricula and training materials for community-focused disaster preparedness education through countrywide. The unit works to build bridges between scientists, academics and technical experts in this field, and the people who need access to knowledge to reduce their risk from disasters and develops disaster preparedness training materials, organizes and conducts teacher trainings, and participates in research activities on these topics. DPEU also accommodates the Earthquake Park, where training courses are supported with an earthquake simulator. It hosts more then 4000 students every year for training of how to behave before, during and after an earthquake occurs. In addition to theoretical knowledge, simulation of isolated and fix based 10 storey building models were created at Earthquake Park for rising student's structural awareness . The unit also is involving many national and international projects. DPEU is very actively involved the recent international MarDIM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation an the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) Project which is performing by many Turkish and Japanese institution h and produced the tsunami education booklet, video, a cartoon movie and serviced many training of Earthquake Park. DPEU has also a Mobile Earthquake Simulation Training Truck developed in 2007, aiming to create a stage for community awareness for the earthquake preparedness and to change the common wrong perception and ignorance on the natural event of earthquakes. 500 thousands people have been trained by simulation truck all over Turkey within 5 years. DPEU just started to train the house wifes located in Marmara region on earthquake and tsunami preparedness with the collaboration of several

  17. Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid Participating Providers and Suppliers. Final rule.


    This final rule establishes national emergency preparedness requirements for Medicare- and Medicaid-participating providers and suppliers to plan adequately for both natural and man-made disasters, and coordinate with federal, state, tribal, regional, and local emergency preparedness systems. It will also assist providers and suppliers to adequately prepare to meet the needs of patients, residents, clients, and participants during disasters and emergency situations. Despite some variations, our regulations will provide consistent emergency preparedness requirements, enhance patient safety during emergencies for persons served by Medicare- and Medicaid-participating facilities, and establish a more coordinated and defined response to natural and man-made disasters.

  18. Impact of social preparedness on flood early warning systems

    Girons Lopez, M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Seibert, J.


    Flood early warning systems play a major role in the disaster risk reduction paradigm as cost-effective methods to mitigate flood disaster damage. The connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social spheres of early warning systems are increasingly being considered as key aspects for successful flood mitigation. The behavior of the public and first responders during flood situations, determined by their preparedness, is heavily influenced by many behavioral traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or even denial. In this study, we use the recency of flood experiences as a proxy for social preparedness to assess its impact on the efficiency of flood early warning systems through a simple stylized model and implemented this model using a simple mathematical description. The main findings, which are based on synthetic data, point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially in circumstances where the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. Furthermore, we found that efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings provide important insights into the role of social preparedness that may help guide decision-making in the field of flood early warning systems.

  19. Missouri nurses' bioterrorism preparedness.

    Rebmann, Terri; Mohr, Lisa Buettner


    Nurses are the largest group of healthcare providers and will be at the forefront during a response to a bioterrorism attack in the U.S. However, nurses' bioterrorism risk perceptions and their participation in bioterrorism preparedness activities, such as bioterrorism-related exercises or drills, have not been evaluated. We mailed a survey to all members of the Missouri Nurses Association in July 2006, consisting of 1,528 registered nurses. The instrument measured risk perception, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, bioterrorism education received, participation in exercises/drills, and personal response plan thoroughness. The response rate was 31% (474/1,528). Most respondents believe that a bioterrorism attack will occur in the U.S. (82.3%; n = 390), but few (21.3%; n = 101) believe that one will occur in their community. The majority of nurses reported that they believe that a bioterrorism attack would have serious consequences (96.1%, n = 448), including having a serious impact on U.S. citizens' safety (90.7%, n = 446) and on their own safety (84.3%, n = 379). Most (60%, n = 284) reported that they had not received any bioterrorism-related education nor participated in any drills/exercises (82.7%, n = 392). Of those who had received education, most had participated in 3 or fewer programs and in only 1 drill. Few nurses (3.6%, n = 15) reported having all aspects of a personal bioterrorism response plan; approximately 20% (19.4%, n = 81) did not have any components of a plan. Most of the registered nurses in Missouri who were surveyed are not receiving bioterrorism education, participating in bioterrorism exercises, or developing thorough personal response plans. Nurses need to be aware of and encouraged to participate in the many education and training opportunities on bioterrorism and infectious disease disasters.

  20. Strengthening flood warning systems: the benefits of encouraging social preparedness

    Girons Lopez, Marc; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Seibert, Jan


    Flood warning and response have normally been focused on the technical aspects and disregarded the connections and feedbacks between the hydrological and social dimensions. An increasing body of research, however, points at the importance of considering socio-hydrological aspects to improve flood damage mitigation. One of the key factors is the preparedness of the public and first responders during flood situations, which is influenced by many behavioural traits such as perceived benefits, risk awareness, or denial. In this study, we investigate the impact of social preparedness on the efficiency of flood early warning systems by using the recency of flood experience as a proxy for social preparedness. To this end, we developed a stylised model and a synthetic data-set to perform a hypothetical analysis. The main findings point to the importance of social preparedness for flood loss mitigation, especially when the technical forecasting and warning capabilities are limited. More specifically, efforts to promote and preserve social preparedness may help to reduce disaster-induced losses by almost one half. The findings from this study provide insights into the importance of considering social preparedness in decision-making for disaster risk reduction.

  1. Designing Emergency Preparedness Resources for Children with Autism

    Edmonds, Casey Olivia


    Emergency preparedness is a fast developing field of education driven by the numerous disasters worldwide with more recent notable examples including the terrorist attacks of 9/11 in the US in 2001, the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the London bombings in 2005, the earthquake in China in 2008, the Great East Japan…

  2. Emergency preparedness curriculum in nursing schools in the United States.

    Weiner, Elizabeth; Irwin, Margaret; Trangenstein, Patricia; Gordon, Jeffry


    With concern about bioterrorism and inadequacies in responding to mass casualty events, health care professionals have been placed in the category of first responders. The International Nursing Coalition for Mass Casualty Education (INCMCE) was established to plan strategically to address the educational needs of the nation's nurses. This study sought to determine the types and levels of disaster preparedness curricula being delivered or in development in nursing programs at all levels. INCMCE surveyed 2,013 deans or directors of nursing schools as to curricula for emergency preparedness prior to September 11, 2001, and during the two following academic years. Initial requests were sent via email and the US postal service. Respondents were invited to answer the online survey so data could be directly entered into a database for purposes of data analysis. Responses were received from 348 schools of nursing. Curriculum plans, followed by competency lists, were selected as most helpful for teaching content in disaster preparedness. The survey results validated the general assumption that nursing programs provide limited curricula in this area. The mean number of hours of disaster preparedness content provided, approximately four hours, did not change significantly over three academic years. The study also showed that 75 percent of respondents thought that nurse faculty were inadequately prepared in the area of disaster management. The study established a baseline for future curricular growth.

  3. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre


    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  4. Weaving latino cultural concepts into Preparedness Core Competency training.

    Riley-Jacome, Mary; Parker, Blanca Angelica Gonzalez; Waltz, Edward C


    The New York • New Jersey Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center (NY•NJ PERLC) is one of 14 Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention designed to address the preparedness and response training and education needs of the public health workforce. One of the important niches, or focus areas for the Center, is training to improve the capacity of public health workers to respond with competence to the needs of vulnerable populations. During every phase of a disaster, racial and ethnic minorities, including Latinos, suffer worse outcomes than the general population. Communities with diverse cultural origins and limited English speakers often present more complex issues during public health emergencies. Training that incorporates cultural concepts into the Preparedness Core Competencies may improve the ability of public health workers to engage the Latino community in preparedness activities and ultimately improve outcomes during disasters. This article describes initiatives undertaken by the NY•NJ PERLC to improve the capacity of the public health workforce to respond competently to the needs of Latino populations. In 2012, the Center collaborated with national, state, and local partners to develop a nationwide broadcast founded on the Preparedness Core Competencies, Latinos During Emergencies: Cultural Considerations Impacting Disaster Preparedness. The widely viewed broadcast (497 sites in 47 states and 13 nations) highlighted the commonalities and differences within Latino culture that can impact emergency preparedness and response and outlined practical strategies to enhance participation. The success of the broadcast spurred a number of partner requests for training and technical assistance. Lessons learned from these experiences, including our "undercover" work at local Points of Dispensing, are incorporated into subsequent interactive trainings to improve the competency of public health workers. Participants recommended

  5. The Study to Improve Tsunami Preparedness Education in Turkey

    Sakamoto, Mayumi; Tanırcan, Gülüm; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Puskulcu, Seyhun; Kumamoto, Kunihiko


    Compared to its long history on disastrous earthquakes, disaster education history in Turkey is rather short. It has just started with an initiative of Disaster Preparedness Education Unit of Bogazici University (BU/DPEU) after 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake. Training modules and materials on disaster preparedness were prepared both for students, teachers and community. Regarding to the school education, the Ministry of National Education (MoNE) reformed their education plan in 2003, and disaster education became one of eight focused components for primary-middle education. In 2011-2014 MoNE had conducted "School-based Disaster Education Project" in collaboration with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The majority of the school education materials focus more on earthquake and there are very few education programs on tsunami. Within the MarDiM (Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey) project between Turkey and Japan a multidisciplinary engineering research as well as development of disaster education, tsunami education booklet and video were newly developed in 2015. In order to investigate students' knowledge natural disasters and disaster preparedness with focus on tsunami, a questionnaire based survey was conducted. The survey aims to clarify following questions: 1) how students obtain natural disaster information, 2) how students prepare for natural disaster, 3) knowledge on tsunami (hazard mechanism, evacuation behavior, historical disaster). The study was conducted by BU/DPEU in 2015 and 375 students answered the questionnaire. Results showed that students have more interest on earthquake, flood, tsunami and landslide followed it. Most students have heard about tsunami and the school is a key resource of their information. They know relatively well about tsunami mechanism, however, they have less knowledge on tsunami evacuation behavior and tsunami history in Turkey. In order to let students have

  6. Disaster response for people with disability.

    McDermott, Suzanne; Martin, Kathy; Gardner, Jevettra Devlin


    Emergency Preparedness for people with a disability has been a steadfast activity in the state of South Carolina. In October 2015, the state experienced a natural disaster termed "The 1000 Year Flood". The disability response to the disaster was swift due to the strong collaborative network. However, the disaster did present challenges that need to be further addressed. The retelling of South Carolina's response should be informative to other state programs that provide advocacy for people with disability. Agencies and organizations that respond to disasters can learn from South Carolina's experience to ensure that the needs of people with disabilities are addressed rapidly and efficiently.

  7. Managing Public's Complacency and Public Preparedness in Response to 2006 Avian Influenza Crisis in Turkey

    Naim Kapucu


    Full Text Available Public complacency is one of the problems complicating emergency preparedness and response operations for disaster managers. Effective disaster management is possible to the extent that affected communities cooperate with disaster management. Focusing on the 2006 avian influenza crisis in Turkey, this article analyzes whether the strategies and tools used by government agencies responsible for disaster management were effective in reducing public complacency, and, thus, increasing overall perceived public preparedness and response. Specifically, communication tools used for information collection, organization and dissemination were analyzed to see whether they led increased public situational awareness and immediate public reaction to the crisis. Findings suggest that government's internal preparation and use of communication tools had an impact on the level of the information the public exposed to, while reduced complacency or public reaction to the crisis had an impact on the overall perceived public preparedness.

  8. Measuring healthcare preparedness: an all-hazards approach

    Marcozzi David E


    Full Text Available Abstract In a paper appearing in this issue, Adini, et al. describe a struggle familiar to many emergency planners—the challenge of planning for all scenarios. The authors contend that all-hazards, or capabilities-based planning, in which a set of core capabilities applicable to numerous types of events is developed, is a more efficient way to achieve general health care system emergency preparedness than scenario-based planning. Essentially, the core of what is necessary to plan for and respond to one kind of disaster (e.g. a biologic event is also necessary for planning and responding to other types of disasters, allowing for improvements in planning and maximizing efficiencies. While Adini, et al. have advanced the science of health care emergency preparedness through their consideration of 490 measures to assess preparedness, a shorter set of validated preparedness measures would support the dual goals of accountability and improved outcomes and could provide the basis for determining which actions in the name of preparedness really matter.

  9. How well are healthcare institutions prepared for disasters?

    Yzermans, J.


    Introduction: The better healthcare providers are educated and trained and the more they practice their skills, the more they are prepared when disaster strikes. However, little is known about the current state of preparedness for managing disasters among healthcare providers. Methods: Representativ

  10. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An


    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  11. OEM Emergency Preparedness Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Emergency Management compiles a wide variety of information in support of Emergency Preparedness, including certain elements of the System for Risk...

  12. [Disaster psychiatry in late life].

    Awata, Shuichi


    Disaster preparedness in geriatric psychiatry was proposed on the basis of experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake. 1) Frail or demented elderly should be considered as a special population at risk for disaster victims and addressed in local disaster prevention programs. 2) To response to various psychiatric symptoms(delirium, BPSD, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and posttraumatic stress disorder) caused by medical conditions and rapid environmental changes due to disaster, linkage and coordination systems between psychiatric and medical sections should be established. 3) As a medium- and long-term support for the elderly who lost the community familiar to them, creation of a new community should be promoted in order to prevent depression, alcohol dependence, BPSD, and suicide.

  13. Resilience and Disaster Trends in the Philippines: Opportunities for National and Local Capacity Building

    Alcayna, Tilly; Bollettino, Vincenzo; Dy, Philip; Vinck, Patrick


    Introduction: The Philippines is one of the top countries in the world at risk of climate-related disasters. For populations subsisting at the poverty line in particular, but also the nation as a whole, daily lives and wellbeing are routinely challenged. The Philippines government takes disaster risk seriously and has devoted significant resources to build disaster capacity and reduce population exposure and vulnerability, nationally and locally. This paper explores the policy and institutional mechanisms for disaster risk reduction management and research which have been conducted in the Philippines related to disaster preparedness, management and resilience.   Methods: This study draws on direct observations of and conversations with disaster management professionals, in addition to a review of the extant literature on resilience and disaster preparedness, in the Philippines. This is a descriptive study based on a search of mainly peer-reviewed studies but also articles, reports, and disaster risk reduction and response projects in the Philippines. Search words used in various combinations included: Resilience, Philippines, Disaster Preparedness, Community-based, Disaster Risk Reduction, Capacity-building. Results: Numerous activities in community based resilience and DRR have been identified across the whole disaster continuum. Yet, important gaps in research and practice remain. Discussion: The Philippines, is a leading regional actor in disaster risk management. However, a full picture of who is doing what, how, where and when on resilience and disaster preparedness does not exist. Consequently there is no single study that compares the impacts and results that different preparedness measures are having in the Philippines. We recommend further research focussed on mapping the network of actors, understanding community perceptions of disaster risk preparedness and resilience, and investigation into the socio-ecological systems of different communities.

  14. Corruption in cyclone preparedness and relief efforts in coastal Bangladesh

    Mahmud, Tanvir; Prowse, Martin


    This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key-informant intervi......This article seeks to draw possible lessons for adaptation programmes in Bangladesh by examining whether cyclone preparedness and relief interventions are subject to corrupt practices. Based on a random sample survey of 278 households, three focus-group discussions and seven key......-informant interviews, the article investigates the nature and extent of corruption in pre- and post-disaster interventions in Khulna before and after Cyclone Aila in May 2009. Ninety nine percent of households reported losses from corrupt practices. Post-disaster interventions (such as food aid and public works...... schemes) suffered from greater levels, and worse types, of corruption than pre-disaster interventions (such as cyclone warning systems and disaster-preparedness training). Using an asset index created using principal component analysis, the article assesses how corruption affected wealth quartiles. Ultra...

  15. Reforming Disaster and Emergency Response


    events ranging from the contamination of the Love Canal, the Cuban refugee crisis, the accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant, the Loma ... Prieta Earthquake, and Hurricane Andrew. In 1993, during the Clinton Administration, FEMA initiated reforms that both streamlined disaster and relief...deploy teams and resources to maximize the speed and effectiveness of the anticipated federal response and, when necessary, performs preparedness and

  16. Disaster Research Team Building: A Case Study of a Web-based Disaster Research Training Program.

    Beaton, Randal D; Johnson, L Clark; Maida, Carl A; Houston, J Brian; Pfefferbaum, Betty


    This case study describes the process and outcomes of the Northwest Center for Public Health Practice Child and Family Disaster Research Training (UWDRT) Program housed at the University of Washington, which used web-based distance learning technology. The purposes of this program were to provide training and to establish a regional cadre of researchers and clinicians; to increase disaster mental health research capacity and collaboration; and to improve the scientific rigor of research investigations of disaster mental health in children and families. Despite a number of obstacles encountered in development and implementation, outcomes of this program included increased team member awareness and knowledge of child and family disaster mental health issues; improved disaster and public health instruction and training independent of the UWDRT program; informed local and state disaster response preparedness and response; and contributions to the child and family disaster mental health research literature.

  17. Recommended satellite imagery capabilities for disaster management

    Richards, P. B.; Robinove, C. J.; Wiesnet, D. R.; Salomonson, V. V.; Maxwell, M. S.


    This study explores the role that satellite imaging systems might play in obtaining information needed in the management of natural and manmade disasters. Information requirements which might conceivably be met by satellite were identified for over twenty disasters. These requirements covered pre-disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, disaster response activities, and post-disaster recovery activities. The essential imaging satellite characteristics needed to meet most of the information requirements are 30 meter (or finer) spatial resolution, frequency of observations of one week or less, data delivery times of one day or less, and stereo, synoptic all-weather coverage of large areas in the visible, near infrared, thermal infrared and microwave bands. Of the current and planned satellite systems investigated for possible application to disaster management, Landsat-D and SPOT appear to have the greatest potential during disaster mitigation and preparedness activities, but all satellites studied have serious deficiencies during response and recovery activities. Several strawman concepts are presented for a satellite system optimized to support all disaster management activities.

  18. Public Disaster Communication and Child and Family Disaster Mental Health: a Review of Theoretical Frameworks and Empirical Evidence.

    Houston, J Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L; Sorenson, Mary E; Koch, Megan


    Children have been identified as particularly vulnerable to psychological and behavioral difficulties following disaster. Public child and family disaster communication is one public health tool that can be utilized to promote coping/resilience and ameliorate maladaptive child reactions following an event. We conducted a review of the public disaster communication literature and identified three main functions of child and family disaster communication: fostering preparedness, providing psychoeducation, and conducting outreach. Our review also indicates that schools are a promising system for child and family disaster communication. We complete our review with three conclusions. First, theoretically, there appears to be a great opportunity for public disaster communication focused on child disaster reactions. Second, empirical research assessing the effects of public child and family disaster communication is essentially nonexistent. Third, despite the lack of empirical evidence in this area, there is opportunity for public child and family disaster communication efforts that address new domains.

  19. Making Schools More Disaster-Resistant.

    Witt, James L.


    Responding to schools' need for disaster preparedness, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) offers a week-long course at its Emergency Management Institute (the Multi-Hazard Safety Program for Schools). FEMA recommends that school officials identify likely hazards, mitigate against them, develop response and postdisaster coping plans,…

  20. Evaluation of an International Disaster Relief Team After Participation in an ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise.

    Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Cha, Yong Sung; Hwang, Sung Oh; Kim, Hyun; Cha, Kyung Chul


    Devastating disasters around the world directly contribute to significant increases in human mortality and economic costs. The objective of this study was to examine the current state of the Korea Disaster Relief Team that participated in an international training module. The whole training period was videotaped in order to observe and evaluate the respondents. The survey was carried out after completion of the 3-day training, and the scores were reported by use of a 5-point Likert scale. A total of 43 respondents were interviewed for the survey, and the results showed that the overall preparedness score for international disasters was 3.4±1.6 (mean±SD). The awareness of the Incident Command System for international disasters was shown to be low (3.5±1.1). Higher scores were given to personnel who took on leadership roles in the team and who answered "I knew my duty" (4.4±0.6) in the survey, as well as to the training participants who answered "I clearly knew my duty" (4.5±0.5). The preparedness level of the Korea Disaster Relief Team was shown to be insufficient, whereas understanding of the roles of leaders and training participants in the rescue team was found to be high. It is assumed that the preparedness level for disaster relief must be improved through continued training. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;1-5).

  1. International Disaster Response Law: an introduction.

    Marshall, Lewis W


    To review the current state of International Disaster Response Law (IDRL) and identify barriers to development and future directions. This study is an introduction to the current status of IDRL. The data suggest that globally we will have increasing incidents and costs in responding to disasters, but the development of IDRL has not kept pace. The further development and refining of IDRL is imperative on a global scale. Additional barriers to the continued development of IDRL will have to be overcome. Global international stakeholders will need to develop mechanisms to promote the advancement of IDRL while minimizing the barriers to effective preparedness and response to global international disasters.

  2. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia


    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  3. Managing Public’s Complacency and Public Preparedness in Response to 2006 Avian Influenza Crisis in Turkey

    Naim Kapucu


    Full Text Available Public complacency is one of the problems complicating emergency preparedness and response operations for disaster managers. Effective disaster management is possible to the extent that affected communities cooperate with disaster management. Focusing on the 2006 avian influenza crisis in Turkey, this article analyzes whether the strategies and tools used by government agencies responsible for disaster management were effective in reducing public complacency, and, thus, increasing overall perceived public preparedness and response. Specifically, communication tools used for information collection, organization and dissemination were analyzed to see whether they led increased public situational awareness and immediate public reaction to the crisis. Findings suggest that government’s internal preparation and use of communication tools had an impact on the level of the information the public exposed to, while reduced complacency or public reaction to the crisis had an impact on the overall perceived public preparedness.

  4. Organizing the health sector for response to disasters

    Kimberley Shoaf


    Full Text Available Each year millions of people around the world are affected by natural and manmade disasters. The consequences of natural disasters in terms of health are complex. Disasters directly impact the health of the population resulting in physical trauma, acute disease, and emotional trauma. Furthermore, disasters may increase the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic and infectious diseases due to the impact on the health system. The health sector must be organized for adequate preparedness, mitigation, response and recuperation from a plethora of potential disasters. This paper examines the various potential impacts of disasters on health, the components of the health sector and their roles in emergency medical care and disaster situations, as well as the coordination and organization necessary within the system to best meet the health needs of a population in the aftermath of a disaster.

  5. Disaster psychiatry in Asia: The potential of smartphones, mobile, and connected technologies.

    Sobowale, Kunmi; Torous, John


    Disaster mental health is recognized as a crucial part of disaster preparedness and response. Despite the commonality of disasters in Asia, many countries face formidable barriers to a rapid and robust mental health care response. Mobile technologies can alleviate the immediate suffering and reduce onset of chronic conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. This article explores the role of mobile technologies to improve mental health before, during, and after disasters in Asia.

  6. Building community resilience: business preparedness lessons in the case of Adapazarı, Turkey.

    Orhan, Ezgi


    The lack of attention paid to businesses in disaster management systems from the standpoint of state policies hampers efforts to build community resilience. This paper examines, therefore, the extent of business preparedness for disasters. Empirical research was conducted in Adapazarı, Turkey, 13 years after the İzmit earthquake, which struck the northwest of the country on 17 August 1999, claiming the lives of some 17,000 people. For the study, 232 firms were selected to inquire about their preparedness before and after the event. It is hypothesised that business preparedness is influenced by the following set of variables: business size; business sector; business age; financial condition prior to the disaster; occupancy tenure; market range; education level; and previous disaster experience. In line with the findings of the research, a policy framework is constructed to rationalise the allocation of resources for building resilience at the aggregate level by facilitating business preparedness. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  7. Field Organization and Disaster Medical Assistance Teams.

    Arziman, Ibrahim


    Disasters cause an acute deterioration in all stages of life. An area affected by the disaster in which the normal activities of life are disrupted is described as a "Field" in disaster terminology. Although it is not easy to define the borders of this zone, the area where there is normally functioning society is accepted as the boundary. Disaster management is the responsibility of the local government. However, in many large disaster responses many non-governmental and international organizations play a role. A Disaster Medical Team is a trained, mobile, self-contained, self-sufficient, multidisciplinary medical team that can act in the acute phase of a sudden-onset disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the affected area. The medical team can include physicians, nurses, paramedics and EMTS, technicians, personnel to manage logistics, security and others. Various models of Disaster Medical Teams can be observed around the world. There is paucity of evidence based literature regarding DMTs. There is a need for epidemiological studies with rigorous designs and sampling. In this section of the special edition of the journal, field organizations in health management during disasters will be summarized, with emphasis on preparedness and response phases, and disaster medical teams will be discussed.

  8. Cyclone preparedness and response: an analysis of lessons identified using an adapted military planning framework.

    Tatham, Peter; Oloruntoba, Richard; Spens, Karen


    The United Kingdom uses the Defence Lines of Development (DLOD) framework to analyse and understand the key components and costs of a military capability. Rooted in the Resource Based View (RBV) of a firm, an adapted DLOD approach is employed to explore, analyse and discuss the preparedness, planning and response strategies of two markedly different countries (Australia and Bangladesh) when faced with a major cyclone event of a comparable size. Given the numerous similarities in the challenges facing military forces in a complex emergency and humanitarian agencies in a natural disaster, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the DLOD framework as an analysis and planning tool in the cyclone preparedness planning and response phases, and more broadly within the disaster management area. In addition, the paper highlights the benefit to disaster managers, policymakers and researchers of exploiting comparative cross-learning opportunities from disaster events, drawn from different sectors and countries.

  9. Tropical storm and hurricane recovery and preparedness strategies.

    Goodwin, Bradford S; Donaho, John C


    The goal of this article is to present lessons learned from the devastating effects of two specific natural disasters in Texas: Tropical Storm Allison, which flooded Houston in June 2001, and Hurricane Ike, which caused severe damage in Galveston in September 2008. When a disaster is predictable, good predisaster planning can help to save animals lives. However, as disasters are usually not predictable and tend not to follow a script, that plan needs to be easily adaptable and flexible. It should address all aspects of the program and include an evacuation strategy for the animals, data backup, and identification of emergency equipment such as generators and communication systems. Media communication must also be considered as the general public may become emotional about animal-related issues; adverse attention and public scrutiny can be expected if animals die. The psychological impact of the disaster on the lives of those it directly affects may require attention and accommodation in the postdisaster recovery period. Following an overview of each disaster we describe plans for recovery, impacts on research, business continuity programs, and planning and preparation strategies developed against future natural disasters. Long-term planning includes building design as an important factor in protecting both the animals and the research equipment. Lessons learned include successful responses, evaluation for improvements, and preparedness plans and procedures to guard against future disaster-related destruction or loss of facilities, research programs, and animal lives.

  10. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R


    Introduction Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary

  11. Transfusion service disaster planning.

    Bundy, K L; Foss, M L; Stubbs, J R


    The Mayo Clinic, in Rochester, Minnesota, recently set forth a directive to develop a Mayo Emergency Incident Command System (MEICS) plan to respond to major disasters. The MEICS plan that was developed interfaces with national response plans to ensure effective communication and coordination between our institution and local, state, and federal agencies to establish a common language and communication structure. The MEICS plan addresses multiple aspects of dealing with resource needs during a crisis, including the need for blood and transfusion medicine services. The MEICS plan was developed to supplement our current local emergency preparedness procedures and provide a mechanism for responding to the escalating severity of an emergency to deal with situations of a magnitude that is outside the normal experience. A plan was developed to interface the existing Transfusion Medicine disaster plan standard operating procedures (SOP) with the institutional and Department of Laboratory Medicine (DLMP) MEICS plans. The first step in developing this interface was defining MEICS. Other major steps were defining the chain of command, developing a method for visually indicating who is "in charge," planning communication, defining the actions to be taken, assessing resource needs, developing flowcharts and updating SOPs, and developing a blood rationing team to deal with anticipated blood shortages. Several key features of the interface and updated disaster plan that were developed are calling trees for response personnel, plans for relocating leadership to alternative command centers, and action sheets to assist with resource assessment. The action sheets also provide documentation of key actions by response personnel.

  12. Managing the natural disasters from space technology inputs

    Jayaraman, V.; Chandrasekhar, M. G.; Rao, U. R.


    Natural disasters, whether of meteorological origin such as Cyclones, Floods, Tornadoes and Droughts or of having geological nature such as earthquakes and volcanoes, are well known for their devastating impacts on human life, economy and environment. With tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of infrastructure development, developing countries are more vulnerable to suffer from the damaging potential of such disasters. Though it is almost impossible to completely neutralise the damage due to these disasters, it is, however possible to (i) minimise the potential risks by developing disaster early warning strategies (ii) prepare developmental plans to provide resilience to such disasters, (iii) mobilize resources including communication and telemedicinal services and (iv) to help in rehabilitation and post-disaster reconstruction. Space borne platforms have demonstrated their capability in efficient disaster management. While communication satellites help in disaster warning, relief mobilisation and telemedicinal support, Earth observation satellites provide the basic support in pre-disaster preparedness programmes, in-disaster response and monitoring activities, and post-disaster reconstruction. The paper examines the information requirements for disaster risk management, assess developing country capabilities for building the necessary decision support systems, and evaluate the role of satellite remote sensing. It describes several examples of initiatives from developing countries in their attempt to evolve a suitable strategy for disaster preparedness and operational framework for the disaster management Using remote sensing data in conjunction with other collateral information. It concludes with suggestions and recommendations to establish a worldwide network of necessary space and ground segments towards strengthening the technological capabilities for disaster management and mitigation.

  13. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.


    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  14. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd


    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency.

  15. Principles and practice of disaster relief: lessons from Haiti.

    Benjamin, Ernest; Bassily-Marcus, Adel M; Babu, Elizabeth; Silver, Lester; Martin, Michael L


    Disaster relief is an interdisciplinary field dealing with the organizational processes that help prepare for and carry out all emergency functions necessary to prevent, prepare for, respond to, and recover from emergencies and disasters caused by all hazards, whether natural, technological, or human-made. Although it is an important function of local and national governing in the developed countries, it is often wanting in resource-poor, developing countries where, increasingly, catastrophic disasters tend to occur and have the greatest adverse consequences. The devastating January 12, 2010, Haiti earthquake is a case study of the impact of an extreme cataclysm in one of the poorest and most unprepared settings imaginable. As such, it offers useful lessons that are applicable elsewhere in the developing world. Emergency preparedness includes 4 phases: mitigation or prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery. Periods of normalcy are the best times to develop disaster preparedness plans. In resource-poor countries, where dealing with the expenses of daily living is already a burden, such planning is often neglected; and, when disasters strike, it is often with great delay that the assistance from international community can be deployed. In this increasingly interconnected world, the Haiti earthquake and the important international response to it make a strong case for a more proactive intervention of the international community in all phases of emergency management in developing countries, including in mitigation and preparedness, and not just in response and recovery. Predisaster planning can maximize the results of the international assistance and decrease the human and material tolls of inevitable disasters. There should be a minimum standard of preparedness that every country has to maintain and the international assistance to achieve that. International academic medical centers interested in global health could strengthen their programs by prospectively

  16. Managing emerging risk the capstone of preparedness

    Burton, Kevin D


    From Main Street to Mumbai, Managing Emerging Risk: The Capstone of Preparedness considers the new global drivers behind threats and hazards facing all those tasked with protecting the public and private sector. The text delves into the global mindset of public and private sector emergency managers and presents a new risk landscape vastly different from the one existing ten years ago. The book begins by presenting a series of fictitious scenarios each resulting in mass destruction and fatalities. These are each followed by actual news stories that support the scenarios and demonstrate that the proposed events-seemingly unthinkable-have the potential to occur. Next, the author identifies two drivers in the practice of emergency management and general preparedness today that constitute our view of the future and the new face of risk. The first is the Disaster Halo Effect-the idea that modern threats exhibit more than one event. The second is the worldview of our nation as a Market State focused on the trading o...

  17. Health services responses to disasters in Mumbai sharing experiences

    Supe Avinash


    Full Text Available In mass disaster situations, demands frequently exceed the capacity of personnel and facilities. In the last few years, there has been an increased incidence of civil disasters; the spectrum of possible catastrophes has also dramatically increased as a result of an increasingly technologically sophisticated society. During the last 15 years, varied terrorist activities have become increasingly common as expressions of the opinions of extreme political groups, especially in India. In Mumbai itself, we have witnessed disasters such as widespread riots, terrorist bomb blasts, floods, and fires. There have been other disasters in India, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, as well as tsunamis Though most of the hospitals in India manage the medical problems associated with these disasters fairly efficiently, an analysis of the situation is presented so that this may form the basis for future planning in disaster preparedness and provide a template for other communities that may want to implement preparedness protocols. We present our experience with disaster management in Mumbai, India. A successful medical response to multi-injury civilian disasters, either natural or man-made, dictates formulation, dissemination, and periodic assessment of a contingency plan to facilitate the triage and treatment of victims of disaster.

  18. Arctic Risk Management (ARMNet) Network: Linking Risk Management Practitioners and Researchers Across the Arctic Regions of Canada and Alaska To Improve Risk, Emergency and Disaster Preparedness and Mitigation Through Comparative Analysis and Applied Research

    Garland, A.


    The Arctic Risk Management Network (ARMNet) was conceived as a trans-disciplinary hub to encourage and facilitate greater cooperation, communication and exchange among American and Canadian academics and practitioners actively engaged in the research, management and mitigation of risks, emergencies and disasters in the Arctic regions. Its aim is to assist regional decision-makers through the sharing of applied research and best practices and to support greater inter-operability and bilateral collaboration through improved networking, joint exercises, workshops, teleconferences, radio programs, and virtual communications (eg. webinars). Most importantly, ARMNet is a clearinghouse for all information related to the management of the frequent hazards of Arctic climate and geography in North America, including new and emerging challenges arising from climate change, increased maritime polar traffic and expanding economic development in the region. ARMNet is an outcome of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) for Long Term Observations, Governance, and Management Discussions, The AON goals continue with CRIOS ( and coastal erosion research ( led by the North Slope Borough Risk Management Office with assistance from ARIES (Applied Research in Environmental Sciences Nonprofit, Inc.). The constituency for ARMNet will include all northern academics and researchers, Arctic-based corporations, First Responders (FRs), Emergency Management Offices (EMOs) and Risk Management Offices (RMOs), military, Coast Guard, northern police forces, Search and Rescue (SAR) associations, boroughs, territories and communities throughout the Arctic. This presentation will be of interest to all those engaged in Arctic affairs, describe the genesis of ARMNet and present the results of stakeholder meetings and webinars designed to guide the next stages of the Project.

  19. 2nd International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters

    Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos


    This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...

  20. Disaster Management for Cooling Tower- Case Study.

    1Deshmukh Azhar A


    Full Text Available Cooling towers are prone to numerous disasters that can arise naturally or through human intervention. The safety of cooling towers becomes utmost importance for the plants to function properly. The study focused on identification of various disasters and the risks associated with them. The disasters can be earthquake, volcanoes, storm, extreme temperature, fire incident, terror attack, hazardous material leakage etc. The impact and vulnerability analysis of these disasters is conducted to find the associated risks properly. Mitigating risks is as important as identifying them. The two most important risks identified are Design Risk and Bacterial Risk. The preparedness to these risks helps in mitigating them. A probabilistic catastrophic risk model has been identified which performs a cost benefit analysis for mitigating the risks

  1. Classifying Korean Adolescents' Career Preparedness

    Lee, In Heok; Rojewski, Jay W.; Hill, Roger B.


    Latent class analysis was used to examine the career preparation of 5,227 11th-grade Korean adolescents taken from the Korean Education Longitudinal Study of 2005 (KELS:2005). Three career preparedness groups were identified, to reflecting Skorikov's ("J Vocat Behav" 70:8-24, 2007) conceptualization of career preparedness: prepared,…

  2. Disaster nursing in Iran: challenges and opportunities.

    Zarea, Kourosh; Beiranvand, Samira; Sheini-Jaberi, Parisa; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, Alireza


    Disaster nursing was one of the first forms of nursing practice in Iran, and nurses have long served voluntarily in disasters. Despite their key role throughout a disaster management cycle, few studies have examined nurses' unique role in the management of disasters in this region of the world. An integrative narrative analysis of international research published in English and Persian studies between years 2000 and 2013 was conducted. Analysis of the 32 articles yielded two major: organisational and managerial challenges, and challenges linked to the educational system. The most significant factors linked to the role of nurses in disasters included the lack of identification of those who educated nurses to serve in critical conditions, defects in university's educational systems and lack of in-service training for nurses with regard to disasters. The integration of dedicate organisational units to educate human workforces, formalising a relationship between nursing staff and the disaster organisations, creative educational content, and effective economical systems to educate nurses may further enable disaster preparedness and response. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plastic Surgery Response in Natural Disasters.

    Chung, Susan; Zimmerman, Amanda; Gaviria, Andres; Dayicioglu, Deniz


    Disasters cause untold damage and are often unpredictable; however, with proper preparation, these events can be better managed. The initial response has the greatest impact on the overall success of the relief effort. A well-trained multidisciplinary network of providers is necessary to ensure coordinated care for the victims of these mass casualty disasters. As members of this network of providers, plastic surgeons have the ability to efficiently address injuries sustained in mass casualty disasters and are a valuable member of the relief effort. The skill set of plastic surgeons includes techniques that can address injuries sustained in large-scale emergencies, such as the management of soft-tissue injury, tissue viability, facial fractures, and extremity salvage. An approach to disaster relief, the types of disasters encountered, the management of injuries related to mass casualty disasters, the role of plastic surgeons in the relief effort, and resource management are discussed. In order to improve preparedness in future mass casualty disasters, plastic surgeons should receive training during residency regarding the utilization of plastic surgery knowledge in the disaster setting.

  4. Disaster waste management: a review article.

    Brown, Charlotte; Milke, Mark; Seville, Erica


    Depending on their nature and severity, disasters can create large volumes of debris and waste. The waste can overwhelm existing solid waste management facilities and impact on other emergency response and recovery activities. If poorly managed, the waste can have significant environmental and public health impacts and can affect the overall recovery process. This paper presents a system overview of disaster waste management based on existing literature. The main literature available to date comprises disaster waste management plans or guidelines and isolated case studies. There is ample discussion on technical management options such as temporary storage sites, recycling, disposal, etc.; however, there is little or no guidance on how these various management options are selected post-disaster. The literature does not specifically address the impact or appropriateness of existing legislation, organisational structures and funding mechanisms on disaster waste management programmes, nor does it satisfactorily cover the social impact of disaster waste management programmes. It is envisaged that the discussion presented in this paper, and the literature gaps identified, will form a basis for future comprehensive and cohesive research on disaster waste management. In turn, research will lead to better preparedness and response to disaster waste management problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hurricane Sandy nutrition support during disasters.

    Trento, Laura; Allen, Sarah


    Natural disasters and weather-related emergencies can strike at a moment's notice. Individuals with chronic health conditions and other special needs are especially vulnerable. Basic services such as water, electricity, gas, and telephone service may not be available. Home parenteral and enteral nutrition consumers are at a serious risk as they depend on clean water and power for nutrient delivery. Creating a comprehensive emergency preparedness plan is imperative for both the home parenteral and enteral consumer and home care provider to ensure that special needs are met. Home care providers can assist home parenteral and enteral consumers in disaster and emergency planning.

  6. Reflection on Disaster and Disaster Economy

    LIU Zhonggui


    The paper mainly deals with disaster and presents a discussion and analysis of disaster economy study and its development. It also addresses some noteworthy issues in disaster economy study with a view to promoting disaster prevention and reduction.

  7. Service provision in disaster preparation, response, and recovery for individuals with predisaster mental illness.

    Tharp, Andra Teten; Constans, Joseph I; Yin, Rob; Sullivan, Greer; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Rouse, Jeff; Schreiber, Merritt D; King, Michael


    Individuals with preexisting mental disorders are at increased risk for negative outcomes following a disaster and are one type of vulnerable subpopulation that requires special consideration in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. We describe evidence of the increased risk for individuals with predisaster mental illness as well as tools for field triage, the critical role of partnerships in preparedness and response, and integration of mental health as a priority in emergency management systems. Considering individuals with predisaster mental disorders at each phase of a disaster may ameliorate some negative postdisaster outcomes, such as suicide.

  8. Research on the Improvements of the Assembly Areas, Evacuation Routes, and Shelters against Multiple Disasters

    Jin, S.; Lee, Y. M.; Jeong, S. Y.; Hong, S. J.


    The considerable casualties were resulted at the tsunami shelters during the Great East Japan Tsunami on 11 March 2011. The one of the important lessons learned from the Great East Japan Tsunami and the Fukushima NPP accidents provided the nuclear power plant emergency plan should consider the natural disaster. However, most of cases, the nuclear emergency preparedness strategies have not incorporated the natural disaster management plan. In this study, we reviewed the safety of the assembly areas, evacuation routes, and shelters of some nuclear emergency planning zone using the new tsunami hazard mapping results through the characteristic inundation analysis. As the result of this study, the improvements can be achieved by considering both natural and nuclear disaster to set up the assembly areas, evacuation routes, and shelters against the multiple disasters. Also, The most important protective measures can be achieved by integrating and linking the emergency preparedness strategy both natural disasters and nuclear disaster in the future.

  9. Disaster Research

    Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around ke...

  10. Death preparedness: a concept analysis.

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee


    To report analysis of the concept death preparedness in the context of end-of-life shared decisions and communication. Forty percent of older people require decision-making and communication in the final days of life. Elaborate defence mechanisms have yielded a public consciousness that no longer passively views death acceptance, but instead has a defensive orientation of preparedness. The term 'death preparedness' depicts this death attitude. Concept analysis. Data were collected over 3 months in 2013. A series of searches of scholarly peer-reviewed literature published in English were conducted of multiple databases. Specific keywords included such phrases as: death acceptance, death avoidance, death rejection, death preparedness, resolution of life, breaking bad news and readiness to die. Walker and Avant's method was chosen as a deductive method to distinguish between the defining attributes of death preparedness and its relevant attributes. Death preparedness involves a transition of facilitated communication with a healthcare provider that leads to awareness and/or acceptance of end of life, as evidenced by an implementation of a plan. An appraisal of attitudes towards death and one's mortality precedes the concept, followed by an improved quality of death and dignity at end of life. The concept of death preparedness in the process of dying should be the focus of research to explore areas to improve advanced directive planning and acceptance of palliation for chronic health conditions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mass fatality preparedness among medical examiners/coroners in the United States: a cross-sectional study.

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Orr, Mark G; Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Chen, Daniel Y; Riley, Halley E M; Sherman, Martin F


    In the United States (US), Medical Examiners and Coroners (ME/Cs) have the legal authority for the management of mass fatality incidents (MFI). Yet, preparedness and operational capabilities in this sector remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to identify appropriate measures of preparedness, and second, to assess preparedness levels and factors significantly associated with preparedness. Three separate checklists were developed to measure different aspects of preparedness: MFI Plan Elements, Operational Capabilities, and Pre-existing Resource Networks. Using a cross-sectional study design, data on these and other variables of interest were collected in 2014 from a national convenience sample of ME/C using an internet-based, anonymous survey. Preparedness levels were determined and compared across Federal Regions and in relation to the number of Presidential Disaster Declarations, also by Federal Region. Bivariate logistic and multivariable models estimated the associations between organizational characteristics and relative preparedness. A large proportion (42%) of respondents reported that less than 25 additional fatalities over a 48-hour period would exceed their response capacities. The preparedness constructs measured three related, yet distinct, aspects of preparedness, with scores highly variable and generally suboptimal. Median scores for the three preparedness measures also varied across Federal Regions and as compared to the number of Presidential Declared Disasters, also by Federal Region. Capacity was especially limited for activating missing persons call centers, launching public communications, especially via social media, and identifying temporary interment sites. The provision of staff training was the only factor studied that was significantly (positively) associated (p < .05) with all three preparedness measures. Although ME/Cs ranked local partners, such as Offices of Emergency Management, first responders, and


    Himanshu A. Joshi


    Full Text Available With the tropical climate and unstable land forms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various natural disasters, which strikes causing devastating impact on human life, economy and environment. Though it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damaged caused by the disaster it is possible to minimize potential risks by developing early warning strategies. “Efficient management of Disasters, rather than mere response to their occurrence has, in recent times, received increased attention both within India and abroad.” Hospitals play a key role in Management of the affected population by providing immediate and effective treatment at the site and in the hospital. Considering the wide range of disasters and no bar for time, place and people it requires immediate intervention, and this management would be an extension of emergency or casualty services of hospital. It adds an extra load to hospital, functions, and to cope up this situation it requires to have a systematic, planned and effective approach. In this article, I have discussed a model disaster management plan for a hospital, clinical principles of management of casualties and specific problems of Disaster Management. A guide line for operational framework to face disaster in the form of Disaster manual is suggested for each hospital. A preplanned disaster management plan according to this guideline would provide an edge to a hospital in such crucial situations and in turn will serve the humanity & society.

  13. Evaluation of the Implementation of Preparedness Education at mount Bromo and Merapi Valley Communities, Year 2012

    Mugeni Sugiharto


    Full Text Available Background: Basic education through counseling mitigation program is on Statute No 24 Year 2007, Health Minister Decree No 145 year 2007, Decree of Mining an Energy Minister. Preparedness education is efforts to increase knowledge and awareness to face of the volcano disaster, in order to survive and stay healthy. The purpose of this study was to evaluated the implementation of educational preparedness in disaster-prone communities on the slopes of Mount Bromo and Mount Merapi Methods: Croessectional methode, Big sample is 100 people from Bromo area in the Ngadirejo village to 25 people, in the Wonokerso village 25 people, whereas in the Merapi area in the Mangunharjo village 25 people andthe Jaranan village of 25 people. Samples are purvosif determined that only the community on the slopes of Bromo and Merapi eruption affected. Secondary data was obtained from the institution carrying out preparedness education. Results: Preparedness Education through counseling had a basic level of central and local regulation is the reference work BPPD officer. Agencies involved counseling is District Health Offi ce and Health Centre, PMI, LSM,BPBD. Impact preparedness counseling is when the eruption of the volcano was about to evacuate people, including most of the people Bromo, in order to survive, in addition to the public while maintaining the health of the PHBs, to stay healthy. Conclusion: Preparedness education is based on the regulation of the central and local level to help people to volcanic eruptions. The focus of its activities is the procedure for evacuation, rescue and PHBS are implemented on an ongoing basis. Recommendation: Important implement sustainable counseling, so that people have a lasting awareness preparedness for facing volcanic eruptions.

  14. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’,

  15. A coke preparedness monitoring device

    Sazanov, V.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Chepurnykh, S.F.; Dobromobov, Yu.I.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Pinchuk, S.I.; Shifrin, S.I.


    A coke preparedness monitoring device for a door extractor contains sounding electrodes, a stabilized voltage source and a meter to record the electrical resistance of the coke. In order to provide monitoring capacity of the preparedness of the coke in the flow and to increase measuring accuracy the device contains sounding electrodes in the coke-treating door extractor; these are connected together with the recorder via an additional stabilized power supply to a stabilized voltage source.

  16. Regional approaches to hospital preparedness.

    Maldin, Beth; Lam, Clarence; Franco, Crystal; Press, David; Waldhorn, Richard; Toner, Eric; O'Toole, Tara; Inglesby, Thomas V


    This article describes issues related to the engagement of hospitals and other community partners in a coordinated regional healthcare preparedness and response effort. The report is based on interviews with public health and hospital representatives from 13 regions or states across the country. It aims to identify key ingredients for building successful regional partnerships for healthcare preparedness as well as critical challenges and policy and practical recommendations for their development and sustainability.

  17. FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary

    Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...

  18. Building a Capabilities Network to Improve Disaster Preparation Efforts in the European Command (EUCOM) Area of Responsibility


    communicable diseases , and improving quality of life. EUCOM countries currently working in or have worked in previously: Azerbaijan. 22. The Salvation...livelihood, and focus on women and children . 14. SUBJECT TERMS Disaster Preparedness, Disaster Relief, Humanitarian...and focus on women and children . vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION

  19. Natural disaster management in India with focus on floods and cyclones

    Thattai, Deeptha V.; Sathyanathan, R.; Dinesh, R.; Harshit Kumar, L.


    Disasters are of two major kinds, natural and manmade, and affect the community. Natural disasters are caused by natural earth processes like floods, droughts, cyclones, tsunamis, earthquakes and epidemics. Manmade disasters occur due to chemical spills, accidents, terrorism activities etc. India is prone to almost all the major natural disasters. The high population density combined with poor preparedness, planning and management, and rescue and relief measures inevitably lead to huge losses of lives and property every year in the country. This paper analyses the disaster management policy of India and its implementation using two recent case studies - one where a relative degree of success has been achieved (cyclones) and the other where we are still struggling to have even a basic preparedness system in place (floods).

  20. Emergency river storage in the Ooij polder - A bridge too far? Forms of participation in flood preparedness policy

    Warner, J.F.


    Disaster policy tends to be in the domain of top-down security governance. However, international organizations are calling for more 'horizontal', participatory forms of planning for flood preparedness together with local stakeholders. But what modality of public involvement do they mean? A case

  1. Emergency river storage in the Ooij polder - A bridge too far? Forms of participation in flood preparedness policy

    Warner, J.F.


    Disaster policy tends to be in the domain of top-down security governance. However, international organizations are calling for more 'horizontal', participatory forms of planning for flood preparedness together with local stakeholders. But what modality of public involvement do they mean? A case stu

  2. Emergency river storage in the Ooij polder - A bridge too far? Forms of participation in flood preparedness policy

    Warner, J.F.


    Disaster policy tends to be in the domain of top-down security governance. However, international organizations are calling for more 'horizontal', participatory forms of planning for flood preparedness together with local stakeholders. But what modality of public involvement do they mean? A case stu

  3. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    Chung, Gunhui


    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  4. Disaster Preparedness Planning and Facility Contingency Operations for Public Works


    Holton . Jr. Contact: Ray Olnstad Contact: Gerald B. Edwardsa.PG. Phone: (804) 490-1691 Phone: (509’ 457-7685 PtratrovieL’enwulagham &ad Drag*. Phone...IWe Tinder Eagiawig Coman Sacramento. CA 95834 Sam Diego. CA 92 120 San Francisco, CA 114105 Oakland, CA 94412 COnRa= Roansd Miller Contact- James Rt...Spasea gaflamers, INC. KAnSas MO "I4I11 FAX: (402) 496.2730 Jackson. MS 39216 Conteact Dam H. Lualle. CApabulitiam: F L S T 3 Contact James Fitzpatrick

  5. Measuring Disaster Preparedness of Local Emergency Medical Services Agencies


    inconsistent with local needs ( Clovis , 2006, p. 13). Municipalities have experienced an example of this concept recently. Changes in federal...measurements and accountability. Dr. Clovis found that grant accountability has become more important and requires more time and effort than...achieving the actual homeland security goals ( Clovis , 2006, p. 13). Although it can be argued that any federal expenditure used appropriately will probably

  6. Partnered Disaster Preparedness: Lessons Learned From International Events


    Hospital Corporation of America) in advance of Hurricane Gustav in September 2008.6 Good communication and aggressive move- ment of patients and...Fort McHenry, USS Gunston Hall, USS Carl Vinson, USNS Comfort—along with Seabee and other engineering units. In all, more than 30 ships from Partnered...Available at: http:// 05orleans.html?_r=1&ref=hurricane_ gustav /. Accessed September 28, 2010. 7. Office of the Press

  7. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Novel Disaster Training Tool for School Nurses: Emergency Triage Drill Kit.

    Burke, Rita V; Goodhue, Catherine J; Berg, Bridget M; Spears, Robert; Barnes, Jill; Upperman, Jeffrey S


    As children spend approximately 28% of their day in school and disasters may strike at any time, it is important for school officials to conduct emergency preparedness activities. School nurses, teachers, and staff should be prepared to respond and provide support and first aid treatment. This article describes a collaborative effort within the Los Angeles Unified School District to enhance disaster preparedness. Specifically, the article outlines the program steps and tools developed to prepare staff in mass triage through an earthquake disaster training exercise.

  8. Healthcare worker competencies for disaster training

    Kelen Gabor D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence-based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster training of healthcare staff at all levels, including the development of standards and guidelines for training in the multi-disciplinary health response to major events, has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. We describe the application of systematic evidence-based consensus building methods to derive educational competencies and objectives in criteria-based preparedness and response relevant to all hospital healthcare workers. Methods The conceptual development of cross-cutting competencies incorporated current evidence through a systematic consensus building process with the following steps: (1 review of peer-reviewed literature on relevant content areas and educational theory; (2 structured review of existing competencies, national level courses and published training objectives; (3 synthesis of new cross-cutting competencies; (4 expert panel review; (5 refinement of new competencies and; (6 development of testable terminal objectives for each competency using similar processes covering requisite knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results Seven cross-cutting competencies were developed: (1 Recognize a potential critical event and implement initial actions; (2 Apply the principles of critical event management; (3 Demonstrate critical event safety principles; (4 Understand the institutional emergency operations plan; (5 Demonstrate effective critical event communications; (6 Understand the incident command system and your role in it; (7 Demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to fulfill your role during a critical event. For each of the cross-cutting competencies, comprehensive terminal objectives are described. Conclusion Cross-cutting competencies and objectives

  9. Disaster prepared: How federal funding in the USA supports health system and public health readiness.

    Schlegelmilch, Jeff; Petkova, Elisaveta; Redlener, Irwin

    Federal funding for health and medical preparedness in the USA has created an important foundation for preparing the health and medical systems to respond to a wide range of hazards. A declining trend in funding for these preparedness activities threatens to undo the progress that has been made over the last decade and reduce the state of readiness to respond to the health and medical impacts of disasters.

  10. Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Disaster Management

    Deniz Arca


    Full Text Available While our country is a sources of unique beauties in various fields such as natural beauty, history, culture, art, climatic features, geographical position, it is also a country of catastrophe. It is especially a country of earthquake which often experiences forceful earthquakes.Catastrophe, earthquake in particular, is a reality we should admit and learn to live with. Therefore, we are responsible to minimize the loss and damage stemming from catastrophe in our era when it is still impossible to determine catastrophe in advance. The loss can be minimized by working and measurements which should be taken before, during and after the catastrophe. In this context, Geographical Information System and remote sensing has much importance.The primary mission of the Disaster Management is, therefore, to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the nations from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the nations in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. Recently, disaster management emphasizes the importance of disaster prevention - focusing on disaster preparedness.The studies regarding natural hazards RS and GIS are widely used today. These studies include earthquake, flood, landslide, fire, volcanic eruptions, storm and other natural phenomena that cause natural disasters. GIS and RS are not only used for locating, monitoring and determining influence areas of these natural events, but are very useful in determining what is to be done before and after a natural disaster. Effective usage of GIS technologies regarding disasters first depends on determining that for what purpose and how they are going to be used. In this respect, it is a necessity to explain of how an effective and contemporary disaster management system and its components should be before dealing with the characteristics

  11. A survey of hospitals to determine the prevalence and characteristics of healthcare coalitions for emergency preparedness and response.

    Rambhia, Kunal J; Waldhorn, Richard E; Selck, Frederick; Mehta, Ambereen Kurwa; Franco, Crystal; Toner, Eric S


    Previous reports have identified the development of healthcare coalitions as the foundation for disaster response across the United States. This survey of acute care hospitals characterizes the current status of participation by US hospitals in healthcare coalitions for emergency preparedness planning and response. The survey results show the nearly universal nature of a coalition approach to disaster response. The results suggest a need for wide stakeholder involvement but also for flexibility in structure and organization. Based on the survey results, the authors make recommendations to guide the further development of healthcare coalitions and to improve local and national response to disasters.

  12. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats

    Diamond, David


    The nuclear crisis in Fukushima and growing threats of nuclear terrorism must serve as a wake-up call, prompting greater action to prepare ourselves for nuclear and radiological disasters. Our strategy to prepare for these threats is multi-layered and the events of these past years have proved the necessity to re-evaluate the national and international preparedness goals on a scale never before considered. The programme of NATO Advanced Research Workshop on “Preparedness for Nuclear and Radiological Threats” has been focused on science and technology challenges associated with our need to improve the national and international capacity and capability to prevent, protect against, mitigate the effects of, respond to, and recover from the nuclear and radiological disasters, including nuclear and radiological accident, terrorist attack by Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or by “Dirty Bomb”-Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), that pose the greatest risk to the national and international security and safety...

  13. Knowledge and skills of Emergency Care During Disaster For Community Health Volunteers: A Literature Review

    Anda Kamal


    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, disaster preparedness and responses are essential for everyone to be involved since the disaster becomes increasing. The Community Health Volunteers (CHVs in particular are the key partners required adequately prepared in emergency care during disaster event. Purpose: The study aims to examine the essential knowledge and skills of emergency care during natural disaster for CHVs. Method: The reviews published during 2000 and 2011 searching from PubMed, Science Direct, CINAHL, ProQuest Medical Library were conducted. Result: Twenty-four articles and documents related to community-based disaster preparedness programs were intensively reviewed. Based on the review, six components of knowledge and skills for emergency care in natural disaster for CHVs are required including 1 early warning, 2 disaster triage, 3 first aid, 4 search and rescue, 5 logistic and communication, and 6 team organizations. Conclusion: There was a few studies focusing on the emergency care in disaster management and some factors related to knowledge and skills were shown. It is therefore recommended that the current CHVs’ knowledge and skills should be explored in order to assist people in their community following disaster event when professional responders are not immediately available to help. Key words: Knowledge, Skill, Community health volunteers, Emergency care, Natural disaster.

  14. Strategy to achieve energy and water sustainability in Latin America through humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations

    Romps, William D.M.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The United States is a leader in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, and the Department of Defense is called upon by Department of Defense Directive 5105.65 to lead efforts to assist nations in need of education support, health support, disaster preparedness, and basic infrastructure. Latin America is a strategic neighbor of the United States and is susceptible to man-made and natural disasters. Many of the countries that make...

  15. Improving Citizen Preparedness Through Employee Disaster Preparedness Promotion in the Workplace


    a focused survey of college students in attempt to predict “personal responsibility.”72 Results of this study indicated that both free choice and...addition to reduced performance, real costs such as high medical, disability, worker’s comp, absenteeism , and employee turnover put employee wellness in

  16. Healthcare coalitions: the new foundation for national healthcare preparedness and response for catastrophic health emergencies.

    Courtney, Brooke; Toner, Eric; Waldhorn, Richard; Franco, Crystal; Rambhia, Kunal; Norwood, Ann; Inglesby, Thomas V; O'Toole, Tara


    After 9/11 and the 2001 anthrax letters, it was evident that our nation's healthcare system was largely underprepared to handle the unique needs and large volumes of people who would seek medical care following catastrophic health events. In response, in 2002 Congress established the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP) in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to strengthen the ability of U.S. hospitals to prepare for and respond to bioterrorism and naturally occurring epidemics and disasters. Since 2002, the program has resulted in substantial improvements in individual hospitals' disaster readiness. In 2007, the HHS Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) contracted with the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center to conduct an assessment of U.S. hospital preparedness and to develop tools and recommendations for evaluating and improving future hospital preparedness efforts. One of the most important findings from this work is that healthcare coalitions-collaborative groups of local healthcare institutions and response agencies that work together to prepare for and respond to emergencies-have emerged throughout the U.S. since the HPP began. This article provides an overview of the HPP and the Center's hospital preparedness research for ASPR. Based on that work, the article also defines healthcare coalitions and identifies their structure and core functions, provides examples of more developed coalitions and common challenges faced by coalitions, and proposes that healthcare coalitions should become the foundation of a national strategy for healthcare preparedness and response for catastrophic health events.

  17. Improving Team Performance for Public Health Preparedness.

    Peck, Megan; Scullard, Mickey; Hedberg, Craig; Moilanen, Emily; Radi, Deborah; Riley, William; Bowen, Paige Anderson; Petersen-Kroeber, Cheryl; Stenberg, Louise; Olson, Debra K


    Between May 2010 and September 2011, the University of Minnesota School of Public Health partnered with the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) to assess the effect of exercises on team performance during public health emergency response. Participants were divided into 3 research teams exposed to various levels of intervention. Groups consisted of a control group that was given standard MDH training exercises, a didactic group exposed to team dynamics and communication training, and a treatment group that received the didactic training in addition to a post-exercise facilitated debriefing. To assess differences in team performance, teams engaged in 15 functional exercises. Differences in team performance across the 3 groups were identified, although there was no trend in team performance over time for any of the groups. Groups demonstrated fluctuation in team performance during the study period. Attitudinal surveys demonstrated an increase in workplace satisfaction and confidence in training among all groups throughout the study period. Findings from this research support that a critical link exists between training type and team performance during public health emergency response. This research supports that intentional teamwork training for emergency response workers is essential for effective public health emergency response. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:7-10).

  18. Ebola virus disease: radiology preparedness.

    Bluemke, David A; Meltzer, Carolyn C


    At present, there is a major emphasis on Ebola virus disease (EVD) preparedness training at medical facilities throughout the United States. Failure to have proper EVD procedures in place was cited as a major reason for infection of medical personnel in the United States. Medical imaging does not provide diagnosis of EVD, but patient assessment in the emergency department and treatment isolation care unit is likely to require imaging services. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of relevant aspects of EVD disease and preparedness relevant to the radiologic community. © RSNA, 2014.

  19. Utilization of Functional Exercises to Build Regional Emergency Preparedness among Rural Health Organizations in the US.

    Obaid, Jannah M; Bailey, Ginger; Wheeler, Heidi; Meyers, Laura; Medcalf, Sharon J; Hansen, Keith F; Sanger, Kristine K; Lowe, John J


    Rural communities face barriers to disaster preparedness and considerable risk of disasters. Emergency preparedness among rural communities has improved with funding from federal programs and implementation of a National Incident Management System. The objective of this project was to design and implement disaster exercises to test decision making by rural response partners to improve regional planning, collaboration, and readiness. Six functional exercises were developed and conducted among three rural Nebraska (USA) regions by the Center for Preparedness Education (CPE) at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (Omaha, Nebraska USA). A total of 83 command centers participated. Six functional exercises were designed to test regional response and command-level decision making, and each 3-hour exercise was followed by a 3-hour regional after action conference. Participant feedback, single agency debriefing feedback, and regional After Action Reports were analyzed. Functional exercises were able to test command-level decision making and operations at multiple agencies simultaneously with limited funding. Observations included emergency management jurisdiction barriers to utilization of unified command and establishment of joint information centers, limited utilization of documentation necessary for reimbursement, and the need to develop coordinated public messaging. Functional exercises are a key tool for testing command-level decision making and response at a higher level than what is typically achieved in tabletop or short, full-scale exercises. Functional exercises enable evaluation of command staff, identification of areas for improvement, and advancing regional collaboration among diverse response partners. Obaid JM , Bailey G , Wheeler H , Meyers L , Medcalf SJ , Hansen KF , Sanger KK , Lowe JJ . Utilization of functional exercises to build regional emergency preparedness among rural health organizations in the US. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):1-7.

  20. Disaster Trauma: Federal Resources that Help Communities on Their Road to Recovery.

    Felder, Stephanie S; Seligman, Jamie; Burrows-McElwain, Cicely K; Robinson, Maryann E; Hierholzer, Erik


    During the past several years, the US federal government has increased its role in preparing for and responding to natural and manmade disasters. The support and services that federal agencies provide to communities to address the psychological impact of trauma on citizens of all ages are valuable assets before and after a disaster. We used trauma theory to analyze disaster behavior health, assess the needs of at-risk populations, and identify the resources that the Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, offers to the nation to assist communities in the psychological recovery process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;x:1-5).

  1. Communications mode(ls and disasters: from word of mouth to ICTs

    Maria Paradiso


    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies present significant advances in spatially-related information and communication systems. They may greatly enhance disaster prevention and crisis management. However, the ways by which ICTs culturally affect people-environment relations (hazard perception, citizen preparedness, relief, recovery, and resilience have not been sufficiently investigated. This paper attempts to compare people’s behaviour when coping with hazards and disasters along three ages: oral word, mass media mediation, and ICTs mediation. The paper then presents an overarching model of coping with disasters and guidelines for ICT uses in a full disaster cycle.

  2. Preparing for disasters: education and management strategies explored.

    Alfred, Danita; Chilton, Jenifer; Connor, Della; Deal, Belinda; Fountain, Rebecca; Hensarling, Janice; Klotz, Linda


    During the last half of the 20th century, the focus of nursing changed from home and field to high-tech clinics and hospitals. Nursing in the absence of technology due to man-made or natural disasters almost disappeared from the curriculum of many nursing schools. Numerous disaster events and threats in the early 21st century caused educators and practitioners to increase the emphasis on disaster nursing and those principles that guide the nurse's practice in response to disasters. This article chronicles tools used by nurse educators to integrate disaster nursing into the didactic and clinical experiences of baccalaureate nursing students. We represent two nursing schools about 90 miles apart that collaborated to provide students with practical application of disaster nursing concepts. Part 1: An educational journey toward disaster nursing competencies: A curriculum in action provides an overview of the curricular tools used to insure adequate coverage of disaster nursing concepts across the curriculum. Part 2: Collaborative learning in Community Health Nursing for emergency preparedness relates the steps taken to plan, implement, and evaluate two different collaborative disaster simulation events. In this manuscript we have attempted transparency so that others can learn from our successes and our failures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergency Preparedness and Response - Lightning

    ... NCEH’s Health Studies Branch Related CDC Resources Floods Hurricanes Tornadoes Health and Safety Concerns for All Disasters Illnesses, ... more. Disasters & Severe Weather Earthquakes Extreme Heat Floods Hurricanes Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Language: English Español ( ...

  4. [Disaster medicine].

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline


    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations.

  5. Surviving Disasters

    Henke, Karen Greenwood


    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  6. The National Library of Medicine’s Disaster Information Management Research Center

    Steven Joseph Phillips


    Full Text Available The Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC develops and provides access to health information resources and technology for disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. DIMRC focuses on maintaining access to health information at all phases of disasters, developing innovative products and services for emergency personnel, conducting research to support disaster health information management, and collaborating with other agencies and communities. Several tools are available to help emergency responders in hazardous materials or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear incidents. Access to the literature is made available through PubMed and the Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health, with links to online documents and resources from numerous organizations and government agencies. In addition, DIMRC supports the Disaster Information Specialist Program, a collaborative effort to explore and promote the role of librarians and information specialists in the provision of disaster-related information resources to the workforce and communities.

  7. Addressing the Needs of Children With Disabilities Experiencing Disaster or Terrorism.

    Stough, Laura M; Ducy, Elizabeth McAdams; Kang, Donghyun


    This paper reviews the empirical literature on psychosocial factors relating to children with disabilities in the context of disaster or terrorism. Research indicates adults with disabilities experience increased exposure to hazards due to existing social disparities and barriers associated with disability status. However, studies on the psychological effects of disaster/terrorism on children with pre-existing disabilities are exceedingly few and empirical evidence of the effectiveness of trauma-focused therapies for this population is limited. Secondary adversities, including social stigma and health concerns, also compromise the recovery of these children post-disaster/terrorism. Schools and teachers appear to be particularly important in the recovery of children with disabilities from disaster. Disasters, terrorism, and war all contribute to increased incidence of disability, as well as disproportionately affect children with pre-existing disabilities. Disaster preparedness interventions and societal changes are needed to decrease the disproportionate environmental and social vulnerability of children with disabilities to disaster and terrorism.

  8. Preparedness Now! An Emergency Survival Guide

    Edwards, Aton


    In uncertain times, a solid preparedness plan is essential for every individual and family. PREPAREDNESS NOW! navigates the new realities of twenty-first century living: extreme weather, economic instability, terror attacks, and more. Packed with checklists, resources, and step-by-step instructions, PREPAREDNESS NOW! details everything needed for office, car, and home preparedness. This newly expanded and revised edition includes an extended chapter on food and water storage and urban gardening, techniques in personal defense, and the latest and best preparedness products on the market. This b

  9. Back-to-School Preparedness


    CDC provides direction, support, and coordination to help the public be prepared. This podcast discusses how parents and students can be prepared at school.  Created: 7/28/2014 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/31/2014.

  10. Preparedness Portfolios and Portfolio Studios

    Turns, Jennifer; Sattler, Brook; Eliot, Matt; Kilgore, Deborah; Mobrand, Kathryn


    We live in a time of great enthusiasm for the role that e-Portfolios can play in education and a time of exploration in which educators and researchers are investigating different approaches to using ePortfolios to differentially support educational goals. In this paper, we focus on preparedness portfolios and portfolio studios as two key…

  11. Emergency Preparedness: Are You Ready?

    Harley, Lorraine


    Most Americans who consider emergency preparedness think of someone or another country attacking the United States. Most newspaper and televised accounts involve community leaders and policymakers preparing for a terrorist attack. However, anyone who operates a child care center, family child care home, or has children of her own, knows that…

  12. Tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece

    Marios Karagiannis, Georgios; Synolakis, Costas


    Greece is vulnerable to tsunamis, due to the length of the coastline, its islands and its geographical proximity to the Hellenic Arc, an active subduction zone. Historically, about 10% of all world tsunamis occur in the Mediterranean region. Here we review existing tsunami disaster risk management capabilities in Greece. We analyze capabilities across the disaster management continuum, including prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. Specifically, we focus on issues like legal requirements, stakeholders, hazard mitigation practices, emergency operations plans, public awareness and education, community-based approaches and early-warning systems. Our research is based on a review of existing literature and official documentation, on previous projects, as well as on interviews with civil protection officials in Greece. In terms of tsunami disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, the lack of tsunami inundation maps, except for some areas in Crete, makes it quite difficult to get public support for hazard mitigation practices. Urban and spatial planning tools in Greece allow the planner to take into account hazards and establish buffer zones near hazard areas. However, the application of such ordinances at the local and regional levels is often difficult. Eminent domain is not supported by law and there are no regulatory provisions regarding tax abatement as a disaster prevention tool. Building codes require buildings and other structures to withstand lateral dynamic earthquake loads, but there are no provisions for resistance to impact loading from water born debris Public education about tsunamis has increased during the last half-decade but remains sporadic. In terms of disaster preparedness, Greece does have a National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) and is a Member of UNESCO's Tsunami Program for North-eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and connected seas (NEAM) region. Several exercises have been organized in the framework of the NEAM Tsunami Warning

  13. On Line Disaster Response Community: People as Sensors of High Magnitude Disasters Using Internet GIS

    Kris Kodrich


    Full Text Available The Indian Ocean tsunami (2004 and Hurricane Katrina (2005 reveal the coming of age of the on-line disaster response community. Due to the integration of key geospatial technologies (remote sensing - RS, geographic information systems - GIS, global positioning systems – GPS and the Internet, on-line disaster response communities have grown. They include the traditional aspects of disaster preparedness, response, recovery, mitigation, and policy as facilitated by governmental agencies and relief response organizations. However, the contribution from the public via the Internet has changed significantly. The on-line disaster response community includes several key characteristics: the ability to donate money quickly and efficiently due to improved Internet security and reliable donation sites; a computer-savvy segment of the public that creates blogs, uploads pictures, and disseminates information – oftentimes faster than government agencies, and message boards to create interactive information exchange in seeking family members and identifying shelters. A critical and novel occurrence is the development of “people as sensors” - networks of government, NGOs, private companies, and the public - to build rapid response databases of the disaster area for various aspects of disaster relief and response using geospatial technologies. This paper examines these networks, their products, and their future potential.

  14. Urban Gaming Simulation for Enhancing Disaster Resilience. A Social Learning Tool for Modern Disaster Risk Management

    Sarunwit Promsaka Na Sakonnakron


    Full Text Available An emergence of the disaster resilience concept broadens the idea of urban risk management and, at the same time, enhances a theoretical aspect in a way in which we can develop our cities without making it more vulnerable to natural disasters.  Nevertheless, this theoretical plausibility is hardly translated into a practical implication for urban planning, as the concept of resilience remain limited to some scholars’ debate. One of substantial factors that limit the understanding of people about disaster risk an resilience is a lack of risk awareness and risk preparedness, which can be solved by restructuring social learning process that enable a process of mutual learning between experts and the public. This study, therefore, focuses on providing insights into the difficulties of disaster risk communication we face, and how gaming simulation can be taken as a communication technique in enhancing social learning, which is regarded as a fundamental step of disaster risk management prior the mitigation process takes place. The study argues that the gaming simulation can facilitate planners in acquiring risk information from the community, conceiving the multitude of complex urban physical and socio-economic components, and conceptualizing innovative solutions to cope with disaster risks mutually with the public.

  15. Simulating and Communicating Outcomes in Disaster Management Situations

    Michal Lichter


    Full Text Available An important, but overlooked component of disaster managment is raising the awareness and preparedness of potential stakeholders. We show how recent advances in agent-based modeling and geo-information analytics can be combined to this effect. Using a dynamic simulation model, we estimate the long run outcomes of two very different urban disasters with severe consequences: an earthquake and a missile attack. These differ in terms of duration, intensity, permanence, and focal points. These hypothetical shocks are simulated for the downtown area of Jerusalem. Outcomes are compared in terms of their potential for disaster mitigation. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the simulation yield rich outputs. Web-based mapping is used to visualize these results and communicate risk to policy makers, planners, and the informed public. The components and design of this application are described. Implications for participatory disaster management and planning are discussed.

  16. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Margot Hill Clarvis; Erin Bohensky; Masaru Yarime


    As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilienc...

  17. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Gholamreza Khademipour


    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  18. Medical student disaster medicine education: the development of an educational resource.

    Pfenninger, Ernst G; Domres, Bernd D; Stahl, Wolfgang; Bauer, Andreas; Houser, Christine M; Himmelseher, Sabine


    Disaster medicine education is an enormous challenge, but indispensable for disaster preparedness. We aimed to develop and implement a disaster medicine curriculum for medical student education that can serve as a peer-reviewed, structured educational guide and resource. Additionally, the process of designing, approving and implementing such a curriculum is presented. The six-step approach to curriculum development for medical education was used as a formal process instrument. Recognized experts from professional and governmental bodies involved in disaster health care provided input using disaster-related physician training programs, scientific evidence if available, proposals for education by international disaster medicine organizations and their expertise as the basis for content development. The final course consisted of 14 modules composed of 2-h units. The concepts of disaster medicine, including response, medical assistance, law, command, coordination, communication, and mass casualty management, are introduced. Hospital preparedness plans and experiences from worldwide disaster assistance are reviewed. Life-saving emergency and limited individual treatment under disaster conditions are discussed. Specifics of initial management of explosive, war-related, radiological/nuclear, chemical, and biological incidents emphasizing infectious diseases and terrorist attacks are presented. An evacuation exercise is completed, and a mass casualty triage is simulated in collaboration with local disaster response agencies. Decontamination procedures are demonstrated at a nuclear power plant or the local fire department, and personal decontamination practices are exercised. Mannequin resuscitation is practiced while personal protective equipment is utilized. An interactive review of professional ethics, stress disorders, psychosocial interventions, and quality improvement efforts complete the training. The curriculum offers medical disaster education in a reasonable time

  19. Pediatric disaster simulation in graduate and undergraduate nursing education.

    Austin, Elizabeth N; Hannafin, Nancy M; Nelson, H Wayne


    A university partnered with community agencies to include children and parents in a mass casualty full scale exercise on an academic campus. Nursing undergraduate students provided care to students in a multidisciplinary environment that involved hundreds of victims and health care personnel. One graduate nursing student worked with a youth theater group to provide disaster preparedness education to the children, culminating in their participation in the disaster exercise. Parents reported that the exercise was positive, that they would participate again, and that their children enjoyed the experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. What tourist business managers must learn from disaster research.

    Drabek, Thomas E


    Death and social disruption caused by disasters of varying forms will continue to increase in the future. So too will the impacts on tourism, now one of the fastest growing and largest sectors of the worldwide economy. Tourist business managers must implement evidence-based preparedness activities to enhance the survival potential and future profitability of their firms. Drawing upon recent research studies of the tourist industry during times of crisis and the broad social science knowledge base regarding human responses to disaster, seven key lessons are described. Emergency managers must facilitate the incorporation of these lessons into the culture of tourist business managers.

  1. Healthcare logistics in disaster planning and emergency management: A perspective.

    VanVactor, Jerry D


    This paper discusses the role of healthcare supply chain management in disaster mitigation and management. While there is an abundance of literature examining emergency management and disaster preparedness efforts across an array of industries, little information has been directed specifically toward the emergency interface, interoperability and unconventional relationships among civilian institutions and the US Department of Defense (US DoD) or supply chain operations involved therein. To address this imbalance, this paper provides US DoD healthcare supply chain managers with concepts related to communicating and planning more effectively. It is worth remembering, however, that all disasters are local - under the auspice of tiered response involving federal agencies, the principal responsibility for responding to domestic disasters and emergencies rests with the lowest level of government equipped and able to deal with the incident effectively. As such, the findings are equally applicable to institutions outside the military. It also bears repeating that every crisis is unique: there is no such thing as a uniform response for every incident. The role of the US DoD in emergency preparedness and disaster planning is changing and will continue to do so as the need for roles in support of a larger effort also continues to change.

  2. Conceptual Framework for Educational Disaster Centre "save the Children Life"

    Bandrova, T.; Kouteva, M.; Pashova, L.; Savova, D.; Marinova, S.


    Millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters each year, among which women, children, elderly persons, people with disabilities or special needs, prisoners, certain members of ethnic minorities, people with language barriers, and the impoverished are the most vulnerable population groups in case of emergencies. Many national and international organizations are involved in Early Warning and Crisis Management training, particularly focused on the special target to safe children and improve their knowledge about disasters. The success of these efforts is based on providing the specific information about disaster preparedness and emergency in adapted for children educational materials, accompanied with simple illustrative explanations for easy and fast understanding of the disasters. The active participation of the children in the educational activities through appropriate presenting the information, short training seminars and entertaining games will increase their resilience and will contribute significantly to their preparedness and adequate response in emergency situations. This paper aims to present the conceptual framework of a project for establishing an Educational Disaster Centre (EDC) "Save the children life" at University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG), providing relevant justification of the necessity to organize such centre in Bulgaria and discussing good practices in Europe and worldwide for children' education and training in case of disastrous event. General concepts for educational materials and children training are shared. Appropriate equipment for the EDC is shortly described.

  3. Geophysical Hazards and Preventive Disaster Management of Extreme Natural Events

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Takeuchi, K.


    Geophysical hazard is potentially damaging natural event and/or phenomenon, which may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Extreme natural hazards are a key manifestation of the complex hierarchical nonlinear Earth system. An understanding, accurate modeling and forecasting of the extreme hazards are most important scientific challenges. Several recent extreme natural events (e.g., 2004 Great Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami and the 2005 violent Katrina hurricane) demonstrated strong coupling between solid Earth and ocean, and ocean and atmosphere. These events resulted in great humanitarian tragedies because of a weak preventive disaster management. The less often natural events occur (and the extreme events are rare by definition), the more often the disaster managers postpone the preparedness to the events. The tendency to reduce the funding for preventive disaster management of natural catastrophes is seldom follows the rules of responsible stewardship for future generations neither in developing countries nor in highly developed economies where it must be considered next to malfeasance. Protecting human life and property against earthquake disasters requires an uninterrupted chain of tasks: from (i) understanding of physics of the events, analysis and monitoring, through (ii) interpretation, modeling, hazard assessment, and prediction, to (iii) public awareness, preparedness, and preventive disaster management.

  4. The 2015 Nepal earthquake disaster: lessons learned one year on.

    Hall, M L; Lee, A C K; Cartwright, C; Marahatta, S; Karki, J; Simkhada, P


    The 2015 earthquake in Nepal killed over 8000 people, injured more than 21,000 and displaced a further 2 million. One year later, a national workshop was organized with various Nepali stakeholders involved in the response to the earthquake. The workshop provided participants an opportunity to reflect on their experiences and sought to learn lessons from the disaster. One hundred and thirty-five participants took part and most had been directly involved in the earthquake response. They included representatives from the Ministry of Health, local and national government, the armed forces, non-governmental organizations, health practitioners, academics, and community representatives. Participants were divided into seven focus groups based around the following topics: water, sanitation and hygiene, hospital services, health and nutrition, education, shelter, policy and community. Facilitated group discussions were conducted in Nepalese and the key emerging themes are presented. Participants described a range of issues encountered, some specific to their area of expertize but also more general issues. These included logistics and supply chain challenges, leadership and coordination difficulties, impacts of the media as well as cultural beliefs on population behaviour post-disaster. Lessons identified included the need for community involvement at all stages of disaster response and preparedness, as well as the development of local leadership capabilities and community resilience. A 'disconnect' between disaster management policy and responses was observed, which may result in ineffective, poorly planned disaster response. Finding time and opportunity to reflect on and identify lessons from disaster response can be difficult but are fundamental to improving future disaster preparedness. The Nepal Earthquake National Workshop offered participants the space to do this. It garnered an overwhelming sense of wanting to do things better, of the need for a Nepal-centric approach

  5. A Location Based Communication Proposal for Disaster Crisis Management

    Gülnerman, A. G.; Goksel, C.; Tezer, A.


    The most vital applications within urban applications under the title of Geographical Information system applications are Disaster applications. Especially, In Turkey the most occured disaster type Earthquakes impacts are hard to retain in urban due to greatness of area, data and effected resident or victim. Currently, communications between victims and institutions congested and collapsed, after disaster that results emergency service delay and so secondary death and desperation. To avoid these types of life loss, the communication should be established between public and institutions. Geographical Information System Technology is seen capable of data management techniques and communication tool. In this study, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal designed as a communication tool based on GIS, after disaster, takes locational emegency demands, meets emergency demands over notification maps which is created by those demands,increase public solidarity by visualizing close emergency demanded area surrounded another one and gathers emergency service demanded institutions notifications and aims to increasethe capability of management. This design prosals' leading role is public. Increase in capability depends on public major contribution to disaster management by required communication infrastructure establishment. The aim is to propound public power instead of public despiration. Apart from general view of disaster crisis management approaches, Life Saving Kiosk Modal Proposal indicates preparedness and response phases within the disaster cycle and solve crisis management with the organization of design in preparedness phase, use in response phase. This resolution modal flow diagram is builded between public, communication tool (kiosk) amd response force. The software is included in communication tools whose functions, interface designs and user algorithms are provided considering the public participation. In this study, disaster crisis management with public

  6. Preparing routine health information systems for immediate health responses to disasters.

    Aung, Eindra; Whittaker, Maxine


    During disaster times, we need specific information to rapidly plan a disaster response, especially in sudden-onset disasters. Due to the inadequate capacity of Routine Health Information Systems (RHIS), many developing countries face a lack of quality pre-disaster health-related data and efficient post-disaster data processes in the immediate aftermath of a disaster. Considering the significance of local capacity during the early stages of disaster response, RHIS at local, provincial/state and national levels need to be strengthened so that they provide relief personnel up-to-date information to plan, organize and monitor immediate relief activities. RHIS professionals should be aware of specific information needs in disaster response (according to the Sphere Project's Humanitarian Minimum Standards) and requirements in data processes to fulfil those information needs. Preparing RHIS for disasters can be guided by key RHIS-strengthening frameworks; and disaster preparedness must be incorporated into countries' RHIS. Mechanisms must be established in non-disaster times and maintained between RHIS and information systems of non-health sectors for exchanging disaster-related information and sharing technologies and cost.

  7. Performance of district disaster management teams after undergoing an operational level planners' training in Uganda.

    Orach, Christopher Garimol; Mayega, Roy William; Woboya, Vincent; William, Bazeyo


    Uganda is vulnerable to several natural, man-made and a hybrid of disasters including drought, famine, floods, warfare, and disease outbreaks. We assessed the district disaster team's performance, roles and experiences following the training. The disasters most commonly experienced by the district teams were epidemics of diseases in humans (7 of 12), animals (epizoonotics) (3 of 12) and crops (3 of 12); hailstorms and floods (3 of 12). The capabilities viewed most useful for management of disasters were provision of health care services (9/12) and response management (8 of 12). The capability domains most often consulted during the disasters were general response management (31%), health services (29%) and water and sanitation (17%). The skills areas perceived to be vital following the training were response to epidemics 10/12, disaster management planning 8/12, hazards and vulnerability analysis 7/12 and principles of disaster planning 7/12 respectively. Main challenges mentioned by district teams were inadequacy of finance and logistics, lack of commitment by key partners towards disaster preparedness and response. The most common disaster experienced disasters related to outbreaks of diseases in man, animals and crops. The most frequently applied capabilities were response management and provision of emergency health services. The activities most frequently implemented following disaster management teams training were conducting planning meetings, refinement of plans and dissemination of skills gained. The main challenges were related to limited budget allocations and legal frameworks for disaster management that should be addressed by both central and local governments.

  8. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine


    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  9. Tsunami Preparedness in Washington (video)

    Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine


    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Washington distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD) and with funding by the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program.

  10. Delivering Flexible Education and Training to Health Professionals: Caring for Older Adults in Disasters.

    Altman, Brian A; Gulley, Kelly H; Rossi, Carlo; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Schor, Kenneth


    The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH), in collaboration with over 20 subject matter experts, created a competency-based curriculum titled Caring for Older Adults in Disasters: A Curriculum for Health Professionals. Educators and trainers of health professionals are the target audience for this curriculum. The curriculum was designed to provide breadth of content yet flexibility for trainers to tailor lessons, or select particular lessons, for the needs of their learners and organizations. The curriculum covers conditions present in the older adult population that may affect their disaster preparedness, response, and recovery; issues related to specific types of disasters; considerations for the care of older adults throughout the disaster cycle; topics related to specific settings in which older adults receive care; and ethical and legal considerations. An excerpt of the final capstone lesson is included. These capstone activities can be used in conjunction with the curriculum or as part of stand-alone preparedness training. This article describes the development process, elements of each lesson, the content covered, and options for use of the curriculum in education and training for health professionals. The curriculum is freely available online at the NCDMPH website at (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:633-637).

  11. Co-designing communication and hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica

    van Manen, Saskia; Avard, Geoffroy; Martinez, Maria


    Globally volcanic activity results in huge human, social, environmental and economic losses. Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is the concept and systematic practice of reducing disaster risks and associated losses through a wide range of strategies, including efforts to increase knowledge through education and outreach. However, recent studies have shown a substantial gap between risk reduction actions taken at national and local levels, with national policies showing little change at the community level. Yet it is at local levels are where DRR efforts can have the biggest impact. This research focuses on communicating hazard preparedness strategies at Turrialba volcano, Costa Rica. Located in the Central Cordillera just 35 km northeast of Costa Rica's capital city San Jose this 3,340 m high active stratovolcano looms over Costa Rica's Central Valley, the social and economic hub of the country. Following progressive increases in degassing and seismic activity Turrialba resumed activity in 1996 after more than 100 years of quiescence. Since 2007 it has continuously emitted gas and since 2010 intermittent phreatic explosions accompanied by ash emissions have occurred. Despite high levels of hazard salience individuals and communities are not or under-prepared to deal with a volcanic eruption. In light of Turrialba's continued activity engaging local communities with disaster risk management is key. At the local levels culture (collective behaviours, interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understanding) is an important factor in shaping peoples' views, understanding and response to natural phenomena. As such an increasing number of academic studies and intergovernmental organisations advocate for the incorporation of cultural context into disaster risk reduction strategies, which firstly requires documenting people's perception. Therefore approaching community disaster preparedness from a user-centred perspective, through an iterative and collaborative

  12. PERCC Tools: Public Health Preparedness for Clinicians


    CDC’s Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response funds Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) to examine components of the public health system. This podcast is an overview of mental and behavioral health tools developed by the Johns Hopkins PERRC.  Created: 8/29/2011 by Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 8/30/2011.

  13. Critical care management of major disasters: a practical guide to disaster preparation in the intensive care unit.

    Corcoran, Shawn P; Niven, Alexander S; Reese, Jason M


    Recent events and regulatory mandates have underlined the importance of medical planning and preparedness for catastrophic events. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief summary of current commonly identified threats, an overview of mass critical care management, and a discussion of resource allocation to provide the intensive care unit (ICU) director with a practical guide to help prepare and coordinate the activities of the multidisciplinary critical care team in the event of a disaster.

  14. The role of applied epidemiology methods in the disaster management cycle.

    Malilay, Josephine; Heumann, Michael; Perrotta, Dennis; Wolkin, Amy F; Schnall, Amy H; Podgornik, Michelle N; Cruz, Miguel A; Horney, Jennifer A; Zane, David; Roisman, Rachel; Greenspan, Joel R; Thoroughman, Doug; Anderson, Henry A; Wells, Eden V; Simms, Erin F


    Disaster epidemiology (i.e., applied epidemiology in disaster settings) presents a source of reliable and actionable information for decision-makers and stakeholders in the disaster management cycle. However, epidemiological methods have yet to be routinely integrated into disaster response and fully communicated to response leaders. We present a framework consisting of rapid needs assessments, health surveillance, tracking and registries, and epidemiological investigations, including risk factor and health outcome studies and evaluation of interventions, which can be practiced throughout the cycle. Applying each method can result in actionable information for planners and decision-makers responsible for preparedness, response, and recovery. Disaster epidemiology, once integrated into the disaster management cycle, can provide the evidence base to inform and enhance response capability within the public health infrastructure.

  15. Community engagement and pediatric disaster readiness in a large urban disaster resource hospital network: the case of "The Great California ShakeOut".

    Balasuriya, Darshi; Iverson, Ellen; Burke, Rita V; Upperman, Jeffrey S


    We examined the response of 11 Los Angeles County (LAC) hospitals designated as Disaster Resource Centers (DRCs) to a statewide, earthquake preparedness drill, LAC's most comprehensive earthquake disaster drill to date. Semistructured interviews were conducted with the coordinators of 11 of the 14 LAC DRCs within 3 weeks of the drill. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was supported by analytical software (Atlas.ti). Except for one pediatric specialty DRC, most DRCs did little to fully test their institutions' capacity to manage pediatric patients. Few DRCs included children as mock victims. Little or no attention was focused on pediatric triage and other pediatric clinical, psychosocial, and resource issues. Respondents maintained that community readiness is hampered by compartmentalizing the preparedness planning, training, and drilling. Without a mandate to coordinate with other agencies, few DRCs reported coordination with other community entities. Those that did were in smaller submunicipalities within LAC. Community coordination is critical to effective response to disasters, yet disaster preparedness planning and drills are most often uncoordinated and compartmentalized. Drills and training need to be transdisciplinary and coordinated with other community entities likely to play a role in pediatric disaster management.

  16. Preparedness planning for pandemic influenza among large US maternity hospitals

    A Akers


    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to determine the state of pandemic influenza preparedness and to delineate commonly reported challenges among a sample of larger US national maternity hospitals. This was done given the recent emphasis on hospital disaster planning and the disproportionate morbidity and mortality that pregnant women have suffered in previous influenza pandemics. An internet-based survey was sent to all 12 members of the Council of Women's and Infants' Specialty Hospitals. Questions addressed hospital demographics and overall pandemic preparedness planning, including presence of a pandemic planning committee and the existence of written plans addressing communications, surge capacity, degradation of services, and advance supply planning. Nine of 12 (75% hospitals responded. All had active pandemic planning committees with identified leadership. The majority (78% had written formal plans regarding back-up communications, surge/overflow capacity, and degradation of services. However, fewer (44% reported having written plans in place regarding supply-line/stockpiling of resources. The most common challenges noted were staff and supply coordination, ethical distribution of limited medical resources, and coordination with government agencies. In conclusion, the majority of the Council of Women's and Infants' Specialty Hospitals maternity hospitals have preliminary infrastructure for pandemic influenza planning, but many challenges exist to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes during the next influenza pandemic.

  17. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.


    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  18. Schools As Post-Disaster Shelters: Planning and Management Guidelines for Districts and Sites.

    California State Office of Emergency Services, Sacramento.

    This guidebook outlines a method for preparing school facilities and personnel in the event that schools are needed for disaster shelters. It serves as a blueprint for planning and preparedness. Chapter 1 provides descriptions of actual incidents in which California schools served as emergency shelters. Chapter 2 describes schools' legal…

  19. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.


    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate informa

  20. Perceived Ability to Practice in Disaster Management among Public Health Nurses in Aceh, Indonesia

    Ardia Putra


    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of disaster events around the world has challenged every country to develop better disaster-management strategies. As a part of healthcare system, public health nurses (PHNs should be involved in caring for people in disasters. Currently, there is no known study whether PHNs of Aceh, Indonesia, working with community people who are at high risk of confronting natural disasters, are able to perform their roles and functions regarding disaster management. Methods: 252 PHNs from twenty-seven public health centers in Aceh were studied during November to December 2010 to evaluate their perceived ability to practice regarding disaster management at each disaster phase: preparedness, response, and recovery phase. The perceived ability to practice was assessed by using the 30-statement, five-point Likert-scale (0-4 of Public Health Nurses’ Perceived Ability to Practice Regarding Disaster Management Questionnaire (PHNPP-DMQ. The composite scores of each phase and the total score were calculated and transformed to percentage for ease of presentation across disaster phases.Results: Overall, the PHNs’ perceived ability to practice regarding disaster management in Aceh was at a moderate level (M=74.57%, SD=13.27. The highest mean score was for the recovery phase (M=78%, and the lowest mean score was in the preparedness phase (66.15%.Conclusion: The finding of this study evokes challenges to the local government of Aceh province to further prepare PHNs to increase their ability in disaster management.Keywords: Disaster management, practice, public health nurses

  1. Keeping Communications Flowing During Large-scale Disasters: Leveraging Amateur Radio Innovations for Disaster Medicine.

    Cid, Victor H; Mitz, Andrew R; Arnesen, Stacey J


    Medical facilities may struggle to maintain effective communications during a major disaster. Natural and man-made disasters threaten connectivity by degrading or crippling Internet, cellular/mobile, and landline telephone services across wide areas. Communications among staff, between facilities, and to resources outside the disaster area may be lost for an extended time. A prototype communications system created by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides basic communication services that ensure essential connectivity in the face of widespread infrastructure loss. It leverages amateur radio to provide resilient email service to local users, enabling them to reach intact communications networks outside the disaster zone. Because amateur radio is inexpensive, always available, and sufficiently independent of terrestrial telecommunications infrastructure, it has often augmented telecommunications capabilities of medical facilities. NLM's solution is unique in that it provides end-user to end-user direct email communications, without requiring the intervention of a radio operator in the handling of the messages. Medical staff can exchange email among themselves and with others outside the communications blackout zone. The technology is portable, is deployable on short notice, and can be powered in a variety of ways to adapt to the circumstances of each crisis. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017; page 1 of 8).

  2. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program.

    Miller, Aubrey; Yeskey, Kevin; Garantziotis, Stavros; Arnesen, Stacey; Bennett, April; O'Fallon, Liam; Thompson, Claudia; Reinlib, Les; Masten, Scott; Remington, James; Love, Cindy; Ramsey, Steve; Rosselli, Richard; Galluzzo, Betsy; Lee, Joy; Kwok, Richard; Hughes, Joseph


    The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions-such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  3. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Miller, Aubrey; Yeskey, Kevin; Garantziotis, Stavros; Arnesen, Stacey; Bennett, April; O’Fallon, Liam; Thompson, Claudia; Reinlib, Les; Masten, Scott; Remington, James; Love, Cindy; Ramsey, Steve; Rosselli, Richard; Galluzzo, Betsy; Lee, Joy; Kwok, Richard; Hughes, Joseph


    The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness. PMID:27384574

  4. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Aubrey Miller


    Full Text Available The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  5. space technology and nigerian national challenges in disaster management

    O. Akinyede, J., , Dr.; Abdullahi, R.

    One of the sustainable development challenges of any nation is the nation s capacity and capabilities to manage its environment and disaster According to Abiodun 2002 the fundamental life support systems are air clean water and food or agricultural resources It also includes wholesome environment shelter and access to energy health and education All of these constitute the basic necessities of life whose provision and preservation should be a pre-occupation of the visionary leaders executive legislative and judiciary of any nation and its people in order to completely eradicate ignorance unemployment poverty and disease and also increase life expectancy Accordingly many societies around the globe including Nigeria are embarking on initiatives and developing agenda that could address redress the threats to the life supporting systems Disaster prevention management and reduction therefore present major challenges that require prompt attention locally nationally regionally and globally Responses to disasters vary from the application of space-derived data for disaster management to the disbursement of relief to the victims and the emplacement of recovery measures The role of space technology in particular in all the phases of disaster management planning against disaster disaster early warning risk reduction preparedness crises and damage assessment response and relief disbursement and recovery and reconstruction cannot be overemphasized Akinyede 2005 Therefore this paper seeks to focus on space

  6. Principles of disaster planning for the pediatric population.

    Allen, Gwenn M; Parrillo, Steven J; Will, Jean; Mohr, Johnathon A


    Unique physiological, developmental, and psychological attributes of children make them one of the more vulnerable populations during mass-casualty incidents. Because of their distinctive vulnerabilities, it is crucial that pediatric needs are incorporated into every stage of disaster planning. Individuals, families, and communities can help mitigate the effects of disasters on pediatric populations through ongoing awareness and preventive practices. Mitigation efforts also can be achieved through education and training of the healthcare workforce. Preparedness activities include gaining Emergency Medical Services for Children Pediatric Facility Recognition, conducting pediatric disaster drills, improving pediatric surge capacity, and ensuring that the needs of children are incorporated into all levels of disaster plans. Pediatric response can be improved in a number of ways, including: (1) enhanced pediatric disaster expertise; (2) altered decontamination protocols that reflect pediatric needs; and (3) minimized parent-child separation. Recovery efforts at the pediatric level include promoting specific mental health therapies for children and incorporating children into disaster relief and recovery efforts. Improving pediatric emergency care needs should be at the forefront of every disaster planner's agenda.

  7. Communicating public health preparedness information to pregnant and postpartum women: an assessment of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web pages.

    McDonough, Brianna; Felter, Elizabeth; Downes, Amia; Trauth, Jeanette


    Pregnant and postpartum women have special needs during public health emergencies but often have inadequate levels of disaster preparedness. Thus, improving maternal emergency preparedness is a public health priority. More research is needed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to how preparedness information is communicated to these women. A sample of web pages from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intended to address the preparedness needs of pregnant and postpartum populations was examined for suitability for this audience. Five of the 7 web pages examined were considered adequate. One web page was considered not suitable and one the raters split between not suitable and adequate. None of the resources examined were considered superior. If these resources are considered some of the best available to pregnant and postpartum women, more work is needed to improve the suitability of educational resources, especially for audiences with low literacy and low incomes.

  8. Ebola Preparedness Planning and Collaboration by Two Health Systems in Wisconsin, September to December 2014.

    Leonhardt, Kathryn Kraft; Keuler, Megan; Safdar, Nasia; Hunter, Paul


    We describe the collaborative approach used by 2 health systems in Wisconsin to plan and prepare for the threat of Ebola virus disease. This was a descriptive study of the preparedness planning, infection prevention, and collaboration with public health agencies undertaken by 2 health systems in Wisconsin between September and December 2014. The preparedness approach used by the 2 health systems relied successfully on their robust infrastructure for planning and infection prevention. In the setting of rapidly evolving guidance and unprecedented fear regarding Ebola, the 2 health systems enhanced their response through collaboration and coordination with each other and government public health agencies. Key lessons learned included the importance of a rigorous planning process, robust infection prevention practices, and coalitions between public and private health sectors. The potential threat of Ebola virus disease stimulated emergency preparedness in which acute care facilities played a leading role in the public health response. Leveraging the existing expertise of health systems is essential when faced with emerging infectious diseases. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:691-697).

  9. Involving Youth in Community Emergency Preparedness: Impacts of a Multistate Initiative

    Pamela Powell


    Full Text Available The National Preparedness Guidelines (2007 state, “as uniformed responders account for less than 1% of the total U.S. population, it is clear that citizens must be better prepared, trained, and practiced on how best to take care of themselves and assist others in those first crucial hours during and after a catastrophic incident.” This is increasingly more evident due to recent disasters such as hurricane Katrina. The Alert, Evacuate and Shelter (AES program identified and trained youth/adult teams to use geospatial technology to map shelter locations and evacuation routes. Training began with team building activities to strengthen and build youth/adult preparedness partnerships. Program evaluations revealed a major shift in thinking about the positive potential level of involvement of youth in emergencies. Survey results immediately following trainings revealed statistically significant increases in participant knowledge gain regarding emergency preparedness. Follow-up evaluations indicate the success of this project in meeting community preparedness goals.

  10. Collaboration Between Academia and Practice: Interprofessional Crises Leadership and Disaster Management.

    Hoying, Cheryl; Farra, Sharon; Mainous, Rosalie; Baute, Rebecca; Gneuhs, Matthew


    An innovative interprofessional disaster preparedness program was designed and implemented through an academic-practice partnership between a large midwestern children's hospital and a community-based state university. This course was part of a constellation of courses developed in response to Presidential Directive (HSPD) 8, a mandate to standardize disaster response training that was issued after the inefficiencies following Hurricane Katrina. A hybrid immersive and didactic approach was used to train senior leadership and frontline clinicians. Included were simulated experiences at the National Center for Medical Readiness, a workshop, and online modules. The program that focused on crisis leadership and disaster management was developed and implemented to serve patient-centered organizations.

  11. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty


    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Nephrology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda


    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  13. Rural Hospital Preparedness for Neonatal Resuscitation

    Jukkala, Angela; Henly, Susan J.; Lindeke, Linda


    Context: Neonatal resuscitation is a critical component of perinatal services in all settings. Purpose: To systematically describe preparedness of rural hospitals for neonatal resuscitation, and to determine whether delivery volume and level of perinatal care were associated with overall preparedness or its indicators. Methods: We developed the…

  14. Rhode Island School Terrorist Attack Preparedness

    Dube, Michael W. M.


    This study examined the state of safety and terrorist attack preparedness in Rhode Island Schools as determined by Rhode Island school leader perceptions. The study is descriptive in nature as it gathers data to describe a particular event or situation. Using a researcher generated survey based on terrorist preparedness guidelines and suggestions…

  15. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness


    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness... responders during emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to operational...

  16. Social justice in pandemic preparedness.

    DeBruin, Debra; Liaschenko, Joan; Marshall, Mary Faith


    Pandemic influenza planning in the United States violates the demands of social justice in 2 fundamental respects: it embraces the neutrality of procedural justice at the expense of more substantive concern with health disparities, thus perpetuating a predictable and preventable social injustice, and it fails to move beyond lament to practical planning for alleviating barriers to accessing care. A pragmatic social justice approach, addressing both health disparities and access barriers, should inform pandemic preparedness. Achieving social justice goals in pandemic response is challenging, but strategies are available to overcome the obstacles. The public engagement process of one state's pandemic ethics project influenced the development of these strategies.

  17. Climatological/meteorological and hydrological disasters and the insurance sector

    Murat Türkeş


    Full Text Available Climate change is a continual fact during the Earth’s history. There had been many significant changes in the Earth’s climate during its evolutionary history and a lot of ecosystems had been affected by these changes. Especially the industrialization process showing rapid movement after industrial revolution has put serious pressure on the present and future climate. Human activities such as increased fossil fuel usage with the industrialization process, land-use changes, industrial processes and deforestation have increased atmospheric accumulation up of the various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O. On the other hand, increase in frequency and severity of natural disasters can be explained mostly by the increase of the probability of extreme events due to the climate change. Increased numbers of people have been affected by climatological and meteorological catastrophes in every year. Various actions and activities such as disaster preparedness, mitigation, reduction and prevention of the impacts and early warnings are considerable with respect to the insurance sector. These activities and actions should be implemented in the frame of contemporary and comprehensive disaster management planes. Scope of the natural disaster should be expanded particularly in the countries and regions that are vulnerable to the impacts of the climate change and variability including drought events and/or natural disasters. Moreover, drought events should also be accepted as one of the severe natural disasters, and sustainable and applicable drought management plans should be developed in order to mitigate these disasters. In this context, main purpose of the study is to classify and shortly assess the climatological and meteorological disasters, and to attract attention necessity of a new disaster insurance system containing these disasters.

  18. A new preparedness policy for EMS logistics.

    Lee, Seokcheon


    Response time in emergency medical services (EMS) is defined as the interval for an ambulance to arrive the scene after receipt of a 911 call. When several ambulances are available upon the receipt of a new call, a decision of selecting an ambulance has to be made in an effort to reduce response time. Dispatching the closest unit available is commonly used in practice; however, recently the Preparedness policy was designed that is in a simplistic form yet being capable of securing a long-term efficiency. This research aims to improve the Preparedness policy, resolving several critical issues inherent in the current form of the policy. The new Preparedness policy incorporates a new metric of preparedness based on the notion of centrality and involves a tuning parameter, weight on preparedness, which has to be appropriately chosen according to operational scenario. Computational experiment shows that the new policy significantly improves the former policy robustly in various scenarios.

  19. The Components of Community Awareness and Preparedness; its Effects on the Reduction of Tsunami Vulnerability and Risk

    Tufekci, Duygu; Lutfi Suzen, Mehmet; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet


    The resilience of coastal communities against tsunamis are dependent on preparedness of the communities. Preparedness covers social and structural components which increases with the awareness in the community against tsunamis. Therefore, proper evaluation of all components of preparedness will help communities to reduce the adverse effects of tsunamis and increase the overall resilience of communities. On the other hand, the complexity of the metropolitan life with its social and structural components necessitates explicit vulnerability assessments for proper determination of tsunami risk, and development of proper mitigation strategies and recovery plans. Assessing the vulnerability and resilience level of a region against tsunamis and efforts for reducing the tsunami risk are the key components of disaster management. Since increasing the awareness of coastal communities against tsunamis is one of the main objectives of disaster management, then it should be considered as one of the parameter in tsunami risk analysis. In the method named MetHuVA (METU - Metropolitan Human Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment) proposed by Cankaya et al., (2016) and Tufekci et al., (2016), the awareness and preparedness level of the community is revealed to be an indispensable parameter with a great effect on tsunami risk. According to the results obtained from those studies, it becomes important that the awareness and preparedness parameter (n) must be analyzed by considering their interaction and all related components. While increasing awareness can be achieved, vulnerability and risk will be reduced. In this study the components of awareness and preparedness parameter (n) is analyzed in different categories by considering administrative, social, educational, economic and structural preparedness of the coastal communities. Hence the proposed awareness and preparedness parameter can properly be analyzed and further improvements can be achieved in vulnerability and risk analysis

  20. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian


    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  1. Tsunami Preparedness in California (videos)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine


    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. These videos about tsunami preparedness in California distinguish between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of each region. They offer guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. These videos were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA) and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E).

  2. Psychometric Properties of Disaster Event Reaction Items From the Crisis Counseling Individual/Family Encounter Log.

    Uekawa, Kazuaki; Higgins, William Bryan; Golenbock, Samuel; Mack, Amy R; Bellamy, Nikki D


    The purpose of this article was to examine the psychometric properties of the Crisis Counseling Assistance and Training Program (CCP) data collection instrument, the Individual/Family Encounter Log (IFEL). Data collected from disaster survivors included how they reacted to events in emotional, behavioral, physical, and cognitive domains. These domains are based on conceptual categorization of event reactions and allow CCP staff to provide survivors with referrals to appropriate behavioral health support resources, if warranted. This study explored the factor structure of these survey items to determine how best to use the available information as a screen of disaster-related behavioral health indicators. Specifically, our first research question explored and confirmed the optimal factor structure of the event reaction items, and our second question examined whether the new factor structure was similar across disaster types: hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, and wildfires. Using a factor analytic technique, we tested whether our event reaction outcomes achieved consistent and reliable measurement across different disaster situations. Finally, we assessed how the new subscales were correlated with the type of risk to which CCP disaster survivors were exposed. Our analyses revealed 3 factors: (1) depressive-like, (2) anxiety-like, and (3) somatic. In addition, we found that these factors were coherent for hurricanes, floods, and wildfires, although the basic factor structure was not equivalent for tornadoes. Implications for use of the IFEL in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery are discussed. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:822-831).

  3. Risk Perception and the Psychology of Natural Hazard Preparedness

    Thompson, K. J.; Weber, E. U.


    In the preparedness phase of the disaster cycle, willingness to invest resources in prevention and mitigation doesn't depend only on quantitative judgments of the probability of a disaster. People also evaluate the risks of situations in qualitative ways. Psychological studies of risk perception have shown that risk attitudes toward everyday technologies and activities (e.g., electric power, air travel, smoking) can be mapped onto two orthogonal dimensions: how unknown the risks seem, and how dread or severe they feel. Previously, this psychometric approach to risk perception has focused mostly on man-made risks (e.g., Fischhoff et al. 1978, Slovic 1987). In this paper we examine how natural hazards fit into the established unknown/dread risk space. Hazards that are high on the unknown dimension of risk tend to be perceived as having effects that are unknown to science and to the exposed, uncontrollable, and new. Hazards that rank high on the dread/severity dimension are seen as immediate, catastrophic, highly dreaded on a gut level, new, and likely to be fatal. Perceived risk tends to be highest for hazards that are both high on the dread dimension and low on the unknown dimension. We find that weather-related hazards rank lowest on both dimensions: blizzards, heat waves, hailstorms, fog, and ice storms are all feel very known and not particularly dread. The exception for this group is hurricanes and tornadoes, which are viewed as more similar to geophysical hazards and mass movements: high on dread, though not particularly unknown. Two notable outliers are climate change and sea-level rise, which are both considered very unknown (higher than any other natural hazard save sinkholes), and not at all dread (less dread even than fog and dust storms). But when compared with perceptions of technological hazards, nearly every natural hazard ranks as more dread than any technology or activity, including nuclear power. Man-made hazards fall with technologies, rather than

  4. Disaster in Crisis

    Illner, Peer

    Since the inception of disaster studies in academia after WWII, two kinds of actors have been distinguished as involved in disasters. On the one hand, disasters involve formal actors, such as professional aid workers employed by state-run relief agencies; on the other hand, disasters involve...... initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...

  5. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M


    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  6. The changing emphasis of disasters in Bangladesh NGOs.

    Matin, N; Taher, M


    Bangladesh is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affected by cyclones and floods, as well as chronic hazards such as arsenic poisoning. NGOs have played a major role in bringing concerns related to risk management on to the national agenda and promoting a shift of focus from mere relief response to disaster mitigation and preparedness. The government has, after earlier scepticism, now accepted NGOs as major partners in these tasks. Innovative approaches, such as the use of microfinance, have been applied; many of which are related to preserving the gains of development efforts as part of rehabilitation. NGOs have pressured for better coordination with government. Improved structures are now approved, but it is still too early to judge their impact. Despite progress, neither NGOs nor governmental agencies have clearly defined roles in the effort to link disaster management priorities. This will ensure that longer-term development efforts build on local capacities and reduce vulnerabilities.

  7. Building Capacity for Disaster Resiliency in Six Disadvantaged Communities

    David Salvesen


    Full Text Available Disaster plans almost always do not benefit from the knowledge and values of disadvantaged people who are frequently underrepresented in disaster planning processes. Consequently, the plans are inconsistent with the conditions, concerns, and capabilities of disadvantaged people. We present an approach to community-based participatory planning aimed at engaging marginalized and distrustful communities to build their capacity to be more disaster resilient. We review the experiences of six disadvantaged communities under the Emergency Preparedness Demonstration (EPD project. The EPD effort revealed several critical implications: recruit a diverse set of participants for inclusive collaboration; provide analytical tools to co-develop information and empower people; employ coaches to organize and facilitate sustainable community change; design a bottom-up review process for selection of strategies that holds communities accountable; and build capacity for implementation of strategies.

  8. Society for the Advancement of Disaster Nursing: Exploring the Path to Excellence.

    Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Adelman, Deborah S; Veenema, Tener Goodwin


    Major disasters occurring within the Unites States require nursing participation as a component of a successful response. Disaster nursing includes the care of populations affected by disasters, public health emergencies, and mass casualty events, both natural and man-made. A unique knowledge base, abilities, and skills are needed to respond appropriately to health care and human service needs resulting from these events. Despite prior efforts to advance disaster nursing as a specialty, none were sustainable and a professional framework for establishing standards and guidelines remains lacking. Disaster nursing is a complex arena where the intersection of competence, scope of practice, regulation, and clinical guidelines continues to evolve. Professional credibility and our contribution to disaster response lie in our ability to articulate and advance professionalism. Disaster nursing as a specialty practice requires a similar foundational framework to nursing specialties recognized by the American Nurses Association within a model of professional practice in order to ensure population outcomes that are reflective of safe, quality, evidence-based practice. It is time to define a disaster nursing scope of practice, establish standards for care, identify best practices, and pursue the establishment of an independent professional organization within the field of disaster nursing. This will establish the necessary foundation for optimizing nursing's contribution to and support of the National Health Security Strategy. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 6).

  9. Health care logistics: who has the ball during disaster?

    Vanvactor, Jerry D


    In contemporary organizations, a wide gamut of options is available for sustaining and supporting health care operations. When disaster strikes, despite having tenable plans for routine replenishment and operations, many organizations find themselves ill-prepared, ill-equipped, and without effective mechanisms in place to sustain operations during the immediate aftermath of a crisis. Health care operations can be abruptly halted due to the non-availability of supply. The purpose of this work is to add to a necessary, growing body of works related specifically to health care logistics preparedness and disaster mitigation. Logistics management is a specialized genre of expertise within the health care industry and is largely contributive to the success or failure of health care organizations. Logistics management requires extensive collaboration among multiple stakeholders-internal and external to an organization. Effective processes and procedures can be largely contributive to the success or failure of organizational operations. This article contributes to the closure of an obvious gap in professional and academic literature related to disaster health care logistics management and provides timely insight into a potential problem for leaders industry-wide. One critical aspect of disaster planning is regard for competent logistics management and the effective provision of necessary items when they are needed most. In many communities, there seems to be little evidence available regarding health care logistics involvement in disaster planning; at times, evidence of planning efforts perceptibly end at intra-organizational doors within facilities. Strategic planners are being continually reminded that health care organizations serve a principal role in emergency preparedness planning and must be prepared to fulfill the associated possibilities without notification. The concern is that not enough attention is being paid to repeated lessons being observed in disasters and

  10. Health care logistics: who has the ball during disaster?

    Jerry D. VanVactor


    Full Text Available In contemporary organizations, a wide gamut of options is available for sustaining and supporting health care operations. When disaster strikes, despite having tenable plans for routine replenishment and operations, many organizations find themselves ill-prepared, ill-equipped, and without effective mechanisms in place to sustain operations during the immediate aftermath of a crisis. Health care operations can be abruptly halted due to the non-availability of supply.The purpose of this work is to add to a necessary, growing body of works related specifically to health care logistics preparedness and disaster mitigation. Logistics management is a specialized genre of expertise within the health care industry and is largely contributive to the success or failure of health care organizations. Logistics management requires extensive collaboration among multiple stakeholders—internal and external to an organization. Effective processes and procedures can be largely contributive to the success or failure of organizational operations. This article contributes to the closure of an obvious gap in professional and academic literature related to disaster health care logistics management and provides timely insight into a potential problem for leaders industry-wide.One critical aspect of disaster planning is regard for competent logistics management and the effective provision of necessary items when they are needed most. In many communities, there seems to be little evidence available regarding health care logistics involvement in disaster planning; at times, evidence of planning efforts perceptibly end at intra-organizational doors within facilities. Strategic planners are being continually reminded that health care organizations serve a principal role in emergency preparedness planning and must be prepared to fulfill the associated possibilities without notification. The concern is that not enough attention is being paid to repeated lessons being

  11. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    James L. Regens


    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  12. [A new stream of the next disaster response with a variety of hospital ship in Japan].

    Kato, Soichiro; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro


    In Japan, experience from an earthquake has always provided an opportunity to reconsider measures of disaster preparedness. To facilitate decision-making and its enforcement in a large-scale disaster response, a cross-agency organization and tough infrastructure are required as a foundation of crisis management. In the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident, the Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Management Center could not perform their mission due to the collapse of various infrastructure caused by the earthquake. The archipelago structure of Japan is easy terrain that provides approach from the shore to any place in the country; this makes it possible to plan effective relief operations. Therefore, in preparing for the next large-scale disaster, the use of a hospital ship has been discussed as one of the strong bases to combat collapse of infrastructure. For effective utilization of the ship, we will discuss the main points collated from experience of past disaster responses and training.

  13. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick


    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur. PMID:24783188

  14. Disaster nursing experiences of Chinese nurses responding to the Sichuan Ya'an earthquake.

    Li, Y H; Li, S J; Chen, S H; Xie, X P; Song, Y Q; Jin, Z H; Zheng, X Y


    The aim of this study was to investigate the disaster experiences of nurses called to assist survivors one month after the 2013 Ya'an earthquake. China has experienced an increasing number of earthquake disasters in the past four decades. Although a health and disaster management system was initiated after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, nurses' roles and experiences in a disaster have been overlooked. The researchers used qualitative descriptive design that included 16 participants. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and observation notes, after which a qualitative content analysis was conducted. Three major themes emerged: the process of being dispatched from hospitals to the disaster zone, the effort involved in getting to and working in the affected site and reflecting on the challenges they encountered. About half of the participants had received disaster nursing training before deploying to the disaster site, but they consistently expressed a lack of physical and psychological preparedness regarding the process of being dispatched from their hospitals to the disaster zone. This was a single-incident experience. Caution should be taken when trying to extend the findings to other parts of China. These findings highlighted the need for disaster in-service training as well as for having disaster plans in place. Hospital and nursing leaders should provide disaster training opportunities that included topics such as compiling resource inventories, formulating disaster drills and simulations, managing emergencies, and using emergency communication methods. Health policy-makers should be required to prioritize capacity-building training for front-line nurses as well as to develop and implement disaster management plans to better prepare nurses for future disasters. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Factors Associated with Discussion of Disasters by Final Year High School Students: An International Cross-sectional Survey.

    Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman


    Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better

  16. The US CDC Centers for public health preparedness : building a nationwide exemplar network

    Harris, D.A.; Paulson, G.; Perry, E. [New Jersey Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry, New Brunswick, NJ (United States). School of Public Health


    The network of Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) was created by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in response to the perception that public health professionals were inadequately prepared to respond to terrorism incidents, natural disasters and similar major events. The events of September 11, 2001 and the subsequent anthrax attacks confirmed the wisdom of a concerted approach to emergency preparedness. This paper provides an outline of the network's recent activities as well as a review of the rationale, history and progress of the network to date. In the most recent grant cycle, each center was required to allocate 20 per cent of its resources to network-wide activities, including contribution of CPHP-developed materials to a central resource center maintained by the Association of Schools of Public Health. The materials are publicly available and are to be used in the development of training programs; the establishment of 19 or more exemplar groups that focus on specific preparedness-related knowledge domains such as mental health, educational evaluation methods and field epidemiology, who are also expected to develop tool kits of validated and fully described training materials for use by any CPHP person or group. The outcome of the CPHP network activities is the development of a more comprehensive and robust core of preparedness training materials that aim to facilitate rapid and effective training, while at the same time eliminating redundancy and duplication of effort. It was concluded that the expenditure of 20 per cent of center funds on network development activities is forcing the academically based CPHPs to adopt a new collaborative paradigm in order to ensure effective nationwide preparedness. 3 refs.

  17. Disaster Case Management

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Disaster Case Management Program (DCM) is a time-limited process that involves a partnership between a case manager and a disaster survivor (also known as a...

  18. Nonclinical core competencies and effects of interprofessional teamwork in disaster and emergency response training and practice: a pilot study.

    Peller, Jennifer; Schwartz, Brian; Kitto, Simon


    To define and delineate the nontechnical core competencies required for disaster response, Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) members were interviewed regarding their perspectives and experiences in disaster management. Also explored was the relationship between nontechnical competencies and interprofessional collaboration. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian DMAT members to explore how they viewed nontechnical core competencies and how their experiences influenced their perceptions toward interprofessonalism in disaster response. Data were examined using thematic analysis. Nontechnical core competencies were categorized under austere skills, interpersonal skills, and cognitive skills. Research participants defined interprofessionalism and discussed the importance of specific nontechnical core competencies to interprofessional collaboration. The findings of this study established a connection between nontechnical core competencies and interprofessional collaboration in DMAT activities. It also provided preliminary insights into the importance of context in developing an evidence base for competency training in disaster response and management. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;0:1-8).

  19. Emergency Preparedness for People Living with HIV

    ... Translate Text Size Print Emergency Preparedness Emergencies and HIV/AIDS Emergencies can take many forms. They include ... planning efforts. Emergency Resources for People Living with HIV The Federal Government offers several resources and programs ...

  20. Use of mock media in emergency management exercises: the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program experience.

    Lerner, Ken; Meshenberg, Michael


    Disasters of any kind attract significant attention from news media, and media play an important role in disaster response. In a US government program for hazardous materials preparedness, risk communication functions were incorporated into planning and are demonstrated during response exercises. To provide the best training and most realistic play, exercise controllers play the role of news media reporters-mock media-during these exercises. They attend news conferences, interview exercise players in the field, and make calls to participants. They produce news stories including television reports, newspaper articles, radio spots, blog entries, and social media messages. This allows exercise players to experience how their actions and statements would be represented in the media, more effectively mimicking the environment of a real event.

  1. The effects of terrorism on adult mental health: a public health preparedness approach

    Sameera S. Karnik


    Full Text Available Terrorism is a disruptive man--‐made disaster event challenging human health and wellbeing. It is a hostile activity which brings about much casualty, even death. It not only causes physical casualties but also brings about psychological morbidity and can lead to long term mental disorders. The effects of terrorist attacks on people’s psychological health covers a wide range such as acute stress symptoms to long term disorders like Post--‐traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. The psychological disorder due to traumatic distress is treated with psychotherapies such as psychosocial intervention, psychological debriefing, psychological first aid care, psychological counseling services, and psychoeducation. Government is supporting state and local public health departments to develop efficient public health preparedness planning programs in case of emergency situations. There are some newer approaches working towards enhancing health security and managing responses to a psychological impact of a disaster event like a terrorist attack.

  2. Systems Education for a Sustainable Planet: Preparing Children for Natural Disasters

    Kevin R. Ronan


    Full Text Available This paper first reviews research linked to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction focusing on “child-centred disaster risk reduction” (CC-DRR, highlighting systemic aspects of disaster prevention and preparedness educational programming to date. However, it is also pointed out that education evaluated to date largely assumes a linear, mechanistic approach to preparedness and related resiliency outcomes. Thus, the main thrust of this paper is to elucidate means by which hazards and disaster preparedness education programs for children can shift to systems-based models, those that incorporate both systemic epistemologies but also more systems-based, and interconnected, curricula. This includes curricula that help children connect the physical world and science with the social world and human factors. It also includes the more systemic idea that natural hazards are but one example of a larger category of problems in life related to risk and uncertainty. Thus, a main aim of a systems educational approach is to help children equip themselves with knowledge, skills, motivation and confidence that they can increasingly manage a range of risks in life. This includes an increasing understanding of the added value that can be gained from approaching problems with systemic tools, including producing increasingly effective and sustainable solutions to what public policy refers to as wicked problems.

  3. Knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among health professionals, medical students, and local residents in Shanghai, China.

    Tong Su

    the current needs of disaster preparedness. Continuing medical education and public education plans on disaster medicine via media should be practice-oriented, and selectively applied to different populations and take the knowledge levels and training needs into consideration.

  4. Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network: a public health partnership.

    Ginter, Peter M; Rucks, Andrew C; Duncan, W Jack; Wingate, Martha S; Beeman, S Kenn; Reeves, Jane; West, Maury A


    In the event of a natural or man-made disaster involving large numbers of children, resources in the Southeastern U.S. are extremely limited. This article chronicles the efforts of the Alabama Department of Public Health, the Mississippi State Department of Health, and the South Central Center for Public Health Preparedness in conjunction with more than 40 organizations to develop a voluntary network of health-care providers, public health departments, volunteers, and emergency responders from Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The purpose of the Southeastern Regional Pediatric Disaster Surge Network (the Network) is to improve the pediatric preparedness response strategies of public health, emergency response, and pediatric providers in the event of large-scale emergencies or disasters that overwhelm local or state pediatric resources. The planning and development of the Network is proceeding through three general phases--information sharing, mutual goal setting and collective action, and long-term formal linkages. In Phase 1, critical planning tasks to be undertaken in the development of the Network were identified. In Phase 2, the agencies developed a draft operational handbook that served as the basis for a formal memorandum of understanding. In Phase 3, participants will engage in exercises and evaluations that will further identify and work out logistical and operational details.

  5. Communicating Tsunami Preparedness Through the Lessons Learned by Survivors

    Kerlow, I.


    Often times science communication is reactive and it minimizes the perceptions of the general public. The Tsunami of New Dreams is a film with the testimonies of survivors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Production of the film spanned over five years and dozens of interviews, and is based on a unique geographic, demographic and experiential sampling of the local population. This documentary feature film underscores the importance of Earth science and science communication in building sustainable communities. The film is a lesson in survival and sustainability, and it provides a simple but powerful testimony of what to do and what not to do before and during a tsunami. The film also highlights the direct relationship that exists between disaster survival rates and the knowledge of basic Earth science and preparedness facts. We hope that the human stories presented in the film will serve as a strong motivator for general audiences to learn about natural hazards, preparedness, and Earth science. These engaging narratives can touch the minds and hearts of general audiences much faster than technical lectures in a classroom. Some of the testimonies are happy and others are sad, but they all present the wide range of beliefs that influenced the outcomes of the natural disaster. The interviews with survivors are complemented with unique archival footage of the tsunami and unique footage of daily life in Aceh. Hand-drawn illustrations are used to recreate what survivors did immediately after the earthquake, and during the extreme moments when they faced the tsunami waves. Animated visuals, maps and diagrams enhance the understanding of earthquake and tsunami dynamics. The film is a production of the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) in collaboration with the International Center for Aceh and Indian Ocean Studies (ICAIOS) in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The film is scheduled for release in late 2015. This is a unique

  6. Health sector initiatives for disaster risk management in ethiopia: a narrative review.

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali


    Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventions which have been undertaken in the health sector. Relevant documents were identified by searches in the websites of different sectors in Ethiopian and international non-governmental organizations and United Nations agencies. Using selected keywords, articles were also searched in the data bases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar. In addition, pertinent articles from non-indexed journals were referred to. Disaster management system in Ethiopia focused on response, recovery, and rehabilitation from 1974 to 1988; while the period between 1988 and 1993 marked the transition phase towards a more comprehensive approach. Theoretically, from 1993 onwards, the disaster management system has fully integrated the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness phases into already existing response and recovery approach, particularly for drought. This policy has changed the emergency response practices and the health sector has taken some initiatives in the area of emergency health care. Hence, drought early warning system, therapeutic feeding program in hospitals, health centers and posts in drought prone areas to manage promptly acute malnutrition cases have all been put in place. In addition, public health disease emergencies have been responded to at all levels of health care system. Emergency health responses to drought and its ramifications such as acute malnutrition and epidemics have become more comprehensive in the context of basic disaster management phases; and impacts of drought

  7. Preparedness and response to bioterrorism.

    Spencer, R C; Lightfoot, N F


    As we enter the 21st century the threats of biological warfare and bioterrorism (so called asymmetric threats) appear to be more real than ever before. Historical evidence suggests that biological weapons have been used, with varying degrees of success, for many centuries. Despite the international agreements to ban such weapons, namely the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1975 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, there is no effective international mechanism for challenging either the development of biological weapons or their use. Advances in technology and the rise of fundamentalist terror groups combine to present a significant threat to western democracies. A timely and definitive response to this threat will require co-operation between governments on a scale never seen before. There is a need for proper planning, good communication between various health, home office, defence and intelligence agencies and sufficient financial support for a realistic state of preparedness. The Department of Health has produced guidelines for responding to real or suspected incidents and the Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) has produced detailed protocols to inform the actions required by microbiologists and consultants in communicable disease control. These protocols will be published on the Department of Health and PHLS web sites.

  8. Relative risk perception for terrorism: implications for preparedness and risk communication.

    Caponecchia, Carlo


    Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Applying behavioral science to workforce challenges in the public health emergency preparedness system.

    McCabe, O Lee; DiClemente, Carlo C; Links, Jonathan M


    When disasters and other broad-scale public health emergencies occur in the United States, they often reveal flaws in the pre-event preparedness of those individuals and agencies charged with responsibility for emergency response and recovery activities. A significant contributor to this problem is the unwillingness of some public health workers to participate in the requisite planning, training, and response activities to ensure quality preparedness. The thesis of this article is that there are numerous, empirically supported models of behavior change that hold potential for motivating role-appropriate behavior in public health professionals. The models that are highlighted here for consideration and prospective adaptation to the public health emergency preparedness system (PHEPS) are the Transtheoretical Model of Intentional Behavior Change (TTM) and Motivational Interviewing (MI). Core concepts in TTM and MI are described, and specific examples are offered to illustrate the relevance of the frameworks for understanding and ameliorating PHEPS-based workforce problems. Finally, the requisite steps are described to ensure the readiness of organizations to support the implementation of the ideas proposed.

  10. Community awareness and perceptions of health sector preparedness and response to Cyclone Nargis.

    Myint, N W; Kaewkungwal, J; Singhasivanon, P; Chaisiri, K; Ponpet, P; Siriwan, P; Mallik, A K; Thet, K W


    Community awareness, preparedness and response to public health emergencies are essential for a successful response to public health emergencies. This study was carried out to determine community awareness and perceptions regarding health sector preparedness and response to Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar. Six focus group discussions were carried out in 3 villages severely affected by Cyclone Nargis. Thematic content analysis was carried out to determine community perceptions. Focus group participants, consisting of community members, community leaders and government personnel, were aware of the cyclone, but were unaware of its intensity and where it would make landfall. There was inadequate knowledge on how to prepare for a cyclone. There was some training on cyclone preparation but coverage was not wide enough. Participants received service and relief from health sector; they had a positive attitude toward health services provided to them. However, 5 out of 6 focus groups stated most villagers were not interested in health education. Only a few participants had some knowledge on how to prepare for a cyclone. Based on these results, there are evident weaknesses on how to prepare for cyclones. Community preparedness is essential to prevent disasters with cyclones, such as with Cyclone Nargis.

  11. Proposing a Framework for Mobile Applications in Disaster Health Learning.

    Liu, Alexander G; Altman, Brian A; Schor, Kenneth; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Thomas, Tracy N; Sager, Catherine; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Harp, Victoria


    Mobile applications, or apps, have gained widespread use with the advent of modern smartphone technologies. Previous research has been conducted in the use of mobile devices for learning. However, there is decidedly less research into the use of mobile apps for health learning (eg, patient self-monitoring, medical student learning). This deficiency in research on using apps in a learning context is especially severe in the disaster health field. The objectives of this article were to provide an overview of the current state of disaster health apps being used for learning, to situate the use of apps in a health learning context, and to adapt a learning framework for the use of mobile apps in the disaster health field. A systematic literature review was conducted by using the PRISMA checklist, and peer-reviewed articles found through the PubMed and CINAHL databases were examined. This resulted in 107 nonduplicative articles, which underwent a 3-phase review, culminating in a final selection of 17 articles. While several learning models were identified, none were sufficient as an app learning framework for the field. Therefore, we propose a learning framework to inform the use of mobile apps in disaster health learning. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:487-495).

  12. Smart City: Utilization of IT resources to encounter natural disaster

    Hartama, D.; Mawengkang, Herman; Zarlis, M.; Sembiring, R. W.


    This study proposes a framework for the utilization of IT resources in the face of natural disasters with the concept of Smart City in urban areas, which often face the earthquake, particularly in the city of North Sumatra and Aceh. Smart City is a city that integrates social development, capital, civic participation, and transportation with the use of information technology to support the preservation of natural resources and improved quality of life. Changes in the climate and environment have an impact on the occurrence of natural disasters, which tend to increase in recent decades, thus providing socio-economic impacts for the community. This study suggests a new approach that combines the Geographic Information System (GIS) and Mobile IT-based Android in the form of Geospatial information to encounter disaster. Resources and IT Infrastructure in implementing the Smart Mobility with Mobile service can make urban areas as a Smart City. This study describes the urban growth using the Smart City concept and considers how a GIS and Mobile Systems can increase Disaster Management, which consists of Preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery for recovery from natural disasters.

  13. Self-reported preparedness of New Zealand acute care providers to mass emergencies before the Canterbury Earthquakes: a national survey.

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Gauld, Robin; McBride, David; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Harthy, Abdullah


    Disasters occur more frequently. Acute care providers are the first to respond to mass emergencies from the healthcare sector. The preparedness of acute care providers in New Zealand to respond to mass emergencies has not been previously studied. To assess the self-reported training and experience of New Zealand acute care providers to respond to mass emergencies and the factors associated with strong preparedness. A cross-sectional national survey of 1500 acute care providers in New Zealand carried out between 2009 and 2010. The survey assessed experience, training and self-reported preparedness. It also determined the factors associated with strong perceived preparedness. The response rate to this survey was 60.7%. Nurses had a higher response rate than doctors or paramedics. Only 29.2% of acute care providers reported responding to a previous mass emergency event. There were 53.5% of acute care providers who reported having formal training in how to deal with mass emergencies, whereas 58.1% of participants reported that they were aware of their role during a healthcare mass emergency response. The factors associated with self-reported strong preparedness to deal with mass emergencies included: being a paramedic, previous training, participation in a drill, willingness to report to work during an infection or man-made emergency, ability to triage and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency. Almost half of New Zealand acute healthcare providers have no training in dealing with mass emergency events. Training and general awareness of the role during a mass emergency response were the main factors associated with strong self-reported preparedness of acute care providers. The apparent efficacy of training allied to lack of availability means that it should be a national priority. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Designing Effective Natural Hazards Preparedness Communications: Factors that Influence Perceptions and Action

    Wong-Parodi, G.; Fischhoff, B.


    Even though most people believe that natural hazards preparation is important for mitigating damage to their homes and basic survival in the aftermath of a disaster, few actually disaster-proof their homes, create plans, or obtain supplies recommended by agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Several observational studies suggest that socio-demographic characteristics such as income and psychological characteristics such as self-efficacy affect whether or not an individual takes action to prepare for a natural hazard. These studies, however, only suggest that these characteristics may play a role. There has been little research that systematically investigates how these characteristics play a role in people's perceptions of recommended preparatory activities and decisions to perform them. Therefore, in Study 1, we explore people's perceptions of natural hazards preparedness measures on four dimensions: time, cost, helpfulness, and sense of preparedness. We further investigate if these responses vary by the socio-demographic and psychological characteristics of self-efficacy, knowledge, and income level. In Study 2, we experimentally test whether people's sense of self-efficacy, as it relates to natural hazards, can be manipulated through exposure to an "easy-and-effective" versus a "hard-and-effective" set of preparation measures. Our findings have implications for the design of natural hazards communication materials for the general public.

  15. The Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project - a community-level, public health initiative to build community disaster resilience.

    Eisenman, David; Chandra, Anita; Fogleman, Stella; Magana, Aizita; Hendricks, Astrid; Wells, Ken; Williams, Malcolm; Tang, Jennifer; Plough, Alonzo


    Public health officials need evidence-based methods for improving community disaster resilience and strategies for measuring results. This methods paper describes how one public health department is addressing this problem. This paper provides a detailed description of the theoretical rationale, intervention design and novel evaluation of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience Project (LACCDR), a public health program for increasing community disaster resilience. The LACCDR Project utilizes a pretest-posttest method with control group design. Sixteen communities in Los Angeles County were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental community resilience group or the comparison group. Community coalitions in the experimental group receive training from a public health nurse trained in community resilience in a toolkit developed for the project. The toolkit is grounded in theory and uses multiple components to address education, community engagement, community and individual self-sufficiency, and partnerships among community organizations and governmental agencies. The comparison communities receive training in traditional disaster preparedness topics of disaster supplies and emergency communication plans. Outcome indicators include longitudinal changes in inter-organizational linkages among community organizations, community member responses in table-top exercises, and changes in household level community resilience behaviors and attitudes. The LACCDR Project is a significant opportunity and effort to operationalize and meaningfully measure factors and strategies to increase community resilience. This paper is intended to provide public health and academic researchers with new tools to conduct their community resilience programs and evaluation research. Results are not yet available and will be presented in future reports.

  16. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides.

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro


    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus.

  17. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Gaire, Surya; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro


    Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM). There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC) in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to improve the vulnerability of Nepal, an early warning system, mainstreaming disasters with development, research activities, community participation and awareness, and a rainfall monitoring system must all be a focus. PMID

  18. MAppERS experience: natural processes and preparedness in the societal context

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bossi, Giulia; Mantovani, Matteo; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro


    Within natural processes responsibilities from central authorities to local levels as first actors of civil protection is a changing pattern. Prevention and preparedness in natural hazards are long-term goals based on capacities of professional volunteers, and improving the awareness of the citizens as local inhabitants. Local people have impacts on their lives but training and involvement towards specific techniques change their role within risk communication and emergency preparedness. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a funded project (2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) based on human role as "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone application able to share GPS-localised and detailed parameters. The feedback from testing and the training courses aim to raising public awareness and participation in a networked disaster response. The project implies design and test of smart phone linked with a real-time dashboard platform for rescue services citizens and volunteers of civil protection. Two pilot sites, including trainings on modules functioning control usability and quality of the product. The synchronized platform offers the activity of cloud data collection with a central data dashboard. Information is collected in a context of floods processes, with crowdsourcing action from local population, for proper awareness with own personal flood plan and long-term preparedness. A second context tested pre-emergency actions on field with rescue team, collecting state-of-art and condition of hazards.

  19. Radioanalytical chemistry in emergency preparedness

    Nygren, U


    Radioactive nuclides present a potential health hazard due to the ionising radiation emitted during their decay. The release of large amounts of radioactive nuclides is of concern both for man and the environment. In cases of an accidental (or intentional) release, it is important with early warning systems and rapid methods to determine the extent and composition of the radioactive contamination. Many of the radionuclides released from a nuclear power plant accident or the detonation of a nuclear weapon can be determined by the use of gamma spectrometry. There are, however, some nuclides that are considered to be among the more hazardous that cannot be well determined by this technique, e.g. {sup 90}Sr and the actinides. The determination of these nuclides is usually very time consuming due to the need for their chemical separation prior to counting. Two methods developed for the determination of {sup 90}Sr and actinides in preparedness situations are described in this thesis. The determination of {sup 90}Sr is based on a rapid decomposition of inorganic sample matrixes by lithium-borate fusion and preconcentration of Sr by coprecipitation with calcium oxalate with HF acting as a hold-back carrier for silica. The separation of Sr is then performed by extraction chromatography and measurement by gas-flow proportional counting. The method for actinide-determination is based on collection of the elements from various kinds of sample-materials by the use of two different actinide selective resins. The sample is, in this way, pre concentrated and partially purified prior to the analysis with low-energy gamma spectrometry. Sample preparation by this method only requires 1.5 - 2.5 hours and the sensitivity is sufficient for many of the nuclides of interest. For those nuclides that require a more sensitive analytical finish, the actinides can be removed from the resin and processed further for, e.g., alpha spectrometric determinations.

  20. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    Kelman, Ilan


    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy.

  1. Overview of the critical disaster management challenges faced during Van 2011 earthquakes.

    Tolon, Mert; Yazgan, Ufuk; Ural, Derin N; Goss, Kay C


    On October 23, 2011, a M7.2 earthquake caused damage in a widespread area in the Van province located in eastern Turkey. This strong earthquake was followed by a M5.7 earthquake on November 9, 2011. This sequence of damaging earthquakes led to 644 fatalities. The management during and after these earthquake disaster imposed many critical challenges. In this article, an overview of these challenges is presented based on the observations by the authors in the aftermath of this disaster. This article presents the characteristics of 2011 Van earthquakes. Afterward, the key information related to the four main phases (ie, preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery) of the disaster in Van is presented. The potential strategies that can be taken to improve the disaster management practice are identified, and a set of recommendations are proposed to improve the existing situation.

  2. Innovativ Airborne Sensors for Disaster Management

    Altan, M. O.; Kemper, G.


    Modern Disaster Management Systems are based on 3 columns, crisis preparedness, early warning and the final crisis management. In all parts, special data are needed in order to analyze existing structures, assist in the early warning system and in the updating after a disaster happens to assist the crises management organizations. How can new and innovative sensors assist in these tasks? Aerial images have been frequently used in the past for generating spatial data, however in urban structures not all information can be extracted easily. Modern Oblique camera systems already assist in the evaluation of building structures to define rescue paths, analyze building structures and give also information of the stability of the urban fabric. For this application there is no need of a high geometric accurate sensor, also SLC Camera based Oblique Camera system as the OI X5, which uses Nikon Cameras, do a proper job. Such a camera also delivers worth full information after a Disaster happens to validate the degree of deformation in order to estimate stability and usability for the population. Thermal data in combination with RGB give further information of the building structure, damages and potential water intrusion. Under development is an oblique thermal sensor with 9 heads which enables nadir and oblique thermal data acquisition. Beside the application for searching people, thermal anomalies can be created out of humidity in constructions (transpiration effects), damaged power lines, burning gas tubes and many other dangerous facts. A big task is in the data analysis which should be made automatically and fast. This requires a good initial orientation and a proper relative adjustment of the single sensors. Like that, many modern software tools enable a rapid data extraction. Automated analysis of the data before and after a disaster can highlight areas of significant changes. Detecting anomalies are the way to get the focus on the prior area. Also Lidar supports

  3. Dynamics of configuring and interpreting the disaster risk script: Experiences from Zimbabwe

    Pathias P. Bongo


    Full Text Available People in Zimbabwe have been faced with disasters in different forms and at various levels. When people experience hazard events and disasters, they perceive these phenomena through lenses that are largely shaped by their local day-to-day experiences and some external influence. As they do this, they develop their own local conception of hazards and disasters, and they tend to model their response or preparedness through this. This article argues that on the basis of this premise, each society therefore develops its own unique and localised way of interpreting the disaster, which comes in the form of a ‘script’, that needs to be deciphered, read, analysed and understood within local priorities and knowledge systems. The hazard may be the same, say, fire, but as it occurs in different communities, they configure and read the fire script differently, hence spawning different response and prevention strategies. The way people anticipate, prepare for, and respond to a particular disaster stems from their perception of it, based on their own local conceptions of reality. The article argues that effective disaster risk reduction must focus on people’s holistic understanding of the unfolding scenario, thereby feeding into disaster risk early warning systems. For effective understanding of the utility of early warning systems, the socio-cultural processes involved in the ideation of the disaster cannot be ignored. It is also critical to examine people’s past experiences with external early warning systems, and how much faith they put in them.

  4. Reduction of earthquake disasters

    陈顒; 陈祺福; 黄静; 徐文立


    The article summarizes the researches on mitigating earthquake disasters of the past four years in China. The studyof earthquake disasters′ quantification shows that the losses increase remarkably when population concentrates inurban area and social wealth increase. The article also summarizes some new trends of studying earthquake disas-ters′ mitigation, which are from seismic hazard to seismic risk, from engineering disaster to social disaster andintroduces the community-centered approach.

  5. Disaster mental health

    Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter


    In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....

  6. Business continuity and pandemic preparedness: US health care versus non-health care agencies.

    Rebmann, Terri; Wang, Jing; Swick, Zachary; Reddick, David; delRosario, John Leon


    Only limited data are available on US business continuity activities related to biologic events. A questionnaire was administered to human resource professionals during May-July 2011 to assess business continuity related to biologic events, incentives businesses are providing to maximize worker surge capacity, and seasonal influenza vaccination policy. Linear regressions were used to describe factors associated with higher business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores. The χ(2) and Fisher exact tests compared health care versus non-health care businesses on preparedness indicators. Possible business continuity and pandemic preparedness scores ranged from 0.5 to 27 and 0 to 15, with average resulting scores among participants at 13.2 and 7.3, respectively. Determinants of business continuity and pandemic preparedness were (1) business size (larger businesses were more prepared), (2) type of business (health care more prepared), (3) having human resource professional as company disaster planning committee member, and (4) risk perception of a pandemic in the next year. Most businesses (63.3%, n = 298) encourage staff influenza vaccination; 2.1% (n = 10) mandate it. Only 10% of businesses (11.0%, n = 52) provide employee incentives, and fewer than half (41.0%, n = 193) stockpile personal protective equipment. Despite the recent H1N1 pandemic, many US businesses lack adequate pandemic plans. It is critical that businesses of all sizes and types become better prepared for a biologic event. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Should seasonal rainfall forecasts be used for flood preparedness?

    E. Coughlan de Perez


    Full Text Available In light of strong encouragement for disaster managers to use climate services for flood preparation, we question whether seasonal rainfall forecasts should indeed be used as indicators of the likelihood of flooding. Here, we investigate the primary indicators of flooding at the seasonal timescale across sub-Saharan Africa. Given the sparsity of hydrological observations, we input bias-corrected reanalysis rainfall into the Global Flood Awareness System to identify seasonal indicators of floodiness. Results demonstrate that in some regions of western, central, and eastern Africa with typically wet climates, even a perfect tercile forecast of seasonal total rainfall would provide little to no indication of the seasonal likelihood of flooding. The number of extreme events within a season shows the highest correlations with floodiness consistently across regions. Otherwise, results vary across climate regimes: floodiness in arid regions in southern and eastern Africa shows the strongest correlations with seasonal average soil moisture and seasonal total rainfall. Floodiness in wetter climates of western and central Africa and Madagascar shows the strongest relationship with measures of the intensity of seasonal rainfall. Measures of rainfall patterns, such as the length of dry spells, are least related to seasonal floodiness across the continent. Ultimately, identifying the drivers of seasonal flooding can be used to improve forecast information for flood preparedness and to avoid misleading decision-makers.

  8. Should seasonal rainfall forecasts be used for flood preparedness?

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; Stephens, Elisabeth; Bischiniotis, Konstantinos; van Aalst, Maarten; van den Hurk, Bart; Mason, Simon; Nissan, Hannah; Pappenberger, Florian


    In light of strong encouragement for disaster managers to use climate services for flood preparation, we question whether seasonal rainfall forecasts should indeed be used as indicators of the likelihood of flooding. Here, we investigate the primary indicators of flooding at the seasonal timescale across sub-Saharan Africa. Given the sparsity of hydrological observations, we input bias-corrected reanalysis rainfall into the Global Flood Awareness System to identify seasonal indicators of floodiness. Results demonstrate that in some regions of western, central, and eastern Africa with typically wet climates, even a perfect tercile forecast of seasonal total rainfall would provide little to no indication of the seasonal likelihood of flooding. The number of extreme events within a season shows the highest correlations with floodiness consistently across regions. Otherwise, results vary across climate regimes: floodiness in arid regions in southern and eastern Africa shows the strongest correlations with seasonal average soil moisture and seasonal total rainfall. Floodiness in wetter climates of western and central Africa and Madagascar shows the strongest relationship with measures of the intensity of seasonal rainfall. Measures of rainfall patterns, such as the length of dry spells, are least related to seasonal floodiness across the continent. Ultimately, identifying the drivers of seasonal flooding can be used to improve forecast information for flood preparedness and to avoid misleading decision-makers.

  9. Using Computer Games to Communicate Prevention and Preparedness Concepts

    Kerlow, I.


    Earth Girl: The Natural Disaster Fighter is a digital game about a girl who can save her family and friends from natural hazards. The scenario and game play are inspired by the challenges faced by communities living in the Asian regions prone to earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding and volcano hazards. This paper focuses on the interdisciplinary issues and development, the user testing and refinement process and a brief demonstration of the final product. The Earth Girl game is meant to help players, particularly pre-teens worldwide, to gain a better understanding of natural hazards through imaginative and fun game play. The game offers three levels of side-scrolling action, plus factual information in the form of quizzes to enhance the players' knowledge. The correct answers provide players with extra health and/or super-powers. The game was developed in English, Indonesian, Japanese and Chinese. It runs on any Flash-enabled browser and has been successfully user-tested in Southeast Asia with positive results and feedback.Earth Girl, a game of preparedness and survival

  10. People’s perspectives and expectations on preparedness against earthquakes: Tehran case study

    Mahmood Hosseini


    sources of information during the aftermath of an earthquake, Discussion: A participatory approach to earthquake-preparedness planning is recommended. This would ensure that program planners use methods, tools, media, and educational materials that are compatible with the culture, needs, and skills of the local communities. Conclusion: The findings of this study also reveal methods and tools that the local community considers to be most effective for earthquake-preparedness planning and management. The development of an earthquake-resistance and a safe community requires a high level of collaboration between broadcasting organizations, seismologists, experts in the disaster-preparedness field, as well as the local community. This will allow for timely planning, development, and dissemination of essential information to all stakeholders including the local communities.


    T. Bandrova


    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters each year, among which women, children, elderly persons, people with disabilities or special needs, prisoners, certain members of ethnic minorities, people with language barriers, and the impoverished are the most vulnerable population groups in case of emergencies. Many national and international organizations are involved in Early Warning and Crisis Management training, particularly focused on the special target to safe children and improve their knowledge about disasters. The success of these efforts is based on providing the specific information about disaster preparedness and emergency in adapted for children educational materials, accompanied with simple illustrative explanations for easy and fast understanding of the disasters. The active participation of the children in the educational activities through appropriate presenting the information, short training seminars and entertaining games will increase their resilience and will contribute significantly to their preparedness and adequate response in emergency situations. This paper aims to present the conceptual framework of a project for establishing an Educational Disaster Centre (EDC “Save the children life” at University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG, providing relevant justification of the necessity to organize such centre in Bulgaria and discussing good practices in Europe and worldwide for children' education and training in case of disastrous event. General concepts for educational materials and children training are shared. Appropriate equipment for the EDC is shortly described.

  12. Effectiveness of Flood Warning and Preparedness Alternatives.


    exist for many aspects of preparedness plans. Selection of the appropriate level of governmen- tal participation constitutes a major policy decision in...effective. 2. Specific planning for preparedness increases the monetary benefits which can be obtained. For example, experience at the Sprout Waldron plant...arid ma i ait eria rice V i ews of’ I oca I Oft’ i c i a]I s Sanita Ba rba ra (’iiirity 1, 1 lood (oa)ft r’l I and Witt eI (oni- servat. i of) Di stritt

  13. Mental health interventions for children exposed to disasters and terrorism.

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D


    The purpose of this review is to describe interventions used with children who are exposed to disasters and terrorism and to present information about the potential benefits of these interventions. A literature search conducted in January 2013 using relevant databases and literature known to the authors that was not generated by the search yielded a total of 85 studies appropriate for review. Intervention approaches used with children exposed to disasters and terrorism included preparedness interventions, psychological first aid, psychological debriefing, psychoeducation, cognitive behavioral techniques, exposure and narrative techniques, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and traumatic grief interventions. The investigation of these interventions is complex, and studies varied in methodological rigor (e.g., sample size, the use of control groups, outcomes measured). Given the limitations in the currently available empirical information, this review integrates the literature, draws tentative conclusions about the current state of knowledge, and suggests future directions for study.

  14. Local Social Services in Nordic countries in Times of Disaster

    Eydal, Guðný Björk; Ómarsdóttir, Ingibjörg Lilja; Dahlberg, Rasmus

    of such disasters is on the rise according to forecasts. In order to enhance resilience and preparedness of those most vulnerable in disasters, the involvement of local social services in the emergency management system is of vital importance. The literature shows how social services can enhance social and human......The project focused on the emergency management systems in the five Nordic countries. It investigated whether local social services have a formal role in the contingency planning of the systems. The project was part of The Nordic Welfare Watch research project during the Icelandic Presidency...... of social services in all phases of emergency management. The guidelines for social services' contingency planning and their plans should be shared across the Nordic countries and among various actors on the state, regional and local levels. This task could also be implemented under the umbrella...

  15. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  16. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.


    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  17. 78 FR 54743 - National Preparedness Month, 2013


    ... readiness and challenge our resolve--from natural disasters like hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods to... preparing our country for the full range of threats. In the face of an emergency, we will continue to cut... and by building a disaster kit with food, water, and essential supplies. Visit or...

  18. 76 FR 54917 - National Preparedness Month, 2011


    ..., natural disasters have tested our response ability across all levels of government. Our thoughts and... September 11, 2001, which united our country both in our shared grief and in our determination to prevent... dedicated to implementing a ``whole community'' approach to disaster response. This requires...

  19. Study of dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students.

    Коvalenko Y.A.


    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of physical preparedness of students is studied in the article. A tendency is marked to the decline of level of physical preparedness of students of 1-3 courses. Methodical recommendations are presented on the improvement of the system of organization of physical education of students of the Zaporizhzhya national university. The dynamics of indexes of physical preparedness of students 1, 2, 3 courses of different years of teaching is studied. Principal reasons of decline of level of physical preparedness of students are certain. There are recommendations the department of physical education in relation to physical preparedness of students.

  20. Europe's preparedness for an influenza pandemic: commentary.

    Paget, W.J.


    The paper in this month's edition of the European Journal of Public Health on Europe's preparedness for an influenza pandemic is highly relevant in the light of the emergence of the influenza A (H5N1) virus in humans in Southeast Asia and more recently, in Turkey and Iraq. The paper provides a nic

  1. Disaster mythology and fact: Hurricane Katrina and social attachment.

    Jacob, Binu; Mawson, Anthony R; Payton, Marinelle; Guignard, John C


    Misconceptions about disasters and their social and health consequences remain prevalent despite considerable research evidence to the contrary. Eight such myths and their factual counterparts were reviewed in a classic report on the public health impact of disasters by Claude de Ville de Goyet entitled, The Role of WHO in Disaster Management: Relief, Rehabilitation, and Reconstruction (Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991), and two additional myths and facts were added by Pan American Health Organization. In this article, we reconsider these myths and facts in relation to Hurricane Katrina, with particular emphasis on psychosocial needs and behaviors, based on data gleaned from scientific sources as well as printed and electronic media reports. The review suggests that preparedness plans for disasters involving forced mass evacuation and resettlement should place a high priority on keeping families together--and even entire neighborhoods, where possible--so as to preserve the familiar and thereby minimize the adverse effects of separation and major dislocation on mental and physical health.

  2. Active Disaster Response System for a Smart Building

    Chun-Yen Lin


    Full Text Available Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS, which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m.

  3. Disaster management mobile protocols: a technology that will save lives.

    Williamson, Hope M


    Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster education for healthcare workers at all levels in the multidisciplinary medical response to major events has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. This article describes a disaster management mobile application of systematic evidence-based practice. The application is interactive and comprises portable principles, algorithms, and emergency protocols that are agile, concise, comprehensive, and response relevant to all healthcare workers. Early recognition through clinical assessment versus laboratory and diagnostic procedures in chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRNE) exposures grounded in an evidence-based skill set is especially important. During the immediate threat, the clinical diagnosis can get frustrating because CBRNE casualties can mimic everyday healthcare illnesses and initially present with nonspecific respiratory or flu-like symptoms. As there is minimal time in a catastrophic event for the medical provider to make accurate decisions, access to accurate, timely, and comprehensive information in these situations is critical. The CBRNE mobile application is intended to provide a credible source for treatment and management of numerous patients in an often intimidating environment with scarce resources and overwhelming tasks.

  4. Disaster Risk Assessment in Educational Hospitals of Qazvin Based on WHO Pattern in 2015.

    Asefzadeh, Saeed; Varyani, Ali Safari; Gholami, Soheyla


    In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters affect service provider centers as well. Structural, non-structural, and functional components of hospitals could be affected when hazards or disasters occur, and they may be unable to admit casualties, have their own personnel and patients killed or injured, have their property destroyed. In such as case, they would increase the burden of death resulting from the disaster. Therefore, in this study, hospital safety was reviewed in two hospitals in Qazvin in 2015. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on two of the Rajaee and Velayat Hospitals in Qazvin. The tools used to assess for the hospitals' risk of experiencing a disaster were observation, interviews, and a checklist of hospital disaster risk assessment provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), including 5 sections and 145 indices for the safety assessment of hospitals. To determine the general weight, three main parts of the questionnaire, i.e., functional safety, non-structural safety, and structural safety, were given weights of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5, respectively, according to the original version of the indices. Each index was scored as 0, 1, and 2 based on the low, medium, and high scores. The safety scores that were obtained were categorized in three groups, i.e., low safety (≤ 34%), medium safety (34-66%), and high safety (> 66%). The data were analyzed using Excel 2007 software. Functional, structural, and non-structural safety scores were evaluated as 60.20% (medium safety), 67.61% (high safety), and 76.16% (high safety), respectively. General preparedness of the hospitals we studied were 71.90%, a high safety level. This high preparedness was related to the indices of availability of medicines, equipment, water supply, and other resources required in emergency conditions (85%), and the lowest preparedness was related to contingency plans of medical operations (19%). The preparedness of the two

  5. Disaster management: Emergency nursing and medical personnel's knowledge, attitude and practices of the East Coast region hospitals of Malaysia.

    Ahayalimudin, Nurul'Ain; Osman, Nor Naimah Saidah


    Disaster management is critical, as its insight could diminish the impact of a disaster, and participation of emergency medical personnel is crucial. This study explores emergency medical personnel's knowledge, attitude and practice towards disaster management. This study utilised a cross-sectional study design, and the data collected from 194 emergency nursing and medical personnel (staff nurses, doctors and assistant medical officers), using a questionnaire. Majority of the personnel had an adequate knowledge and practices, and portrayed a positive attitude towards disaster management. Amongst the sociodemographic factors studied, gender and education level were significantly associated with increased knowledge and practice scores. Working experience, involvement in disaster response and attended disaster training had a significant association with higher practice scores. None of the sociodemographic factors studied had an effect on attitude scores. Despite the diversity of their backgrounds, respondents exhibited their adequate knowledge and practice, and had positive attitudes towards disaster management. It is substantial for emergency nursing and medical personnel, to inhibit the severity of the impacts of the disasters. Their knowledge, attitude and practice studies could assist in the implementation of programmes relevant to disaster management to ensure their preparedness to assist the affected communities. Copyright © 2016 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Education in Disaster Management: What Do We Offer and What Do We Need? Proposing a New Global Program.

    Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Lupesco, Olivera; Friedl, Tom; Arnim, Gotz; Kaptan, Kubilay; Djalali, Ahmadreza R; Foletti, Marco; Ingrasia, Pier Luigi; Ashkenazi, Michael; Arculeo, Chris; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Komadina, Radko; Voigt, Stefan; Carlström, Eric; James, James


    Although there is a significant willingness to respond to disasters, a review of post-event reports following incidents shows troubling repeated patterns with poorly integrated response activities and response managers inadequately trained for the requirements of disasters. This calls for a new overall approach in disaster management. An in-depth review of the education and training opportunities available to responders and disaster managers has been undertaken, as well as an extensive review of the educational competencies and their parent domains identified by subject matter experts as necessary for competent performance. Seven domains of competency and competencies that should be mastered by disaster mangers were identified. This set of domains and individual competencies was utilized to define a new and evolving curriculum. In order to evaluate and assess the mastery of each competency, objectives were more widely defined as activities under specific topics, as the measurable elements of the curriculum, for each managerial level. This program enables interagency cooperation and collaboration and could be used to increase and improve decision-makers' understanding of disaster managers' capabilities; at the strategic/tactical level to promote the knowledge and capability of the disaster managers themselves; and as continuing education or further career development for disaster managers at the operational level. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:854-873).

  7. Opioid Substitution Treatment Planning in a Disaster Context: Perspectives from Emergency Management and Health Professionals in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Denise Blake


    Full Text Available Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST is a harm reduction strategy enabling opiate consumers to avoid withdrawal symptoms and maintain health and wellbeing. Some research shows that within a disaster context service disruptions and infrastructure damage affect OST services, including problems with accessibility, dosing, and scripts. Currently little is known about planning for OST in the reduction and response phases of a disaster. This study aimed to identify the views of three professional groups working in Aotearoa/New Zealand about OST provision following a disaster. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 service workers, health professionals, and emergency managers in OST and disaster planning fields. Thematic analysis of transcripts identified three key themes, namely “health and wellbeing”, “developing an emergency management plan”, and “stock, dose verification, and scripts” which led to an overarching concept of “service continuity in OST preparedness planning”. Participants viewed service continuity as essential for reducing physical and psychological distress for OST clients, their families, and wider communities. Alcohol and drug and OST health professionals understood the specific needs of clients, while emergency managers discussed the need for sufficient preparedness planning to minimise harm. It is concluded that OST preparedness planning must be multidisciplinary, flexible, and inclusive.

  8. Extending injury prevention methodology to chemical terrorism preparedness: the Haddon Matrix and sarin.

    Varney, Shawn; Hirshon, Jon Mark; Dischinger, Patricia; Mackenzie, Colin


    The Haddon Matrix offers a classic epidemiological model for studying injury prevention. This methodology places the public health concepts of agent, host, and environment within the three sequential phases of an injury-producing incident-pre-event, event, and postevent. This study uses this methodology to illustrate how it could be applied in systematically preparing for a mass casualty disaster such as an unconventional sarin attack in a major urban setting. Nineteen city, state, federal, and military agencies responded to the Haddon Matrix chemical terrorism preparedness exercise and offered feedback in the data review session. Four injury prevention strategies (education, engineering, enforcement, and economics) were applied to the individual factors and event phases of the Haddon Matrix. The majority of factors identified in all phases were modifiable, primarily through educational interventions focused on individual healthcare providers and first responders. The Haddon Matrix provides a viable means of studying an unconventional problem, allowing for the identification of modifiable factors to decrease the type and severity of injuries following a mass casualty disaster such as a sarin release. This strategy could be successfully incorporated into disaster planning for other weapons attacks that could potentially cause mass casualties.

  9. What are the most common domains of the core competencies of disaster nursing? A scoping review.

    Al Thobaity, Abdullelah; Plummer, Virginia; Williams, Brett


    Scoping review was conducted to identify the most common domains of the core competencies of disaster nursing. Nurses play an essential role in all phases of disaster management. For nurses to respond competently, they must be equipped with the skills to provide comprehensive and holistic care to the populations affected by or at risk of disasters. A scoping review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. The review used information from six databases: the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, Scopus and the Education Resources Information Center. Keywords and inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified as strategies to use in this review. Twelve studies were eligible for result extraction, as they listed domains of the core competencies. These domains varied among studies. However, the most common domains were related to communication, planning, decontamination and safety, the Incident Command System and ethics. Knowledge of the domains of the core competencies, such as understanding the content and location of the disaster plan, communication during disaster and ethical issues is fundamental for nurses. Including these domains in the planning and provision of training for nurses, such as disaster drills, will strengthen their preparedness to respond competently to disaster cases. Nurses must be involved in future research in this area to explore and describe their fundamental competencies in each domain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health

    Maria Cristina Schneider


    Full Text Available The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  11. Natural disasters and communicable diseases in the Americas: contribution of veterinary public health.

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Tirado, Maria Cristina; Rereddy, Shruthi; Dugas, Raymond; Borda, Maria Isabel; Peralta, Eduardo Alvarez; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Cosivi, Ottorino


    The consequences of natural disasters on the people living in the Americas are often amplified by socio-economic conditions. This risk may be increased by climate-related changes. The public health consequences of natural disasters include fatalities as well as an increased risk of communicable diseases. Many of these diseases are zoonotic and foodborne diseases. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the importance of natural disasters for the Americas and to emphasise the contribution of veterinary public health (VPH) to the management of zoonotic and foodborne disease risks. An analysis was conducted of natural disasters that occurred in the Americas between 2004 and 2008. Five cases studies illustrating the contributions of VPH in situations of disaster are presented. The data shows that natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, can create very important public health problems. Central America and the Caribbean, particularly Haiti, presented a higher risk than the other areas of the Americas. Two priority areas of technical cooperation are recommended for this region, namely: reducing the risk of leptospirosis and other vector-borne disease outbreaks related to floods and hurricanes and improving food safety. The contribution of different disciplines and sectors in disaster preparedness and response is of paramount importance to minimise morbidity and mortality.

  12. Innovative Methods for the Benefit of Public Health Using Space Technologies for Disaster Response.

    Dinas, Petros C; Mueller, Christian; Clark, Nathan; Elgin, Tim; Nasseri, S Ali; Yaffe, Etai; Madry, Scott; Clark, Jonathan B; Asrar, Farhan


    Space applications have evolved to play a significant role in disaster relief by providing services including remote sensing imagery for mitigation and disaster damage assessments; satellite communication to provide access to medical services; positioning, navigation, and timing services; and data sharing. Common issues identified in past disaster response and relief efforts include lack of communication, delayed ordering of actions (eg, evacuations), and low levels of preparedness by authorities during and after disasters. We briefly summarize the Space for Health (S4H) Team Project, which was prepared during the Space Studies Program 2014 within the International Space University. The S4H Project aimed to improve the way space assets and experiences are used in support of public health during disaster relief efforts. We recommend an integrated solution based on nano-satellites or a balloon communication system, mobile self-contained relief units, portable medical scanning devices, and micro-unmanned vehicles that could revolutionize disaster relief and disrupt different markets. The recommended new system of coordination and communication using space assets to support public health during disaster relief efforts is feasible. Nevertheless, further actions should be taken by governments and organizations in collaboration with the private sector to design, test, and implement this system.

  13. Health Facilities Safety in Natural Disasters: Experiences and Challenges from South East Europe

    Vesela Radovic


    Full Text Available The United Nations named 2010 as a year of natural disasters, and launched a worldwide campaign to improve the safety of schools and hospitals from natural disasters. In the region of South East Europe, Croatia and Serbia have suffered the greatest impacts of natural disasters on their communities and health facilities. In this paper the disaster management approaches of the two countries are compared, with a special emphasis on the existing technological and legislative systems for safety and protection of health facilities and people. Strategic measures that should be taken in future to provide better safety for health facilities and populations, based on the best practices and positive experiences in other countries are recommended. Due to the expected consequences of global climate change in the region and the increased different environmental risks both countries need to refine their disaster preparedness strategies. Also, in the South East Europe, the effects of a natural disaster are amplified in the health sector due to its critical medical infrastructure. Therefore, the principles of environmental security should be implemented in public health policies in the described region, along with principles of disaster management through regional collaborations.

  14. Disaster Management through Experiential Learning

    Rijumol, K. C.; Thangarajathi, S.; Ananthasayanam, R.


    Disasters can strike at any time, at any place. The world is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural disasters. From earthquakes to floods and famines, mankind is even more threatened by the forces of nature. The Theme of the 2006 to 2007 International Day for Disaster Reduction was "Disaster Risk Reduction begins at schools" and…

  15. Financial Protection Against Natural Disasters

    World Bank Group


    The primary objective of this report is to take stock of the global progress on financial protection against natural disasters over the last decade and bring together the latest thinking on disaster risk financing and insurance. Disaster risk financing and insurance helps minimize the cost and optimize the timing of meeting post-disaster funding needs without compromising development goals...

  16. Disaster Management System of Iran--Need to Eliminate Weaknesses and Problems

    H Seyedin


    Full Text Available Background: Iran has been a very disaster-prone country throughout its history. Wars, earthquakes, floods, droughts, inversion effects of air pollution in metropolitan have occurred many times, affected millions of people, and have claimed hundred thousands of lives during past century. Recently the fatal earthquake of Bam claimed more than 30000 lives and many casualties and economic lost, while in USA, a similar earthquake just killed 2 people and damaged much less. This may raise a fundamental question in our mind: why do disasters in developed countries cause the least amount of damages while in developing countries such Iran in the same situation the most indemnity? Methodology: This research aimed at studying existing Disaster Management System (DMS in Iran and illuminating weaknesses during a crisis using a survey and reviewing the literature on DMS in developed and developing countries. Results and Discussion: In Iran, disaster management is managed by National Committee for Natural Disaster Management, which is located in Ministry of Interior. When the National Disaster Management Organization (NDMO is located in a line ministry, it may not be able to guarantee the representation and participation of the other line ministries. Considering our culture and annually billions $ damages of natural and manmade disasters and claiming much life (which we cannot account their worth by money, psychological and economical problems as aftermath of disasters, Creating NDMO in president’s office has many advantages. Disaster management is a cycle started from mitigation, preparedness, response and ended with recovery. In Iran, in mitigation and preparedness phases we have not done much. There is no stiff rule in building code, planning for response, drill and etc. We have had many disasters and we have many experiences in response, so DMS, response to disasters rationally well. Preparedness for response increase effectiveness and efficiency of

  17. Soon After the Disaster

    LI LI


    @@ China's disaster relief departments have initiated a first-class emergency response for disaster relief in the wake of a 7.1-magnitude earthquake that hit Qinghai Province at 7:49 a.m.on April 14. The decision was made by the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Committee for Disaster Reduction at noon of the same day.As of 4:30 p.m.April 15,the shallow earthquake with its epicenter in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Yushu in the province has left at least 760 people dead,11,477 others injured and around 100,000 homeless,local authorities say.

  18. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part3

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Kalafat, Dogan; Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Takahashi, Narumi; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo; Sakamoto, Mayumi; Pinar, Ali; Oguz Ozel, Asim; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Tanircan, Gulum; Demirtas, Ahmet


    There have been many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in the world.The recent events are, 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan, 2015 Nepal Earthquake and 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake in Japan, and so on. And very recently a destructive earthquake occurred in Central Italy. In Turkey, the 1999 Izmit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The NAF crosses the Sea of Marmara and the only "seismic gap" remains beneath the Sea of Marmara. Istanbul with high population similar to Tokyo in Japan, is located around the Sea of Marmara where fatal damages expected to be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction, when the next destructive Marmara Earthquake occurs. The seismic risk of Istanbul seems to be under the similar risk condition as Tokyo in case of Nankai Trough earthquake and metropolitan earthquake. It was considered that Japanese and Turkish researchers can share their own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and can prepare for the future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. Therefore, in 2013 the two countries, Japan and Turkey made an agreement to start a multidisciplinary research project, MarDiM SATREPS. The Project runs researches to aim to raise the preparedness for possible large-scale earthquake and Tsunami disasters in Marmara Region and it has four research groups with the following goals. 1) The first one is Marmara Earthquake Source region observational research group. This group has 4 sub-groups such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. Preliminary results such as seismicity and crustal deformation on the sea floor in Sea of Marmara have already achieved. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia Fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Research results from this group are to be the model of earthquake occurrence scenario in Sea of Marmara and the

  19. Disaster management in low- and middle-income countries: scoping review of the evidence base.

    Lee, Andrew Chee Keng; Booth, Andrew; Challen, Kirsty; Gardois, Paolo; Goodacre, Steve


    Globally, there has been an increase in the prevalence and scale of disasters with low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) tending to be more affected. Consequently, disaster risk reduction has been advocated as a global priority. However, the evidence base for disaster management in these settings is unclear. This study is a scoping review of the evidence base for disaster management in LMIC. Potentially relevant articles between 1990 and 2011 were searched for, assessed for relevance and subsequently categorised using a thematic coding framework based on the US Integrated Emergency Management System model. Out of 1545 articles identified, only 178 were from LMIC settings. Most were of less robust design such as event reports and commentaries, and 66% pertained to natural disasters. There was a paucity of articles on disaster mitigation or recovery, and more were written on disaster response and preparedness issues. Considerably more articles were published from high-income country settings that may reflect a publication bias. Current grey literature on disaster management tends not to be peer reviewed, is not well organised and not easy to access. The paucity of peer-reviewed publications compromises evidence review initiatives that seek to provide an evidence-base for disaster management in LMIC. As such, there is an urgent need for greater research and publication of findings on disaster management issues from these settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  20. Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.

    Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M


    Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts.

  1. Merging Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data to Improve Disaster Risk Assessment

    Yetman, G.; Chen, R. S.; Huyck, C. K.


    Natural disasters disproportionately impact developing country economies while also impacting business operations for multi-national corporations that rely on supplies and manufacturing in affected areas. Understanding natural hazard risk is only a first step towards preparedness and mitigation—data on facilities, transportation, critical infrastructure, and populations that may be exposed to disasters is required to plan for events and properly assess risks. Detailed exposure data can be used in models to predict casualty rates, aggregate estimates of building damage or destruction, impacts on business operations, and the scale of recovery efforts required. These model outputs are useful for disaster preparedness planning by national and international organizations, as well as for corporations and the reinsurance industry seeking to better understand their risk exposure. Many of these data are lacking for developing countries. Rapid assessment in areas with minimal data for disaster modeling is possible by combing remote sensing data, sample data on construction methods, facility and critical infrastructure data, and economic and demographic census information. This presentation focuses on the methods used to fuse the physical and socioeconomic data by presenting the results from two projects. The first project seeks to improve earthquake risk assessments in Asia using for the reinsurance industry, while the second project builds an integrated exposure database across five countries in Africa for use by international development organizations.

  2. Resilience in disaster research

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel


    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....

  3. Disaster Debris Recovery Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Region 5 Disaster Debris Recovery Database includes public datasets of over 3,500 composting facilities, demolition contractors, haulers, transfer...

  4. FEMA Disaster Recovery Centers

    Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...

  5. Raising risk preparedness through flood risk communication

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.


    During the last decade, most European countries have produced risk maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most effectively to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard area about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake appropriate actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to a better understanding the factors influencing flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard areas in Zurich. The questionnaire comprised items measuring respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, kind of property owned, attachment to the property, trust in local authorities, and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but our results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main factors influencing the respondents' intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which they evaluated the information material positively and their risk awareness. Those who had never taken any interest in floods previously were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication of relevant information tailored to the needs of the target population.

  6. Raising risk preparedness by flood risk communication

    Maidl, E.; Buchecker, M.


    During the last decade, most European countries have produced hazard maps of natural hazards, but little is known about how to communicate these maps most efficiently to the public. In October 2011, Zurich's local authorities informed owners of buildings located in the urban flood hazard zone about potential flood damage, the probability of flood events and protection measures. The campaign was based on the assumptions that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens who are aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. This study is intended as a contribution to better understand the factors that influence flood risk preparedness, with a special focus on the effects of such a one-way risk communication strategy. We conducted a standardized mail survey of 1500 property owners in the hazard zones in Zurich (response rate main survey: 34 %). The questionnaire included items to measure respondents' risk awareness, risk preparedness, flood experience, information-seeking behaviour, knowledge about flood risk, evaluation of the information material, risk acceptance, attachment to the property and trust in local authorities. Data about the type of property and socio-demographic variables were also collected. Multivariate data analysis revealed that the average level of risk awareness and preparedness was low, but the results confirmed that the campaign had a statistically significant effect on the level of preparedness. The main influencing factors on the intention to prepare for a flood were the extent to which respondents evaluated the information material positively as well as their risk awareness. Respondents who had never taken any previous interest in floods were less likely to read the material. For future campaigns, we therefore recommend repeated communication that is tailored to the information needs of the target population.

  7. Estimation of functional preparedness of young handballers in setup time

    Favoritоv V.N.


    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of functional preparedness of young handballers in setup time is shown. It was foreseen to make alteration in educational-training process with the purpose of optimization of their functional preparedness. 11 youths were plugged in research, calendar age 14 - 15 years. For determination of level of their functional preparedness the computer program "SVSM" was applied. It is set that at the beginning of setup time of 18,18% of all respondent functional preparedness is characterized by a "middle" level, 27,27% - below the "average", 54,54% - "above" the average. At the end of setup time among sportsmen representatives prevailed with the level of functional preparedness "above" average - 63,63%, with level "high" - 27,27%, sportsmen with level below the average were not observed. Efficiency of the offered system of trainings employments for optimization of functional preparedness of young handballers is well-proven.

  8. Formulation of a parametric systems design framework for disaster response planning

    Mma, Stephanie Weiya

    The occurrence of devastating natural disasters in the past several years have prompted communities, responding organizations, and governments to seek ways to improve disaster preparedness capabilities locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. A holistic approach to design used in the aerospace and industrial engineering fields enables efficient allocation of resources through applied parametric changes within a particular design to improve performance metrics to selected standards. In this research, this methodology is applied to disaster preparedness, using a community's time to restoration after a disaster as the response metric. A review of the responses from Hurricane Katrina and the 2010 Haiti earthquake, among other prominent disasters, provides observations leading to some current capability benchmarking. A need for holistic assessment and planning exists for communities but the current response planning infrastructure lacks a standardized framework and standardized assessment metrics. Within the humanitarian logistics community, several different metrics exist, enabling quantification and measurement of a particular area's vulnerability. These metrics, combined with design and planning methodologies from related fields, such as engineering product design, military response planning, and business process redesign, provide insight and a framework from which to begin developing a methodology to enable holistic disaster response planning. The developed methodology was applied to the communities of Shelby County, TN and pre-Hurricane-Katrina Orleans Parish, LA. Available literature and reliable media sources provide information about the different values of system parameters within the decomposition of the community aspects and also about relationships among the parameters. The community was modeled as a system dynamics model and was tested in the implementation of two, five, and ten year improvement plans for Preparedness, Response, and Development

  9. Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra


    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the “Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable.” The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Represen...

  10. Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.

    Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib


    Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively.

  11. Medical students' preparedness for professional activities in early clerkships.

    Bosch, Josefin; Maaz, Asja; Hitzblech, Tanja; Holzhausen, Ylva; Peters, Harm


    Sufficient preparedness is important for transitions to workplace participation and learning in clinical settings. This study aims to analyse medical students' preparedness for early clerkships using a three-dimensional, socio-cognitive, theory-based model of preparedness anchored in specific professional activities and their supervision level. Medical students from a competency-based undergraduate curriculum were surveyed about preparedness for 21 professional activities and level of perceived supervision during their early clerkships via an online questionnaire. Preparedness was operationalized by the three dimensions of confidence to carry out clerkship activities, being prepared through university teaching and coping with failure by seeking support. Factors influencing preparedness and perceived stress as outcomes were analysed through step-wise regression. Professional activities carried out by the students (n = 147; 19.0%) and their supervision levels varied. While most students reported high confidence to perform the tasks, the activity-specific analysis revealed important gaps in preparation through university teaching. Students regularly searched for support in case of difficulty. One quarter of the variance of each preparedness dimension was explained by self-efficacy, supervision quality, amount of prior clerkship experience and nature of professional activities. Preparedness contributed to predicting perceived stress. The applied three-dimensional concept of preparedness and the task-specific approach provided a detailed and meaningful view on medical students' workplace participation and experiences in early clerkships.

  12. The road to developing an advanced degree program in public health preparedness.

    Cherry, Robert A; Davis, Tom


    The master of homeland security (MHS) degree in public health preparedness at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine is the first degree program of its kind offered by any U.S. medical school. The field of public health preparedness has been increasingly viewed as a new, emerging professional discipline, which academic medicine is well positioned to complement. The process by which the MHS program has evolved from conception to realization is a case study in the mission-based alignment of core values and leadership between the government and academic medicine. Recognizing the need for multidisciplinary involvement, the program architects reconsidered the traditional approach to the development and implementation of new graduate degree programs. Instead, a more flexible, loosely connected network of strategic partners and alliances was adopted. These partnerships were developed and cultivated by vested individuals who excelled in specific core competencies and came together to create value. This allowed for both the expertise and flexibility needed to adapt quickly to the evolving homeland security environment in the United States. To that end, this article describes the 10-step multidisciplinary program-development process that spanned three years and culminated in the establishment of this new graduate degree program. The MHS program as it now stands focuses on public health preparedness, including epidemiological evaluation, disaster communication and psychology, agricultural biosecurity, and critical infrastructure protection. The program is geared toward the practicing professional already working in the field, and its graduates are positioned to be among the top leaders, educators, and researchers in homeland security.

  13. Stealth Disasters and Geoethics

    Kieffer, Susan W.


    Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility

  14. Behavior and Preparedness to Fire Hazard in High Density Settlements in Bandung

    Saut Sagala


    Full Text Available Fire is one of the hazards that may affect urban areas with high density settlements. Thus, research on fire mitigation is important to be conducted. This paper examines the behavior and preparedness of occupants in high density settlements towards fire risks in urban area. The case study is located at Kelurahan Sukahaji, Kecamatan Babakan Ciparay, Bandung that has very high density settlement as well as prone to fire hazards. This study assess 232 respondents in the study areas on information related to demography, understanding about fire, behavior and preparedness. The respondents understanding on the types of fire sources are still low. Similarly, the behavior related to the activites using fire are still dangerous because some activities are conducted with other activities which make people less aware of the fire hazards. Nevertheless, their knowledge on how to extinguish fires are quite good. This paper recommends more trainings on knowledge of fire source and behavior to be conducted to occupants living in high density settlements in order to reduce fire disaster risk.

  15. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    Haimes, Yacov Y


    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  16. Legal Preparedness for Hurricane Sandy: Authority to Order Hospital Evacuation or Shelter-in-Place in the Mid-Atlantic Region.

    McGinty, Meghan D; Burke, Thomas A; Resnick, Beth A; Smith, Katherine C; Barnett, Daniel J; Rutkow, Lainie


    Hospitals were once thought to be places of refuge during catastrophic hurricanes, but recent disasters such as Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy have demonstrated that some hospitals are unable to ensure the safety of patients and staff and the continuity of medical care at key times. The government has a duty to safeguard public health and a responsibility to ensure that appropriate protective action is taken when disasters threaten or impair the ability of hospitals to sustain essential services. The law can enable the government to fulfill this duty by providing necessary authority to order preventive or reactive responses--such as ordering evacuation of or sheltering-in-place in hospitals--when safety is imperiled. We systematically identified and analyzed state emergency preparedness laws that could have affected evacuation of and sheltering-in-place in hospitals in order to characterize the public health legal preparedness of 4 states (Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, and New York) in the mid-Atlantic region during Hurricane Sandy in 2012. At that time, none of these 4 states had enacted statutes or regulations explicitly granting the government the authority to order hospitals to shelter-in-place. Whereas all 4 states had enacted laws explicitly enabling the government to order evacuation, the nature of this authority and the individuals empowered to execute it varied. We present empirical analyses intended to enhance public health legal preparedness and ensure these states and others are better able to respond to future natural disasters, which are predicted to be more severe and frequent as a result of climate change, as well as other hazards. States can further improve their readiness for catastrophic disasters by ensuring explicit statutory authority to order evacuation and to order sheltering-in-place, particularly of hospitals, where it does not currently exist.

  17. Simulation modelling of a patient surge in an emergency department under disaster conditions

    Muhammet Gul


    Full Text Available The efficiency of emergency departments (EDs in handling patient surges during disaster times using the available resources is very important. Many EDs require additional resources to overcome the bottlenecks in emergency systems. The assumption is that EDs consider the option of temporary staff dispatching, among other options, in order to respond to an increased demand or even the hiring temporarily non-hospital medical staff. Discrete event simulation (DES, a well-known simulation method and based on the idea of process modeling, is used for establishing ED operations and management related models. In this study, a DES model is developed to investigate and analyze an ED under normal conditions and an ED in a disaster scenario which takes into consideration an increased influx of disaster victims-patients. This will allow early preparedness of emergency departments in terms of physical and human resources. The studied ED is located in an earthquake zone in Istanbul. The report on Istanbul’s disaster preparedness presented by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA and Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM, asserts that the district where the ED is located is estimated to have the highest injury rate. Based on real case study information, the study aims to suggest a model on pre-planning of ED resources for disasters. The results indicate that in times of a possible disaster, when the percentage of red patient arrivals exceeds 20% of total patient arrivals, the number of red area nurses and the available space for red area patients will be insufficient for the department to operate effectively. A methodological improvement presented a different distribution function that was tested for service time of the treatment areas. The conclusion is that the Weibull distribution function used in service process of injection room fits the model better than the Gamma distribution function.

  18. Disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal: floods and landslides

    Gaire S


    Full Text Available Surya Gaire, Rafael Castro Delgado, Pedro Arcos González Unit for Research in Emergency and Disaster, Department of Medicine, University of Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, Oviedo, Asturias, SpainAbstract: Nepal has a complicated geophysical structure that is prone to various kinds of disasters. Nepal ranks the most disaster-prone country in the world and has experienced several natural calamities, causing high property and life losses. Disasters are caused by natural processes, but may be increased by human activities. The overall objective of this paper is to analyze the disaster risk profile and existing legal framework of Nepal. The paper is based on secondary data sources. Major causative factors for floods and landslides are heavy and continuous rainfall, outburst floods, infrastructure failure, and deforestation. Historical data of natural disasters in Nepal show that water-induced disasters have killed hundreds of people and affected thousands every year. Likewise, properties worth millions of US dollars have been damaged. There is an increasing trend toward landslides and floods, which will likely continue to rise if proper intervention is not taken. A positive correlation between water-induced disasters and deaths has been observed. Nepal has a poor Index for Risk Management (INFORM. There are fluctuations in the recording of death data caused by flood and landslides. The Government of Nepal focuses more on the response phase than on the preparedness phase of disasters. The existing disaster management act seems to be weak and outdated. There is a gap in current legal procedure, so the country is in dire need of a comprehensive legal framework. The new proposed act seems to take a much broader approach to disaster management. With a long-term vision of managing disaster risk in the country, the Government of Nepal has begun the Nepal Risk Reduction Consortium (NRRC in collaboration with development and humanitarian partners. In order to

  19. Disasters can happen to anybody: The case of Korea

    Ha, Kyoo-Man, E-mail:


    In Korea, there is a pervasive feeling of invincibility to the point that people and organizations do not believe that disasters can strike them. This has impact on the level of preparedness for disasters. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its governmental policies/practices with some private partners' efforts to mitigate disaster risks. A case study was utilized as the major methodology by comparing exclusive management with inclusive management. These two approaches have been comparatively analyzed via four variables, namely the central government, the local governments, the incident commander, and other stakeholders. The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management. Moreover, the importance of communication, cooperation, collaboration, and multi-discipline coordination is discussed. Additionally, the problem of reductionism and equal participation among all stakeholders, as well as the resistance from vested interests, are recognized and elaborated for Korea and the international community. - Highlights: • Only a few stakeholders in Korea believe that disaster can happen to anyone. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its current practices to mitigate disaster risks. • To compare exclusive management with inclusive management, we have examined four comparative variables, namely the central government's policy, local government's strategy, the incident commander's post, and other stakeholders' efforts. • The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management.

  20. The Role of Altered Landscapes in the Disaster Lifecycle

    Plumlee, G. S.; Holloway, J. M.; Murphy, S. F.


    Most landscapes have some degree of human-induced alteration, including roadways, water diversions, and impacts from historical land use (e.g., grazing, mining). These changes in a landscape can magnify impacts of cascading disasters such as fires and subsequent storm events. The population of the Colorado Front Range is growing rapidly, putting increased pressure on the wildland-urban interface. Many historical (mid 19th to mid 20th century) mining districts have since developed into substantial exurban communities. Historical mining activity generated numerous waste rock and tailings piles of various magnitudes, from small areas of trace-metal bearing deposits to the underpinnings of entire towns. Recent natural disasters have exposed this material, enhancing mobilization by wind and water. The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned nearly 2600 hectares and over 160 homes in September 2010. Overland flow during storms in the first year post-fire mobilized mine tailings along denuded slopes, resulting in an increased flux of sediment bearing Hg, As, Cu, and other trace metals to the stream. Record-breaking amounts of rainfall across Boulder and Larimer Counties in September 2013 resulted in flooding that triggered landslides at road cuts, undercut roads at bridges, and displaced structures built directly on mine tailings, notably in Jamestown, north of Fourmile Canyon. Additional tailings mobilized by overland flow and high peak flows contributed to elevated trace metal concentrations in stream sediments downstream from legacy mining activity. Understanding the collective impact of historical and modern changes to a landscape will lead to a more holistic approach to disaster preparedness and post-disaster recovery, particularly community planning. An awareness of the geomorphic, hydrologic, ecologic and geochemical changes resulting from historical land use will enable better assessments of the resiliency of ecosystems and communities during and following disasters.

  1. Medical Countermeasures for Children in Public Health Emergencies, Disasters, or Terrorism.


    Significant strides have been made over the past 10 to 15 years to develop medical countermeasures (MCMs) to address potential disaster hazards, including chemical, biological, radiologic, and nuclear threats. Significant and effective collaboration between the pediatric health community, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, and federal partners, such as the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Institutes of Health, Food and Drug Administration, and other federal agencies, over the past 5 years has resulted in substantial gains in addressing the needs of children related to disaster preparedness in general and MCMs in particular. Yet, major gaps still remain related to MCMs for children, a population highly vulnerable to the effects of exposure to such threats, because many vaccines and pharmaceuticals approved for use by adults as MCMs do not yet have pediatric formulations, dosing information, or safety information. As a result, the nation's stockpiles and other caches (designated supply of MCMs) where pharmacotherapeutic and other MCMs are stored are less prepared to address the needs of children compared with those of adults in the event of a disaster. This policy statement provides recommendations to close the remaining gaps for the development and use of MCMs in children during public health emergencies or disasters. The progress made by federal agencies to date to address the needs of children and the shared commitment of collaboration that characterizes the current relationship between the pediatric health community and the federal agencies responsible for MCMs should encourage all child advocates to invest the necessary energy and resources now to complete the process of remedying the remaining significant gaps in preparedness.

  2. Disaster Metrics: A Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies.

    Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick Skip; Archer, Frank


    Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single

  3. Reducing disaster risk in rural Arctic communities through effective communication strategies

    Kontar, Y. Y.


    Communication is the process of exchanging and relaying vital information that has bearing on the effectiveness of all phases of emergency management: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, making it one of the most important activities in disasters. Lack of communication between emergency managers, policy makers, and communities at risk may result in an inability to accurately identify disaster risk, and failure to determine priorities during a hazard event. Specific goals of communication change during the four phases of emergency management. Consequently, the communication strategy changes as well. Communication strategy also depends on a variety of attitudinal and motivational characteristics of the population at risk, as well as socioeconomic, cultural, and geographical features of the disaster-prone region. In May 2013, insufficient communication patterns between federal, state, tribal agencies, and affected communities significantly contributed to delays in the flood response and recovery in several rural villages along the Yukon River in central Alaska. This case study finds that long term dialogue is critical for managing disaster risk and increasing disaster resilience in rural Northern communities. It introduces new ideas and highlights best practices in disaster communication.

  4. A measurement of the effectiveness and efficiency of pre-disaster debris management plans.

    Crowley, Julia


    Disaster debris management operations make up a significant portion of recovery expenses. The following study aims to examine how the presence of a plan makes disaster debris management effective and efficient. Ninety-five counties in the United States who received major disaster declarations between 2012 and 2015 were surveyed to examine the quality of their debris management processes. Forty-nine of these counties had debris management plans while forty-six did not. Statistical tests were conducted to address discrepancies in the effectiveness and efficiency of the debris management processes between the two groups. Such tests suggest that counties with pre-disaster debris management plans were more effective. These counties recycled almost twice as much disaster debris as counties without plans, and received over three times as much Public Assistance from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Counties with plans also reported higher levels of perceived preparedness for future debris challenges than counties without plans. Overall, counties with pre-disaster debris management plans were partially more efficient than counties without plans. They removed more cubic yards of debris per day, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in the volume of debris removed per dollar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Challenges of Managing Animals in Disasters in the U.S.

    Heath, Sebastian E.; Linnabary, Robert D.


    Simple Summary This article describes common challenges to managing animals in disasters in the US, summarizes how some of these challenges are being met and makes recommendations on how to overcome others. Many predictable adverse situations affecting animals and their owners can be prevented when communities develop a comprehensive emergency management strategy that integrates animal care into planning, preparedness, mitigation, and recovery activities, as well as response. Abstract Common to many of the repeated issues surrounding animals in disasters in the U.S. is a pre-existing weak animal health infrastructure that is under constant pressure resulting from pet overpopulation. Unless this root cause is addressed, communities remain vulnerable to similar issues with animals they and others have faced in past disasters. In the US the plight of animals in disasters is frequently viewed primarily as a response issue and frequently handled by groups that are not integrated with the affected community’s emergency management. In contrast, animals, their owners, and communities would greatly benefit from integrating animal issues into an overall emergency management strategy for the community. There is no other factor contributing as much to human evacuation failure in disasters that is under the control of emergency management when a threat is imminent as pet ownership. Emergency managers can take advantage of the bond people have with their animals to instill appropriate behavior amongst pet owners in disasters. PMID:26479228

  6. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Establishment and growth, 2008–2010 1

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.


    In 2008, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) established the Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of involvement in providing health information for disaster management. Aware of this legacy and moved by the catastrophic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM was urged to “ensure continuous access to health information and effective use of libraries and librarians when disasters occur”. In response to this charge, NLM has undertaken substantial efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper documents the history, goals, initiatives, accomplishments and future plans of the Center. PMID:25324584

  7. Operational challenges to community participation in post-disaster damage assessments: observations from Fiji.

    Méheux, Kirstie; Dominey-Howes, Dale; Lloyd, Kate


    Community participation is becoming increasingly popular within the field of disaster management. International disaster policies, frameworks and charters embrace the notion that communities should play an active role in initiatives to identify vulnerabilities and risks and to mitigate those dangers, and, in the event of a disaster, that they should play a proactive part in response and recovery (see, for example, UNISDR, 1994; The Sphere Project, 2004; United Nations, 2005). A number of studies have investigated the participation of communities in disaster preparedness and mitigation efforts (see, for instance, Scott-Villiers, 2000; Andharia, 2002; Godschalk, Brody and Burby, 2003), There is, however, limited reflection on the challenges to ensuring participation in the operational context of disaster response. This paper draws on a study of the policy and practice of participatory damage assessment in Fiji to identify and discuss the barriers to formal implementation of community participation in a post-disaster context. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  8. The environmental and medical geochemistry of potentially hazardous materials produced by disasters

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Morman, Suzette A.; Meeker, G.P.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Hageman, Philip L.; Wolf, Ruth E.


    Many natural or human-caused disasters release potentially hazardous materials (HM) that may pose threats to the environment and health of exposed humans, wildlife, and livestock. This chapter summarizes the environmentally and toxicologically significant physical, mineralogical, and geochemical characteristics of materials produced by a wide variety of recent disasters, such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes and extreme storms, spills of mining/mineral-processing wastes or coal extraction by-products, and the 2001 attacks on and collapse of the World Trade Center towers. In describing these characteristics, this chapter also illustrates the important roles that geochemists and other earth scientists can play in environmental disaster response and preparedness. In addition to characterizing in detail the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of HM generated by the disasters, these roles also include (1) identifying and discriminating potential multiple sources of the materials; (2) monitoring, mapping, and modeling dispersal and evolution of the materials in the environment; (3) understanding how the materials are modified by environmental processes; (4) identifying key characteristics and processes that influence the materials' toxicity to exposed humans and ecosystems; (5) estimating shifts away from predisaster environmental baseline conditions; and (6) using geochemical insights learned from past disasters to help estimate, prepare for, and increase societal resilience to the environmental and related health impacts of future disasters.

  9. COPEWELL: A Conceptual Framework and System Dynamics Model for Predicting Community Functioning and Resilience After Disasters.

    Links, Jonathan M; Schwartz, Brian S; Lin, Sen; Kanarek, Norma; Mitrani-Reiser, Judith; Sell, Tara Kirk; Watson, Crystal R; Ward, Doug; Slemp, Cathy; Burhans, Robert; Gill, Kimberly; Igusa, Tak; Zhao, Xilei; Aguirre, Benigno; Trainor, Joseph; Nigg, Joanne; Inglesby, Thomas; Carbone, Eric; Kendra, James M


    Policy-makers and practitioners have a need to assess community resilience in disasters. Prior efforts conflated resilience with community functioning, combined resistance and recovery (the components of resilience), and relied on a static model for what is inherently a dynamic process. We sought to develop linked conceptual and computational models of community functioning and resilience after a disaster. We developed a system dynamics computational model that predicts community functioning after a disaster. The computational model outputted the time course of community functioning before, during, and after a disaster, which was used to calculate resistance, recovery, and resilience for all US counties. The conceptual model explicitly separated resilience from community functioning and identified all key components for each, which were translated into a system dynamics computational model with connections and feedbacks. The components were represented by publicly available measures at the county level. Baseline community functioning, resistance, recovery, and resilience evidenced a range of values and geographic clustering, consistent with hypotheses based on the disaster literature. The work is transparent, motivates ongoing refinements, and identifies areas for improved measurements. After validation, such a model can be used to identify effective investments to enhance community resilience.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 11).

  10. 75 FR 42448 - Board of Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency...


    ... Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response; Notice of Charter Amendment This gives notice... Scientific Counselors, Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, Department of...

  11. Toward to Disaster Mitigation Science

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Shiraki, Wataru; Tokozakura, Eiji


    Destructive natural disasters such as earthquakes and tsunamis have occurred frequently in the world. For the reduction and mitigation of damages by destructive natural disasters, early detection of natural disasters and speedy and proper evacuations are indispensable. And hardware and software preparations for reduction and mitigation of natural disasters are quite important and significant. Finally, methods on restorations and revivals are necessary after natural disasters. We would like to propose natural disaster mitigation science for early detections, evacuations and restorations against destructive natural disasters. In natural disaster mitigation science, there are lots of research fields such as natural science, engineering, medical treatment, social science and literature/art etc. Especially, natural science, engineering and medical treatment are fundamental research fields for natural disaster mitigation, but social sciences such as sociology, psychology etc. are very important research fields for restorations after natural disasters. We have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster mitigation. in the near future. We will present the details of natural disaster mitigation science.

  12. Assessing Hospital Disaster Readiness Over Time at the US Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Radcliff, Tiffany A; Gable, Alicia R; Riopelle, Deborah; Hagigi, Farhad A; Brewster, Pete; Dobalian, Aram


    Introduction There have been numerous initiatives by government and private organizations to help hospitals become better prepared for major disasters and public health emergencies. This study reports on efforts by the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Administration, Office of Emergency Management's (OEM) Comprehensive Emergency Management Program (CEMP) to assess the readiness of VA Medical Centers (VAMCs) across the nation. Hypothesis/Problem This study conducts descriptive analyses of preparedness assessments of VAMCs and examines change in hospital readiness over time. To assess change, quantitative analyses of data from two phases of preparedness assessments (Phase I: 2008-2010; Phase II: 2011-2013) at 137 VAMCs were conducted using 61 unique capabilities assessed during the two phases. The initial five-point Likert-like scale used to rate each capability was collapsed into a dichotomous variable: "not-developed=0" versus "developed=1." To describe changes in preparedness over time, four new categories were created from the Phase I and Phase II dichotomous variables: (1) rated developed in both phases; (2) rated not-developed in Phase I but rated developed in Phase II; (3) rated not-developed in both phases; and (4) rated developed in Phase I but rated not- developed in Phase II. From a total of 61 unique emergency preparedness capabilities, 33 items achieved the desired outcome - they were rated either "developed in both phases" or "became developed" in Phase II for at least 80% of VAMCs. For 14 items, 70%-80% of VAMCs achieved the desired outcome. The remaining 14 items were identified as "low-performing" capabilities, defined as less than 70% of VAMCs achieved the desired outcome. Measuring emergency management capabilities is a necessary first step to improving those capabilities. Furthermore, assessing hospital readiness over time and creating robust hospital readiness assessment tools can help hospitals make informed decisions

  13. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    Zubair, L.


    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  14. FEMA Historical Disaster Declarations - shp

    Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...

  15. Study Links Disasters to Dementia

    ... news/fullstory_161672.html Study Links Disasters to Dementia Losing home was tied to greater mental decline ... Earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters may raise dementia risk for seniors forced to leave their homes, ...

  16. The Bhopal disaster and its aftermath: a review

    Broughton Edward


    Full Text Available Abstract On December 3 1984, more than 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas leaked from a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, immediately killing at least 3,800 people and causing significant morbidity and premature death for many thousands more. The company involved in what became the worst industrial accident in history immediately tried to dissociate itself from legal responsibility. Eventually it reached a settlement with the Indian Government through mediation of that country's Supreme Court and accepted moral responsibility. It paid $470 million in compensation, a relatively small amount of based on significant underestimations of the long-term health consequences of exposure and the number of people exposed. The disaster indicated a need for enforceable international standards for environmental safety, preventative strategies to avoid similar accidents and industrial disaster preparedness. Since the disaster, India has experienced rapid industrialization. While some positive changes in government policy and behavior of a few industries have taken place, major threats to the environment from rapid and poorly regulated industrial growth remain. Widespread environmental degradation with significant adverse human health consequences continues to occur throughout India.

  17. Translocal disaster interventions:

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher


    to provide equal as well as equitable relief. Drawing attention to the practice of excluding the migrants households of origin from the receipt of targeted relief, the article suggests that disaster management should re-consider the assumption that such households are automatically (the sole) recipients......The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major point of origin of migrants worldwide. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investigates citizens’ responses to the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I examine how individual migrants channel relief...... to their neighborhoods of origin through their networks of social relations abroad and within the areas of impact, and how these individual relief channels both complement and conflict with official disaster responses. Focusing on inter-household resource flows, I argue that individual relief channels form part of local...

  18. No convincing evidence for a biological preparedness explanation of phobias

    de Jong, Peter; Merckelbach, H


    The nonrandom distribution of fears is not as clearly related to phylogenetically survival relevance as preparedness theory seems to imply. Although delayed extinction reflects some of the best human evidence for preparedness, even this phenomenon is not as robust as it once seemed to be. Apart from

  19. Presidential Perspectives of Crisis Preparedness at Christian Higher Education Institutions

    Burrell, Stacy M.; Heiselt, April K.


    Crises, whether human or natural, occur on all college campuses. Extensive research has been conducted on crisis preparedness at four-year, nondenominational institutions. This study examined crisis preparedness at Christian institutions of higher education. The study examined the perspectives of presidents of Christian institutions of higher…

  20. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Technology Preparedness and Status Report Guidance

    Blacker, P.B.; Bonnenberg, R.W.; Cannon, P.G.; Hyde, R.A.; Watson, L.R.


    A Technology Preparedness and Status Report is required for each Technical Task Plan funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. This document provides guidance for the preparation of that report. Major sections of the report will include a subset of the need for the technology, objectives of the demonstration, technology description and readiness evaluation, demonstration requirements, and preparedness checklist and action plan.

  1. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.


    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  2. Natural disasters and human mobility

    Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.


    This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that

  3. Beyond the Storms: Strengthening Preparedness, Response, & Resilience in the 21st Century

    Dane S. Egli


    Full Text Available Looking Beyond the Storms of major events and reactionary tendencies to prevent future disasters—and continuing to fix things—the author introduces a fresh assessment in the wake of Superstorm Sandy, the vexing challenge of domestic shootings, and a persistent nationwide drought. This paper offers a refreshing perspective on the need for transformational and innovative thinking on preparedness, response, and resilience, as well as disaster management. Against the backdrop of 9-11 terrorist attacks and natural disasters such as hurricanes Katrina, Irene, and Sandy, this paper, highlights that we—as homeland security planners and policymakers—must look beyond the immediate demands of grant proposals and a narrow focus on “prevention” and “protection” to a systemic analysis of “mitigation, response, and recovery”—based upon required functions and capabilities. It asserts the need for change from spending scarce dollars to prevent that which is inevitable and nervously trying to protect physical locations—in an environment of growing complexity and uncertainty—to a posture that integrates resilience as an active virtue in all elements of the homeland security enterprise. There is a sense of urgency that challenges leaders to understand the strategic imperatives and unique opportunities in building all-hazards community resilience.

  4. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Thompson, Neil


    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  5. Disaster Risk Profile

    World Bank


    Afghanistan’s rugged mountain landscape and generally arid climate make it prone to several natural hazards. Climate change also poses threat to Afghanistan’s natural resources, of which the majority of Afghans depend for their livelihood. The country’s low level of socio-economic development makes it extremely vulnerable to disasters, resulting in frequent loss of lives, livelihoods, and ...

  6. Resilience in disaster research

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel;


    This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims of disa...

  7. Mold After a Disaster

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  8. The Ontology of Disaster.

    Thompson, Neil


    Explores some key existential or ontological concepts to show their applicability to the complex area of disaster impact as it relates to health and social welfare practice. Draws on existentialist philosophy, particularly that of John Paul Sartre, and introduces some key ontological concepts to show how they specifically apply to the experience…

  9. When Facing Natural Disasters

    Liu Xinwen


    @@ China last experienced a strong earthquake in 1976 in Tang Shan, Hehei Province. At the beginning of this year, severe snow storms struck more than half of China. What impact have these natural disasters left on China, especially the latest earthquake in Sichuan? Let's do a comparison.

  10. Disaster Changes Us


    On scientists confirming that sex is a channel for HIV AIDS infection, the sexual emancipation that had flourished in America and Europe since the middle of the last century subsided. More stress has since been placed on family issues. A disaster can thus change moral standards and senses of value, as well as behavior.

  11. Households Perceptions on Factors Affecting Resilience towards Natural Disasters in Indonesia



    Full Text Available Most areas in Indonesia are prone to natural disasters. Learning the lessons from the Aceh Tsu- nami in 2004, areas with high risks of natural disasters are in the process of preparing themselves for such an unexpected event, by increasing their resilience. The objective of this studyis to shed more lights on factors affecting the resilience from two sources namely, existing literatures and the application of disaster management in four disaster-prone areas in Indonesia -Padang, Sleman, Cilacap, and Palu. To enrich our analysis, we collect data from the field tocompare the prepared- ness and to get insights on people’s perceptions towards the factors of resilience in those areas.We employ IDI and FGD to identify the factors of resilience and the preparedness in the areas investi- gated. Thereafter, a preliminary survey is conducted to identify people’s perceptions towards the aspects of resilience in the areas. Results from the survey conducted to 800 households in Padang and Cilacap indicates that from the social aspect, community’s value cohesiveness is one of impor- tant factor affecting their resilience towards natural disaster. In addition, since almost 85 percent of their income was spending to fulfill their daily basic needs such as foods, clothing, and housing. Therefore, when disaster occurred, they heavily relied on the help of debt or selling some of their assets, as well as used cash in hand as emergency funds. In general, respondents in all sample cit- ies are able to re-start their economic activities as soon as two weeks after the event of disaster. In addition, the survey found that most of respondents were aware that the government has pro- grams to educate people on the disaster mitigation.

  12. World marrow donor association crisis response, business continuity, and disaster recovery guidelines.

    Pingel, Julia; Case, Cullen; Amer, Beth; Hornung, Raymond A; Schmidt, Alexander H


    Multiple institutions, such as donor registries, donor centers, transplantation centers, collection centers, and courier companies, are involved in the international exchange of hematopoietic stem cells. The ability to safely and efficiently ensure continued operation of a donor registry relies on an organization's resiliency in the face of an incident that could impede donor search, donor selection, stem cell collection, or transportation. The Quality Assurance Working Group of the World Marrow Donor Association has developed guidelines on how to establish an organizational resiliency program intended for donor registries initiating an emergency preparedness process. These guidelines cover the minimal requirements of preparedness in prevention and mitigation, crisis response, business continuity, and disaster recovery, and the need for continued maintenance and revision. Issues of international cooperation are addressed as well.

  13. Studying Policy Changes in Disaster Management in India: A Tale of Two Cyclones.

    Jha, Ayan; Basu, Rivu; Basu, Atreyee


    The mainstay of India's disaster management policy until the early 2000s had been relief and rescue operations. The Odisha Super Cyclone (1999) with 10,000 deaths and US $3 billion economic damage provided a rude awakening. Recognizing the importance of preemptive preparedness, the government initiated systematic steps to implement a national framework interlinking economic, environmental, and overall developmental issues for efficient response to and mitigation of disasters. We attempted a critical analysis of this paradigm shift in India's disaster management policy through the prism of 2 cyclones, 14 years apart in time. With improved preparedness and response measures, the death toll in 2013 Cyclone Phailin was 0.5% and the economic loss was about one-third of that during 1999. Concomitant improvements in the technological expertise of the early warning system, an integrated approach at all levels of administration including joint planning with major nongovernmental organizations, and improved community participation were identified as game-changers. An unbelievable 1 million people were evacuated to safety. Our essay aims to highlight key steps in this success and calls for futuristic approaches like insurance programs and gender-sensitive recovery plans. With thorough scrutiny, India's model may well stand to be replicated in resource-restricted settings.

  14. Science should warn people of looming disaster

    Kossobokov, Vladimir


    reliability by durable statistical testing in the on-going regular real-time application lasted for more than 20 years. Geoscientists must initiate shifting the minds of community from pessimistic disbelieve in forecast/prediction products to optimistic challenging views on Hazard Predictability in space and time, so that not to repeat missed opportunities for disaster preparedness like it happen in advance the 2009 L'Aquila, M6.3 earthquake in Italy and the 2011, M9.0 mega-thrust off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku region in Japan.

  15. Evaluation of awareness and preparedness of school Principals and teachers on earthquake reduction effects issues - State's actions

    Kourou, Assimina; Ioakeimidou, Anastasia; Mokos, Vasileios; Bakas, Konstantinos


    It is generally accepted that the effects of the disasters can be mainly reduced if people are aware, well informed and motivated towards a culture of disaster prevention and resilience. Particularly, in earthquake prone countries, a continuous update and education of the public, on earthquake risk management issues, is essential. Schools can play a crucial role concerning training and building a disaster prevention culture, among various community groups. Principals and teachers have a key role to play in any school-wide initiative through developing and reviewing awareness policy, developing and revising emergency response plans, holding emergency drills and training the students. During the last decade, the Greek State have done a lot of efforts in order to better educate teachers and students in disaster preparedness and management, such as: a. implementation of the E.P.P.O.'s educational project "Earthquake Protection at Schools" which is addressed mainly to school Principals. The project started right after the 1999 earthquake in Athens. b. publication of educational material for students, teachers and people with disabilities and publication of guidelines concerning the development of emergency plans. c. implementation of projects and elaboration of innovative and mobile experiential educational material connected with school curricula. The aim of the present study is to assess levels of awareness and preparedness concerning earthquake protection issues, as well as risk mitigation behaviours, undertaken by teachers at individual, family and workplace level. Furthermore, the assessment of teachers' current levels of earthquake awareness and preparedness, could lead to conclusions about the effectiveness of State's current Policy. In this framework, specific questionnaires were developed and were addressed to Principals and teachers who were responsible for the preparation of their School Emergency Preparedness Plans. The sample of the survey comprises of

  16. Salient beliefs about earthquake hazards and household preparedness.

    Becker, Julia S; Paton, Douglas; Johnston, David M; Ronan, Kevin R


    Prior research has found little or no direct link between beliefs about earthquake risk and household preparedness. Furthermore, only limited work has been conducted on how people's beliefs influence the nature and number of preparedness measures adopted. To address this gap, 48 qualitative interviews were undertaken with residents in three urban locations in New Zealand subject to seismic risk. The study aimed to identify the diverse hazard and preparedness-related beliefs people hold and to articulate how these are influenced by public education to encourage preparedness. The study also explored how beliefs and competencies at personal, social, and environmental levels interact to influence people's risk management choices. Three main categories of beliefs were found: hazard beliefs; preparedness beliefs; and personal beliefs. Several salient beliefs found previously to influence the preparedness process were confirmed by this study, including beliefs related to earthquakes being an inevitable and imminent threat, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, personal responsibility, responsibility for others, and beliefs related to denial, fatalism, normalization bias, and optimistic bias. New salient beliefs were also identified (e.g., preparedness being a "way of life"), as well as insight into how some of these beliefs interact within the wider informational and societal context.

  17. Ebola outbreak preparedness planning: a qualitative study of clinicians' experiences.

    Broom, J; Broom, A; Bowden, V


    The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the challenges many hospitals face when preparing for the potential emergence of highly contagious diseases. This study examined the experiences of frontline health care professionals in an Australian hospital during the outbreak, with a focus on participant views on information, training and preparedness, to inform future outbreak preparedness planning. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 healthcare professionals involved in Ebola preparedness planning, at a hospital in Australia. The data were systematically coded to discover key themes in participants' accounts of Ebola preparedness. Three key themes identified were: 1) the impact of high volumes of-often inconsistent-information, which shaped participants' trust in authority; 2) barriers to engagement in training, including the perceived relative risk Ebola presented; and finally, 3) practical and environmental impediments to preparedness. These clinicians' accounts of Ebola preparedness reveal a range of important factors which may influence the relative success of outbreak preparedness and provide guidance for future responses. In particular, they illustrate the critical importance of clear communication and guidelines for staff engagement with, and implementation of training. An important outcome of this study was how individual assessments of risk and trust are produced via, and overlap with, the dynamics of communication, training and environmental logistics. Consideration of the dynamic ways in which these issues intersect is crucial for fostering an environment that is suitable for managing an infectious threat such as Ebola. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Disaster Governance : Proposals for a Multi-Level Human Rights Disaster Governance Matrix

    Lane, Charlotte; Hesselman, Marlies


    'Good’ (natural) disaster governance faces multiple challenges given the broad range of resources, skills, expertise and international cooperation that adequate disaster response commands. Disaster governance needs coordinated action across space and time, at different levels and in the full disaste

  19. Utilizing Strategic and Operational Methods for Whole-Community Disaster Planning.

    Franks, Stevee; Seaton, Ellen


    Analysis of response and recovery efforts to disasters over the past 2 decades has identified a consistent gap that plagues the nation in regard to persons with access and functional needs. This gap can be highlighted by Hurricane Katrina, where the majority of those killed were a part of the access and functional needs population. After a disaster, many individuals with access and functional needs require assistance recovering but often have difficulty accessing services and resources. These difficulties are due to a combination of issues, such as health problems and the disruption of community support services. We sought to help bridge this gap by focusing on strategic and operational methods used while planning for the whole community. This article highlights the many partnerships that must be fostered for successful whole-community planning. These partnerships include, but are not limited to, local government departments, health agencies, nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations, and other volunteer organizations. We showcase these methods by using a developmental Post-Disaster Canvassing Plan to highlight planning methods that may aid jurisdictions across the United States in disaster planning for the whole community. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 6).

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Coastal Residents After Multiple Disasters.

    Cherry, Katie E; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro; Marks, Loren D; Baudoin, Kayla H; Nezat, Pamela F; Stanko, Katie E


    Exposure to multiple disasters, both natural and technological, is associated with extreme stress and long-term consequences for older adults that are not well understood. In this article, we address age differences in health-related quality of life in older disaster survivors exposed to the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita and the 2010 BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the role played by social engagement in influencing these differences. Participants were noncoastal residents, current coastal residents, and current coastal fishers who were economically affected by the BP oil spill. Social engagement was estimated on the basis of disruptions in charitable work and social support after the 2005 hurricanes relative to a typical year before the storms. Criterion measures were participants' responses to the SF-36 Health Survey which includes composite indexes of physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. The results of logistic regressions indicated that age was inversely associated with SF-36 PCS scores. A reduction in perceived social support after Hurricane Katrina was also inversely associated with SF-36 MCS scores. These results illuminate risk factors that impact well-being among older adults after multiple disasters. Implications of these data for psychological adjustment after multiple disasters are considered. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:90-96).

  1. Operation of emergency operating centers during mass casualty incidents in taiwan: a disaster management perspective.

    Wen, Jet-Chau; Tsai, Chia-Chou; Chen, Mei-Hsuan; Chang, Wei-Ta


    On April 27, 2011, a train derailed and crashed in Taiwan, causing a mass casualty incident (MCI) that was similar to a previous event and with similar consequences. In both disasters, the emergency operating centers (EOCs) could not effectively integrate associated agencies to deal with the incident. The coordination and utilization of resources were inefficient, which caused difficulty in command structure operation and casualty evacuation. This study was designed to create a survey questionnaire with problem items using disaster management phases mandated by Taiwan's Emergency Medical Care Law (EMCL), use statistical methods (t test) to analyze the results and issues the EOCs encountered during the operation, and propose solutions for those problems. Findings showed that EOCs lacked authority to intervene or coordinate with associated agencies. Also, placing emphasis on the recovery phase should improve future prevention and response mechanisms. To improve the response to MCIs, the EMCL needs to be amended to give EOCs the lead during disasters; use feedback from the recovery phase to improve future disaster management and operation coordination; and establish an information-sharing platform across agencies to address all aspects of relief work.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-6).

  2. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Achieving the vision, 2010–2013

    Love, Cynthia B.; Arnesen, Stacey J.; Phillips, Steven J.; Windom, Robert E.


    From 2010 to 2013, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC) continued to build its programs and services on the foundation laid in its starting years, 2008–2010. Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of providing health information, training, and tools in response to disasters. Aware of this legacy, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM’s Long Range Plan 2006–2016) called for creation of a center to show “a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem”. NLM is continuing efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper describes the 2010–2013 goals and activities of DIMRC and its future plans. PMID:27570333

  3. Assistive Technology and Older Adults in Disasters: Implications for Emergency Management.

    McSweeney-Feld, Mary Helen


    This article identifies concepts, trends, and policy gaps in the availability and service delivery of assistive technology utilized by older adults in disasters, as well as implications for emergency management planning and shelter administration. Definitions of types of assistive technology, as well as views of older adults using technology as at-risk individuals for emergency management service provision, are provided. An overview of peer-reviewed articles and gray literature is conducted, focusing on publications from 2001 to the present in the United States. Analytical frameworks used by emergency management organizations as well as regulations such as the Americans with Disabilities Act and recent court decisions on emergency shelter accessibility in disasters are reviewed. Research on the use of assistive technology by older adults during disasters is a neglected issue. The current and potential benefits of defining standards for provision and use of assistive technology for older adults during disasters has received limited recognition in emergency management planning. Older adults with disabilities utilize assistive technology to maintain their independence and dignity, and communities as well as emergency services managers need to become more aware of the needs and preferences of these older adults in their planning processes and drills as well as in service delivery during actual events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:135-139).

  4. Disaster loss and social media: Can online information increase flood resilience?

    Allaire, Maura C.


    When confronted with natural disasters, individuals around the world increasingly use online resources to become informed of forecasted conditions and advisable actions. This study tests the effectiveness of online information and social media in enabling households to reduce disaster losses. The 2011 Bangkok flood is utilized as a case study since it was one of the first major disasters to affect a substantial population connected to social media. The role of online information is investigated with a mixed methods approach. Both quantitative (propensity score matching) and qualitative (in-depth interviews) techniques are employed. The study relies on two data sources—survey responses from 469 Bangkok households and in-depth interviews with internet users who were a subset of the survey participants. Propensity score matching indicates that social media enabled households to reduce flood losses by an average of 37% (USD 3708 per household), using a nearest neighbor estimator. This reduction is substantial when considering that household flood losses for the matched sample averaged USD 8278. Social media offered information not available from other sources, such as localized and nearly real-time updates of flood location and depth. With this knowledge, households could move belongings to higher ground before floodwaters arrived. These findings suggest that utilizing social media users as sensors could better inform populations during disasters. Overall, the study reveals that online information can enable effective disaster preparedness and reduce losses.

  5. Exploring the Demands on Nurses Working in Health Care Facilities During a Large-Scale Natural Disaster

    Gillian C. Scrymgeour


    Full Text Available Nurses are pivotal to an effective societal response to a range of critical events, including disasters. This presents nurses with many significant and complex challenges that require them to function effectively under highly challenging and stressful circumstances and often for prolonged periods of time. The exponential growth in the number of disasters means that knowledge of disaster preparedness and how this knowledge can be implemented to facilitate the development of resilient and adaptive nurses and health care organizations represents an important adjunct to nurse education, policy development, and research considerations. Although this topic has and continues to attract attention in the literature, a lack of systematic understanding of the contingencies makes it difficult to clearly differentiate what is known and what gaps remain in this literature. Providing a sound footing for future research can be facilitated by first systematically reviewing the relevant literature. Focused themes were identified and analyzed using an ecological and interactive systems framework. Ten of the 12 retained studies included evacuation, revealing that evacuation is more likely to occur in an aged care facility than a hospital. The unpredictability of an event also highlighted organizational, functional, and competency issues in regard to the complexity of decision making and overall preparedness. The integrative review also identified that the unique roles, competencies, and demands on nurses working in hospitals and residential health care facilities during a natural disaster appear invisible within the highly visible event.

  6. Development of the University Center for Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Response (UCDPER)


    the transmission of unmanned ground sensor data. Its redundant systems and satellite-based Broadband Global Area Network ( BGAN ) ensure connectivity...networking (Wi-Fi 802.1 lb/g) • Integrated broadband wireless (EVDO/3G) • Streaming and burst IP satellite connectivity ( BGAN terminal/Inmarsat network

  7. FEMA Grants Program Directorate - Preparedness (Non-Disaster) and Assistance to Firefighter Grants

    Department of Homeland Security — The Grant Programs Directorate (GPD) strategically and effectively administers and manages FEMA grants to ensure critical and measurable results for customers and...

  8. Turning Chaos into Order : Preparedness, Concepts and Lessons Learned in Disaster Medicine

    Haverkort, J. J Mark


    Optimal care for a sudden, unexpected large number of victims from a mass casualty incident (MCI) is demanding and challenging for every healthcare system. It requires paradigm shift from regular trauma care. Instead of focusing on the individual patient with unlimited resources the focus of care

  9. Assessment of Disaster Relief Preparedness Capabilities Networks in the EUCOM, PACOM, and SOUTHCOM Areas of Responsibility


    International RNRN Registered Nurse Response Network SCM supply chain management SOUTHCOM U.S. Southern Command UCSD PDS University of California San...collaborative networks are a fundamental component of any emergency response” (p. 134). Responding humanitarian agencies can improve efficiencies while...chain management ( SCM ). Commodities and associated costs are well-managed using impartial, transparent and responsive systems (The Sphere

  10. Bridging the Gap: Developing a Tool to Support Local Civilian and Military Disaster Preparedness


    open house and air show), the National Basketball Association ( NBA ) All-Star Game, or NASCAR 34 Bridging the Gap: Developing a Tool to Support Local...Americas] protest in Columbus, the National Col- legiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Final Four basketball games in San Antonio, and annual New Year’s...there are large events, such as the NBA All-Star Game, which pose some difficulties related to law enforcement. Other recent events with potential

  11. Turning Chaos into Order : Preparedness, Concepts and Lessons Learned in Disaster Medicine

    Haverkort, J. J Mark


    Optimal care for a sudden, unexpected large number of victims from a mass casualty incident (MCI) is demanding and challenging for every healthcare system. It requires paradigm shift from regular trauma care. Instead of focusing on the individual patient with unlimited resources the focus of care sh

  12. A Coordination, Education, and Mitigation Model for Disaster Preparedness in Coastal Areas.


    1) Evacuation zones for counties, cities, and major development areas. (2) Schools. (3) Hospitals, medical clinics , and other care facilities where a...Michael and Clark, John P. Natural Hazards Warning Systems. University of Minnesota, Minnesota, 1980. Caso , Edwardo L., Cry, George W., Jarvinen

  13. National Security/Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Recovery Communications Via ACTS

    Pasqualino, Christopher R.; Abbe, Brian S.; Dixon, Frank


    During the period from early 1993 through 1994, the U.S. National Communication System, a government agency, sponsored the development and execution of several fixed and mobile experiments using the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)...The results of these experiments are described in this paper.

  14. Application of IPv6 and NGN to the information network of earthquake preparedness and disaster mitigation

    LIAN Wei-ping; LIU Ju; HOU Yan-yan; LIU Xiao-yu; ZOU Rui; YANG Da-ke


    @@ The next generation network (NGN) should be a new type established on the basis of the next generation of telecommunication network that is highly performable, expandable, operational, administrable and securer, in order to realize the features and functions such as high-quality streaming media, wireless and mobile capacity, diversification of terminal equipments, quality control of on-demand transmission, higher safety and security. IPv6 is commonly agreed to be one of the key technological supports to NGN. IPv6 network has the greatest chance to become the primary type of NGN after it fulfills all the necessary characteristics of NGN. At present it is just thought to be the next generation of IP network.

  15. Computer-based Monitoring for Decision Support Systems and Disaster Preparedness in Buildings

    Alan Vinh


    Full Text Available The operation of modern buildings can support a vast amount of static and real-time data. Static information such as building schematics is vital for security and rescue purposes. There is a need for building managers and for first responders to be notified of designated building alerts in real-time so that actions can be performed promptly. The capability to monitor building devices and to keep the first responder community updated with the latest building information during emergency situations, as well as the ability to remotely control certain building devices and processes, can be realized today. This paper describes the various challenges encountered in the research area of building interoperability and proposes methods and insights for developing a standards framework to enable communication between building information systems and first responder information systems. Having a standards framework in place will assist in the development and deployment of commercial products in support of building interoperability.

  16. Emergency Preparedness: A Handbook for Families.


    BEAL, George M. Social Action in Civil Defense. Washington, D.C.: Office of Civil Defense, 1964. BERLO , David K. The Home Fallout Protection Survey...1973. b 𔃽 II 351 BIBLIOGRAPHY ADAMS, David S. Policies, Programs and Problems of the Local Red Cross Disaster Relief in the 1960s. Columbus, OH: The...SMITH, David , ed., Richard D. Reddy and Burt R. Baldwin. Voluntary Action Research: 1973. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Co., 1973. SMITH, David Horton, ed

  17. Integrating a framework for conducting public health systems research into statewide operations-based exercises to improve emergency preparedness

    Hunter Jennifer C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the uncommon nature of large-scale disasters and emergencies, public health practitioners often turn to simulated emergencies, known as “exercises”, for preparedness assessment and improvement. Under the right conditions, exercises can also be used to conduct original public health systems research. This paper describes the integration of a research framework into a statewide operations-based exercise program in California as a systems-based approach for studying public health emergency preparedness and response. Methods We developed a research framework based on the premise that operations-based exercises conducted by medical and public health agencies can be described using epidemiologic concepts. Using this framework, we conducted a survey of key local and regional medical and health agencies throughout California following the 2010 Statewide Medical and Health Exercise. The survey evaluated: (1 the emergency preparedness capabilities activated and functions performed in response to the emergency scenario, and (2 the major challenges to inter-organizational communications and information management. Results Thirty-five local health departments (LHDs, 24 local emergency medical services (EMS agencies, 121 hospitals, and 5 Regional Disaster Medical and Health Coordinators/Specialists (RDMHC responded to our survey, representing 57%, 77%, 26% and 83%, respectively, of target agencies in California. We found two sets of response capabilities were activated during the 2010 Statewide Exercise: a set of core capabilities that were common across all agencies, and a set of agency-specific capabilities that were more common among certain agency types. With respect to one response capability in particular, inter-organizational information sharing, we found that the majority of respondents’ comments were related to the complete or partial failure of communications equipment or systems. Conclusions Using the 2010 Statewide

  18. EO-Based Spatial Information Systems in Support of Disaster Management

    Venkatachary, K. V.; Rao, Mukund; Manikiam, B.; Navalgund, R. R.; Jayaraman, V.

    Space technology has introduced new dimensions into the study and understanding of Earth's processes and in Natural Disasters result from the dynamics of the outer parts of the earth's crust - resulting in cyclones, floods, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes and many other natural hazards. On the other hand are the disasters resulting due to human activity - more due to un-planned management, and resulting in diseases and health hazards, collapse of major man-made structures (dams, buildings etc) and events beyond the control of mankind. All these result in extensive damage and loss to biological life and property - causing untold misery and disrupting the dynamics and quality of life. What is of critical importance is the organisation of an efficient Disaster Management System (DMS) - having a backbone of a comprehensive spatial information system and modelling system to support the needs of activities before a disaster strikes - preparedness and prediction and activities after the strike of a disaster - damage assessment and rehabilitation. A system-definition of the framework of a DMS is of utmost importance - providing a holistic and total view of a information support for a DMS and incorporating elements of the design and development an information system - mainly to support the information needs for preparedness, prediction, damage assessment, rehabilitation and research; networking - mainly to be able to speedily provide access to the information system at any point of time from any place and decision-making - to support speedy and efficient decisions being taken, actions implemented and feedback mechanisms. Major elements of the spatial information system would be the remote sensing images - with emphasis on "continuous observation and scanning" and enabling alert systems; a GIS database of critical parameters to provide alert information and also post-facto damage assessment and a GIS database for modeling the pre-disaster phase activities and

  19. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))


    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  20. 7 CFR 760.1001 - Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster periods.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible counties, disaster events, and disaster..., disaster events, and disaster periods. (a) Except as provided in this subpart, FSA will provide assistance... eligible disaster events in eligible disaster counties provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b)...