Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R
The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.
Armour, S J; Bastone, P; Birnbaum, M; Garrett, C; Greenough, P G; Manni, C; Ninomiya, N; Renderos, J; Rottman, S; Sahni, P; Shih, C L; Siegel, D; Younggren, B
Change must begin with education. Theme 8 explored issues that need attention in Disaster Medicine education. Details of the methods used are provided in the introductory paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. The chairs then presided over a workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of action plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates. Main points developed during the presentations and discussion included: (1) formal education, (2) standardized definitions, (3) integration, (4) evaluation of programs and interventions, (5) international cooperation, (6) identifying the psychosocial consequences of disaster, (7) meaningful research, and (8) hazard, impact, risk and vulnerability analysis. Three main components of the action plans were identified as evaluation, research, and education. The action plans recommended that: (1) education on disasters should be formalized, (2) evaluation of education and interventions must be improved, and (3) meaningful research should be promulgated and published for use at multiple levels and that applied research techniques be the subject of future conferences. The one unanimous conclusion was that we need more and better education on the disaster phenomenon, both in its impacts and in our response to them. Such education must be increasingly evidence-based.
Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Ragazzoni, Luca; Tengattini, Marco; Carenzo, Luca; Della Corte, Francesco
In recent years, effective models of disaster medicine curricula for medical schools have been established. However, only a small percentage of medical schools worldwide have considered at least basic disaster medicine teaching in their study program. In Italy, disaster medicine has not yet been included in the medical school curriculum. Perceiving the lack of a specific course on disaster medicine, the Segretariato Italiano Studenti in Medicina (SISM) contacted the Centro di Ricerca Interdipartimentale in Medicina di Emergenza e dei Disastri ed Informatica applicata alla didattica e alla pratica Medica (CRIMEDIM) with a proposal for a nationwide program in this field. Seven modules (introduction to disaster medicine, prehospital disaster management, definition of triage, characteristics of hospital disaster plans, treatment of the health consequences of different disasters, psychosocial care, and presentation of past disasters) were developed using an e-learning platform and a 12-hour classroom session which involved problem-based learning (PBL) activities, table-top exercises, and a computerized simulation (Table 1). The modules were designed as a framework for a disaster medicine curriculum for undergraduates and covered the three main disciplines (clinical and psychosocial, public health, and emergency and risk management) of the core of "Disaster Health" according to the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) international guidelines for disaster medicine education. From January 2011 through May 2013, 21 editions of the course were delivered to 21 different medical schools, and 524 students attended the course. The blended approach and the use of simulation tools were appreciated by all participants and successfully increased participants' knowledge of disaster medicine and basic competencies in performing mass-casualty triage. This manuscript reports on the designing process and the initial outcomes with respect to learners
Haginoya, Masato; Shimoda, Kazutaka
Described are 5 essential comments of view concerning the post-disaster psychiatric care through authors' experience at the aid of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami including Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident. Firstly, at the acute phase of disaster, the ensured safe place, sleep and rest are necessary as a direct aid of sufferers and their family. Insomnia is seen in many of them and can partly be a prodrome of disorders like post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). US Psychological First Aid (PFA) is useful for a guide of the initial aid for disaster, and translated Japanese version is available free. Public anxiety as a psychological effect can be caused even out of the disaster-stricken area by such factors as on-site news reports (inducing identification), internet information, economical and social confusion, forecasted radiation hazard, etc. Cool-headed understanding is required for them and particularly for complicated radiological information. The system for psychiatric treatment is needed as exemplified by its temporary lack due to the radiation disaster near the Plant and consequent prompt dispatch of psychiatrists from Dokkyo Medical University. Survived sufferers' grief and bereavement are said to tend to last long, to be complicated and deteriorated, indicating the necessity of management of continuous mental health. Alcoholism as a result to avoid those feelings should be noted. Finally, pointed out is the mental care for supporters working for recovery from the disaster, like policeman, Self-Defense Force member, fireman, doctor, nurse, officer, volunteer and many others concerned, because PTSD prevalence is reported to amount to 12.4% of rescue and recovery workers of US World Trade Center Disaster (9.11) even 2-3 years after. (T.T.)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine (CDHAM) was formally established at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS) by...
Sabaev, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.
The paper reviews a number of pharmacological problems, being important for the disaster medicine, of theoretical and practical nature, the settlement of which would promote more efficient rendering emergency medical aid to the injured persons in the conditions of emergency situations and further expert medical care. On the example of radiation accidents there are studied methodical approaches to organization of drug prophylaxis and therapy of the injured persons in emergency situations. The authors have proved the necessity of arranging proper pharmacological supply of disaster medicine which is to settle the whole complex of scientific-applied and organizational questions relating to the competence of pharmacology and pharmacy. 17 refs
Stadler, Frank; Shaban, Ramon Z; Tatham, Peter
When disaster strikes, the number of patients requiring treatment can be overwhelming. In low-income countries, resources to assist the injured in a timely fashion may be limited. As a consequence, necrosis and wound infection in disaster patients is common and frequently leads to adverse health outcomes such as amputations, chronic wounds, and loss of life. In such compromised health care environments, low-tech and cheap wound care options are required that are in ready supply, easy to use, and have multiple therapeutic benefits. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is one such wound care option and may prove to be an invaluable tool in the treatment of wounds post-disaster. This report provides an overview of the wound burden experienced in various types of disaster, followed by a discussion of current treatment approaches, and the role MDT may play in the treatment of complex wounds in challenging health care conditions. Maggot debridement therapy removes necrotic and devitalized tissue, controls wound infection, and stimulates wound healing. These properties suggest that medicinal maggots could assist health care professionals in the debridement of disaster wounds, to control or prevent infection, and to prepare the wound bed for reconstructive surgery. Maggot debridement therapy-assisted wound care would be led by health care workers rather than physicians, which would allow the latter to focus on reconstructive and other surgical interventions. Moreover, MDT could provide a larger window for time-critical interventions, such as fasciotomies to treat compartment syndrome and amputations in case of life-threatening wound infection. There are social, medical, and logistic hurdles to overcome before MDT can become widely available in disaster medical aid. Thus, research is needed to further demonstrate the utility of MDT in Disaster Medicine. There is also a need for reliable MDT logistics and supply chain networks. Integration with other disaster management
Crippen, David; Krin, Charles; Lorich, Dean; Mattox, Ken
The nature of mankind is a concern for those in need. Disasters, both natural and manmade, have been with us since the beginning of recorded history but media coverage of them is a relatively new phenomenon. When these factors come together, there is great potential to both identify and serve the sick and injured. However, the mass media by its nature tends to enhance the humanistic aspect of rescue while minimizing the practical problems involved. We describe a recent scenario in Haiti that puts some of these complications into a practical perspective.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) is an academic center tasked with leading federal, and coordinating national, efforts to develop...
Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi
Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.
Gulley, Kelly; Strauss-Riggs, Kandra; Kirsch, Thomas D; Goolsby, Craig
In an effort to enhance education, training, and learning in the disaster health community, the National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health (NCDMPH) gathered experts from around the nation in Bethesda, Maryland, on September 8, 2016, for the 2016 Disaster Health Education Symposium: Innovations for Tomorrow. This article summarizes key themes presented during the disaster health symposium including innovations in the following areas: training and education that saves lives, practice, teaching, sharing knowledge, and our communities. This summary article provides thematic content for those unable to attend. Please visit http://ncdmph.usuhs.edu/ for more information. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:160-162).
Case, Timothy; Morrison, Cecily; Vuylsteke, Alain
Mobile health care technology (mHealth) has the potential to improve communication and clinical information management in disasters. This study reviews the literature on health care and computing published in the past five years to determine the types and efficacy of mobile applications available to disaster medicine, along with lessons learned. Five types of applications are identified: (1) disaster scene management; (2) remote monitoring of casualties; (3) medical image transmission (teleradiology); (4) decision support applications; and (5) field hospital information technology (IT) systems. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Deployments of teleradiology and field hospital IT systems to disaster zones suggest that mHealth can improve resource allocation and patient care. The key problems include suitability of equipment for use in disaster zones and providing sufficient training to ensure staff familiarity with complex equipment. Future research should focus on providing unbiased observations of the use of mHealth in disaster medicine.
The first International Telemedicine/Disaster Medicine Conference was held in Dec. 1991. The overall purpose was to convene an international, multidisciplinary gathering of experts to discuss the emerging field of telemedicine and assess its future directions; principally the application of space technology to disaster response and management, but also to clinical medicine, remote health care, public health, and other needs. This collection is intended to acquaint the reader with recent landmark efforts in telemedicine as applied to disaster management and remote health care, the technical requirements of telemedicine systems, the application of telemedicine and telehealth in the U.S. space program, and the social and humanitarian dimensions of this area of medicine.
This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…
Providing optimal care for a sudden, unexpected large amount of victims from a disaster or major incident is challenging. It requires an approach different from regular traumacare. The population as a whole, rather than the individual, should be the focus of management. This thesis focuses on
Curtis, Henry A; Trang, Karen; Chason, Kevin W; Biddinger, Paul D
Introduction Great demands have been placed on disaster medicine educators. There is a need to develop innovative methods to educate Emergency Physicians in the ever-expanding body of disaster medicine knowledge. The authors sought to demonstrate that video-based learning (VBL) could be a promising alternative to traditional learning methods for teaching disaster medicine core competencies. Hypothesis/Problem The objective was to compare VBL to traditional lecture (TL) for instructing Emergency Medicine residents in the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP; Irving, Texas USA) disaster medicine core competencies of patient triage and decontamination. A randomized, controlled pilot study compared two methods of instruction for mass triage, decontamination, and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emergency Medicine resident learning was measured with a knowledge quiz, a Likert scale measuring comfort, and a practical exercise. An independent samples t-test compared the scoring of the VBL with the TL group. Twenty-six residents were randomized to VBL (n=13) or TL (n=13). Knowledge score improvement following video (14.9%) versus lecture (14.1%) did not differ significantly between the groups (P=.74). Comfort score improvement also did not differ (P=.64) between video (18.3%) and lecture groups (15.8%). In the practical skills assessment, the VBL group outperformed the TL group overall (70.4% vs 55.5%; Plearning vs traditional lecture for instructing emergency medicine residents in disaster medicine principles of mass triage, decontamination, and personal protective equipment. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):7-12.
The impacts of recurring disasters on vulnerable urban societies have been tragic in terms of destruction and fatalities. However, disaster risk education that promotes risk mitigation and disaster preparedness has been shown to be effective in minimizing the impacts of recurring disasters on urban societies. Although the recent integration of…
Tan, Yibing; Liao, Xiaolan; Su, Haihao; Li, Chun; Xiang, Jiagen; Dong, Zhaoyang
This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center. A self-administered questionnaire developed for this study was administered to assess the current status and demand for disaster education. The results are based on 1764 valid questionnaires. Among the participants, 77.8% reported having had disaster education experiences before, 85.5% indicated their desire for a systematic disaster course, and 75.4% expressed their willingness to take such a course upon its availability. The total mean score for demand for disaster course content (5-point Likert scale) was 4.17±0.84, with items relating to rescue skills given the highest scores. These results suggested that students had high desires for disaster preparedness knowledge, especially knowledge concerning rescue skills. We observed significant differences in disaster education experiences between male and female students and across programs, school years, and home locations. Furthermore, we observed significant differences in demand for disaster course content between male and female students and across universities, student programs, years of school, and students' majors. A systematic disaster course focused on rescue skills is needed by all types of universities. To improve the disaster education system in universities, disaster drills should be performed on a semester basis as a refresher and to enhance disaster preparedness. The government and universities should support building a simulated disaster rescue center and recruit faculty from the emergency department, especially those who have had disaster
Between 1967 and 1987 nearly three million lives were lost and property damage of $25 to $100 billion resulted form natural disasters that adversely affected more than 829 million people. The social and economic impacts have been staggering and are expected to grow more serious as a result of changing demographic factors. The role that the Mobile Satellite Service can play in the International Decade is discussed. MSS was not available for disaster relief operations during the recent Loma Prieta/San Francisco earthquake. However, the results of a review of the performance of seven other communication services with respect to public sector operations during and shortly after the earthquake are described. The services surveyed were: public and private telephone, mobile radio telephone, noncellular mobile radio, broadcast media, CB radio, ham radio, and government and nongovernment satellite systems. The application of MSS to disaster medicine, particularly with respect to the Armenian earthquake is also discussed.
Full Text Available Universities should actively participate in disseminating and fostering a culture for disaster risk management (DRM among students and the community. Particularly in countries with high levels of risk, education plays a key role in raising awareness on the importance of preventing and implementing conscious risk management. Though the incorporation of DRM into the curricula, education programs become a mechanism to prepare students from a perspective of strengthening of values, citizenship, and social sensibility towards how disaster represents a disruption of the functioning of a community and impairs business activity. This paper presents the proposal for the integration of DRM of a private university in Mexico, one of the countries particularly susceptible to extreme hydrometereological and geological events. The proposal includes a concentration area for undergraduate business students, a mandatory introductory course for all business majors, and for the business community an executive education program for SMEs
Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhigang; Fan, Lidong; Tang, Shuo; Hu, Kunpeng; Xiao, Nan; Li, Shuguang
ABSTRACTThis study analyzed and assessed publication trends in articles on "disaster medicine," using scientometric analysis. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on March 27, 2017. A total of 564 publications on disaster medicine were identified. There was a mild increase in the number of articles on disaster medicine from 2008 (n=55) to 2016 (n=83). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness published the most articles, the majority of articles were published in the United States, and the leading institute was Tohoku University. F. Della Corte, M. D. Christian, and P. L. Ingrassia were the top authors on the topic, and the field of public health generated the most publications. Terms analysis indicated that emergency medicine, public health, disaster preparedness, natural disasters, medicine, and management were the research hotspots, whereas Hurricane Katrina, mechanical ventilation, occupational medicine, intensive care, and European journals represented the frontiers of disaster medicine research. Overall, our analysis revealed that disaster medicine studies are closely related to other medical fields and provides researchers and policy-makers in this area with new insight into the hotspots and dynamic directions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8).
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...
M. Omidvari; J. Nouri; M. Mapar
Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management). Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster ma...
Komac, B.; Zorn, M.; Ciglič, R.; Steinführer, A.
The importance of natural-disaster education for social preparedness is presented. Increasing damage caused by natural disasters around the globe draws attention to the fact that even developed societies must adapt to natural processes. Natural-disaster education is a component part of any education strategy for a sustainably oriented society. The purpose of this article is to present the role of formal education in natural disasters in Europe. To ensure a uniform overview, the study used secondary-school geography textbooks from the collection at the Georg Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research in Braunschweig, Germany. Altogether, nearly 190 textbooks from 35 European countries were examined. The greatest focus on natural disasters can be found in textbooks published in western Europe (3.8% of pages describing natural disasters), and the smallest in those published in eastern Europe (0.7%). A share of textbook pages exceeding three percent describing natural disasters can also be found in northern Europe (3.6%) and southeast Europe, including Turkey (3.4%). The shares in central and southern Europe exceed two percent (i.e., 2.8% and 2.3%, respectively). The types and specific examples of natural disasters most commonly covered in textbooks as well as the type of natural disasters presented in textbooks according to the number of casualties and the damage caused were analyzed. The results show that the majority of European (secondary-school) education systems are poorly developed in terms of natural-disaster education. If education is perceived as part of natural-disaster management and governance, greater attention should clearly be dedicated to this activity. In addition to formal education, informal education also raises a series of questions connected with the importance of this type of education. Special attention was drawn to the importance of knowledge that locals have about their region because this aspect of education is important in both
Dikmenli, Yurdal; Gafa, İbrahim
Disasters cover allthe events that damage both humans and their living environment. The disasters whichstem from nature are called natural disasters while those which stem from humankind,are called human disasters. Since humans constantly encounter such events at differenttimes, places and in different forms, it is inevitable that they will be affectedby them. Thus, one wonders what people understand the concept of disaster tobe. The aim of this study is to identify the students from all the ...
Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather
During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine
Kim, Kyeong Han; Jang, Soobin; Lee, Ju Ah; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Go, Ho-Yeon; Park, Sunju; Jo, Hee-Guen; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ko, Seong-Gyu
Background. This study aimed to investigate medical records using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) in Sewol Ferry disaster in 2014 and further explore the possible role of traditional medicine in disaster situation. Methods. After Sewol Ferry accident, 3 on-site tents for TKM assistance by the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM) in Jindo area were installed. The AKOM mobilized volunteer TKM doctors and assistants and dispatched each on-site tent in three shifts within 24 hours. Anyone coul...
Full Text Available Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management. Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster management rules and responses in emergency conditions. Creating appropriate tools for disaster management assessment makes it correct and precise in higher education systems using the presented conceptual model. The present model was planned so as to cover three phases which exist before, during, and after disaster. Studies were performed in one of the largest higher education centers in Tehran: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University Campus. Results showed high-risk disasters in these centers which must be taken into consideration continuously. The objective of this study was to create appropriate patterns of disaster risk management in these centers.
Developing post-disaster physical rehabilitation: role of the World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.
Gosney, James; Reinhardt, Jan Dietrich; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan
This special report presents the role of the World Health Organization (WHO) Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief (CRDR) of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) in developing an enhanced physical rehabilitation relief response to large-scale natural disasters. The CRDR has stated that disaster rehabilitation is an emerging subspecialty within physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM). In reviewing the existing literature it was found that large natural disasters result in many survivors with disabling impairments, that these survivors may have better clinical outcomes when they are treated by PRM physicians and teams of rehabilitation professionals, that the delivery of these rehabilitation services to disaster sites is complicated, and that their absence can result in significant negative consequences for individuals, communities and society. To advance its agenda, the CRDR sponsored an inaugural Symposium on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief as a concurrent scientific session at the 2011 ISPRM 6th World Congress in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The symposium included oral and poster presentations on a range of relevant topics and concluded with an international non-governmental organization panel discussion that addressed the critical question "How can rehabilitation actors coordinate better in disaster?" Building upon the symposium, the CRDR is developing a disaster rehabilitation evidence-base, which will inform and educate the global professional rehabilitation community about needs and best practices in disaster rehabilitation. The Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (JRM) has commissioned this special report to announce a series of papers on disaster rehabilitation from the symposium's scientific programme. Authors are invited to submit papers on the topic for inclusion in this special series. JRM also encourages expert commentary in the form of Letters to the Editor.
Full Text Available As well for optimized emergency management in individual cases as for optimized mass medicine in disaster management, the principle of the medical doctors approaching the patient directly and timely, even close to the site of the incident, is a long-standing marker for quality of care and patient survival in Germany. Professional rescue and emergency forces, including medical services, are the “Golden Standard” of emergency management systems. Regulative laws, proper organization of resources, equipment, training and adequate delivery of medical measures are key factors in systematic approaches to manage emergencies and disasters alike and thus save lives. During disasters command, communication, coordination and cooperation are essential to cope with extreme situations, even more so in a globalized world. In this article, we describe the major historical milestones, the current state of the German system in emergency and disaster management and its integration into the broader European approach. Keywords: Emergency medical systems, Disaster medicine, Public health, Germany
Cloutier, Marc G.; Cowan, Michael L.
The use of a six-day multiple-simulation exercise in the military disaster medical services training program of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences is described. It is the second part of a clerkship that includes a classroom/laboratory phase using a disaster problem-solving board game. (MSE)
Franc, Jeffrey Michael; Nichols, Darren; Dong, Sandy L
Disaster Medicine is an increasingly important part of medicine. Emergency Medicine residency programs have very high curriculum commitments, and adding Disaster Medicine training to this busy schedule can be difficult. Development of a short Disaster Medicine curriculum that is effective and enjoyable for the participants may be a valuable addition to Emergency Medicine residency training. A simulation-based curriculum was developed. The curriculum included four group exercises in which the participants developed a disaster plan for a simulated hospital. This was followed by a disaster simulation using the Disastermed.Ca Emergency Disaster Simulator computer software Version 3.5.2 (Disastermed.Ca, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) and the disaster plan developed by the participants. Progress was assessed by a pre- and post-test, resident evaluations, faculty evaluation of Command and Control, and markers obtained from the Disastermed.Ca software. Twenty-five residents agreed to partake in the training curriculum. Seventeen completed the simulation. There was no statistically significant difference in pre- and post-test scores. Residents indicated that they felt the curriculum had been useful, and judged it to be preferable to a didactic curriculum. In addition, the residents' confidence in their ability to manage a disaster increased on both a personal and and a departmental level. A simulation-based model of Disaster Medicine training, requiring approximately eight hours of classroom time, was judged by Emergency Medicine residents to be a valuable component of their medical training, and increased their confidence in personal and departmental disaster management capabilities.
Bandrova, T.; Kouteva, M.; Pashova, L.; Savova, D.; Marinova, S.
Millions of people are affected by natural and man-made disasters each year, among which women, children, elderly persons, people with disabilities or special needs, prisoners, certain members of ethnic minorities, people with language barriers, and the impoverished are the most vulnerable population groups in case of emergencies. Many national and international organizations are involved in Early Warning and Crisis Management training, particularly focused on the special target to safe children and improve their knowledge about disasters. The success of these efforts is based on providing the specific information about disaster preparedness and emergency in adapted for children educational materials, accompanied with simple illustrative explanations for easy and fast understanding of the disasters. The active participation of the children in the educational activities through appropriate presenting the information, short training seminars and entertaining games will increase their resilience and will contribute significantly to their preparedness and adequate response in emergency situations. This paper aims to present the conceptual framework of a project for establishing an Educational Disaster Centre (EDC) "Save the children life" at University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG), providing relevant justification of the necessity to organize such centre in Bulgaria and discussing good practices in Europe and worldwide for children' education and training in case of disastrous event. General concepts for educational materials and children training are shared. Appropriate equipment for the EDC is shortly described.
This guide was first published in 1982. The 2003 edition takes account of new research, of practical experience in natural disasters, and of the organisational plans of the German civil service units. All factors are considered which are important for successful medical care in case of natural disasters, large-scale accidents, and war. Among the new issues that are considered in this volume is the new European situation with regard to national safety, the new German legislation on civil safety, the hazards of an increasingly technological society, and the options and requirements for protection of the population in case of emergencies. After the Chernobyl accident, the focus in the field of nuclear radiation has shifted to radiation protection problems. There are new chapters on stress management during and after emergency shifts which take account of the experience gained in major disasters. (orig.)
This is the fourth edition of a vademecum for medical experts in the Federal Republic of Germany, published by the Civil Defence Commission, an advisory body of the Federal Ministry of the Interior. The booklet is to help to provide and organize medical care in case of disasters, panic, mass injuries, radiation damage, poisoning and epidemics. There is a separate chapter on radiation accidents and radiation disasters as well as an appendix with a glossary of radiological terms and a list of radiation protection centers. (orig/MG) [de
Yang, Yingyun; Chen, Yanwen; Chotani, Rashid A; Laporte, Ronald E; Ardalan, Ali; Shubnikov, Eugene; Linkov, Fania; Huang, Jesse
Just-in-time ( JIT) Educational Strategy has been applied successfully to share scientific knowledge about disasters in several countries. This strategy was introduced to China in 2008 with the hopes to quickly disseminate accurate scientific data to the population, and it was applied during the Sichuan Earthquake and Influenza A (H1N1) outbreak. Implementation of this strategy likely educated between 10,000 and 20,000,000 people. The efforts demonstrated that an effective JIT strategy impacted millions of people in China after a disaster occurs as a disaster mitigation education method. This paper describes the Chinese JIT approach, and discusses methodologies for implementing JIT lectures in the context of China's medical and public health system.
JUAN PABLO SARMIENTO
Full Text Available Looking for windows of opportunity to mainstream disaster risk management within business education, in 2015, the United Nations Office for Disaster Reduction's (UNISDR Private Sector Alliance for Disaster Resilient Societies (ARISE, partnered with Florida International University's Extreme Events Institute (FIU-EEI and 12 international leading business schools. This partnership began with a call for White Papers to propose innovative approaches to integrate cutting edge disaster management content into business education programs and other academic offerings, based on seven themes or niches identified: (1 Strategic Investment and Financial Decisions; (2 Generating Business Value; (3 Sustainable Management; (4 Business Ethics and Social Responsibility; (5 Business Continuity Planning; (6 Disaster Risk Metrics; and (7 Risk Transfer. In March 2016, an international workshop was held in Toronto, Canada to present the White Papers prepared by the business schools, and discuss the most appropriate approaches for addressing the areas of: teaching and curriculum; professional development and extension programs; internships and placement; research opportunities; and partnerships and collaboration. Finally, the group proposed goals for advancing the implementation phase of the business education initiatives, and to propose mechanisms for monitoring and follow-up.
Hecker, Norman; Domres, Bernd Dieter
As well for optimized emergency management in individual cases as for optimized mass medicine in disaster management, the principle of the medical doctors approaching the patient directly and timely, even close to the site of the incident, is a long-standing marker for quality of care and patient survival in Germany. Professional rescue and emergency forces, including medical services, are the "Golden Standard" of emergency management systems. Regulative laws, proper organization of resources, equipment, training and adequate delivery of medical measures are key factors in systematic approaches to manage emergencies and disasters alike and thus save lives. During disasters command, communication, coordination and cooperation are essential to cope with extreme situations, even more so in a globalized world. In this article, we describe the major historical milestones, the current state of the German system in emergency and disaster management and its integration into the broader European approach. Copyright © 2018. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
Andrews, Russell J; Quintana, Leonidas M
The United Nations has recognized the devastating consequences of "unpredictable, unpreventable and impersonal" disasters-at least US $2 trillion in economic damage and more than 1.3 million lives lost from natural disasters in the last two decades alone. In many disasters (both natural and man-made) hundreds-and in major earthquakes, thousands-of lives are lost in the first days following the event because of the lack of medical/surgical facilities to treat those with potentially survivable injuries. Disasters disrupt and destroy not only medical facilities in the disaster zone but also infrastructure (roads, airports, electricity) and potentially local healthcare personnel as well. To minimize morbidity and mortality from disasters, medical treatment must begin immediately, within minutes ideally, but certainly within 24 h (not the days to weeks currently seen in medical response to disasters). This requires that all resources-medical equipment and support, and healthcare personnel-be portable and readily available; transport to the disaster site will usually require helicopters, as military medical response teams in developed countries have demonstrated. Some of the resources available and in development for immediate medical response for disasters-from portable CT scanners to telesurgical capabilities-are described. For immediate deployment, these resources-medical equipment and personnel-must be ready for deployment on a moment's notice and not require administrative approvals or bureaucratic authorizations from numerous national and international agencies, as is presently the case. Following the "trauma center/stroke center" model, disaster response incorporating "disaster response centers" would be seamlessly integrated into the ongoing daily healthcare delivery systems worldwide, from medical education and specialty training (resident/registrar) to acute and subacute intensive care to long-term rehabilitation. The benefits of such a global disaster
Letizia, Angelo J.
Over the last 40 years, American institutions of higher education have been encouraged to align with the private sector by policymakers, think tank experts and businessmen in order to become more efficient and more accountable. In a wider sense, this new partnership may be evidence of what has been termed "disaster capitalism." In…
Wunderlich, Robert; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Grundgeiger, Jan; Bickelmayer, Jens Werner; Domres, Bernd
Following the recommendations of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) to develop standards for training the undergraduates in disaster-relevant fields (2004), a German curriculum was approved in 2006. This paper aims to describe the level of training and interest of medical students nine years later. Problem The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of medical students' knowledge and interest in disaster medicine nine years after the implementation of a standardized disaster medicine curriculum in German medical schools. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted with medical students in Germany using a web-based, purpose-designed questionnaire consisting of 27 mandatory and 11 optional questions. Nine hundred ninety-two students from 36 of 37 medical schools in Germany participated. More than one-half of medical students were aware of the field of disaster medicine. One hundred twenty-one students undertook training internally within their university and 307 undertook training externally at other institutions. Only a small content of the curriculum was taught. A difference in self-perception of knowledge between trained and untrained participants was found, despite the level of training being low in both groups. Participants were generally highly motivated to learn disaster medicine in a variety of institutions. German students are still largely not well educated regarding disaster medicine, despite their high motivation. The curriculum of 2006 was not implemented as originally planned and the number of trained students still remains low as the self-perception of knowledge. Currently, there is no clear and standardized training concept in place. A renewal in the agreement of implementation of the curriculum at medical schools should be targeted in order to follow the recommendation of WADEM. Wunderlich R Ragazzoni L Ingrassia PL Della Corte F Grundgeiger J Bickelmayer JW
Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Kalafat, Dogan; Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Takahashi, Narumi; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo; Sakamoto, Mayumi; Pinar, Ali; Oguz Ozel, Asim; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Tanircan, Gulum; Demirtas, Ahmet
case studies with advanced tsunami simulation for measure cities. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. Research results from this group will be very important for disaster measures. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. The mission of this group is very important for information dissemination and practical and effective disaster education in Turkey. The research results from all components will be integrated and utilized for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Updated research results of the MarDiM SATREPS Project will be officially presented toward the end of the Project period, which is March 2018.
Pitman, Simone; Xu, Yao-Zhong; Taylor, Peter; Turner, Nicholas; Coaker, Hannah; Crews, Kasumi
The field of medicinal chemistry is constantly evolving and it is important for medicinal chemists to develop the skills and knowledge required to succeed and contribute to the advancement of the field. Future Medicinal Chemistry spoke with Simone Pitman (SP), Yao-Zhong Xu (YX), Peter Taylor (PT) and Nick Turner (NT) from The Open University (OU), which offers an MSc in Medicinal Chemistry. In the interview, they discuss the MSc course content, online teaching, the future of medicinal chemistry education and The OU's work towards promoting widening participation. SP is a Qualifications Manager in the Science Faculty at The OU. She joined The OU in 1993 and since 1998 has been involved in the Postgraduate Medicinal Chemistry provision at The OU. YX is a Senior Lecturer in Bioorganic Chemistry at The OU. He has been with The OU from 2001, teaching undergraduate courses of all years and chairing the master's course on medicinal chemistry. PT is a Professor of Organic Chemistry at The OU and has been involved with the production and presentation of The OU courses in Science and across the university for over 30 years, including medicinal chemistry modules at postgraduate level. NT is a Lecturer in Analytical Science at The OU since 2009 and has been involved in the production of analytical sciences courses, as well as contributing to the presentation of a number of science courses including medicinal chemistry.
Oki, S.; Tsuji, H.; Koketsu, K.; Yazaki, Y.
Japan frequently suffers from all types of disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, volcanic eruptions, and landslides. In the first half of this year, we already had three big earthquakes and heavy rainfall, which killed more than 30 people. This is not just for Japan but Asia is the most disaster-afflicted region in the world, accounting for about 90% of all those affected by disasters, and more than 50% of the total fatalities and economic losses. One of the most essential ways to reduce the damage of natural disasters is to educate the general public to let them understand what is going on during those desasters. This leads individual to make the sound decision on what to do to prevent or reduce the damage. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), therefore, offered for public subscription to choose several model areas to adopt scientific education to the local elementary schools, and ERI, the Earthquake Research Institute, is qualified to develop education for earthquake disaster prevention in the Tokyo metropolitan area. The tectonic setting of this area is very complicated; there are the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates subducting beneath the North America and the Eurasia plates. The subduction of the Philippine Sea plate causes mega-thrust earthquakes such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M 8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M 7.9) which had 105,000 fatalities. A magnitude 7 or greater earthquake beneath this area is recently evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years. This is of immediate concern for the devastating loss of life and property because the Tokyo urban region now has a population of 42 million and is the center of approximately 40 % of the nation's activities, which may cause great global economic repercussion. To better understand earthquakes in this region, "Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area" has been conducted mainly by ERI. It is a 4-year
Kim, Kyeong Han; Jang, Soobin; Lee, Ju Ah; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Go, Ho-Yeon; Park, Sunju; Jo, Hee-Guen; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ko, Seong-Gyu
This study aimed to investigate medical records using traditional Korean medicine (TKM) in Sewol Ferry disaster in 2014 and further explore the possible role of traditional medicine in disaster situation. After Sewol Ferry accident, 3 on-site tents for TKM assistance by the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM) in Jindo area were installed. The AKOM mobilized volunteer TKM doctors and assistants and dispatched each on-site tent in three shifts within 24 hours. Anyone could use on-site tent without restriction and TKM treatments including herb medicine were administered individually. The total of 1,860 patients were treated during the periods except for medical assistance on the barge. Most patients were diagnosed in musculoskeletal diseases (66.4%) and respiratory diseases (7.4%) and circulatory diseases (8.4%) followed. The most frequently used herbal medicines were Shuanghe decoction (80 days), Su He Xiang Wan (288 pills), and Wuji powder (73 days). TKM in medical assistance can be helpful to rescue worker or group life people in open shelter when national disasters occur. Therefore, it is important to construct a rapid respond system using TKM resources based on experience.
Kyeong Han Kim
Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to investigate medical records using traditional Korean medicine (TKM in Sewol Ferry disaster in 2014 and further explore the possible role of traditional medicine in disaster situation. Methods. After Sewol Ferry accident, 3 on-site tents for TKM assistance by the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM in Jindo area were installed. The AKOM mobilized volunteer TKM doctors and assistants and dispatched each on-site tent in three shifts within 24 hours. Anyone could use on-site tent without restriction and TKM treatments including herb medicine were administered individually. Results. The total of 1,860 patients were treated during the periods except for medical assistance on the barge. Most patients were diagnosed in musculoskeletal diseases (66.4% and respiratory diseases (7.4% and circulatory diseases (8.4% followed. The most frequently used herbal medicines were Shuanghe decoction (80 days, Su He Xiang Wan (288 pills, and Wuji powder (73 days. Conclusions. TKM in medical assistance can be helpful to rescue worker or group life people in open shelter when national disasters occur. Therefore, it is important to construct a rapid respond system using TKM resources based on experience.
Education for disaster prevention has become more and more important since the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami in 2011. More than 18 thousand people were killed or have not been found yet in the tragedy, however, in Kesn'numa, which is a city located in the seriously damaged area, there were few student victims of tsunami. This is because every school in Kesen'numa has excellent education systems for disaster prevention. They have several safety exercises and conducts emergency drills each year in unique ways which have been developed upon the tragic experiences of serious earthquakes and tsunami in the past. For disaster prevention education, we should learn two important points from the case in Kesen'numa; to learn from the ancient wisdom, and to ensure for students to have enough opportunities of safety exercises and emergency drills at school. In addition to these two points, another issue from the viewpoint of science education can be added, which is to learn about the mechanisms of earthquake. We have developed disaster prevention and reduction programs in educational context, taking these three points into consideration. First part of the program is to study local history, focusing on ancient wisdom. In Kesen'numa City, there were thirty-three monumental stones with cautionary lessons of the possible danger of tsunami before the great earthquake. The lessons were based on the disasters actually happened in the past and brought down to the current generation. Kesen'numa-Otani elementary school has conducted education for disaster prevention referring to this information with full of ancient wisdom. Second part of the program is to make sure that every student has enough and rich opportunities to simulate the worst situation of any disasters. For example, in the case of earthquake and tsunami, teachers take students to the safest place through the designated evacuation rout according to each school's original manual. Students can experience this
In this essay, Paul Vallas--education reform expert and key advisor to the government of Haiti in developing its national education plan--discusses his plan for Haiti. The paper explores the successes and challenges of education reform in Haiti, before and after the earthquake that devastated the nation in 2010. The essay describes the…
Jose, Mini M; Dufrene, Claudine
This integrative review of literature was conducted to determine (1) what are the suitable disaster preparedness competencies for undergraduate nursing curriculum? and (2) what are the suitable methods of instruction to deliver disaster preparedness content? A literature search was conducted on three major electronic databases: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) using the keywords; Disaster Preparedness, Disaster and nursing education; disaster response and nursing education. Limiters used were published within the last 10 years and in nursing field. Out of the 190 articles retrieved, eight were research articles that met the inclusion criteria. These articles were carefully reviewed and the results are summarized in two sections to answer the research questions. There was no uniformity of intended competencies among the studies, though all studies used resources from reputed national and international organizations. All the studies reviewed adhered to a systematic approach in delivering content and used eclectic methods including multiple technologies to enhance the educational outcomes. Most of the studies had incorporated simulation in different ways involving low to high fidelity simulators, virtual simulation and live actors. Content and length of the programs were greatly varied but stayed focused on the general principles of disaster management and appropriate for the level of the students within the programs. More rigorous research is needed in this area since all published articles had deficiencies in the methodologies, especially in data collection and analysis. Disaster preparedness education was found to be a suitable activity for interprofessional education. © 2013.
Faber, Michael Havbro; Giuliani, Luisa; Revez, A.
in disaster-resilience design by social and cultural aspects, which are instead not often adequately considered in the practice. The establishment of an education on resilient design of urban system, which includes both social and technological aspects, emerges as a possible solution to overcome barriers......-operation and interdisciplinary methodologies in research and education. The survey has been carried out by means of a questionnaire focusing on disaster-resilience projects and on the main challenges faced in interdisciplinary working. The results of the questionnaire, which collected 57 answers from more than 20 European...... that information and methods are exchanged, but a full integration of methods and concepts into a common shared language and system of axioms is missing; iii) the lack of a common framework and common terminology represents a major barrier to good interdisciplinary work. The results highlight the role played...
Ushizawa, Hiroto; Foxwell, Alice Ruth; Bice, Steven; Matsui, Tamano; Ueki, Yutaka; Tosaka, Naoki; Shoko, Tomohisa; Aiboshi, Junichi; Otomo, Yasuhiro
The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT) during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts.
Full Text Available Problem: The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred in Tohoku, Japan on 11 March 2011, was followed by a devastating tsunami and damage to nuclear power plants that resulted in radiation leakage. Context: The medical care, equipment and communication needs of four Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMAT during four missions are discussed. DMATs are medically trained mobile teams used in the acute phase of disasters. Action: The DMATs conducted four missions in devastated areas from the day of the earthquake to day 10. The first and second missions were to triage, resuscitate and treat trauma victims in Tokyo and Miyagi, respectively. The third mission was to conduct emergency medicine and primary care in Iwate. The fourth was to assist with the evacuation and screening of inpatients with radiation exposure in Fukushima. Outcome: Triage, resuscitation and trauma expertise and equipment were required in Missions 1 and 2. Emergency medicine in hospitals and primary care in first-aid stations and evacuation areas were required for Mission 3. In Mission 4, the DMAT assisted with evacuation by ambulances and buses and screened people for radiation exposure. Only land phones and transceivers were available for Missions 1 to 3 although they were ineffective for urgent purposes. Discussion: These DMAT missions showed that there are new needs for DMATs in primary care, radiation screening and evacuation after the acute phase of a disaster. Alternative methods for communication infrastructure post-disaster need to be investigated with telecommunication experts.
Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan
Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.
Anderson, Denise A
Using human potential in rural hospitals is vital to successful outcomes when handling disasters. Nursing professional development educators provide leadership and guiding vision during a time when few educational research studies demonstrate how to do so. This article explains the role of the rural nursing professional development educator as a disaster preparedness educator, facilitator, collaborator, researcher, and leader, using the American Nurses Association's Nursing Professional Development: Scope and Standards of Practice. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
This article is an attempt to develop a theory of peace education through an examination of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. It examines why Japan did not avoid this terrible nuclear disaster. This is an educational issue, because one of the major impacts of Fukushima's catastrophe is that it indicates the failure of peace education. In…
After the disaster of the earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku, Japan in 2011, it is necessary to teach more "Disaster Prevention" in school. The government guideline for education of high school geography students emphasizes improving students' awareness of disaster prevention through acquiring geographical skills, for example reading hazard and thematic maps. The working group of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) says that the purpose of Disaster Prevention Education is to develop the following competencies: 1. To acquire knowledge about disasters in the local area and the science of disaster prevention. 2. To teach individuals to protect themselves from natural hazards. 3. To safely support other people in the local area. 4. To build a safe society during rebuilding from the disasters. "Disaster Prevention Education" is part of the "Education for Sustainable Development" (ESD) curriculum. That is, teaching disaster prevention can contribute to developing abilities for sustainable development and building a sustainable society. I have tried to develop a high school geography class about "tsunami". The aim of this class is to develop the students' competencies to acquire the knowledge about tsunami and protect themselves from it through reading a hazard map. I especially think that in geography class, students can protect themselves from disasters through learning the risks of disasters and how to escape when disasters occur. In the first part of class, I have taught the mechanism of tsunami formation and where tsunamis occur in Japan. In the second part of class, I have shown students pictures that I had taken in Tohoku, for instance Ishinomaki-City, Minamisanriku-Town, Kesen'numa-City, and taught how to read hazard maps that show where safe and dangerous places are when natural hazards occur. I think that students can understand the features of the local area and how to escape from disasters that may occur in local area by
Wenji, Zhou; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia A
Disasters require well trained nurses but disaster nursing education is very limited in China and evidence is urgently required for future planning and implementation of specialized disaster education. This describes the themes arising from narratives of Chinese registered nurses who worked in disaster relief after two major earthquakes. In-depth interviews were held with 12 registered nurses from Hubei Province. Riessman's narrative inquiry method was used to develop individual stories and themes, and socio-cultural theory informed this study. Five themes emerged: unbeatable challenges; qualities of a disaster nurse; mental health and trauma; poor disaster planning and co-ordination; and urgently needed disaster education. Participants were challenged by rudimentary living conditions, a lack of medical equipment, earthquake aftershocks, and cultural differences in the people they cared for. Participants placed importance on the development of teamwork abilities, critical thinking skills, management abilities of nurses in disasters, and the urgency to build a better disaster response system in China in which professional nurses could more actively contribute their skills and knowledge. Our findings concur with previous research and emphasize the urgency for health leaders across China to develop and implement disaster nursing education policies and programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Avetisov, G.M.; Goncharov, S.F.; Grachev, M.I.
Theoretical base to establish the All-Russian service for disaster medicine (ARSDM) is elaborated. The arrangement system for medical aid for the population of the Chernobyl NPP (including the aspects of planning and management) is proved in action. COnclusion is made about the necessity to introduce special structure of measures aimed at provision of medical aid of accident victims, of their evacuation and treatment under elimination of radiation accidents. This structure requires to unify all abilities and means of health service into the single system for Medical Provision of population under the emergencies. 4 figs., 2 tabs
Kagawa, Fumiyo; Selby, David
Incidences of disaster and climate change impacts are rising globally. Disaster risk reduction and climate change education are two educational responses to present and anticipated increases in the severity and frequency of hazards. They share significant complementarities and potential synergies, the latter as yet largely unexploited. Three…
Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Griffin, Anne; Gable, Alicia R; Couig, Mary Pat; Dobalian, Aram
Climate change, human conflict, and emerging infectious diseases are inexorable actors in our rapidly evolving healthcare landscape that are triggering an ever-increasing number of disaster events. A global nursing workforce is needed that possesses the knowledge, skills, and abilities to respond to any disaster or large-scale public health emergency in a timely and appropriate manner. The purpose of this article is to articulate a compelling mandate for the advancement of disaster nursing education within the United States with clear action steps in order to contribute to the achievement of this vision. A national panel of invited disaster nursing experts was convened through a series of monthly semistructured conference calls to work collectively towards the achievement of a national agenda for the future of disaster nursing education. National nursing education experts have developed consensus recommendations for the advancement of disaster nursing education in the United States. This article proposes next steps and action items to achieve the desired vision of national nurse readiness. Novel action steps for expanding disaster educational opportunities across the continuum of nursing are proposed in response to the current compelling need to prepare for, respond to, and mitigate the impact of disasters on human health. U.S. educational institutions and health and human service organizations that employ nurses must commit to increasing access to a variety of quality disaster-related educational programs for nurses and nurse leaders. Opportunities exist to strengthen disaster readiness and enhance national health security by expanding educational programming and training for nurses. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Medical care in case of disasters means being pressed for time, facing difficult structures and a shortage of resources while trying to attend to many injured at a time. The knowledge required must be immediately available, and this is where this book comes in handy. The guide addresses primarily doctors and medical staff. It answers medical questions, lists contacts, provides information on disaster management, and goes into legal and ethical aspects as well. (orig.)
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Yasui, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Yuko; Kamiya, Kenji; Miyatani, Rie; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Sakai, Akira; Yoshida, Koji; Yamashita, Shunichi; Chhem, Rethy; Abdel-Wahab, May; Ohtsuru, Akira
Since radiation accidents, particularly nuclear disasters, are rarer than other types of disasters, a comprehensive radiation disaster medical curriculum for them is currently unavailable. The Fukushima compound disaster has urged the establishment of a new medical curriculum in preparation for any future complex disaster. The medical education will aim to aid decision making on various health risks for workers, vulnerable people, and residents addressing each phase in the disaster. Herein, we introduce 3 novel educational programs that have been initiated to provide students, professionals, and leaders with the knowledge of and skills to elude the social consequences of complex nuclear disasters. The first program concentrates on radiation disaster medicine for medical students at the Fukushima Medical University, together with a science, technology, and society module comprising various topics, such as public risk communication, psychosocial consequences of radiation anxiety, and decision making for radiation disaster. The second program is a Phoenix Leader PhD degree at the Hiroshima University, which aims to develop future leaders who can address the associated scientific, environmental, and social issues. The third program is a Joint Graduate School of Master's degree in the Division of Disaster and Radiation Medical Sciences at the Nagasaki University and Fukushima Medical University.
Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Abbas, Sharima Ruwaida; Lin, Chong Khai; Othman, Siti Norezam
Resilience encompasses both the principles of preparedness and reaction within the dynamic systems and focuses responses on bridging the gap between pre-disaster activities and post-disaster intervention and among structural/non-structural mitigation. Central to this concept is the ability of the affected communities to recover their livelihood and inculcating necessary safety practices during the disaster and after the disaster strikes. While these ability and practices are important to improve the community safety and resilience, such factors will not be effective unless the awareness is present among the community. There have been studies conducted highlighting the role of education in providing awareness for disaster safety and resilience from a very young age. However for Malaysia, these area of research has not been fully explored and developed based on the specific situational and geographical factors of high-risk flood disaster locations. This paper explores the importance of disaster education program in Malaysia and develops into preliminary research project which primary aim is to design a flood disaster education pilot program in Kampung Karangan Primary School, Kelantan, Malaysia.
Mansoor, Alvanov Zpalanzani
Indonesia is located between three active tectonic plates, which are prone to natural disasters such as earthquake, volcanic eruption, and also giant tidal wave-tsunami. Adequate infrastructure plays an important role in disaster mitigation, yet without good public awareness, the mitigation process won't be succeeded. The absence of awareness can lead to infrastructure mistreatment. Several reports on lack of understanding or misinterpretation of disaster mitigation especially from rural and coastal communities need to be solved, especially from communication aspects. This is an interdisciplinary study on disaster mitigation communication design and education strategy from visual communication design studies paradigm. This paper depicts research results which applying vernacular design base to elaborate sustainable mitigation communication and education strategy on various visual media and social campaigns. This paper also describes several design approaches which may becomes way to elaborate sustainable awareness and understanding on disaster mitigation among rural and coastal communities in Indonesia.
Cranston, Mark; Slee-Valentijn, Monique; Davidson, Christopher; Lindgren, Stefan; Semple, Colin; Palsson, Runolfur
Limited information exists on the framework and content of postgraduate education in internal medicine in Europe. This report describes the results of a survey of postgraduate training in internal medicine in the European countries. Two online questionnaire-based surveys were carried out by the European Board of Internal Medicine, one on the practice of internists and the other on postgraduate training in internal medicine. The national internal medicine societies of all 30 member countries of the European Federation of Internal Medicine were invited to participate. The responses were reviewed by internal medicine residents from the respective countries and summaries of the data were sent to the national societies for approval. Descriptive analysis of the data on postgraduate training in internal medicine was performed. Twenty-seven countries (90%) completed the questionnaire and approved their datasets. The length of training ranged from four to six years and was commonly five years. The majority of countries offered training in internal medicine and a subspecialty. A common trunk of internal medicine was frequently a component of subspecialty training programmes. Hospital inpatient service was the predominant setting used for training. A final certifying examination was in place in 14 countries. Although some similarities exists, there appear to be significant differences in the organisation, content and governance of postgraduate training in internal medicine between the European countries. Our findings will prove invaluable for harmonisation of training and qualification in internal medicine in Europe. © 2013.
Burge, S. K.
Discusses several articles in this issue that demonstrate the influence of gender and power on family medicine education. These articles show that both clinical and learning environments are influenced by gender and power. Recommends the study of gender and power as an overt component in the family medicine curriculum. (SLD)
Wigger, Lothar; Buenger, Carsten
The book on the educational and learning theoretical reflection of nuclear disasters as a consequence of Fukushima includes contributions on the following issues: pedagogical approach: children write on Fukushima, description of the reality as pedagogical challenge; lessons learned on the nuclear technology - perspectives and limits of pedagogical evaluation: moral education - Japanese teaching materials, educational challenges at the universities with respect to nuclear technology and technology impact assessment; education and technology - questions concerning the pedagogical responsibility: considerations on the responsibility of scientists, on the discrepancy between technology and education, disempowerment of the public by structural corruption - nuclear disaster and post-democratic tendencies in Japan.
Mahood, S.; Rojas, R.; Andres, D.; Zagozeski, C.; White, G.; Bradel, T.
An educational contract for family medicine residency training and evaluation addresses many of the difficulties and challenges of current postgraduate medical education. This article identifies important principles for developing a contractual approach; describes the contract used in one program and its implementation; and discusses its theory, advantages, and limitations.
Ashurst, John V; McGregor, Alyson J; Safdar, Basmah; Weaver, Kevin R; Quinn, Shawn M; Rosenau, Alex M; Goyke, Terrence E; Roth, Kevin R; Greenberg, Marna R
The 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference has taken the first step in identifying gender-specific care as an area of importance to both emergency medicine (EM) and research. To improve patient care, we need to address educational gaps in this area concurrent with research gaps. In this article, the authors highlight the need for sex- and gender-specific education in EM and propose guidelines for medical student, resident, and faculty education. Specific examples of incorporating this content into grand rounds, simulation, bedside teaching, and journal club sessions are reviewed. Future challenges and strategies to fill the gaps in the current education model are also described. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
In 1960 the first 13 medical students fully trained in Nigeria to internationally accepted standard graduated from the then University College Ibadan, earning the Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) London degree. Since then thousands of doctors trained to international standard have been produced from ...
Chang, Anna; Fernandez, Helen; Cayea, Danelle; Chheda, Shobhina; Paniagua, Miguel; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Day, Hollis
Internal medicine residents today face significant challenges in caring for an increasingly complex patient population within ever-changing education and health care environments. As a result, medical educators, health care system leaders, payers, and patients are demanding change and accountability in graduate medical education (GME). A 2012 Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) retreat identified medical education as an area for collaboration between internal medicine and geriatric medicine. The authors first determined a short-term research agenda for resident education by mapping selected internal medicine reporting milestones to geriatrics competencies, and listing available sample learner assessment tools. Next, the authors proposed a strategy for long-term collaboration in three priority areas in clinical medicine that are challenging for residents today: (1) team-based care, (2) transitions and readmissions, and (3) multi-morbidity. The short-term agenda focuses on learner assessment, while the long-term agenda allows for program evaluation and improvement. This model of collaboration in medical education combines the resources and expertise of internal medicine and geriatric medicine educators with the goal of increasing innovation and improving outcomes in GME targeting the needs of our residents and their patients.
Priscilla T. Apronti
Full Text Available Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the need for disaster education to address the causes and effects, prevention and response, and management and recovery from disaster events. The educational process must include diverse and practical techniques that reinforce disaster knowledge and builds a culture of safety and resilience amongst students. Drawing on syllabus content analysis and field research in two rural communities in semi-arid Northern Ghana, this study explored the presence and nature of DRR within the syllabi of the basic school system. By comparing the result of the content analysis with results from interviews and questionnaires completed by teachers and students, significant gaps were identified between the disaster pedagogy outlined in the syllabi (theory and that which occurs in the classroom (practice. It was realized that while the theory outlines active and innovative techniques for teaching, learning, and evaluating DRR lessons, various challenges hinder the practical application of these techniques in the classroom. The study concludes that a lack of teacher training and professional development, and inadequate teaching and learning materials, generally account for these results. A new and consolidated effort is required from all stakeholders to train teachers and to provide the appropriate learning materials to improve on the current DRR education.
Apronti, Priscilla; Saito, Osamu; Otsuki, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306279258; Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Gordana
Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR) concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the
Taylor, Julie Scott; Bell, Esther
Physicians' experience with high quality training in breastfeeding during their medical education is historically varied. The process of becoming a board-certified physician entails more than 20 years of education, and although medical school and residency training timelines and courses are relatively standardized across the United States and even internationally, breastfeeding education varies greatly across schools and programs. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine (ABM) exists, in part, because historically, physicians have received too little clinical training in breastfeeding and infant nutrition. An overarching goal of ABM, which is a multispecialty organization of doctors around the world, is to educate all maternal-child healthcare professionals, not just physicians, about breastfeeding. Within the field of medicine, family doctors, pediatricians, and obstetrician/gynecologists are considered the most logical source of breastfeeding expertise. However, the need for breastfeeding education goes beyond those providers who have obvious interactions with mothers and babies. We must educate anesthesiologists, surgeons, internists, and psychiatrists, among others. Building pipelines of physicians who are well educated in breastfeeding medicine allows more effective collaboration and care of mothers and infants among providers in various medical and surgical specialties as well as between doctors and other healthcare providers. This evidence-based education needs to be multifaceted, with didactic curricula for a strong knowledge base complemented by clinical experiences for skill development and application. Clinical knowledge and skills can also be reinforced during nonclinical opportunities in teaching, research, advocacy, and professional development. In this article, we describe a foundational framework for physician education in breastfeeding medicine as well as several creative noncurricular opportunities to develop breastfeeding expertise in future
Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Ashkenazi, Michael; Djalali, Ahmadreza; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Friedl, Tom; von Armin, Gotz; Lupesco, Olivera; Kaptan, Kubilay; Arculeo, Chris; Hreckovski, Boris; Komadina, Radko; Fisher, Philipp; Voigt, Stefan; James, James; Gursky, Elin
Unremitting natural disasters, deliberate threats, pandemics, and humanitarian suffering resulting from conflict situations necessitate swift and effective response paradigms. The European Union's (EU) increasing visibility as a disaster response enterprise suggests the need not only for financial contribution but also for instituting a coherent disaster response approach and management structure. The DITAC (Disaster Training Curriculum) project identified deficiencies in current responder training approaches and analyzed the characteristics and content required for a new, standardized European course in disaster management and emergencies. Over 35 experts from within and outside the EU representing various organizations and specialties involved in disaster management composed the DITAC Consortium. These experts were also organized into 5 specifically tasked working groups. Extensive literature reviews were conducted to identify requirements and deficiencies and to craft a new training concept based on research trends and lessons learned. A pilot course and program dissemination plan was also developed. The lack of standardization was repeatedly highlighted as a serious deficiency in current disaster training methods, along with gaps in the command, control, and communication levels. A blended and competency-based teaching approach using exercises combined with lectures was recommended to improve intercultural and interdisciplinary integration. The goal of a European disaster management course should be to standardize and enhance intercultural and inter-agency performance across the disaster management cycle. A set of minimal standards and evaluation metrics can be achieved through consensus, education, and training in different units. The core of the training initiative will be a unit that presents a realistic situation "scenario-based training."
Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia
While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
quantify learning effectiveness and retention rates by comparing didactic lectures, reading, audiovisual presentations, demonstrations, discussion...Graduate Education and Simulation Training for CBRNE Disasters Using a Multimodal Approach to Learning Part 2: Education and Training from the...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Graduate Education and Simulation Training for CBRNE Disasters Using a Multimodal 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Approach to Learning
M. S. Khubutiya
Full Text Available The occurrence of large-scale emergencies with great human losses and the absence of a unified authority of the country health system which would manage its medical and sanitary consequences required the creation of special units to provide emergency health services (EHS in mass injuries. The disaster medicine became attractive for the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine in the 70s of the last century. Originally, the Department for Disaster Medicine was established at the Institute in 1987. At the Department, the extensive work was performed to shorten a time gap between the delivery of medical care and the beginning of a disaster as much as possible. It was based on a created concept for organization of medical assistance and evacuation, methods of its expertise and the development of technical means for phased medical and evacuatiol support of victims. The organizational and medical-diagnostic specificity of EHS in emergencies and its delivery were analyzed in order to reduce the severity of consequences. The health care experience in emergencies has been enriched by the staff of the Institute (who were not employees of the Department actively involved in the management of mass injuries and poisonings via air ambulance at the accident site and in the treatment of victims admitted to the Institute from sites of emergencies. Consequently, the N.V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute for Emergency Medicine developed and offered the scientific and organizational basis for EHS in emergencies which made a significant practical contribution to the creation of public services for disaster medicine in the country.
Westhoff, Wayne W.; Lopez, Guillermo E.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Wilke Corvin, Jaime A.; Allen, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.
Background: Following the occurrence of natural or man-made disaster, relief worker priorities include providing water, food, shelter, and immunizations for displaced persons. Like these essential initiatives, reproductive health education and services must also be incorporated into recovery efforts. Purpose: This study examined reproductive…
Preston, John; Chadderton, Charlotte; Kitagawa, Kaori
The term "state of exception" has been used by Italian political theorist Giorgio Agamben to explain the ways in which emergencies, crises and disasters are used by governments to suspend legal processes. In this paper, we innovatively apply Agamben's theory to the way in which countries prepare and educate the population for various…
Full Text Available Bangladesh Open University (BOU is the only public educational institution in Bangladesh, where, a dual-mode method of learning system has been introduced. Established in 21st October, 1992, the University now accommodates 1,74,459 learners in 2012. The wide range networking of this university provides it a great prospect to execute a broad spectrum of activities to accomplish its social responsibilities. Despite the aims of BOU at continuous quantitative improvement and greater equity in the society, like most of the ODL method universities in the world, BOU framed a limited objective to create awareness and preparedness about the contemporary global disaster proneness among its learners. Bangladesh for its geographical location, experiences several natural disasters like annual flood, heavy rainfall, cyclone and tidal surge, earth quake, river bank erosion, drought, etc. Lack of awareness of the sustainable use of the natural resources, and the consequences of the heedless consumption of them by the inhabitants enhanced the degree and frequency of these natural disasters during the last decades. The present study emphasizes on the role of Bangladesh Open University in creating awareness among its learners about the causes and pattern of disasters, pre and post disaster management strategies, etc. The study proves that BOU is a unique educational institution which, through the ODL method of teaching, using various educational medium like, tutorial support, printed study materials, electronic media, internet, and cellular phone, etc. can provided a wide range of knowledge about the disaster vulnerability, risk reduction and management strategies to its learners.
Medical care is a highly regulated field in nearly every country. Therefore, it is not surprising that legal issues regularly arise in cross-border disaster operations that have with the potential to profoundly impact the effectiveness of international assistance. Little attention has been paid to preparing for and addressing these kinds of issues. This paper will report on research by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) on International Disaster Response Law, and discuss new developments in the international legal framework for addressing these issues. For seven years, the IFRC has studied legal issues in cross-border disaster assistance. Its activities have included several dozen case studies, a global survey of governments and humanitarian stakeholders, and a series of meetings and high-level conferences. The IFRC has found a consistent set of regulatory problems in major disaster relief operations related to the entry and regulation of international relief. These include some issues specific to the health field, such as the regulation of drug donations and the recognition of foreign medical qualifications. To address the gaps in domestic and international regulatory structures, the IFRC spearheaded the development of new international guidelines. The legal risks for international health providers in disaster settings are real and should be better integrated into program planning. Governments must become more proactive in ensuring that legal frameworks are flexible enough to mitigate these problems.
Jacobs, Gerard A; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Quevillon, Randal P
Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Livingston, Laura L; West, Courtney A; Livingston, Jerry L; Landry, Karen A; Watzak, Bree C; Graham, Lori L
Disaster Day is a simulation event that began in the College of Nursing and has increased exponentially in size and popularity for the last 8 years. The evolution has been the direct result of reflective practice and dedicated leadership in the form of students, faculty, and administration. Its development and expansion into a robust interprofessional education activity are noteworthy because it gives health care professions students an opportunity to work in teams to provide care in a disaster setting. The "authentic" learning situation has enhanced student knowledge of roles and responsibilities and seems to increase collaborative efforts with other disciplines. The lessons learned and modifications made in our Disaster Day planning, implementation, and evaluation processes are shared in an effort to facilitate best practices for other institutions interested in a similar activity.
Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how well residents of the Andaman coast in Phang Nga province, Thailand, are prepared for earthquakes and tsunami. It is hypothesized that formal education can promote disaster preparedness because education enhances individual cognitive and learning skills, as well as access to information. A survey was conducted of 557 households in the areas that received tsunami warnings following the Indian Ocean earthquakes on 11 April 2012. Interviews were carried out during the period of numerous aftershocks, which put residents in the region on high alert. The respondents were asked what emergency preparedness measures they had taken following the 11 April earthquakes. Using the partial proportional odds model, the paper investigates determinants of personal disaster preparedness measured as the number of preparedness actions taken. Controlling for village effects, we find that formal education, measured at the individual, household, and community levels, has a positive relationship with taking preparedness measures. For the survey group without past disaster experience, the education level of household members is positively related to disaster preparedness. The findings also show that disaster-related training is most effective for individuals with high educational attainment. Furthermore, living in a community with a higher proportion of women who have at least a secondary education increases the likelihood of disaster preparedness. In conclusion, we found that formal education can increase disaster preparedness and reduce vulnerability to natural hazards.
Physics is a fundamental science that finds its applications in all areas of our lives. Its application in modern medicine is undeniable. In today’s medical practice special attention is dedicated to the use of ionizing radiation. The wide range of modern science and technology offers enormous possibilities for creation and implementation of new equipment using adequate doses of ionizing radiation. For accurate medical diagnostics and effective treatment of patients, this type of equipment must provide the necessary information to the physicians. On the other hand, the physicians should possess enough knowledge in the relative field of medicine. This paper contains information about the knowledge communicated to the students of the graduate program Medical Physics and Biophysics in the discipline Medicine in the first year of graduate study at the Medical University “Prof. Dr. Paraskev Stoyanov” of Varna. Firstly, we discuss the topics in the lectures of these two disciplines, concerning knowledge about ionizing radiation. Secondly, the respective laboratory exercises are described that illustrate the lectures in the graduate programs Medical Physics and Biophysics. Keywords: ionizing radiation, education, medicine, medical physics, biophysics
Emergency medicine (EM) education is becoming increasingly challenging as a result of changes to North American medical education and the growing complexity of EM practice. Education scholarship (ES) provides a process to develop solutions to these challenges. ES includes both research and innovation. ES is informed by theory, principles and best practices, is peer reviewed, and is disseminated and archived for others to use. Digital technologies have improved the discovery of work that informs ES, broadened the scope and timing of peer review, and provided new platforms for the dissemination and archiving of innovations. This editorial reviews key steps in raising an education innovation to the level of scholarship. It also discusses important areas for EM education scholars to address, which include the following: the delivery of competency-based medical education programs, the impact of social media on learning, and the redesign of continuing professional development. PMID:26594270
Emergency medicine (EM) education is becoming increasingly challenging as a result of changes to North American medical education and the growing complexity of EM practice. Education scholarship (ES) provides a process to develop solutions to these challenges. ES includes both research and innovation. ES is informed by theory, principles and best practices, is peer reviewed, and is disseminated and archived for others to use. Digital technologies have improved the discovery of work that informs ES, broadened the scope and timing of peer review, and provided new platforms for the dissemination and archiving of innovations. This editorial reviews key steps in raising an education innovation to the level of scholarship. It also discusses important areas for EM education scholars to address, which include the following: the delivery of competency-based medical education programs, the impact of social media on learning, and the redesign of continuing professional development.
Baytiyeh, Hoda; Naja, Mohamad K.
Due to the high market demands for professional engineers in the Arab oil-producing countries, the appetite of Middle Eastern students for high-paying jobs and challenging careers in engineering has sharply increased. As a result, engineering programmes are providing opportunities for more students to enrol on engineering courses through lenient admission policies that do not compromise academic standards. This strategy has generated an influx of students who must be carefully educated to enhance their professional knowledge and social capital to assist in future earthquake-disaster risk-reduction efforts. However, the majority of Middle Eastern engineering students are unaware of the valuable acquired engineering skills and knowledge in building the resilience of their communities to earthquake disasters. As the majority of the countries in the Middle East are exposed to seismic hazards and are vulnerable to destructive earthquakes, engineers have become indispensable assets and the first line of defence against earthquake threats. This article highlights the contributions of some of the engineering innovations in advancing technologies and techniques for effective disaster mitigation and it calls for the incorporation of earthquake-disaster-mitigation education into academic engineering programmes in the Eastern Mediterranean region.
Asefzadeh, Saeed; Varyani, Ali Safari; Gholami, Soheyla
In addition to damaging communities and infrastructures, unexpected disasters affect service provider centers as well. Structural, non-structural, and functional components of hospitals could be affected when hazards or disasters occur, and they may be unable to admit casualties, have their own personnel and patients killed or injured, have their property destroyed. In such as case, they would increase the burden of death resulting from the disaster. Therefore, in this study, hospital safety was reviewed in two hospitals in Qazvin in 2015. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on two of the Rajaee and Velayat Hospitals in Qazvin. The tools used to assess for the hospitals' risk of experiencing a disaster were observation, interviews, and a checklist of hospital disaster risk assessment provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), including 5 sections and 145 indices for the safety assessment of hospitals. To determine the general weight, three main parts of the questionnaire, i.e., functional safety, non-structural safety, and structural safety, were given weights of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5, respectively, according to the original version of the indices. Each index was scored as 0, 1, and 2 based on the low, medium, and high scores. The safety scores that were obtained were categorized in three groups, i.e., low safety (≤ 34%), medium safety (34-66%), and high safety (> 66%). The data were analyzed using Excel 2007 software. Functional, structural, and non-structural safety scores were evaluated as 60.20% (medium safety), 67.61% (high safety), and 76.16% (high safety), respectively. General preparedness of the hospitals we studied were 71.90%, a high safety level. This high preparedness was related to the indices of availability of medicines, equipment, water supply, and other resources required in emergency conditions (85%), and the lowest preparedness was related to contingency plans of medical operations (19%). The preparedness of the two
The "right to education" proclaimed by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights requires access to learning as well as the support systems. Since access can be interrupted by various circumstances, the possibility of providing continuity despite external dangers by using online distance education, offers an intriguing and valuable…
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a background to and guide for mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management (DRM into higher education and training institutions in Small Island Developing States (SIDS, with the aim of increasing awareness and understanding of the complexity of DRM issues in business and management, based on their general and specific vulnerabilities. SIDS are considered a special category within the discussion on DRM, given a number of vulnerabilities generally and specifically. Furthermore, little attention has been paid to the business impact of disasters in such settings. It is proposed that one major route to improving this situation is through the educational and training institutions, which play a major role in shaping thinking and practices in such settings.
Marco, Catherine A; Lu, Dave W; Stettner, Edward; Sokolove, Peter E; Ufberg, Jacob W; Noeller, Thomas P
Ethics education is an essential component of graduate medical education in emergency medicine. A sound understanding of principles of bioethics and a rational approach to ethical decision-making are imperative. This article addresses ethics curriculum content, educational approaches, educational resources, and resident feedback and evaluation. Ethics curriculum content should include elements suggested by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the Model of the Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine. Essential ethics content includes ethical principles, the physician-patient relationship, patient autonomy, clinical issues, end-of-life decisions, justice, education in emergency medicine, research ethics, and professionalism. The appropriate curriculum in ethics education in emergency medicine should include some of the content and educational approaches outlined in this article, although the optimal methods for meeting these educational goals may vary by institution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mercer, Charmaine; Apling, Richard N; Irwin, Paul; Lordeman, Ann; Skinner, Rebecca R; Smole, David P
.... In addition, it is estimated that approximately 30 institution of higher education (IHEs) in the affected areas have been severely damaged, and nearly 100,000 postsecondary students have been displaced as a result...
Full Text Available The increase in flood intensity and frequency poses a threat to community infrastructure and affects the total well-being of children in regard to: access to food, health, school attendance, access to clean water and sanitation, physical and social security. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article provided an overview of flood disasters and their potential effects on children’s access to quality education in Zimbabwe. The purpose of the study was to analyse school children’s specific vulnerabilities to flood disasters that need to be taken into account in policy development. Research indicated that floods cause loss of learning hours, loss of qualified personnel, outbreak of waterborne diseases, high absenteeism and low syllabus coverage leading to children’s poor academic performance. Children noted a range of experiences, from food insecurity to being withdrawn from school and sometimes forced into early marriages. These challenges compromise children’s rights and access to quality education. This article therefore recommended that a culture of safety be promoted through disaster education, development of good road networks and enforcement of building codes during construction of school infrastructure. Findings also supported the need for adaptation strategies to ensure that the risks specific to school children are addressed.
Sugimoto, M.; Song, Y.
Areas of scientific specialties have been segmentalized nowadays. Each natural hazard are researched by scientific researchers. A huge variety of textbooks on one or few natural hazard are published by a single researcher in the world. There are possibilities are several natural disaster in one place. People have to learn from each hazard. However such disaster textbook is not unified education publish. Education in disaster mitigation covers many fields. There is a strong need for a single unified textbook. When I teach disaster education to children in kindergartens and schools, I understand students are confused by each different direction in such textbooks. "Doctor, which is right when a earthquake happens, cover my head or go out of a building? " I would like to discuss what the most valuable disaster textbook is as my following disatser handbook with audiences. This is publisehd for developping countries. You can freely download UNESCO disaster handbook following URL:http://www.icharm.pwri.go.jp/publication/pdf/handbook_on_local_disaster_management_experiences.pdf
Morgan, Shanna; Rioux-Masse, Benjamin; Oancea, Cristina; Cohn, Claudia; Harmon, James; Konia, Mojca
The administration of blood products is frequently determined by physicians without subspecialty training in transfusion medicine (TM). Education in TM is necessary for appropriate utilization of resources and maintaining patient safety. Our institution developed an efficient simulation-based TM course with the goal of identifying key topics that could be individualized to learners of all levels in various environments while also allowing for practice in an environment where the patient is not placed at risk. A 2.5-hour simulation-based educational activity was designed and taught to undergraduate medical students rotating through anesthesiology and TM elective rotations and to all Clinical Anesthesia Year 1 (CA-1) residents. Content and process evaluation of the activity consisted of multiple-choice tests and course evaluations. Seventy medical students and seven CA-1 residents were enrolled in the course. There was no significant difference on pretest results between medical students and CA-1 residents. The posttest results for both medical students and CA-1 residents were significantly higher than pretest results. The results of the posttest between medical students and CA-1 residents were not significantly different. The TM knowledge gap is not a trivial problem as transfusion of blood products is associated with significant risks. Innovative educational techniques are needed to address the ongoing challenges with knowledge acquisition and retention in already full curricula. Our institution developed a feasible and effective way to integrate TM into the curriculum. Educational activities, such as this, might be a way to improve the safety of transfusions. © 2014 AABB.
Medical care in case of disasters means being pressed for time, facing difficult structures and a shortage of resources while trying to attend to many injured at a time. The knowledge required must be immediately available, and this is where this book comes in handy. The guide addresses primarily doctors and medical staff. It answers medical questions, lists contacts, provides information on disaster management, and goes into legal and ethical aspects as well. (orig.)
Jin, Qun; Jiang, Xiaohong; Park, James; ITME 2013
IT changes everyday’s life, especially in education and medicine. The goal of ITME 2013 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education and medicine. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers and practitioners.
Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian
An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.
Full Text Available Introduction: Pre-hospital triage is one of the most fundamental concepts in emergency management. Limited human resource changes triage to an inevitable solution in the management of disasters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of education of simple triage and rapid treatment (START in the knowledge and practice of Emergency Medical Service (EMS employees of Eastern Azerbaijan. Methods: This is a pre-and post-intervention study conducted on two hundred and five (205 of employees of EMS sector, in the disaster and emergency management center of Eastern Azerbaijan Province, 2015. The utilized tool is a questionnaire of the knowledge and practice of individuals regarding START triage. The questionnaire was filled by the participants pre- and post-education; thereafter the data were analyzed using SPSS 13 software. Results: The total score of the participants increased from 22.02 (4.49 to 28.54 (3.47. Moreover, the score of sections related to knowledge of the triage was a necessity and the mean score of the section related to the practice increased from 11.47 (2.15 to 13.63 (1.38, and 10.73 (3.57 to 14.93 (2.78, respectively, which were statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that holding the educational classes of pre-hospital triage before the disasters is effective in improving the knowledge and practice of employees such as EMS technicians and this resulted to decreased error in performing this process as well as reduced overload in hospitals.
Pouraghaei, Mahboub; Sadegh Tabrizi, Jaafar; Moharamzadeh, Payman; Rajaei Ghafori, Rozbeh; Rahmani, Farzad; Najafi Mirfakhraei, Baharak
Introduction: Pre-hospital triage is one of the most fundamental concepts in emergency management. Limited human resource changes triage to an inevitable solution in the management of disasters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of education of simple triage and rapid treatment (START) in the knowledge and practice of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) employees of Eastern Azerbaijan. Methods: This is a pre-and post-intervention study conducted on two hundred and five (205) of employees of EMS sector, in the disaster and emergency management center of Eastern Azerbaijan Province, 2015. The utilized tool is a questionnaire of the knowledge and practice of individuals regarding START triage. The questionnaire was filled by the participants pre- and post-education; thereafter the data were analyzed using SPSS 13 software. Results: The total score of the participants increased from 22.02 (4.49) to 28.54 (3.47). Moreover, the score of sections related to knowledge of the triage was a necessity and the mean score of the section related to the practice increased from 11.47 (2.15) to 13.63 (1.38), and 10.73 (3.57) to 14.93 (2.78), respectively, which were statistically significant. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that holding the educational classes of pre-hospital triage before the disasters is effective in improving the knowledge and practice of employees such as EMS technicians and this resulted to decreased error in performing this process as well as reduced overload in hospitals.
Ionising radiation is widely used in medicine, industry and education. Most people are familiar with medical applications for diagnosis and treatment of disease. However, the public at large is probably not aware just how commonly it is used in industry. Such uses include: the measurement and control of various processes - e.g. liquid levels in bottling and canning plants and the thickness and density of a wide range of materials, the examination of metallic structures for defects and the sterilisation of medical products. Educational applications range from demonstrating the basic laws of radiation physics to sophisticated studies of chemical and biological processes using chemical compounds which have been labelled with suitable radioisotopes. Furthermore many pieces of laboratory equipment, for example X-ray diffractometers and X-ray fluorescence analyses, incorporate a source of radiation. The safety record of the use of radiation, when compared with many other industrial processes, is generally good. However, serious accidents can and have occurred. While most accidents involve small numbers of people, a few have had widespread consequences. These include accidents where large numbers of patients undergoing radiotherapy received the incorrect dose and where the inadvertent disposal and scrapping of radiation sources lead to widespread contamination of persons, property and the environment. This paper will discuss the hazards associated with particular applications and outline the causative factors identified. These include, equipment faults, simple but serious errors in dose calculations and loss or incorrect disposal of radioactive sources. The lessons that have, or should have been learned, from the past events are also considered. The paper describes the regulatory system in Ireland for controlling the use of radiation. The description shows how regulations are established within the framework of the European Commission Directives on radiation protection
Hone, C [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)
Ionising radiation is widely used in medicine, industry and education. Most people are familiar with medical applications for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Industrial uses include: the measurement and control of various processes - e.g. liquid levels in bottling and canning plants and the thickness and density of a wide range of materials, the examination of metallic structures for defects and the sterilisation of medical products. Educational applications range from demonstrating the basic laws of radiation physics to sophisticated studies of chemical and biological processes using chemical compounds which have been labelled with suitable radioisotopes. Furthermore many pieces of laboratory equipment, for example X-ray diffractometers and X-ray fluorescence analyses, incorporate a source of radiation. The safety record of the use of radiation, when compared with many other industrial processes, is generally good. However, serious accidents can and have occurred. While most accidents involve small numbers of people, a few have had widespread consequences. These include accidents where large numbers of patients undergoing radiotherapy received the incorrect dose and where the inadvertent disposal and scrapping of radiation sources lead to widespread contamination of persons, property and the environment. This paper will discuss the hazards associated with particular applications and outline the causative factors identified. These include, equipment faults, simple but serious errors in dose calculations and loss or incorrect disposal of radioactive sources. The lessons that have, or should have been learned, from the past events are also considered. The paper describes the regulatory system in Ireland for controlling the use of radiation. The description shows how regulations are established within the framework of the European Commission Directives on radiation protection. (Abstract Truncated)
Usuzawa, Motoki; O Telan, Elizabeth; Kawano, Razel; S Dizon, Carmela; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Ashino, Yugo; Egawa, Shinichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Izumi, Takako; Ono, Yuichi; Hattori, Toshio
As the impacts of natural disasters have grown more severe, the importance of education for disaster medicine gains greater recognition. We launched a project to establish an international educational program for disaster medicine. In the present study, we surveyed medical personnel and medical/public health students in the Philippines (n = 45) and Indonesia (n = 67) for their awareness of the international frameworks related to disaster medicine: the Human Security (securing individual life and health), the Sphere Project (international humanitarian response), and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (international strategy for disaster reduction). In both countries, more than 50% responders were aware of human security, but only 2 to 12% were aware of the latter two. The survey also contained questions about the preferred subjects in prospective educational program, and risk perception on disaster and disaster-related infections. In the Philippines, significant disasters were geophysical (31.0%), hydrological (33.3%), or meteorological (24.8%), whereas in Indonesia, geophysical (63.0%) and hydrological (25.3%) were significant. Moreover, in the Philippines, leptospirosis (27.1%), dengue (18.6%), diarrhea (15.3%), and cholera (10.2%) were recognized common disaster-related infections. In Indonesia, diarrhea (22.0%) and respiratory infection (20.3%) are major disaster-related infections. Water-related infections were the major ones in both countries, but the profiles of risk perception were different (Pearson's chi-square test, p = 1.469e-05). The responders tended to overestimate the risk of low probability and high consequence such as geophysical disaster. These results are helpful for the development of a postgraduate course for disaster medicine in Asia Pacific countries.
Ventres, William; Gross, Paul
In this article we introduce family medicine educators to storytelling as an important teaching tool. We describe how stories are a critical part of the work of family physicians. We review the rationales for family medicine educators to become skilled storytellers. We present the components of effective stories, proposing two different perspectives on how to imagine, construct, and present them. We provide a list of resources for getting started in storytelling and offer two personal vignettes that articulate the importance of storytelling in the authors' respective professional developments. We point the way forward for family medicine educators interested in integrating storytelling into their repertoire of teaching skills.
Seidel, H.J.; Krefeldt, T. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin
The list of environmental disasters after World War II includes events which were detected by an epidemy of adverse health effects and others with an acute event as a starting point. Their analysis should contribute to knowledge in human toxicology and also to the formulation of regulatory toxicology. The present study shows to what extent this has been performed, beginning with the description of the Minamata Disease. During the 50ies, neurological symptoms were discovered in people living at the shore of a Japanese lake, especially the Minamata bay which contained industrial effluents from a chemical plant. After years, methyl-mercury was identified as the toxic agent. The substance had found its way into the food chain, especially via contaminated fish. Besides man, cats were also affected to a high degree. The long-lasting process of scientific analysis, including official reactions, is described. Regulatory toxicology concerning organic mercury now makes use of the data from this event and another one in Iraq. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Liste der grossen umweltmedizinischen Katastrophen seit dem II. Weltkrieg umfasst z.T. Schadensereignisse, auf die man wegen der Haeufung von Gesundheitsstoerungen aufmerksam wurde und solche, bei denen ein akutes Ereignis am Anfang stand. Aus der systematischen wissenschaftlichen Analyse sollten sich Erkenntnisse zur Humantoxikologie und zur Gestaltung von Regelwerken ergeben. Inwieweit dies getan wurde, wird hiermit aufgrund einer Literaturanalyse dargestellt, beginnend mit der Minamata-Erkrankung. In den 50er Jahren fielen bei Anwohnern eines japanischen Sees, in der Bucht von Minamata, in die Abwaesser aus einer chemischen Fabrik gleitet wurden, neurologische Erkrankungen auf, die erst nach Jahren eindeutig als Intoxikation mit Methylquecksilber identifiziert wurden. Methylquecksilber war in die Nahrungskette, und hier insbesondere ueber kontaminierten Fisch, gelangt. Ausser dem Menschen waren auffaelligerweise Katzen betroffen
Reisman, Yacov; Eardley, Ian; Porst, Hartmut
INTRODUCTION.: The past 12 months have been historic ones for the field of Sexual Medicine in that we have seen the creation of the European Board examination in Sexual Medicine with the title of "Fellow of the European Committee on Sexual Medicine" (FECSM) offered to successful candidates. AIM.: The study aims to promote a high standard of care in Sexual Medicine. METHODS.: An important way of promoting high standards of care is by the development of training, regulation, and assessment framework. The background to these developments and the recent educational activities of the European Society for Sexual Medicine (ESSM) are described in this article. RESULTS.: The creation of the Multidisciplinary Joint Committee on Sexual Medicine (MJCSM) under the auspices of the European Union of Medical Specialists, with the primary purpose to develop the highest possible standards of training in Sexual Medicine in Europe, made it possible to create a process for qualification in Sexual Medicine. The ESSM educational activities created opportunities to support trainees in Sexual Medicine and the first MJCSM exam was held in Amsterdam with a high overall success rate. CONCLUSION.: These activities are intended to improve quality. The FECSM examination is the first of its type and provides a real opportunity for Sexual Medicine physicians to demonstrate and document their knowledge. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Ngo, Hanh
Introduction The aim of disaster reduction education (DRE) is to achieve behavioral change. Over the past two decades, many efforts have been directed towards this goal, but educational activities have been developed based on unverified assumptions. Further, the literature has not identified any significant change towards disaster preparedness at the individual level. In addition, previous research suggests that change is dependent on multiple independent predictors. It is difficult to determine what specific actions DRE might result in; therefore, the preamble of such an action, which is to have discussions about it, has been chosen as the surrogate outcome measure for DRE success. This study describes the relationship of the perceived entity responsible for disaster education, disaster education per se, sex, and country-specific characteristics, with students discussing disasters with friends and family as a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. A total of 3,829 final year high school students participated in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a validated questionnaire. Nine countries with different levels of disaster exposure risk and economic development were surveyed. Regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables. There was no statistically significant relationship between a single entity responsible for disaster education and discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. While several independent predictors showed a significant main effect, DRE through school lessons in interaction with Family & Charity Organizations had the highest predictive value. Disaster reduction education might require different delivery channels and methods and should engage with the entities with which the teenagers are more likely to collaborate. Codreanu TA
Full Text Available Virtual patients represent a useful tool in teaching students clinical reasoning skills. Virtual Cases (www.e-kazuistiky.cz represent a newly developed interactive problem-based learning system, drawing information from virtual clinics, covering different fields of internal medicine, generating sets of unique virtual patients according to user-predefined program settings (spectrum of diagnoses, number of patients and criteria for passing the course. Basic clinical information including personal data, medical history, symptoms, laboratory values, etc. is generated for each virtual patient. The main task for the student is to determine the optimal diagnostic algorithm (choose adequate diagnostic steps in the correct order, and to determine the correct diagnosis in each virtual patient. Results of diagnostics tests and clinical findings are presented utilising a multimedia presentation (images, video-sequences, audio-recordings. Evaluation of students includes not only assessment of correctly determined diagnosis, but also the diagnostic pathway, which led the user to the specific diagnosis. Thus, the system enables assessment of appropriateness of each test as well as reasonable sequencing of tests and also financial costs of all examinations. The program is now routinely used in the undergraduate curriculum at the Medical Faculty in Hradec Králové. User hands-on experience was evaluated through anonymous questionnaires. The most appreciated attribute of the system is the game-like involvement and multimedia-supporting environment (for students as well as the possibility of a detailed analysis of each student’s performance and clear identification of their weakest areas (for tutors. The system is a useful tool for undergraduate medical education with positive feedback from both students and teachers. The main advantages are flexibility, potential for further growth and no restrictions regarding particular disease, clinical discipline
Moghazy, Amr; Abdelrahman, Amira; Fahim, Ayman
Preparedness is a necessity for proper handling of emergencies and disaster, particularly in Suez Canal and Sinai regions. To assure best success rates, educative programs should be environmentally based. Burn and fire preventive educative programs were tailored to adapt social and education levels of audience. In addition, common etiologies and applicability of preventive measures, according to local resources and logistics, were considered. Presentations were the main educative tool; they were made as simple as possible to assure best understanding. To assure continuous education, brochures and stickers, containing most popular mistakes and questions, were distributed after the sessions. Audience was classified according to their level of knowledge to health professional group; students groups; high-risk group; and lay people group. For course efficacy evaluation, pre- and posttests were used immediately before and after the sessions. Right answers in both tests were compared for statistical significance. Results showed significant acquisition of proper attitude and knowledge in all educated groups. The highest was among students and the least was in health professionals. Comprehensive simple environmental-based educative programs are ideal for rapid reform and community mobilization in our region. Activities should include direct contact, stickers and flyers, and audiovisual tools if possible.
Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.
The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)
Biringer, Anne; Forte, Milena; Tobin, Anastasia; Shaw, Elizabeth; Tannenbaum, David
Abstract Objective To ascertain how program leaders in family medicine characterize success in family medicine maternity care education and determine which factors influence the success of training programs. Design Qualitative research using semistructured telephone interviews. Setting Purposive sample of 6 family medicine programs from 5 Canadian provinces. Participants Eighteen departmental leaders and program directors. METHODS Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with program leaders in family medicine maternity care. Departmental leaders identified maternity care programs deemed to be “successful.” Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Team members conducted thematic analysis. Main findings Participants considered their education programs to be successful in family medicine maternity care if residents achieved competency in intrapartum care, if graduates planned to include intrapartum care in their practices, and if their education programs were able to recruit and retain family medicine maternity care faculty. Five key factors were deemed to be critical to a program’s success in family medicine maternity care: adequate clinical exposure, the presence of strong family medicine role models, a family medicine–friendly hospital environment, support for the education program from multiple sources, and a dedicated and supportive community of family medicine maternity care providers. Conclusion Training programs wishing to achieve greater success in family medicine maternity care education should employ a multifaceted strategy that considers all 5 of the interdependent factors uncovered in our research. By paying particular attention to the informal processes that connect these factors, program leaders can preserve the possibility that family medicine residents will graduate with the competence and confidence to practise full-scope maternity care. PMID:29760273
Richardson, S. K.; Richardson, A.; Trip, H.; Tabakakis, K.; Josland, H.; Maskill, V.; Dolan, B.; Hickmott, B.; Houston, G.; Cowan, L.; McKay, L.
While natural disasters have been reported internationally in relation to the injury burden, role of rescuers and responders, there is little known about the impact on education in adult professional populations. A 7.1 magnitude earthquake affected the Canterbury region of New Zealand on 4 September 2010 followed by more than 13,000 aftershocks in…
Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna
Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…
Parslow, Graham R.
This author, a teacher of medical students, has taken a keen interest in the history of the teaching and practice of medicine. The definitive treatment of medical history by Porter left no doubt that it is only for approximately the last century that science has imposed a balance of benefit on Western medical practice. Subsequent reading of Druin…
Olu, Olushayo; Usman, Abdulmumini; Kalambay, Kalula; Anyangwe, Stella; Voyi, Kuku; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Azazh, Aklilu; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Nsenga, Ngoy; Manga, Lucien; Woldetsadik, Solomon; Nguessan, Francois; Benson, Angela
As part of efforts to implement the human resources capacity building component of the African Regional Strategy on Disaster Risk Management (DRM) for the health sector, the African Regional Office of the World Health Organization, in collaboration with selected African public health training institutions, followed a multistage process to develop core competencies and curricula for training the African health workforce in public health DRM. In this article, we describe the methods used to develop the competencies, present the identified competencies and training curricula, and propose recommendations for their integration into the public health education curricula of African member states. We conducted a pilot research using mixed methods approaches to develop and test the applicability and feasibility of a public health disaster risk management curriculum for training the African health workforce. We identified 14 core competencies and 45 sub-competencies/training units grouped into six thematic areas: 1) introduction to DRM; 2) operational effectiveness; 3) effective leadership; 4) preparedness and risk reduction; 5) emergency response and 6) post-disaster health system recovery. These were defined as the skills and knowledge that African health care workers should possess to effectively participate in health DRM activities. To suit the needs of various categories of African health care workers, three levels of training courses are proposed: basic, intermediate, and advanced. The pilot test of the basic course among a cohort of public health practitioners in South Africa demonstrated their relevance. These competencies compare favourably to the findings of other studies that have assessed public health DRM competencies. They could provide a framework for scaling up the capacity development of African healthcare workers in the area of public health DRM; however further validation of the competencies is required through additional pilot courses and follow up of
Farrell, Susan E; Coates, Wendy C; Khun, Gloria J; Fisher, Jonathan; Shayne, Philip; Lin, Michelle
The purpose of this article is to highlight medical education research studies published in 2008 that were methodologically superior and whose outcomes were pertinent to teaching and education in emergency medicine. Through a PubMed search of the English language literature in 2008, 30 medical education research studies were independently identified as hypothesis-testing investigations and measurements of educational interventions. Six reviewers independently rated and scored all articles based on eight anchors, four of which related to methodologic criteria. Articles were ranked according to their total rating score. A ranking agreement among the reviewers of 83% was established a priori as a minimum for highlighting articles in this review. Five medical education research studies met the a priori criteria for inclusion and are reviewed and summarized here. Four of these employed experimental or quasi-experimental methodology. Although technology was not a component of the structured literature search employed to identify the candidate articles for this review, 14 of the articles identified, including four of the five highlighted articles, employed or studied technology as a focus of the educational research. Overall, 36% of the reviewed studies were supported by funding; three of the highlighted articles were funded studies. This review highlights quality medical education research studies published in 2008, with outcomes of relevance to teaching and education in emergency medicine. It focuses on research methodology, notes current trends in the use of technology for learning in emergency medicine, and suggests future avenues for continued rigorous study in education.
Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo
Reviews the renewed alliance between music educators and medical researchers in researching the learning process. Focuses on how music is used as therapy for disabled children and the research that enables teachers to provide effective instruction to special education students. Emphasizes the interdisciplinary courses that relate music and…
Devereaux, Asha V; Tosh, Pritish K; Hick, John L; Hanfling, Dan; Geiling, James; Reed, Mary Jane; Uyeki, Timothy M; Shah, Umair A; Fagbuyi, Daniel B; Skippen, Peter; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D; Upperman, Jeffrey S
Engagement and education of ICU clinicians in disaster preparedness is fragmented by time constraints and institutional barriers and frequently occurs during a disaster. We reviewed the existing literature from 2007 to April 2013 and expert opinions about clinician engagement and education for critical care during a pandemic or disaster and offer suggestions for integrating ICU clinicians into planning and response. The suggestions in this article are important for all of those involved in a pandemic or large-scale disaster with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. A systematic literature review was performed and suggestions formulated according to the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) Consensus Statement development methodology. We assessed articles, documents, reports, and gray literature reported since 2007. Following expert-informed sorting and review of the literature, key priority areas and questions were developed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified upon which to make evidence-based recommendations. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. Twenty-three suggestions were formulated based on literature-informed consensus opinion. These suggestions are grouped according to the following thematic elements: (1) situational awareness, (2) clinician roles and responsibilities, (3) education, and (4) community engagement. Together, these four elements are considered to form the basis for effective ICU clinician engagement for mass critical care. The optimal engagement of the ICU clinical team in caring for large numbers of critically ill patients due to a pandemic or disaster will require a departure from the routine independent systems operating in hospitals. An effective response will require robust information systems; coordination among clinicians, hospitals, and governmental
Haga, Susanne B; Mills, Rachel; Aucoin, Julia; Taekman, Jeff
The delivery of personalized medicine utilizing genetic and genomic technologies is anticipated to involve many medical specialties. Interprofessional education will be key to the delivery of personalized medicine in order to reduce disjointed or uncoordinated clinical care, and optimize effective communication to promote patient understanding and engagement regarding the use of or need for these services. While several health professional organizations have endorsed and/or developed core competencies for genetics and genomics, the lack of interprofessional guidelines and training may hamper the delivery of coordinated personalized medicine. In this perspective, we consider the potential for interprofessional education and training using technology-based approaches, such as virtual simulation and gaming, compared with traditional educational approaches.
Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Andric, S.
Education in Nuclear Physics, Medical Physics and Radiation Protection in medicine and veterinary medicine studies on Belgrade University is an integral part of the curriculum, incorporated in different courses of graduate and post-graduate studies. During graduate studies students get basic elements of Nuclear Physics through Physics and/or Biophysics courses in the 1 st year, while basic knowledge in Medical Physics and Radiation Protection is implemented in the courses of Radiology, Physical Therapy, Radiation Hygiene, Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Therapy in the 4 th or 5 th year. Postgraduate studies offer MSc degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy, while courses in Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Protection and Radiology are core or optional. On the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine graduated students may continue their professional education and obtain specialization degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy or Radiation Protection. On the Faculty of Medicine there are specialization degrees in Medical Nuclear Physics. Still, a closer analysis reveals a number of problems both from methodological and cognitive point of view. They are related mostly to graduate students ability to apply their knowledge in practise and with the qualifications of the educators, as those engaged in graduate studies lack basic knowledge in biological and medical sciences, while those engaged in post graduate studies mostly lack basic education in physics. Therefore, a reformed curricula resulting from much closer collaboration among educators, universities and professional societies at the national level should be considered. (author)
Weinberger, Steven E; Pereira, Anne G; Iobst, William F; Mechaber, Alex J; Bronze, Michael S
Recent efforts to improve medical education include adopting a new framework based on 6 broad competencies defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. In this article, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine Education Redesign Task Force II examines the advantages and challenges of a competency-based educational framework for medical residents. Efforts to refine specific competencies by developing detailed milestones are described, and examples of training program initiatives using a competency-based approach are presented. Meeting the challenges of a competency-based framework and supporting these educational innovations require a robust faculty development program. Challenges to competency-based education include teaching and evaluating the competencies related to practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice, as well as implementing a flexible time frame to achieve competencies. However, the Alliance for Academic Internal Medicine Education Redesign Task Force II does not favor reducing internal medicine training to less than 36 months as part of competency-based education. Rather, the 36-month time frame should allow for remediation to address deficiencies in achieving competencies and for diverse enrichment experiences in such areas as quality of care and practice improvement for residents who have demonstrated skills in all required competencies.
Zaichenko, A.I.; Zhuravleva, V.E.; Varenikov, I.I.; Komarova, V.V.; Borisov, B.K.; Pozhidaev, A.E.; Pozhidaeva, N.V.
For improvement of the system of prevention of emergency situations (ES) and for rendering emergency therapeutic-prophylactic and sanitary-epidemiological aid to population in case of ES the paper has determined and proved the first and foremost tasks which are to be settled by joint efforts of the Russian Centre on Disaster Medicine Zashchita and Scientific-practical Center of hygienic expert survey for practical perfection of the efficient forms of interaction of medical-sanitary forces engaged in work in ES. 4 refs
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Community hospitals provide many services for older people. They are mainly managed by nursing staff, with some specialist input. Little is known about education provided in these facilities. Most education in geriatric medicine is provided in hospitals, despite most elderly care being provided in the community. The authors surveyed senior nursing staff in Irish community hospitals to examine this area in more detail. Staff in all 18hospitals in the Health Service Executive (South) area were invited to participate. The response rate was 100%. Sixteen of the 18 respondents (89%) felt staff did not have enough education in geriatric medicine. Just over half of hospitals had regular staff education sessions in the area, with a minority of sessions led by a geriatrician, and none by GPs. Geriatrician visits were valued, but were requested only every 1-3 months. Staff identified challenging behaviour and dementia care as the areas that posed most difficulty.
Edwards, Asher; Nam, Samuel
As the baby boomer generation ages, the need for palliative care services will be paramount and yet training for palliative care physicians is currently inadequate to meet the current palliative care needs. Nonspecialty-trained physicians will need to supplement the gap between supply and demand. Yet, no uniform guidelines exist for the training of internal medicine residents in palliative care. To our knowledge, no systematic study has been performed to evaluate how internal medicine residencies currently integrate palliative care into their training. In this study, we surveyed 338 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited internal medicine program directors. We queried how palliative care was integrated into their training programs. The vast majority of respondents felt that palliative care training was "very important" (87.5%) and 75.9% of respondents offered some kind of palliative care rotation, often with a multidisciplinary approach. Moving forward, we are hopeful that the data provided from our survey will act as a launching point for more formal investigations into palliative care education for internal medicine residents. Concurrently, policy makers should aid in palliative care instruction by formalizing required palliative care training for internal medicine residents.
Shukla, Aseem R
Collaborative and academic partnerships between institutions in North America and those in resource-limited nations are a burgeoning trend. Leveraging the academic quality and outcomes-based infrastructure of university medical centers to increase surgical capacity in regions where urologic disease burden is immense offers potentially bilateral opportunities. Host institutions benefit from exposure to contemporary surgical approaches, while the surgical volume enables larger-scale collaborative outcome studies and exposure of residents-in-training to rare pathophysiology. This article surveys this growing trend in globalizing health care specific to urology, and the development of a program focused on urologic education at a tertiary referral center in India.
Over the past 4 decades Chinese medicine (CM) has come increasingly into the spotlight in the United States as the clinical effectiveness of CM has been not only empirically well-tested over a long period of time but also proven by recent scientific research. It has proven cost effectiveness, safety, and is authorized for natural and holistic approaches. In consideration, CM is one of the underutilized health care professions in the United States with a promising future. However, CM faces many challenges in its education and system, its niche in the health care system as an independent profession, legal and ethical issues. This paper discusses the confronting issues in the United States: present education, standards of CM education with shifting first professional degree level, new delivery systems of CM education. Development of new research models, training of evidence-based practice, and implementation of integrative medicine into CM education also are the key issues in the current CM profession. This paper also discusses opportunities for the CM profession going beyond the current status, especially with a focus on fusion medicine.
After Fukushima? On the educational and learning theoretical reflection of nuclear disasters. International perspectives; Nach Fukushima? Zur erziehungs- und bildungstheoretischen Reflexion atomarer Katastrophen. Internationale Perspektiven
Wigger, Lothar; Buenger, Carsten (eds.) [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Bereich Allgemeine Erziehungswissenschaft; Platzer, Barbara [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)
The book on the educational and learning theoretical reflection of nuclear disasters as a consequence of Fukushima includes contributions on the following issues: pedagogical approach: children write on Fukushima, description of the reality as pedagogical challenge; lessons learned on the nuclear technology - perspectives and limits of pedagogical evaluation: moral education - Japanese teaching materials, educational challenges at the universities with respect to nuclear technology and technology impact assessment; education and technology - questions concerning the pedagogical responsibility: considerations on the responsibility of scientists, on the discrepancy between technology and education, disempowerment of the public by structural corruption - nuclear disaster and post-democratic tendencies in Japan.
Jordan, Jaime; Coates, Wendy C; Clarke, Samuel; Runde, Daniel P; Fowlkes, Emilie; Kurth, Jacqueline; Yarris, Lalena M
Recent literature calls for initiatives to improve the quality of education studies and support faculty in approaching educational problems in a scholarly manner. Understanding the emergency medicine (EM) educator workforce is a crucial precursor to developing policies to support educators and promote education scholarship in EM. This study aims to illuminate the current workforce model for the academic EM educator. Program leadership at EM training programs completed an online survey consisting of multiple choice, completion, and free-response type items. We calculated and reported descriptive statistics. 112 programs participated. Mean number of core faculty/program: 16.02 ± 7.83 [14.53-17.5]. Mean number of faculty full-time equivalents (FTEs)/program dedicated to education is 6.92 ± 4.92 [5.87-7.98], including (mean FTE): Vice chair for education (0.25); director of medical education (0.13); education fellowship director (0.2); residency program director (0.83); associate residency director (0.94); assistant residency director (1.1); medical student clerkship director (0.8); assistant/associate clerkship director (0.28); simulation fellowship director (0.11); simulation director (0.42); director of faculty development (0.13). Mean number of FTEs/program for education administrative support is 2.34 ± 1.1 [2.13-2.61]. Determination of clinical hours varied; 38.75% of programs had personnel with education research expertise. Education faculty represent about 43% of the core faculty workforce. Many programs do not have the full spectrum of education leadership roles and educational faculty divide their time among multiple important academic roles. Clinical requirements vary. Many departments lack personnel with expertise in education research. This information may inform interventions to promote education scholarship.
Ruljigaljig, T.; Huang, M. L.
This study development interface for Mobile Application (App) use cloud technology, Web 2.0 and online community of technology to build the Environmental-Geological Disaster Network(EDN). The interaction App platform between expert knowledge and community is developed as a teaching tool, which bases on the open data released by Central Geological Survey. The APP can through Augmented Reality technology to potential hazards position through the camera lens, the real show in real-world environment. The interaction with experts in the community to improve the general public awareness of disaster. Training people to record the occurrence of geological disasters precursor, thereby awakened their to natural disaster consciousness and attention.General users obtain real-time information during travel, mountaineering and teaching process. Using App platform to upload and represent the environmental geological disaster data collected by themselves. It is expected that by public joint the open platform can accumulate environmental geological disaster data effectively, quickly, extensively and correctly. The most important thing of this study is rooting the concept of disaster prevention, reduction, and avoidance through public participation.
Hallikainen, J; Väisänen, O; Rosenberg, P H; Silfvast, T; Niemi-Murola, L
Emergency medicine is team work from the field to the hospital and therefore it is also important for physicians to understand the work of paramedics, and vice versa. Interprofessional emergency medicine education for medical and paramedic students in Helsinki was started in 2001. It consisted of a 15 European credit transfer system (ECTS) credits programme combining 22 students in 2001. In 2005, the number of students had increased to 25. The programme consisted of three parts: acute illness in childhood and adults (AI), advanced life support (ALS) and trauma life support (TLS). In this paper, we describe the concept of interprofessional education of medical students and paramedics in emergency medicine. After finishing the programmes in 2001 and in 2005, the students' opinions regarding the education were collected using a standardized questionnaire. There were good ratings for the courses in AI (2001 vs. 2005, whole group; 4.3 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.4, P = 0.44) ALS (4.7 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5, P = 0.06) and TLS (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5, P = 0.01) in both years. Most of the medical students considered that this kind of co-education should be arranged for all medical students (2001 vs. 2005; 4.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.4 +/- 0.5, P = 0.02) and should be obligatory (3.5 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.1 +/- 1.3, P = 0.35). Co-education was well received and determined by the students as an effective way of improving their knowledge of emergency medicine and medical skills. The programme was rated as very useful and it should be included in the educational curriculum of both student groups.
Wolbrink, Traci A; Rubin, Lucy; Burns, Jeffrey P; Markovitz, Barry
The number of websites for the critical care provider is rapidly growing, including websites that are part of the Free Open Access Med(ical ed)ucation (FOAM) movement. With this rapidly expanding number of websites, critical appraisal is needed to identify quality websites. The last major review of critical care websites was published in 2011, and thus a new review of the websites relevant to the critical care clinician is necessary. A new assessment tool for evaluating critical care medicine education websites, the Critical Care Medical Education Website Quality Evaluation Tool (CCMEWQET), was modified from existing tools. A PubMed and Startpage search from 2007 to 2017 was conducted to identify websites relevant to critical care medicine education. These websites were scored based on the CCMEWQET. Ninety-seven websites relevant for critical care medicine education were identified and scored, and the top ten websites were described in detail. Common types of resources available on these websites included blog posts, podcasts, videos, online journal clubs, and interactive components such as quizzes. Almost one quarter of websites (n = 22) classified themselves as FOAM websites. The top ten websites most often included an editorial process, high-quality and appropriately attributed graphics and multimedia, scored much higher for comprehensiveness and ease of access, and included opportunities for interactive learning. Many excellent online resources for critical care medicine education currently exist, and the number is likely to continue to increase. Opportunities for improvement in many websites include more active engagement of learners, upgrading navigation abilities, incorporating an editorial process, and providing appropriate attribution for graphics and media.
Ozcep, T.; Ozcep, F.
Natural disaster reduction focuses on the urgent need for prevention activities to reduce loss of life, damage to property, infrastructure and environment, and the social and economic disruption caused by natural hazards. One of the most important factors in reduction of the potential damage of earthquakes is trained manpower. To understanding the causes of earthquakes and other natural phenomena (landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, etc.) is one of the pre-conditions to show a conscious behavior. The aim of the study is to analysis and to investigate, how earthquakes and other natural phenomena are perceived by the students and the possible consequences of this perception, and their effects of reducing earthquake damage. One of the crucial questions is that is our education system fear or curiosity based education system? Effects of the damages due to earthquakes have led to look like a fear subject. In fact, due to the results of the effects, the earthquakes are perceived scary phenomena. In the first stage of the project, the learning (or perception) levels of earthquakes and other natural disasters for the students of primary school are investigated with a survey. Aim of this survey study of earthquakes and other natural phenomena is that have the students fear based or curiosity based approaching to the earthquakes and other natural events. In the second stage of the project, the path obtained by the survey are evaluated with the statistical point of approach. A questionnaire associated with earthquakes and natural disasters are applied to primary school students (that total number of them is approximately 700 pupils) to measure the curiosity and/or fear levels. The questionnaire consists of 17 questions related to natural disasters. The questions are: "What is the Earthquake ?", "What is power behind earthquake?", "What is the mental response during the earthquake ?", "Did we take lesson from earthquake's results ?", "Are you afraid of earthquake
Kim, Curi; Fetters, Michael D; Gorenflo, Daniel W
The value of the morbidity and mortality conference (M&MC) has received little examination in the primary care literature. We sought to understand the educational content of M&MCs by examining data from a family medicine training program. Archived morbidity and mortality conference data (July 2001-July 2003) were retrieved from two University of Michigan family medicine adult inpatient services (one community based and one university based). We used chi-square and t test to compare demographic variables and adverse events between hospital sites. We qualitatively analyzed written comments about adverse events. Both family medicine services shared similar diagnoses, patient volume, length of stay, and gender distribution of patients, but the community hospital had an older average patient age (67.9 years versus 52.9 years) and a higher outpatient complication rate. Analysis of the qualitative data revealed patterns of adverse events, such as an association between avoidable admissions and inadequate pain control, that could be improved through educational intervention. Although family medicine residents' experiences in university and community hospitals were comparable, there were differences in patient populations and case complexity. Modifying the M&MC format could enhance its effectiveness as an educational tool about adverse events.
Singh, Naileshni; Nielsen, Alison A; Copenhaver, David J; Sheth, Samir J; Li, Chin-Shang; Fishman, Scott M
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has recently implemented milestones and competencies as a framework for training fellows in Pain Medicine, but individual programs are left to create educational platforms and assessment tools that meet ACGME standards. In this article, we discuss the concept of milestone-based competencies and the inherent challenges for implementation in pain medicine. We consider simulation-based education (SBE) as a potential tool for the field to meet ACGME goals through advancing novel learning opportunities, engaging in clinically relevant scenarios, and mastering technical and nontechnical skills. The sparse literature on SBE in pain medicine is highlighted, and we describe our pilot experience, which exemplifies a nascent effort that encountered early difficulties in implementing and refining an SBE program. The many complexities in offering a sophisticated simulated pain curriculum that is valid, reliable, feasible, and acceptable to learners and teachers may only be overcome with coordinated and collaborative efforts among pain medicine training programs and governing institutions.
Parish, Sharon J; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio
Sexual problems in men and women are common; and physicians endorse many barriers to addressing these issues, including lack of knowledge about the diagnosis and management of sexual problems and inadequate training in sexual health communication and counseling. To update the recommendations published in 2004, from the International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (ICSM) relevant to the educational aspects of sexual health in undergraduate, graduate, and postgraducate medical education. A third international consultation in collaboration with the major sexual health organizations assembled over 186 multidisciplinary experts from 33 countries into 25 committees. Three experts from three countries contributed to this committee's review of Education in Sexual Medicine. Expert opinion was based on a comprehensive review of the medical literature, committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. A comprehensive review about the current state of undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate sexual health education worldwide is provided. Recommendations about ideal sexual health curricula across training levels are provided. Best methods for achieving optimal training approaches to sexual health communication and interviewing, clinical skills and management, and counseling are described. Current sexual health education for undergraduate and practicing physicians is inadequate to meet the advancing science and technology and increasing patient demand for high-quality sexual health care. There is a need for enhanced training in medical institutions responsible for physician sexual health training worldwide. Future training programs at all levels of medical education should incorporate standardized measures of sexual health clinical skills acquisition and assessments of the impact on patient outcomes into the design of educational initiatives. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore ways of increasing the social and professional awareness of students of architecture to educate a new generation of architects who are familiar with the concepts of social responsibility, professional collaboration , sustainable development and disaster mitigation. Turkey experiences a rapid social change due to the urban regeneration, population movements, environmental changes, new technologies and professional diversification. These phenomenon affect all aspects o f life. This study explores the possibilities for applying new methods of teaching in schools of architecture to train a generation of architects who will be in tune with this new, ever - changing socio - cultural environment in Turkey. A study lasting one edu cational term of 14 weeks was conducted on a group of 15 second year students of architecture. A structural design course which previously had a purely theoretical and mathematical approcah to the subject matter was altered to contain background informatio n regarding social context such as the photos, videos and narratives of earthquake affected areas of Turkey. This was done to introduce the students with the reality of the built environment and professional life in Turkey. Additionally small - scale applied projects were given as semester tasks to the students where they can experience a scaled but realistic application of the theoretical knowledge into reality. These two approaches were supplemented with theoretical knowledge to prepare the students for pro fessional life in a realistic manner. A sudden increase in student attention and participation to the course was observed both in matters concrening the professional application and social context of their architectural projects. These findings were consis tent with a previous study conducted by the author. The findings of this experimental application have resulted in a revision of the educational curriculum concerning the structural
Full Text Available Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM. The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documented. Our aim in this article is to perform a retrospective review of the current literature, studying simulation use in EM medical student clerkships. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in teaching basic science, clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication skills. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school curricula, more studies are needed to assess whether simulation training improves patient-related outcomes.
Alavi, S Shohreh; Makarem, Jalil; Mehrdad, Ramin
General practitioners (GPs) who work in occupational medicine (OM) should be trained continuously. However, it seems that ethical issues have been neglected. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine educational priorities for GPs working in OM. A total of 410 GPs who participated in OM seminars were asked to answer a number of questions related to items that they usually come across in their work. The respondents were given scores on 15 items, which pertained to their frequency of experience in OM, their felt needs regarding education in the field, and their knowledge and skills. Ethical issues were the most frequently utilised item and the area in which the felt need for education was the greatest. The knowledge of and skills in ethical issues and matters were the poorest. Ethical principles and confidentiality had the highest calculated educational priority scores. It is necessary to consider ethical issues as an educational priority for GPs working in the field of OM.
Boreham, N C
Alternative concepts of learning include a formal system in which part of the medical curriculum is designated as that for geriatric medicine; a non-formal system including conferences, lectures, broadcasts, available to both medical students and physicians; and thirdly, an informal system in which doctors learn medicine through their experience practising the profession. While the most emphasis in medical schools would seem to be on the formal system it is essential that medical educators (if they wish their students in later life to maintain high levels of self-initiated learning) must use all three strategies. The structure of a system of formal teaching for geriatric medicine is examined. An important objective is attitude change and it is in achieving this that geriatricians must be particularly involved in non-formal and informal systems.
Flannery, Michael T
This perspective attempts to bring graduate medical offices, residency programs and medical students interested in categorical internal medicine (CIM) a brief update on the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM), Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) and the National Registry for Medical Programs (NRMP) changes for the past 3-5 years in the United States (US). The US model for certification and recertification may serve as a homogenous example for other countries. This model will be described so that there is an understanding of the importance of such changes in the American system and its effect on resident education. This is critical knowledge for both teachers and learners in internal medicine in preparation for a lifetime career and requirements for certification/credentialing for both programs and their residents/fellows. Data from the review indicate a small increase in the number of applicants but a concordant decrease in ABIM initial certification exams. Programs should well be aware of the new focus on outcomes via the Next Accreditation System (NAS) being put forth by the ACGME. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jansen, Kate L; Rosenbaum, Marcy E
Communication skills are essential to medical training and have lasting effects on patient satisfaction and adherence rates. However, relatively little is reported in the literature identifying how communication is taught in the context of residency education. Our goal was to determine current practices in communication curricula across family medicine residency programs. Behavioral scientists and program directors in US family medicine residencies were surveyed via email and professional organization listservs. Questions included whether programs use a standardized communication model, methods used for teaching communication, hours devoted to teaching communication, as well as strengths and areas for improvement in their program. Analysis identified response frequencies and ranges complemented by analysis of narrative comments. A total of 204 programs out of 458 family medicine residency training sites responded (45%), with 48 out of 50 US states represented. The majority of respondents were behavioral scientists. Seventy-five percent of programs identified using a standard communication model; Mauksch's patient-centered observation model (34%) was most often used. Training programs generally dedicated more time to experiential teaching methods (video review, work with simulated patients, role plays, small groups, and direct observation of patient encounters) than to lectures (62% of time and 24% of time, respectively). The amount of time dedicated to communication education varied across programs (average of 25 hours per year). Respondent comments suggest that time dedicated to communication education and having a formal curriculum in place are most valued by educators. This study provides a picture of how communication skills teaching is conducted in US family medicine residency programs. These findings can provide a comparative reference and rationale for residency programs seeking to evaluate their current approaches to communication skills teaching and
Given the tendency of books on disasters to predominantly focus on strong geophysical or descriptive perspectives and in-depth accounts of particular catastrophes, Disaster Research provides a much-needed multidisciplinary perspective of the area. This book is is structured thematically around key...... approaches to disaster research from a range of different, but often complementary academic disciplines. Each chapter presents distinct approaches to disaster research that is anchored in a particular discipline; ranging from the law of disasters and disaster historiography to disaster politics...... and anthropology of disaster. The methodological and theoretical contributions underlining a specific approach to disasters are discussed and illustrative empirical cases are examined that support and further inform the proposed approach to disaster research. The book thus provides unique insights into fourteen...
Byrn, Stephen R; Ekeocha, Zita; Clase, Kari L
People living in Africa face a heavy and wide-ranging burden of disease that takes an incalculable toll on social and economic development as well as shortening life expectancy (life expectancy in Tanzania is about 60 vs. about 80 in the United States and Europe. Further, the pharmaceutical market in developing countries is immature and may not support quality medicines. In many cases, a tender system is used, and medicines are bought by the government at the lowest price. In addition to access to medicines, a number of pharmaceutical sciences problems are apparent. The availability of infrastructure and especially standard instruments such as HPLC and X-ray diffraction is minimal. Additionally, there is an important need to increase access to advanced education for men and women in Africa, especially access to state-of-the-art scientific education. Utilizing the mandate of Nelson Mandela, Purdue's conceptual approach has been to utilize education to combat these problems. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
workshop, bedside teaching, and emergency medical services workshop. The mean (standard deviation satisfaction scores of those three teaching methods were 4.70 (0.50, 4.63 (0.58, and 4.60 (0.55, respectively. Conclusion: Teaching EM with workshops improved student satisfaction in EM education for medical students. Keywords: emergency medicine education, workshop, student satisfaction
Bret A Nicks; Darrell Nelson
BACKGROUND:This study was undertaken to examine the current level of operations and management education within US-based Emergency Medicine Residency programs.METHODS:Residency program directors at all US-based Emergency Medicine Residency programs were anonymously surveyed via a web-based instrument.Participants indicated their levels of residency education dedicated to documentation,billing/coding,core measure/quality indicator compliance,and operations management.Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics for the ordinal data/Likert scales.RESULTS:One hundred and six(106)program directors completed the study instrument of one hundred and fifty-six(156)programs(70%).Of these,82.6%indicated emergency department(ED)operations and management education within the training curriculum.Dedicated documentation training was noted in all but 1 program(99%).Program educational offerings also included billing/coding(83%),core measure/quality indicators(78%)and operations management training(71%).In all areas,the most common means of educating came through didactic sessions and direct attending feedback or 69%-94%and 72%-98%respectively.Residency leadership was most confident with resident understanding of quality documentation(80%)and less so with core measures(72%),billing/coding/RVUs(58%),and operations management tools(23%).CONCLUSIONS:While most EM residency programs integrate basic operational education related to documentation and billing/coding,a smaller number provide focused education on the dayto-day management and operations of the ED.Residency leadership perceives graduating resident understanding of operational management tools to be limited.All respondents value further resident curriculum development of ED operations and management.
Tuswadi, Takehiro, Hayashi
This paper describes our latest innovation in implementation of school-community collaboration in disaster education at Sekolah Dasar Negeri 1 Banaran, located in Cangkringan district of Sleman regency, as high-risk area of having impacts from Merapi eruption. The collaboration between school and local communities in an integrated disaster prevention lesson provides a space for students to not only obtain important information and knowledge about natural disasters through their teacher in the classroom but also gain important knowledge directly from the people who live around the school. Through this study, students are taught to be sensitive to utilize the resources in their nearest environment to support the process and the results of their learning about survival in a disaster prone area. Many students have not well understood relation between earthquake and volcanic eruption. Result of student groups' interview to a number of local community members showed that (1) In 2010 Merapi eruptions, from 8 residents, 5 of them, together with their family members were staying at home and getting panic while 3 other residents had already evacuated. (2) Five residents reported no one in their village was killed although some houses were damaged. (3) For anticipating future eruption, the residents confessed to quickly follow the government for evacuation by preparing in advance the transportation, masks, their own precious goods and important documents. From the result of the groups' report during discussion activities in the class, it was revealed that the students are aware of immediate evacuation as the best way to keep themselves safe from eruption. They also understood things to bring for evacuation including maskers.
Singh, Arun L; Klick, Jeffrey C; McCracken, Courtney E; Hebbar, Kiran B
Hospice and Palliative Medicine (HPM) competencies are of growing importance in training general pediatricians and pediatric sub-specialists. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) emphasized pediatric trainees should understand the "impact of chronic disease, terminal conditions and death on patients and their families." Currently, very little is known regarding pediatric trainee education in HPM. We surveyed all 486 ACGME-accredited pediatric training program directors (PDs) - 200 in general pediatrics (GP), 57 in cardiology (CARD), 64 in critical care medicine (CCM), 69 in hematology-oncology (ONC) and 96 in neonatology (NICU). We collected training program's demographics, PD's attitudes and educational practices regarding HPM. The complete response rate was 30% (148/486). Overall, 45% offer formal HPM curriculum and 39% offer a rotation in HPM for trainees. HPM teaching modalities commonly reported included conferences, consultations and bedside teaching. Eighty-one percent of all respondents felt that HPM curriculum would improve trainees' ability to care for patients. While most groups felt that a HPM rotation would enhance trainees' education [GP (96%), CARD (77%), CCM (82%) and ONC (95%)], NICU PDs were more divided (55%; p training, there remains a paucity of opportunities for pediatric trainees. Passive teaching methods are frequently utilized in HPM curricula with minimal diversity in methods utilized to teach HPM. Opportunities to further emphasize HPM in general pediatric and pediatric sub-specialty training remains.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Residents are one of the key stakeholders of specialty training. The Turkish Board of Family Medicine wanted to pursue a realistic and structured approach in the design of the specialty training programme. This approach required the development of a needs-based core curriculum built on evidence obtained from residents about their needs for specialty training and their needs in the current infrastructure. The aim of this study was to obtain evidence on residents' opinions and views about Family Medicine specialty training. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. The board prepared a questionnaire to investigate residents' views about some aspects of the education programme such as duration and content, to assess the residents' learning needs as well as their need for a training infrastructure. The questionnaire was distributed to the Family Medicine Departments (n = 27 and to the coordinators of Family Medicine residency programmes in state hospitals (n = 11 by e-mail and by personal contact. Results A total of 191 questionnaires were returned. The female/male ratio was 58.6%/41.4%. Nine state hospitals and 10 university departments participated in the study. The response rate was 29%. Forty-five percent of the participants proposed over three years for the residency duration with either extensions of the standard rotation periods in pediatrics and internal medicine or reductions in general surgery. Residents expressed the need for extra rotations (dermatology 61.8%; otolaryngology 58.6%; radiology 52.4%. Fifty-nine percent of the residents deemed a rotation in a private primary care centre necessary, 62.8% in a state primary care centre with a proposed median duration of three months. Forty-seven percent of the participants advocated subspecialties for Family Medicine, especially geriatrics. The residents were open to new educational methods such as debates, training with models, workshops and e
The modern education institutes play an important role in fostering professional talents, reproducing knowledge and studies, and forming the identities of certain academic fields and vocational communities. It is a matter of common knowledge that the absence of an official Korean medicine medical school during the Japanese colonial era was a severely disadvantageous factor in the aspects of academic progress, fostering follow-up personnel, and establishment of social capability. Therefore, the then Korean medicine circle put emphasis on inadequate official education institutes as the main factor behind oppression. Furthermore, as the measure to promote the continuance of Korean medicine, the circle regarded establishing civilian Korean medicine training schools as their long-cherished wish and strived to accomplish the mission even after liberation. This study looked into how the Korean medicine circle during the Japanese colonial era utilized civilian training schools to conduct the Korean medicine education conforming to modern medical school and examined how the operation of these training schools influenced the changes in the traditional Korean medicine. After the introduction of the Western medical science, the Korean medicine circle aimed to improve the quality of Korean medicine doctors by establishing modern Korean medicine medical schools. However, after the annexation of Korea and Japan, official Korean medicine medical schools were not established since policies were organized centered on the Western medical science. In this light, the Korean medicine circle strived to nurture the younger generation of Korean medicine by establishing and operating the civilian Korean medicine training schools after the annexation between Korea and Japan. The schools were limited in terms of scale and status but possessed the forms conforming to the modern medical schools in terms of education system. In other words, the civilian training schools not only adhered to the
Cronholm, Peter F; Singh, Vijay; Fogarty, Colleen T; Ambuel, Bruce
Violence is a significant public health issue with far-reaching implications for the health of individuals and their communities. Our objective was to describe trends in violence-related training in family medicine residency programs since the last national survey was conducted in 1997. Surveys were sent to 337 US family medicine residency programs with the program director having active Society of Teachers of Family Medicine (STFM) membership. Measures included residency setting and characteristics, violence-related curricular content, teaching techniques and personnel, timing of content, and impact of changes in Residency Review Committee (RRC) and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requirements. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses comparing measures across time were used. A total of 201 (60%) surveys were completed. The most common violence curricula was child (83%) and elder abuse (76%), and the most common teachers of violence-related content were family physicians, psychologists, and social workers. The most common teaching methods were clinical precepting (94%), lectures (90%), case vignettes (71%), and intimate partner violence (IPV) shelter experiences (67%). ACGME and RRC changes were not reflected in self-reported measures of curricular emphasis or time. Violence curricular content and number of hours has been constant in family medicine residencies over time. An increase in the reported use of active learning strategies was identified as a trend across surveys. Next steps for violence curricula involve assessment of residents' competency to identify and intervene in violence.
Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel
Abstract Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the oldest forms of medicine in the world. There has been a growing interest in TCM in Canada in terms of consumers and also among the research community. To cater for this interest, the Canadian Institute of Chinese Medicinal Research (CICMR) was established in 2004. Since its formation, CICMR has been organizing annual meetings. In 2008, the CICMR meeting, jointly organized with the Ontario Ginseng Innovation Research Centre, was held from October 16th to 19th, in London, Ontario, Canada. The meeting saw a number of participants and speakers from many countries who discussed TCM in a Canadian perspective. The talks and presentations focused on TCM practices in Asia and Canada; analytical techniques for unravelling the science behind TCM; basic and clinical research findings in the areas of cancer and cardiovascular diseases; safety and quality control issues; the regulatory and educational framework of TCM in Canada; and the latest findings in agricultural, chemical, and pharmacological research on ginseng from all over the world. The meeting successfully provided a platform for constructive discussions on TCM practices and research and education in Canada and the world.
Hutton, Alison; Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Gebbie, Kristine
The International Council of Nurses (ICN; Geneva, Switzerland) and the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) joined together in 2014 to review the use of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies. The existing ICN Framework (version 1.10; dated 2009) formed the starting point for this review. The key target audiences for this process were members of the disaster nursing community concerned with pre-service education for professional nursing and the continuing education of practicing professional nurses. To minimize risk in the disaster nursing practice, competencies have been identified as the foundation of evidence-based practice and standard development. A Steering Committee was established by the WADEM Nursing Section to discuss how to initiate a review of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies. The Steering Committee then worked via email to develop a survey to send out to disaster/emergency groups that may have nurse members who work/respond in disasters. Thirty-five invitations were sent out with 20 responses (57%) received. Ninety-five percent of respondents knew of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies, with the majority accessing these competencies via the Internet. The majority of those who responded said that they make use of the ICN Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies with the most common use being for educational purposes. Education was done at a local, national, and international level. The competencies were held in high esteem and valued by these organizations as the cornerstone of their disaster education, and also were used for the continued professional development of disaster nursing. However, respondents stated that five years on from their development, the competencies also should include the psychosocial elements of nurses caring for themselves and their colleagues. Additionally, further studies should explore if there are other areas related to the
Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Lifshitz, Alberto; Mora-Magaña, Ignacio; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Avila-Osorio, María Teresa; Quintana-Vargas, Silvia; Aguirre, Jorge A; Méndez, Jorge; Murata, Chiharu; Nava-Diosdado, Rodrigo; Martínez-González, Oscar; Calleja, Elisa; Vargas, Raúl; Mejía-Arangure, Juan Manuel; Cortez-Domínguez, Araceli; Vedrenne-Gutiérrez, Fernand; Sueiras, Perla; Garduño, Juan; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Salamanca, Fabio; Kumate-Rodríguez, Jesús; Reyes-Fuentes, Alejandro
In recent years, medical practice has followed two different paradigms: evidence-based medicine (EBM) and values-based medicine (VBM). There is an urgent need to promote medical education that strengthens the relationship between these two paradigms. This work is designed to establish the foundations for a continuing medical education (CME) program aimed at encouraging the dialogue between EBM and VBM by determining the values relevant to everyday medical activities. A quasi-experimental, observational, comparative, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing through a concurrent triangulation strategy the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, healthcare personnel's life history, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice.In 2009, healthcare personnel working in Mexico were invited to participate in a free, online clinical ethics course. Each participant responded to a set of online survey instruments before and after the CME program. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare personnel, focusing on their views and representations of clinical practice. The healthcare personnel's core values were honesty and respect. There were significant differences in the clinical practice axiology before and after the course (P ethical discernment, the CME program had an impact on autonomy (P ≤0.0001). Utilitarian autonomy was reinforced in the participants (P ≤0.0001). Regarding work values, significant differences due to the CME intervention were found in openness to change (OC) (P ethical discernment and healthcare personnel-patient relation were beneficence, respect and compassion, respectively. The healthcare personnel participating in a CME intervention in clinical ethics improved high-order values: Openness to change (OC) and Self Transcendence (ST), which are essential to fulfilling the healing ends of medicine. The CME intervention strengthened the role of
Schünemann Holger J
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To systematically review the medical literature to assess the effect of geriatric educational games on the satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors of health care professionals. Methods We conducted a systematic review following the Cochrane Collaboration methodology including an electronic search of 10 electronic databases. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT and controlled clinical trials (CCT and excluded single arm studies. Population of interests included members (practitioners or students of the health care professions. Outcomes of interests were participants' satisfaction, knowledge, beliefs, attitude, and behaviors. Results We included 8 studies evaluating 5 geriatric role playing games, all conducted in United States. All studies suffered from one or more methodological limitations but the overall quality of evidence was acceptable. None of the studies assessed the effects of the games on beliefs or behaviors. None of the 8 studies reported a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of change in attitude. One study assessed the impact on knowledge and found non-statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Two studies found levels of satisfaction among participants to be high. We did not conduct a planned meta-analysis because the included studies either reported no statistical data or reported different summary statistics. Conclusion The available evidence does not support the use of role playing interventions in geriatric medical education with the aim of improving the attitudes towards the elderly.
whether this concept is adequate for the users of the healthcare protection in B&H regarding the momentary limited resources for any innovations in the individual segments of the healthcare, because there is the anxiety that in the case of the breakdown of financing of the mentioned concept of the family medicine in B&H because of these we discussed publicly herr the thoughts and the attitudes also those who have the experiences from earlier, because we had also their own concepts of the organization of the family medicine, and eventually reflect also about implementation of some other models or modification of the existing which momentary gets realized. At the Cathedre for the family medicine at the Medical faculty of the University in Sarajevo is formed the lecture which make the chiefs of six other cathedres (of pediatry, gynecology, psychiatry, of internal medicine, surgery and social medicine) which have the task that in the following three years get concipied some kind of the optimal programmee of education from the family medicine at our faculty.
Daily, Elaine; Padjen, Patricia; Birnbaum, Marvin
In order to prepare the healthcare system and healthcare personnel to meet the health needs of populations affected by disasters, educational programs have been developed by numerous academic institutions, hospitals, professional organizations, governments, and non-government organizations. Lacking standards for best practices as a foundation, many organizations and institutions have developed "core competencies" that they consider essential knowledge and skills for disaster healthcare personnel. The Nursing Section of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM) considered the possibility of endorsing an existing set of competencies that could be used to prepare nurses universally to participate in disaster health activities. This study was undertaken for the purpose of reviewing published disaster health competencies to determine commonalities and universal applicability for disaster preparedness. In 2007, a review of the electronic literature databases was conducted using the major keywords: disaster response competencies; disaster preparedness competencies; emergency response competencies; disaster planning competencies; emergency planning competencies; public health emergency preparedness competencies; disaster nursing competencies; and disaster nursing education competencies. A manual search of references and selected literature from public and private sources also was conducted. Inclusion criteria included: English language; competencies listed or specifically referred to; competencies relevant to disaster, mass-casualty incident (MCI), or public health emergency; and competencies relevant to healthcare. Eighty-six articles were identified; 20 articles failed to meet the initial inclusion criteria; 27 articles did not meet the additional criteria, leaving 39 articles for analysis. Twenty-eight articles described competencies targeted to a specific profession/discipline, while 10 articles described competencies targeted to a defined role
Smith, Sunny; Malinak, David; Chang, Jinnie; Schultz, Amanda; Brownell, Kristin
Food insecurity is associated with poor health outcomes, yet is not routinely addressed in health care. This study was conducted to determine if education regarding food insecurity as a health issue could modify knowledge, attitudes, and clinical behavior. Educational sessions on food insecurity and its impact on health were conducted in 2015 at three different family medicine residency programs and one medical school. A pre/post survey was given immediately before and after this session. Attendees were encouraged to identify and implement individual and system-based changes to integrate food insecurity screening and referrals into their clinical practices. Participants completed follow-up surveys approximately 1 year later, and the authors obtained systems-level data from electronic health records and databases. Pre/post means (SD) were compared using t-tests. The numbers of patients screened and referred were calculated. Eighty-five participants completed the pre/post survey during the educational sessions (51 medical students, 29 residents, 5 faculty). Self-reported knowledge of food insecurity, resources, and willingness to discuss with patients increased (Pinsecurity during clinical visits and referrals to food resources. Over 1,600 patients were screened for food insecurity as a result of systems-based changes. Educational interventions focused on the role of food insecurity in health can produce improvements in knowledge and attitudes toward addressing food insecurity, increase discussions with patients about food insecurity, and result in measurable patient and systems-level changes.
Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...
Vestergaard, Stense; Ravn, Pernille; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Kaae, Susanne
Background Evidence suggests that there are differences in medicine habits among adolescents with different sociodemographic backgrounds and that peers might also influence medicine use. More knowledge is needed regarding how these aspects together affect how different young people use medicines. Objective To explore the differences in medicine use, perceptions and sharing between adolescents at two different educational (and socio-demographic) settings and assess the influence of parents and peers. Subjects Fifty-nine students from a private high school (HS) and 34 students from a public vocational school (VS) in Denmark between the ages of 15 and 19 years old were subjects in this study. Methods A questionnaire was used that included background, medicine consumption, perceptions and social interaction. Descriptive analyses along with a Fishers test were used to determine differences and similarities between students' medicine patterns at the school settings. Results Of the 93 respondents, 74% used medicine within the past month, with females using more medicines. A significant difference was found with students at the VS using a higher number of medicines. Analgesics were the most frequently consumed medicine; however, reasons for using medicines appear to vary between the schools. Similarities between the schools were identified for perception of safety, sharing medicine and talking primarily with parents about medicine. Conclusion Fewer differences between students' medicine use at two educational settings than expected were identified, showing that aspects other than social background influence adolescents' use of medicine. A general tendency among young people believing that using medicines is a safe might explain these findings.
Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An
The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.
Lamba, Sangeeta; Pound, Amy; Rella, Joseph G; Compton, Scott
Hospice and Palliative Medicine is a newly designated subspecialty of Emergency Medicine (EM). As yet, no well defined palliative care (PC) models for education or training exist. A needs assessment is the first step towards developing a curriculum. To characterize emergency physicians' (EP) perceived educational and formal training needs for PC related skills. All EM residents and faculty of one academic facility were asked to complete an anonymous needs-assessment survey. Participants were asked to rank statements related to attitudes about PC and rate their formal training and knowledge in 10 aspects of PC using a 5-point Likert-scale. EPs also ranked 4 learning modalities in order of preference and 12 PC educational topics in order of perceived importance in an EM curriculum. Ninety-three percent (42/45) of eligible participants completed the survey (28 residents, 14 faculty). Respondents agreed/strongly agreed that PC skills are an important competence for EM (88%, 37/42) and that they would "like to have more training/education in PC" (79%, 33/42). Respondents also disagreed/strongly disagreed with the statement that "PC consult is called when no more can be done for the patient" (90%, 38/42). Important PC topics identified were pain management, discussing code status, and management of dyspnea and other symptoms in terminal illness. Bedside teaching was listed as the preferred learning modality. EM residents reported minimal training in pain management (46%, 13/28), managing hospice patients (54%, 15/28), withdrawal/withholding life support (54%, 15/28), and managing the imminently dying (43%, 12/28). There was no consistent, significant improvement reported in any domain as training and experience progressed from PGY (postgraduate year) 1 to PGY 4 to attending physician. EPs view PC skills as important for EM practice and report that they are not yet adequately educated and trained in providing PC. Domains of particular interest and targeted areas for PC
Wilson Mark C; Mustafa Reem; Gunukula Sameer; Akl Elie A; Symons Andrew; Moheet Amir; Schünemann Holger J
Abstract Background The evidence supporting the effectiveness of educational games in graduate medical education is limited. Anecdotal reports suggest their popularity in that setting. The objective of this study was to explore the support for and the different aspects of use of educational games in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs in the United States. Methods We conducted a survey of family medicine and internal medicine residency program directors in the United Stat...
Mercer Stewart W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in
Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…
Richards, Guy A.; Sprung, Charles L.; Christian, Michael D.; Camargo, Ruben; Ceraso, Daniel; Azoulay, Elie; Duguet, Alexandre; Guery, Benoit; Reinhart, Konrad; Adini, Bruria; Barlavie, Yaron; Benin-Goren, Odeda; Cohen, Robert; Klein, Motti; Leoniv, Yuval; Margalit, Gila; Rubinovitch, Bina; Sonnenblick, Moshe; Steinberg, Avraham; Weissman, Charles; Wolff, Donna; Kesecioglu, Jozef; de Jong, Menno; Moreno, Rui; An, Youzhong; Du, Bin; Joynt, Gavin M.; Colvin, John; Loo, Shi; Richards, Guy; Artigas, Antonio; Pugin, Jerome; Amundson, Dennis; Devereaux, Asha; Beigel, John; Danis, Marion; Farmer, Chris; Hick, John L.; Maki, Dennis; Masur, Henry; Rubinson, Lewis; Sandrock, Christian; Talmor, Daniel; Truog, Robert; Zimmerman, Janice; Brett, Steve; Montgomery, Hugh; Rhodes, Andrew; Sanderson, Frances; Taylor, Bruce
To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for an influenza pandemic or mass disaster with focus on education of all stakeholders, specifically the emergency executive control groups, ICU staff and staff co-opted to
Hsu, Mei-Chi; Moyle, Wendy; Creedy, Debra; Venturato, Lorraine; Ouyang, Wen-Chen; Sun, Gwo-Ching
To investigate patients' attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine, the education nurses provided about complementary and alternative medicine for treating depression and to test whether such education mediates the effect of complementary and alternative medicine use and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine. Although we know that attitudes influence behaviour, very few studies simultaneously explore the relationship between attitudes, education and complementary and alternative medicine use. Survey. This study was conducted as part of a larger survey, using face-to-face survey interviews with 206 adult patients aged 50 years or over and hospitalised in conventional hospitals in Taiwan for treatment of depression. The attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and patient education about complementary and alternative medicine instruments were specially developed for the study. Participants expressed slightly favourable attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine. Many participants (50%) expressed that they were willing to try any potential treatment for depression. They believed that complementary and alternative medicine helped them to feel better and to live a happier life. However, 66.5% of participants reported that they had inadequate knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine. Participants with a higher monthly income, longer depression duration and religious beliefs hold more positive attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine. Most participants were not satisfied with the education they received about complementary and alternative medicine. Patient education about complementary and alternative medicine was found to be a mediator for the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Patient education from nurses may predict patients' attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine. Continuing nursing education is needed to enable nurses to respond knowledgeably to
Kuhn, S; Jungmann, F
The increasing digitization of our lives and work has also reached medicine and is changing the profession of medical doctors. The modern forms of communication and cooperation in everyday medical practice demand new skills and qualifications. To enable future doctors to comply with this digitally competent profile, an innovative blended learning curriculum was developed and first implemented at the University Medical Center Mainz in summer semester 2017-Medicine in the Digital Age. The teaching concept encompasses five modules, each consisting of an e‑learning unit and a 3-hour classroom course. This publication presents the teaching concept, the initial implementation and evaluation of the module "Telemedicine". The competency development in the field of telemedicine showed a significant increase for the subcomponents "knowledge" and "skills". The neutral attitude towards telemedicine at the beginning of the module could be changed to a positive opinion after the session. The teaching of digital skills is a relevant component of future curriculum development in medical studies and also a challenge for continuing medical education.
The history of alternative medicine is perhaps as long as the history of human medicine. The development of evidence-based medicine has not annihilated alternative medicine. On the contrary, more people turn to alternative medicine because this approach to treatment serves as an effective remedial or supportive treatment when used in conjunction with evidence-based medicine. In contemporary healthcare, alternative medicine is now an essential part of integrated medicine. In Taiwan, most professional medical practitioners have not received proper education about alternative medicine and therefore generally lack comprehensive knowledge on this subject. While alternative medicine may be effective when used with some patients, it may also impart a placebo effect, which helps restore the body and soul of the patients. Medical staff with advanced knowledge of alternative medicine may not only help patients but also improve the doctor-patient relationship. There is great diversity in alternative medicine, with some alternative therapies supported by evidence and covered by insurance. However, there also remain fraudulent medical practices that may be harmful to health. Medical staff must be properly educated so that they can provide patients and their family a proper understanding and attitude toward alternative medicine. Therefore, alternative medicine should be included in the standard medical education curriculum. Offering classes on alternative medicine in university for more than 10 years, the author shares his experiences regarding potential content, lecture subjects, group experience exercises, and in-class activities. This article is intended to provide a reference to professors in university medical education and offer a possible model for alternative medicine education in Taiwan.
Cardinal, Lucien; Kaell, Alan
The authors describe the important role of medical schools and graduate medical education programs (residencies) in relationship to the advances in Medicine witnessed during the twentieth century; diagnosis, prognosis and treatment were revolutionized. This historical essay details the evolution of the education system and the successful struggle to introduce a uniform, science-based curriculum and bedside education. The result was successive generations of soundly educated physicians prepared with a broad knowledge in science, an understanding of laboratory methods and the ability to practice medicine at the bedside. These changes in medical education created a foundation for the advancement of medicine.
Fernandes, João Paulo S
Objective. To show why medicinal chemistry must be a key component of the education of pharmacy students, as well as in the pharmacist's practice. Findings. Five case reports were selected by their clinically relevant elements of medicinal chemistry and were explained using structure-activity relationship data of the drugs involved in the case easily obtained from primary literature and in medicinal chemistry textbooks. Summary. This paper demonstrates how critical clinical decisions can be addressed using medicinal chemistry knowledge. While such knowledge may not explain all clinical decisions, medicinal chemistry concepts are essential for the education of pharmacy students to explain drug action in general and clinical decisions.
Sricharoen, Pungkava; Yuksen, Chaiyaporn; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak
There are different teaching methods; such as traditional lectures, bedside teaching, and workshops for clinical medical clerkships. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Emergency Medicine (EM) focuses on emergency medical conditions and deals with several emergency procedures. This study aimed to compare traditional teaching methods with teaching methods involving workshops in the EM setting for medical students. Fifth year medical students (academic year of 2010) at Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand participated in the study. Half of students received traditional teaching, including lectures and bedside teaching, while the other half received traditional teaching plus three workshops, namely, airway workshop, trauma workshop, and emergency medical services workshop. Student evaluations at the end of the clerkship were recorded. The evaluation form included overall satisfaction, satisfaction in overall teaching methods, and satisfaction in each teaching method. During the academic year 2010, there were 189 students who attended the EM rotation. Of those, 77 students (40.74%) were in the traditional EM curriculum, while 112 students were in the new EM curriculum. The average satisfaction score in teaching method of the new EM curriculum group was higher than the traditional EM curriculum group (4.54 versus 4.07, P-value workshop, bedside teaching, and emergency medical services workshop. The mean (standard deviation) satisfaction scores of those three teaching methods were 4.70 (0.50), 4.63 (0.58), and 4.60 (0.55), respectively. Teaching EM with workshops improved student satisfaction in EM education for medical students.
Xiao, Ryan C; Sannidhi, Deepa; McBride, Yasamina; McCargo, Tracie; Stern, Theodore A
Background Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. Objective To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. Methods The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a “coach approach” to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. Results The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. Conclusions A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to
Luo, Yongjun; Luo, Rong; Li, Weiming; Huang, Jianjun; Zhou, Qiquan; Gao, Yuqi
China has the largest plateau in the world, which includes the whole of Tibet, part of Qinghai, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Sichuan. The plateau area is about 257.2×10(4) km(2), which accounts for about 26.8% of the total area of China. According to data collected in 2006, approximately twelve million people were living at high altitudes, between 2200 to 5200 m high, on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, there is a need for medical workers who are trained to treat individuals living at high altitudes. To train undergraduates in high altitude medicine, the College of High Altitude Military Medicine was set up at the Third Military Medical University (TMMU) in Chongqing in 1999. This is the only school to teach high altitude medicine in China. Students at TMMU study natural and social sciences, basic medical sciences, clinical medical sciences, and high altitude medicine. In their 5(th) year, students work as interns at the General Hospital of Tibet Military Command in Lhasa for 3 months, where they receive on-site teaching. The method of on-site teaching is an innovative approach for training in high altitude medicine for undergraduates. Three improvements were implemented during the on-site teaching component of the training program: (1) standardization of the learning progress; (2) integration of formal knowledge with clinical experience; and (3) coaching students to develop habits of inquiry and to engage in ongoing self-improvement to set the stage for lifelong learning. Since the establishment of the innovative training methods in 2001, six classes of high altitude medicine undergraduates, who received on-site teaching, have graduated and achieved encouraging results. This evidence shows that on-site teaching needs to be used more widely in high altitude medicine education.
Vorderstrasse, Allison; Katsanis, Sara Huston; Minear, Mollie A; Yang, Nancy; Rakhra-Burris, Tejinder; Reeves, Jason W; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Ann Simmons, Leigh
Prior reports demonstrate that personalized medicine implementation in clinical care is lacking. Given the program focus at Duke University on personalized medicine, we assessed health care providers' perspectives on their preparation and educational needs to effectively integrate personalized medicine tools and applications into their clinical practices. Data from 78 health care providers who participated in a larger study of personalized and precision medicine at Duke University were analyzed using Qualtrics (descriptive statistics). Individuals age 18 years and older were recruited for the larger study through broad email contacts across the university and health system. All participants completed an online 35-question survey that was developed, pilot-tested, and administered by a team of interdisciplinary researchers and clinicians at the Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine. Overall, providers reported being ill-equipped to implement personalized medicine in clinical practice. Many respondents identified educational resources as critical for strengthening personalized medicine implementation in both research and clinical practice. Responses did not differ significantly between specialists and primary providers or by years since completion of the medical degree. Survey findings support prior calls for provider and patient education in personalized medicine. Respondents identified focus areas in training, education, and research for improving personalized medicine uptake. Given respondents' emphasis on educational needs, now may be an ideal time to address these needs in clinical training and public education programs.
Anderson, Belinda J; Herron, Patrick D; Downie, Sherry A; Myers, Daniel C; Milan, Felise B; Olson, Todd R; Kligler, Ben E; Sierpina, Victor S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo
The growing popularity of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), of which estimated 38% of adults in the United States used in 2007, has engendered changes in medical school curricula to increase students' awareness of it. Exchange programs between conventional medical schools and CAM institutions are recognized as an effective method of interprofessional education. The exchange program between Albert Einstein College of Medicine (Einstein, Yeshiva University) and Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY) is in its fifth year and is part of a broader relationship between the schools encompassing research, clinical training, interinstitutional faculty and board appointments, and several educational activities. The Einstein/PCOM-NY student education exchange program is part of the Einstein Introduction to Clinical Medicine Program and involves students from Einstein learning about Chinese medicine through a lecture, the experience of having acupuncture, and a four-hour preceptorship at the PCOM outpatient clinic. The students from PCOM learn about allopathic medicine training through an orientation lecture, a two-and-a-half-hour dissection laboratory session along side Einstein student hosts, and a tour of the clinical skills center at the Einstein campus. In the 2011/2012 offering of the exchange program, the participating Einstein and PCOM students were surveyed to assess the educational outcomes. The data indicate that the exchange program was highly valued by all students and provided a unique learning experience. Survey responses from the Einstein students indicated the need for greater emphasis on referral information, which has been highlighted in the literature as an important medical curriculum integrative medicine competency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maquaire, O.; Castaldini, D.; Malet, J.-P.; von Elverfeldt, K.; Pla, F.; Soldati, M.; Greco, R.; Pasuto, A.
The website on Disaster Awareness with the use of the internet "BE-SAFE-NET" is developed within the framework of the FORM-OSE programme (European Training Programme for South, East and West) of the EUR-OPA Major Hazards Agreement, hosted by the European Centre for Disaster Awareness with the use of the internet (BE-SAFE-NET, Nicosia, Cyprus). The website is dedicated for school actors (school-level children, teachers, administrative and technical staff, families and local authorities) in order to: - Inform on regulations, on tools for raising awareness for natural and man-made risks and on preventative measures; - Train children, teachers, administrative and technical staff and local authorities; - Produce interactive figures, photographs, videos and games; - Interact with newsgroups and electronic conferences. Together with the EUR-OPA Centre of Nicosia, the project associates several centres of the Major Hazards Agreement network: the European University for the Cultural Heritage (CUEBC) of Ravello (Italy) the European Centre for Risk Prevention (ECRP) of Sofia (Bulgaria), and the European Centre on Geomorphological Hazards (CERG) of Strasbourg (France). "BE-SAFE-NET" is defined as a network among European countries in order to provide e-learning material on natural hazards and risks primarily for schools (secondary school teachers), but also for the public in general. On the webpage, teachers, pupils and the interested public should find information on disaster prevention, preparation, immediate reaction and rehabilitation. The aim of the paper is to present the structure and the organisation of the web-portal following the pilot project focused on landslides and managed by CERG. Some examples of landslides pedagogical material are also presented. The website is structured in five main sections: 1. About the initiative; 2. Definition of common concepts (e.g. hazard (natural and man made), vulnerability, risk, disaster); 3. Pedagogical material (e.g. case
Djalali, Ahmadreza; Della Corte, Francesco; Foletti, Marco; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Lupescu, Olivera; Arculeo, Chris; von Arnim, Götz; Friedl, Tom; Ashkenazi, Michael; Fischer, Philipp; Hreckovski, Boris; Khorram-Manesh, Amir; Komadina, Radko; Lechner, Konstanze; Patru, Cristina; Burkle, Frederick M; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi
Naturally occurring and man-made disasters have been increasing in the world, including Europe, over the past several decades. Health systems are a key part of any community disaster management system. The success of preparedness and prevention depends on the success of activities such as disaster planning, organization and training. The aim of this study is to evaluate health system preparedness for disasters in the 27 European Union member countries. A cross-sectional analysis study was completed between June-September 2012. The checklist used for this survey was a modified from the World Health Organization toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. Three specialists from each of the 27 European Union countries were included in the survey. Responses to each survey question were scored and the range of preparedness level was defined as 0-100%, categorized in three levels as follows: Acceptable; Transitional; or Insufficient. Response rate was 79.1%. The average level of disaster management preparedness in the health systems of 27 European Union member states was 68% (Acceptable). The highest level of preparedness was seen in the United Kingdom, Luxemburg, and Lithuania. Considering the elements of disaster management system, the highest level of preparedness score was at health information elements (86%), and the lowest level was for hospitals, and educational elements (54%). This survey study suggests that preparedness level of European Union countries in 2012 is at an acceptable level but could be improved. Elements such as hospitals and education and training suffer from insufficient levels of preparedness. The European Union health systems need a collective strategic plan, as well as enough resources, to establish a comprehensive and standardized disaster management strategy plan. A competency based training curriculum for managers and first responders is basic to accomplishing this goal. Disaster medicine; Disaster preparedness
Hall, Andrew K; Hagel, Carly; Chan, Teresa M; Thoma, Brent; Murnaghan, Aleisha; Bhanji, Farhan
The scholarly dissemination of innovative medical education practices helps broaden the reach of this type of work, allowing scholarship to have an impact beyond a single institution. There is little guidance in the literature for those seeking to publish program evaluation studies and innovation papers. This study aims to derive a set of evidence-based features of high-quality reports on innovations in emergency medicine (EM) education. We conducted a scoping review and thematic analysis to determine quality markers for medical education innovation reports, with a focus on EM. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, and Google Scholar was augmented by a hand search of relevant publication guidelines, guidelines for authors, and website submission portals from medical education and EM journals. Study investigators reviewed the selected articles, and a thematic analysis was conducted. Our search strategy identified 14 relevant articles from which 34 quality markers were extracted. These markers were grouped into seven important themes: goals and need for innovation, preparation, innovation development, innovation implementation, evaluation of innovation, evidence of reflective practice, and reporting and dissemination. In addition, multiple outlets for the publication of EM education innovations were identified and compiled. The publication and dissemination of innovations are critical for the EM education community and the training of health professionals. We anticipate that our list of innovation report quality markers will be used by EM education innovators to support the dissemination of novel educational practices.
Sherbino, Jonathan; Van Melle, Elaine; Bandiera, Glen; McEwen, Jill; Leblanc, Constance; Bhanji, Farhan; Frank, Jason R; Regehr, Glenn; Snell, Linda
As emergency medicine (EM) education evolves, a more advanced understanding of education scholarship is required. This article is the first in a series of three articles that reports the recommendations of the 2013 education scholarship consensus conference of the Academic Section of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Adopting the Canadian Association for Medical Education's definition, education scholarship (including both research and innovation) is defined. A rationale for why education scholarship should be a priority for EM is discussed.
Kunde, A; Harendza, S
Due to the ageing population, internal medicine has become increasingly important for dental education. Although several studies have reported dentists' dissatisfaction with their internal medicine training, no guidelines exist for internal medicine learning objectives in dental education. The aim of this study was to identify topics of internal medicine considered to be relevant for dental education by dentists and internists. Eight dentists from private dental practices in Hamburg and eight experienced internal medicine consultants from Hamburg University Hospital were recruited for semi-structured interviews about internal medicine topics relevant for dentists. Internal diseases were clustered into representative subspecialties. Dentists and internists were also asked to rate medical diseases or emergencies compiled from the literature by their relevance to dental education. Coagulopathy and endocarditis were rated highest by dentists, whilst anaphylaxis was rated highest by internists. Dentists rated hepatitis, HIV, organ transplantation and head/neck neoplasm significantly higher than internists. The largest number of different internal diseases mentioned by dentists or internists could be clustered under cardiovascular diseases. The number of specific diseases dentists considered to be relevant for dental education was higher in the subspecialties cardiovascular diseases, haematology/oncology and infectiology. We identified the internal medicine topics most relevant for dental education by surveying practising dentists and internists. The relevance of these topics should be confirmed by larger quantitative studies to develop guidelines how to design specific learning objectives for internal medicine in the dental curriculum. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hill, Austin D
Business intelligence in the field of medicine, particularly with physicians, has been an abstract concept at best with no objective metric. Furthermore, in many arenas, it was taboo for medical students, residents, and physicians to discuss the business and finances of their work for fear that it would interfere with their sacred duties as health care providers. There has been a substantial shift in this philosophy over the last few decades with the growth and evolution of the health care industry in the United States. In 2012, health care expenditures accounted for 17.2% of the United States Gross Domestic Product, averaging $8915 per person. The passage of the Affordable Care Act in March of 2010 sent a clear message to all that change is coming, and it is more important now than ever to have physician leaders whose skills and knowledge in business, management, and health care law rival their acumen within their medical practice. Students, residents, and fellows all express a desire to gain more business knowledge throughout their education and training, but many do not know where to begin or have access to programs that can further their knowledge. Whether you are an employed or private practice physician, academic or community based, improving your business intelligence will help you get a seat at the table where decisions are made and give you the skills to influence those decisions.
Smith, C Christopher; McCormick, Ian; Huang, Grace C
Although resident-as-teacher programs bring postgraduate trainees' teaching skills to a minimum threshold, intensive, longitudinal training is lacking for residents who wish to pursue careers in medical education. The authors describe the development, implementation, and preliminary assessment of the novel track for future clinician-educators that they introduced in the internal medicine residency program at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in 2010. Categorical medical interns with a career interest in medical education apply to participate in the clinician-educator track (CET) at the midpoint of their first postgraduate year. CET residents complete a 2.5-year curriculum in which they review foundations of medical education, design and assess new curricula, and evaluate learners and programs. They apply these skills in a variety of clinical settings and receive frequent feedback from faculty and peers. All CET residents design and implement at least one medical education research project. A comprehensive evaluation plan to assess the impact of the CET on resident teaching skills, scholarly productivity, career selection, and advancement is under way. A preliminary evaluation demonstrates high satisfaction with the track among the first cohort of CET residents, who graduated in 2012. Compared with residents in the traditional resident-as-teacher program, CET residents reported higher gains in their confidence in core medical education skills. Although these preliminary data are promising, data will be collected over the next several years to explore whether the additional curricular time, faculty time, and costs and potential expansion to other institutions are justified.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of 'preventive medicine' This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six 'R's such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health.
Przkora, Rene; Antony, Ajay; McNeil, Andrew; Brenner, Gary J; Mesrobian, James; Rosenquist, Richard; Abouleish, Amr E
We hypothesized that there is a gap between expectations and actual training in practice management for pain medicine fellows. Our impression is that many fellowships rely on residency training to provide exposure to business education. Unfortunately, pain management and anesthesiology business education are very different, as the practice settings are largely office- versus hospital-based, respectively. Because it is unclear whether pain management fellowships are providing practice management education and, if they do, whether the topics covered match the expectations of their fellows, we surveyed pain medicine program directors and fellows regarding their expectations and training in business management. A survey. Academic pain medicine fellowship programs. After an exemption was obtained from the University of Texas Medical Branch Institutional Review Board (#13-030), an email survey was sent to members of the Association of Pain Program Directors to be forwarded to their fellows. Directors were contacted 3 times to maximize the response rate. The anonymous survey for fellows contained 21 questions (questions are shown in the results). Fifty-nine of 84 program directors responded and forwarded the survey to their fellows. Sixty fellows responded, with 56 answering the survey questions. The responder rate is a limitation, although similar rates have been reported in similar studies. The majority of pain medicine fellows receive some practice management training, mainly on billing documentation and preauthorization processes, while most do not receive business education (e.g., human resources, contracts, accounting/financial reports). More than 70% of fellows reported that they receive more business education from industry than from their fellowships, a result that may raise concerns about the independence of our future physicians from the industry. Our findings support the need for enhanced and structured business education during pain fellowship. Business
Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Xiao, Ryan C; Sannidhi, Deepa; McBride, Yasamina; McCargo, Tracie; Stern, Theodore A
Lifestyle medicine is the science and application of healthy lifestyles as interventions for the prevention and treatment of disease, and has gained significant momentum as a specialty in recent years. College is a critical time for maintenance and acquisition of healthy habits. Longer-term, more intensive web-based and in-person lifestyle medicine interventions can have a positive effect. Students who are exposed to components of lifestyle medicine in their education have improvements in their health behaviors. A semester-long undergraduate course focused on lifestyle medicine can be a useful intervention to help adopt and sustain healthy habits. To describe a novel, evidence based curriculum for a course teaching the concepts of Lifestyle Medicine based on a web-based course offered at the Harvard Extension School. The course was delivered in a web-based format. The Lifestyle Medicine course used evidence based principles to guide students toward a "coach approach" to behavior change, increasing their self-efficacy regarding various lifestyle-related preventive behaviors. Students are made to understand the cultural trends and national guidelines that have shaped lifestyle medicine recommendations relating to behaviors. They are encouraged to engage in behavior change. Course topics include physical activity, nutrition, addiction, sleep, stress, and lifestyle coaching and counseling. The course addressed all of the American College of Preventive Medicine/American College of Lifestyle Medicine competencies save for the competency of office systems and technologies to support lifestyle medicine counseling. The course was well-received, earning a ranking of 4.9/5 at the school. A novel, semester-long course on Lifestyle Medicine at the Harvard Extension School is described. Student evaluations suggest the course was well-received. Further research is needed to evaluate whether such a course empowers students to adopt behavior changes. ©Elizabeth Pegg Frates, Ryan C
For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)
Biringer, Anne; Forte, Milena; Tobin, Anastasia; Shaw, Elizabeth; Tannenbaum, David
To ascertain how program leaders in family medicine characterize success in family medicine maternity care education and determine which factors influence the success of training programs. Qualitative research using semistructured telephone interviews. Purposive sample of 6 family medicine programs from 5 Canadian provinces. Eighteen departmental leaders and program directors. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with program leaders in family medicine maternity care. Departmental leaders identified maternity care programs deemed to be "successful." Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Team members conducted thematic analysis. Participants considered their education programs to be successful in family medicine maternity care if residents achieved competency in intrapartum care, if graduates planned to include intrapartum care in their practices, and if their education programs were able to recruit and retain family medicine maternity care faculty. Five key factors were deemed to be critical to a program's success in family medicine maternity care: adequate clinical exposure, the presence of strong family medicine role models, a family medicine-friendly hospital environment, support for the education program from multiple sources, and a dedicated and supportive community of family medicine maternity care providers. Training programs wishing to achieve greater success in family medicine maternity care education should employ a multifaceted strategy that considers all 5 of the interdependent factors uncovered in our research. By paying particular attention to the informal processes that connect these factors, program leaders can preserve the possibility that family medicine residents will graduate with the competence and confidence to practise full-scope maternity care. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Wardrop, Richard M; Berkowitz, Lee R
The promotion of change and growth within medical education is oftentimes the result of a complex mix of societal, cultural and economic forces. Graduate medical education in internal medicine is not immune to these forces. Several entities and organizations can be identified as having a major influence on internal medicine training and graduate medical education as a whole. We have reviewed how this is effectively accomplished through these entities and organizations. The result is a constantly changing and dynamic landscape for internal medicine training. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saswati Mahapatra; Anjali Bhagra; Bisrat Fekadu; Zhuo Li; Brent A.Bauer; Dietlind L.Wahner-Roedler
OBJECTIVE:Integrative medicine (IM) combines complementary medical approaches into conventional medicine and considers the whole person.We implemented a longitudinal IM short-course curriculum into our medical school education.This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the curriculum via knowledge and attitude surveys regarding IM among students.METHODS:A mandatory short IM curriculum across all years of medical school was created and taught by IM professionals and physician faculty members with expertise in integrative therapies.Graduating classes of 2015 and 2016 completed the same survey in their first and third years of medical school.Paired data analysis was done,and only students who completed surveys at both time points were included in final analyses.RESULTS:Of 52 students in each class,17 (33％) in the class of 2015 and 22 (42％) in the class of 2016 completed both surveys.After the IM curriculum,students' knowledge of and comfort with several IM therapies—biofeedback,mindfulness,and the use of St.John's wort—improved significantly.Students' personal health practices also improved,including better sleep,exercise,and stress management for the class of 2015.Students graduating in 2016 reported decreased alcohol use in their third year compared with their first year.CONCLUSION:It is feasible to incorporate IM education into undergraduate medical education,and this is associated with improvement in students' knowledge of IM and personal health practices.
Sorokina, T S
The article considers actual issues of teaching of history of medicine in Russia in connection with transition of higher medical school of Russia to the new Federal state educational standard of high education if the third generation meaning placement of discipline in education process, programs of training, personnel support.
Department of Homeland Security — The FEMA Disaster Declarations Summary is a summarized dataset describing all federally declared disasters, starting with the first disaster declaration in 1953,...
Khan, Fary; Amatya, Bhasker; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A; Burkle, Frederick M
To present an evidence-based overview of the effectiveness of medical rehabilitation intervention in natural disaster survivors and outcomes that are affected. A literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO) up to September 2014. Two independent reviewers selected studies reporting outcomes for natural disaster survivors after medical rehabilitation that addressed functional restoration and participation. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality of the studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program's appraisal tools. A meta-analysis was not possible because of heterogeneity among included trials; therefore, a narrative analysis was performed for best evidence synthesis. Ten studies (2 randomized controlled trials, 8 observational studies) investigated a variety of medical rehabilitation interventions for natural disaster survivors to evaluate best evidence to date. The interventions ranged from comprehensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation to community educational programs. Studies scored low on quality assessment because of methodologic limitations. The findings suggest some evidence for the effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation in reducing disability and improving participation and quality of life and for community-based rehabilitation for participation. There were no data available for associated costs. The findings highlight the need to incorporate medical rehabilitation into response planning and disaster management for future natural catastrophes. Access to rehabilitation and investment in sustainable infrastructure and education are crucial. More methodologically robust studies are needed to build evidence for rehabilitation programs, cost-effectiveness, and outcome measurement in such settings. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine
Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Karamouzis, Michalis V; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G
Molecular medicine is transforming everyday clinical practice from an empirical art to a rational ortho-molecular science. The prevailing concept in this emerging framework of molecular medicine is a personalized approach to disease prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. In this mini-review, we discuss the educational and social-ethical issues raised by the advances of biomedical research as related to medical practice; outline the implications of molecular medicine for patients, ph...
Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Diez de los Rios, A.; Martinez Morillo, M.; Delgado Macias, M.T.; Armas, J.H.; Vano Carruana, E.
Education in Radiation Protection (RP) should be part of the medicine curriculum, in accordance with the recommendations of the Directive 97/43/EURATOM and Report 116 of the European Commission. The propose of this paper is to show the current situation of the Radiation Protection teaching at the Schools of Medicine in Spain. 27 Spanish Schools of Medicine have been revised. Only in the Cantabria University, the PR constitutes an obligatory subject. In the other Universities, the PR subject appears as an optional matter with 3 to 5 credits. There is disparity among the educational contents on PR that are imparted in the Medicine Degree of the Spanish Schools. We propose the following recommendations: To define the educational objectives accurately, looking for a real interest for any medical student; to unify the contents and programs in the different study plans, and to elaborate an appropriate educational material, including practical cases that facilitate learning. (author)
Kieffer, Susan W.
for their own lives (autonomy), they have relevant information in useable form. To minimize harm to others and the environment (non-maleficence), we can design and implement sustainable ways to extract resources and dispose of waste. To advance the welfare of humankind (beneficence), we can work with engineers on innovative uses for commodities that are easily-obtained, and on replacements for rare ones. And, we can strive toward social justice by recognizing that social, ethical, legal and political issues regarding resource use may be far more difficult than the geotechnical ones, and work within the (sometimes frustrating) framework for resolution of those issues. Referring back to the four stages of co-existence with natural disasters (preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation), the global scope of stealth disasters raises far more geoethical issues than we have encountered with natural disasters. Just as we have learned (e.g., Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in the U.S.) that inter-agency response is crucial to successful management of natural disasters, we can expect that global cooperation in management and governance will be essential to the management of stealth disasters. It is imperative that research and education of current and future geoscientists in universities recognize the newly developing role of the geosciences in stealth disasters and that we train our students for a future within this context.
After the great earthquake of March 11, 2011, at least seven hospitals with 723 beds along the Miyagi Prefecture northern coastline were so devastated they could no longer function, leaving only several available hospitals. The two crucial issues thus became maintaining communications and regional transport. Phones and wireless were knocked out in most hospitals and areas. Many of the severe cases had to be brought to the Tohoku University Hospital at Sendai from the above the hospitals. Tohoku University Hospital and other medical facilities in the Tohoku district were in a terrible crisis of electricity shortage. It was a critical situation, particularly for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis requiring artificial ventilation. We should hurry to submit a guideline for medical transportation for patients with neuromuscular diseases requiring artificial ventilation. We also should research the disaster medicine in the field of neurology, and prevent the neurological disease progressing after the earthquake. A large number of hospitals in coastal areas suffered devastating damage. We do not think it is feasible or even reasonable to restore such hospitals to what they were before the disaster. We started Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization as a disaster recovery model for revitalizing the areas reported to have scarce medical services. The project provides supports to local medical services, constructs a community coalition for medical information, sets up a biobank based on large-scale cohort studies, and provides educational training to produce highly specialized medical practitioners.
Ivancevic, D.; Popovic, S.; Simonovic, I.; Vlatkovic, M.
Training for specialization in nuclear medicine in Yugoslavia includes 12 months of training in departments of clinical medicine and 24 months of training in departments of nuclear medicine. Since 1974 many physicians have passed the specialist examination in Zagreb. A postgraduate study in nuclear medicine began at the Medical Faculty of the University of Zagreb in 1979. It includes four semesters of courses and research on a selected subject leading to the degree of Magister (Master of Science). Most of the training is conducted by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital, Rebro, in Zagreb, which has the necessary teaching staff, equipment and space. Forty-four students have completed this postgraduate study. Nuclear medicine in a developing country faces several problems. Scarcity of expensive equipment and radiopharmaceuticals calls for modifications of methods, home made products and instrument maintenance. These, mostly economic, factors are given special emphasis during training. Nuclear power generation may solve some of the country's energy problems; therefore, specialists in nuclear medicine must obtain additional knowledge about the medical care and treatment of persons who might be subject to irradiation and contamination in nuclear power plants. Lower economic resources in developing countries require better trained personnel, stressing the need for organized training and education in nuclear medicine. With some support the Institute of Nuclear Medicine will be able to offer various forms of training and education in nuclear medicine for physicians, chemists, physicists, technologists and other personnel from developing countries. (author)
Brett, Jennifer; Brimhall, Joseph; Healey, Dale; Pfeifer, Joseph; Prenguber, Marcia
This review examines the educational accreditation standards of four licensed complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) disciplines (naturopathic medicine, chiropractic health care, acupuncture and oriental medicine, and massage therapy), and identifies public health and other competencies found in those standards that contribute to cooperation and collaboration among the health care professions. These competencies may form a foundation for interprofessional education. The agencies that accredit the educational programs for each of these disciplines are individually recognized by the United States Department (Secretary) of Education. Patients and the public are served when healthcare practitioners collaborate and cooperate. This is facilitated when those practitioners possess competencies that provide them the knowledge and skills to work with practitioners from other fields and disciplines. Educational accreditation standards provide a framework for the delivery of these competencies. Requiring these competencies through accreditation standards ensures that practitioners are trained to optimally function in integrative clinical care settings. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Talaat, Wael; AlRozzi, Balsam; Kawas, Sausan Al
The aim of this study was to assess the undergraduate dental education in sleep medicine in Middle East universities as well as the students' knowledge in this field. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out during the period from September 2013 to April 2014.Two different questionnaires were used. A self-administered questionnaire and a cover letter were emailed and distributed to 51 randomly selected Middle East dental schools to gather information about their undergraduate sleep medicine education offered in the academic year 2012-2013.The second questionnaire was distributed to the fifth-year dental students in the 2nd Sharjah International Dental Student Conference in April 2014, to assess their knowledge on sleep medicine. A survey to assess knowledge of sleep medicine in medical education (Modified ASKME Survey) was used. Thirty-nine out of 51 (76%) responded to the first questionnaire. Out of the responding schools, only nine schools (23%) reported the inclusion of sleep medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. The total average hours dedicated to teaching sleep medicine in the responding dental schools was 1.2 hours. In the second questionnaire, 29.2% of the respondents were in the high score group, whereas 70.8% scored low in knowledge of sleep-related breathing disorders. Dental students in Middle East universities receive a weak level of sleep medicine education resulting in poor knowledge in this field.
Whitlock, J. S.; Furlong, K.
In cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) in Golden, Colorado, we have implemented an autonomous version of the NEIC's real-time earthquake database management and earthquake alert system (Earthworm). This is the same system used professionally by the USGS in its earthquake response operations. Utilizing this system, Penn State University students participating in natural hazard classes receive real-time alerts of worldwide earthquake events on cell phones distributed to the class. The students are then responsible for reacting to actual earthquake events, in real-time, with the same data (or lack thereof) as earthquake professionals. The project was first implemented in Spring 2002, and although it had an initial high intrigue and "coolness" factor, the interest of the students waned with time. Through student feedback, we observed that scientific data presented on its own without an educational context does not foster student learning. In order to maximize the impact of real-time data and the accompanying e-media, the students need to become personally involved. Therefore, in collaboration with the Incorporated Research Institutes of Seismology (IRIS), we have begun to develop an online infrastructure that will help teachers and faculty effectively use real-time earthquake information. The Real-Time Earthquake Education (RTEE) website promotes student learning by integrating inquiry-based education modules with real-time earthquake data. The first module guides the students through an exploration of real-time and historic earthquake datasets to model the most important criteria for determining the potential impact of an earthquake. Having provided the students with content knowledge in the first module, the second module presents a more authentic, open-ended educational experience by setting up an earthquake role-play situation. Through the Earthworm system, we have the ability to "set off
Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Kassem, Dumoue; Traulsen, Janine Marie
specific ethnic minority groups compared to the majority population. OBJECTIVE: The focus of this study was on reducing medicine-related problems among Arabic-speaking ethnic minorities living in Denmark. The aim was twofold: (1) to explore the perceptions, barriers and needs of Arabic-speaking ethnic...... minorities regarding medicine use, and (2) to use an education program to enhance the knowledge and competencies of the ethnic minorities about the appropriate use of medicines. SETTINGS: Healthcare in Denmark is a tax-financed public service that provides free access to hospitals and general practitioners...... focus group interviews were conducted before and four after the education program. Thirty Arabic-speaking participants were recruited from language and job centers in Copenhagen. Participants received teaching sessions in Arabic on appropriate medicine use. The education program was evaluated by two...
Although insufficiently studied, schools of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) provide substantial insight into the transformation of medicine in the United States. Scholars have suggested that the increasing acceptance of CAM is due to its alignment with biomedical models of professionalization, education, research, and practice. At West Coast University, students of acupuncture and Oriental medicine learn to straddle both Western and Eastern medical worlds through an increasingly science-oriented curriculum and the inculcation of professional values associated with West Coast University's emphasis upon integration with Western medicine as a means of achieving professional status and legitimacy vis-à-vis the dominant biomedical paradigm. The implications of integration with biomedicine for the identity of Chinese medicine are discussed: from the perspective of critical medical anthropology, integration reproduces biomedical hegemony; paving the way toward co-optation of Chinese medicine, the subordination of its practitioners, and, ultimately, the constraint of medical pluralism in the United States.
Kaneda, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Hori, T.; Kawaguchi, K.; Isouchi, C.; Fujisawa, K.
thrust earthquakes around Nankai/Ryukyu subduction zone', and `SATREPS project of earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation in the Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey'. Furthermore, we have to progress the natural disaster mitigation science against destructive natural disaster in the near future.
The No Child Left Behind Act is comprised of four pillars, one of which is "proven education methods." This paper attempts to provide a historical context for the development of evidence-based education by examining its foundation in medical practice. Next, the rationale for evidence of educational effectiveness based on a scientific…
... of disaster responders. Preventive Medicine, 75, 70-74. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.03.017 Pietrzak, R. H., ... effort.. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46, 835-842. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.03.011 Pietrzak, R. H., ...
Evans, Steven Owens
Patient centered medicine is a paradigm of health care that seeks to treat the whole person, rather than only the illness. The physician must understand the patient as a whole by considering the patient's individual needs, social structure, socioeconomic status, and educational background. Medical education includes ways to train students in this…
In the late Qing Dynasty, following the appearance of the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming, the "master agreement" as a professional regulation, also implemented, marking the beginning of the contractualization and institutionalization of apprentice education in Yunnan. The contents and implementation of the "master agreement" was organized by the Chinese medicinal materials industry trade association of Kunming and its craft union. The apprentice education in Kunming traditional Chinese medicinal industry has the following characteristics: expanding the source of talent; adepting at agricultural production of the accorded apprentice; conforming to the conditions of human manipulation of Chinese traditional medicine; being in line with the characteristics and rules of Chinese medicine skills taught by oral narration and tacit understanding; unity of the medical and pharmaceutical professionals; and non-governmental organization. Apprentice training had trained a number of medical talents, and promoted the transformation of manual workshop to industrialization in Kunming. Apprentice education had catalyzed the establishment of specialized shops selling patent medicines exclusively to separated from those running both crude drugs and patent medicines, to form a set of effective teaching system, thus exerting profound influence on later generations.
Helder, Hans; And Others
A basic course in pathology at Rotterdam's Erasmus University includes the study of psychological, sociological, economic, and political factors related to the etiology of somatic disorders. The principles of this approach to humanistic medicine are summarized and a description of the course is given. (Editor/LBH)
Kujawski, Jacek; Bernard, Marek K.; Janusz, Anna; Kuzma, Weronika
Molecular hydrophobicity (lipophilicity), usually quantified as log "P" where "P" is the partition coefficient, is an important molecular characteristic in medicinal chemistry and drug design. The log "P" coefficient is one of the principal parameters for the estimation of lipophilicity of chemical compounds and pharmacokinetic properties. The…
Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. Aim: The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Methods Design: Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD programme for primary healthcare professionals. Location: Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. Method: The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. Participants: 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Main measurements: Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Results Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9. Image problems: 0% (0/9. Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9; 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76. Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76 considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76 believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76 considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76 experienced technical problems, while; 9
Melús-Palazón, Elena; Bartolomé-Moreno, Cruz; Palacín-Arbués, Juan Carlos; Lafuente-Lafuente, Antonio; García, Inmaculada García; Guillen, Sara; Esteban, Ana B; Clemente, Silvia; Marco, Angeles M; Gargallo, Pilar M; López, Carlos; Magallón-Botaya, Rosa
The application of new technologies to the education of health professionals is both a challenge and a necessity. Virtual worlds are increasingly being explored as a support for education. The aim of this work is to study the suitability of Second Life (SL) as an educational tool for primary healthcare professionals. Qualitative study of accredited clinical sessions in SL included in a continuing professional development (CPD) programme for primary healthcare professionals. Zaragoza I Zone Family and Community Medicine Education Unit (EU) and 9 health centres operated by the Aragonese Health Service, Aragon, Spain. The EU held two training workshops in SL for 16 healthcare professionals from 9 health centres by means of two workshops, and requested them to facilitate clinical sessions in SL. Attendance was open to all personnel from the EU and the 9 health centres. After a trail period of clinical sessions held at 5 health centres between May and November 2010, the CPD-accredited clinical sessions were held at 9 health centres between February and April 2011. 76 healthcare professionals attended the CPD-accredited clinical sessions in SL. Questionnaire on completion of the clinical sessions. Response rate: 42-100%. Questionnaire completed by each health centre on completion of the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Access to SL: 2 centres were unable to gain access. Sound problems: 0% (0/9). Image problems: 0% (0/9). Voice/text chat: used in 100% (10/9); 0 incidents. Questionnaire completed by participants in the CPD-accredited clinical sessions: Preference for SL as a tool: 100% (76/76). Strengths of this method: 74% (56/76) considered it eliminated the need to travel; 68% (52/76) believed it made more effective use of educational resources; and 47% (36/76) considered it improved accessibility. Weaknesses: 91% (69/76) experienced technical problems, while; 9% (7/76) thought it was impersonal and with little interaction. 65.79% (50/76) believed it was better than
Akl, Elie A; Gunukula, Sameer; Mustafa, Reem; Wilson, Mark C; Symons, Andrew; Moheet, Amir; Schünemann, Holger J
The evidence supporting the effectiveness of educational games in graduate medical education is limited. Anecdotal reports suggest their popularity in that setting. The objective of this study was to explore the support for and the different aspects of use of educational games in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs in the United States. We conducted a survey of family medicine and internal medicine residency program directors in the United States. The questionnaire asked the program directors whether they supported the use of educational games, their actual use of games, and the type of games being used and the purpose of that use. Of 434 responding program directors (52% response rate), 92% were in support of the use of games as an educational strategy, and 80% reported already using them in their programs. Jeopardy like games were the most frequently used games (78%). The use of games was equally popular in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs and popularity was inversely associated with more than 75% of residents in the program being International Medical Graduates. The percentage of program directors who reported using educational games as teaching tools, review tools, and evaluation tools were 62%, 47%, and 4% respectively. Given a widespread use of educational games in the training of medical residents, in spite of limited evidence for efficacy, further evaluation of the best approaches to education games should be explored.
Wilson Mark C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence supporting the effectiveness of educational games in graduate medical education is limited. Anecdotal reports suggest their popularity in that setting. The objective of this study was to explore the support for and the different aspects of use of educational games in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs in the United States. Methods We conducted a survey of family medicine and internal medicine residency program directors in the United States. The questionnaire asked the program directors whether they supported the use of educational games, their actual use of games, and the type of games being used and the purpose of that use. Results Of 434 responding program directors (52% response rate, 92% were in support of the use of games as an educational strategy, and 80% reported already using them in their programs. Jeopardy like games were the most frequently used games (78%. The use of games was equally popular in family medicine and internal medicine residency programs and popularity was inversely associated with more than 75% of residents in the program being International Medical Graduates. The percentage of program directors who reported using educational games as teaching tools, review tools, and evaluation tools were 62%, 47%, and 4% respectively. Conclusions Given a widespread use of educational games in the training of medical residents, in spite of limited evidence for efficacy, further evaluation of the best approaches to education games should be explored.
Formea, Christine M; Nicholson, Wayne T; Vitek, Carolyn Rohrer
Personalized medicine offers the promise of better diagnoses, targeted therapies and individualized treatment plans. Pharmacogenomics is an integral component of personalized medicine; it aids in the prediction of an individual's response to medications. Despite growing public acceptance and emerging clinical evidence, this rapidly expanding field of medicine is slow to be adopted and utilized by healthcare providers, although many believe that they should be knowledgeable and able to apply pharmacogenomics in clinical practice. Institutional infrastructure must be built to support pharmacogenomic implementation. Multidisciplinary education for healthcare providers is a critical component for pharmacogenomics to achieve its full potential to optimize patient care. We describe our recent experience at the Mayo Clinic implementing pharmacogenomics education in a large, academic healthcare system facilitated by the Mayo Clinic Center for Individualized Medicine.
Cruess, Richard L; Cruess, Sylvia R; Steinert, Yvonne
The presence of a variety of independent learning theories makes it difficult for medical educators to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework for medical education, resulting in numerous and often unrelated curricular, instructional, and assessment practices. Linked with an understanding of identity formation, the concept of communities of practice could provide such a framework, emphasizing the social nature of learning. Individuals wish to join the community, moving from legitimate peripheral to full participation, acquiring the identity of community members and accepting the community's norms.Having communities of practice as the theoretical basis of medical education does not diminish the value of other learning theories. Communities of practice can serve as the foundational theory, and other theories can provide a theoretical basis for the multiple educational activities that take place within the community, thus helping create an integrated theoretical approach.Communities of practice can guide the development of interventions to make medical education more effective and can help both learners and educators better cope with medical education's complexity. An initial step is to acknowledge the potential of communities of practice as the foundational theory. Educational initiatives that could result from this approach include adding communities of practice to the cognitive base; actively engaging students in joining the community; creating a welcoming community; expanding the emphasis on explicitly addressing role modeling, mentoring, experiential learning, and reflection; providing faculty development to support the program; and recognizing the necessity to chart progress toward membership in the community.
Park, Yu Lee; Huang, Ching Wen; Sasaki, Yui; Ko, Youme; Park, Sunju; Ko, Seong-Gyu
China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan have developed modernized education systems in traditional medicine. This study aims to provide an overview of the education systems in these countries and compare them. Data were collected through the websites of government agencies, universities, and relevant organizations. These countries have systemically developed basic medical education (BME), postgraduate medical education (PGME), and continuing medical education (CME) in traditional medicine. BME is provided at colleges of traditional medicine at the undergraduate level and graduate levels. The length of education at the undergraduate level is five, six, and seven years in China, Korea, and Taiwan, respectively; the length at the graduate level is four years in Korea and five years in Taiwan. A seven- or eight-year program combining undergraduate and graduate courses is unique to China. In Japan, unlike in other countries, there are two distinct education systems-one is comprised of courses on traditional medicine included in the curriculum for Western medical doctors, and the other is a three- or four-year undergraduate program for practitioners including acupuncturists and moxibustionists. PGME in Korea consists of one-year internship and three-year residency programs which are optional; however, in China and Taiwan, internship is required for the national licensing examination and further training is in the process of standardization. The required credits for maintenance of CME are eight per year in Korea, 25 per year in China, and 180 over six years in Taiwan. The design of the educational systems in these countries can provide useful information for the development of education in traditional medicine around the world. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Brinck, U; Cederblad, M; Gyllensköld, K; Jersild, P C
In connection with experiments for the first three years of study the instruction in medical psychology and community medicine has been widened to comprise a total of seven weeks, three during the first term (lectures on basic principles, days devoted to field work, group work), three at the end of the fifth term, and a total of one week's instruction at various times during the sixth term, when the students are given more direct preparation for contacts with patients.
Day, Charles S; Yeh, Albert C
Recent studies suggest US medical schools are not effectively addressing musculoskeletal medicine in their curricula. We examined if there were specific areas of weakness by analyzing students' knowledge of and confidence in examining specific anatomic regions. A cross-sectional survey study of third- and fourth-year students at Harvard Medical School was conducted during the 2005 to 2006 academic year. One hundred sixty-two third-year students (88% response) and 87 fourth-year students (57% response) completed the Freedman and Bernstein cognitive mastery examination in musculoskeletal medicine and a survey eliciting their clinical confidence in examining the shoulder, elbow, hand, back, hip, knee, and foot on a one to five Likert scale. We specifically analyzed examination questions dealing with the upper extremity, lower extremity, back, and others, which included more systemic conditions such as arthritis, metabolic bone diseases, and cancer. Students failed to meet the established passing benchmark of 70% in all subgroups except for the others category. Confidence scores in performing a physical examination and in generating a differential diagnosis indicated students felt below adequate confidence (3.0 of 5) in five of the seven anatomic regions. Our study provides evidence that region-specific musculoskeletal medicine is a potential learning gap that may need to be addressed in the undergraduate musculoskeletal curriculum.
Gordon, James A
In just a few decades, emergency medicine (EM) has assumed a leadership role in medical education across many academic medical centers. This rapid evolution suggests medical education as a natural priority area for EM scholarship. This year's Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference provides an ideal forum to focus on educational research as a core element of the specialty's academic portfolio. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji
Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.
Lepiller, Quentin; Solis, Morgane; Velay, Aurélie; Gantner, Pierre; Sueur, Charlotte; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Barth, Heidi; Fafi-Kremer, Samira
Theoretical knowledge in biology and medicine plays a substantial role in laboratory medicine resident education. In this study, we assessed the contribution of problem-based learning (PBL) to improve the training of laboratory medicine residents during their internship in the department of virology, Strasbourg University Hospital, France. We compared the residents' satisfaction regarding an educational program based on PBL and a program based on lectures and presentations. PBL induced a high level of satisfaction (100%) among residents compared to lectures and presentations (53%). The main advantages of this technique were to create a situational interest regarding virological problems, to boost the residents' motivation and to help them identify the most relevant learning objectives in virology. However, it appears pertinent to educate the residents in appropriate bibliographic research techniques prior to PBL use and to monitor their learning by regular formative assessment sessions.
Perret, Danielle; Knowlton, Tiffany; Worsowicz, Gregory
This national survey highlights graduate medical education funding sources for physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residency programs as well as perceived funding stability, alignment of the current funding and educational model, the need of further education in postacute care settings, and the practice of contemporary PM&R graduates as perceived by PM&R department/division chairs. Approximately half of the reported PM&R residency positions seem to be funded by Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services; more than 40% of PM&R chairs believe that their residency program is undersized and nearly a quarter feel at risk for losing positions. A total of 30% of respondents report PM&R resident experiences in home health, 15% in long-term acute care, and 52.5% in a skilled nursing facility/subacute rehabilitation facility. In programs that do not offer these experiences, most chairs feel that this training should be included. In addition, study results suggest that most PM&R graduates work in an outpatient setting. Based on the results that chairs strongly feel the need for resident education in postacute care settings and that most graduates go on to practice in outpatient settings, there is a potential discordance for our current Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services graduate medical education funding model being linked to the acute care setting.
Wilson, Frank R.
Explores how the body's biological clock affects the way musicians practice and perform. Delineates questions concerning this phenomenon. Discusses the implications for music teaching and focuses on areas for collaborative research between neurology researchers and music educators. (NL)
Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).
Leathard, Helen L.
Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)
Cela Hamm, Toni
In post-disaster and post-conflict societies, critical threshold events trigger or intensify diaspora mobilization and engagement in their homelands. Taking the 2010 earthquake as a "critical event" that has transformed the course of Haitian society, this study builds on existing research on diaspora influence on homeland development by…
Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka
To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.
Munzer, Brendan W; Love, Jeffery; Shipman, Barbara L; Byrne, Brendan; Cico, Stephen J; Furlong, Robert; Khandelwal, Sorabh; Santen, Sally A
Dissemination of educational research is critical to improving medical education, promotion of faculty and ultimately patient care. The objective of this study was to identify the top 25 cited education articles in the emergency medicine (EM) literature and the top 25 cited EM education articles in all journals, as well as report on the characteristics of the articles. Two searches were conducted in the Web of Science in June 2016 using a list of education-related search terms. We searched 19 EM journals for education articles as well as all other literature for EM education-related articles. Articles identified were reviewed for citation count, article type, journal, authors, and publication year. With regards to EM journals, the greatest number of articles were classified as articles/reviews, followed by research articles on topics such as deliberate practice (cited 266 times) and cognitive errors (cited 201 times). In contrast in the non-EM journals, research articles were predominant. Both searches found several simulation and ultrasound articles to be included. The most common EM journal was Academic Emergency Medicine (n = 18), and Academic Medicine was the most common non-EM journal (n=5). A reasonable number of articles included external funding sources (6 EM articles and 13 non-EM articles.). This study identified the most frequently cited medical education articles in the field of EM education, published in EM journals as well as all other journals indexed in Web of Science. The results identify impactful articles to medical education, providing a resource to educators while identifying trends that may be used to guide EM educational research and publishing efforts.
Ji Chen; Bertrand Loyeung; Chris Zaslawski; Fan-rong Liang; Wei-hong Li
OBJECTIVE:To analyze and compare the curriculum and delivery of a Chinese and Australian university-level Chinese medicine program. METHODS:A review of PubMed and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure for relevant educational papers was undertaken. Online and paper documents available at the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) and the Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (CDUTCM) were read and analyzed. In addition, in-depth interviews with academics from the two universities were conducted during 2014 to 2015. RESULTS:ThetwoChinese medicine programs share the common goal of providing health services to the local community, but differ in some aspects when the curricula are compared. Areas such as student profi le, curriculum structure, teaching approaches and education quality assurance were found to be different. The UTSprogramadopts a “fl ipped learning” approach with the use of educational technology aiming at improving learning outcomes. On the other hand, the CDUTCM has better clinical facilities and specialist physician resources. CONCLUSION: A better understanding of the different curricula and approaches to Chinese medicine education wil facilitate student learning and educational outcomes.
Kim, Yun Jin
The aim of this study is to understand the current tradition and complementary medicine (T&CM) education in Malaysia. We referred to literature regarding to traditional medicine education in Malaysia, and collected the information via website or interview with faculty of T&CM in universities/colleges and Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. T&CM education in Malaysia has been following China’s T&CM systems for 50 years. Currently, Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health; and Ministry of Higher Education has approved 11 institutions to offer T&CM education. Students may major in Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, or other T&CM subjects. Generally, clinical training programs in China, Taiwan, or Australia include substantial proportion of clinical training. We report on the general information of T&CM education in Malaysia. This result would be the first-stage information for the establishment of a strategy regarding the enhancement of T&CM education in Malaysia. PMID:28853309
Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.
This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the
Holmboe, Eric S
Emergency medicine (EM) has always been on the frontlines of healthcare in the United States. I experienced this reality first hand as a young general medical officer assigned to an emergency department (ED) in a small naval hospital in the 1980s. For decades the ED has been the only site where patients could not be legally denied care. Despite increased insurance coverage for millions of Americans as a result of the Affordable Care Act, ED directors report an increase in patient volumes in a recent survey.1 EDs care for patients from across the socioeconomic spectrum suffering from a wide range of clinical conditions. As a result, the ED is still one of few components of the American healthcare system where social justice is enacted on a regular basis. Constant turbulence in the healthcare system, major changes in healthcare delivery, technological advances and shifting demographic trends necessitate that EM constantly adapt and evolve as a discipline in this complex environment.
Klein, Douglas; Allan, G. Michael; Manca, Donna; Sargeant, Joan; Barnett, Carly
Introduction: Considerable time and money are invested in continuing medical education (CME) for family physicians (FPs) but the effectiveness is uncertain. The participation of FPs as coordinators and teachers is not well known. The goal of this project was to describe the role of FPs in organizing and teaching CME events that are accredited for…
Furqan, M. Hafizul; Maryani, Enok; Ruhimat, Mamat
Education is functioned to prepare human to compete in overcoming various challenges. One of challenge faced by Indonesian nation is natural disaster. The effective method to reduce the risk of natural disaster (disaster mitigation) is by enhancing understanding of disaster in each individual. Aceh Tsunami Museum (ATM) is one of important site which is build to remember the big disaster event which happened in 2004 in Aceh and as disaster learning source. This study is aimed to find out the...
Klemenc Ketiš, Zalika; Švab, Igor
Cinemeducation is a teaching method where popular movies or movie clips are used. We aimed to determine whether family physicians' competencies as listed in the Educational Agenda produced by the European Academy of Teachers in General Practice/Family Medicine (EURACT) can be found in movies, and to propose a template for teaching by these movies. A group of family medicine teachers provided a list of movies that they would use in cinemeducation. The movies were categorised according to the key family medicine competencies, thus creating a framework of competences, covered by different movies. These key competencies are Primary care management, Personcentred care, Specific problem-solving skills, Comprehensive approach, Community orientation, and Holistic approach. The list consisted of 17 movies. Nine covered primary care management. Person-centred care was covered in 13 movies. Eight movies covered specific problem-solving skills. Comprehensive approach was covered in five movies. Five movies covered community orientation. Holistic approach was covered in five movies. All key family medicine competencies listed in the Educational Agenda can be taught using movies. Our results can serve as a template for teachers on how to use any appropriate movies in family medicine education.
Abstract Introduction Cinemeducation is a teaching method where popular movies or movie clips are used. We aimed to determine whether family physicians’ competencies as listed in the Educational Agenda produced by the European Academy of Teachers in General Practice/Family Medicine (EURACT) can be found in movies, and to propose a template for teaching by these movies. Methods A group of family medicine teachers provided a list of movies that they would use in cinemeducation. The movies were categorised according to the key family medicine competencies, thus creating a framework of competences, covered by different movies. These key competencies are Primary care management, Personcentred care, Specific problem-solving skills, Comprehensive approach, Community orientation, and Holistic approach. Results The list consisted of 17 movies. Nine covered primary care management. Person-centred care was covered in 13 movies. Eight movies covered specific problem-solving skills. Comprehensive approach was covered in five movies. Five movies covered community orientation. Holistic approach was covered in five movies. Conclusions All key family medicine competencies listed in the Educational Agenda can be taught using movies. Our results can serve as a template for teachers on how to use any appropriate movies in family medicine education. PMID:28289469
Owens, Matt P; Buffington, Cheri; Frost, Michael P; Waldner, Randall J
The Association of American Medical Colleges recommended an increase in medical education for public health emergencies, bioterrorism, and weapons of mass destruction in 2003. The University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine (USD SSOM) implemented a 1-day training event to provide disaster preparedness training and deployment organization for health professions students called Disaster Training Day (DTD). Hospital staff and emergency medical services personnel provided the lecture portion of DTD using Core Disaster Life Support (CDLS; National Disaster Life Support Foundation) as the framework. Pre-test and post-test analyses were presented to the students. Small group activities covered leadership, anaphylaxis, mass fatality, points of dispensing deployment training, psychological first aid, triage, and personal protective equipment. Students were given the option to sign up for statewide deployment through the South Dakota Statewide Emergency Registry of Volunteers (SERV SD). DTD data and student satisfaction surveys from 2009 to 2016 were reviewed. Since 2004, DTD has provided disaster preparedness training to 2246 students across 13 health professions. Significant improvement was shown on CDLS post-test performance with a t-score of -14.24 and a resulting P value of training, small group sessions, and perceived self-competency relating to disaster response. SERV SD registration increased in 2015, and 77.5% of the participants registered in 2016. DTD at the USD SSOM provides for an effective 1-day disaster training course for health professions students. Resources from around the state were coordinated to provide training, liability coverage, and deployment organization for hundreds of students representing multiple health professions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:735-740).
Bachmann, Daniel J; Jamison, Nathan K; Martin, Andrew; Delgado, Jose; Kman, Nicholas E
Smartphone applications (or apps) are becoming increasingly popular with emergency responders and health care providers, as well as the public as a whole. There are thousands of medical apps available for Smartphones and tablet computers, with more added each day. These include apps to view textbooks, guidelines, medication databases, medical calculators, and radiology images. Hypothesis/Problem With an ever expanding catalog of apps that relate to disaster medicine, it is hard for both the lay public and responders to know where to turn for effective Smartphone apps. A systematic review of these apps was conducted. A search of the Apple iTunes store (Version 12; Apple Inc.; Cupertino, California USA) was performed using the following terms obtained from the PubMed Medical Subject Headings Database: Emergency Preparedness, Emergency Responders, Disaster, Disaster Planning, Disaster Medicine, Bioterrorism, Chemical Terrorism, Hazardous Materials (HazMat), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). After excluding any unrelated apps, a working list of apps was formed and categorized based on topics. Apps were grouped based on applicability to responders, the lay public, or regional preparedness, and were then ranked based on iTunes user reviews, value, relevance to audience, and user interface. This search revealed 683 applications and was narrowed to 219 based on relevance to the field. After grouping the apps as described above, and subsequently ranking them, the highest quality apps were determined from each group. The Community Emergency Response Teams and FEMA had the best apps for National Disaster Medical System responders. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) had high-quality apps for emergency responders in a variety of fields. The National Library of Medicine's Wireless Information System for Emergency Responders (WISER) app was an excellent app for HazMat responders. The American Red Cross had the most useful apps for natural
The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) was established in 1961 as a new research university that emphasizes innovation, excellence, and interdisciplinary research and education. It has a School of Medicine (SOM) and the Jacobs School of Engineering (JSOE) in close proximity, and both schools have national rankings among the top 15. In 1991, with the support of the Whitaker Foundation, the Whitaker Institute of Biomedical Engineering was formed to foster collaborations in research and education. In 2008, the university extended the collaboration further by establishing the Institute of Engineering in Medicine (IEM), with the mission of accelerating the discoveries of novel science and technology to enhance health care through teamwork between engineering and medicine, and facilitating the translation of innovative technologies for delivery to the public through clinical application and commercialization.
Shaffer, David W.; Meglan, Dwight A.; Ferrell, Margaret; Dawson, Steven L.
Computer-based simulation is a goal for training physicians in specialties where traditional training puts patients at risk. Intuitively, interactive simulation of anatomy, pathology, and therapeutic actions should lead to shortening of the learning curve for novice or inexperienced physicians. Effective transfer of knowledge acquired in simulators must be shown for such devices to be widely accepted in the medical community. We have developed an Interventional Cardiology Training Simulator which incorporates real-time graphic interactivity coupled with haptic response, and an embedded curriculum permitting rehearsal, hypertext links, personal archiving and instructor review and testing capabilities. This linking of purely technical simulation with educational content creates a more robust educational purpose for procedural simulators.
Klemenc Ketiš Zalika
Full Text Available Cinemeducation is a teaching method where popular movies or movie clips are used. We aimed to determine whether family physicians’ competencies as listed in the Educational Agenda produced by the European Academy of Teachers in General Practice/Family Medicine (EURACT can be found in movies, and to propose a template for teaching by these movies.
The article introduced educational system of Korean medicine,and history and present courses of Korean medical universities.%本文介绍了韩国的韩医学教育制度、韩医科大学历史及课程现状.
Wright, April L.; Middleton, Stuart; Greenfield, Geoffrey; Williams, Julian; Brazil, Victoria
Evidence-based management (EBMgt) is a growing literature stream in management education which contends that management decision making should be informed by the best available scientific evidence (Rousseau, 2006). Encouraged by the success of evidence-based practice in the field of medicine, advocates of EBMgt have increasingly called for…
Johnson, Ping; Priestley, Jennifer; Porter, Kandice Johnson; Petrillo, Jane
Background: Interest in and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States is increasing. However, CAM remains an area of nascency for researchers and western practitioners. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine U.S. health educators' attitudes toward CAM and their use of common CAM therapies. Methods: A…
Dewey, W. A.
Education in the homeopathic schools of medicine is under the direct guidance of the American Institute of Homeopathy, and the requirements of the American Federation of State Medical Examiners Boards are fulfilled in all details, so that graduates may comply with the requirements of all the States and Territorial possessions. There were 45 more…
Risberg, Gunilla; Johansson, Eva E; Hamberg, Katarina
The implementation of and communication about matters associated with gender in medical education have been predominantly perceived as women's issues. This study aimed to explore attitudes towards and experiences of gender-related issues among key male members of faculties of medicine. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 male education leaders from the six medical schools in Sweden. The interviews were analysed qualitatively using a modified grounded theory approach. The core category--'important… but of low status'--reflects ambivalent attitudes towards gender-related issues in medicine among male education leaders. All informants were able to articulate why gender matters. As doctors, they saw gender as a determinant of health and, as bystanders, they had witnessed inequalities and the wasting of women's competence. However, they had doubts about gender-related issues and found them to be overemphasised. Gender education was seen as a threat to medical school curricula as a consequence of the time and space it requires. Gender-related issues were considered to be unscientifically presented, to mostly concern women's issues and to tend to involve 'male bashing' (i.e. gender issues were often labelled as ideological and political). Interviewees asked for facts and knowledge, but questioned specific lessons and gender theory. Experiences of structural constraints, such as prejudice, hierarchies and homosociality, were presented, making gender education difficult and downgrading it. The results indicate that male faculty leaders embrace the importance of gender-related issues, but do not necessarily recognise or defend their impact on an area of significant knowledge and competence in medicine. To change this and to engage more men in gender education, faculty measures are needed to counteract prejudice and to upgrade the time allocation, merits and status of gender implementation work. Based on our findings, we present and discuss possible ways to
Gillian R Schmitz
Full Text Available Introduction: Physician burnout has received considerable attention in the literature and impacts a large number of emergency medicine physicians, but there is no standardized curriculum for wellness in resident education. A culture change is needed to educate about wellness, adopt a preventative and proactive approach, and focus on resiliency. Discussion: We describe a novel approach to wellness education by focusing on resiliency rather than the unintended endpoint of physician burnout. One barrier to adoption of wellness education has been establishing legitimacy among emergency medicine (EM residents and educators. We discuss a change in the language of wellness education and provide several specific topics to facilitate the incorporation of these topics in resident education. Conclusion: Wellness education and a culture of training that promotes well-being will benefit EM residents. Demonstrating the impact of several factors that positively affect emergency physicians may help to facilitate alert residents to the importance of practicing activities that will result in wellness. A change in culture and focus on resiliency is needed to adequately address and optimize physician self-care.
Izard, Santiago González; Juanes, Juan A; García Peñalvo, Francisco J; Estella, Jesús Mª Gonçalvez; Ledesma, Mª José Sánchez; Ruisoto, Pablo
Until very recently, we considered Virtual Reality as something that was very close, but it was still science fiction. However, today Virtual Reality is being integrated into many different areas of our lives, from videogames to different industrial use cases and, of course, it is starting to be used in medicine. There are two great general classifications for Virtual Reality. Firstly, we find a Virtual Reality in which we visualize a world completely created by computer, three-dimensional and where we can appreciate that the world we are visualizing is not real, at least for the moment as rendered images are improving very fast. Secondly, there is a Virtual Reality that basically consists of a reflection of our reality. This type of Virtual Reality is created using spherical or 360 images and videos, so we lose three-dimensional visualization capacity (until the 3D cameras are more developed), but on the other hand we gain in terms of realism in the images. We could also mention a third classification that merges the previous two, where virtual elements created by computer coexist with 360 images and videos. In this article we will show two systems that we have developed where each of them can be framed within one of the previous classifications, identifying the technologies used for their implementation as well as the advantages of each one. We will also analize how these systems can improve the current methodologies used for medical training. The implications of these developments as tools for teaching, learning and training are discussed.
Rathore, Farooq A; Gosney, James E; Reinhardt, Jan D; Haig, Andrew J; Li, Jianan; DeLisa, Joel A
Natural disasters can cause significant numbers of severe, disabling injuries, resulting in a public health emergency and requiring foreign assistance. However, since medical rehabilitation services are often poorly developed in disaster-affected regions and not highly prioritized by responding teams, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has historically been underemphasized in global disaster planning and response. Recent development of the specialties of "disaster medicine" and "disaster rehabilitation" has raised awareness of the critical importance of rehabilitation intervention during the immediate postdisaster emergency response. The World Health Organization Liaison Sub-Committee on Rehabilitation Disaster Relief of the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine has authored this report to assess the role of emergency rehabilitation intervention after natural disasters based on current scientific evidence and subject matter expert accounts. Major disabling injury types are identified, and spinal cord injury, limb amputation, and traumatic brain injury are used as case studies to exemplify the challenges to effective management of disabling injuries after disasters. Evidence on the effectiveness of disaster rehabilitation interventions is presented. The authors then summarize the current state of disaster-related research, as well as lessons learned from PRM emergency rehabilitation response in recent disasters. Resulting recommendations for greater integration of PRM services into the immediate emergency disaster response are provided. This report aims to stimulate development of research and practice in the emerging discipline of disaster rehabilitation within organizations that provide medical rehabilitation services during the postdisaster emergency response. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cabán-Martinez Alberto J
Full Text Available Abstract A case report—a brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical case—provides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new “case reports” section to provide the busy clinician with a forum in which to document any authentic clinical case that provide educational value to current clinical practice. The aim is for this article type to be reviewed, wherever possible, by specialized Associate Editors for the journal, in order to provide rapid but thorough decision making. New ideas often garnered by and documented in case reports will support the advancement of medical science — one research note at a time.
Cabán-Martinez, Alberto J; Beltrán, Wilfredo F García
A case report--a brief written note that describes unique aspects of a clinical case--provides a significant function in medicine given its rapid, succinct, and educational contributions to scientific literature and clinical practice. Despite the growth of, and emphasis on, randomized clinical trials and evidenced-based medicine, case reports continue to provide novel and exceptional knowledge in medical education. The journal BMC Research Notes introduces a new "case reports" section to provide the busy clinician with a forum in which to document any authentic clinical case that provide educational value to current clinical practice. The aim is for this article type to be reviewed, wherever possible, by specialized Associate Editors for the journal, in order to provide rapid but thorough decision making. New ideas often garnered by and documented in case reports will support the advancement of medical science--one research note at a time.
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Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan
We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.
Bonavina, Luigi; Mozzi, Enrico; Peracchia, Alberto
The use of virtual reality simulation is currently being proposed within programs of postgraduate surgical education. The simple tasks that make up an operative procedure can be repeatedly performed until satisfactory execution is achieved, and the errors can be corrected by means of objective assessment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability and the results of structured practice with the LapSim laparoscopic simulator used by undergraduate medical students. A significant reduction in operative time and errors was noted in several tasks (navigation, clipping, etc.). Although the transfer of technical skills to the operating room environment remains to be demonstrated, our research shows that this type of teaching is applicable to undergraduate medical students and in future may become a useful tool for selecting individuals for surgical residency programs.
Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai; Varoni, Elena; Sykes, Rosemary; McCullough, Michael; Hua, Hong; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Jensen, Siri Beier; Lockhart, Peter B; Mattsson, Ulf; Jontell, Mats
To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information technology (IT) can have an impact on the quality of patient care, research, and education in the field of Oral Medicine. A strategy for broader implementation of OMSS is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Manson, Helen M; Satin, David; Nelson, Valerie; Vadiveloo, Thenmalar
Although professional organizations endorse ethics education in family medicine training, there is little published evidence that ethics teaching occurs. This survey collated data on the aims, content, pedagogical methods, assessment, and barriers relating to formal ethics education in family medicine residency programs in the United States. A questionnaire surveyed all 445 family medicine residency programs in the United States. Forty percent of programs responded (178/445). Of these, 95% formally teach at least one ethics topic, 68.2% teach six or more topics, and 7.1% teach all 13 core topics specified in the questionnaire. Programs show variation, providing between zero to 100 hours' ethics education over the 3 years of residency training. Of the responding programs, 3.5% specify well-defined aims for ethics teaching, 25.9% designate overall responsibility for the ethics curriculum to one individual, and 33.5% formally assess ethics competencies. The most frequent barriers to ethics education are finding time in residents' schedules (59.4%) and educator expertise (21.8%). Considerable variation in ethics education is apparent in both curricular content and delivery among family medicine residency programs in the United States. Additional findings included a lack of specification of explicit curricular aims for ethics teaching allied to ACGME or AAFP competencies, a tendency not to designate one faculty member with lead responsibility for ethics teaching in the residency program, and a lack of formal assessment of ethics competencies. This has occurred in the context of an absence of robust assessment of ethics competencies at board certification level.
Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin
Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.
Narang, Akhil; Arora, Vineet M
Background Residency programs face many challenges in educating learners. The millennial generation’s learning preferences also force us to reconsider how to reach physicians in training. Social media is emerging as a viable tool for advancing curricula in graduate medical education. Objective The authors sought to understand how social media enhances a residency program’s educational mission. Methods While chief residents in the 2013-2014 academic year, two of the authors (PB, AN) maintained a Twitter feed for their academic internal medicine residency program. Participants included the chief residents and categorical internal medicine house staff. Results At the year’s end, the authors surveyed residents about uses and attitudes toward this initiative. Residents generally found the chief residents’ tweets informative, and most residents (42/61, 69%) agreed that Twitter enhanced their overall education in residency. Conclusions Data from this single-site intervention corroborate that Twitter can strengthen a residency program’s educational mission. The program’s robust following on Twitter outside of the home program also suggests a need for wider adoption of social media in graduate medical education. Improved use of data analytics and dissemination of these practices to other programs would lend additional insight into social media’s role in improving residents’ educational experiences. PMID:27731845
Sliwa, J A; McPeak, L; Gittler, M; Bodenheimer, C; King, J; Bowen, J
Described as the balance of values on either side of a moral dilemma, ethics and ethical issues are of increasing importance in the changing practice of rehabilitation medicine. Because the substance of ethics and true ethical issues can be difficult to identify, the education of rehabilitation residents in ethics can similarly be challenging. This article discusses topics pertinent to an understanding of clinical ethics in rehabilitation medicine and provides a method of teaching residents through an algorithm of ethical issues, learning objectives, and illustrative cases.
Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Pakes, Barry; Rouleau, Katherine; MacDonald, Colla J; Arya, Neil; Purkey, Eva; Schultz, Karen; Dhatt, Reena; Wilson, Briana; Hadi, Abdullahel; Pottie, Kevin
Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes) for Canadian Family Medicine training. The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the framework. The process used to develop this framework can be applied
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs. Methods A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches. The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies (behaviours, skills and attitudes for Canadian Family Medicine training. Results The main outcome was an evidence-informed interactive framework http://globalhealth.ennovativesolution.com/ to provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent enabling competencies. Conclusions The shared curriculum framework can support the design, delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the
Ganta, Abhishek; Yi, Paul H; Hussein, Khalil; Frank, Rachel M
Although studies have revealed high readability levels of orthopedic patient education materials, no study has evaluated sports medicine-related patient education materials. We conducted a study to assess the readability of sports medicine-related patient education materials from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM). All sports medicine patient education articles available online in 2012 from the AAOS and the AOSSM, including the Stop Sports Injuries Campaign (STOP), were identified, and their readability was assessed with the Flesch-Kinkaid (FK) readability test. Mean overall FK grade level of the 170 articles reviewed (104 from AAOS, 36 from AOSSM, 30 from STOP) was 10.2. Mean FK levels for the 3 sources were 9.5 (AAOS), 11.0 (AOSSM), and 11.5 (STOP) (P = .16). Fifteen (8.8%) of the 170 articles had a readability level at or below eighth grade (average reading level of US adults); only 2 (1.2%) of the 170 articles were at or below the recommended sixth-grade level. The majority of sports medicine-related patient education materials from AAOS and AOSSM had reading levels higher than recommended, indicating that the majority of the patient population may find it difficult to comprehend these articles.
Revitalized citizen projects for Fukushima's radiation and nuclear disaster issues and introduction of the integrated programs relative to radiation education, exercise guidance, and development support at Tokushima University
Sakama, Minoru; Nakayama, Shintaro; Saze, Takuya
As for the purpose of this project, 'Revitalized Residential Projects for Fukushima's Radiological and Nuclear Disaster Issues at Tokushima University', the organization of the special mission which is constructed in staffs with volunteer sprits at universities and research facilities have collaborated together with elementary and junior high school teachers and the local government at the revitalized areas in Fukushima. They have built and practiced the new learning education model to bring up the children in there who are not defeated by uneasiness and the rumor of the radiation pollutions relative to the nuclear disaster of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. For children carrying the future only at Fukushima but also in Japan, we bring up hope and the smile of them by coordinating their education to feed the resistance from an early stage to every rumor. By carrying on it we have set up with an integrated goal of getting that we can breed vitality and relief of the whole local community. Our radiation hazard support team at Tokushima University worked on urgent radiation exposure screening at Fukushima from the beginning of earthquake disaster. We had worked on support activities such as the radiation protection education, and also made efforts for the uneasiness reduction of citizens and reducing burdens on the local government. Until now we have kept up with working on the medium-and-long term trials of uneasiness reductions due to radiation properties and radiation hazards for local inhabitants and staffs such as any companies and the local government through practicing these programs, civilian learning society, staff learning society, learning society and counselling for mother and the child, radiation measurement, decontamination advice, and radioactivity measurement support, in particular, at Shirakawa City located as the doorway city of Tohoku area. This report introduces an outline of collaborated programs that we have developed in this project
Frank, Jason R; Cheung, Warren J; Sherbino, Jonathan; Primavesi, Robert; Woods, Robert A; Bandiera, Glen; LeBlanc, Constance
In a time of major medical education transformation, emergency medicine (EM) needs to nurture education scholars who will influence EM education practice. However, the essential ingredients to ensure a career with impact in EM education are not clear. To describe how to prepare EM educators for a high-impact career. The Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Section commissioned an "Education Impact" working group (IWG) to guide the creation of consensus recommendations from the EM community. EM educators from across Canada were initially recruited from the networks of the IWG members, and additional educators were recruited via snowball sampling. "High impact educators" were nominated by this network. The high impact educators were then interviewed using a structured question guide. These interviews were transcribed and coded for themes using qualitative methods. The process continued until no new themes were identified. Proposed themes and recommendations were presented to the EM community at the CAEP 2016 Academic Symposium. Feedback was then incorporated into a final set of recommendations. Fifty-five (71%) of 77 of identified Canadian EM educators participated, and 170 names of high impact educators were submitted and ranked by frequency. The IWG achieved sufficiency of themes after nine interviews. Five recommendations were made: 1) EM educators can pursue a high impact career by leveraging either traditional or innovative career pathways; 2) EM educators starting their education careers should have multiple senior mentors; 3) Early-career EM educators should immerse themselves in their area of interest and cultivate a community of practice, not limited to EM; 4) Every academic EM department and EM teaching site should have access to an EM educator with protected time and recognition for their EM education scholarship; and 5) Educators at all stages should continuously compile an impact portfolio. We describe a unique set of
Polivka, Jiri; Polivka, Jiri; Karlikova, Marie; Topolcan, Ondrej
The main goal of personalized medicine is the individualized approach to the patient's treatment. It could be achieved only by the integration of the complexity of novel findings in diverse "omics" disciplines, new methods of medical imaging, as well as implementation of reliable biomarkers into the medical care. The implementation of personalized medicine into clinical practice is dependent on the adaptation of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education to these principles. The situation in the education of personalized medicine in the Czech Republic is analyzed together with novel educational tools that are currently established in our country. The EPMA representatives in the Czech Republic in cooperation with the working group of professionals at the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague have implemented the survey of personalized medicine awareness among students of Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen-the "Personalized Medicine Questionnaire". The results showed lacking knowledge of personalized medicine principles and students' will of education in this domain. Therefore, several educational activities addressed particularly to medical students and young physicians were realized at our facility with very positive evaluation. These educational activities (conferences, workshops, seminars, e-learning and special courses in personalized medicine (PM)) will be a part of pre-graduate and post-graduate medical education, will be extended to other medical faculties in our country. The "Summer School of Personalized Medicine in Plzen 2015" will be organized at the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital in Pilsen as the first event on this topic in the Czech Republic.
Hahm, Joon Soo; Lee, Hang Lak; Kim, Sun Il; Shimizu, Shuji; Choi, Ho Soon; Ko, Yong; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Kim, Tae Eun; Yun, Ji Won; Park, Yong Jin; Naoki, Nakashima; Koji, Okamura
Telemedicine has opened the door to a wide range of learning experience and simultaneous feedback to doctors and students at various remote locations. However, there are limitations such as lack of approved international standards of ethics. The aim of our study was to establish a telemedical education system through the development of high quality images, using the digital transfer system on a high-speed network. Using telemedicine, surgical images can be sent not only to domestic areas but also abroad, and opinions regarding surgical procedures can be exchanged between the operation room and a remote place. The Asia Pacific Information Infrastrucuture (APII) link, a submarine cable between Busan and Fukuoka, was used to connect Korea with Japan, and Korea Advanced Research Network (KOREN) was used to connect Busan with Seoul. Teleconference and video streaming between Hanyang University Hospital in Seoul and Kyushu University Hospital in Japan were realized using Digital Video Transfer System (DVTS) over Ipv4 network. Four endoscopic surgeries were successfully transmitted between Seoul and Kyushu, while concomitant teleconferences took place between the two throughout the operations. Enough bandwidth of 60 Mbps could be kept for two-line transmissions. The quality of transmitted video image had no frame loss with a rate of 30 images per second. The sound was also clear, and time delay was less than 0.3 sec. Our experience has demonstrated the feasibility of domestic and international telemedicine. We have established an international medical network with high-quality video transmission over Internet protocol, which is easy to perform, reliable, and economical. Our network system may become a promising tool for worldwide telemedical communication in the future.
Partin, Clyde; Kushner, Howard I; Horton, Mary E Kollmer
Well-intentioned attempts by the Senate Finance Committee to improve the content and quality of continuing medical education (CME) offerings had the unanticipated consequence of decimating academically oriented history of medicine conferences. New guidelines intended to keep CME courses free of commercial bias from the pharmaceutical industry were worded in a fashion that caused CME officials at academic institutions to be reluctant to offer CME credit for history of medicine gatherings. At the 2013 annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, we offered a novel solution for determining CME credit in line with current guidelines. We asked attendees to provide narrative critiques for each presentation for which they desired CME credit. In this essay, we evaluate the efficacy of this approach.
Takalani S. Rambau
Full Text Available In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007 initiated a campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and document reviews was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods, fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and disasters is vital and must be expanded.
Atack, Lynda; Parker, Kathryn; Rocchi, Marie; Maher, Janet; Dryden, Trish
A recent national assessment of emergency planning in Canada suggests that health care professionals are not properly prepared for disasters. In response to this gap, an interprofessional course in disaster management was developed, implemented and evaluated in Toronto, Canada from 2007 to 2008. Undergraduate students from five educational institutions in nursing, medicine, paramedicine, police, media and health administration programs took an eight-week online course. The course was highly interactive and included video, a discussion forum, an online board game and opportunity to participate in a high fidelity disaster simulation with professional staff. Curriculum developers set interprofessional competency as a major course outcome and this concept guided every aspect of content and activity development. A study was conducted to examine change in students' perceptions of disaster management competency and interprofessional attitudes after the course was completed. Results indicate that the course helped students master basic disaster management content and raised their awareness of, and appreciation for, other members of the interdisciplinary team. The undergraduate curriculum must support the development of collaborative competencies and ensure learners are prepared to work in collaborative practice.
Young, Timothy P; Brown, Madison M; Reibling, Ellen T; Ghassemzadeh, Sassan; Gordon, Dawn M; Phan, Tammy H; Thomas, Tamara L; Brown, Lance
In 2001, less than 20% of emergency medicine residents had more than $150,000 of educational debt. Our emergency medicine residents anecdotally reported much larger debt loads. Surveys have reported that debt affects career and life choices. Qualitative approaches are well suited to explore how and why such complex phenomena occur. We aim to gain a better understanding of how our emergency medicine residents experience debt. We conducted individual semistructured interviews with emergency medicine residents. We collected self-reported data related to educational debt and asked open-ended questions about debt influence on career choices, personal life, future plans, and financial decisions. We undertook a structured thematic analysis using a qualitative approach based in the grounded theory method. Median educational debt was $212,000. Six themes emerged from our analysis: (1) debt influenced career and life decisions by altering priorities; (2) residents experienced debt as a persistent source of background stress and felt powerless to change it; (3) residents made use of various techniques to negotiate debt in order to focus on day-to-day work; (4) personal debt philosophy, based on individual values and obtained from family, shaped how debt affected each individual; (5) debt had a normative effect and was acculturated in residency; and (6) residents reported a wide range of financial knowledge, but recognized its importance to career success. Our emergency medicine residents' debt experience is complex and involves multiple dimensions. Given our current understanding, simple solutions are unlikely to be effective in adequately addressing this issue. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations.
Heflin, Mitchell T; Pinheiro, Sandro; Kaminetzky, Catherine P; McNeill, Diana
Despite a growing demand for skilled teachers and administrators in graduate medical education, clinician-educator tracks for residents are rare and though some institutions offer 'resident-as-teacher' programs to assist residents in developing teaching skills, the need exists to expand training opportunities in this area. The authors conducted a workshop at a national meeting to develop a description of essential components of a training pathway for internal medicine residents. Through open discussion and small group work, participants defined the various roles of clinician-educators and described goals, training opportunities, assessment and resource needs for such a program. Workshop participants posited that the clinician-educator has several roles to fulfill beyond that of clinician, including those of teacher, curriculum developer, administrator and scholar. A pathway for residents aspiring to become clinician educators must offer structured training in each of these four areas to empower residents to effectively practice clinical education. In addition, the creation of such a track requires securing time and resources to support resident learning experiences and formal faculty development programs to support institutional mentors and leaders. This article provides a framework by which leaders in medical education can begin to prepare current trainees interested in careers as clinician-educators.
Mazet, J.A.K.; Hamilton, G.E.; Dierauf, L.A.
In the last 10 years, the field of zoological medicine has seen an expansive broadening into the arenas of free-ranging wildlife, conservation medicine, and ecosystem health. During the spring/summer of 2005, we prepared and disseminated a survey designed to identify training and educational needs for individuals entering the wildlife medicine and ecosystem health fields. Our data revealed that few wildlife veterinarians believe that the training they received in veterinary school adequately prepared them to acquire and succeed in their field. Wildlife veterinarians and their employers ranked mentorship with an experienced wildlife veterinarian, training in leadership and communication, courses and externships in wildlife health, and additional formal training beyond the veterinary degree as important in preparation for success. Employers, wildlife veterinarians, and job seekers alike reported that understanding and maintaining ecosystem health is a key component of the wildlife veterinarian's job description, as it is critical to protecting animal health, including human health. Today's wildlife veterinarians are a new type of transdisciplinary professional; they practice medicine in their communities and hold titles in every level of government and academia. It is time that we integrate ecosystem health into our curricula to nurture and enhance an expansive way of looking at veterinary medicine and to ensure that veterinary graduates are prepared to excel in this new and complex world, in which the health of wildlife, domestic animals, and people are interdependent.
Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine
The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues.
Kleynhans, A C; Oosthuizen, A H; van Hoving, D J
The integration of online resources and social media into higher education and continued professional development is an increasingly common phenomenon. To describe the usage of various traditional and modern educational resources by members of the divisions of emergency medicine at Stellenbosch University and the University of Cape Town. Members affiliated with the divisions during 2014 were invited to participate in an online survey. Participants were given 8 weeks to complete the questionnaire; with weekly reminders until they responded or the deadline expired. Summary statistics were used to describe the variables. Eighty-seven divisional members completed the survey (69.6% response rate). The resources most preferred were textbooks (n=78, 89.7%), open access educational resources (n=77, 88.5%) and journals (n=76, 87.4%). Emergency medicine trainees (n=31, 92.1%) and respondents ≤30 years (n=17, 94.4%) were more inclined to use social media. International Emergency Medicine and Critical Care blogs are frequently being used by 71% of respondents. YouTube (35%) and podcasts (21%) were the most commonly used multimedia resources. Computers (desktop and laptop) were most frequently used to access educational resources except for social media where smart phones were preferred. The use of modern and electronic resources is relatively common, but traditional educational resources are still preferred. This study illustrates an opportunity for greater integration of online resources and social media in educational activities to enhance multimodal and self-directed learning. Specific training in the use of these resources and how to appraise them may further improve their utility. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Haburchak, David R; Mitchell, Bradford C; Boomer, Craig J
Wise medical practice requires balancing the idealistic goals of medicine with the physical and economic realities of their application. Clinicians should know and employ the rules, maxims, and heuristics that summarize these goals and constraints. There has been little formal study of rules or laws pertaining to therapeutics and prognosis, so the authors postulate four physical and four economic laws that apply to health care: the laws of (1) finitude, (2) inertia, (3) entropy, and (4) the uncertainty principle; and the laws of (5) diminishing returns, (6) unintended consequences, (7) distribution, and (8) economizing. These laws manifest themselves in the absence of health, the pathogenesis of disease, prognosis, and the behaviors of participants in the health care enterprise. Physicians and the public perilously disregard these laws, frequently producing misdiagnoses, distraction, false expectations, unanticipated and undesirable outcomes, inequitable distribution of scarce resources, distrust, and cynicism: in short, quixotic medicine. The origins and public reinforcement of quixotic medicine make it deaf to calls for pragmatism. To achieve the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education competency of systems-based practice, the authors recommend that premedical education return to a broader liberal arts curriculum and that medical education and training foster didactic and experiential knowledge of these eight laws.
Sandor - Kerpel-Fronius
Full Text Available The aim of this satellite workshop held at the 17th World Congress of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (WCP2014 was to discuss the needs, optimal methods and practical approaches for extending education teaching of medicines development, regulation and clinical research to Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC’s. It was generally agreed that, for efficiently treating the rapidly growing number of patients suffering from non-communicable diseases, modern drug therapy has to become available more widely and with a shorter time lag in these countries. To achieve this goal many additional experts working in medicines development, regulation and clinical research have to be trained in parallel. The competence-oriented educational programs designed within the framework of the European Innovative Medicine Initiative-PharmaTrain (IMI-PhT project were developed with the purpose to cover these interconnected fields. In addition, the programs can be easily adapted to the various local needs, primarily due to their modular architecture and well defined learning outcomes. Furthermore, the program is accompanied by stringent quality assurance standards which are essential for providing internationally accepted certificates. Effective cooperation between international and local experts and organizations, the involvement of the industry, health care centers and governments is essential for successful education. The initiative should also support the development of professional networks able to manage complex health care strategies. In addition it should help establish cooperation between neighboring countries for jointly managing clinical trials, as well as complex regulatory and ethical issues.
Tess, Anjala V; Yang, Julius J; Smith, C Christopher; Fawcett, Caitlin M; Bates, Carol K; Reynolds, Eileen E
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center's internal medicine residency program was admitted to the new Education Innovation Project accreditation pathway of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education to begin in July 2006. The authors restructured the inpatient medical service to create clinical microsystems in which residents practice throughout residency. Program leadership then mandated an active curriculum in quality improvement based in those microsystems. To provide the experience to every graduating resident, a core faculty in patient safety was trained in the basics of quality improvement. The authors hypothesized that such changes would increase the number of residents participating in quality improvement projects, improve house officer engagement in quality improvement work, enhance the culture of safety the residents perceive in their training environment, improve work flow on the general medicine ward rotations, and improve the overall educational experience for the residents on ward rotations.The authors describe the first 18 months of the intervention (July 2006 to January 2008). The authors assessed attitudes and the educational experience with surveys and evaluation forms. After the intervention, the authors documented residents' participation in projects that overlapped with hospital priorities. More residents reported roles in designing and implementing quality improvement changes. Residents also noted greater satisfaction with the quality of care they deliver. Fewer residents agreed or strongly agreed that the new admitting system interfered with communication. Ongoing residency program assessment showed an improved perception of workload, and educational ratings of rotations improved. The changes required few resources and can be transported to other settings.
Sarah M. Westberg, Pharm.D.
Full Text Available Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic.Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified medical assistants. The impact of this training was measured through pre-initiation and post-implementation surveys, competency assessments and an audit. Results: The educational initiative was successfully designed and delivered to clinic nursing staff. Assessment of the initiative found that all nursing staff completing competency assessments successfully passed. Pre-initiation- and post-implementation- survey responses on the self-assessed ability to gather and document accurate medication lists did not show significant changes. Informal observations in the clinic indicated that this initiative changed the culture of the clinic, creating increased awareness of the importance of accurate medications and increased emphasis on medication reconciliation.Conclusions: The expertise of pharmacists can be utilized to educate nursing staff on the skills and abilities necessary to gather and document accurate medication lists. This study did not find measurable changes in the accuracy of medication lists in this clinic. Future research is needed to determine the best methods to train health professionals in medication reconciliation to ensure accurate medication lists in the outpatient setting.
Kattelmann, Kendra K; Conti, Kibbe; Ren, Cuirong
The Northern Plains Indians of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe have experienced significant lifestyle and dietary changes over the past seven generations that have resulted in increased rates of diabetes and obesity. The objective of this study was to determine if Northern Plains Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are randomized to receive culturally adapted educational lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition in addition to their usual dietary education will have better control of their type 2 diabetes than a nonintervention, usual care group who received only the usual dietary education from their personal providers. A 6-month, randomized, controlled trial was conducted January 2005 through December 2005, with participants randomized to the education intervention or usual care control group. The education group received six nutrition lessons based on the Medicine Wheel Model for Nutrition. The usual care group received the usual dietary education from their personal providers. One hundred fourteen Northern Plains Indians from Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe aged 18 to 65 years, with type 2 diabetes. Weight, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, fasting serum glucose and lipid parameters, circulating insulin, and blood pressure were measured at the beginning and completion. Diet histories, physical activity, and dietary satiety surveys were measured at baseline and monthly through completion. Differences were determined using Student t tests, chi(2) tests, and analysis of variance. The education group had a significant weight loss (1.4+/-0.4 kg, Pnutrition intervention promoted small but positive changes in weight. Greater frequency and longer duration of educational support may be needed to influence blood glucose and lipid parameters.
Panda, Mukta; Desbiens, Norman A
Lifelong learning is an integral component of practice-based learning and improvement. Physicians need to be lifelong learners to provide timely, efficient, and state-of-the-art patient care in an environment where knowledge, technology, and social requirements are rapidly changing. To assess graduates' self-reported perception of the usefulness of a residency program requirement to submit a narrative report describing their planned educational modalities for their future continued medical learning ("Education for Life" requirement), and to compare the modalities residents intended to use with their reported educational activities. Data was compiled from the Education for Life reports submitted by internal medicine residents at the University of Tennessee College of Medicine Chattanooga from 1998 to 2000, and from a survey sent to the same 27 graduates 2 to 4 years later from 2000 to 2004. Twenty-four surveys (89%) were returned. Of the responding graduates, 58% (14/24) found the Education for Life requirement useful for their future continued medical learning. Graduates intended to keep up with a mean of 3.4 educational modalities, and they reported keeping up with 4.2. In a multivariable analysis, the number of modalities graduates used was significantly associated with the number they had planned to use before graduation (P = .04) but not with their career choice of subspecialization. The majority of residents found the Education for Life requirement useful for their future continued medical learning. Graduates, regardless of specialty, reported using more modalities for continuing their medical education than they thought they would as residents. Considering lifelong learning early in training and then requiring residents to identify ways to practice lifelong learning as a requirement for graduation may be dispositive.
Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa
BackgroundImproved teamwork between conventional and complementary medicine (CM) practitioners is indicated to achieve effective healthcare. However, little is known about interprofessional collaboration and education in the context of integrative medicine (IM). MethodsThis paper reports the findings from a constructivist-grounded theory method study that explored and highlighted Australian medical students' experiences and opportunities for linking interprofessional collaboration and learning in the context of IM. Following ethical approval, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 medical students from 10 medical education faculties across Australian universities. Results Medical students recognised the importance of interprofessional teamwork between general medical practitioners and CM professionals in patient care and described perspectives of shared responsibilities, profession-specific responsibilities, and collaborative approaches within IM. While students identified that limited interprofessional collaboration currently occurred in the medical curriculum, interprofessional education was considered a means of increasing communication and collaboration between healthcare professionals, helping coordinate effective patient care, and understanding each healthcare team members' professional role and value. Conclusions The findings suggest that medical curricula should include opportunities for medical students to develop required skills, behaviours, and attitudes for interprofessional collaboration and interprofessional education within the context of IM. While this is a qualitative study that reflects theoretical saturation from a selected cohort of medical students, the results also point to the importance of including CM professionals within interprofessional collaboration, thus contributing to more person-centred care.
Chung, Vincent C. H.; Zhang, Anthony L.; Adams, Jon
High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170
Full Text Available High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China.
Kohlwes, R Jeffrey; Cornett, Patricia; Dandu, Madhavi; Julian, Katherine; Vidyarthi, Arpana; Minichiello, Tracy; Shunk, Rebecca; Jain, Sharad; Harleman, Elizabeth; Ranji, Sumant; Sharpe, Brad; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Hollander, Harry
Professional organizations have called for individualized training approaches, as well as for opportunities for resident scholarship, to ensure that internal medicine residents have sufficient knowledge and experience to make informed career choices. To address these training issues within the University of California, San Francisco, internal medicine program, we created the Areas of Distinction (AoD) program to supplement regular clinical duties with specialized curricula designed to engage residents in clinical research, global health, health equities, medical education, molecular medicine, or physician leadership. We describe our AoD program and present this initiative's evaluation data. METHODS AND PROGRAM EVALUATION: We evaluated features of our AoD program, including program enrollment, resident satisfaction, recruitment surveys, quantity of scholarly products, and the results of our resident's certifying examination scores. Finally, we described the costs of implementing and maintaining the AoDs. AoD enrollment increased from 81% to 98% during the past 5 years. Both quantitative and qualitative data demonstrated a positive effect on recruitment and improved resident satisfaction with the program, and the number and breadth of scholarly presentations have increased without an adverse effect on our board certification pass rate. The AoD system led to favorable outcomes in the domains of resident recruitment, satisfaction, scholarship, and board performance. Our intervention showed that residents can successfully obtain clinical training while engaging in specialized education beyond the bounds of core medicine training. Nurturing these interests 5 empower residents to better shape their careers by providing earlier insight into internist roles that transcend classic internal medicine training.
Asabere-Ameyaw, Akwasi; Sefa Dei, George J.; Raheem, Kolawole
This article presents the preliminary findings of a pilot study of the practice, uses, and effectiveness of traditional medicine in Ghana. Based on in-depth interviews with local key practitioners and users of traditional medicine, the article points to some of the educational significance of local cultural knowledge on the environment and the…
Bell, Lawrence T O; Evans, Darrell J R
For many years art, anatomy and medicine have shared a close relationship, as demonstrated by Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings and Andreas Vesalius' groundbreaking illustrated anatomical textbook from the 16th century. However, in the modern day, can art truly play an important role in medical education? Studies have suggested that art can be utilized to teach observational skills in medical students, a skill that is integral to patient examination but seldom taught directly within medical curricula. This article is a subjective survey that evaluates a student selected component (SSC) that explored the uses of art in medicine and investigates student perception on the relationship between the two. It also investigates whether these medical students believe that art can play a role in medical education, and more specifically whether analyzing art can play a role in developing observational skills in clinicians. An "Art in Medicine" 8-week course was delivered to first year medical students at Brighton and Sussex Medical School. The use of art to improve observational skills was a core theme throughout. Feedback from the students suggests that they believe a strong association between art and medicine exists. It also showed a strong perception that art could play a role in medical education, and more specifically through analyzing art to positively develop clinical observational skills. The results of this subjective study, together with those from research from elsewhere, suggest that an art-based approach to teaching observational skills may be worth serious consideration for inclusion in medical and other healthcare curricula. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.
Hathaway, Elaine Osier
The transfusion medicine profession can be easily compared and contrasted with an early 1900 ironclad ship operating in the rough seas of the 21st century. Without modifying the old ship to today's standards, even the captain and crew will begin to expect the ship to meet its demise. The unfortunate passengers, on the other hand, do not expect that they are on an old obsolete ship and, instead, are innocent victims stuck on a doomed course. The old ironclad ship must change into a sleek cruiser and utilize the latest available technology so that its well-educated and competent captain and crew can safely navigate even the most challenging waters. The transfusion medicine profession must transform itself into a state-of-the-art ship so that it, like the refurbished ironclad ship, can be set on cruise control through the open seas. The question facing our industry is do we have the courage to utilize modern technology and to commit the funds necessary to develop, implement, and maintain our existence? It is difficult to plot a steady course into the future because of existing challenges that stand ready to sink our profession, including economic wrangling over regulation, technologic changes, generation conflict, and political differences that threaten our excellence. The primary purpose of this article is to focus on the educational needs that affect all personnel involved in transfusion medicine. In addition, this article will address potential adverse outcomes and investigate possible resolutions to avoid the "sinking ship." Within the next 5 to 7 years, without a corrective course of action, our profession will be at the bottom of the clinical ladder, remembered more for its demise and tragic ending than for its accomplishments. It is hoped, successful implementation of changes in educational paradigms in transfusion medicine may lead to a renaissance within our workforce-generations working together, each sharing and learning from one another.
The relatively new specialty of Hospital Medicine in the USA is one of the fastest growing fields in internal medicine. Academic hospitalists are largely involved in the medical education of postgraduate residents and medical students. Little is known about the effectiveness of peer-to-peer teaching in internal medicine residency training programs and how the medical residents perceive its educational value in learning Hospital Medicine. The Hospitalist Huddle is a weekly educational activity newly established by our Hospitalist Division to facilitate the concept of peer-to-peer teaching. It requires medical residents to teach and educate their peers about the clinical topics related to Hospital Medicine. Faculty hospitalists serve as facilitators during the teaching sessions. A survey disseminated at the end of the first year of its implementation examined the residents' perception of the educational value of this new teaching activity. Most residents reported that they see the Huddle as a useful educational forum which may improve their skills in teaching, create a better educational and learning environment during their inpatient rotation, and improve their understanding of Hospital Medicine. Most residents also prefer that their peers, rather than faculty hospitalists, run the activity and do the teaching. The survey results support the notion that teaching and learning with flat hierarchies can be an appealing educational method to medical residents to help them understand Hospital Medicine during their medical wards rotation. Some areas need to be improved and others need to be continued and emphasized in order to make this novel educational activity grow and flourish in terms of its educational value and residents' satisfaction.
Delavari, Somayeh; Rezaee, Rita; Hatam, Nahid; Delavari, Sajad
Efficiency evaluation of universities and faculties is one of the tools that help managers to identify the departments' strengths and weakness. The main objective of the present research was to measure and compare the technical efficiency of Shiraz school of medicine departments using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. This cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed on clinical and non-clinical departments in research and education domains over the period of 2006 to 2011. Different inputs and outputs were considered for research and educational domain separately. Efficiency was measured based on the observed optimal performance. Findings showed that pathology and anatomy departments achieved the score of 100 in technical efficiency in education during 2006 to 2011. During this period, parasitology, psychiatric and pediatrics department's achieved the score of 100 for technical efficiency in research domain. The lowest mean of relative educational efficiency belonged to orthopedic department; as to relative research efficiency, the lowest mean was shown in orthopedics and genetics departments. The mean technical efficiency of non-medical departments in education and research domain was 91.93 and 76.08, respectively, while the mean technical efficiency of the clinical department in educational and research fields was 91.02 and 82.23, respectively. Using multiple input and output in DEA technique provided a comprehensive evaluation of efficiency in Shiraz school of medicine departments. The DEA could successfully estimate the technical efficiency of the departments in research and educational fields. Moreover, the deficiency in each department was found; this could help them to plan for improvement.
Bellows, Jennifer Whitfield; Douglass, Katherine; Atilla, Ridvan; Smith, Jeffrey; Kapur, G Bobby
Background The specialty of Emergency Medicine has enjoyed recognition for nearly 20 years in Turkey. However, the majority of underserved and rural Turkish emergency departments are staffed by general practitioners who lack formal training in the specialty and have few opportunities to increase emergency medicine-specific knowledge and skills. Methods To address this ?practitioner gap,? the authors developed a four-phase comprehensive emergency medicine education and training program for gen...
Girod, Sabine; Fassiotto, Magali; Grewal, Daisy; Ku, Manwai Candy; Sriram, Natarajan; Nosek, Brian A; Valantine, Hannah
One challenge academic health centers face is to advance female faculty to leadership positions and retain them there in numbers equal to men, especially given the equal representation of women and men among graduates of medicine and biological sciences over the last 10 years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the explicit and implicit biases favoring men as leaders, among both men and women faculty, and to assess whether these attitudes change following an educational intervention. The authors used a standardized, 20-minute educational intervention to educate faculty about implicit biases and strategies for overcoming them. Next, they assessed the effect of this intervention. From March 2012 through April 2013, 281 faculty members participated in the intervention across 13 of 18 clinical departments. The study assessed faculty members' perceptions of bias as well as their explicit and implicit attitudes toward gender and leadership. Results indicated that the intervention significantly changed all faculty members' perceptions of bias (P leadership of all participants regardless of age or gender (P = .008). These results suggest that providing education on bias and strategies for reducing it can serve as an important step toward reducing gender bias in academic medicine and, ultimately, promoting institutional change, specifically the promoting of women to higher ranks.
Corbett, Eugene C; Payne, Nancy J; Bradley, Elizabeth B; Maughan, Karen L; Heald, Evan B; Wang, Xin Qun
In 1993, the University of Virginia School of Medicine began a clinical skills workshop program in an effort to improve the preparation of all clerkship students to participate in clinical care. This program involved the teaching of selected basic clinical skills by interested faculty to small groups of third-year medical students. Over the past 14 years, the number of workshops has increased from 11 to 31, and they now involve clerkship faculty from family medicine, internal medicine, and pediatrics. Workshops include a variety of common skills from the communication, physical examination, and clinical test and procedure domains such as pediatric phone triage, shoulder examination, ECG interpretation, and suturing. Workshop sessions allow students to practice skills on each other, with standardized patients, or with models, with the goal of improving competence and confidence in the performance of basic clinical skills. Students receive direct feedback from faculty on their skill performance. The style and content of these workshops are guided by an explicit set of educational criteria.A formal evaluation process ensures that faculty receive regular feedback from student evaluation comments so that adherence to workshop criteria is continuously reinforced. Student evaluations confirm that these workshops meet their skill-learning needs. Preliminary outcome measures suggest that workshop teaching can be linked to student assessment data and may improve students' skill performance. This program represents a work-in-progress toward the goal of providing a more comprehensive and developmental clinical skills curriculum in the school of medicine.
Greer, Pedro J; Brown, David R; Brewster, Luther G; Lage, Onelia G; Esposito, Karin F; Whisenant, Ebony B; Anderson, Frederick W; Castellanos, Natalie K; Stefano, Troy A; Rock, John A
Despite medical advances, health disparities persist, resulting in medicine's renewed emphasis on the social determinants of health and calls for reform in medical education. The Green Family Foundation Neighborhood Health Education Learning Program (NeighborhoodHELP) at Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine provides a platform for the school's community-focused mission. NeighborhoodHELP emphasizes social accountability and interprofessional education while providing evidence-based, patient- and household-centered care. NeighborhoodHELP is a required, longitudinal service-learning outreach program in which each medical student is assigned a household in a medically underserved community. Students, teamed with learners from other professional schools, provide social and clinical services to their household for three years. Here the authors describe the program's engagement approach, logistics, and educational goals and structure. During the first six years of NeighborhoodHELP (September 2010-August 2016), 1,470 interprofessional students conducted 7,452 visits to 848 households with, collectively, 2,252 members. From August 2012, when mobile health centers were added to the program, through August 2016, students saw a total of 1,021 household members through 7,207 mobile health center visits. Throughout this time, households received a variety of free health and social services (e.g., legal aid, tutoring). Compared with peers from other schools, graduating medical students reported more experience with clinical interprofessional education and health disparities. Surveyed residency program directors rated graduates highly for their cultural sensitivity, teamwork, and accountability. Faculty and administrators are focusing on social accountability curriculum integration, systems for assessing and tracking relevant educational and household outcomes, and policy analysis.
Park, Hye-Young; Kim, Ji-Soo
Emergency nurses are expected to provide required nursing services by using their professional expertise to reduce the risk posed by disasters. Thus, emergency nurses' disaster nursing core competencies are essential for coping with disasters. The purpose of the study reported here was to identify factors influencing the disaster nursing core competencies of emergency nurses. A survey was conducted among 231 emergency nurses working in 12 hospitals in South Korea. Data were collected on disaster-related experience, attitude, knowledge, and disaster nursing core competencies by means of a questionnaire. In multiple regression analysis, disaster-related experience exerted the strongest influence on disaster nursing core competencies, followed by disaster-related knowledge. The explanatory power of these factors was 25.6%, which was statistically significant (F=12.189, pcompetencies of emergency nurses could be improved through education and training programs that enhance their disaster preparedness. The nursing profession needs to participate actively in the development of disaster nursing education and training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kadar, Gena E; Vosko, Andrew; Sackett, Michael; Thompson, H Garrett Rush
A survey of the constituents of a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) institution was conducted to identify perceptions of interprofessional education (IPE) and practice (IPP). A 22 question survey was developed and administered to: chiropractic students, acupuncture and oriental medicine students, faculty and alumni of both professions, staff and administrators. The majority of the 321 respondents demonstrated positive perceptions of IPE and IPP, however many reported a lack of understanding of the distinct roles of select healthcare professions. The study also suggested that the campus community is not homogenous in its understanding of CAM or allopathic professions, or is it homogenous in its understanding of IPE and IPP. While the overall positive attitudes toward IPE and IPP imply a willingness to improve collaboration between these groups, the lack of understanding of profession-specific roles must be addressed to support effective implementation of IPE.
Goal of measurement of the quality assessment of students' satisfaction is identification of weak and outdated sections of medical education. By finding out the unnecessary aspects, it is possible to start with improvement of the educational system. The survey was conducted on the sample of 108 students of the final year of the study of Medical faculty in Sarajevo in December 2011. Questionnaire has 24 process and outcome variables for the purpose of quality assessment of the education at the Medical faculty. The measurement of quality of realized lectures of final year of Medical faculty in Sarajevo with formatted questionnaires determined that above 90% students rated it very low with grades under 3 of possible 5, compared with average 3 in survey from 2008. Unpreparedness of independent service after finished medical education has raised to 70% of questioned students, compared to 53% in 2008. Ratio of educators and assistents to students was graded mostly with grades under 3 of possible 5 by more then 80% questioned participants. Students grading satisfaction with concept of preclinical training has peaked in low levels of grade 1 by 44% survey participants, what are similar results compared to 2008. The measurement of satisfaction with concept of clinical education determined even lower and embarassing values of 94% negative attitudes and opinions by questioned students, compared with 83% in 2008. Availability of modern technical equipment at Faculty of Medicine is very low rated with grades under 2 by 87% of students. The problems and weak points in medical education of Faculty of Medicine University of Sarajevo have persisted during period of more then a decade what comparsion of survey results clearly show. There is urgent need of improving and reforming the educational system which will bring more practical clinical and preclincal work, patient-student contact and interaction with bigger full attendance of educators and tutors, all supported by new modern
Conclusion: The average scores of professional competency of midwives to deliver reproductive health service to infants in disasters shows the necessity of related and integrated education. It is recommended that by holding training exercises and simulations, midwives be educated with regard to disasters and how to respond in these situations.
Wong, Zhi Yen; Alrasheedy, Alian A.; Saleem, Fahad; Mohamad Yahaya, Abdul Haniff; Aljadhey, Hisham
Objectives: To investigate the impact of an educational intervention on doctors’ knowledge and perceptions towards generic medicines and their generic (international non-proprietary name) prescribing practice. Methods: This is a single-cohort pre-/post-intervention pilot study. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Perak, Malaysia. All doctors from the internal medicine department were invited to participate in the educational intervention. The intervention consisted of an interactive lecture, an educational booklet and a drug list. Doctors’ knowledge and perceptions were assessed by using a validated questionnaire, while the international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was assessed by screening the prescription before and after the intervention. Results: The intervention was effective in improving doctors’ knowledge towards bioequivalence, similarity of generic medicines and safety standards required for generic medicine registration (p = 0.034, p = 0.034 and p = 0.022, respectively). In terms of perceptions towards generic medicines, no significant changes were noted (p > 0.05). Similarly, no impact on international non-proprietary name prescribing practice was observed after the intervention (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about generic medicines before the intervention. Moreover, international non-proprietary name prescribing was not a common practice. However, the educational intervention was only effective in improving doctors’ knowledge of generic medicines. PMID:26770747
... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...
West, Colin P; Shanafelt, Tait D; Kolars, Joseph C
Physician distress is common and has been associated with negative effects on patient care. However, factors associated with resident distress and well-being have not been well described at a national level. To measure well-being in a national sample of internal medicine residents and to evaluate relationships with demographics, educational debt, and medical knowledge. Study of internal medicine residents using data collected on 2008 and 2009 Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (IM-ITE) scores and the 2008 IM-ITE survey. Participants were 16,394 residents, representing 74.1% of all eligible US internal medicine residents in the 2008-2009 academic year. This total included 7743 US medical graduates and 8571 international medical graduates. Quality of life (QOL) and symptoms of burnout were assessed, as were year of training, sex, medical school location, educational debt, and IM-ITE score reported as percentage of correct responses. Quality of life was rated "as bad as it can be" or "somewhat bad" by 2402 of 16,187 responding residents (14.8%). Overall burnout and high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were reported by 8343 of 16,192 (51.5%), 7394 of 16,154 (45.8%), and 4541 of 15,737 (28.9%) responding residents, respectively. In multivariable models, burnout was less common among international medical graduates than among US medical graduates (45.1% vs 58.7%; odds ratio, 0.70 [99% CI, 0.63-0.77]; P $200,000 relative to no debt). Residents reporting QOL "as bad as it can be" and emotional exhaustion symptoms daily had mean IM-ITE scores 2.7 points (99% CI, 1.2-4.3; P ITE scores 5.0 points (99% CI, 4.4-5.6; P ITE scores.
Explained and discussed are the outline of heat illness (HI), its raised risk and measures taken at the disaster of the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (FNPPA; Mar. 2011). High temperature and humid environment induce HI through the fervescence and dehydration resulting in the intestinal ischemia/hypoxia and organ failure. Epidemiologic data of the heatstroke in Japan suggest its seemingly parallel incidence to seasonal hotness of the summer. HI is classified in either classical (non-exertional) or exertional heatstroke, both with severity of I (slight), II (slight symptom of the central nervous system (CNS); necessary for consultation) and III (most serious; having dysfunction of CNS, organ or coagulation). Therapy depends on the severity: I for the first aid on site, II necessary for carrying to hospital and III for hospitalization. Protection is possible by personal, neighbors' and managers' carefulness, and supply of sufficient water and minerals. Risk of HI was suddenly raised at taking measures to meet with the FNPPA. Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) promptly organized JAAM-FNPPA Working Group to treat the emergent multiple incidents including the radiation exposure and HI as well. Exertional HI was mainly in labors wearing rather sealed closes to protect radiation to work for steps of the Accident, and which was similar to evacuees temporarily entering the evacuation area for visit to their own vacant houses. In the summer, classical HI was also a problem mainly in elderly living in the evacuation dwellings. Document of HI incidents and patients at FNPPA should be recorded for the reference to possible disaster in future. (T.T.)
Ginter Peter M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health officials and journalists play a crucial role in disseminating information regarding natural disasters, terrorism and other human-initiated disasters. However, research suggests that journalists are unprepared to cover terrorism and many types of natural disasters, in part because of lack sufficient expertise in science and medicine and training. The objective of this research was to identify solutions to problems facing journalists and public health public information officer (PIOs of communicating with the public during natural and human-initiated disasters. Methods To assist in identifying the most pressing problems regarding media response to health-related risks such as terrorism and large-scale natural disasters, 26 expert advisors were convened, including leaders representing journalists and public information officers, state health officials, experts in terrorism and emergency preparedness, and experts in health, risk, and science communication. The advisory group participated in pre-arranged interviews and were asked to identify and review bioterrorism educational resources provided to journalist. All advisory group members were then invited to attend a day long meeting January 29, 2004 to review the findings and reach consensus. Results The most pressing problems were found to be a lack of coordination between PIO's and journalists, lack of resources for appropriately evaluating information and disseminating it efficiently, and a difference in perception of PIO's and journalist towards each others role during emergency situations. The advisory board developed a list of 15 recommendations that may enhance communication plans betweens PIO's, journalist and the public. The solutions were meant to be feasible in terms of costs and practical in terms of the professional and organizational realities in which journalists and PIO's work. Conclusion It is clear that PIO's and journalists play crucial roles in
Farra, Sharon L; Miller, Elaine T; Hodgson, Eric
Disaster training is crucial to the mitigation of both mortality and morbidity associated with disasters. Just as clinical practice needs to be grounded in evidence, effective disaster education is dependent upon the development and use of andragogic and pedagogic evidence. Educational research findings must be transformed into useable education strategies. Virtual reality simulation is a teaching methodology that has the potential to be a powerful educational tool. The purpose of this article is to translate research findings related to the use of virtual reality simulation in disaster training into education practice. The Ace Star Model serves as a valuable framework to translate the VRS teaching methodology and improve disaster training of healthcare professionals. Using the Ace Star Model as a framework to put evidence into practice, strategies for implementing a virtual reality simulation are addressed. Practice guidelines, implementation recommendations, integration to practice and evaluation are discussed. It is imperative that health educators provide more exemplars of how research evidence can be moved through the various stages of the model to advance practice and sustain learning outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Preparedness for disaster scenarios is progressively becoming an educational agenda for governments because of diversifying risks and threats worldwide. In disaster-prone Japan, disaster preparedness has been a prioritised national agenda, and preparedness education has been undertaken in both formal schooling and lifelong learning settings. This…
Sarah M. Westberg
Full Text Available Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic. Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and certified medical assistants. The impact of this training was measured through pre-initiation and post-implementation surveys, competency assessments and an audit. Results: The educational initiative was successfully designed and delivered to clinic nursing staff. Assessment of the initiative found that all nursing staff completing competency assessments successfully passed. Pre-initiation- and post-implementation- survey responses on the self-assessed ability to gather and document accurate medication lists did not show significant changes. Informal observations in the clinic indicated that this initiative changed the culture of the clinic, creating increased awareness of the importance of accurate medications and increased emphasis on medication reconciliation. Conclusions: The expertise of pharmacists can be utilized to educate nursing staff on the skills and abilities necessary to gather and document accurate medication lists. This study did not find measurable changes in the accuracy of medication lists in this clinic. Future research is needed to determine the best methods to train health professionals in medication reconciliation to ensure accurate medication lists in the outpatient setting. Type: Original Research
Sayre, Jerry W; Toklu, Hale Z; Ye, Fan; Mazza, Joseph; Yale, Steven
Case reports and case series or case study research are descriptive studies that are prepared for illustrating novel, unusual, or atypical features identified in patients in medical practice, and they potentially generate new research questions. They are empirical inquiries or investigations of a patient or a group of patients in a natural, real-world clinical setting. Case study research is a method that focuses on the contextual analysis of a number of events or conditions and their relationships. There is disagreement among physicians on the value of case studies in the medical literature, particularly for educators focused on teaching evidence-based medicine (EBM) for student learners in graduate medical education. Despite their limitations, case study research is a beneficial tool and learning experience in graduate medical education and among novice researchers. The preparation and presentation of case studies can help students and graduate medical education programs evaluate and apply the six American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies in the areas of medical knowledge, patient care, practice-based learning, professionalism, systems-based practice, and communication. A goal in graduate medical education should be to assist residents to expand their critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. These attributes are required in the teaching and practice of EBM. In this aspect, case studies provide a platform for developing clinical skills and problem-based learning methods. Hence, graduate medical education programs should encourage, assist, and support residents in the publication of clinical case studies; and clinical teachers should encourage graduate students to publish case reports during their graduate medical education.
Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Tamba, Kaichiro; Takamiya, Yusuke; Morita, Tatsuya; Bito, Seiji; Otaki, Junji
There is currently no consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan, although the Cancer Control Act proposed in 2007 covers the dissemination of palliative care. To develop a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan using a modified Delphi method. We adopted the following three-step method: (1) a workshop to produce the draft syllabus; (2) a survey-based provisional syllabus; (3) Delphi rounds and a panel meeting (modified Delphi method) to produce the working syllabus. Educators in charge of palliative medicine from 63% of the medical schools in Japan collaborated to develop a survey-based provisional syllabus before the Delphi rounds. A panel of 32 people was then formed for the modified Delphi rounds comprising 28 educators and experts in palliative medicine, one cancer survivor, one bereaved family member, and two medical students. The final consensus syllabus consists of 115 learning objectives across seven sections as follows: basic principles; disease process and comprehensive assessment; symptom management; psychosocial care; cultural, religious, and spiritual issues; ethical issues; and legal frameworks. Learning objectives were categorized as essential or desirable (essential: 66; desirable: 49). A consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education was developed using a clear and innovative methodology. The final consensus syllabus will be made available for further dissemination of palliative care education throughout the country.
Bradt, David A; Bartley, Bruce; Hibble, Belinda A; Varshney, Kavita
A regional epidemiological analysis of Australasian disasters in the 20th century to present was undertaken to examine trends in disaster epidemiology; to characterise the impacts on civil society through disaster policy, practice and legislation; and to consider future potential limitations in national disaster resilience. A surveillance definition of disaster was developed conforming to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) criteria (≥10 deaths, ≥100 affected, or declaration of state emergency or appeal for international assistance). The authors then applied economic and legislative inclusion criteria to identify additional disasters of national significance. The surveillance definition yielded 165 disasters in the period, from which 65 emerged as disasters of national significance. There were 38 natural disasters, 22 technological disasters, three offshore terrorist attacks and two domestic mass shootings. Geographic analysis revealed that states with major population centres experienced the vast majority of disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis revealed an increasing incidence of disasters since the 1980s, which peaked in the period 2005-2009. Recent seasonal bushfires and floods have incurred the highest death toll and economic losses in Australasian history. Reactive hazard-specific legislation emerged after all terrorist acts and after most disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis reveals an increasing incidence in natural disasters over the past 15 years, with the most lethal and costly disasters occurring in the past 3 years. Vulnerability to disaster in Australasia appears to be increasing. Reactive legislation is a recurrent feature of Australasian disaster response that suggests legislative shortsightedness and a need for comprehensive all-hazards model legislation in the future. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Lauta, Kristian Cedervall; Dahlberg, Rasmus; Vendelø, Morten Thanning
In the present article, we explore in more depth the particular circumstances and characteristics of governing what we call ‘cold disasters’, and thereby, the paper sets out to investigate how disasters in cold contexts distinguish themselves from other disasters, and what the implications hereof...... are for the conceptualization and governance of cold disasters. Hence, the paper can also be viewed as a response to Alexander’s (2012a) recent call for new theory in the field of disaster risk reduction. The article is structured in four overall parts. The first part, Cold Context, provides an overview of the specific...... conditions in a cold context, exemplified by the Arctic, and zooms in on Greenland to provide more specific background for the paper. The second part, Disasters in Cold Contexts, discusses “cold disasters” in relation to disaster theory, in order to, elucidate how cold disasters challenge existing...
initiatives and bottom-up organising as the preferred method to combat disaster. Once construed as strictly a responsibility of the state, the mitigation and management of disasters has shifted since the 1970s into a matter for civil society: a shift which has been heralded as progressive, democratic...... the banner of disaster. Focussing on the modifications to disaster management in the United States between 1970 and 2012, I show how the inclusion of civil society in the provision of aid services was accompanied by a structural withdrawal of the state from disaster relief and other welfare services. I...... contextualise this withdrawal in the US government’s general turn to austerity in response to the economic crisis of the 1970s. My account couples the notion of disaster with that of economic crisis on the one hand and structural violence on the other to examine disasters as a specific problem for social...
Peabody, Michael R; O'Neill, Thomas R; Eden, Aimee R; Puffer, James C
Due to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)/American Osteopathic Association (AOA) single-accreditation model, the specialty of family medicine may see as many as 150 programs and 500 trainees in AOA-accredited programs seek ACGME accreditation. This analysis serves to better understand the composition of physicians completing family medicine residency training and their subsequent certification by the American Board of Family Medicine. We identified residents who completed an ACGME-accredited or dual-accredited family medicine residency program between 2006 and 2016 and cross-tabulated the data by graduation year and by educational background (US Medical Graduate-MD [USMG-MD], USMG-DO, or International Medical Graduate-MD [IMG-MD]) to examine the cohort composition trend over time. The number and proportion of osteopaths completing family medicine residency training continues to rise concurrent with a decline in the number and proportion of IMGs. Take Rates for USMG-MDs and USMG-IMGs seem stable; however, the Take Rate for the USMG-DOs has generally been rising since 2011. There is a clear change in the composition of graduating trainees entering the family medicine workforce. As the transition to a single accreditation system for graduate medical education progresses, further shifts in the composition of this workforce should be expected. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Aronoff, Stephen C; Evans, Barry; Fleece, David; Lyons, Paul; Kaplan, Lawrence; Rojas, Roberto
Incorporation of evidence based medicine into the undergraduate curriculum varies from school to school. The purpose of this study was to determine if an online course in evidence based medicine run concurrently with the clinical clerkships in the 3rd year of undergraduate medical education provided effective instruction in evidence based medicine (EBM). During the first 18 weeks of the 3rd year, students completed 6 online, didactic modules. Over the next 24 weeks, students developed questions independently from patients seen during clerkships and then retrieved and appraised relevant evidence. Online, faculty mentors reviewed student assignments submitted throughout the course to monitor progress. Mastery of the skills of EBM was assessed prior to and at the conclusion of the course using the Fresno test of competency. Paired data were available from 139 students. Postcourse test scores (M= 77.7; 95% CI = 59-96.4) were significantly higher than precourse scores (M= 66.6; 95% CI = 46.5-86.7), ponline, faculty mentored instruction. This method of instruction provided uniform instruction across geographic sites and medical specialties and permitted efficient use of faculty time.
Bass, Deanna; Brandenburg, Dana; Danner, Christine
Primary care is the setting where the majority of patients seek assistance for their mental health problems. To assist family medicine residents in providing effective care to patients for mental health problems during residency and after graduation, it is essential they receive training in the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of common mental health conditions. While there is some limited education time with a psychiatrist in our department, residents need tools and resources that provide education during their continuity clinics even when the psychiatrist is not available. Information on two tools that were developed is provided. These tools include teaching residents a brief method for conducting a psychiatric interview as well as a means to access evidence-based information on diagnosis and treatment of mental health conditions through templates available within our electronic medical record. © The Author(s) 2015.
Saunders, J; Gopalan, P; Puri, N; Azzam, P N; Zhou, L; Ghinassi, F; Jain, A; Travis, M; Ryan, N D
Psychiatric education for non-psychiatric residents varies between training programs, and may affect resident comfort with psychiatric topics. This study's goals were to identify non-psychiatric residents' comfort with psychiatric topics and to test the effectiveness of a video intervention. Residents in various departments were given a survey. They were asked to rank their comfort level with multiple psychiatric topics, answer questions about medical decision making capacity (MDMC), watch a 15-min video about MDMC, and answer a post-test section. In total, 91 Internal Medicine, General Surgery, and Obstetrics and Gynecology residents responded to the study. Of the 91 residents, 55 completed the pre- and post-test assessments. There was no significant difference in correct responses. Residents' comfort levels were assessed, and a significant improvement in comfort level with MDMC was found. This study highlights potential opportunities for psychiatric education, and suggests brief video interventions can increase resident physicians' comfort with a psychiatric topic.
Abir, Mahshid; Bell, Sue Anne; Puppala, Neha; Awad, Osama; Moore, Melinda
There are few reported efforts to define universal disaster response performance measures. Careful examination of responses to past disasters can inform the development of such measures. As a first step toward this goal, we conducted a literature review to identify key factors in responses to 3 recent events with significant loss of human life and economic impact: the 2003 Bam, Iran, earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami; and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Using the PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD) database, we identified 710 articles and retained 124 after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventy-two articles pertained to the Haiti earthquake, 38 to the Indian Ocean tsunami, and 14 to the Bam earthquake. On the basis of this review, we developed an organizational framework for disaster response performance measurement with 5 key disaster response categories: (1) personnel, (2) supplies and equipment, (3) transportation, (4) timeliness and efficiency, and (5) interagency cooperation. Under each of these, and again informed by the literature, we identified subcategories and specific items that could be developed into standardized performance measures. The validity and comprehensiveness of these measures can be tested by applying them to other recent and future disaster responses, after which standardized performance measures can be developed through a consensus process. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:505-509).
Novaes, Maria Rita Garbi; Guilhem, Dirce; Barragan, Elena; Mennin, Stewart
The Brazilian national curriculum guidelines for undergraduate medicine courses inspired and influenced the groundwork for knowledge acquisition, skills development and the perception of ethical values in the context of professional conduct. The evaluation of ethics education in research involving human beings in undergraduate medicine curriculum in Brazil, both in courses with active learning processes and in those with traditional lecture learning methodologies. Curricula and teaching projects of 175 Brazilian medical schools were analyzed using a retrospective historical and descriptive exploratory cohort study. Thirty one medical schools were excluded from the study because of incomplete information or a refusal to participate. Active research for information from institutional sites and documents was guided by terms based on 69 DeCS/MeSH descriptors. Curriculum information was correlated with educational models of learning such as active learning methodologies, tutorial discussions with integrated curriculum into core modules, and traditional lecture learning methodologies for large classes organized by disciplines and reviewed by occurrence frequency of ethical themes and average hourly load per semester. Ninety-five medical schools used traditional learning methodologies. The ten most frequent ethical themes were: 1--ethics in research (26); 2--ethical procedures and advanced technology (46); 3--ethic-professional conduct (413). Over 80% of schools using active learning methodologies had between 50 and 100 hours of scheduled curriculum time devoted to ethical themes whereas more than 60% of traditional learning methodology schools devoted less than 50 hours in curriculum time to ethical themes. The data indicates that medical schools that employ more active learning methodologies provide more attention and time to ethical themes than schools with traditional discipline-based methodologies. Given the importance of ethical issues in contemporary medical
Shoeb, Marwa; Khanna, Raman; Fang, Margaret; Sharpe, Brad; Finn, Kathleen; Ranji, Sumant; Monash, Brad
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has established the requirement for residency programs to assess trainees' competencies in 6 core domains (patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning, interpersonal skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice). As attending rounds serve as a primary means for educating trainees at academic medical centers, our study aimed to identify current rounding practices and attending physician perceived capacity of different rounding models to promote teaching within the ACGME core competencies. We disseminated a 24-question survey electronically using educational and hospital medicine leadership mailing lists. We assessed attending physician demographics and the frequency with which they used various rounding models, as defined by the location of the discussion of the patient and care plan: bedside rounds (BR), hallway rounds (HR), and card-flipping rounds (CFR). Using the ACGME framework, we assessed the perceived educational value of each model. We received 153 completed surveys from attending physicians representing 34 institutions. HR was used most frequently for both new and established patients (61% and 43%), followed by CFR for established patients (36%) and BR for new patients (22%). Most attending physicians indicated that BR and HR were superior to CFR in promoting the following ACGME competencies: patient care, systems-based practice, professionalism, and interpersonal skills. HR is the most commonly employed rounding model. BR and HR are perceived to be valuable for teaching patient care, systems-based practice, professionalism, and interpersonal skills. CFR remains prevalent despite its perceived inferiority in promoting teaching across most of the ACGME core competencies. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Folkl, Alex; Chan, Teresa; Blau, Elaine
Free, open access medical education (FOAM) has the potential to revolutionize continuing medical education, particularly for rural physicians who practice emergency medicine (EM) as part of a generalist practice. However, there has been little study of rural physicians' educational needs since the advent of FOAM. We asked how rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario obtained their continuing EM education. We asked them to assess their perceived level of comfort in different areas of EM. To understand how FOAM resources might serve the rural EM community, we compared their responses with urban emergency physicians. Responses were collected via survey and interview. There was no significant difference between groups in reported use of FOAM resources. However, there was a significant difference between rural and urban physicians' perceived level of EM knowledge, with urban physicians reporting a higher degree of confidence for most knowledge categories, particularly those related to critical care and rare procedures. This study provides the first description of EM knowledge and FOAM resource utilization among rural physicians in Southwestern Ontario. It also highlights an area of educational need -- that is, critical care and rare procedures. Future work should address whether rural physicians are using FOAM specifically to improve their critical care and procedural knowledge. As well, because of the generalist nature of rural practice, future work should clarify whether there is an opportunity cost to rural physicians' knowledge of other clinical domains if they chose to focus more time on continuing education in critical care EM.
Wofford, James L; Singh, Sonal
INTRODUCTION Whether the clinical vignettes presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) annual meeting could be of educational value to third year students in the Internal Medicine clerkship has not been studied. OBJECTIVE To explore the relevance and learning value of clinical vignettes from the SGIM national meeting in the Internal Medicine clerkship. SETTING Third year Ambulatory Internal Medicine clerkship at one academic medical center (academic year 2005 to 2006). METHODS Students were introduced to the clinical vignette and oriented to the database of clinical vignettes available through the SGIM annual meeting website. Students then reviewed 5 to 10 clinical vignettes using a worksheet, and rated the learning value of each vignette using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = least, 5 = greatest). A single investigator evaluated congruence of the vignette with the Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine (CDIM)-SGIM curriculum to assess relevance. MAIN RESULTS A total of 42 students evaluated 371 clinical vignettes from the 2004 and 2005 meetings. The clinical vignettes were curriculum-congruent in 42.6% (n = 175), and clearly incongruent in 40.4% (n = 164). The mean rating for learning value was 3.8 (±1.0) (5 signifying greatest learning value). Curriculum-congruent vignettes had a higher mean learning value compared with curriculum-incongruent vignettes (4.0 vs 3.6, Student's t-test, P =.017). CONCLUSION The clinical vignettes presented at the national SGIM meeting offer clinical content that is relevant and of some educational value for third year clerkship students. Based on this pilot study, the educational value and strategies for their use in the clinical clerkships deserve further study. PMID:17026730
Full Text Available Sejal J Patel,1 Kathi J Kemper,2 Joseph P Kitzmiller3 1College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2Center for Integrative Health and Wellness, The Ohio State Wexner University Medical Center, 3Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Over recent decades, the demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has continued to rise in the US. Like the practice of traditional Western medicine, CAM is associated with not only significant health benefits but also significant risks. Unlike traditional Western medicine, however, much of CAM use is less regulated and often occurs unbeknownst to a patient’s medical doctor. The use of herbals, dietary supplements, and over-the-counter (OTC medications can result in adverse effects, and many significant interactions can occur when their use is combined with allopathic medications. Even the more peripheral CAM practices (eg, acupuncture, massage, yoga, and Reiki have associated risk (eg, adverse effects or worsening of physical injury and conditions. There is, however, impetus for change: both patients and physicians favor increasing physician knowledge of CAM and the synergistic implementation of CAM into routine clinical practice. Although improvement has been achieved from contemporary physician educational efforts, recently published results from patient and physician surveys strongly indicate that additional effort to increase physician knowledge of CAM is needed. Utilizing a 37-item survey and convenience-sampling methodology, we collected detailed information from 114 physicians, fellows, and residents from the Ohio State University Medical Center regarding impediments to increasing physician knowledge of CAM and its implementation in routine clinical practice. The aggregate results of our survey data showed that most physicians 1 desired to increase their knowledge of CAM, 2 believed that less
Urbelis, A.; Surkiene, G.
Vilnius University is the first institution of higher education in Lithuania that began to teach students on radiation safety. The special course of radiation hygiene was delivered to students in 1962-1992. In 1992 it was introduced residency of radiation hygiene and graduated students qualified for title of radiation hygiene specialist. The residency lasted one year and included six cycles: fundamentals of nuclear physics, statistics and noninfectious epidemiology, radiobiology, radiological research methods, controls of radiation safety and hygienic analysis of radiation safety. From 1994 Vilnius University has been educating and training professionals of public health. The specialists of radiation safety aren't been training as isolated branch. All courses is divided into two parts. The first one is included into bachelor, the second part - into master study. The bachelor study consists of 2 credits (16 hours for lectures and 32 hours for practical studies). The future bachelors study introduction of radiation safety, elements of nuclear physics, dose limit values, fundamentals of radiological protection, natural radiation. The master study consists of 2 credits (8 hours for lectures and 48 hours for practical studies). The future masters study specific problems of radiation safety in medicine and industry, the safety problems of nuclear power - stations, the problems of radioactive wastes, radiation biology, radiation risk. Radiation safety study model in Faculty of medicine of Vilnius University differs from study model in most European countries as it makes great play of radiation safety while usual model includes radiation safety as insignificant part of environmental health. (author)
Day, Charles S; Ahn, Christine S
Medical schools in the United States have continued to demonstrate deficiencies in musculoskeletal education. In response to the findings of numerous studies and to the objectives of the U.S. Bone and Joint Decade (an international collaborative movement sanctioned by the United Nations and the World Health Organization for the purpose of promoting awareness of musculoskeletal disease), several institutions, including Harvard Medical School, have reassessed the preclinical musculoskeletal curriculum at their respective medical schools. A cross-sectional survey at Harvard in 2004 found that students lacked clinical confidence in dealing with the musculoskeletal system. In addition, only one quarter of the graduating class of medical students passed a nationally validated exam in basic musculoskeletal competency. In 2005, 33 total hours of musculoskeletal medicine were added to the musculoskeletal blocks of the preclinical anatomy, pathophysiology, and physical examination courses. Alongside this movement toward more musculoskeletal education, there has been continued debate over the relevance and cost-effectiveness of cadaveric and surface anatomy labs. With the advent of advanced imaging technology, some argue that dissection anatomy is outdated and labor-intensive, whereas three-dimensional images are more accessible and time-effective for today's students. However, knowledge of anatomy is a critical foundation to learning musculoskeletal medicine. Thus, making room for more musculoskeletal curriculum time by cutting out cadaveric anatomy labs may ultimately be counterproductive.
Masel, J; Humphrey, P T; Blackburn, B; Levine, J A
Most students have difficulty reasoning about chance events, and misconceptions regarding probability can persist or even strengthen following traditional instruction. Many biostatistics classes sidestep this problem by prioritizing exploratory data analysis over probability. However, probability itself, in addition to statistics, is essential both to the biology curriculum and to informed decision making in daily life. One area in which probability is particularly important is medicine. Given the preponderance of pre health students, in addition to more general interest in medicine, we capitalized on students' intrinsic motivation in this area to teach both probability and statistics. We use the randomized controlled trial as the centerpiece of the course, because it exemplifies the most salient features of the scientific method, and the application of critical thinking to medicine. The other two pillars of the course are biomedical applications of Bayes' theorem and science and society content. Backward design from these three overarching aims was used to select appropriate probability and statistics content, with a focus on eliciting and countering previously documented misconceptions in their medical context. Pretest/posttest assessments using the Quantitative Reasoning Quotient and Attitudes Toward Statistics instruments are positive, bucking several negative trends previously reported in statistics education. © 2015 J. Masel et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Full Text Available In just a few years of preparation, emergency medicine (EM trainees must achieve expertise across the broad spectrum of skills critical to the practice of the specialty. Though education occurs in many contexts, much learning occurs on the job, caring for patients under the guidance of clinical educators. The cognitive apprenticeship framework, originally described in primary and secondary education, has been applied to workplace-based medical training. The framework includes a variety of teaching methods: scaffolding, modeling, articulation, reflection, and exploration, applied in a safe learning environment. Without understanding these methods within a theoretical framework, faculty may not apply the methods optimally. Here we describe a faculty development intervention during which participants articulate, share, and practice their own applications of cognitive-apprenticeship methods to learners in EM. We summarize themes identified by workshop participants, and provide suggestions for tailoring the application of these methods to varying levels of EM learners. The cognitive-apprenticeship framework allows for a common understanding of the methods used in clinical teaching toward independence. Clinical educators should be encouraged to reflect critically on their methods, while being offered the opportunity to share and learn from others.
Srinivasan, Malathi; Keenan, Craig R; Yager, Joel
In this article, the authors ask three questions. First, what will physicians need to know in order to be effective in the future? Second, what role will technology play in achieving that high level of effectiveness? Third, what specific skill sets will physicians need to master in order to become effective? Through three case vignettes describing past, present, and potential future medical practices, the authors identify trends in major medical, technological and cultural shifts that will shape medical education and practice. From these cases, the authors generate a series of technology-related competencies and skill sets that physicians will need to remain leaders in the delivery of medical care. Physicians will choose how they will be end-users of technology, technology developers, and/or the interface between users and developers. These choices will guide the types of skills each physician will need to acquire. Finally, the authors explore the implications of these trends for medical educators, including the competencies that will be required of educators as they develop the medical curriculum. Examining historical and social trends, including how users adopt current and emerging technologies, allows us to anticipate changes in the practice of medicine. By considering market pressures, global trends and emerging technologies, medical educators and practicing physicians may prepare themselves for the changes likely to occur in the medical curriculum and in the marketplace.
Brian Dawson, MD
Full Text Available Objective: The healthcare chart is becoming ever more complex, serving clinicians, patients, third party payers, regulators, and even medicolegal parties. The purpose of this study was to identify our emergency medicine (EM resident and attending physicians’ current knowledge and attitudes about billing and documentation practices. We hypothesized that resident and attending physicians would identify billing and documentation as an area in which residents need further education.Methods: We gave a 15-question Likert survey to resident and attending physicians regarding charting practices, knowledge of billing and documentation, and opinions regarding need for further education.Results: We achieved a 100% response rate, with 47% (16/34 of resident physicians disagreeing or strongly disagreeing that they have adequate training in billing and documentation, while 91% (31/34 of residents and 95% (21/22 of attending physicians identified this skill as important to a resident’s future practice. Eighty-two percent (28/34 of resident physicians and 100% of attending physicians recommended further education for residents.Conclusion: Residents in this academic EM department identified a need for further education in billing and documentation practices. [West J Emerg Med. 2010;11(2: 116-119.
Modern cultural trends are inclined to recognise to all human beings an always more ample right to become involved directly in choices affecting them. This even when health is concerned thus requiring expertise not always accessible to all. Informed consent to often gets reduced to a mere formality, having a mostly defensive purpose for the physician. Patients' education is becoming an ever more pressing issue in order to safeguard decision rights and the effective knowledge of the implications of every decision simultaneously. Patients' education has serious ethical implications which can't be eluded nor referred outside as happens when we let mass media inform on the advantages and disadvantages of various therapies. One of the major fields were this misinformed choice right is expressed is the so called complementary and alternative medicine. Nowadays physicians have to get back their therapeutical leadership once again, with renewed responsibility and through education as well. Information as such is a necessary and not sufficient condition. A sheer education involving the physician in a deeper as well as in an extended therapeutical alliance is needed. The challenge of taking care involves the whole human being: his/her sick body, his/her wounded feelings as well as intelligence which has to understand what is happening clearly.
Full Text Available Introduction: Creating a calm and stress-free environment affects education significantly. The effects of the emergency department overcrowding (EDO on the training of emergency medicine residents (EMR is a highly debated subject. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of EDO on efficiency of EMR’s education. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the effects of overcrowding on EMR’s education in the resuscitation room and acute care unit. Data collection was done using a questionnaire, which was filled out by the second year EMRs. The crowding level was calculated based on the national emergency department overcrowding scale (NEDOCS. The relationship between the two studied variables was evaluated using independent sample t-test and SPSS 21 statistical software. Results: 130 questionnaires were filled out during 61 shifts. 47 (77.05% shifts were overcrowded. The attend’s ability to teach was not affected by overcrowding in the resuscitation room (p=0.008. The similar results were seen regarding the attend’s training ability in the acute care unit. Conclusion: It seems that the emergency department overcrowding has no effect on the quality of education to the EMRs.
Telemedicine has evolved to become an important field of medicine and healthcare, involving everything from simple patient care to actual performance of operations at a distance. This groundbreaking volume addresses the complex technical and clinical development in the management of trauma, disaster, and emergency situations using telemedicine. The book explains how telemedicine and related technologies can be used to effectively handle a wide range of scenarios, from a situation as small as a car crash, to major disasters such as an earthquake. Professionals find critical discussions on the p
Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R
In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.
Chandran, Latha; Fleit, Howard B; Shroyer, A Laurie
Stony Brook University School of Medicine (SBU SOM) used a Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) site visit to design a change management approach that engaged students, revitalized faculty, and enabled significant, positive institutional transformation while flexibly responding to concurrent leadership transitions. This "from-the-trenches" description of novel LCME site-visit-related processes may provide an educational program quality improvement template for other U.S. medical schools. The SBU SOM site visit processes were proactively organized within five phases: (1) planning (4 months), (2) data gathering (12 months), (3) documentation (6 months), (4) visit readiness (2 months), and (5) visit follow-up (16 months). The authors explain the key activities associated with each phase.The SBU SOM internal leadership team designed new LCME-driven educational performance reports to identify challenging aspects of the educational program (e.g., timeliness of grades submitted, midcourse feedback completeness, clerkship grading variability across affiliate sites, learning environment or student mistreatment incidents). This LCME process increased institutional awareness, identified the school's LCME vulnerabilities, organized corrective actions, engaged key stakeholders in communication, ensured leadership buy-in, and monitored successes. The authors' strategies for success included establishing a strong internal LCME leadership team, proactively setting deadlines for all phases of the LCME process, assessing and communicating vulnerabilities and action plans, building multidisciplinary working groups, leveraging information technology, educating key stakeholders through meetings, retreats, and consultants, and conducting a mock site visit. The urgency associated with an impending high-stakes LCME site visit can facilitate positive, local, educational program quality improvement.
Meade, Lauren B; Caverzagie, Kelly J; Swing, Susan R; Jones, Ron R; O'Malley, Cheryl W; Yamazaki, Kenji; Zaas, Aimee K
In competency-based medical education, the focus of assessment is on learner demonstration of predefined outcomes or competencies. One strategy being used in internal medicine (IM) is applying curricular milestones to assessment and reporting milestones to competence determination. The authors report a practical method for identifying sets of curricular milestones for assessment of a landmark, or a point where a resident can be entrusted with increased responsibility. Thirteen IM residency programs joined in an educational collaborative to apply curricular milestones to training. The authors developed a game using Q-sort methodology to identify high-priority milestones for the landmark "Ready for indirect supervision in essential ambulatory care" (EsAMB). During May to December 2010, the programs'ambulatory faculty participated in the Q-sort game to prioritize 22 milestones for EsAMB. The authors analyzed the data to identify the top 8 milestones. In total, 149 faculty units (1-4 faculty each) participated. There was strong agreement on the top eight milestones; six had more than 92% agreement across programs, and five had 75% agreement across all faculty units. During the Q-sort game, faculty engaged in dynamic discussion about milestones and expressed interest in applying the game to other milestones and educational settings. The Q-sort game enabled diverse programs to prioritize curricular milestones with interprogram and interparticipant consistency. A Q-sort exercise is an engaging and playful way to address milestones in medical education and may provide a practical first step toward using milestones in the real-world educational setting.
Full Text Available Audience and type of curriculum: The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Emergency Medicine Residency Program Ultrasound Education Curriculum is a three-year curriculum for PGY-1 to PGY-3 learners. Introduction/Background: Each year of the three-year The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Emergency Medicine Ultrasound Curriculum focuses on different aspects of emergency ultrasonography, thereby promoting progressive understanding and utilization of point-of-care ultrasound in medical decision-making during residency training. Ultrasound is an invaluable bedside tool for emergency physicians; this skill must be mastered by resident learners during residency training, and ultrasound competency is a required ACGME milestone.1 The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP currently recommends that 11 applications of emergency ultrasound be part of the core skills of an emergency physician.2 This curriculum acknowledges the standards developed by ACEP and the ACGME. Objectives: Learners will 1 know the indications for each the 11 ACEP point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS applications; 2 perform each of the 11 ACEP POCUS applications; 3 integrate POCUS into medical decision-making. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: independent, self-directed learning (textbook and literature reading, brief didactic sessions describing indications and technique for each examination, hands-on ultrasound scanning under the direct supervision of ultrasound faculty with real-time feedback, and quality assurance review of ultrasound images. Residents are expected to perform a minimum of 150 ultrasound examinations with associated quality assurance during the course of their residency training. The time requirements, reading material, and ultrasound techniques taught vary depending on the year of training. Length of curriculum: The entirety of the curriculum is three years; however, each year of residency training has
Disasters due to natural extreme events continue to grow in number and intensity. Disaster risk and crisis management requires long-term planning, and to undertake that planning, a science-driven approach is needed to understand and assess disaster risks and to help in impact assessment and in recovery processes after a disaster. Science is used in assessments and rapid modeling of the disaster impact, in forecasting triggered hazards and risk (e.g., a tsunami or a landslide after a large earthquake), in contacts with and medical treatment of the affected population, and in some other actions. At the stage of response to disaster, science helps to analyze routinely the disaster happened (e.g., the physical processes led to this extreme event; hidden vulnerabilities; etc.) At the stage of recovery, natural scientists improve the existing regional hazard assessments; engineers try to use new science to produce new materials and technologies to make safer houses and infrastructure. At the stage of disaster risk mitigation new scientific methods and approaches are being developed to study natural extreme events; vulnerability of society is periodically investigated, and the measures for increasing the resilience of society to extremes are developed; existing disaster management regulations are improved. At the stage of preparedness, integrated research on disaster risks should be developed to understand the roots of potential disasters. Enhanced forecasting and early warning systems are to be developed reducing predictive uncertainties, and comprehensive disaster risk assessment is to be undertaken at local, regional, national and global levels. Science education should be improved by introducing trans-disciplinary approach to disaster risks. Science can help society by improving awareness about extreme events, enhancing risk communication with policy makers, media and society, and assisting disaster risk management authorities in organization of local and regional
Henderson, Silja; Berliner, Peter; Elsass, Peter
In this chapter we focus on disaster mental health, particularly theoretical and research-based implications for intervention. The field of disaster mental health research is vast and impossible to cover in a single chapter, but we will visit central research, concepts, and understandings within...... disaster mental health and intervention, and refer to further literature where meaningful. We conclude the chapter with recommendations for further research....
Full Text Available An observed trend, which can be defined as tourist interest in natural hazards and disasters, has persuaded the authors to attempt to research several issues, including tourist motivations and specific tourism properties and functions of this form of activity. The objective also covered the allocation of this social and natural process in the general structure of tourism. This interest has a long history, and a new stage is currently forming, which partly results from factors affecting society, such as information and education, which provoke antagonistic reactions. Extreme natural phenomena entail a common reduction of tourist interest in the destination which hosted the event; however, it never drops to zero. Differences are visible depending on the type of phenomenon. On the other hand, natural hazards and disasters are considered to hold a specific tourism value. This article discusses the allocation of this human activity in the tourism forms known to scientists, accounting for its diversity and relating to ethics.
Kennedy, George; Richards, Michael; Chicarelli, Michael; Ernst, Amy; Harrell, Andrew; Stites, Danniel
The objective of this review is to stimulate the reader's considerations for developing community disaster mitigation. Disaster mitigation begins long before impact and is defined as the actions taken by a community to eliminate or minimize the impact of a disaster. The assessment of vulnerabilities, the development of infrastructure, memoranda of understanding, and planning for a sustainable response and recovery are parts of the process. Empowering leadership and citizens with knowledge of available resources through the planning and development of a disaster response can strengthen a community's resilience, which can only add to the viability and quality of life enjoyed by the entire community.
Arnesen, Stacey J; Cid, Victor H; Scott, John C; Perez, Ricardo; Zervaas, Dave
This paper describes an international outreach program to support rebuilding Central America's health information infrastructure after several natural disasters in the region, including Hurricane Mitch in 1998 and two major earthquakes in 2001. The National Library of Medicine joined forces with the Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and the Regional Center of Disaster Information for Latin America and the Caribbean (CRID) to strengthen libraries and information centers in Central America and improve the availability of and access to health and disaster information in the region by developing the Central American Network for Disaster and Health Information (CANDHI). Through CRID, the program created ten disaster health information centers in medical libraries and disaster-related organizations in six countries. This project served as a catalyst for the modernization of several medical libraries in Central America. The resulting CANDHI provides much needed electronic access to public health "gray literature" on disasters, as well as access to numerous health information resources. CANDHI members assist their institutions and countries in a variety of disaster preparedness activities through collecting and disseminating information.
Eltorai, Adam E M; Han, Alex; Truntzer, Jeremy; Daniels, Alan H
The recommended readability of patient education materials by the American Medical Association (AMA) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) should be no greater than a sixth-grade reading level. However, online resources may be too complex for some patients to understand, and poor health literacy predicts inferior health-related quality of life outcomes. This study evaluated whether the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (AOSSM) website's patient education materials meet recommended readability guidelines for medical information. We hypothesized that the readability of these online materials would have a Flesch-Kincaid formula grade above the sixth grade. All 65 patient education entries of the AOSSM website were analyzed for grade level readability using the Flesch-Kincaid formula, a widely used and validated tool to evaluate the text reading level. The average (standard deviation) readability of all 65 articles was grade level 10.03 (1.44); 64 articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level, which is the maximum level recommended by the AMA and NIH. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 4.03 grade levels (95% CI, 3.7-4.4; P reading level of US adults. Mean readability of the articles exceeded this level by 2.03 grade levels (95% CI, 1.7-2.4; P online AOSSM patient education materials exceeds the readability level recommended by the AMA and NIH, and is above the average reading level of the majority of US adults. This online information may be of limited utility to most patients due to a lack of comprehension. Our study provides a clear example of the need to improve the readability of specific education material in order to maximize the efficacy of multimedia sources.
Full Text Available Objectives – To determine the year when evidence based medicine (EBM wasintroduced and the extent to which medical students were exposed to EBM inundergraduate medical education and to investigate how EBM interventions weredesigned, developed, implemented, and evaluated in the medical curriculum.Methods – A qualitative review of the literature on EBM interventions was conductedto synthesize results of studies published from January 1997 to December 2011. Acomprehensive search was performed on PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science,Cochrane Library, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and ERIC. Articleswere selected if the studies involved some form of quantitative and qualitativeresearch design. Articles were excluded if they studied EBM interventions in medicalschools outside the United States or if they examined EBM interventions for alliedhealth profession education or at the levels of graduate medical education andcontinuing medical education. Thirteen studies which met the selection criteria wereidentified and reviewed. Information was abstracted including study design, year andsetting of EBM intervention, instructional method, instruction delivery format,outcome measured, and evaluation method.Results – EBM was introduced to preclinical years in three studies, integrated intoclinical clerkship rotations in primary care settings in eight studies, and spannedpreclinical and clinical curricula in two studies. The duration of EBM interventionsdiffered, ranging from a workshop of three student contact hours to a curriculum of 30 student contact hours. Five studies incorporated interactive and clinically integrated teaching and learning activities to support student learning. Diverse research designs, EBM interventions, and evaluation methods resulted in heterogeneity in results across the 13 studies.Conclusions – The review reveals wide variations in duration of EBM interventions, instructional methods, delivery formats for EBM
When a disaster occurs, it is for governments to provide the leadership, civil defense, security, evacuation, and public welfare. The medical aspects of a disaster account for less than 10% of resource and personnel expenditure. Hospitals and health care provider teams respond to unexpected occurrences such as explosions, earthquakes, floods, fires, war, or the outbreak of an infectious epidemic. In some geographic locations where natural disasters are common, such as earthquakes in Japan, such disaster practice drills are common. In other locations, disaster drills become pro forma and have no similarity to real or even projected and predicted disasters. The World Trade Center disaster on 11 September 2001 provides new information, and points out new threats, new information systems, new communication opportunities, and new detection methodologies. It is time for leaders of medicine to re-examine their approaches to disaster preparedness. PMID:11737919
Jennifer W. Bellows
Full Text Available Introduction: Free open-access medical education (FOAM is a collection of interactive online medical education resources—free and accessible to students, physicians and other learners. This novel approach to medical education has the potential to reach learners across the globe; however, the extent of its global uptake is unknown. Methods: This descriptive report evaluates the 2016 web analytics data from a convenience sample of FOAM blogs and websites with a focus on emergency medicine (EM and critical care. The number of times a site was accessed, or “sessions”, was categorized by country of access, cross-referenced with World Bank data for population and income level, and then analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and geographic mapping. Results: We analyzed 12 FOAM blogs published from six countries, with a total reported volume of approximately 18.7 million sessions worldwide in 2016. High-income countries accounted for 73.7% of population-weighted FOAM blog and website sessions in 2016, while upper-middle income countries, lower-middle income countries and low-income countries accounted for 17.5%, 8.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Conclusion: FOAM, while largely used in high-income countries, is used in low- and middle-income countries as well. The potential to provide free, online training resources for EM in places where formal training is limited is significant and thus is prime for further investigation.
Trends in the development of new private colleges of osteopathic medicine (COMs) described by the author in 2003 have accelerated in the ensuing decade. During 2003 to 2013, 10 new COMs as well as 2 remote teaching sites and 4 new branch campuses at private institutions were accredited, leading to a 98% increase in the number of students enrolled in private COMs. The key features of the private COM educational model during this period were a reliance on student tuition, the establishment of health professions education programs around the medical school, the expansion of class size, the creation of branch campuses and remote teaching sites, an environment that emphasizes teaching over research, and limited involvement in facilities providing clinical services to patients. There is institutional ownership of preclinical instruction, but clinical instruction occurs in affiliated hospitals and medical institutions where students are typically taught by volunteer and/or adjunct faculty.Between 2003 and 2013, this model attracted smaller universities and organizations, which implemented the strategies of established private COMs in initiating new private COMs, branch campuses, and remote teaching sites. The new COMs have introduced changes to the osteopathic profession and private COM model by expanding to new parts of the country and establishing the first for-profit medical school accredited in the United States in modern times. They have also increased pressure on the system of osteopathic graduate medical education, as the number of funded GME positions available to their graduates is less than the need.
Nakamura, Yoichi; Takamiya, Yusuke; Saito, Mari; Kuroko, Koichi; Shiratsuchi, Tatsuko; Oshima, Kenzaburo; Ito, Yuko; Miyake, Satoshi
This study aimed to examine the status of undergraduate palliative care education among Japanese medical students using data from a survey conducted in 2015. A questionnaire was originally developed, and the survey forms were sent to universities. The study's objectives, methods, disclosure of results, and anonymity were explained to participating universities in writing. Responses returned by the universities were considered to indicate consent to participate. Descriptive statistical methodology was employed. The response rate was 82.5% (66 of 80 medical faculties and colleges). Palliative care lectures were implemented in 98.5% of the institutions. Regarding lecture titles, "palliative medicine," "palliative care," and "terminal care" accounted for 42.4, 30.3, and 9.1% of the lectures, respectively. Teachers from the Department of Anesthesia, Palliative Care, and Psychiatry administered 51.5, 47.0, and 28.8% of lectures, respectively. Subjects of lectures included general palliative care (81.8%), pain management (87.9%), and symptom management (63.6%). Clinical clerkship on palliative care was a compulsory and non-compulsory course in 43.9 and 25.8% of the schools, respectively; 30.3% had no clinical clerkship curriculum. Undergraduate palliative care education is implemented in many Japanese universities. Clinical clerkship combined with participation in actual medical practice should be further improved by establishing a medical education certification system in compliance with the international standards.
Full Text Available Andrew C Dixon Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Objectives: To determine the gaps in knowledge of Canadian pediatric emergency medicine residents with regards to acute fracture identification and management. Due to their predominantly medical prior training, fractures may be an area of weakness requiring a specific curriculum to meet their needs. Methods: A questionnaire was developed examining comfort level and performance on knowledge based questions of trainees in the following areas: interpreting musculoskeletal X-rays; independently managing pediatric fractures, physical examination techniques, applied knowledge of fracture management, and normal development of the bony anatomy. Using modified Dillman technique the instrument was distributed to pediatric emergency medicine residents at seven Canadian sites. Results: Out of 43 potential respondents, 22 (51% responded. Of respondents, mean comfort with X-ray interpretation was 69 (62–76 95% confidence interval [CI] while mean comfort with fracture management was only 53 (45–63 95% CI; mean comfort with physical exam of shoulder 60 (53–68 95% CI and knee 69 (62–76 95% CI was low. Less than half of respondents (47%; 95% CI 26%–69% could accurately identify normal wrist development, correctly manage a supracondylar fracture (39%; 95% CI 20%–61%, or identify a medial epicondyle fracture (44%; 95% CI 24%–66%. Comfort with neurovascular status of the upper (mean 82; 95% CI 75–89 and lower limb (mean 81; 95% CI 74–87 was high. Interpretation: There are significant gaps in knowledge of physical exam techniques, fracture identification and management among pediatric emergency medicine trainees. A change in our current teaching methods is required to meet this need. Keywords: pediatric, fractures, education, radiologic interpretation
In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…
Tufan, Fatih; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Akpinar, Timur; Emiksiye, Sirhan; Yesil, Yusuf; Ozturk, Zeynel Abidin; Bozbulut, Utku Burak; Bolayir, Basak; Tasar, Pinar Tosun; Yavuzer, Hakan; Sahin, Sevnaz; Ulger, Zekeriya; Ozturk, Gulistan Bahat; Halil, Meltem; Akcicek, Fehmi; Doventas, Alper; Kepekci, Yalcin; Ince, Nurhan; Karan, Mehmet Akif
The number of older people is growing fast in Turkey. In this context, internal medicine residents and specialists contact older people more frequently. Thus, healthcare providers' knowledge and attitudes toward older people is becoming more important. Studies that specifically investigate internal medicine residents' attitudes toward the elderly are scarce. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of internal medicine residents toward older people. This cross-sectional multicenter study was undertaken in the internal medicine clinics of six university state hospitals that provide education in geriatric care. All internal medicine residents working in these hospitals were invited to participate in this questionnaire study between March 2013 and December 2013. We recorded the participants' age, sex, duration of internal medicine residency, existence of relatives older than 65 years, history of geriatrics course in medical school, geriatrics rotation in internal medicine residency, and nursing home visits. A total of 274 (82.3%) of the residents participated in this study, and 83.6% of them had positive attitudes toward older people. A geriatrics rotation during internal medicine residency was the only independent factor associated with positive attitudes toward the elderly in this multivariate analysis. A geriatrics course during medical school was associated with positive attitudes in the univariate analysis, but only tended to be so in the multivariate analysis. Geriatrics rotation during internal medicine residency was independently associated with positive attitudes toward older people. Generalization of geriatrics education in developing countries may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ratelle, John T; Wittich, Christopher M; Yu, Roger C; Newman, James S; Jenkins, Sarah M; Beckman, Thomas J
There is little research regarding characteristics of effective continuing medical education (CME) presentations in hospital medicine (HM). Therefore, we sought to identify associations between validated CME teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of CME presentations in the field of HM. This was a cross-sectional study of participants and didactic presentations from a national HM CME course in 2014. Participants provided CME teaching effectiveness (CMETE) ratings using an instrument with known validity evidence. Overall CMETE scores (5-point scale: 1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree) were averaged for each presentation, and associations between scores and presentation characteristics were determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The threshold for statistical significance was set at P teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of effective CME presentations in HM. Our findings, which support previous research in other fields, indicate that CME presentations may be improved by increasing interactivity through the use of audience response systems and allowing longer presentations. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Elder, Nancy C; Tobias, Barbara; Lucero-Criswell, Amber; Goldenhar, Linda
Compared to verbal communication, teaching the skill of observation is often shortchanged in medical education. Through a family medicine-art museum collaboration, we developed an elective course for second-year medical students titled the "Art of Observation" (AOO). To evaluate the course's effect on clinical skills, we performed a qualitative evaluation of former students during their clinical rotations. In the spring of 2005, all students who had completed the AOO course in 2003 or 2004 were invited to take part in an online evaluation consisting of eight journaling survey questions. Students were instructed to answer the survey questions with specific examples. Question areas included the most memorable experience, the course's influence on the doctor-patient relationship, usefulness during clinical years of medical school, and skills unique to AOO. The anonymous data were analyzed qualitatively, coding the responses to categories derived from the data, leading to the formation of themes. Of the 19 students eligible, 17 participated. We found three important themes: (1) the AOO positively influenced clinical skills, (2) both art museum exercises and a clinical preceptorship were necessary to achieve those skills, and (3) the AOO led to a sense of personal development as a physician. In addition, students told us that the training in observation and description skills they learned were unique to the AOO. This collaboration between a department of family medicine and an art museum produced a course that facilitated observational skills used in successful doctor-patient relationships.
Sabbour, S M; Dewedar, S A; Kandil, S K
Students and staff perspectives on language barriers in medical education in Egypt and their attitude towards Arabization of the medical curriculum were explored in a questionnaire survey of 400 medical students and 150 staff members. Many students (56.3%) did not consider learning medicine in English an obstacle, and 44.5% of staff considered it an obstacle only in the 1st year of medical school. Many other barriers to learning other than language were mentioned. However, 44.8% of students translated English terms to Arabic to facilitate studying and 70.6% of students in their clinical study years would prefer to learn patient history-taking in Arabic. While Arabization in general was strongly declined, teaching in Arabic language was suggested as appropriate in some specialties.
Brensilver, J M; Smith, L; Lyttle, C S
Residency training in New York State was substantially altered by the Libby Zion case. Work-hour limitations and augmented supervisory requirements changed the patterns of training--particularly in internal medicine--but with uncertain impacts on the quality of education and patient care. In this historical analysis, we review another major effect of the case: a substantial augmentation of the number of trainees. The need to maintain adequate inpatient staffing--within the ground rules of the Residency Review Committee, and in consideration of the reimbursement formulae and financial climate of New York State--conspired to promote substantial residency program expansion. Similar forces contributed to a national trend to increase the number of trainees. The history, cost and impact of these personnel changes are reviewed.
Pascual, T.N.; San Luis, T.O.L.; Leus, M.
Full text: The comprehensive evaluation of medical residents in a residency-training program includes the use of educational tools to measure the attainment of competencies in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains as prescribed in the training curriculum. Attention is almost always focused on the testing of cognitive domain of the learners with limited attention given on the psychomotor and affective parameters, which are in fact, together with the cognitive domain, integral to the students' learning behaviour. This paper aims to review the principles of test construction, including the perspectives on the roles, types and purpose of tests in the domains of learning (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) as well as the use of Non-Test materials for measuring affective learning outcomes and the construction of Performance Tests and Portfolio Assessment tools which are all essential for the effective and efficient evaluation of residents in a Nuclear Medicine Training Program. (author)
Introduction: The better healthcare providers are educated and trained and the more they practice their skills, the more they are prepared when disaster strikes. However, little is known about the current state of preparedness for managing disasters among healthcare providers. Methods:
Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd
Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
The aim of the study focus on the community cognition to disasters of tourism taking the disasters frequently happens in Taibai Mountains as the case. The research covers people’s cognition in tourist destination, which is closely related to the development and the economy in tourism. The age, education, occupation, income and the degree of relation to the tourism are also the important factors. The cognition of the community is the disasters influence, the disasters avoidance, the disasters ...
Turner, David A; Fleming, Geoffrey M; Winkler, Margaret; Lee, K Jane; Hamilton, Melinda F; Hornik, Christoph P; Petrillo-Albarano, Toni; Mason, Katherine; Mink, Richard
Communication and professionalism are often challenging to teach, and the impact of the use of a given approach is not known. We undertook this investigation to establish pediatric critical care medicine (PCCM) trainee perception of education in professionalism and communication and to compare their responses from those obtained from PCCM fellowship program directors. The Education in Pediatric Intensive Care (E.P.I.C.) Investigators used the modified Delphi technique to develop a survey examining teaching of professionalism and communication. After piloting, the survey was sent to all 283 PCCM fellows in training in the United States. Survey response rate was 47% (133 of 283). Despite high rates of teaching overall, deficiencies were noted in all areas of communication and professionalism assessed. The largest areas of deficiency included not being specifically taught how to communicate: as a member of a nonclinical group (reported in 24%), across a broad range of socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds (19%) or how to provide consultation outside of the intensive care unit (17%). Only 50% of fellows rated education in communication as "very good/excellent." However, most felt confident in their communication abilities. For professionalism, fellows reported not being taught accountability (12%), how to conduct a peer review (12%), and how to handle potential conflict between personal beliefs, circumstances, and professional values (10%). Fifty-seven percent of fellows felt that their professionalism education was "very good/excellent," but nearly all expressed confidence in these skills. Compared with program directors, fellows reported more deficiencies in both communication and professionalism. There are numerous components of communication and professionalism that PCCM fellows perceive as not being specifically taught. Despite these deficiencies, fellow confidence remains high. Substantial opportunities exist to improve teaching in these areas. Copyright © 2015
Masic, Izet; Mujanovic, Olivera Batic; Racic, Maja; Gavran, Larisa; Stanetic, Kosana; Hodzic, Merzika; Cojic, Milena; Cvejanov-Kezunovic, Ljiljana; Stepanovic, Aleksandar; Stavrikj, Katarina; Jatic, Zaim; Obrdalj, Edita Cerny; Zalihic, Amra; Tusek-Bunc, Ksenija
Education means: learning, teaching or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. Today the importance of focus on educational quality, particularly in the professions operating in the services required by people is agreed by all involved. The higher educational system shoulders some critical responsibilities in the economic, social, cultural and educational development and growth in the communities. In countries that are in transition it is in charge of educating professional human workforce in every field and if the education is optimal in terms of quality, it is capable of carrying out its responsibilities. It is reason why there is the necessity behind discovering some strategies to uplift the quality of education, especially at university level.. By increasing the courses and establishing universities and higher education centers, the countries around the world have generated more opportunities for learning, especially using modern information technologies. Regarding to evaluating different educational services quality, one of the most important measures should be the way to develop programs to promote quality and also due to the shortage of resources, evaluating the services quality enables the management to allocate the limited financial resources for realization whole educational process. Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the new models and concepts of medical education supported by information technologies. Modern information technologies have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and
Callaway, David W; Peabody, Christopher R; Hoffman, Ari; Cote, Elizabeth; Moulton, Seth; Baez, Amado Alejandro; Nathanson, Larry
Mobile health (mHealth) technology can play a critical role in improving disaster victim tracking, triage, patient care, facility management, and theater-wide decision-making. To date, no disaster mHealth application provides responders with adequate capabilities to function in an austere environment. The Operational Medicine Institute (OMI) conducted a qualitative trial of a modified version of the off-the-shelf application iChart at the Fond Parisien Disaster Rescue Camp during the large-scale response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. The iChart mHealth system created a patient log of 617 unique entries used by on-the-ground medical providers and field hospital administrators to facilitate provider triage, improve provider handoffs, and track vulnerable populations such as unaccompanied minors, pregnant women, traumatic orthopedic injuries and specified infectious diseases. The trial demonstrated that even a non-disaster specific application with significant programmatic limitations was an improvement over existing patient tracking and facility management systems. A unified electronic medical record and patient tracking system would add significant value to first responder capabilities in the disaster response setting.
Erkelens, P.A.; Akkerman, M.S.; Cox, M.G.D.M.; Egmond - de Wilde De Ligny, van E.L.C.; Haas, de T.C.A.; Brouwer, E.R.P.
Disasters cause tremendous material and immaterial damage to people and their habitat. During the first days after the disaster the victims have to be provided with food, shelter, security, health care and registration. For sheltering, depending on the local circumstances, tents are often used for a
Archibald, Douglas; Hogg, William; Lemelin, Jacques; Dahrouge, Simone; St Jean, Mireille; Boucher, François
Despite the apparent benefits to teaching, many faculty members are reluctant to participate in medical education research (MER) for a variety of reasons. In addition to the further demand on their time, physicians often lack the confidence to initiate MER projects and require more support in the form of funding, structure and guidance. These obstacles have contributed to a decline in physician participation in MER as well as to a perceived decay in its quality. As a countermeasure to encourage physicians to undertake research, the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Ottawa implemented a programme in which physicians receive the funding, coaching and support staff necessary to complete a 2-year research project. The programme is intended primarily for first-time researchers and is meant to serve as a gateway to a research career funded by external grants. Since its inception in 2010, the Program for Innovation in Medical Education (PIME) has supported 16 new clinician investigators across 14 projects. We performed a programme evaluation 3 years after the programme launched to assess its utility to participants. This evaluation employed semi-structured interviews with physicians who performed a research project within the programme. Programme participants stated that their confidence in conducting research had improved and that they felt well supported throughout their project. They appreciated the collaborative nature of the programme and remarked that it had improved their willingness to solicit the expertise of others. Finally, the programme allowed participants to develop in the scholarly role expected by family physicians in Canada. The PIME may serve as a helpful model for institutions seeking to engage faculty physicians in Medical Education Research and to thereby enhance the teaching received by their medical learners.
On August 31, 2011, five months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Miyagi prefecture reported 9357 dead and 2288 missing citizens, whereas Ishinomaki reported 4753 dead and 1302 missing citizens. A total of 12 pharmacists in Miyagi prefecture had lost their lives. Many medical institutions at the time were rendered out of service due to damage. Ishinomaki Red Cross had to serve as headquarters of disaster medicine management for the area. The government of Miyagi and Miyagi Pharmacist Association signed a contract regarding the provision of medical and/or other related tasks. Nevertheless, the contract was not fully applied given the impact of the tsunami, which caused chaos in telecommunication, traffic, and even the functions of the government. Given the nature of the disaster, medical teams equipped only with emergency equipment could not offer appropriate response to the needs of patients with chronicle diseases. "Personal medicine logbook" and pharmacists were keys to relief works during the disaster. Pharmacists played a critical role not only for self-medication by distributing over the counter (OTC) drugs, but also in hygiene management of the shelter. Apart from the establishment of an adoptive management system for large-scale natural disasters, a coordinated system for disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), Japanese Red Cross (JRC), Self-Defense Force (SDF), and other relief work organizations was imperative.
Brooks, Samantha K; Dunn, Rebecca; Amlôt, Richard; Greenberg, Neil; Rubin, G James
When organisations are exposed to traumatic situations, such as disasters, often staff are not prepared for the potential psychological impact which can negatively affect their wellbeing. To conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological interventions aimed at improving staff wellbeing during or after disasters. Four electronic literature databases were searched. Reference lists of relevant articles were hand-searched. Fifteen articles were included. Five studies suggested that pre-disaster skills training and disaster education can improve employee confidence. Ten studies on post-disaster interventions revealed mixed findings on the effectiveness of psychological debriefing and limited evidence for cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. Pre-disaster training and education can improve employees' confidence in their ability to cope with disasters. The routine use of post-disaster psychological debriefings is not supported; further research is needed to determine if debriefing interventions could be useful in some circumstances. Further research is needed to provide more evidence on the potential positive effects of cognitive behavioural therapy, psychoeducation and meditation. More experimental studies on psychological disaster interventions are needed.
Kennedy, Kieran M; Scriver, Stacey
Undergraduate medical curricula typically include forensic and legal medicine topics that are of a highly sensitive nature. Examples include suicide, child abuse, domestic and sexual violence. It is likely that some students will have direct or indirect experience of these issues which are prevalent in society. Those students are vulnerable to vicarious harm from partaking in their medical education. Even students with no direct or indirect experience of these issues may be vulnerable to vicarious trauma, particularly students who are especially empathetic to cases presented. Despite these risks, instruction relating to these topics is necessary to ensure the competencies of graduating doctors to respond appropriately to cases they encounter during their professional careers. However, risk can be minimised by a well-designed and thoughtfully delivered educational programme. We provide recommendations for the successful inclusion of sensitive forensic and legal medicine topics in undergraduate medical curricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.
The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508
Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the new lesson plan of the social medicine course is effective in changing the attitude, management and communication skills of students; however, it cannot enhance the previous learning depth and determine the future educational path through participation of job ideas with graduated doctors. Therefore, it needs to be redefined.
The Emergency Medicine trainees in both developed and low resource settings studied were aware that Free Open Access Medical Education resources exist, but trainees in lower income settings were generally less aware of specific resources. Lack of internet and device access was not a barrier to use in this group.
Aoshima, Syuichi; Kuwabara, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Masahiro
Although e-learning evidence-based medicine (EBM) courses have proven useful in improving the knowledge and skills of residents, it was still unclear for pharmacists in non-English-speaking countries. Thus, we investigated the behavioral change of Japanese pharmacists who participated in an EBM-style e-learning educational program available online. This EBM-style e-learning program, the Japanese Journal Club for Clinical Pharmacists, was operated by three pharmacists through Skype. It comprised an online questionnaire administered to the program viewers. Two frequencies, the opportunity to be aware of EBM practices and that of reading an article, were compared before and after viewing the broadcast. Frequencies were classified into five categories: "almost every day," "1-2 times a week," "1-2 times a month," "1-2 times a year," and "not at all." The changes before and after viewing the broadcast were evaluated using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The announcement of the questionnaire survey on the web was conducted during the journal club on August 24 and September 7, 2014. The maximum number of simultaneous audiences at the time was 113 persons. Among them, we analyzed data from 36 people who answered the questionnaire. Among these, "1-2 times a week" and "almost every day" were increased, whereas "not at all" was greatly reduced. Indeed, a significant difference was observed in overall change of each frequency before and after viewing the broadcast ( P education of pharmacists.
Greene, Jeremy A; Podolsky, Scott H
Recent critiques of the role of pharmaceutical promotion in medical practice invoke a nostalgic version of 1950s and 1960s medicine as representing an uncomplicated relationship between an innovative pharmaceutical industry and an idealistic and sovereign medical profession-a relationship that was later corrupted by regulatory or business practice changes in the 1980s or 1990s. However, the escalation of innovation and promotion in the pharmaceutical industry at mid-century had already provoked a broader crisis of overflow in medical education in which physicians came to use both commercial and professional sources in an attempt to "keep modern" by incorporating emerging therapeutics into their practices. This phenomenon was simultaneously a crisis for the medical profession- playing a key role in attempts to inculcate a "rational therapeutics"-and a marketing opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry, and produced the structural foundations for contemporary debates regarding the role of pharmaceutical promotion in medical practice. Tracing the issue from the advent of the wonder drugs through today's concerns regarding formal CME, we document how and why the pharmaceutical industry was allowed (and even encouraged) to develop and maintain the central role it now plays within postgraduate medical education and prescribing practice.
Halliwell, R E W
It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.
Kory S. London
Full Text Available Introduction: Feedback on patient satisfaction (PS as a means to monitor and improve performance in patient communication is lacking in residency training. A physician’s promotion, compensation and job satisfaction may be impacted by his individual PS scores, once he is in practice. Many communication and satisfaction surveys exist but none focus on the emergency department setting for educational purposes. The goal of this project was to create an emergency medicine-based educational PS survey with strong evidence for content validity. Methods: We used the Delphi Method (DM to obtain expert opinion via an iterative process of surveying. Questions were mined from four PS surveys as well as from group suggestion. The DM analysis determined the structure, content and appropriate use of the tool. The group used four-point Likert-type scales and Lynn’s criteria for content validity to determine relevant questions from the stated goals. Results: Twelve recruited experts participated in a series of seven surveys to achieve consensus. A 10-question, single-page survey with an additional page of qualitative questions and demographic questions was selected. Thirty one questions were judged to be relevant from an original 48-question list. Of these, the final 10 questions were chosen. Response rates for individual survey items was 99.5%. Conclusion: The DM produced a consensus survey with content validity evidence. Future work will be needed to obtain evidence for response process, internal structure and construct validity.
Full Text Available Abstract Natural disaster is defined as suddenly developing natural or human phenomena that harm human life and natural order. Many natural disasters have occurred in Turkey throughout history, resulting in serious loss of life and property. Although people can not prevent natural disasters, however, they can take various measures to reduce the damages. In order to reduce the indemnities caused by natural disasters, Turkey has taken many precautionary measures especially after 1999 Marmara earthquake. These steps are mostly focused on the formation of disasters, ways to prevent disasters, and legal regulations. This research was conducted to determine the level of understanding of the concept of disaster and disaster education by 8th grade students of middle school. The study sample consists of 8th grade students from Dört Eylül middle school of Simav district, Kütahya province. The research was carried out with 28 middle school students during academic year of 2014-2015. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions, developed by researchers, was applied as data collection tool. The data of the study were analyzed using qualitative research techniques. Results show that students’ first perception about the word disaster is earthquake disaster, tsunami disaster. Therefore, environmental conditions of an area are found affecting the perception. Besides, variable of gender is also not found affecting the results. However, increase in income level and educational level of parents result difference in answers. Öz Ani gelişen veya ortaya çıktığında kötü sonuçları olan doğal ve beşerî olaylar, insan yaşantısına ve doğal düzene zarar vermekte ve bu durum doğal afet olarak nitelendirilmektedir. Tarih boyunca Türkiye’de pek çok doğal afet meydana gelmiş ve bunların sonucunda ciddi can ve mal kayıpları yaşanmıştır. İnsanlar doğal afetlerin oluşumunu engelleyememelerine rağmen, bunlar
Background Few studies regarding Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards medicines among school teachers have been carried out in Nepal. Obtaining baseline KAP is important to note deficiencies and plan appropriate interventions. School teachers have to know about medicines as they can be an important source of information about rational and safe use of medicines. The department of Clinical Pharmacology, KIST Medical College, Lalitpur, conducted a study regarding KAP of school teachers about medicines before and after an educational intervention from April 2011 to December 2011. Methods The study was done in selected schools of Lalitpur district. Teachers were selected on a voluntary basis after obtaining written informed consent. Gender, ethnic or caste group, native place, age, educational qualifications, subject taught were noted. An educational intervention using a combination of methods like presentations, brainstorming sessions, interactive discussions using posters and distribution of information leaflets about the use of medicines was conducted. The KAP and overall scores among subgroups according to gender, age, level of education, subject, ethnicity, type of school (primary vs. secondary and government vs. private school) were studied. KAP and overall scores before and after the intervention was compared using Wilcoxon signed ranks test as the scores were not normally distributed. Results A total of 393 teachers participated before and after the intervention. The median (interquartile range) knowledge, attitude and practice scores before the intervention were 63 (10), 23 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score was 356. The median knowledge, attitude and practice scores after the intervention were 71 (10), 28 (5) and 270 (48) respectively while the overall score increased to 369. Maximum possible score of knowledge, attitude and practice were 100, 40 and 320 respectively. Scores improved significantly for knowledge (pattitude
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Brock, T Keith; Mecozzi, Daniel M; Sumner, Stephanie; Kost, Gerald J
To define pathogen tests and device specifications needed for emerging point-of-care (POC) technologies used in disasters. Surveys included multiple-choice and ranking questions. Multiple-choice questions were analyzed with the chi2 test for goodness-of-fit and the binomial distribution test. Rankings were scored and compared using analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test. Disaster care experts on the editorial boards of the American Journal of Disaster Medicine and the Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, and the readers of the POC Journal. Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus were top-ranked pathogens for testing in disaster settings. Respondents felt that disaster response teams should be equipped with pandemic infectious disease tests for novel 2009 H1N1 and avian H5N1 influenza (disaster care, p disaster settings, respondents preferred self-contained test cassettes (disaster care, p disaster care, p disaster care scenarios, in which Vibrio cholera, methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ranked the highest. POC testing should incorporate setting-specific design criteria such as safe disposable cassettes and direct blood sampling at the site of care.
Appleton, Sarah; Nacht, Amy
We examine a newly designed, interdisciplinary education program and clinical rotation for the first-year obstetrics and gynecology resident, implemented at the University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado, between the College of Nursing midwifery faculty and the School of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. The barriers to program development, along with the advantages and disadvantages of collaboration between nursing and medical schools, are reviewed. The clinical experience, consisting of 5 clinical shifts, was designed using the conceptual model of collaborative intelligence. A formal rotation with the midwife was constructed for the first-year resident on the labor and delivery unit, providing care to intrapartum and postpartum women and families. The program included didactic and clinical teaching, with an emphasis on the normal physiologic process of birth and introduction to the midwifery scope of practice and philosophy of care. Formative evaluation of the clinical rotation demonstrated strong interest for continuation of the program and an ability to appreciate midwifery components of care in a limited exposure. Moreover, program development was successful without requiring large curricular changes for the resident. Future planning includes expansion of the program with increased emphasis on the postpartum and breastfeeding woman and continued program evaluation. The long-term success of such collaborations will depend on the continued support of the American College of Nurse-Midwives and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in developing and improving interdisciplinary educational teams. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Full Text Available Science education often adopts a narrow view of science that assumes the lay public is ignorant, which seemingly justifies a science education limited to a promotional narrative of progress in the form of scientific knowledge void of meaningful social context. We propose that to prepare students as future concerned citizens of a technoscientific society, science education should be informed by science, technology, and society (STS perspectives. An STS-informed science education, in our view, will include the following curricular elements: science controversy education, gender issues, historical perspective, and a move away from a Eurocentric view by looking into the distinctive patterns of other regional (in this case of Taiwan, East Asian approaches to science, technology, and medicine. This article outlines the significance of some major STS studies as a means of illustrating the ways in which STS perspectives can, if incorporated into science education, enhance our understanding of science and technology and their relationships with society.
Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre
The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.
Pascapurnama, Dyshelly Nurkartika; Murakami, Aya; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Hattori, Toshio; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Egawa, Shinichi
In Indonesia, the Aceh earthquake and tsunami in 2004 killed 127,000 people and caused half a million injuries, while the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006 caused 5,700 deaths and 37,000 injuries. Because disaster-affected areas are vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases and tetanus is one such disease that is preventable, we systematically reviewed the literature related to tetanus outbreaks following previous two natural disasters in Indonesia. Based on our findings, recommendations for proper vaccination and education can be made for future countermeasures. Using specified keywords related to tetanus and disasters, relevant documents were screened from PubMed, the WHO website, and books. Reports offering limited data and those released before 2004 were excluded. In all, 16 publications were reviewed systematically. Results show that 106 cases of tetanus occurred in Aceh, with a case fatality ratio (CFR) of 18.9%; 71 cases occurred in Yogyakarta, with CFR of 36.6%. For both outbreaks, most patients had been wounded during scavenging or evacuation after the disaster occurred. Poor access to health care because of limited transportation or hospital facilities, and low vaccination coverage and lack of awareness of tetanus risk contributed to delayed treatment and case severity. Tetanus outbreaks after disasters are preventable by increasing vaccination coverage, improving wound care treatment, and establishing a regular surveillance system, in addition to good practices of disaster management and supportive care following national guidelines. Furthermore, health education for communities should be provided to raise awareness of tetanus risk reduction.
Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W
US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).
By law in 2013, palliative medicine will be integrated into the undergraduate curriculum as part of a mandatory training program and examinations at German medical schools. For this reason a national curriculum in palliative medicine has to be developed.
Full Text Available This study presents the process of implementing an e-learning course for clinical education in oral medicine and examines its impact on students’ knowledge and satisfaction. Thirty six (39.6% fifth-year undergraduate students participated in the study. Every week before their clinical practice, students studied relevant e-learning materials and completed an assessment test. At the end of the semester, students’ knowledge and attitudes towards e-learning were assessed by the knowledge test and anonymous questionnaire. Students who had access to the e-learning course had significantly better knowledge than students who did not have access to the e-learning course. Exposure to the e-learning course contributed to a better understanding of oral medicine curriculum, increased confidence with oral medicine patients and easier participation in oral medicine clinical practice. This study provided evidence that the e-learning can be implemented as a valuable adjunct to clinical education in oral medicine.
Ian J. Nelligan
Full Text Available Background and objectives: Family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya are examining the benefits of Community-Oriented Primary Care (COPC curriculum, as a method to train residents in population-based approaches to health care delivery. Whilst COPC is an established part of family medicine training in the United States, little is known about its application in Kenya. We sought to conduct a qualitative study to explore the development and implementation of COPC curriculum in the first two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Method: Semi-structured interviews of COPC educators, practitioners, and academic stakeholders and focus groups of postgraduate students were conducted with COPC educators, practitioners and academic stakeholders in two family medicine postgraduate programmes in Kenya. Discussions were transcribed, inductively coded and thematically analysed. Results: Two focus groups with eight family medicine postgraduate students and interviews with five faculty members at two universities were conducted. Two broad themes emerged from the analysis: expected learning outcomes and important community-based enablers. Three learning outcomes were (1 making a community diagnosis, (2 understanding social determinants of health and (3 training in participatory research. Three community-based enablers for sustainability of COPC were (1 partnerships with community health workers, (2 community empowerment and engagement and (3 institutional financial support. Conclusions: Our findings illustrate the expected learning outcomes and important communitybased enablers associated with the successful implementation of COPC projects in Kenya and will help to inform future curriculum development in Kenya.
Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine cor...
Tissingh, Elizabeth Khadija
Today's medical student will practice medicine in a globalised world, where an understanding of travel medicine and global health will be vital. Students at UK medical schools are keen to learn more about these areas and yet receive little specific training. Tomorrow's doctors should be taught about global health and travel medicine if they are to be prepared to work in tomorrow's world.
... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...
Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry
As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. © 2011 The Authors. Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Lessons learned from actions taken by DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistant Team) at the Great East Japan Disaster (Mar. 11) are reported. One unit of DMAT consists from 2 doctors, 2 nurses and 1 logistics clerk, who all had education and training authorized by Japan MHLW. On the disaster, MHLW and suffering prefectures can order DMAT to gather at the disaster base hospital or SCU (Staging Care Unit) like an airport nearby. DMAT missions are firstly to grasp the medical state of the disaster and its report to the MHLW through EMIS (Emergency Medical Information System), and then to estimate the possible numbers of serious patients, their transporting systems and further DMAT needed. Within 3 days after the Disaster, 32 base hospitals in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures received 2,092 patients including 752 serious ones. Needs for DMAT were rather scarce within 48 hr after the Disaster and 103 DMAT in total within Mar. 14 in the 3 prefectures decreased to 50 of 840 patients in the area of 20 km distance from the Plant died during urgent evacuation without medicare staff due to deterioration of the basal disease, dehydration, hypothermia, etc., suggesting necessity of the more flexible action of DMAT, of which responsibility has been defined to be essentially within 48 hr after the disaster. Probably, DMAT should have assumption that complicated disaster with natural and atomic courses can occur at the earthquake in future. (T.T.)
Tani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro
In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students' attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sense of fulfillment and passion in medicine of remote area was significantly increased after the community-based practice. On the other hand, the level of understanding in medicine in remote area was increased by the lecture not by the practice. The intensity of desire both to become a generalist and a specialist was significantly increased when the grade went up. Most of sixth-year students desired to have abilities of a generalist and a specialist simultaneously. This study shows that the community-based practice is more meaningful in increasing motivation in medicine in remote area than the lecture, and suggests that it is important to prepare more courses to experience community medicine to increase the number of physicians who desire to work in remote area.
Full Text Available Global health is increasingly present in the formal educational curricula of medical schools across North America. In 2008, students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM perceived a lack of structured global health education in the existing curriculum and began working with the administration to enhance global health learning opportunities, particularly in resource-poor settings. Key events in the development of global health education have included the introduction of a global health intersession mandatory for all first-year students; required pre-departure ethics training for students before all international electives; and the development of a clinical global health elective (Global Health Leadership Program, GHLP. The main challenges to improving global health education for medical students have included securing funding, obtaining institutional support, and developing an interprofessional program that benefits from the resources of the Schools of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing. Strategies used included objectively demonstrating the need for and barriers to more structured global health experiences; obtaining guidance and modifying existing resources from other institutions and relevant educational websites; and harnessing institution-specific strengths including the large Johns Hopkins global research footprint and existing interprofessional collaborations across the three schools. The Johns Hopkins experience demonstrates that with a supportive administration, students can play an important and effective role in improving global health educational opportunities. The strategies we used may be informative for other students and educators looking to implement global health programs at their own institutions.
Martínez Antonio, Francisco Javier
In 1886, the Spanish army medical officer Felipe Óvilo Canales (1850-1909) opened up a school of medicine in the Moroccan city of Tangiers. This school was originally sponsored by the Spanish government and intended to provide a number of Spanish Franciscan priests and young upper-class Moroccans a basic education in Western medicine. Later, with support from Sultan Hassan I, it was transformed into a training centre for Muslim military doctors for the Moroccan army. My paper will try to pres...
Jassam, Nuthar; Lake, Jennifer; Dabrowska, Milena; Queralto, Jose; Rizos, Demetrios; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Baum, Hannsjörg; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; O'Mullane, John; Homšak, Evgenija; Charilaou, Charis; Ohlson, Mats; Rako, Ivana; Vitkus, Dalius; Kovac, Gustav; Verschuure, Pauline; Racek, Jaroslav; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Wieringa, Gilbert
Although laboratory medicine practise varies across the European Union's (EU) member states, the extent of overlap in scope is such that a common syllabus describing the education and training associated with high-quality, specialist practise can be identified. In turn, such a syllabus can help define the common set of skills, knowledge and competence in a Common Training Framework (CTF) for non-medical Specialists in Laboratory Medicine under EU Directive 2013/55/EU (The recognition of Professional Qualifications). In meeting the requirements of the directive's CTF patient safety is particularly enhanced when specialists seek to capitalise on opportunities for free professional migration across EU borders. In updating the fourth syllabus, the fifth expands on individual discipline requirements, new analytical techniques and use of statistics. An outline structure for a training programme is proposed together with expected responsibilities of trainees and trainers; reference is provided to a trainee's log book. In updating the syllabus, it continues to support national programmes and the aims of EU Directive 2013/55/EU in providing safeguards to professional mobility across European borders at a time when the demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing in the face of a disparity in their distribution across Europe. In support of achieving a CTF, the syllabus represents EFLM's position statement for the education and training that underpins the framework.
Cotter, L Emily; Chevrier, Jonathan; El-Nachef, Wael Noor; Radhakrishna, Rohan; Rahangdale, Lisa; Weiser, Sheri D; Iacopino, Vincent
Despite increasing recognition of the importance of human rights in the protection and promotion of health, formal human rights education has been lacking in schools of medicine and public health. Our objectives were: 1) to determine the nature and extent of health and human rights (HHR) education among schools of medicine (SOMs) and public health (SPHs); 2) to identify perceived barriers to implementing HHR curricula; 3) to learn about deans' interests and attitudes toward HHR education, and; 4) to identify factors associated with offering HHR education. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among deans of all accredited allopathic SOMs and SPHs in the United States and Puerto Rico. Seventy-one percent of U.S. SOMs and SPHs responded. Thirty-seven percent of respondents indicated that their schools offered some form of HHR education. Main barriers to offering HHR education included competition for time, lack of qualified instructors and lack of funding. Among schools not offering HHR education, 35% of deans were interested in offering HHR education. Seventy-six percent of all deans believed that it was very important or important to offer HHR education. Multiple regression analysis revealed that deans' attitudes were the most important factor associated with offering any HHR education. Findings indicate that though a majority of deans of SOMs and SPHs believe that knowledge about human rights is important in health practice and support the inclusion of HHR studies in their schools, HHR education is lacking at most of their institutions. These results and the growing recognition of the critical interdependence between health and human rights indicate a need for SOMs and SPHs to work towards formal inclusion of HHR studies in their curricula, and that HHR competency requirements be considered to overcome barriers to its inclusion.
Codreanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Alabdulkarim, Ali A Rahman
Introduction The effect on behavioral change of educational programs developed to reduce the community's disaster informational vulnerability is not known. This study describes the relationship of disaster education, age, sex, and country-specific characteristics with students discussing disasters with friends and family, a measure of proactive behavioral change in disaster preparedness. Three thousand eight hundred twenty-nine final year high school students were enrolled in an international, multi-center prospective, cross-sectional study using a pre-validated written questionnaire. In order to obtain information from different educational systems, from countries with different risk of exposure to disasters, and from countries with varied economic development status, students from Bahrain, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Timor-Leste were surveyed. Logistic regression analyses examined the relationship between the likelihood of discussing disasters with friends and family (dependent variable) and a series of independent variables (age, gender, participation in school lessons about disasters, existence of a national disaster educational program, ability to list pertinent example of disasters, country's economic group, and disaster risk index) captured by the questionnaire or available as published data. There was no statistically significant relationship between age, awareness of one's surroundings, planning for the future, and foreseeing consequences of events with discussions about potential hazards and risks with friends and/or family. The national educational budget did not have a statistically significant influence. Participants who lived in a low disaster risk and high income Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country were more likely to discuss disasters. While either school lessons or a national disaster education program had a unique, significant contribution to the model, neither had a better
Kulig, Judith C; Penz, Kelly; Karunanayake, Chandima; MacLeod, Martha L P; Jahner, Sharleen; Andrews, Mary Ellen
Globally, disasters are on the rise. Nurses play a significant role in responding to such events but little is known about rural and remote nurses' experiences. A national cross-sectional survey of regulated nurses (registered nurses, registered psychiatric nurses, licensed practical nurses and nurse practitioners) in rural and remote Canada provided the data (n=2465) for the logistic regression of predictors of assisting with a disaster event within the last five years. The types of disaster events were also examined and open-ended responses were explored to reveal nurses' perspectives. Nurse type, age, region of employment, employment status, number of rural communities worked, distance to advanced referral centre, remote community, personal-professional boundaries, burnout and work engagement were significant factors related to assisting with a disaster event. Open-ended data alluded to the importance of pre-disaster preparation, and the difficulties experienced when personal-professional relationships are impacted during a disaster. Nursing education curricula needs to include information about disasters and the nurse's role. Continuing education opportunities and preparation for nurses should be offered in the workplace. Psychosocial supports to assist rural nurses who attend to disasters in their workplace will help them deal with issues such as the blurring of personal-professional relationships. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amini, Afshin; Dindoost, Payam; Moghimi, Mehrdad; Kariman, Hamid; Shahrami, Ali; Dolatabadi, Ali Arhami; Ali-Mohammadi, Hossein; Alavai-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Hatamabadi, HamidReza; Heidari, Kamran; Alamdari, Shahram; Meibodi, Mohammad Kalantar; Shojaee, Majid; Foroozanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Hashemi, Behrooz; Sabzeghaba, Anita; Kabir, Ali
To assess the deficiencies and potential areas through a medical audit of the emergency departments, in six general hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences at Tehran, Iran, after preparing specific wards-based international standards. A checklist was completed for all hospitals which met our eligibility criteria mainly observation and interviews with head nurses and managers of the emergency medicine unit of the hospitals before (2003) and after (2008) the establishment of emergency departments there. Domains studied included staffing, education and continuing professional development (CPD), facility (design), equipment, ancillary services, medical records, manuals and references, research, administration, pre-hospital care, information systems, disaster planning, bench-marking and hospital accreditation. Education and CPD (p = 0.042), design and facility (p = 0.027), equipment (p = 0.028), and disaster (p = 0.026) had significantly improved after the establishment of emergency departments. Nearly all domains showed a positive change though it was non-significant in a few. In terms of observation, better improvement was seen in disaster, security, design, and research. According to the score for each domain compared to what it was in the earlier phase, better improvement was observed in hospital accreditation, information systems, security, disaster planning, and research. Security, disaster planning, research, design and facility had improved in hospitals that wave studied, while equipment, records, ancillary services, administration and bench-marking had the lowest improvement even after the establishment of emergency department, and, hence, needed specific attention.
Bandiera, Glen; Lendrum, David
Controversy exists regarding the applicability of competency-based education during clinical rotations in emergency medicine (EM). Little has been written about the perceptions of front-line teachers regarding one such competency-based education paradigm, the CanMEDS framework. We undertook to determine 1) what perceptions exist among front-line teachers at two academic health science emergency departments (EDs) regarding the use of the CanMEDS roles to frame what residents should learn on ED rotations and 2) how those same teachers envision practically incorporating the CanMEDS roles into feedback provided to residents. Teachers at two sites volunteered for a semistructured focus group study. Focus groups were moderated by an experienced qualitative researcher, and verbatim transcriptions were coded by two independent reviewers. The codes were merged into final themes. The final focus group was used to further explore issues raised and test assumptions made in the preceding groups. In five focus groups involving 21 participants, the Medical Expert and Professional roles were seen as most relevant to an EM rotation, whereas the Health Advocate, Manager, Scholar, and Collaborator roles were least relevant. On further exploration, however, faculty identified highly relevant components of each role that they could envision teaching in an ED. Participants also felt that the framework helped highlight the breadth of physician competencies and provided structure for teaching and feedback. EM faculty find the CanMEDS framework helpful for structuring teaching and learning and that many elements of the roles, when defined, are feasible to integrate into a clinical rotation.
Douglass, Katherine; Pousson, Amelia; Gidwani, Shweta; Smith, Jeffrey
Emergency medicine (EM) is a recently recognized specialty in India, still in its infancy. Local training programs are developing, but remain very limited. Private, for-profit hospitals are an important provider of graduate medical education (GME) in India, and are partnering with United States (US) universities in EM to expand training opportunities. Our aim was to describe current private-sector programs affiliated with a US university providing postgraduate EM training in India, the evolution and structure of these programs, and successes and challenges of program implementation. Programs have been established in seven cities in India in partnership with a US academic institution. Full-time trainees have required didactics, clinical rotations, research, and annual examinations. Faculty members affiliated with the US institution visit each program monthly. Regular evaluations have informed program modifications, and a local faculty development program has been implemented. Currently, 240 trainees are enrolled in the EM postgraduate program, and 141 physicians have graduated. A pilot survey conducted in 2012 revealed that 93% of graduates are currently practicing EM, 82% of those in India; 71% are involved in teaching, and 32% in research. Further investigation into programmatic impacts is necessary. Challenges include issues of formal program recognition both in India and abroad. This unique partnership is playing a major early role in EM GME in India. Future steps include official program recognition, expanded numbers of training sites, and a gradual transition of training and education to local faculty. Similar partnership programs may be effective in other settings outside of India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ogrinc, Greg; Cohen, Emily S; van Aalst, Robertus; Harwood, Beth; Ercolano, Ellyn; Baum, Karyn D; Pattison, Adam J; Jones, Anne C; Davies, Louise; West, Al
Integrating teaching and hands-on experience in quality improvement (QI) may increase the learning and the impact of resident QI work. We sought to determine the clinical and educational impact of an integrated QI curriculum. This clustered, randomized trial with early and late intervention groups used mixed methods evaluation. For almost 2 years, internal medicine residents from Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center on the inpatient teams at the White River Junction VA participated in the QI curriculum. QI project effectiveness was assessed using statistical process control. Learning outcomes were assessed with the Quality Improvement Knowledge Application Tool-Revised (QIKAT-R) and through self-efficacy, interprofessional care attitudes, and satisfaction of learners. Free text responses by residents and a focus group of nurses who worked with the residents provided information about the acceptability of the intervention. The QI projects improved many clinical processes and outcomes, but not all led to improvements. Educational outcome response rates were 65% (68 of 105) at baseline, 50% (18 of 36) for the early intervention group at midpoint, 67% (24 of 36) for the control group at midpoint, and 53% (42 of 80) for the late intervention group. Composite QIKAT-R scores (range, 0-27) increased from 13.3 at baseline to 15.3 at end point ( P < .01), as did the self-efficacy composite score ( P < .05). Satisfaction with the curriculum was rated highly by all participants. Learning and participating in hands-on QI can be integrated into the usual inpatient work of resident physicians.
Bjegović-Mikanović, Vesna; Lalić, Nebojia; Wenzelt, Helmut; Nikolid-Mandić, Ruzica; Laaser, Ulrich
Continuing Medical Education (CME), conceptualised as lifelong learning (LLL) aims at improving human resources and continuing professional development. Various documents of European institutions underline its key importance. This paper therefore tries to analyse the current status of CME and the main deficits in the delivery of LLL courses at medical faculties in Serbia with special consideration of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade with detailed financial data available. Data of 2,265 medical courses submitted in 2011 and 2012 for accredita- tion were made available, thereof 403 courses submitted by 4 medical faculties in Serbia (Belgrade, Kragujevac, Nil, Novi Sad). A subset of more detailed information on 88 delivered courses with 5,600 participants has been provided by the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade. All data were transferred into an Excel file and analysed with XLSTAT 2009. To reduce the complexity and possible redundancy we performed a principal component analysis (PCA). Correlated component regression (CCR) models were used to identify determinants of course participation. During the 2-year period 12.9% of all courses were submitted on pre-clinical and 62.4% on clinical topics, 12.2% on public health, while 61.5% of all took place in Belgrade. The subset of the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade comprised 3,471 participants registered with 51 courses accredited and delivered in 2011 and 2,129 participants with 37 courses accredited and delivered in 2012. The median number of participants per course for the entire period was 45; the median fee rates for participants were 5,000 dinars in 2011 and 8,000 in 2012, resulting together with donations--in a total income for both years together of 16,126,495.00 dinar or almost 144,000.00 euro. This allowed for a median payment of approximately 90 eur per hour lectured in 2011 and 49 euro in 2012. The 2 factors, D1 (performance) and D2 (attractiveness), identified in the PCA for Medical Faculties in Serbia, explain 71
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Continuing Medical Education (CME, conceptualised as lifelong learning (LLL aims at improving human resources and continuing professional development. Various documents of European institutions underline its key importance. This paper therefore tries to analyse the current status of CME and the main deficits in the delivery of LLL courses at medical faculties in Serbia with special consideration of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade with detailed financial data available. Methods. Data of 2,265 medical courses submitted in 2011 and 2012 for accreditation were made available, thereof 403 courses submitted by 4 medical faculties in Serbia (Belgrade, Kragujevac, Niš, Novi Sad. A subset of more detailed information on 88 delivered courses with 5,600 participants has been provided by the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade. All data were transferred into an Excel file and analysed with XLSTAT 2009. To reduce the complexity and possible redundancy we performed a principal component analysis (PCA. Correlated component regression (CCR models were used to identify determinants of course participation. Results. During the 2-year period 12.9% of all courses were submitted on preclinical and 62.4% on clinical topics, 12.2% on public health, while 61.5% of all took place in Belgrade. The subset of the Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade comprised 3,471 participants registered with 51 courses accredited and delivered in 2011 and 2,129 participants with 37 courses accredited and delivered in 2012. The median number of participants per course for the entire period was 45; the median fee rates for participants were 5,000 dinars in 2011 and 8,000 in 2012, resulting together with donations in a total income for both years together of 16,126,495.00 dinar or almost 144,000.00 euro. This allowed for a median payment of approximately 90 eur per hour lectured in 2011 and 49 euro in 2012. The 2 factors, D1 (performance and D2 (attractiveness, identified in the PCA
Yang, Wen-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Jie
With western learning spreading throughout the orient, the survival and development of TCM was restrained to a large degree due to the medical administrative policy, educational system and diffusion of western medicine at different social levels. Facing this adversity, the TCM sector complied with the changing times and survived through persistent efforts as well as wide and solid popular foundations, striving actively for the legitimacy status of TCM education and establishing several TCM colleges. During the course of running the colleges, the TCM sector was brave in changing ideas and giving and accepting new knowledge, it explored a comprehensive educational syllabus, which not only promoted the development of TCM education in the Republican period of China, but also laid a foundation for TCM education in the new period.
... or friends. On-going stress from the secondary effects of disaster, such as temporarily living elsewhere, loss of friends and social networks, loss of personal property, parental unemployment, and costs ...
Department of Homeland Security — This is a search site for FEMA's Disaster Recovery Centers (DRC). A DRC is a readily accessible facility or mobile office set up by FEMA where applicants may go for...
Dahlberg, Rasmus; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Raju, Emmanuel
This paper explores the concept of resilience in disaster management settings in modern society. The diversity and relatedness of ‘resilience’ as a concept and as a process are reflected in its presentation through three ‘versions’: (i) pastoral care and the role of the church for victims...... of disaster trauma, (ii) federal policy and the US Critical Infrastructure Plan, and (iii) the building of resilient communities for disaster risk reduction practices. The three versions aim to offer characteristic expressions of resilience, as increasingly evident in current disaster literature....... In presenting resilience through the lens of these three versions, the article highlights the complexity in using resilience as an all-encompassing word. The article also suggests the need for understanding the nexuses between risk, vulnerability, and policy for the future of resilience discourse....
... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + SAMHSA.gov Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...
... on Facebook . Resources Helpline Brochure Helpline Wallet Card Disaster Kit Back To Top SAMHSA Quick Links + SAMHSA.gov Homepage Accessibility Privacy Disclaimer Viewers & Plugins FOIA Plain Language Site Map SAMHSA Archive Strategic Initiatives Health Financing Prevention ...
Chan, Emily Y Y; Kim, Jean H; Lin, Cherry; Cheung, Eliza Y L; Lee, Polly P Y
Disaster preparedness is an important preventive strategy for protecting health and mitigating adverse health effects of unforeseen disasters. A multi-site based ethnic minority project (2009-2015) is set up to examine health and disaster preparedness related issues in remote, rural, disaster prone communities in China. The primary objective of this reported study is to examine if previous disaster experience significantly increases household disaster preparedness levels in remote villages in China. A cross-sectional, household survey was conducted in January 2011 in Gansu Province, in a predominately Hui minority-based village. Factors related to disaster preparedness were explored using quantitative methods. Two focus groups were also conducted to provide additional contextual explanations to the quantitative findings of this study. The village household response rate was 62.4 % (n = 133). Although previous disaster exposure was significantly associated with perception of living in a high disaster risk area (OR = 6.16), only 10.7 % households possessed a disaster emergency kit. Of note, for households with members who had non-communicable diseases, 9.6 % had prepared extra medications to sustain clinical management of their chronic conditions. This is the first study that examined disaster preparedness in an ethnic minority population in remote communities in rural China. Our results indicate the need of disaster mitigation education to promote preparedness in remote, resource-poor communities.
Leach, Matthew J; Canaway, Rachel; Hunter, Jennifer
To develop a policy, practice, education and research agenda for evidence-based practice (EBP) in traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM). The study was a secondary analysis of qualitative data, using the method of roundtable discussion. The sample comprised seventeen experts in EBP and T&CM. The discussion was audio-recorded, and the transcript analysed using thematic analysis. Four central themes emerged from the data; understanding evidence and EBP, drivers of change, interpersonal interaction, and moving forward. Captured within these themes were fifteen sub-themes. These themes/sub-themes translated into three broad calls to action: (1) defining terminology, (2) defining the EBP approach, and (3) fostering social movement. These calls to action formed the framework of the agenda. This analysis presents a potential framework for an agenda to improve EBP implementation in T&CM. The fundamental elements of this action plan seek clarification, leadership and unification on the issue of EBP in T&CM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is hurtling towards a cornerstone in lifelong learning for healthcare personnel worldwide. This study aims to evaluate the literature searching anxiety in graduate students in practicing EBM. Method The study participants were 48 graduate students who enrolled the EBM course at aMedical Universityin central Taiwan. Student’s t-test, Pearson correlation and multivariate regression, interviewing are used to evaluate the students’ literature searching anxiety of EBM course. The questionnaire is Literature Searching Anxiety Rating Scale -LSARS. Results The sources of anxiety are uncertainty of database selection, literatures evaluation and selection, technical assistance request, computer programs use, English and EBM education programs were disclosed. The class performance is negatively related to LSARS score, however, the correlation is statistically insignificant with the adjustment of gender, degree program, age category and experience of publication. Conclusion This study helps in understanding the causes and the extent of anxiety in order to work on a better teaching program planning to improve user’s searching skills and the capability of utilization the information; At the same time, provide friendly-user facilities of evidence searching. In short, we need to upgrade the learner’s searching 45 skills and reduce theanxiety. We also need to stress on the auxiliary teaching program for those with the prevalent and profoundanxiety during literature searching.
Hixon, Allen L; Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Racsa, C Philip
Access to care for patients in Hawai'i is compromised by a significant primary care workforce shortage. Not only are there not enough primary care providers, they are often not practicing in locations of high need such as rural areas on the neighbor islands or in the Pacific. This study used geographic information systems (GIS) spatial analysis to look at practice locations for 86 University of Hawai'i Family Medicine and Community Health graduates from 1993 to the 2010. Careful alumni records were verified and entered into the data set using the street address of major employment. Questions to be answered were (1) what percentage of program graduates remain in the state of Hawai'i and (2) what percentage of graduates practice in health professional shortage areas (HPSAs) throughout the United States. This study found that 73 percent of graduates remain and practice in Hawai'i with over 36 percent working in Health Professional Shortage Areas. Spatial analysis using GIS residency footprinting may be an important analytic tool to ensure that graduate medical education programs are meeting Hawai'i's health workforce needs.
Plunkett-Rondeau, Jevon; Hyland, Katherine; Dasgupta, Shoumita
Advances in genomic technologies are transforming medical practice, necessitating the expertise of genomically-literate physicians. This study examined 2013-2014 trends in genetics curricula in US and Canadian medical schools to ascertain whether and how curricula are keeping pace with this rapid evolution. Medical genetics course directors received a 60-item electronic questionnaire covering curriculum design, assessment, remediation of failing grades, and inclusion of specific topics. The response rate was 74%. Most schools teach the majority of genetics during the first 2 years, with an increase in the number of integrated curricula. Only 26% reported formal genetics teaching during years 3 and 4, and most respondents felt the amount of time spent on genetics was insufficient preparation for clinical practice. Most participants are using the Association of Professors of Human and Medical Genetics Core Curriculum(1) as a guide. Topics recently added include personalized medicine (21%) and direct-to-consumer testing (18%), whereas eugenics (17%), linkage analysis (16%), and evolutionary genetics (15%) have been recently eliminated. Remediation strategies were heterogeneous across institutions. These findings provide an important update on how genetics and genomics is taught at US and Canadian medical schools. Continuous improvement of educational initiatives will aid in producing genomically-literate physicians.
Stephen L. Rego
Full Text Available Here, we are proposing and testing the use of literature reviews as a method to identify essential competencies for specific fields. This has implications in how educators develop and structure both traditional and competency based curricula. Our focus will be on utilizing this method to identify the most relevant and commonly used techniques in the field of regenerative medicine. This publication review method may be used to develop competency based education (CBE programs that focus on commonly utilized skills. CBE is an emerging trend in higher education that will greatly enhance student learning experiences. CBE works by providing students with field specific skills and knowledge; thus, it is imperative for educators to identify the most essential competencies in a given field. Therefore, we reason that a literature review of the techniques performed in studies published in prevalent peer reviewed journals for a given field offers an ideal method to identify and rank competencies that should be delivered to students by a respective curriculum. Here, we reviewed recent articles published on topics in the field of regenerative medicine as a proof of concept for the use of literature reviews as a guide for the development of a regenerative medicine CBE curriculum.
Bellows, Jennifer Whitfield; Douglass, Katherine; Atilla, Ridvan; Smith, Jeffrey; Kapur, G Bobby
The specialty of Emergency Medicine has enjoyed recognition for nearly 20 years in Turkey. However, the majority of underserved and rural Turkish emergency departments are staffed by general practitioners who lack formal training in the specialty and have few opportunities to increase emergency medicine-specific knowledge and skills. To address this "practitioner gap," the authors developed a four-phase comprehensive emergency medicine education and training program for general practitioners practicing in government hospitals in Turkey. From April 2006 until June 2009, 42 courses were taught by 62 trainers across seven regions in Turkey. A total of 2,262 physicians were trained. The mean course pre-test score for all regions was 42.3 (95% CI 39.8 to 44.7). The mean course post-test score was 70.1 (95% CI 67.2 to 72.9). The difference between the mean scores was 27.8 (95% CI 25.3 to 30.4, P emergency medicine department and an emergency medicine society to implement country-wide training of physicians practicing in public emergency departments can serve as a successful model for capacity-building global emergency medicine endeavors.
During the past four decades, natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, and slides, tsunami tropical cyclones and other severe storms, tornadoes and high winds, river floods and coastal flooding, wildfire and associated haze drought, sand/dust storms, and insect infestations have caused major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages. Economic losses have increased almost ten times during this period. As it happen in recent Asia Tsunami, in which over 2, 00,000 people reportedly killed, estimated five million homeless, and resulted in massive displacement of population and extensive damage to infrastructure. The escalation of severe disaster events triggered by natural hazards and related technological and environment disasters is increasingly threatening both sustainable development and poverty-reduction initiatives. The loss of human lives and the rise in the cost of reconstruction efforts and loss of development assets has forced the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments as well a multilateral and bilateral agencies and NGOs. For this Disaster risk reduction-.strategies are aimed at enabling societies at risk to become engaged in the conscious management of risk and the reduction of vulnerability. The adoption of appropriate development policies can reduce disaster risk. These policies should be gender sensitive and need the necessary political commitment. They involve the adoption of suitable regulatory and other legal measures, institutional reform, improved analytical and methodological capabilities, financial planning, education and awareness. (author)
Adamson, Rosemary; Goodman, Richard B; Kritek, Patricia; Luks, Andrew M; Tonelli, Mark R; Benditt, Joshua
The University of Washington was the first pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship training program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education to create a dedicated clinician-educator fellowship track that has its own National Residency Matching Program number. This track was created in response to increasing demand for focused training in medical education in pulmonary and critical care. Through the Veterans Health Administration we obtained a stipend for a clinician-educator fellow to dedicate 12 months to training in medical education. This takes place predominantly in the second year of fellowship and is composed of several core activities: fellows complete the University of Washington's Teaching Scholars Program, a professional development program designed to train leaders in medical education; they teach in a variety of settings and receive feedback on their work from clinician-educator faculty and the learners; and they engage in scholarly activity, which may take the form of scholarship of teaching, integration, or investigation. Fellows are guided throughout this process by a primary mentor and a mentoring committee. Since funding became available in 2009, two of the three graduates to date have successfully secured clinician-educator faculty positions. Graduates uniformly believe that the clinician-educator track met their training goals better than the research-based track would have.
Hansberry, David R; Agarwal, Nitin; John, Elizabeth S; John, Ann M; Agarwal, Prateek; Reynolds, James C; Baker, Stephen R
The majority of Americans use the Internet daily, if not more often, and many search online for health information to better understand a diagnosis they have been given or to research treatment options. The average American reads at an eighth-grade level. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability of online patient education materials on the websites of 14 professional organizations representing the major internal medicine subspecialties. We used ten well-established quantitative readability scales to assess written text from patient education materials published on the websites of the major professional organizations representing the following subspecialty groups: allergy and immunology, cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, geriatrics, hematology, hospice and palliative care, infectious disease, nephrology, oncology, pulmonology and critical care, rheumatology, sleep medicine, and sports medicine. Collectively the 540 articles analyzed were written at an 11th-grade level (SD 1.4 grade levels). The sleep medicine and nephrology websites had the most readable materials, written at an academic grade level of 8.5 ± 1.5 and 9.0 ± 0.2, respectively. Material at the infectious disease site was written at the most difficult level, with average readability corresponding to grades 13.9 ± 0.3. None of the patient education materials we reviewed conformed to the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) guidelines requiring that patient education articles be written at a third- to seventh-grade reading level. If these online resources were rewritten, it is likely that more patients would derive benefit from reading them.
Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Marin, Anibal; Padula Anderson, Maria Inez; De Castro Filho, Eno Dias; Kidd, Michael
The WONCA Education Working Party (WEP) is developing a set of standards for medical student education, postgraduate training in family medicine / general practice and continuing professional development for family doctors. At this point the contributions by WONCA world regions are very important, and for this reason the main objective of this report is to present the standards developed by the Iberoamerican WONCA Region (CIMF). To be comprehensive and effective, standards should reflect regional realities and so the contributions from CIMF may reinforce and strengthen the key initiative of WEP and the implementation of the standards throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Hamid Reza Khankeh
Full Text Available Disasters should never be considered as routine. Disasters of any kind—natural or manmade—clearly disrupt the normal functioning of any community and frequently overwhelm both personal and community resources. In the post-disaster context, following the initial shock of the disaster, returning lives and livelihoods to normalcy becomes a primary concern of the affected communities and nations. Traditionally, this has been known as the recovery and rehabilitation phase, where "normalcy" refers to the return of the community to the state it was in prior to the disaster event. Rehabilitation is this process of returning the community to “normal” that may extend for many years and involves the physical, social and economic components of the community. Disasters can take on a life of their own, therefore being prepared is the single most effective way to improve outcomes. Proper pre-event planning and providing mechanisms for resource coordination are critical which will be resulted a successful response. It should focus on increasing the participation of civil authorities in order to reestablish local authorities. In order to develop safer communities with fewer deaths, physical injuries, and psycho-social trauma following disasters, health systems must be capable of providing a coordinated response during disasters and of delivering effective mitigation and preparedness programs before disaster impact. The health sector has a vested interest and a key role in this process. In addition, prior to the occurrence of disasters, national, provincial, and local planning should be blueprinted by managers. The public must be educated regarding the importance of individual and family preparation for disaster
Bradshaw, Michelle L
The purpose of this study was to establish a baseline description of American occupational therapy educators' knowledge, attitudes, and personal use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a first step in exploring the larger issue of future occupational therapy practitioners' preparedness for meeting clients' occupational needs in today's evolving healthcare environment. Results of this cross-sectional survey highlighted limitations of occupational therapy educators' knowledge of common CAM concepts and therapies across all demographic variables, varying attitudes towards CAM in general and its inclusion in occupational therapy education, and personal use of common CAM therapies. Without increased occupational therapy educator knowledge about CAM and engagement in the current healthcare practices, occupational therapy practitioners are at risk for having a limited role in integrative healthcare.
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident... disaster: Primary Counties: Cumberland. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Adams, Dauphin, Franklin, Perry...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Lawrence. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Beaver...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Montgomery. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Berks...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident... the disaster: Primary Counties: Philadelphia. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Bucks, Delaware...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe... the disaster: Primary Counties: Delaware. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Chester, Montgomery...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Centre. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania: Blair...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Allegheny. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...
... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA... Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Armstrong. Contiguous Counties: Pennsylvania...
Pourmand, Ali; Tanski, Mary; Davis, Steven; Shokoohi, Hamid; Lucas, Raymond; Zaver, Fareen
Asynchronous online training has become an increasingly popular educational format in the new era of technology-based professional development. We sought to evaluate the impact of an online asynchronous training module on the ability of medical students and emergency medicine (EM) residents to detect electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We developed an online ECG training and testing module on AMI, with emphasis on recognizing ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and early activation of cardiac catheterization resources. Study participants included senior medical students and EM residents at all post-graduate levels rotating in our emergency department (ED). Participants were given a baseline set of ECGs for interpretation. This was followed by a brief interactive online training module on normal ECGs as well as abnormal ECGs representing an acute MI. Participants then underwent a post-test with a set of ECGs in which they had to interpret and decide appropriate intervention including catheterization lab activation. 148 students and 35 EM residents participated in this training in the 2012-2013 academic year. Students and EM residents showed significant improvements in recognizing ECG abnormalities after taking the asynchronous online training module. The mean score on the testing module for students improved from 5.9 (95% CI [5.7-6.1]) to 7.3 (95% CI [7.1-7.5]), with a mean difference of 1.4 (95% CI [1.12-1.68]) (p<0.0001). The mean score for residents improved significantly from 6.5 (95% CI [6.2-6.9]) to 7.8 (95% CI [7.4-8.2]) (p<0.0001). An online interactive module of training improved the ability of medical students and EM residents to correctly recognize the ECG evidence of an acute MI.
LeBlang, Theodore R.; And Others
Physicians' negative attitudes toward law and the legal system derive from the lack of understanding of basic legal principles relating to medical practice. The impact of required curriculum programing in legal medicine at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine is assessed. (Author/MLW)
Nagurney, Anna; Pardalos, Panos
This volume results from the “Second International Conference on Dynamics of Disasters” held in Kalamata, Greece, June 29-July 2, 2015. The conference covered particular topics involved in natural and man-made disasters such as war, chemical spills, and wildfires. Papers in this volume examine the finer points of disasters through: · Critical infrastructure protection · Resiliency · Humanitarian logistic · Relief supply chains · Cooperative game theory · Dynamical systems · Decision making under risk and uncertainty · Spread of diseases · Contagion · Funding for disaster relief · Tools for emergency preparedness · Response, and risk mitigation Multi-disciplinary theories, tools, techniques and methodologies are linked with disasters from mitigation and preparedness to response and recovery. The interdisciplinary approach to problems in economics, optimization, government, management, business, humanities, engineering, medicine, mathematics, computer science, behavioral studies, emergency servi...
Wong, Diana F; Spencer, Caroline; Boyd, Lee; Burkle, Frederick M; Archer, Frank
Introduction The frequency of disasters is increasing around the world with more people being at risk. There is a moral imperative to improve the way in which disaster evaluations are undertaken and reported with the aim of reducing preventable mortality and morbidity in future events. Disasters are complex events and undertaking disaster evaluations is a specialized area of study at an international level. Hypothesis/Problem While some frameworks have been developed to support consistent disaster research and evaluation, they lack validation, consistent terminology, and standards for reporting across the different phases of a disaster. There is yet to be an agreed, comprehensive framework to structure disaster evaluation typologies. The aim of this paper is to outline an evolving comprehensive framework for disaster evaluation typologies. It is anticipated that this new framework will facilitate an agreement on identifying, structuring, and relating the various evaluations found in the disaster setting with a view to better understand the process, outcomes, and impacts of the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions. Research was undertaken in two phases: (1) a scoping literature review (peer-reviewed and "grey literature") was undertaken to identify current evaluation frameworks and typologies used in the disaster setting; and (2) a structure was developed that included the range of typologies identified in Phase One and suggests possible relationships in the disaster setting. No core, unifying framework to structure disaster evaluation and research was identified in the literature. The authors propose a "Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies" that identifies, structures, and suggests relationships for the various typologies detected. The proposed Comprehensive Framework for Disaster Evaluation Typologies outlines the different typologies of disaster evaluations that were identified in this study and brings them together into a single
Pujianto; Prabowo; Wasis
This study examined the profile of science' teacher instruction in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), as a feature of instructional quality, on students’ learning experiences. A qualitative study was done to observe teacher activities in teaching of disaster preparedness. Science teacher and 14 students at grade 4 of SDN (elementary school) Kiyaran 2 are involved as the subject of this study. Teacher’ instruction was coded with regard to preparation, action, and evaluation using observation sheets and documentation. Data analysis results showed a positive significant effect of the readiness during preparation on learning process of disaster risk reduction and an indirect effect of teacher’ action on students’ learning experiences. There is a lack of teaching materials about volcano disaster in the elementary school. Teacher found difficulties on evaluation of student achievement in disaster preparedness. These findings highlight the importance of DRR in uphold science teachers’ education. Items of teachers’ skill in preparing of DRR may be used to offer model of concrete instruction situation during university workshop for maintain teacher education.
Gang Huang; Bingjie Lu; Jifeng Fu; Yanping Zhang; Wenhan Mei; Yan Li; Yifei Wang
To enhance the competence of medical students, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine innovates the new PRICE education model, through Problem-based Learning(P) and Research-based learning(R), guides the students to give full play to the active learning; break the traditional discipline-centered teaching model by an integrated curriculum(I),combines with clinical practice-based learning(C) to solve the disjointed question between the basic theory and clinical practice in medical education, uses the comprehensive evaluation system(E) to assess the learning effect of the students and the quality of the teaching. The PRICE education model is verified by our educational practice.
Shaverdian, Narek; Yoo, Sun Mi; Cook, Ryan; Chang, Eric M; Jiang, Naomi; Yuan, Ye; Sandler, Kiri; Steinberg, Michael; Lee, Percy
Internists and primary care providers play a growing role in cancer care. We therefore evaluated the awareness of radiation therapy in general and specifically the clinical utility of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among current US internal medicine residents. A web-based institutional review board-approved multi-institutional survey was distributed to US internal medicine residency programs. The survey evaluated trainee demographic characteristics, baseline radiation oncology awareness, knowledge of the role of SBRT for early-stage NSCLC, and whether the survey successfully improved awareness. Thirty US internal medicine programs participated, with an overall participant response rate of 46% (1177 of 2551). Of the trainees, 93% (n=1076) reported no radiation oncology education in their residency, 39% (n=452) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in an oncologic emergency, and 26% (n=293) reported confidence in knowing when to consult radiation oncology in the setting of a newly diagnosed cancer. Of the participants, 76% (n=850) correctly identified that surgical resection is the standard treatment in operable early-stage NSCLC, but only 50% (n=559) of participants would recommend SBRT to a medically inoperable patient, followed by 31% of participants (n=347) who were unsure of the most appropriate treatment, and 10% (n=117) who recommended waiting to offer palliative therapy. Ninety percent of participants (n=1029) agreed that they would benefit from further training on when to consult radiation oncology. Overall, 96% (n=1072) indicated that the survey increased their knowledge and awareness of the role of SBRT. The majority of participating trainees received no education in radiation oncology in their residency, reported a lack of confidence regarding when to consult radiation oncology, and overwhelmingly agreed that they would benefit from further training. These findings
Rubin, Olivier; Dahlberg, Rasmus
A Dictionary of Disaster Management offers over 200 terms covering different disasters from a social science perspective, brining together insights from many different disciplines including sociology, political science, history, anthropology, and natural science. It also features practical terms...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US EPA Disaster Debris Recovery Database (DDRD) promotes the proper recovery, recycling, and disposal of disaster debris for emergency responders at the federal,...
Department of Homeland Security — The Historical Disaster Declarations provides geospatial view to the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (referred to as the Stafford Act...
The work of the Soviet ecologists, led by A.I. Il'enko, on birds in the southern Urals area, site of the nuclear disaster in 1958, is discussed. The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in birds, food chains in a large running-water lake, bird migration patterns, and nest conservatism of ducks have been studied. It is pointed out that the existence of migratory species among contaminated species of the southern Urals provides an opportunity for observers in the West to test the truth about the 1958 nuclear disaster in the southern Urals. It is felt that the reports discussed here corroborate the author's original statement that the Urals nuclear disaster involved nuclear waste rather than a major reactor accident. (U.K.)
Mbaye, L.; Zimmermann, K.
This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that
Results: The sub-themes of the first main theme (a roles of nurses during emergency response include the expectations of the hospital and the public, general and special roles of nurses, assignments of medical tasks, special role during a pandemic influenza, role conflicts during a disaster, willingness to respond to a disaster. For (b disaster preparedness knowledge of nurses, the corresponding sub-themes include the definition of a disaster, core competencies and curriculum, undergraduate nursing education and continuing education programs, disaster drills, training and exercises, preparedness. The sub-themes for the last theme (c disaster experiences of nurses include the work environment, nursing care, feelings, stressors, willingness to respond as well as lessons learned and impacts. Conclusion: There is consensus in the literature that nurses are key players in emergency response. However, no clear mandate for nurses exists concerning their tasks during a disaster. For a nurse, to be able to respond to a disaster, personal and professional preparedness, in terms of education and training, are central. The Framework of Disaster Nursing Competencies of the WHO and ICN, broken down into national core competencies, will serve as a sufficient complement to the knowledge and skills of nurses already acquired through basic nursing curricula. During and after a disaster, attention should be applied to the work environment, feelings and stressors of nurses, not only to raise the willingness to respond to a disaster. Where non-existent, national directives and concepts for disaster nursing should be developed and nurses should be aware of their duties. Nursing educators should prepare nurses for disasters, by adjusting the curricula and by meeting the increased need for education and training in disaster nursing for all groups of nurses. The appropriateness of theoretical and practical preparation of disaster nursing competencies in undergraduate nursing courses and
Behavioral science and behavioral medicine have not been systematically taught to Japanese undergraduate medical students. A working group under the auspices of Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine developed an outcome-oriented curriculum of behavioral science/behavioral medicine through three processes: identifying the curriculum contents, holding a joint symposium with related societies, and defining outcomes and proposing a learning module. The behavioral science/behavioral medicine core curriculum consists of 11 units of lectures and four units of practical study. The working group plans to improve the current core curriculum by devising formative assessment methods so that students can learn and acquire attitude as well as the skills and knowledge necessary for student-centered clinical practice.
Goldstein, Carly M; Minges, Karl E; Schoffman, Danielle E; Cases, Mallory G
Behavioral medicine training is due for an overhaul given the rapid evolution of the field, including a tight funding climate, changing job prospects, and new research and industry collaborations. The purpose of the present study was to collect responses from trainee and practicing members of a multidisciplinary professional society about their perceptions of behavioral medicine training and their suggestions for changes to training for future behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners. A total of 162 faculty and 110 students (total n = 272) completed a web-based survey on strengths of their current training programs and ideas for changes. Using a mixed-methods approach, the survey findings are used to highlight seven key areas for improved preparation of the next generation of behavioral medicine scientists and practitioners, which are grant writing, interdisciplinary teamwork, advanced statistics and methods, evolving research program, publishable products from coursework, evolution and use of theory, and non-traditional career paths.
Anil, Shirin; Zawahir, Mohamed Shukry; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed
Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are "extremely important to learn." In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who "agreed" 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for "strongly agreed" 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering
Templeman, Kate; Robinson, Anske; McKenna, Lisa
Across the Western world, including Australia, growing popularity of complementary medicines (CMs) mandates their implementation into medical education (ME). Medical students in international contexts have expressed a need to learn about CMs. In Australia, little is known about the student-specific need for CM education. The objective of this paper was to assess the self-reported need for CM education among Australian medical students. Thirty second-year to final-year medical students participated in semi-structured interviews. A constructivist grounded theory methodological approach was used to generate, construct and analyse data. Medical school education faculties in Australian universities. Medical students generally held favourable attitudes toward CMs but had knowledge deficits and did not feel adept at counselling patients about CMs. All students were supportive of CM education in ME, noting its importance in relation to the doctor-patient encounter, specifically with regard to interactions with medical management. As future practitioners, students recognised the need to be able to effectively communicate about CMs and advise patients regarding safe and effective CM use. Australian medical students expressed interest in, and the need for, CM education in ME regardless of their opinion of it, and were supportive of evidence-based CMs being part of their armamentarium. However, current levels of CM education in medical schools do not adequately enable this. This level of receptivity suggests the need for CM education with firm recommendations and competencies to assist CM education development required. Identifying this need may help medical educators to respond more effectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huang, Kun; Liu, Yunlong; Huang, Yufei; Li, Lang; Cooper, Lee; Ruan, Jianhua; Zhao, Zhongming
We summarize the 2015 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2015) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics. The supplement includes 20 research articles selected from the manuscripts submitted to ICIBM 2015. The conference was held on November 13-15, 2015 at Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. It included eight scientific sessions, three tutorials, four keynote presentations, three highlight talks, and a poster session that covered current research in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational biology, biotechnologies, and computational medicine.
Characteristics of an ideal practice educator: Perspectives from practice educators in diagnostic radiography, nuclear medicine, nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy and physiotherapy and radiation therapy
Francis, A.; Hills, C.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.; Johnston, C.; James, D.; Surjan, Y.; Warren-Forward, H.
Background: Practice education is a compulsory component of health programs with practice educators playing a critical role in the education of students. Practice educator characteristics may positively or negatively affect student learning in practice settings. This study aimed to identify characteristics of the ideal practice educator that lead to successful practical experiences as perceived by current practice educators working in the Australian context of diagnostic radiography, nuclear medicine, nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and radiation therapy. Methods: All practice educators (n = 1063) on the University of Newcastle Practice Educator Database were invited to participate in this prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study via online link or paper format. Results: There was a 52% response rate. The five most valued characteristics were feedback skills, non-judgemental, professionalism, clarity and listening skills. The five least valued characteristics were scholarly activity, respect for students' autonomy, well-prepared, availability and being a role model. Comparisons between disciplines, genders, ages, years in practice and levels of supervisory experience indicated some statistically significant differences, though actual differences were small. Discussion: Overall there was a high degree of agreement within and between disciplines on the characteristics of the ideal practice educator. The top five skills could be classed as generic skills and not specific clinical and practice skills, thus formal training and certification schemes may enhance practice educator competence. - Highlights: • The most important characteristics were feedback skills and non-judgmental. • The least important characteristics were scholarly activity and respects student autonomy. • Female educators valued all characteristics except scholarly activities as being more important. • Older participants valued availability, and
Diane L. Gorgas
Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant
Soones, Tacara N; O'Brien, Bridget C; Julian, Katherine A
In order to teach residents how to work in interprofessional teams, educators in graduate medical education are implementing team-based care models in resident continuity clinics. However, little is known about the impact of interprofessional teams on residents' education in the ambulatory setting. To identify factors affecting residents' experience of team-based care within continuity clinics and the impact of these teams on residents' education. This was a qualitative study of focus groups with internal medicine residents. Seventy-seven internal medicine residents at the University of California San Francisco at three continuity clinic sites participated in the study. Qualitative interviews were audiotaped and transcribed. The authors used a general inductive approach with sensitizing concepts in four frames (structural, human resources, political and symbolic) to develop codes and identify themes. Residents believed that team-based care improves continuity and quality of care. Factors in four frames affected their ability to achieve these goals. Structural factors included communication through the electronic medical record, consistent schedules and regular team meetings. Human resources factors included the presence of stable teams and clear roles. Political and symbolic factors negatively impacted team-based care, and included low staffing ratios and a culture of ultimate resident responsibility, respectively. Regardless of the presence of these factors or resident perceptions of their teams, residents did not see the practice of interprofessional team-based care as intrinsically educational. Residents' experiences practicing team-based care are influenced by many principles described in the interprofessional teamwork literature, including understanding team members' roles, good communication and sufficient staffing. However, these attributes are not correlated with residents' perceptions of the educational value of team-based care. Including residents in
Emerging trends in disaster management and the Ethiopian experience: genesis, reform and transformation. ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies ... Key words: disaster management, drought, pre-disaster action, post-disaster action, hazards, disaster, Ethiopian disaster management system, Ethiopia.
Iserson, Kenneth V
Emergency medicine personnel frequently respond to major disasters. They expect to have an effective and efficient management system to elegantly allocate available resources. Despite claims to the contrary, experience demonstrates this rarely occurs. This article describes privatizing disaster assessment using a single-purposed, accountable, and well-trained organization. The goal is to achieve elegant disaster assessment, rather than repeatedly exhorting existing groups to do it. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES) would quickly and efficiently assess a postdisaster population's needs. It would use an accountable nongovernmental agency's teams with maximal training, mobility, and flexibility. Designed to augment the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's 2015 Emergency Response Preparedness Plan, RaDES would provide the initial information needed to avoid haphazard and overlapping disaster responses. Rapidly deployed teams would gather information from multiple sources and continually communicate those findings to their base, which would then disseminate them to disaster coordinators in a concise, coherent, and transparent way. The RaDES concept represents an elegant, minimally bureaucratic, and effective rapid response to major disasters. However, its implementation faces logistical, funding, and political obstacles. Developing and maintaining RaDES would require significant funding and political commitment to coordinate the numerous agencies that claim to be performing the same tasks. Although simulations can demonstrate efficacy and deficiencies, only field tests will demonstrate RaDES' power to improve interagency coordination and decrease the cost of major disaster response. At the least, the RaDES concept should serve as a model for discussing how to practicably improve our current chaotic disaster responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dieter, Peter Erich
The Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, University of Technology Dresden, Germany, was founded in 1993 after the reunification of Germany. In 1999, a reform process of medical education was started together with Harvard Medical International. The traditional teacher and discipline-centred curriculum was replaced by a student-centred, interdisciplinary and integrative curriculum which has been named DIPOL (Dresden Integrative Patient/Problem- Oriented Learning). The reform process was accompanied and supported by a parallel-ongoing Faculty Development Program. In 2004, a Quality Management Program in medical education was implemented, and in 2005 medical education received DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification. Quality Management Program and DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 certification were/are unique for the 34 medical schools in Germany. The students played a very important strategic role in all processes. They were/are members in all committees like the Faculty Board, the Board of Study Affairs (with equal representation) and the ongoing audits in the Quality Management Program. Students are the only ones who experience all years of the curriculum and are capable of detecting, for example gaps, overlaps, inconsistencies of the curriculum and assessments. Therefore, the in-depth knowledge of students about the medical school's curriculum is a very helpful and essential tool in curriculum reform processes and Quality Management Programs of medical education. The reform in medical education, the establishment of the Quality Management program and the certification resulted in an improvement of quality and output of medical education and medical research.
Wang, Hsiu-Yun; Stocker, Joel F; Fu, Daiwie
Science education often adopts a narrow view of science that assumes the lay public is ignorant, which seemingly justifies a science education limited to a promotional narrative of progress in the form of scientific knowledge void of meaningful social context. We propose that to prepare students as future concerned citizens of a technoscientific society, science education should be informed by science, technology, and society (STS) perspectives. An STS-informed science education, in our view, will include the following curricular elements: science controversy education, gender issues, historical perspective, and a move away from a Eurocentric view by looking into the distinctive patterns of other regional (in this case of Taiwan, East Asian) approaches to science, technology, and medicine. This article outlines the significance of some major STS studies as a means of illustrating the ways in which STS perspectives can, if incorporated into science education, enhance our understanding of science and technology and their relationships with society. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Rencic, Joseph; Trowbridge, Robert L; Fagan, Mark; Szauter, Karen; Durning, Steven
Recent reports, including the Institute of Medicine's Improving Diagnosis in Health Care, highlight the pervasiveness and underappreciated harm of diagnostic error, and recommend enhancing health care professional education in diagnostic reasoning. However, little is known about clinical reasoning curricula at US medical schools. To describe clinical reasoning curricula at US medical schools and to determine the attitudes of internal medicine clerkship directors toward teaching of clinical reasoning. Cross-sectional multicenter study. US institutional members of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine (CDIM). Examined responses to a survey that was emailed in May 2015 to CDIM institutional representatives, who reported on their medical school's clinical reasoning curriculum. The response rate was 74% (91/123). Most respondents reported that a structured curriculum in clinical reasoning should be taught in all phases of medical education, including the preclinical years (64/85; 75%), clinical clerkships (76/87; 87%), and the fourth year (75/88; 85%), and that more curricular time should be devoted to the topic. Respondents indicated that most students enter the clerkship with only poor (25/85; 29%) to fair (47/85; 55%) knowledge of key clinical reasoning concepts. Most institutions (52/91; 57%) surveyed lacked sessions dedicated to these topics. Lack of curricular time (59/67, 88%) and faculty expertise in teaching these concepts (53/76, 69%) were identified as barriers. Internal medicine clerkship directors believe that clinical reasoning should be taught throughout the 4 years of medical school, with the greatest emphasis in the clinical years. However, only a minority reported having teaching sessions devoted to clinical reasoning, citing a lack of curricular time and faculty expertise as the largest barriers. Our findings suggest that additional institutional and national resources should be dedicated to developing clinical reasoning curricula to improve
Dalgas, Karina Märcher
The disaster-prone Philippine archipelago is a major sender of migrants worldwide.Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Philippines and Denmark, this article investi-gates how individual migrants channelled relief to their neighbourhoods of originafter the Bohol earthquake of 2013. I argue that ...
When disaster strikes, you might not have access to food or water. This podcast discusses types of emergency food supplies you should keep on hand in your emergency kit. Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR). Date Released: 7/23/2012.
Heusser, Peter; Scheffer, Christian; Neumann, Melanie; Tauschel, Diethart; Edelhäuser, Friedrich
To develop the hypothesis that reductionism in medical anthropology, professional education and health care influences empathy development, communication and patient satisfaction. We identified relevant literature and reviewed the material in a structured essay. We reflected our hypothesis by applying it to Anthroposophic Medicine (AM), an example of holistic theory and practice. Reductionism in medical anthropology such as in conventional medicine seems to lead to a less empathetic and less communicative health care culture than holism such as in CAM disciplines. However, reductionism can be transformed into a systemic, multi-perspective holistic view, when the emergent properties of the physical, living, psychic, spiritual and social levels of human existence and the causal relations between them are more carefully accounted for in epistemology, medical anthropology and professional education. This is shown by the example of AM and its possible benefits for communication with and satisfaction of patients. A non-reductionistic understanding of the human being may improve communication with patients and enhance patient benefit and satisfaction. Interdisciplinary qualitative and quantitative studies are warranted to test this hypothesis and to understand the complex relations between epistemology, medical anthropology, education, health care delivery and benefit for patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayes, Victoria; Bing-You, Robert; Varaklis, Kalli; Trowbridge, Robert; Kemp, Heather; McKelvy, Dina
In 2016, we performed a scoping review as a means of mapping what is known in the literature about feedback to medical learners. In this descriptive analysis, we explore a subset of the results to assess the contributions of predominantly North American family medicine educators to the feedback literature. Nineteen articles extracted from our original scoping review plus six articles identified from an additional search of the journal Family Medicine are described in-depth. The proportion of articles involving family medicine educators identified in our scoping review is small (n=19/650, 3%) and the total remains low (25) after including additional articles (n=6) from a Family Medicine search. They encompass a broad range of feedback methods and content areas. They primarily originated in the United States (n=19) and Canada (n=3) within Family Medicine Departments (n=20) and encompass a variety of scientific and educational research methodologies. The contributions of predominantly North American Family Medicine educators to the literature on feedback to learners are sparse in number and employ a variety of focus areas and methodological approaches. More studies are needed to assess for areas of education research where family physicians could make valuable contributions.
DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L
To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is no such science as medicine where half life is 7 years, what means that in 3-4 years 50% of current knowledge will be wrong. If doctors use old techniques and methods then they will cure patients wrongly. Very fast and rapid increase of biomedical sciences and medical information in certain way force medical professionals to continuity learning in order to stay update. In this project a quantitative method of examination has been used. For the purposes of the research a survey questionnaires were created consisted of 28, 35 and 18 questions for all three groups of examinees. Beside general characteristics (sex, age, faculty, and year of studies the questionnaire included questions referring to the variables of structure, process and results in the system of education. Authors used Lickert five degree scale for the evaluation. Total of 521 students of the faculties of biomedical science in Sarajevo were surveyed; students of the Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Stomatology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nursing College, students of final year and postgraduate students from Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. On the basis of survey results authors concluded that the following should be done: The reform needs to be carried out in accordance with possibilities and needs, general faculty rules should include regulations that refer to insuring the quality of education, a continuous quality of studying needs to be insured - internal and external evaluation of the quality of work of respective education institution needs to be carried out, education standards need to be set, i.e. minimum knowledge and skills which a student needs to gain during studies is to be set, curriculums and programs need to be harmonized with countries in the region and Western Europe, Regular evaluation of lecturers needs to be done, Increase of size and content of the practical part of teaching needs to be encouraged
Masić, Izet; Novo, Ahmed; Deljković, Sejla; Omerhodzić, Ibrahim; Piralić, Alisa
There is no such science as medicine where half life is 7 years, what means that in 3-4 years 50% of current knowledge will be wrong. If doctors use old techniques and methods then they will cure patients wrongly. Very fast and rapid increase of biomedical sciences and medical information in certain way force medical professionals to continuity learning in order to stay update. In this project a quantitative method of examination has been used. For the purposes of the research a survey questionnaires were created consisted of 28, 35 and 18 questions for all three groups of examinees. Beside general characteristics (sex, age, faculty, and year of studies) the questionnaire included questions referring to the variables of structure, process and results in the system of education. Authors used Lickert five degree scale for the evaluation. Total of 521 students of the faculties of biomedical science in Sarajevo were surveyed; students of the Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine (Stomatology), Faculty of Pharmacy, Nursing College, students of final year and postgraduate students from Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. On the basis of survey results authors concluded that the following should be done: The reform needs to be carried out in accordance with possibilities and needs, general faculty rules should include regulations that refer to insuring the quality of education, a continuous quality of studying needs to be insured - internal and external evaluation of the quality of work of respective education institution needs to be carried out, education standards need to be set, i.e. minimum knowledge and skills which a student needs to gain during studies is to be set, curriculums and programs need to be harmonized with countries in the region and Western Europe, Regular evaluation of lecturers needs to be done, Increase of size and content of the practical part of teaching needs to be encouraged as well as distance learning organized on Cathedra
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that education of national hospital preparedness program under simulated conditions of incidents and disasters increased knowledge, attitude, and performance (preparation of nurses in response to the incidents and disasters.
Fishleder, Andrew J; Henson, Lindsey C; Hull, Alan L
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine (CCLCM) is an innovative, five-year medical education track within Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine (Case) with a focused mission to attract and educate a limited number of highly qualified persons who seek to become physician investigators. CCLCM curriculum governance, faculty appointments and promotions, and admissions committees are integrated with respective Case committees. The CCLCM curriculum is based on faculty-defined professional attributes that graduates are expected to develop. These attributes were used to create curricular and assessment principles that guided the development of an integrated basic science, clinical science, and research curriculum, conducted in an active learning environment. An organ-system approach is used to solidify an understanding of basic science discipline threads in the context of relevant clinical problems presented in PBL and case-based discussion formats. Clinical skills are introduced in the first year as part of the two-year longitudinal experience with a family practice or internal medicine physician. The research program provides all students with opportunities to learn and experience basic and translational research and clinical research before selecting a research topic for their 12- to 15-month master-level thesis project. All Case students participate in required and elective clinical curriculum after the second year, but CCLCM students return to the Cleveland Clinic on selected Friday afternoons for program-specific research and professionalism-learning activities. A unique portfolio-based assessment system is used to assess student achievements in nine competency areas, seven of which reflect the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies.
Alexandraki, Irene; Hernandez, Caridad A; Torre, Dario M; Chretien, Katherine C
Several decades of work have detailed the value and goals of interprofessional education (IPE) within the health professions, defining IPE competencies and best practices. In 2013, the Liaison Committee for Medical Education (LCME) elevated IPE to a U.S. medical school accreditation standard. To examine the status of IPE within internal medicine (IM) clerkships including perspectives, curricular content, barriers, and assessment a year after the LCME standard issuance. Anonymous online survey. IM clerkship directors from each of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine's 121 U.S. and Canadian member medical schools in 2014. In 2014, a section on IPE (18 items) was included in the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine annual survey of its 121 U.S. and Canadian member medical schools. Items (18) assessed clerkship director (CD) perspectives, status of IPE curricula in IM clerkships, and barriers to IPE implementation. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis of free-text responses to one of the survey questions. The overall survey response rate was 78% (94/121). The majority (88%) agreed that IPE is important to the practice of IM, and 71% believed IPE should be part of the IM clerkship. Most (76%) CDs agreed there is need for faculty development programs in IPE; 27% had such a program at their institution. Lack of curricular time, scheduling conflicts, and lack of faculty trained in IPE were the most frequently cited barriers. Twenty-nine percent had formal IPE activities within their IM clerkships, and 38% were planning to make changes. Of those with formal IPE activities, over a third (37%) did not involve student assessment. Since LCME standard issuance, only a minority of IM clerkships have included formal IPE activities, with lectures as the predominant method. Opportunities exist for enhancing educational methods as well as IPE faculty development.
Conclusion: This study revealed the attitude of Korean and Chinese TRM doctors on their educational system, and discussed the implication of similarities and differences between them. It would provide foundations for the improvement of the TRM educational curriculums.
Fara, Gaetano M; Nardi, Giuseppe; Signorelli, Carlo; Fanti, Mila
This survey was carried out under the sponsorship of the Italian Society of Hygiene (SItI), to evaluate the current professional position of physicians who completed their post-graduate professional training in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in the years 2000 through 2003. An ad-hoc questionnaire was administered to 689 such specialists across Italy with a response rate of 40%. The results show that specialists in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine are generally satisfied with their professional choice though most specialists were found to have only temporary employment. Post-specialty training courses of major interest to specialists in Hygiene and Preventive medicine are those regarding occupational health, statistical analysis and epidemiology, and quality of health care.
Ruan, Jianhua; Jin, Victor; Huang, Yufei; Xu, Hua; Edwards, Jeremy S; Chen, Yidong; Zhao, Zhongming
Here we present a summary of the 2014 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2014) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that includes 20 research articles selected from ICIBM 2014. The conference was held on December 4-6, 2014 at San Antonio, Texas, USA, and included six scientific sessions, four tutorials, four keynote presentations, nine highlight talks, and a poster session that covered cutting-edge research in bioinformatics, systems biology, and computational medicine.
Del Guerra, Alberto; Bardies, Manuel; Belcari, Nicola
and Competence approach along the lines recommended by the European Qualifications Framework. The minimum level expected in each topic in the theoretical knowledge and practical experience sections is intended to bring trainees up to the requirements expected of a Medical Physicist entering the field of Nuclear...... Medicine. CONCLUSIONS: This new joint EANM/EFOMP European guideline curriculum is a further step to harmonise specialist training of Medical Physicists in Nuclear Medicine within Europe. It provides a common framework for national Medical Physics societies to develop or benchmark their own curricula....... The responsibility for the implementation and accreditation of these standards and guidelines resides within national training and regulatory bodies....
Corrigan, Ellen; Samrasinghe, Iromi
A substantial barrier to improving disaster preparedness in Australia is a lack of prescriptive national guidelines based on individual hospital capabilities. A recent literature review revealed that only one Australian hospital has published data regarding its current preparedness level. To establish baseline levels of disaster knowledge, preparedness, and willingness to respond to a disaster among one hospital's staff, and thus enable the implementation of national disaster preparedness guidelines based on realistic capabilities of individual hospitals. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to individuals and departments that play key roles in the hospital's external disaster response. Questions concerned prior education and experience specific to disasters, general preparedness knowledge, perceived preparedness of themselves and their department, and willingness to respond to a disaster from a conventional and/or chemical, biological, or radiological incident. Responses were received from 140 individuals representing nine hospital departments. Eighty-three participants (59.3%) had previously received disaster education; 53 (37.9%) had attended a disaster simulation drill, and 18 (12.9%) had responded to an actual disaster. The average disaster preparedness knowledge score was 3.57 out of 10. The majority of respondents rated themselves as "not really" prepared and were "unsure" of their respective departments' level of preparedness. Most respondents indicated a willingness to participate in both a conventional incident involving burns and/or physical trauma, and an incident involving chemical, biological or radiological (CBR) weapons. Australian hospital staff are under-prepared to respond to a disaster because of a lack of education, insufficient simulation exercises, and limited disaster experience. The absence of specific national standards and guidelines through which individual hospitals can develop their capabilities further compounds the poverty in
Ozan, S; Timbil, S; Semin, S; Musal, B
In Turkey and its neighboring countries, few studies have investigated medical students' reactions to ethics education and ethical issues they encounter. The aim of this study was to investigate interns' perceptions of medical ethics education and ethical issues. In students' first three years at the Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, various teaching methods are used in ethics education, including problem-based learning, interactive lectures and movies. During the clinical years, the curriculum helps students consider the ethical dimension of their clinical work, and during the internship period a discussion on ethical issues is held. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to interns in the 2005-2006 academic year. Its questions asked about interns' perceived adequacy of their ethics education, any interpersonal ethical problems they had witnessed, their approaches to ethical problems, obstacles they believe prevented them from resolving ethical problems and whether they felt themselves ready to deal with ethical problems. 67.2 % of interns were reached and all of them responded. In the assessment of the adequacy of ethics education, the most favorable score was given to educators. Students' most often mentioned ethical problems encountered were between physicians and students and between physicians and patients. Interns believed that difficult personalities on the team and team hierarchy were important obstacles to resolving ethical problems. There were significant differences between the approaches students currently used in dealing with ethical problems and how they anticipated they would approach these problems in their future professional lives. We obtained information about students' perceptions about ethics education and ethical problems which helped us to plan other educational activities. This study may assist other medical schools in preparing an ethics curriculum or help evaluate an existing curriculum.
Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi
The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel