Sample records for disarmament

  1. Nuclear Disarmament.

    Johnson, Christopher


    Material about nuclear disarmament and the arms race should be included in secondary school curricula. Teachers can present this technical, controversial, and frightening material in a balanced and comprehensible way. Resources for instructional materials are listed. (PP)

  2. Target: Disarmament Education

    Haavelsrud, Magnus


    Departing from UNESCO disarmament education guidelines, a conceptual framework is presented in which disarmament is seen in relation to the overall question of peace, which also includes problems of development and human rights. The need for disarmament is based on arguments related not only to disarmament "per se", but also to the need for…

  3. Swedish Disarmament Policy


    NPIHP Partners Host Conference on Swedish Disarmament Policy Dec 05, 2012 The Nuclear Proliferation International History Project is pleased to announce a conference on Swedish nuclear disarmament policy, organized and hosted by Stockholm University on 26 november 2012. Organized by Stockholm University Professor Thomas Jonter, Emma Rosengren, Goran Rydeberg, and Stellan Andersson under the aegis of the Swedish Disarmament Resaerch Project, the conference featured keynote addresses by Hans Bl...

  4. Disarmament and Realism

    Smith, Ralph Stuart


    International cooperation in the field of disarmament is necessary to make the world a safe place in which to live. Moreover, every additional advance in aerospace technology makes this cooperation more imperative. (CK)

  5. Disarmament and Peace Education.

    Reardon, Betty


    Questions of disarmament and the legitimacy of the nation-state system should be the core of peace education and should comprise a major aspect of citizenship education. The approach to peace education should be cognitive and affective, intellectual and political, and should be initiated in the early elementary years. (Author/KC)

  6. World Disarmament Kit.

    Woito, Robert, Ed.

    This kit presents a comprehensive introduction for students to arms control and disarmament issues. Included are copies of published and unpublished articles for each topic. Section I provides a self-survey to enable students to assess their own attitudes, values, and knowledge. The survey poses questions for which students select one of several…

  7. Documents on Disarmament.

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This publication, latest in a series of volumes issued annually since 1960, contains primary source documents on arms control and disarmament developments during 1969. The main chronological arrangement is supplemented by both chronological and topical lists of contents. Other reference aids include a subject/author index, and lists of…

  8. Disarmament Education as World Order Inquiry.

    Reardon, Betty


    Disarmament education has been exposed to wider public attention because of the launching of the World Disarmament Campaign, an education effort intended to involve the world's citizens in thinking about disarmament. Factors important to this movement are discussed. (CJ)

  9. Nuclear disarmament verification

    DeVolpi, A.


    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  10. Education for Disarmament: A Topical Necessity.

    Nastase, Adrian


    The nature and content of disarmament education, as enunciated by the United Nations and other international groups, is discussed. The link between peace and disarmament is stressed along with alternative means to solve international disputes. (PP)

  11. Evolutionary disarmament in interspecific competition.

    Kisdi, E; Geritz, S A


    Competitive asymmetry, which is the advantage of having a larger body or stronger weaponry than a contestant, drives spectacular evolutionary arms races in intraspecific competition. Similar asymmetries are well documented in interspecific competition, yet they seldom lead to exaggerated traits. Here we demonstrate that two species with substantially different size may undergo parallel coevolution towards a smaller size under the same ecological conditions where a single species would exhibit an evolutionary arms race. We show that disarmament occurs for a wide range of parameters in an ecologically explicit model of competition for a single shared resource; disarmament also occurs in a simple Lotka-Volterra competition model. A key property of both models is the interplay between evolutionary dynamics and population density. The mechanism does not rely on very specific features of the model. Thus, evolutionary disarmament may be widespread and may help to explain the lack of interspecific arms races.

  12. Development Education and Disarmament Education.

    Burns, Robin


    Discusses development education as an educational process aimed at preparing people for participation in change and examines the implications for disarmament education. Development education is interpreted to include adult literacy education as well as a system of spreading basic concepts and encouraging and developing local initiatives. (DB)

  13. Disarmament.

    Miesnik, Alice J.


    Discusses the effects one teacher experienced when her students asked for silent time in the classroom to read ahead in the assigned adolescent novel. Suggests that a key goal of literature instruction should be getting students to read with interest and engagement, without the interference of the instructor. (HB)

  14. Verifying disarmament: scientific, technological and political challenges

    Pilat, Joseph R [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    There is growing interest in, and hopes for, nuclear disarmament in governments and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) around the world. If a nuclear-weapon-free world is to be achievable, verification and compliance will be critical. VerifYing disarmament would have unprecedented scientific, technological and political challenges. Verification would have to address warheads, components, materials, testing, facilities, delivery capabilities, virtual capabilities from existing or shutdown nuclear weapon and existing nuclear energy programs and material and weapon production and related capabilities. Moreover, it would likely have far more stringent requirements. The verification of dismantlement or elimination of nuclear warheads and components is widely recognized as the most pressing problem. There has been considerable research and development done in the United States and elsewhere on warhead and dismantlement transparency and verification since the early 1990s. However, we do not today know how to verifY low numbers or zero. We need to develop the needed verification tools and systems approaches that would allow us to meet this complex set of challenges. There is a real opportunity to explore verification options and, given any realistic time frame for disarmament, there is considerable scope to invest resources at the national and international levels to undertake research, development and demonstrations in an effort to address the anticipated and perhaps unanticipated verification challenges of disarmament now andfor the next decades. Cooperative approaches have the greatest possibility for success.

  15. The Disarmament Process: Where to Begin.

    Johansen, Robert C.

    The purpose of the essay is to stimulate action toward disarmament, defined as arms reductions to the lowest level possible without making internal law enforcement impossible. Intended as a guide for peace activists, the booklet identifies 13 issues that hold promise for leading toward a disarmed world: banning nuclear tests, tests of new…

  16. Arms Control, Disarmament, and Peace Newsletters.

    Atkins, Stephen


    Considers the research value of four types of newsletters on arms control, disarmament, and peace: direct-action, informational, scholarly, and single-issue. An annotated list of 58 newsletters includes those considered most significant of their type and recommended for library collections. (EM)

  17. Teaching about Nuclear Disarmament. Fastback 229.

    Becker, James, M.

    Background information to help educators teach about nuclear disarmament is presented. There are six sections. The first section, "Nuclear Arms Education: Avoiding the Final Catastrophe," discusses the national priority of preparing for war, militarism as a value, and the mushroom cloud and spaceship earth as symbols of a global age. The second…

  18. The nuclear arsenals and nuclear disarmament.

    Barnaby, F


    Current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons and the status of treaties for nuclear disarmament and the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons are summarised. The need for including stockpiles of civil plutonium in a programme for ending production and disposing of fissile materials is emphasized, and the ultimate difficulty of disposing of the last few nuclear weapons discussed.

  19. Professions for World Disarmament and Development.


    A conference entitled "Professions for World Disarmament and Development" was held in London on February 13, 1982. Messages were sent to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and to Prime Minister Thatcher expressing the concern of the 450 participants regarding the "abuse of professional skills in the preparation for nuclear war" and the consequences of today's nuclear arsenals.

  20. Kamarovsky about the problems of disarmament

    Nikolaev Nikolay Yurievich


    Full Text Available The article reveals the views of the well-known international law expert L.A. Kamarovsky (1846–1912 on the disarmament problem and analyses the scientist’s detailed proposals dealing with the fight with any militarism manifestation. The author of the article has come to a conclusion that Kamarovsky considered the process of disarmament to be the most important and necessary stage of appeasement of Europe which could be concluded with international organization foundation. At the same time he urged to carry out the disarmament gradually and simultaneously by a number of representative governmental conferences owing to which the most difficult international conflicts could be regulated and the final result of the conferences could be subscription of the binding treaty on disarmament. At the same time it is clear that Kamarovsky underestimated the profundity and complexity of modern regional conflicts. Besides, criticizing the militarist opponents the scientist permitted the possibility of “just” defensive wars and active colonial expansion.

  1. Current Situation of International Nuclear Arms Control and Nuclear Disarmament

    Gong; Xianfu


    <正>Currently,international nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament process is showing both encouraging and frustrating signs,with a stress on the latter.The following is a general picture:First,the new U.S.-Russian nuclear disarmament process faces challenges and prospect of a new round of nuclear disarmament negotiation is grim.As a result of implementing the New START signed in February 2011,as of March 1,2014,the United States has 1585

  2. The Nuclear Disarmament Movement: Politics, Potential, and Strategy

    Nebel, Jacob


    Nuclear disarmament is a global ambition and requires collaboration, but who is collaborating, and what are their roles? This paper discusses the role of the American people in the path towards zero. Scholars have discussed at length the historical lessons of the global disarmament movement, and activists have worked to rekindle the movement after…

  3. The Nuclear Disarmament Movement: Politics, Potential, and Strategy

    Nebel, Jacob


    Nuclear disarmament is a global ambition and requires collaboration, but who is collaborating, and what are their roles? This paper discusses the role of the American people in the path towards zero. Scholars have discussed at length the historical lessons of the global disarmament movement, and activists have worked to rekindle the movement after…

  4. Disarmament and Employment: Background for a Research Programme.

    Sabolo, Yves


    As background to a series of articles on the effects of disarmament on employment, the author assesses the present importance of armaments industries in the world economy, including the number of people directly or indirectly employed in military equipment production and services. He also discusses employment problems posed by disarmament.…

  5. Dreams and realities of disarmament; Reves et realites du desarmement

    Delmas, C.


    This text was published in 1978 after the presentation of a disarmament plan to the United Nations assembly by the French president, Giscard d'Estaing. The author comments the differences and the evolutions of the notions of disarmament, arms control and arms limitations, and how these notions appeared or have been used in international conferences, conventions or treaties through history, with either moral or political backgrounds since the sixteenth century, until the situation of nuclear balance after the Second World War. Then appeared the arms control approach and its associated treaties. The author outlines the originality of the French new approach to disarmament according to the President's intervention

  6. Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration: opportunities in post-conflict settings

    Priya Marwah


    Full Text Available The international community has learned much over recent years about the need and potential for integration of HIV awareness into the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration process.

  7. Coercive Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR): Can It Be Successful


    DEMOBLIZATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR): CAN IT BE SUCCESSFUL ? by Shane R. Doolan March 2008 Thesis Co-Advisors: Jeanne Giraldo...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coercive Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR): Can it be Successful ? 6. AUTHOR(S...DISARMAMENT DEMOBILIZATION AND REINTEGRATION (DDR): CAN IT BE SUCCESSFUL ? Shane R. Doolan Captain, United States Army B.S., Police Studies, John Jay

  8. Rethinking Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programs

    Jairo Munive


    Full Text Available This article introduces the special issue on DDR and ‘Armed Non-Statutory Actors’ (ANSAs which we prefer to the less precise label of Armed Non-State Actors. The understanding that disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR programs are essential in helping to prevent the recurrence of war in post-conflict situations is at the heart of current peacebuilding practice and the academic literature on peacekeeping and stabilization. But the changing strategic context of DDR programs and in particular the proliferation of ANSAs presents new challenges, the responses to which have been characterized as ‘second generation’ DDR. The changing context poses new questions and forces us to rethink assumptions and templates of DDR as the concept is blurred and expanded. The question is if it makes sense to hold on to the concept or whether the assumptions associated with it will get in the way of rethinking templates for violence reduction in the future.

  9. Next Generation Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration

    Robert Muggah


    Full Text Available The process of disarming, demobilizing and reintegrating ex-soldiers at conflict’s end is as old as war itself. The results of these efforts are far from even. Even so, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR has assumed a central place in the imagination of the peace, security and development communities. It is frequently advanced as a key pillar of multilateral and bilateral stabilization and reconstruction efforts at war’s end. Yet, the contexts in which DDR is conducted are also changing. As the United Nations and others grapple with the new geographies of organized violence, it is hardly surprising that they are also adapting their approaches. Organizations operating in war zones (and also outside of them are struggling to identify ways of ‘disengaging’ Al Shabaab in Somalia or northern Kenya, Jihadi fighters in Syria and Iraq, Taliban remnants in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Boko Haram militia in Nigeria. There are increasingly complex legal and operational challenges for those involved in DDR about when, how and with whom to engage. In order to effectively engage with these dilemmas, this article considers the evolving form and character of DDR programs. In the process, it considers a host of opportunities and obstacles confronting scholars and practitioners in the twenty first century, offering insights on future trajectories.

  10. Plutonium Proliferation: The Achilles Heel of Disarmament

    Leventhal, Paul (President, Nuclear Control Institute, Washington D.C.)


    Plutonium is a byproduct of nuclear fission, and it is produced at the rate of about 70 metric tons a year in the world's nuclear power reactors. Concerns about civilian plutonium ran high in the 1970s and prompted enactment of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 to give the United States a veto over separating plutonium from U.S.-supplied uranium fuel. Over the years, however, so-called reactor-grade plutonium has become the orphan issue of nuclear non-proliferation, largely as a consequence of pressures from plutonium-separating countries. The demise of the fast breeder reactor and the reluctance of utilities to introduce plutonium fuel in light-water reactors have resulted in large surpluses of civilian, weapons-usable plutonium, which now approach in size the 250 tons of military plutonium in the world. Yet reprocessing of spent fuel for recovery and use of plutonium proceeds apace outside the United States and threatens to overwhelm safeguards and security measures for keeping this material out of the hands of nations and terrorists for weapons. A number of historical and current developments are reviewed to demonstrate that plutonium commerce is undercutting efforts both to stop the spread of nuclear weapons and to work toward eliminating existing nuclear arsenals. These developments include the breakdown of U.S. anti-plutonium policy, the production of nuclear weapons by India with Atoms-for-Peace plutonium, the U.S.-Russian plan to introduce excess military plutonium as fuel in civilian power reactors, the failure to include civilian plutonium and bomb-grade uranium in the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty, and the perception of emerging proliferation threats as the rationale for development of a ballistic missile defense system. Finally, immobilization of separated plutonium in high-level waste is explored as a proliferation-resistant and disarmament-friendly solution for eliminating excess stocks of civilian and military plutonium.

  11. The International Arms Control and Disarmament Situation in 2015

    He Yidan; Yu Xiaoling


    In 2015,the situation of the international arms control and disarmament was in the overall stability,the United States and Russia continued to promote the performance process of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty(New START),the final agreement on the Iran nuclear issue was signed.But the ninth Review

  12. Nuclear armament and disarmament; Armement et desarmement nucleaires



    This document discusses the objectives and the specifications of the non-proliferation treaty, in the framework of the nuclear armament and disarmament. Three chapters are proposed: State of the art; the international agreements and treaties and the United Nation Organization part; debates and forecasts on the proliferation fight, the Pugwash movement and a chronology of the situation. (A.L.B.)

  13. Arms Limitation and Disarmament: Seventeenth Strategy for Peace Conference Report.

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to arms limitation and disarmament. Leaders in U. S. government, professionals from a wide spectrum of disciplines, and other international statesmen participated in the conference in an attempt to define a more enlightened foreign policy. Six major topics were discussed. The first report considered five…

  14. Verification of Disarmament or Limitation of Armaments: Instruments, Negotiations, Proposals


    Nuclear Test Pages: 00267 Cataloged Date: Aug 20, 1992 Document Type: HC Number of Copies In Library : 000001 Record ID: 24625 UNIDIR/92/28 UNIDIR...The Johns Hopkins Foreign Policy Institute, School of Advanced International Studies, 1989, pp. 33-54. ś For an overview of dismantlement, see...Weapons Databook, Natural Resources Defense Council, Ballinger Press, New York, 1990. 68 Verification of Disarmament or Limitation of Armaments is not

  15. A Preliminary Study of the Obstacles to, the Status of and Potential for Education for the Promotion of Disarmament. Seminar on the Obstacles to Disarmament and the Ways of Overcoming Them (3-7 April 1978).

    Reardon, Betty

    The booklet assesses the present status of education for the promotion of disarmament in various grade levels and learning environments throughout the world. It also identifies and recommends ways to make disarmament education more effective. Disarmament is interpreted as the process leading from the present system of armed nation states to an…

  16. Initial Position, Personal Control, and Attributional Augmentation of Persuasive Communication on Nuclear Disarmament.

    Fleming, John H.; Shaver, Kelly G.

    The effectiveness of two alternative attitude change strategies--a traditional persuasive strategy and a combined attributional/persuasive strategy--in altering attitudes toward nuclear disarmament were compared. Seventeen male and 39 female undergraduate students at a small university participated. A nuclear disarmament attitude pretest was…

  17. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  18. Negotiating Disarmament and Demobilisation: A Descriptive Review of the Evidence

    Robert Muggah


    Full Text Available Disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR are considered a mainstay of peace and stability operations. Yet, there is surprisingly limited critical examination of how they are negotiated in peace processes or grafted into peace agreements. Given the growing criticism over the design and effectiveness of DDR, it is important to take account of the ways in which it is negotiated to begin with, how it is sequenced, what is included and excluded, and the types of alternative arrangements that are intended to promote confidence among parties. Drawing on existing datasets, this article finds that provisions of DDR are present in over half of all documented comprehensive peace agreements and less than ten per cent of all peace accords, protocols and related resolutions. Moreover, conflict mediators and parties to peace talks seldom regard disarmament and demobilisation as preconditions for negotiations, wary of derailing negotiations. They are nevertheless key considerations in relation to wider security sector transformation and transitional justice in the aftermath of war.

  19. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament; Non-proliferation nucleaire et desarmement



    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  20. United Nations-Led Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo


    the disarmament, demobilization, repatriation, reintegration and resettlement (DDRRR) of foreign armed groups. Although there has been some success ... success of the reintegration of ex-combatants, and cast doubt on the viability of DDR as a tool for achieving peace in the eastern DRC. Scholars and...Broadcasting, 2009). 10 Shane R Doolan, “Coercive Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) can it be Successful ?” (MA thesis, Naval Postgraduate

  1. The NPR, NPT and the prospects for disarmament

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In Prague's Hradcany Square on April 5, 2009, President Barack Obama offered a bold vision of the nuclear future that encompasses both reducing nuclear dangers and pursuing the goal of a world without nuclear weapons while maintaining, as long as nuclear weapons remain, a safe secure, and effective arsenal, to deter potential adversaries and to assure U.S. allies and other security partners that they can count on America's security commitments. The agenda put forward in Prague involves the full range of issues from deterrence to nonproliferation and disarmament. The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report, reflecting the twin objectives of the Prague speech, for the first time places the United States effort to lead expanded international efforts to rebuild and strengthen the global nuclear nonproliferation regime at the top the U.S. nuclear agenda. This attention underscores the fact that the top priority of the United States is to discourage additional states from acquiring nuclear weapon capabilities and to stop terrorist groups from acquiring weapon-usable nuclear materials. It also reinforced the view that positively influencing the 2010 Review Conference (RevCon) of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) was a key objective of the Obama Administration. The NPR developed both the vision and the policy, but details of implementation will need to be developed and better understood. This paper will address the Nuclear Posture Review and its implementation, as well as it's relation to, and impact on, the NPT RevCon and the long term prospects for nonproliferation and disarmament.

  2. Russia's Nuclear Forces: Between Disarmament and Modernization

    Podvig, Pavel


    to the traditional view that relies on strategic nuclear deterrent as a central element of security strategy, regardless of whether nuclear deterrence has any actual role in addressing those problems. The emphasis on strategic stability in the bilateral relationship with the United States was evident in the important role that Russia assigned to the U.S.-Russian arms control negotiations. Resumption of the legally binding arms control process was one of the key elements of the largely successful 'reset' policy pursued by the Obama Administration in its relationships with Russia. Also, during the negotiations Russia strongly emphasized its interest in those issues that it believed might directly affect its deterrent potential - missile defense and conventional strategic launchers. Russia's extremely cautious approach to the next round of nuclear disarmament talks suggests that these issues did not lose their importance after New START - looking at nuclear disarmament in the context of strategic stability, Russia expressed concerns that deep reductions could undermine its nuclear deterrent if, for example, the United States proceeds with deployment of its missile defense system. Whether or not these concerns are justified, they do play an important role in how Russia looks at the future of nuclear disarmament. However, the opposite is true as well - the nuclear disarmament process can change Russia's security policy in a variety of ways by addressing some of its concerns or failing to address others. After the successful conclusion of the New START negotiations, the direction of change in Russia's nuclear policy will depend on how the subsequent dialogue addresses a number of key issues. First, the arms control process will have to reconcile the U.S. and Russian strategic modernization programs with deeper nuclear reductions. In Russia's case this would critically depend on whether the two countries could resolve their differences on


    Roxana HINCU


    Full Text Available This article argues that EU’s policy of Disarmament, Non-Proliferation, and Arms Export Control can be conceptualised into the framework of the normative power. Despite the EU strategies on this policy, such as EU Strategy against the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (2003, or Strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (2005, the EU is far from being a unitary actor. In the international arena most actions on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation are enhanced by the United Nations and individually by each country that is a nuclear power. The measures taken by the EU in the international forums on Disarmament are analysed with a short historic overview on the issue and with a closer view on the EU’s actions within the United Nations and those taken unilaterally.

  4. India’s Disarmament Initiative 1988: Continuing Relevance, Valid Pointers for an NWFW

    Manpreet Sethi


    Full Text Available The run up to the NPT Review Conference in 2010 brought nuclear disarmament into focus. Transitory though this trend turned out to be, it nevertheless became a trigger for India to re-examine its own position on disarmament. In order to take a considered view on the subject, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh instituted an Informal Group in October 2010 with the specific mandate to examine the relevance of the Action Plan that had been presented by Rajiv Gandhi in 1988. Were there any specific elements of that plan that were worth pursuing in the new security environment? What role could and should India play as a state with nuclear weapons in the pursuit of disarmament? Should India make the drive towards universal nuclear disarmament a priority in its diplomatic initiatives? Did India have the moral standing to do so after she herself had acquired the weapon? Has anything changed in the international climate to suggest that the Indian lead would attract like-minded nations? How should India approach other nations on this issue? These were some of the questions that the Informal Group considered before presenting its report to the Prime Minister in August 2011. It firmly conveyed the conviction that “India can and must play an effective and credible role as the leader of a campaign for the goal of universal nuclear disarmament, both because India can bring to the campaign its moral strength deriving from six decades of consistently campaigning for nuclear disarmament but also now the weight of its growing presence in the international system.”

  5. A call for action on disarmament and population.

    Fukuda, T


    Takeo Fukuda, former prime minister of Japan, opened the 12th session of the InterAction Council in Dresden, Germany, with a speech on June 7, 1994. The council has three priority concerns: world peace and disarmament; global problems of population increase, environmental degradation, resource and energy questions; and the question of activating the world economy. The cold war structure has crumbled, but stockpiled nuclear weapons still pose a threat to the world. Under such a situation, the role of multilateral organizations, particularly the UN, has become increasingly important. The world's political management henceforth should encompass North-South-East-West, the entire world, and multilateral institutions should be further strengthened. Special attention should be paid to the neglected North-South relations. The emergence of the mass-consumption society has generated the era of finite resources and environment. The rapidly increasing global population further complicates this issue. Unless the global problems of population, environment, resources, and energy are alleviated, the future for posterity is dubious. The population of the world is increasing by 100 million each year. It was 1.6 billion at the beginning of this century, but it is expected to increase to 6.4 billion at the end of the century, to 8 billion by the year 2020, and to 10 billion by 2050. Resources, energy, environment, and global population are mutually linked; the problem of balancing the rapidly increasing population and the food supply must be addressed. The hope is that the Food and Agriculture Organization will come up with measures to cope with this problem by forecasting the food supply and demand and population. The InterAction Council will hold its 13th session in Tokyo in 1995.

  6. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  7. Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Resource Guide.

    Gold, Howard, Ed.

    This nine-part guide provides resources on various topics and issues related disarmament, development, and economic conversion. They include: (1) recent publications (with their tables of contents provided, when applicable); (2) research institutes; (3) non-governmental organizations with primary contacts for information; (4) research and…

  8. The International Politics of Peace Education: The Conflict between Deterrence and Disarmament.

    Willers, Jack Conrad

    The main impetus for peace education is the arms race, which places peace education in the conflict between conservatives advocating increased nuclear deterrence and liberals supporting nuclear disarmament. In the United States, education for peace is still in its infancy. Other developed nations, such as the Scandinavian countries and to a lesser…

  9. Nuclear Disarmament and the Insanity Defense: What Happened to Political Responsiveness?

    Fleming, John H.; Shaver, Kelly G.

    A study which explored the degree to which belief in a politically responsive/unresponsive world might be related to opinions concerning nuclear disarmament, the insanity defense, and women's rights is described. A total of 206 male and female undergraduates completed a 63-item questionnaire consisting of 46 Likert-format I-E items and 17 attitude…

  10. Obstacles to Disarmament Education. Centre for Peace Studies Occasional Paper No. 6.

    Reardon, Betty

    Obstacles to disarmament education fall into three general categories: political, perceptual, and pedagogical. At the elementary school level, these obstacles occur because of: (1) a lack of opportunities for cross-cultural experiences; (2) the socialization processes that enforce the belief that a child's culture is superior to and competitive…

  11. Nuclear disarmament. Options for the coming non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle; Nukleare Abruestung. Optionen fuer den kommenden Ueberpruefungszyklus des NVV

    Mueller, Harald


    The report is aimed on the nuclear disarmament discussion with respect to the disagreement of nuclear weapon states and those without nuclear weapons, esp. the non-aligned movement (NAM) concerning the non-proliferation treaty. The report covers the following issues: The role of the non-proliferation treaty, nuclear disarmament in the last surveillance conference 2010, the different disarmament philosophies, the possibilities of bridging the disagreement, further disarmament options for the future non-proliferation treaty surveillance cycle, German options for the future surveillance cycle.

  12. The United Nations and Disarmament. An analysis of the Spanish positions in the UN

    Javier Sánchez Cano


    Full Text Available In 1953 the Franco regime, internationally isolated, signed the Defence and Economic Assistance Treaties with the USA which allowed it to have access to the organs of the United Nations system. Logically, the implicit subordination in defence aspects brought about a complete misunderstanding of the disarmament issues.The democratic transition, which in the foreign and defence fields lasted until 1988, meant a change in the sense of greater participation through progressive incorporation in various western structures : the EC, NATO, WEU...In this new context, this study analyses the Spanish positions with respect to disarmament in the field of the United Nations, from both its own perspective and that of its adequacy with relation to the conduct of its allies.

  13. International Legal Framework for Denuclearization and Nuclear Disarmament -- Present Situation and Prospects

    Gastelum, Zoe N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); OECD NEA International School of Nuclear Law, Paris (France)


    This thesis is the culminating project for my participation in the OECD NEA International School of Nuclear Law. This paper will begin by providing a historical background to current disarmament and denuclearization treaties. This paper will discuss the current legal framework based on current and historical activities related to denuclearization and nuclear disarmament. Then, it will propose paths forward for the future efforts, and describe the necessary legal considerations. Each treaty or agreement will be examined in respect to its requirements for: 1) limitations and implementation; 2) and verification and monitoring. Then, lessons learned in each of the two areas (limitations and verification) will be used to construct a proposed path forward at the end of this paper.

  14. Driving to Zero: Defining Credible Nuclear Deterrence in an Era of Disarmament


    in the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review emphasized a renewed focus on reducing the U.S. nuclear arsenal with a long-term goal of global nuclear...stockpile and stature as a global superpower, remains a leader for this issue. U.S. leadership has long stated a policy towards nuclear disarmament...Rather proposals should be analyzed within the larger context of a chronological continuum with New START as the initial point and global zero as the

  15. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    Trifan, D.D.


    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  16. The rise and fall of Professions for World Disarmament and Development.

    Poteliakhoff, Alex


    Professions for World Disarmament and Development (PWDD) began in response to the suggestion that the professions should be represented on the Council of World Disarmament Campaign. PWDD held a series of well-attended conferences at which eminent speakers discussed topics such as: the nuclear threat; the United Nations, including the outcome of the Second Special Session on Disarmament, and the possibility of a Second ('We the Peoples') Assembly; the ethical and social responsibility of the professions in respect of peace issues; peaceful development; and various aspects of global security. However, attempts to involve professional bodies such as the medical colleges, which did not regard such topics as within their remit, and the business community, perhaps because of the influence of the arms industry and arms trade, were not successful. After the end of the Cold War the momentum of PWDD diminished; some of its member organizations were wound up, and concern switched to global health, injustices, poverty and the environment. Despite a change in name to Professions for Social Responsibility in 1992, decline continued, perhaps in part due to failure to involve younger people. Its final meeting in 1995 advocated a Culture of Peace.

  17. The Multilateral Disarmament Process. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (16th, Warwick, Bermuda, June 21-26, 1981).

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    This is a report of a conference held in Bermuda in 1981 to discuss a multilateral approach to disarmament. The conference was an informal, off-the-record exchange of ideas and opinions among 24 diplomats and scholars from 18 countries and two international agencies. Participants considered current disarmament concepts, assessed UN disarmament…

  18. [Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker: nuclear disarmament and the search for freedom].

    Neuneck, Götz


    Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's comprehensive contributions to nuclear disarmament and arms control, as well as his peace policy impulses are to be understood primarily in the context of his family origin, his comprehensive thinking and the historical circumstances of the emerging nuclear age. They have a scientific, political and a strong philosophical-moral component. Beside the factual problems (nuclear energy, military strategy) he was interested in political power issues and their ambivalence and perception. His actual work is not only based on general academic knowledge, but also serve the immediate political influence on a scientific basis. Weizsäcker was not committed to nuclear disarmament or arms control per se, but about creating a lasting peace policy in the nuclear age. The paper discusses in chronological order of Weizsäcker's work within the policy field peace and disarmament. Family origin, study and work on the nuclear programme by Nazi-Germany laid the foundations for his later career. As a young physicist, he was directly involved in the political and ethical dilemma of the military and civilian use of nuclear energy. After the war, in Göttingen and Hamburg the reflections of the Nazi phase and the discussion of ways out of the dangers of the Cold War followed. The Max-Planck Institute in Starnberg dealt with the science-based treatment of global world problems, including the dangers of nuclear proliferation. Finally, Weizsäcker initiated a Peace Council in 1985. He urged both the perception of the moral responsibility of scientists as well as an ethics of the scientific-technological age. According to him, a general and profound change in the consciousness of humankind is needed to solve the existing power problems and the problem of war.

  19. Redefining the U.S. Agenda for Nuclear Disarmament, Analysis and Reflections

    Dunn, Lewis A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center for Global Security Research


    With Lewis Dunn’s paper on nuclear disarmament diplomacy, we are inaugurating a new monograph series under the auspices of the Center for Global Security Research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The series will explore complex emerging challenges in the emerging security environment as they bear on issues of deterrence, assurance, and strategic stability. Our goal is to explore these issues deeply enough to provide significant new understanding that is technically informed and policy relevant. Our premise is that thoughtful students of international security affairs continue to value such in-depth analysis as a way to help make sense of the large flow of data and opinion that reaches all of us on a daily basis. Our ambition is to generate four to six such papers per year on especially salient topics. The views expressed in these papers are those of the author and should not be attributed to the Center, the Laboratory, or the U.S. government. This inaugural paper addresses one of the key questions facing national leadership seven to eight years after President Obama’s April 2009 remarks in Prague and his commitment to take practical steps towards the long-term goal of the elimination of nuclear weapons. In the interim, some important steps have been taken. But there have also been many disappointments. The new presidential administration will face a security landscape quite different from that of eight years ago and must reassess U.S. priorities and approaches. As Lewis Dunn argues, some will be tempted to walk away entirely from the disarmament agenda, while others will advocate even more forcefully for unilateral U.S. steps to further reduce the role and number of nuclear weapons in its posture. Dr. Dunn sets out his own vision of how to adapt and carry forward the disarmament agenda, in a manner informed by developments in the security environment that point to a continuing role for nuclear deterrence. The result is both fresh and compelling.

  20. Does AIDS involve some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the disarmament strategy?

    Sandoz, Patrick


    Korzybski's general semantics recommends considering living beings as organisms-as-a-whole in their environment. Our cognitive abilities, specific to the human species, have thus to be taken into account. In this framework we establish a semantic similarity between particular stressful events of the 20th century and AIDS in which the immune-deficiency-caused is semiotically seen as a biological state of disarmament of the organism. It then appears that: These observations suggest that AIDS could benefit from some collusion by the neuro-immune system because of positive learning of the semiotic concept of disarmament, thus making the terrain favorable to the germ in response to intense stress. The disease would then result from a conditioning process based on semiotics and involve some confusion at the level of the unconscious cognitive system between disarmament toward outside the body and disarmament toward inside the body. This hypothesis is discussed within a multidisciplinary perspective considering the specificities of our modern lifestyles, the cybernetic ability of signs to control metabolism and behavior, and the recent advances of epigenetics and cognition sciences. This hypothesis may explain the multiple cross-species transmissions of the immunodeficiency virus into humans during the 20th century. Further research is suggested for evaluating this hypothesis.

  1. Does money work? Cash transfers to ex-combatants in disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration processes.

    Willibald, Sigrid


    This paper analyses the relevance and potential of cash transfers as part of the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) assistance packages provided to ex-combatants in transitions from war to peace. To this end, a theoretical framework is established that permits the identification of the advantages and disadvantages of using cash in DDR. Subsequently, an empirical analysis is carried out to compare selected theoretical assumptions on the use of cash with the reality of lessons learned from recent experience in Sierra Leone and other African countries. The study shows that some theoretical drawbacks commonly associated with the use of cash in DDR processes may indeed bear out in practice. At the same time, though, the paper argues that the utility of cash transfers in DDR is affected by a variety of factors that go far beyond the simple choice of employing cash, most notably decisions on payment location, eligibility criteria and targeting.

  2. Disarmament Education, Education for International Understanding, Global Education, Peace Education and Other Related Terms: Comments and Preferences in a Group of Experts. Peace Education Miniprints No. 61.

    Bjerstedt, Ake

    Fifty experts, representing 22 countries provide their comments and views on the use of terms such as "disarmament education" and "peace education" in international debates. Part 1 of the report presents a summarization of the major characteristics of the answers. Some of the interviewees emphasize that the terms are not…

  3. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament: speech of the president Obama at Prague; Non-proliferation et desarmement nucleaires: discours de Prague du president Obama

    Hautecouverture, B. [Centre d' Etudes de Securits Internationale et de Maitrise des armements (CESIM), 75 - Paris (France)


    Introduced by the Prague speech of april 7 2009, the Obama President program towards the non proliferation and the nuclear disarmament was pointed out by its optimism ambition and determination. But a more detailed lecture shows concurrent positions. The author analyzes the political aspects of the President speech. (A.L.B.)

  4. Disarmament: preserving heritage, re-launching enterprise. The quarrel between ancients and moderns; Desarmement: preserver l'heritage, relancer l'entreprise. La querelle des anciens et des modernes

    Dahan, P. [Ministere Francais des Affaires Etrangeres, Dir. des Affaires Strategiques, de Securite et du Desarmement, 75 - Paris (France)


    The occurrence of new threats and the progress of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction raises several questions about the future of multilateral disarmament and the about all these treaties which have built up the architecture of the international security. This article analyzes the possibilities of preserving this heritage through the search of a better efficiency of existing means and the re-launching of the disarmament and non-proliferation enterprises thanks to the search for a relevance goal. (J.S.)

  5. The fight against international terrorism and changes in the U.S. nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament strategy

    Inmaculada Marrero Rocha


    Full Text Available This article examines how the the fight against international terrorism, as a new organising principle in U.S. foreign policy and security policy, has conditioned and modified the American conception of and strategy for combatting nuclear arms proliferation. On the one hand, it analyses the concepts of “axis of evil” or “rogue states” as instruments of automatic and forced connection between international terrorism and nuclear armsproliferating states. On the other hand, it also deals with the changes in American nonproliferation and disarmament strategy, characterised by a distrust towards international cooperation and a clear preference for using means of a unilateral nature, which challenge, and even scorn, international institutions and the rules of international law in this area.

  6. The nuclear weapons inheritance project: student-to-student dialogues and interactive peer education in disarmament activism.

    Buhmann, Caecilie Böck


    The Nuclear Weapons Inheritance Project is a student run and student initiated project founded in 2001 with the purpose of increasing awareness of health effects of nuclear policies and empowering university students to take action in a local and international context. The project uses dialogues to discuss nuclear disarmament with university students and a method of interactive peer education to train new trainers. The project has met more than 1500 students in nuclear weapon states in dialogue and trained about 400 students from all over the world. This article describes the methods and results of the project and discuss how the experience of the project can be used in other projects seeking to increase awareness of a topic and to initiate action on social injustice.

  7. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    vision of a nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and

  8. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    vision of a nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and

  9. 罗斯福政府在裁军问题上的对德政策%Policies of Roosevelt Government towards Germany on Disarmament



    From February, 1932 to June, 1934, the world disarmament conference was held in Geneva, and Hoover and Roosevelt government of the US took part in it successively. As far as disarmament was concerned, Hoover administration's policy towards Germany changed from supporting German "equal rights" to supporting Germany to reorganize military supplies limitedly. When Roosevelt came into power, he changed Hoover's policy and tried to contain German ambition to armament expansion. However, Johnson's revision killed his new policy in pregnancy.%1932年2月至1934年6月,世界裁军会议在日内瓦召开。美国的胡佛政府和罗斯福政府先后参加。胡佛政府在裁军问题上的对德政策是从支持德国“权利平等”到有限支持德国重整军备。罗斯福上台后,改变胡佛政府在裁军问题上的对德政策,极力遏制德国的扩军野心,但约翰逊修正案使罗斯福的新政策胎死腹中。

  10. Conference day - Dissuasion, proliferation, disarmament: the nuclear debate beyond 2010. Conference proceedings; Journee d'etude - Dissuasion, proliferation, desarmement: le debat nucleaire apres 2010. Actes de la conference



    A first set of contributions (round tables) addresses the relationship between NATO, nuclear deterrence and antimissile defence. The second set of contributions addresses nuclear policies of emerging powers (Russia, China, Iran...) and proliferation risks. The third one addresses the perspectives of non proliferation, civil nuclear energy actors, and disarmament

  11. International Symposium on Disarmament Education: A Report. Proceedings from a World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession and Japan Teachers Union Symposium (Hiroshima, Japan, October 25-29, 1982).

    Japan Teachers Union, Tokyo.

    Proceedings from an international symposium devoted to the cause of disarmament education are presented. Representatives from international and national teacher organizations together with scholars and researchers from 35 countries and all continents attended. The symposium focused on the idea that teachers have a special responsibility to work…

  12. Disarmament, Security and Development

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 1976


    Provided is a summary of the 26th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs held August 26-31, 1976, in Muhlhausen, East Germany. World problems discussed included: arms limitations, military research and development, nuclear test ban, alternative energy sources, and genetic engineering. (SL)

  13. Education and Disarmament.

    Greene, Maxine


    Education should release humans to reach out from their own places in the world so that they can make sense of how they live and what they encounter around themselves. This sort of education, which will "humanize" the world and populate it with "self-understanding" citizens, will allow for the evolution of alternatives to destruction and war. (CJ)

  14. Facilitating Global Nuclear Disarmament

    Wu; Junr


    <正>I.Introduction Since the advent of nuclear weapons,especially after the United States dropped atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki,the capacity of massive and indiscriminate annihilation of nuclear weapons have made people of insight across the world realize that such weapons cannot be used arbitrarily.In the 1960s,the then Chinese leader Mao Zedong said that to throw them(nuclear weapons)about at will is committing a

  15. NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe; Das Neue Strategische Konzept der NATO und die Zukunft der nuklearen Abruestung in Europa

    Dembinski, Matthias; Mueller, Harald


    The study on NATO's new strategic concept and the future of nuclear disarmament in Europe covers the following topics: From the Prague speech to the strategic concept - the significance and role of the substrategic nuclear weapons in Europe: the substrategic nuclear weapons (SSNW) in the USA: relict of the Cold war or clamps of the transatlantic security? The future of the SSNW from the Prague speech to the strategic concept. The positions of selected NATO members and Russia. Conclusions and recommendations: From the significance of the US nuclear weapons in Europe. Arms control policy options.

  16. 10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

    Maximilien Brice


    10 February 2012 - Permanent Representative of the Republic of India to the Conference on Disarmament, United Nations Office at Geneva Ambassador Mehta signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser R. Voss;in the LHC tunnel at Point 2 and ALICE underground experimental area with Collaboration Deputy Spokesperson Y. Schutz.

  17. Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

    Patrice Loiez


    Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

  18. Nuclear Security, Disarmament and Development

    Salam, Abdus

    The world's stock of nuclear weapons, which was three in 1945, has been growing ever since and is 50,OOOa in 1985. Nearly two trillion dollars of the public funds have been spent over the years to improve their destructive power, and the means of delivering them. One indicator of the awful power of these weapons is that the explosive yield of the nuclear weapons stockpiled today by the US, USSR, UK, France, and China is equivalent to one million Hiroshima bombs. Less than 1,000 of these 50,000 weapons could destroy USA and USSR. A thousand more in an all-out nuclear exchange could destroy the world as a habitable planet, ending life for the living and the prospects of life for those not yet born, sparing no nation, no region of the world…

  19. Silahlı Örgütler Üzerinde Çatışma Yönetimi: Silah Bıraktırma, Tasfiye ve Bütünleştirme(Conflict Management on Armed Groups: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration

    Sefer YILMAZ


    Full Text Available Conflict is a phenomenon with an ever increasing importance which, almost all the organizations face with. Conflict management is the activity shaping this phenomenon in line with the organizational goals. Despite plentiful studies conducted on various organizational levels in the literature in our country in this management field, the number of studies conducted on the level of illegal armed organizations is scarcely any. Conflict management activities on this kind of organizations in the world for the last quarter century is conducted under the topic of “Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration” (DDR. A considerable amount of knowledge accumulation is formed throughout the world. In this study, for a successful conflict management regarding illegal armed organizations, some lessons to be taken from DDR programs conducted in the world are tried to be put forth. In this way, it is aimed both to fill a gap in the literature in our country and to shed light on the practices on this issue.

  20. « La propagande soviétique de 1917 à 1991 : paix et désarmement au service de l’idéologie ? » Soviet Propaganda from 1917 to 1991: Peace and Disarmament Serving an Ideology?

    Jacques Le Bourgeois


    Full Text Available From the decree on Peace in 1917 to Gorbatchev’s “Zero option” in 1987, the themes of Peace and then of disarmament, were recurrent and fundamental topics in Soviet propaganda. After Trotsky suggested the idea of peace without arms, from 1918 the USSR quickly came back to a more pragmatic conception by setting up a powerful Red Army which Stalin, as well as his successors, kept reinforcing, while championing the struggle against militarism. Crowned with glory thanks to its victory over Nazism, soon after World War II, the USSR went so far as to promote the set of pacifist themes as a central pillar of its doctrine; it became its universal standard bearer. But even if the theme, generous and idealistic as it might be, mobilized sincere sympathisers, it also gave rise to serious doubts, for it lent itself to ambiguous interpretations. The USSR no longer contented itself with national defence, it was arming itself excessively and was becoming a nuclear superpower. And the “Peace” for which the homonymous movement campaigned was then perceived no longer as a praiseworthy aim but as a concept serving an ideology. Oddly enough it was when the USSR disarmed that the regime collapsed, as if paradoxically Peace and disarmament were incompatible with the doctrine. But without resorting to a shortcut that is furthermore fallacious, we find it interesting to show, thanks to posters of Soviet propaganda and in the light of the historical context, from 1917 to 1991, how the set of themes was instrumentalized, while being at the same time the very essence of a doctrine which presented millenarian aspects. Indeed, the Soviet Peace is not basically of the same nature as the capitalist peace. For some, absolute Peace is a myth, for others, the Peace that is offered is only relative and unacceptable.

  1. Treze passos para o juízo final: a nova era do desarmamento nuclear dos Estados Unidos e da Rússia Thirteen steps to judgement day: the new era of Russian and North American nuclear disarmament

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus


    Full Text Available Este artigo procura explicar por que os líderes dos EUA e da Rússia não implementaram total e efetivamente o plano de ação de treze pontos práticos para o desarmamento nuclear, estabelecido na Conferência de Revisão do Tratado de Não-Proliferação Nuclear em 2000. As decisões relacionadas aos treze pontos, tomadas pelos membros dos Executivos das duas maiores potências nucleares, são vistas como resultado da conciliação de imperativos internos e externos por esses indivíduos, que enfrentam oportunidades e dilemas estratégicos distintos simultaneamente nos âmbitos doméstico e internacional. São consideradas as escolhas políticas de membros dos Executivos nacionais e estrangeiros, Legislativos e principais grupos de interesse desses países, bem como a distribuição de poder sobre a formulação da decisão nacional, estabelecida pelas instituições políticas domésticas. As hipóteses apontam que os membros dos Executivos desses países - apoiados por grande parte dos membros dos Legislativos e dos principais grupos de interesse envolvidos, como as Forças Armadas - procuraram garantir autonomia para definir a estrutura e a composição de forças estratégicas e táticas, modernizar arsenais atômicos e operar uma força capaz de lidar com contingências que envolvam não apenas potências nucleares tradicionais, mas principalmente novos Estados detentores de armas de destruição em massa e organizações terroristas.This article aims to explain why U.S. and Russian leaders have not implemented totally and effectively the thirteen practical-step plan of action on nuclear disarmament agreed at the 2000 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. The decisions with regard to the thirteen steps, taken by members of U.S. and Russian Executives, are seen as the result of the conciliation of internal and external imperatives by those individuals, who face distinctive strategic opportunities and dilemmas simultaneously

  2. Exploring the gender gap on nuclear disarmament

    Cherrin, S.J.


    This research explores the relationship between sex/gender factors and attitudes toward peace and militarism to determine whether more women than men favor non-military solutions to peace to examine the effect of gender identity on these attitudes. The investigation also looks at participation in a peace group, a military setting, child care, and the traditional homemaker role, to see what effect these activities might have on attitudes toward peace and militarism. In addition, the study explores whether there is a correlation between attitudes favorable to feminism and orientation toward war and peace issues. This study is guided by the sociological perspective which assumes that sex and gender differences, to the extent they exist, may be influenced by the social roles defined as appropriate for women and men. In this exploration there is not a sex gap on peace and military attitudes. A feminine gender identity does not have an effect on the direction of attitudes toward peace or militarism. However, an overall identification with masculine traits, plus believing oneself to be dominant, competitive and aggressive is correlated with a non-pacifist world view. Results of this study show that participation in a peace group is the best determinant of a pro-peace attitude, whereas participation in a military setting tends to be associated with a pro-military attitude.



    in the northern part of Nigeria and other crimes committed in other parts of Nigeria with arms, ... injuries not just to humans alone, but also to the environment, economy and is ... production and/or acquisition of arms by groups or individuals for.

  4. Thoughts on Verification of Nuclear Disarmament

    Dunlop, W H


    It is my pleasure to be here to day to participate in this Conference. My thanks to the organizers for preparing such an interesting agenda on a very difficult topic. My effort in preparing my presentation was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48. And as many of you know Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is now, as of Oct 1st, under contract to the Lawrence Livermore National Security LLC. There has been a long history of how to view verification of arms control agreements. The basis for verification during the days of SALT was that verification would be based on each country's national technical means. For treaties dealing with strategic missiles this worked well as the individual items subject to verification were of such a size that they were visible by the National Technical Means available at the time. And it was felt that the counting of missiles and launchers could be verified by our National Technical Means. For nuclear testing treaties the use of seismic measurements developed into a capability that was reasonably robust for all but the smallest of nuclear tests. However, once we had the Threshold Test Ban Treaty, there was a significant problem in that the fidelity of the measurements were not sufficient to determine if a test was slightly above the 150 kt limit or slightly below the 150 kt limit. This led some in the US to believe that the Soviet Union was not living up to the TTBT agreement. An on-site verification protocol was negotiated in 1988 and 1989 that allowed the US to make hydrodynamic yield measurements on Soviet tests above 50 kt yield and regional seismic measurements on all tests above 35 kt of yield; and the Soviets to make the same type of measurements on US tests to ensure that they were not over 150 kt. These on-site measurements were considered reasonably intrusive. Again the measurement capability was not perfect and it was expected that occasionally there might be a verification measurement that was slightly above 150 kt. But the accuracy was much improved over the earlier seismic measurements. In fact some of this improvement was because as part of this verification protocol the US and Soviet Union provided the yields of several past tests to improve seismic calibrations. This actually helped provide a much needed calibration for the seismic measurements. It was also accepted that since nuclear tests were to a large part R&D related, it was also expected that occasionally there might be a test that was slightly above 150 kt, as you could not always predict the yield with high accuracy in advance of the test. While one could hypothesize that the Soviets could do a test at some other location than their test sites, if it were even a small fraction of 150 kt it would clearly be observed and would be a violation of the treaty. So the issue of clandestine tests of significance was easily covered for this particular treaty.

  5. Information report on the behalf of the foreign affairs, defence and armed forces Commission on France security, nuclear disarmament and non proliferation; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees (1) sur le desarmement, la non-proliferation nucleaires et la securite de la France



    This report first gives an overview of nuclear disarmament and non proliferation twenty years after the end of Cold War: evolution and status of Russia's and United States' nuclear weapon arsenals, France's and United Kingdom's trend to reduce their nuclear armament, reinforcement of China's nuclear armament, effects and limitations of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). It notices that the new international context gave birth to some expectations and may lead to a lower nuclear pressure, notably with the influence of START negotiations between Russia and the United States, provided that the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is ratified by more countries, and that negotiations promote a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty. The report also outlines the importance of the promotion of better controlled peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It discusses the relationship between maintaining the world nuclear order and the reduction of international and regional tensions, and the importance of struggle against all forms of proliferation. It analyses the French nuclear posture in terms of security requirements, and in front of the zero nuclear option, in a context of ballistic missile proliferation, and in relationship with the issue of tactical nuclear weapons in Europe

  6. An Annotated Bibliography of Defence, Disarmament, and Peace


    of United States Defence Spending on Employment and Output, International Labour Review , Vol 124 (6), November-Decem- ber 1985, pp 677-697. Examines...BALL, N. Converting the Workforce: Defence Industry Conversion in the Industrialised Countries, International Labour Review , Vol 125 (4), July-August

  7. Of Arms and the Man: Possible Employment Consequences of Disarmament.

    Richards, Peter


    Reduction in defense expenditure may also result in reduced technological research effort. Some 10 million workers in manufacturing worldwide are dependent on military orders. Much depends on switching production to civilian markets or a transition from manufacturing to services. (SK)

  8. The Relationship between Nuclear Disarmament and Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Sun; Xiangli


    The history of nuclear weapons development since the end of World War II is also one of nuclear arms control.There are two major aspects that represent the global efforts of nuclear arms control,which include limiting on nuclear weapon development in quantities and qualities,and limiting on the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the relevant research and development technologies.The limitation on the nuclear weapons development constitute

  9. Targeting bacterial secretion systems: benefits of disarmament in the microcosm.

    Baron, Christian; Coombes, Brian


    Secretion systems are used by many bacterial pathogens for the delivery of virulence factors to the extracellular space or directly into host cells. They are attractive targets for the development of novel anti-virulence drugs as their inactivation would lead to pathogen attenuation or avirulence, followed by clearance of the bacteria by the immune system. This review will present the state of knowledge on the assembly and function of type II, type III and type IV secretion systems in Gram-negative bacteria focusing on insights provided by structural analyses of several key components. The suitability of transcription factors regulating the expression of secretion system components and of ATPases, lytic transglycosylases and protein assembly factors as drug targets will be discussed. Recent progress using innovative in vivo as well as in vitro screening strategies led to a first set of secretion system inhibitors with potential for further development as anti-infectives. The discovery of such inhibitors offers exciting and innovative opportunities to further develop these anti-virulence drugs into monotherapy or in combination with classical antibiotics. Bacterial growth per se would not be inhibited by such drugs so that the selection for mutations causing resistance could be reduced. Secretion system inhibitors may therefore avoid many of the problems associated with classical antibiotics and may constitute a valuable addition to our arsenal for the treatment of bacterial infections.

  10. Making the Connection: Disarmament, Development and Economic Conversion. A Reader.

    Gold, Howard, Ed.

    This document consists of articles which have been selected to provide insight into different aspects of the relationship between the two most pressing and challenging issues of the current time. The first is the need to achieve a just level of economic development for two-thirds of the world's population that live in poverty. The second is the…

  11. Learning technologies and the lifelong learner: armament or disarmament?

    Jane Seale


    Full Text Available In a general context, lifelong learning appears to be about increasing access to education and supporting individual development. In the specific context of the United Kingdom, lifelong learning is about converting people to a culture of learning in order that the nation can produce creative, enterprising scholars (Blunkett, 1998. In both contexts, it is considered that learning needs to be a lifelong commitment, in order that individuals can fulfil their potential and improve themselves.

  12. Multilateral Disarmament: Conspiracy for Common Sense. Occasional Paper 31.

    Stanley, C. Maxwell

    This paper outlines the danger of continuing the conventional and nuclear arms races and offers alternatives to ensure both peace and security. There are five major sections to the paper. In the first section, "Mulitlateral Approach," global multilateral accomplishments, regional multilateral activities, and bilateral negotiations are discussed.…

  13. Dynamic intervention: pathogen disarmament of mitochondrial-based immune surveillance.

    Holland, Robin L; Blanke, Steven R


    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Suzuki et al. (2014) describe a Vibrio cholerae Type-III-secreted effector that targets mitochondrial dynamics to dampen host innate immune signaling. This suggests that mammalian hosts possess surveillance mechanisms to monitor pathogen-mediated alterations in the integrity of normal cellular processes and organelles.

  14. Nuclear deterrence and disarmament after the Cold War

    Lehman, R.F. II


    During the Cold War, nuclear arms control measures were shaped significantly by nuclear doctrine. Consequently, the negotiation of arms control agreements often became a battleground for different nuclear strategies. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union has been declared over. Today, both nuclear weapons policies and arms control objectives are again being reviewed. This document discusses points of this review.

  15. Nuclear disarmament: the rebound?; Desarmement nucleaire: le rebond?

    Durand, D. [Institut de Documentation et de Recherche sur la Paix - I. D. R. P., 93 - Saint-Ouen (France)


    The elimination of nuclear weapons is very often considered as a naive and unrealistic utopia, or as an ethical ambition or requirement but with no possible implementation. In this book, the author shades light on some concrete elements of the existing debate between international actors: governments, institutions, but also non-governmental organizations and opinion movements born during the last non-proliferation treaty conference. (J.S.)

  16. Balance del proceso de Desmovilización, Desarme y Reinserción (DDR de los bloques Cacique Nutibara y Héroes de Granada en la ciudad de Medellín Overview of the Process of Demobilization, Disarmament and Re-integration (DDR in the Cacique Nutibara and Héroes de Granada Blocks in the City of Medellín

    Manuel Alberto Alonso Espinal


    Full Text Available El artículo realiza una descripción general y un balance del proceso de Desmovilización, Desarme y Reinserción (DDR de los bloques Cacique Nutibara y Héroes de Granada en la ciudad de Medellín. El primero, desmovilizado el 9 de diciembre de 2003, con 868 excombatientes y 467 armas entregadas; el segundo, el 1 de agosto de 2005, con 2.033 excombatientes y 1.120 armas entregadas. El artículo describe y analiza el proceso local, con base en las variables propuestas por Gleichman y su grupo de trabajo en el año de 2004, y lo contrapone con el nacional, a la vez que construye una serie hipótesis que se deben tener presentes a la hora de caracterizar la naturaleza del paramilitarismo en la ciudad. El resultado es un programa con fortalezas y logros, pero también con vacíos y limitaciones.This article carries out a general description and an overview of the processes of De-mobilization, Disarmament and Re-insertion (DDR in the Cacique Nutibara y Héroes de Granada blocks in the city of Medellín. The first of these areas, was demobilized December 9, 2003, with 868 ex-combatants and 467 weapons delivered; the second, August 1, 2005, with 2,033 ex-combatants and 1,120 weapons delivered. The article describes and analyzes the local processes, based on the variables proposed by Gleichman and his working group in the year 2004, it and contrasts them with the national one, at the same time building a series of hypotheses that should be kept in mind at the moment of characterizing the nature of para-militarism in the city. The result is a program with strengths and achievements, but also with empty spaces and limitations.

  17. Perspectives on Security, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation: Views from the United States and South Africa


    warmth  and  is  often  “edgy...the  International  Committee  of  the   Red  Cross   (ICRC).     There  was  a  sense  that  the  differences  on...Australia   or   New   Zealand.   In   reality,   however,   the   current   official   relationship   lacks   warmth ,  

  18. On Disarmament: The Role of Conventional Arms Control in National Security Strategy


    both have their stable and predetermined place." Furthermore, Hannah Arendt insists that "since authority always demands obedience, it is commonly...Its Critics, ed. by Robert 0. Keohane, New York: Columbia University Press, 1986, p. 137. 5. Hannah Arendt , "What Is Authority?" in Between Past and...Talks." Defense News, February 13,1989, p. A3. Allison, Graham. "Success is Within Reach." The New York Times, February 19,1989, p. E19. Arendt , Hannah

  19. Forecasting Zero: U.S. Nuclear History and the Low Probability of Disarmament


    each nation had developed the hydrogen bomb, and by 1955, each had the long-range bombers to deliver them. See Paul Rogers , “Learn- ing from the Cold...20100203ARTFIG00443-de- sarmement-nucleaire-paris-resiste-a-l-option-zero-.php; Natalie Nou- gayrède, “Paris réticent face à l’élimination de l’arme

  20. First start toward nuclear disarmament: CIS openness and compliance. Research report, August 1991-April 1992

    Casteel, B.


    In the last six months we have seen significant changes in the Soviet Union which have radically altered that way we have conducted business. Now, it is no longer the Soviet Union, but the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). We are now making wholesale unilateral cuts in our defense structure as the CIS is viewed as our friend and no longer the Evil Empire. We are supplying the CIS with food, loan credits, and even offering assistance to help them destroy nuclear weapons. Even though the world has changed, the CIS remains the only country on the face of the earth capable of destroying the United States in a nuclear holocaust.

  1. United States National Strategy and Defense Policy Objectives After Chemical Disarmament


    Port Agency, tried on charges arising house at 41A Chaillot Street in Pans. from a 1973 cholera outbreak . 1980, August Iraq cleaned out the Syrian...Ethiopia, Egypt vs. Yemen , Vietnam vs. Laos-Cambodia, Iraq vs. Iran, early in the war, Iraq vs. Kurds, and Cubans vs. Angolan rebels. Some also reason...Tribesmen in Yemen in 1963-67.2 - Began chemical weapons production in the early 60’s and acquired a rudimentary biological warfare capability in the



    The article examines the role of international law in regulating the naval activity currently unfolding in the Caspian Sea region. In this context, the author looks at ways to limit military activity: demilitarization, neutralization, non-militarization, and so on. The conclusions he draws are based on the standards of international law and international law practice and reflect a realistic picture of the military-political processes going on in this region.

  3. World Arms Control and Disarmament%国际军控与裁军形势



    @@ 过去的一年,军控领域的某些方面取得了一些进展,但由于美国坚持追求单边绝对安全、坚持发展和部署国家导弹防御系统(NMD),无形中降低了其他国家的安全感,主要大国问互不信任加深,致使整个军控与裁军领域的合作缺乏动力,困难重重.国际军控与裁军在进与退中不断斗争、反复和徘徊.

  4. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P


    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  5. On Chemical Disarmament in Russia%论俄罗斯的化学裁军

    钱洪良; 严炬



  6. The relationship between human security, demand for arms and disarmament in the horn of Africa.

    Gebrewold, Kiflemariam


    The drive to find security through possession of weapons is linked to the history and culture of a social group. Amongst pastoralists in the Horn of Africa there is a failure of security through state systems such as police and the recent replacement of less-lethal traditional weapons by small arms and other light weapons. A warrior or vendetta culture with these arms leads to violent inter-clan clashes with many casualties, although traditional methods of weapons control still seem operational within clans. Understanding the drive to seek weapons is essential in finding ways to control their use. Improving the capacities of the police must come hand in hand with human rights training and an end to corruption. Further work is required on how traditional methods of arms control can be co-operatively linked with state controls.

  7. What's the matter of disarmament in Baidu?%百度裁人怎么了?




  8. On Disarmament during the Westernization Movement Period%洋务时期的裁军




  9. Arms Control and Disarmament. A Quarterly Bibliography with Abstracts and Annotations.

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography is compiled from a survey of the literature on the subject received by the Library of Congress. Only those likely to be available in larger research and public libraries in the United States are included. Sources surveyed include books, monographs, publications of government agencies and international and national organizations,…

  10. On the Future of Global Nuclear Arms Control and Disarmament Process

    Shi Jianbin; Zhu Jianyu


    Because of the amazing destructions and great damages,nuclear weapons have been the objects the international community devotes itself to restrict and eliminate since their emergence.Compared to the height of the Cold War,although currently the size of the U.S.and Russian nuclear arsenals have been greatly

  11. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration of FARC: A Challenge for Colombia and a Step Toward Andean Region Stability


    was hardly flawless. Many of the reintegration programs never materialized and the special needs of women and children combatants were not taken... success exceeded expectations, it did not approach DDR as a “process.” There was no follow-on support for its local peace agreements to reintegrate ...ensure its success . Third, 50 the DDR process is sequential and results in the successful reintegration of former combatants into Colombian society

  12. Building Trust and Capacity: Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration to Transition Pro-Government Non-State Armed Groups


    process.” 62 Kingma‟s research from several different countries found that ex-combatants in rural areas more successful at reintegration than...their successful reintegration into society. High-ranking combatants and those associated with “abusive” units appeared to face problems with...2006. 166 The government significantly reorganized reintegration efforts in 2007, forming a High Commissioner for Reintegration , with a successful

  13. The puzzle of non-proliferation and disarmament; El puzzle de la No-Proliferacion y el Desarme (primera parte)

    Ponga, J. de


    Since, in 1945, the World was aware of the devastating power of nuclear weapons, there have been many initiatives at international level to avoid nuclear weapon proliferation: the foundation of the IAEA, the NPT, the Safeguards Agreements, the Nuclear Weapon Free Zones, the treaties banning nuclear tests or the export control regime of the NSG, among others. This article aims to offer a general picture of all of them as pieces of a puzzle the purpose of which is not to allow gaps to non pacific uses of nuclear energy. (Author)

  14. 汉斯·摩根索裁军思想探析%Analysis on Hans Morgenthau's Thought of Disarmament




  15. Expanding the Cancer Arsenal with Targeted Therapies: Disarmament of the Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 Proteins by Small Molecules.

    Yap, Jeremy L; Chen, Lijia; Lanning, Maryanna E; Fletcher, Steven


    A hallmark of cancer is the evasion of apoptosis, which is often associated with the upregulation of the antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The prosurvival function of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins is manifested by capturing and neutralizing the proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins via their BH3 death domains. Accordingly, strategies to antagonize the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins have largely focused on the development of low-molecular-weight, synthetic BH3 mimetics ("magic bullets") to disrupt the protein-protein interactions between anti- and proapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. In this way, apoptosis has been reactivated in malignant cells. Moreover, several such Bcl-2 family inhibitors are presently being evaluated for a range of cancers in clinical trials and show great promise as new additions to the cancer armamentarium. Indeed, the selective Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax (Venclexta) recently received FDA approval for the treatment of a specific subset of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This review focuses on the major developments in the field of Bcl-2 inhibitors over the past decade, with particular emphasis on binding modes and, thus, the origins of selectivity for specific Bcl-2 family members.

  16. China’s new Round of Disarmament: Catching Up with the Pace for World’s New Military Revolution

    Yu Hongjun


    At the grand gathering in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People’s Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-fascist War,President Xi Jinping solemnly announced that China will cut the number of its troops by300,000.This reflects the Chinese people’s excellent tradition and character of pursuing


    韩仁武; 严佳; 徐晓华



  18. 张之洞与绿营裁军%Zhang Zhidong and Disarmament of the Green Camp

    田玉洪; 张洪良



  19. America and World Disarmament Conferencein 1932%美国与1932年的世界裁军会议




  20. A scatch of the disarmament in early Northern Song%略论北宋前期之裁军

    马玉臣; 郭九灵



  1. Nuclear Security Summit Boosts Disarmament Agenda%透过核峰会看全球核威胁态势

    胡欣; 王俊岭


    @@ 2010年4月13日,47个国家及联合国等组织聚集在华盛顿,召开了首届核安全峰会.此次会议的召开可以被看作是国际社会为消除核威胁所取得的一项重大进展.

  2. The Puzzle of Non-proliferation and Disarmament (Part II); El puzzle de la No-Proliferacion y el Desarme (segunda parte)

    Ponga, J. de


    Since, in 1945, the World was aware of the devastating power of nuclear weapons there have been many initiatives at international level to avoid nuclear weapon proliferation: the foundation of the IAEA, the NPT, the Safeguards Agreements, the Nuclear Weapon Free Zones, the treaties banning nuclear tests or the export control regime of the NSG, among others. This article aims to offer a general picture of all of them as pieces of a puzzle the purpose of which is not to allow gaps to non pacific uses of nuclear energy. (Author)

  3. Change of International Relations Structure and the Adverse Disarmament of ASEAN%国际关系结构变化与东盟国家逆裁军




  4. The China Arms Control and Disarmament Association founded in Beijing%“中国军控与裁军协会”在京成立




  5. The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in Britain ( 1958- 1964)%1958-1964年的英国核裁军运动



    1958-1964 年的英国核裁军运动,是一场以中产阶级为主体的颇具影响力的社会运动.运动的基本目标是反对核军备竟赛,主张推迟、禁止、甚至完全取消英国和其他国家的核试验,削减核军备.它反映了战后英国社会对核武器和核战争前景的恐惧心理.但运动内部,尤其是运动的组织领导者成分复杂,对战争的理解、英国的防务政策以及运动的战略和策略分歧广泛而深刻,从而造成内部协调和合作的困难,最终导致运动的衰落和解体.

  6. 核裁军中的信息屏障:技术与方法%Information barrier in nuclear disarmament: methods and techniques




  7. 美俄裁核谈判暗藏玄机%Subtle Issues within US/Russia Nuclear Disarmament Talks




  8. Annual Review of International Disarmament & Arms Control Situation%2010年国际军备控制与裁军进程综述




  9. A Brief Talk on the Disarmament Thought of Deng Xiaoping%浅谈邓小平的裁军思想

    雷立明; 黄秀山



  10. 当前国际军控与裁军存在的五大问题%Five Problems in Current Int'l Arms Control and Disarmament




  11. Annual Review of International Disarmament & Arms Control Situation%2009年国际裁军与军备控制进程综述




  12. Suppression of injuries caused by a lytic RNA virus (mengovirus) and their uncoupling from viral reproduction by mutual cell/virus disarmament.

    Mikitas, Olga V; Ivin, Yuri Y; Golyshev, Sergey A; Povarova, Natalia V; Galkina, Svetlana I; Pletjushkina, Olga Y; Nadezhdina, Elena S; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Agol, Vadim I


    Viruses often elicit cell injury (cytopathic effect [CPE]), a major cause of viral diseases. CPE is usually considered to be a prerequisite for and/or consequence of efficient viral growth. Recently, we proposed that viral CPE may largely be due to host defensive and viral antidefensive activities. This study aimed to check the validity of this proposal by using as a model HeLa cells infected with mengovirus (MV). As we showed previously, infection of these cells with wild-type MV resulted in necrosis, whereas a mutant with incapacitated antidefensive ("security") viral leader (L) protein induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that several major morphological and biochemical signs of CPE (e.g., alterations in cellular and nuclear shape, plasma membrane, cytoskeleton, chromatin, and metabolic activity) in cells infected with L(-) mutants in the presence of an apoptosis inhibitor were strongly suppressed or delayed for long after completion of viral reproduction. These facts demonstrate that the efficient reproduction of a lytic virus may not directly require development of at least some pathological alterations normally accompanying infection. They also imply that L protein is involved in the control of many apparently unrelated functions. The results also suggest that the virus-activated program with competing necrotic and apoptotic branches is host encoded, with the choice between apoptosis and necrosis depending on a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic conditions. Implementation of this defensive suicidal program could be uncoupled from the viral reproduction. The possibility of such uncoupling has significant implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of viral diseases.

  13. Review on The Disarmament of Green Banner Army in Late Qing Dynasty%晚清绿营裁军述论

    田玉洪; 鲍江涛



  14. The Study on the First Disarmament in New China%新中国第一次大裁军考察




  15. 胡佛政府在裁军问题上的对德政策%Hoover Administration's Germany Policy on Disarmament




  16. 当前国际核裁军形势和前景%Present Situation and Prospect of International Nuclear Disarmament




  17. 德国近现代史上的军备控制与裁军问题研究%Modern German History:Arms Control & Disarmament




  18. 论信息时代裁军对国防建设的影响%Impacts of Disarmament on National Defense Construction in the Information Time

    吴向前; 王莺



  19. A Comment on the Disarmament of Green Banner Army in Zhili Province in Late Qing Dynasty%晚清直隶绿营裁军述论




  20. From civilians to soldiers and from soldiers to civilians: a micro-approach to disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) in Sudan

    Baas, S.


    This dissertation investigates the processes of mobilization and demobilization of fighters during civil war. Why do civilians, at some point during a conflict, decide to participate in the violence of the war? What are the consequences of becoming part of a guerilla movement? And, once a civil war

  1. A Study on Japanese Disarmaments Campaign in the 1920s%论20世纪20年代的日本裁军运动




  2. The Impact of Non-nuclear Factors on the Follow-up Nuclear Disarmament Negotiations between the U.S.and Russia

    Mou; Changlin


    <正>In April 2010,the United States and Russia officially signed the New START Treaty in Prague,the capital of Czech.According to the Treaty,both the United States and Russia should reduce their deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 1550 and reduce their strategic delivery vehicles to 800(among which the deployed strategic vehicles should be reduced to 700.).

  3. Nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament: the President Obama's Prague speech; Non-proliferation et desarmement nucleaires: discours de Prague du president Obama

    Hautecouverture, B. [Centre d' Etudes de Securite Internationale et de Maitrise des Armements (CESIM), 75 - Paris (France)


    The author comments the content and the consequences of President Obama's speech on the future of nuclear weapons in the 21. century. After a recall of the political context, the author shows how this declaration sounded with a real new tone, defined a new direction and introduced a new method, but may reach its objectives only on a long term. Then, he comments how these objectives are challenged by the present context and events, and outlines how the US Nuclear Posture Review will be important

  4. “德国裁军与非军事化条约”与冷战的缘起%"Treaty on Disarmament and Demilitarization of Germany" and the Origins of the Cold War

    李凤艳; 王彦



  5. 1933年日本退出国联与世界裁军会议%Japan's Quiting the League of Nations in 1933 and the World Disarmament Meeting




  6. New Nuclear Disarmament Treaty between Russia the U.S. : Changes, Implications and Variables%俄美新核裁军条约:变化、意义与变数




  7. 1928-1930年南京政府裁兵编遣失败原因浅析%Simple Discuss the Fail Reason of Disarmament of Nanjing Government in 1928-1930




  8. Development of US-Russia Nuclear Disarmament Negotiation & Perspective of New Treaty%美俄核裁军谈判新动向与新条约成约前景分析

    孙海洋; 褚福海



  9. Prevention and Disarmament of Gas Hydrates the Method of Plugging%预防和解除天然气水合物堵塞的方法探讨




  10. 奥巴马"无核世界"倡议对国际核裁军的影晌%Obama's Proposal for "Nuclear-free World" and Its Impact on International Nuclear Disarmament




  11. 从核扩核裁看物理学的军事效应%The military effect of physics reviewed from the development and disarmament of nuclear weapons

    徐润君; 陈心中



  12. 从军事力要素配置视角看中国的裁军问题%An Analysis on China's Disarmament from the Allocation of Military Strength Factor




  13. Give Full Play to People-to-people Diplomacy Maintain Peace and Promote Development——The 30-year development course of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament


    On October 30th,2015,the meeting in commemoration of the 30th Anniversary of Founding of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD for short)was convened in Beijing.Mr.LI Yuanchao,Chinese Vice President and Member of the Political Bureau of the CPCCC attended the Commemoration and delivered an important speech.Mr.HAN Qide,Vice President of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC for short),President of the

  14. An Analysis on the Non-Weaponization of Outer Space in International Disarmament Practices%国际裁军实践中的外空非武器化问题分析




  15. 冷战后联合国裁军活动的进展及面临的挑战%The Progress and Challenges of the Disarmament after the Cold War




  16. Acerca de una educación para la paz, los derechos humanos y el desarme: desafío pedagógico de nuestro tiempo = Education for peace, human rights and disarmament: pedagogical challenge of our time

    Cabezudo, Alicia


    Full Text Available La educación para la paz y para los derechos humanos en búsqueda de la verdad y la justicia es hoy una obligación ética, una necesidad social y un imperativo incuestionable en el campo de la docencia latinoamericana. Para ello es necesario articular sólidos puentes de trabajo y cooperación con la sociedad civil y con las organizaciones no gubernamentales. Es necesario revisar conceptos tradicionales, evaluar prácticas pedagógicas y elaborar proyectos desde cada uno de nuestros espacios de vida y de trabajo – partiendo de la convicción que los esfuerzos para producir transformaciones no son antagónicos sino complementarios. Este artículo intenta demostrar que la Educación para la Paz implica, en realidad, un renovado compromiso con los principios pedagógicos democráticos y un imperativo ético de asumirlos concretamente

  17. Key Issues in the Emerging U.S. Debate on the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty


    34Nonproliferation and Disarmament Attitudes and Perspectives: Troubling Divergences," Remarks at the IGCC Public Policy and Nuclear Threats 2009 Summer Training...September 2009). Ford, Christopher A. "Nonproliferation and Disarmament Attitudes and Perspectives: Troubling Divergences." Remarks at the IGCC Public

  18. Improving Capacity for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations


    Reintegration” Programs, Paris/New York/Geneva: CERI /SGDN/PSIS, September 2004; Robert Muggah, “No Magic Bullet: A Critical Perspective on Disarma- ment...Anti-Politics of Contemporary “Disarmament, Demobilization & Reintegration” Programs, Paris/New York/Geneva: CERI / SGDN/PSIS, September 2004. Public

  19. The Elements of a Network to Educate for World Security.

    Network to Educate for World Security, New York, NY.

    This publication examines efforts to educate for peace and disarmament. A proposal by the Network to Educate for World Security for the establishment of a United Nations sponsored disarmament fund devoted to worldwide peace and security education is presented in Section One. Section Two contains papers that suggest how the traditional way to…

  20. The action of France; L'action de la France



    After a favorable period for the weapons mastership, the disarmament and the non-proliferation, the conditions of international safety and the strategical context revealed recently worrying developments. The France is decided to continue its action in favor of the disarmament and the non-proliferation in the continuity of its political engagements. (A.L.B.)


    Michal Smetana


    Full Text Available The article aims to unpack the paradoxical double-edged nature of military nuclear infrastructure in relation to nuclear disarmament. On the one hand, efficient nuclear complex provides the nuclear weapon possessors with confidence in the sensitive final stages of nuclear abolition, and therefore facilitates the political decision to engage in disarmament. On the other hand, the maintenance of a robust infrastructure beyond the abolition point as a latent “virtual arsenal” represents a serious threat to the stability of the disarmament regime.

  2. Coherence, Abstraction, and Personal Involvement: Albert Einstein, Physicist and Humanist.

    Ne'eman, Yuval


    Reviews Einstein's main contributions to physics, and analyzes the importance of a coherent body of theory. Einstein's involvement in nonscientific issues such as nuclear disarmament is also included. (HM)

  3. 31 CFR 547.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.


    ... the Democratic Republic of the Congo that impedes the disarmament, repatriation, or resettlement of combatants; (ii) To be a political or military leader of a Congolese armed group that impedes the...

  4. A People's Gala to Promote Mutual Under standing between China and Other Countries——2012 Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue held by CAFIU


    正The Understanding and Cooperation Dialogue, Sponsored by the Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU) and the China Foundation for Peace and Development (CFPD), and Co-organized by the Chinese People' s Association for Peace and Disarmament

  5. Gendered violence and HIV in Burundi

    Hakan Seckinelgin


    Full Text Available Pre-existing gender relations changed for the worse during the conflict and interventions to promote disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR failed to address the dynamics which shape the spread of HIV.

  6. 76 FR 81005 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting


    ... all aspects of arms control, disarmament, political-military affairs, international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include classified discussions..., international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman...

  7. Ma Biao,Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and Vice President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament,leads a delegation on a good-will visit to Azerbaijan and Turkey during 3rd-10


    <正>Ma Biao and his party meeting with H.E.Mr.Ali Ahmadov,Deputy Prime Minister of Azerbaijan.Ma Biao and his party visiting the Center for Strategic Studies under the President of Azerbaijan.Ma Biao warmly shaking hands with Deputy Prime Minister Ali Ahmadov.Ma Biao and his party attending the seminar entitled"The Silk Road:Communication,Cooperation and Win-Win"co-hosted by the CPAPD and Marmara Group Foundation in Istanbul.

  8. Women and Peace [And] Vienna Conference: Women and Disarmament [And] Women, Power and Alternative Futures, Part I: Women and World Order [And] Women, Power and Alternative Futures, Part II: Women and Power. The Whole Earth Papers. Vol. 1, No. 6-8, Spring, 1978.

    Rubin, Josephine; Mische, Patricia

    Four papers explore the role of women in promoting a peaceful world order. The volume is intended to increase understanding of the linkages between local and global issues, and to examine them as interrelated issues in an interdependent world. The first paper, "Women and Peace," is a historical analysis of the role of individual women, feminists,…

  9. From Angra to Tehran: Brazilian nuclear policy under Lula’s administration

    Diego Santos Vieira de JESUS


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the positions taken by Brazil under Lula’s administration (2003-2010 on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control. In order to strengthen its position in dispute settlement and to expand its participation in international institutions, Brazil wished to intermediate between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon States. The country also tried to pressure the nuclear weapon States to fulfill their disarmament obligations and to reduce asymmetries in relations with the strongest countries in the nuclear arena. The Brazilians also sought to maintain flexibility to ensure the safety of their own atomic program.

  10. About CPAPD


    <正>Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding,friendship and cooperation between the peoples of China and the rest of the world in joint efforts to maintain world peace,oppose arms race and war,achieve arms control and disarmament,

  11. About CPAPD


    Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding,friendship and cooperation between the peoples of China and the rest of the world in joint efforts to maintain world peace,oppose arms race and war,achieve arms control and disarmament,


    О. В. Махно


    Full Text Available The article highlights the process of nuclear disarmament of Ukraine, analyzes county’s refusal to develop nuclear capacity, reviews current discussions about Ukraine’s possible return to a status of a nuclear state. Nuclear disarmament is considered in the context of promoting positive image of Ukraine on the international arena, its willingness to cooperate with other countries on the basis of the peaceful politics. The aim of the article is to set, or expedient was denuclearization, and to define her role in claim of positive image of the state in the world.

  13. Nuclear Safeguards and the International Atomic Energy Agency


    Control and Disarmament McLean, VA AecBurton F. Judson Agency David Dorn Consultant Washington, DC United Nations Special Los Gatos , CA Henry Sokolski...admitted to conducting nuclear activities safeguards are willing to cede additional soy - there. If the request for such a "special inspec- ereignty to

  14. Risky Business: Fundamentals for a Security Consensus in 1990’s and Beyond


    INDIVIDUAL 22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL OBERT C. WHITE, JR., COL, MI 717/245-3044 AWCA DO Form 1473, JUN 86 Previous editions...8217Faustian Bargain’?" Toward Minimum Deterrence: How Low Can We Go?, ed. Peter Gizewski. Ottawa: Canadian Centre for Arms Control and Disarmament, 1991

  15. Reconciling reintegration: the complexity of economic and social reintegration of ex-combatants in Burundi

    Willems, R; Leeuwen, M. van


    The extent to which disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes initiated by state or multilateral agencies can realise the reintegration of ex-combatants remains debated. While some consider that DDR should have the ambition to result in long-term reintegration, others argue that

  16. From "Rebel" to "Returnee:" Daily Life and Reintegration for Young Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah; Aryemo, Filder


    In war's aftermath, many young soldiers attempt to reintegrate and reestablish their lives. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a priority intervention for youth in postconflict countries; yet there is little evidence to suggest what aids reintegration. This research uses qualitative methodology to describe the issues…

  17. 图片报道(英文)


    Han Qide,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political and Disarmament leads a CPAPD delegation on a good-will visit to Cambodia,Consultative Conference and President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace Malaysia and Indonesia during June 25 to July 4,2015

  18. Challenges of the African Military in Peacekeeping Missions in Africa


    article is based on the authors’ book Peacekeeping in Africa: Capabilities and Culpabilities, Geneva, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research...and the Institute of Security Studies, 2000, 572. http://www.peacepalacelibrary.nil/ ebooks /UNIDIR--pdf-art129.pdf. (accessed November 21, 2011). 14

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.


    Conference on Disarmament has come to a close at the UN headquarters. The sessxon a^ tenaed Dy delegations of 40 socialist, non-aligned and Western countrxes...Second World War. Chairman of the Government of Spain Felipe Gonzalez, now on an official visit here at the invitation of the head of the Swedish

  20. America’s Transitional Capacity: War, Systems, and Globalization


    politics. Under the legacy of the shelved Morgenthau Plan, German economy suffered through a five-year period of industrial disarmament.160 This is the...Germany, which outlined a soft approach to restoration.171 The Secretary of Treasury Henry Morgenthau called for a more hard line approach that sought to

  1. 2012: the world on the brink of a nuclear proliferation crisis; Annee 2012: le monde au bord d'une crise de proliferation nucleaire

    Norlain, Bernard


    The author's determined plea that France gives up its dogmatic position on nuclear weapons and takes the lead in a nuclear disarmament movement is based on a conviction that the concept of nuclear deterrence is outdated, the fear of rapidly-growing proliferation in 2012 and the excessive cost of ownership of the French nuclear arsenal

  2. Diplomatic Dynamics


    Hopes Anew on Korean Nuclear Talks A recent de-escalation of tensions over North Korea has presented strong opportunities for a resumption of the six-party talks aimed at achieving nuclear disarmament on the Korean Peninsula, according to Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Ma Zhaoxu.

  3. Reducing The Nuclear Danger


    Conference on Disarmament - Ambassadors tour the Hanford Site (October 1994) - Pacific Northwest - Ensuring effective international nuclear safeguards...requirements of a CTBT by seismic , hydroacoustic and satellite instrumentation capabilities. - Initiation of Project CALIOPE, which is intended to...N excess fissle materials at Hanford for placement under IAEA | National Lab || safeguards. Additionally, develop tutorials on the IAEA I

  4. Interethnic conflict in Jonglei State, South Sudan: Emerging ethnic ...

    grazing. The migrations due to the influence of climate change were a trigger ... body that provides scientific assessment of risks of climate change, identified ..... dilemma was clearly an essential source of resistance to disarmament. Thus, the .... from the SPLA and the Sudan Armed Force (SAF) who sell their arms to local.

  5. Worldwide Report. Arms Control.


    own region. Mr Hayden said Australia could and must make a contribution to nuclear disarmament. It could not retreat into isolationism and tell the...economies would have been affected by the protectionism of this club of 10, while joining the EC would mean a financial burden, increase the pressure

  6. Flying Reactors: The Political Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Space


    in the body, particularly the lungs, are thought to cause lung cancer . Fear of a plutonium release is not without precedent. In 1964 a US navigational...Jonah House (Baltimore, MD) Kalamazoo Area Coalition for Peace and Justice Leicester Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament Mama Terra Romania (Bucharest

  7. War, Militarism and the Soviet State.

    Holloway, David

    This paper surveys obstacles to disarmament in the Soviet Union, with emphasis on the role of the military tradition in Russia and the centrality of the defense sector to Soviet society. The hypothesis is that, although the role of militarism is strong, there are potential forces for demilitarization, including, for example, the friction caused by…

  8. Beyond Nunn-Lugar: Curbing the Next Wave of Weapons Proliferation Threat from Russia


    Kuntsevich , former head of the Russian chemical weapons program and later adviser to Yeltsin on chemical disarmament, was caught selling chemical precursors to...tons in 1994.2 Still, Kuntsevich did not serve out his jail term. Even more disturbing are reports that Aum Shinrikio, a Japanese doomsday cult

  9. About CPAPD


    Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding,friendship and

  10. About CPAPD


    Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding,friendship

  11. About CPAPD


    <正>Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.

  12. Illusory correlation in the perception of group attitudes

    Spears, R.; van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.


    126 undergraduates with pro- or anti-attitudes toward nuclear power and 15 local members of a campaign for nuclear disarmament viewed opinion statements supposedly made by residents of 2 towns. One town was larger and statements from it occurred frequently, the other was small and statements from it

  13. Iran: The Next Nuclear Threshold State?


    receive Okinawa back from the United States, which occurred in 1972. Although U.S. occupation of the island offered protection in the form of...its commitment to nonproliferation and disarmament. On December 19, 1955, the Diet adopted Japan’s Atomic Energy Basic Law, which states that Japan

  14. Reconciling reintegration: the complexity of economic and social reintegration of ex-combatants in Burundi

    Willems, R; Leeuwen, M. van


    The extent to which disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes initiated by state or multilateral agencies can realise the reintegration of ex-combatants remains debated. While some consider that DDR should have the ambition to result in long-term reintegration, others argue that

  15. From "Rebel" to "Returnee:" Daily Life and Reintegration for Young Soldiers in Northern Uganda

    Annan, Jeannie; Brier, Moriah; Aryemo, Filder


    In war's aftermath, many young soldiers attempt to reintegrate and reestablish their lives. Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) programs are a priority intervention for youth in postconflict countries; yet there is little evidence to suggest what aids reintegration. This research uses qualitative methodology to describe the issues…

  16. Review Essay: They Had No Voice by Denny Abbott and Working for Peace and Justice by Lawrence S. Wittner

    Jyl Lynn Felman


    Full Text Available Book Review comparing and contrasting the memoirs They Had No Voice by Denny Abbott and Working For Peace and Justice by Lawrence S. Wittner. Topics discussed include how the personal becomes political; working for social justice locally and globally; the disarmament movement, 1960's activism, and the omission of the feminist movement from both memoirs.

  17. Enhance International Cooperation and Build Peace and Prosperity Together——Speech by Mr. Li Chengren, Executive Vice-President of CAFIU (Okinawa, Japan, November 15, 2003)

    LiChengren; YanMoufeng


    On the occasion of the opening of the “5th International Conference for Peace, Disarmament and Symbiosis in Asian-Pacific” in Okinawa, I would like to extend, on behalf of my colleagues, and in my own name, warm congratulations to the conference,

  18. From DDR to Security Promotion: Connecting national programs to community initiatives

    Verkoren, W.; Willems, R.C.; Kleingeld, J.; Rouw, H.


    Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) is a set of activities that forms part of strategies for peacebuilding after civil war. DDR has become the standard way of addressing security threats in immediate post-conflict situations. However, DDR is designed to promote national security, rat

  19. Considerations for a US Nuclear Force Structure below a 1,000-Warhead Limit


    discussion between the two counties on tactical nuclear weapons.13 By 26 January 2011 both the Russian State Duma and Federation Council ratified brings to the table. The challenge is to coordinate the step-by-step disarmament of the nine current members of the nuclear weapons club while

  20. Former Military Networks a Threat to Peace? The Demobilisation and Remobilisation of Renamo in Central Mozambique

    Wiegink, N.


    Renamo’s recent upsurge against the Mozambican Frelimo-led government after 22 years of relative stability has challenged the country’s often celebrated disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process (1992–1994). Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Maringue (Sofala province), the l

  1. The Democratic People`s Republic of Korea

    Pae Sang Hak [Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Korea, Republic of). Inst. for Disarmament and Peace


    The attitude of the Democratic People`s Republic of Korea to the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty is reviewed in the context of the denuclearization of the whole of North East Asia is stated in terms of strict adherence to disarmament and non-proliferation. The influence of Japanese and USA foreign policy on formulating these views is also considered. (UK).

  2. Protecting the Homeland: The Importance of Counter-Illicit Trafficking to Prevent an Attack with Weapons of Mass Destruction


    Surveying the Security Risks,” Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Disarmament Forum, no. 2 (2003): 23- 24. ebooks ebooks /files/UNIDIR_pdf-art1909.pdf (accessed November 24, 2012) Fox News. “5 Men Found guilty of Plotting to Kill Fort Dix Soldiers

  3. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status


    1984 OPCW U.N. Conference on Disarmament EAA, 1979 AECA, 1976 Biological Weapons Anti- Terrorism Act Chem- Bio Weapons Control Warfare...Deauville, France. They reaffirmed the goals set out at the 2010 Summit for future Global Partnership activities: nuclear and radiological security, bio ... herbicides and riot control agents. Proliferation Control Regimes: Background and Status Congressional Research Service 44 Author Contact

  4. 78 FR 41183 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting


    ... source of independent advice on all aspects of arms control, disarmament, political-military affairs, international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact...

  5. 77 FR 47162 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting


    ... source of independent advice on all aspects of arms control, disarmament, political-military affairs, international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information...

  6. 76 FR 58076 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting


    ... arms control, disarmament, political-military affairs, and international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include classified discussions related to the..., nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive...

  7. 77 FR 21142 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting


    ... source of independent advice on all aspects of arms control, disarmament, political-military affairs, international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include... arms control, international security, nuclear proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information...

  8. 76 FR 36167 - International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting


    ... control, disarmament, political-military affairs, and international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. The agenda for this meeting will include classified discussions related to the Board's ongoing... proliferation, and diplomacy. For more information, contact Richard W. Hartman II, Executive Director of the...

  9. Monitoring and verification R&D

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fearey, Bryan L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report outlined the Administration's approach to promoting the agenda put forward by President Obama in Prague on April 5, 2009. The NPR calls for a national monitoring and verification R&D program to meet future challenges arising from the Administration's nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament agenda. Verification of a follow-on to New START could have to address warheads and possibly components along with delivery capabilities. Deeper cuts and disarmament would need to address all of these elements along with nuclear weapon testing, nuclear material and weapon production facilities, virtual capabilities from old weapon and existing energy programs and undeclared capabilities. We only know how to address some elements of these challenges today, and the requirements may be more rigorous in the context of deeper cuts as well as disarmament. Moreover, there is a critical need for multiple options to sensitive problems and to address other challenges. There will be other verification challenges in a world of deeper cuts and disarmament, some of which we are already facing. At some point, if the reductions process is progressing, uncertainties about past nuclear materials and weapons production will have to be addressed. IAEA safeguards will need to continue to evolve to meet current and future challenges, and to take advantage of new technologies and approaches. Transparency/verification of nuclear and dual-use exports will also have to be addressed, and there will be a need to make nonproliferation measures more watertight and transparent. In this context, and recognizing we will face all of these challenges even if disarmament is not achieved, this paper will explore possible agreements and arrangements; verification challenges; gaps in monitoring and verification technologies and approaches; and the R&D required to address these gaps and other monitoring and verification challenges.

  10. Los problemas del desarme nuclear en la postguerra fría: Las naciones unidas y la conferencia de desarme en la década del noventa

    Ana Tejo Carrasco


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el desarrollo del desarme nuclear y los pensamientos a favor de su realización definitivo en los noventas. El desarme estuvo bajo la dirección de las Naciones Unidas a través de la Conferencia de Desarme, el cual intentó la eliminación paulatina de las armas nucleares, problema heredado de la Guerra Fría. Este programa no tuvo grandes avances por el desarrollo de la política nuclear de las potencias, lo que ocasionó críticas al funcionamiento  de la organización y la constante presión de la opinión pública por el continuo peligro de estas armas que se acentúa cada década. Palabras claves: Conferencia de Desarme (CD, Desarme Nuclear, política nuclear.      ___________________________Abstract:This article analyzes the development of nuclear disarmament and arguments in favor of a definitive one during the nineties. The disarmament process was carried out by the UN through the Conference of Disarmament (DC who attempted to slowly eliminate nuclear weapons, a Cold War inherited problem. The development of nuclear policies by powerful countries made the schedule of the DC failed which criticizes the way this organization works and the constant pressure from public opinion for the danger these weapons represent, a danger that accentuates each decade.Keywords: Conference of Disarmament (DC, Nuclear Disarmament, nuclear policies.

  11. Em nome da autonomia e do desenvolvimento: Brasil e a não-proliferação, o desarmamento e os usos pacíficos da energia nuclear

    Diego Santos Vieira de Jesus


    Full Text Available O objetivo é examinar as posições defendidas pelo Brasil quanto à não-proliferação, ao desarmamento e aos usos pacíficos da energia nuclear neste início de século. O argumento central aponta que o Brasil almeja pressionar os Estados nuclearmente armados para que cumpram suas obrigações de desarmamento, enquanto procura preservar a autonomia para desenvolver atividades nucleares pacíficas.   The objective is to examine the positions adopted by Brazil on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the beginning of this century. The central argument indicates that Brazil aims to pressure the nuclear-weapon states to fulfill their disarmament obligations, while seeks to preserve autonomy to develop peaceful nuclear activities.

  12. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and Its Relevance for the Global Security



    Full Text Available The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT is one of important international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament measures. One of its pillars is the verification mechanism that has been built as an international system of nuclear testing detection to enable the control of observance of the obligations anchored in the CTBT. Despite the great relevance to the global non-proliferation and disarmament efforts, the CTBT is still not in force. The main aim of the article is to summarize the importance of the CTBT and its entry into force not only from the international relations perspective but also from the perspective of the technical implementation of the monitoring system.

  13. Iran

    Roshandel, J. [Tehran University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The rationale behind Iran`s support for the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTB) treaty being negotiated at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, is explained. The CTB is seen as crucial to nuclear non-proliferation, again supported by Iran. The Iranian nuclear energy programme exists, it is argued, for peaceful purposes only, despite international suspicions on weapons testing. Foreign policy too, it is argued, has favoured denuclearization of the region. With recent emnities with neighbouring states, and the USA, safeguards in treaties are a high priority. Iran argues for near-term security assurances and long term nuclear disarmament to remove the threat it perceives from the USA. No new states should be allowed to possess nuclear weapons and nuclear arsenals should be gradually eliminated, it is argued. (UK).

  14. Making Strategic Sense of Cyber Power: Why the Sky is Not Falling


    and Disarmament. He has served as an ad- viser to both the U.S. and British governments (he has dual citizenship). His government work has included...and military practice. When theory and doctrine do not adapt in the light of the actual experience of conflict, they are in a pathological condition... addicted to the concept of a “foreseeable future,” which is, alas, substantially fictitious as it is typically casually employed. However, the

  15. JPRS Report, Arms Control


    Addresses UN on Disarmament [AGERPRES 24 Oct] 21 LATIN AMERICA MEXICO USSR’s Marcha Praises Anti-Nuclear Policy [UNOMASUNO 27 Oct] 23 NEAR...23 MEXICO USSR’s Marcha Praises Anti-Nuclear Policy PA0111002389 Mexico City UNOMASUNO in Spanish 27 Oct 89 p 6 [Text] Soviet Vice President... Marcha I. Snegur ratified the Soviet’s intention of ridding the world of the threat of nuclear war and highly praised Mexico’s contribution to this

  16. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Garry Jacobs; Winston P. Nagan


    This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legalit...

  17. From Insurgency to Stability. Volume 1: Key Capabilities and Practices


    nearly a year after the cessation of hostilities.51 Unsurprisingly, the prospect for a successful reintegration of these ex-combatants is now generally...providing employment opportunities for veterans through commu- 37 Stephanie Hanson, “Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) in Africa...judged successful and positive for the DDR effort as a whole.45 42 Gordon Peake, “What the Timorese Veterans Say: Unpacking Security Promotion in

  18. Arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search



    The bibliography contains citations concerning policies, global relations, and agreements pertaining to arms control. Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), security affairs, proliferation due to commercial uses of nuclear energy, and deterrence and disarmament are among the topics discussed. The military uses of space and the control and distribution of chemical warfare agents are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Rape as a Weapon of War: Should Sexual Assault Medical Forensic Examiners (SAMFEs) be Added to Female Engagement Teams (FETs) in Africa


    Medical Evidence of War Crimes • Gender-Based Violence • Anti- Human Trafficking • Demobilization, Disarmament, and Reintegration • Behavioral...1990’s the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda declared rape to be a war crime and a crime against humanity . The United Nations (UN) has...Rwanda declared rape to be a war crime and a crime against humanity . The United Nations (UN) has charged the international community to work

  20. US technical assistance to two specialized agencies of the UN

    Reisman, A.W.; Parsick, R.J.; Indusi, J.P.


    Specialized agencies of the United Nations are a part of the functioning of the existing world order. Those agencies which verify compliance with specific international treaties will be more important in the future. Two such agencies illustrate UN activities in the area of disarmament and have received special attention: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria; the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in The Hague, Holland.

  1. Ex-Combatant Reintegration in the Great Lakes Region: Processes & Mechanisms, Trajectories & Paradoxes

    Rhea, Randolph Wallace


    Since the early 1990’s, the Great Lakes Region (GLR) has been devastated by a wave of interconnected interstate, intrastate, and local conflicts involving hundreds of thousands of soldiers in dozens of armed groups. An important part of the international community’s approach to peacebuilding in the region has involved the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) of armed groups. Because of the transnational nature of many armed groups in the GLR, a regional approach to DDR has bee...

  2. China Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs


    14 Apr 86 [Text] Athens, April 14 (XINHUA)--Leaders of Greece, Argentina, Mexico , India, Sweden and Tanzania have expressed their concern over the...the six leaders to be held in Mexico probably in summer this year. /6662 CSO: 4000/277 4 GENERAL FIRST-STAGE EUROPEAN DISARMAMENT CONFERENCE get clothing made, and to obtain food. The custom of arranging marriages and selling brides has returned and the tendency to marry for money is

  3. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Issues and Arguments


    International Organization and Disarmament Affairs. Strategic and Foreign Policy Implications of ABM Systems. Hearings, 91st Congress, 1st Session, 1969...203 For list of European Union nations, see [ abc /european_countries/ index_en.htm]. For NATO members, see [ of effects on defended targets; and between the possibility of an effective ABM [antiballistic missile], and most likely, no such possibility

  4. Promote Mutual Exchanges and Learning between Various Civilizations and Cultures

    Rabindra; Adhikari


    <正>It is an honor for me and my organization to join commemoration of international peace day and the exchange programs among NGO leaders on the invitation of Chinese Peoples’Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD).The exchange forums have been always proved beneficial in terms of promoting mutual harmony and peace as it provides opportunity to understand various perspectives,history,culture

  5. Illegal Weapons Exports?


    Amnesty International, a human rights organization, released a report on June 11 accusing China of facilitating regional conflicts and human rights violations by exporting a large quantity of weapons to Sudan, Nepal, Myanmar and the Great Lakes countries of Africa. Responding to such charges, Teng Jianqun, a researcher with the China Arms Control and Disarmament Association, told the official Xinhua News Agency that China has always put its limited arms exports under strict control and surveillance, deno...

  6. Enhance Regional and Global Counter-Terror Cooperation Build a Community of Shared Destiny

    Tao Tao


    A Speech at Counter Terrorism Conference 2016 Jaipur Rajasthan,India Currently I am Deputy Secretary General,Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD).It gives me great honor to come to Jaipur,Rajasthan of India to attend the Counter-Terrorism Conference 2016.1.Current trends of terrorism A new round of global terror threats by the

  7. International treaties. United Nations, mutual assistance pacts, human rights, sea-, air- and space law, environmental law, peace law, German reunification, conventions of war. As of March 1, 1991. 5. rev. ed. Voelkerrechtliche Vertraege. Vereinte Nationen, Beistandspakte, Menschenrechte, See-, Luft- und Weltraumrecht, Umweltrecht, Kriegsverhuetungsrecht, Deutsche Einheit, Kriegsrecht. Stand 1. Maerz 1991

    Randelzhofer, A. (ed.)


    The 5th edition of this book dating from 1 March 1991 takes into account German unification; the previous treaties and legal documents are out of date in this regard. The book is divided into: international organizations; mutual assistance, friendship and partnership treaties; diplomacy, international treaties; human rights; international sea, air and space law; environmental law; settlement of disputes, measures for peace, disarmament; German unification; conventions of war. (HSCH).

  8. The international law of nuclear weapons. Le droit international des armes nucleaires

    Sur, S. (Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Recherches Internationales)


    The first chapter concerns the questions of non proliferation and non dissemination. Then, the problems bound to nuclear testing are examined in the second chapter. The process of destruction and restriction of weapons are treated in the third chapter. Then, the fourth chapter analyzes the conditions and the perspectives of a negotiation on the cessation of fissile matter production for military uses and more broadly, an obligation to negotiate a nuclear disarmament. (N.C.)

  9. The international law of nuclear weapons; Le droit international des armes nucleaires

    Sur, S. [Universite Pantheon-Assas, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Recherches Internationales


    The first chapter concerns the questions of non proliferation and non dissemination. Then, the problems bound to nuclear testing are examined in the second chapter. The process of destruction and restriction of weapons are treated in the third chapter. Then, the fourth chapter analyzes the conditions and the perspectives of a negotiation on the cessation of fissile matter production for military uses and more broadly, an obligation to negotiate a nuclear disarmament. (N.C.)

  10. About CPAPD


    <正>Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding,friendship and

  11. About CPAPD


    Founded in June 1985 by various concerned mass organizations and prominent personages from all walks of life,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)is the largest nationwide non-governmental peace association with a total of 25 influential member organizations in China.The objectives of the CPAPD are to promote mutual understanding,friendship and cooperation between the peoples of China and the rest of the world in joint

  12. Language and the nuclear arms debate: Nukespeak today


    This book presents papers on the political, cultural and ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include language and ideology, the pragmatics of speeches against the peace movement in Britain, the rhetoric of national defense in the US, pro-nuclear arguments, nuclear deterrence, the media's coverage of anti-nuclear demonstrations, news reports, an analysis of the television film The Day After, nuclear disarmament, an analysis of anti-nuclear humor, psychological models, and sociological models.

  13. CPAPD Held the 9th Joint Conference of Member Organizations and The 2nd Conference of the Board of Directors


    <正>On April 4,2014,the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)held the 9th Joint Conference of Member Organizations and the 2nd Conference of the Board of Directors in Beijing.Yan Junqi,Vice-Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress(NPC):Han Qide,Vice-Chairman of the National Committee of the

  14. Occupation, repression and resistance Čačak district, Serbia, in 1915-1918

    Trifunović Bogdan


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Austro-Hungarian occupation regime in Serbia 1915-1918 from the perspective both of its treatment of civilians and of resistance to occupation, focusing on the Čačak District, western Serbia. It examines actions against the occupation authorities, the composition of k. u k. military presence in the district, the measures applied to suppress armed resistance (e.g. disarmament, internment, public executions, the estimated number of military and civilian casualties.


    s. Bagheri


    Full Text Available The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT is an international treaty that should be implemented during both peace and wartime. However, the obligations included in the treaty are dependent upon states' attitudes regarding other issues. Non-use of nuclear weapons is directly related to negotiations done for the purpose of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, non-production or accumulation by other means and disarmament. In our day, prevention of the proliferation of nuclear weapons has been one of the issues of international law.The present study is of crucial significance due to its endeavor to clarify the general principles of Humanitarian Law in a relationship to the threat of nuclear weapons' up to now, a special norm; significantly limiting or completely prohibiting the use of nuclear weapons, has not been accepted in international law. However, customary international humanitarian law regarding the use of nuclear weapons holds great value because of its purpose in eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of war through ascertaining their non-use and also appeasing the importance of nuclear ascendancy. In this respect, the NPT regime and its relationship with international humanitarian law will be discussed. Firstly, the NPT background, formation, main objectives and principles will be analyzed. In order to evaluate the relationship between the NPT and humanitarian law, the humanitarian obligations in general, humanitarian obligations in the context of the NPT and fulfillmen t of these obligations under the NPT should be studied. One of the main parts of the study is nuclear disarmament obligation included in the NPT. In this section, nuclear disarmament obligation in the context of the NPT and the legal framework of possible, general and comprehensive disarmament will be examined.

  16. Algorithm of actions of the future officer of militia in the conditions of collision with the infringer armed with the cold steel.

    Plisko V.I.


    Full Text Available It is given recommendations to improve techniques of training future member of law machinery. Еxperimentally the sequence of actions during modeling of different situations of collision with the armed opponent at which is proved and proved possibility of application of fire-arms for reflexion of an attack and at which disarmament is possible only at the expense of application of methods of physical influence directly in contact to the opponent remains.

  17. A Notice Soliciting Contribution to Peace Quarterly


    Dear readers at home and abroad:Peace quarterly in English is published by the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)since its founding in June 1985.Over the past 30 years,we have received kind support from all your readers in China and overseas.We wish to take this opportunity to express our appreciation to you all from the bottom of our hearts.

  18. The Fifth China-U.S.Civil Society Peace Forum Was Successfully Held


    <正>Sponsored by Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament,American Friends Service Committee,Ningxia People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and co-sponsored by Ningxia Foreign Affairs Office and China Foundation for Peace and Development,the Fifth China-U.S.Civil Society Peace Forum was successfully held in Yinchuan,Ningxia,China from May 6 to 8,2014.The main theme


    Г. Ю. Кравцов


    Full Text Available The article examines the attitude of the leading U.S. periodical on the problem of the nuclear disarmament of Ukraine. There are revealed general regulari ties typical for the publications in the U.S. media devoted to the problems that is mentioned. Also, there is a comparison of the information contained in the American periodicals with the official position of Ukraine and the United States and with a leading American scientist’s attitude to the problem.

  20. CPPCC Vice Chairman and CPAPD President Mr.Han Qide Visits Mexico and Argentina via France


    <正>At the invitation of the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations(COMEXI)and the World Peace Council(WPC),Mr.Han Qide,Vice Chairman of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)attended the WPC international conference,visited Mexico and Argentina,and transited through

  1. Palomares Summary Report


    disarmament conference was in progress in Geneva. The Soviet representative took advantage of the accident stating that, "only a fortunate stroke of luck particu- larly fitting that this summary of the Palomares accident , one of many specific instances of Dr. Langham’s valuable assistance to the dedicated to his memory. We do so in fond appreciati.on. 3 THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFf BLANK 4 FOREWORD The accident which occurred over

  2. Prelaunch Survivability of Ground Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM). Volume 3. SAVAGE Code Version 1.0 User’s Guide


    000 kilotons terajoules 4.183 kip (1000 lbf) newton (N) 4.448 222 X E +3 kip /inch2 (ksi) kilo pascal (kPa) 6.894 757 X E +3 ktap newton-second/m 2 (N-s...ATTN: Deputy Director, J. Nocita Decision-Science Applications, Inc U.S. Arms Control & Disarmament Agcy ATTN: Pugh ATTN: C. Thorn ATTN: Galiano

  3. Buddhist Thought and Several Problems in the World Today

    Yao Weiqun


    Buddhism has not only produced an influence upon the ancient world culture but is also playing an important role in world affairs today.This article analyzes several important problems in the world today:world peace,disarmament,economic justice,human rights,environmental protection,and universal cooperation in world problem solving.The writer holds that,to solve these problems,we should study Buddhist theory and get some helpful ideas from it.

  4. Preventing Escalation in the South China Sea Disputed Waters: A Comparative Study of Republic of the Philippines and Socialist Republic of Vietnam


    Proliferation and Disarmament (NPD), and cyber security.198 Those meetings and workshops have been expanding toward exercises related to the...civilian ships instead of those belonging to the PLAN, according to Trefor Moss, China managed to avoid being seen as bullying smaller countries.261...interest encompassing a wide ranging security-related topics from the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HA/DR) to cyber security, the level

  5. Taking Off the Wedding Ring: The Consequences of the Netherlands’ Choice to Forgo a Nuclear Capable F-35


    forward deployed US tactical nuclear weapons, at a time that Europe suffers instability and uncertainty due to Russia’s current behavior. This paper...analyses the political processes in the Netherlands, regarding both the decision to buy the F-35 and the nuclear disarmament policy of the...Introduction After nearly a decade of political controversy, the Netherlands government decided in November 2013 to opt for the Lockheed Martin F-35A

  6. Nuclear energy in a nuclear weapon free world

    Pilat, Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The prospect of a nuclear renaissance has revived a decades old debate over the proliferation and terrorism risks of the use of nuclear power. This debate in the last few years has taken on an added dimension with renewed attention to disarmament. Increasingly, concerns that proliferation risks may reduce the prospects for realizing the vision of a nuclear-weapon-free world are being voiced.

  7. The Lord’s Resistance Army Wicked Problem


    intervention. 2 Between 1988 and 2008, deliberate efforts were made by the Government of Uganda to resolve the LRA conflict by peaceful means ...President Baraka Obama signed into law the “Lord’s Resistance Army Disarmament and Northern Uganda Recovery Act”, legislation aimed at stopping Joseph... means to address these grievances after witnessing Uganda’s successive violent power struggles since independence.34 While it is true there were

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control.


    and ensigns. We need about 54,000 apartments for family men and hostels for 13,000 bachelors. As you can see, the agreement with the German side to...get down to the practical elaboration of defense sufficiency criteria. Further promotion of the European disarmament process is unthinkable without...taking the first steps to promote a general review of European and Western security problems is none other than France. GERMANY Daimler-Benz CEO

  9. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in Context

    Davenport, Kelsey


    The 1968 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) is the cornerstone of multilateral efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote efforts toward complete disarmament. In the grand bargain of the NPT, states foreswore pursuit of nuclear weapons in exchange for access to nuclear technology and limited nuclear arsenals to the five states (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) that tested such weapons before the NPT's conception. Now in its seventh decade, the NPT regime is embraced by the vast majority of the world's nations and is viewed as a critical element of international security. However, despite past successes in halting efforts in several states to pursue nuclear weapons, near universal adherence, and only one withdrawal (North Korea), the NPT regime is at a critical crossroads. The treaty has proven unable to adapt to new challenges, such as emerging technologies that threaten operational strategic realities, the devolution of state authority to non-state actors and institutions, and growing dissatisfaction with slow pace of nuclear disarmament. Additionally, the treaty leaves open critical questions, including whether or not state parties have the `right' to pursue technologies that allow for domestic production of fuels for nuclear reactors and if modernization programs for nuclear warheads are inconsistent with the treaty. If these questions remain unresolved, the international community will find itself ill prepared to confront emerging proliferation challenges and the NPT, the linchpin of international nonproliferation and disarmament efforts, may begin to erode.

  10. The culture of peace and peace education

    Năstase, Adrian


    In the present world situation, there is an urgent need for new strategies of peace based on the common fundamental interest of mankind, rejecting the use of force, and aimed at creating a new world order. Recognising the close interrelationship between culture and peace, and the extension of international interdependencies in reducing economic disparities, emphasis must be given to developing positive attitudes to peace in the minds of all men: a qualitative change in thinking has to occur before international security can be ensured without resort to military alliances and nuclear deterrence. The dangers inherent in the arms race require that education for disarmament be an integral part of peace education. Likewise, the connections between peace and other international objectives such as development and human rights, need to be stressed. Peace education should lead not only to a greater awareness of problems but also to a sense of responsibility and an active involvement in efforts towards promoting equal rights, economic and social development, and mutual respect and understanding among nations. The power of informed public opinion, internationally, in influencing governments towards peace and disarmament should not be underestimated; therefore, greater attention in peace education needs to be given to identifying and overcoming the structural, conceptual and cultural obstacles to peace. What is being undertaken in Romania, especially amongst young people, by way of education and action for peace, reflects a coherent policy, comprises a powerful and effective educational whole, and is contributing towards the building up of an international `constituency' of peace and disarmament.

  11. Mutual reciprocal inspections: Issues regarding next steps

    Bailey, K.C.


    Pressures are mounting for a regime to verify the dismantlement of US and Russian warheads, as well as a system of international control over the weapons` fissile materials to assure irreversibility. There are at least four motivating factors for these measures: (1) as the United States and Russia lower their numbers of nuclear weapons, each side seeks assurance that the warheads are actually being dismantled; (2) by accounting for the fissile materials and placing them under effective controls, the potential for smuggling and theft is reduced; (3) a fissile materials cutoff is being discussed at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva; verification of a US-Russian cutoff, as well as substantial reductions in fissile materials stockpiles, are seen as integral to the cutoff; (4) calls for total nuclear disarmament have greatly increased; dismantlement verification and international control of fissile materials are widely viewed as requisite steps toward this goal. There are many questions to be answered before the United States can agree to a warhead verification regime and international control over excess fissile materials, let alone total nuclear disarmament. Two of the most important are: What are the prospects for effective verification? and How much fissile material can be declared as excess, and possibly be given over to international control? These topics--compliance weaknesses and excess materials--are the focus of this paper.

  12. Towards global zero? The new American nuclear policy between ambition and reality; Auf dem Weg zu Global Zero? Die neue amerikanische Nuklearpolitik zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

    Fey, Marco; Franceschini, Giorgio; Mueller, Harald; Schmidt, Hans-Joachim


    The present report investigates the question whether the new nuclear doctrine of the USA, New START, the plutonium treaty and the unilateral transparency measures together amount to a paradigm change in American policy or whether the above-named treaties and measures might not have more the role of a placebo. The present publication shows how the success of Obama's disarmament efforts hinges primarily on the balance of power between Democrats and Republicans in the Senate. The ratification process of New START, which is to be concluded by the end of 2011 at the latest, is a preliminary and a test run for further treaties. Another milestone towards Global Zero will be the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, whose conclusion is planned for 2011. Obama's disarmament agenda is dependent on progress also being made in the conventional arms control process in Europe (ratification of the revised and adapted CFE Treaty) as well as in the military cooperation with Russia in the area of missile defence. This will create the basis that is needed for continuing the nuclear strategic arms control negotiations and for including substrategic nuclear arms in the process. Whatever progress is made on the long march to nuclear zero, it will probably have to be fought for under similarly difficult conditions as were seen in the New START and the new Nuclear Posture Review processes. It will take all the skill of the Obama administration to accommodate its domestic political opponents while at the same allaying fears abroad that its campaign for nuclear disarmament is merely a means of strengthening American supremacy.

  13. The collection of the information on peaceful use of atomic energy and nuclear now proliferation and its summaries and analysis. Final report

    Sato, S.; Takeda, Hiroshi [PESCO Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This report summarizes the monthly topics on peaceful uses of atomic energy and management of nuclear materials and its proliferation. The topics are based on the 127 related articles appeared in the newspapers of Japan; those are the Yomiuri, the Asahi, the Mainichi and the Sankei in ten months from May 1998 to February 1999. The most frequent topics are (1) nuclear inspection of Iraq and suspicion for nuclear weapon, (2) nuclear experiments, economic sanctions and CTBT in India and Pakistan, (3) underground nuclear facilities of North Korea and discussions on KEDO. The United Nations Security Council, IAEA and each country have responded on the issues of nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, a resolution on suspension of nuclear test, reinforcement of IAEA security actions and an organization of NPT. The next topic is disarmament talks of nuclear weapon and nuclear waste disposal between USA and Russian Federation. Noteworthy issues are promotion of international cooperation on disposal of dismantled nuclear material of Russian Federation and supports for commercial use of plutonium. The fundamental concept is the timing of the pace between USA and Russian Federation on nuclear weapon disarmament. The point is how to realize the plan in the economical difficulty of Russian Federation. Other topics in the newspapers are disposal of Russian atomic submarines, sub-critical nuclear experiments of USA and Russian Federation, tritium production of USA, commercial uses of highly enriched uranium, nuclear of Iran, missile issues, transportation of plutonium. Technical terms and abbreviations are explained after the monthly topics with its background. The total 127 references of the newspaper articles are attached after the topics. (Y. Tanaka)

  14. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)


    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  15. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    S. Sriwidjaja


    In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentione...

  16. The singular weapon. What remains from the atomic age?; Die Singulaere Waffe. Was bleibt vom Atomzeitalter?

    Eisenbart, Constanze (ed.) [Forschungsstaette der Evangelischen Studiengemeinschaft (FEST), Heidelberg (Germany)


    The book contains the following contributions: Why do we talk about the atomic age? The language of the atomic myth - comments to a protestant debate. Nuclear singularity between fiction and reality. Only one can get through: military singularity of nuclear weapons. Physical singularity of nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons test and fall-out. Quantitative disarmament and qualitative rearmament. Do mini nukes neutralize the singularity? The vulnerability of the industrial society by the nuclear electromagnetic momentum. Nuclear weapons as national status symbol - the example of India. The general regulations of international laws and the singularity of nuclear weapons. The construction of normative singularity - development and change of the nuclear taboo.

  17. International Exchanges


    CPAPD President Han Qide Visits Cambodia,Malaysia and Indonesia At the invitation of the Senate of Cambodia,Malaysia Global Movement of Moderates Foundation(GMOMF)and Indonesian Institute of Sciences(LIPI),Mr.Han Qide,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)headed a CPAPD delegation on a good-will visit to the above-mentioned three countries from June 25 to July 4,2015.

  18. Decisions in Operations Other Than War: The United States Intervention in Somalia


    1960 to rtitigate these Anticipated problenis, it was tco late N:)rth and suti. w.-e auted wthout any senioa:• negotiations about iti por.utt politica ...his return from exile that reads in part: "prior to the racc of Europemi powers to divide up the coast of Africa, Ethiopia included an exterior ...forces. This disarmament agreement took years to forge as well - A U.N. brokered peace agreement was signed in Mexico in January 1992 that began the

  19. International Exchanges


    On October 12,2015,Mr.Zhu Rui,CPAPD Secretary General,chaired informal discussions with U.S.young experts and scholars on arms control and non-proliferation.The two sides exchanged views on international arms control,disarmament,non-proliferation and nuclear security,etc.During October 12 to 16,2015,at the invitation of the CPAPD,a four-member delegation from the Vietnam Peace Committee headed by its Vice-President Ms.Nguyen Thi Hoang Van

  20. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary; C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physiker, Philosoph, Visionaer

    Goernitz, Thomas


    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  1. Nuclear Deterrence in Asia and the Pacific

    Gareth Evans


    The Asia Pacific region includes six of the world’s nine nuclear-armed states, and in all of them relevant policymakers, still caught in a Cold War mindset, continue to believe in nuclear deterrence as a force for peace and stability, perceiving nuclear disarmament to be not only unachievable, but undesirable. But — whether the context is major powers seeking to neutralise threats from each other (United States, Russia, China and India), non-nuclear allies seeking nuclear protection from ...

  2. Las carreras armamentistas navales entre Argentina, Chile y Brasil (1891-1923

    Cristián Garay


    Full Text Available The overview of the issue of South American naval competition between the late nineteenth and early twentieth century' has been hindered by a bilateral perspective. Based on a perception of the hard power, naval competition is not interpreted as an episode restricted to the case of Chile-Argentina or Argentina-Brazil, but as a regional political determination induced by the belief that naval competition would increase the chances for success in the international system. This search for prestige ended in the 1920s due to cultural reasons, Wilsonianism, the path of collective security being discredited after World War I, and the global pro-disarmament climate.

  3. Desarmamento, Desmobilização e Reintegração dos ex-combatentes no âmbito das Nações Unidas - 10.5102/uri.v4i1.275

    Aline Peixoto


    Full Text Available This article is about disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR of ex-combatants – activities that have recently become part of the United Nations peace operations and that are progressively receiving more attention within the Organization. The DDR is essential for the stabilization of the region and to avoid the re-incidence of the conflict. Nevertheless, it is a very complex activity (with many institutions involved and it is difficult to coordinate and to execute. Therefore, it can be concluded that this subject demands greater efforts from the United Nations in order to overcome the problems and difficulties DDR has been facing.

  4. Speech at the Roundtable on Cooperation & Development of Cities along the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Li; Jinjun


    <正>His Excellency Hussain Muhammad Ershad,Former President of Bangladesh,His Excellency Dimitrios Christofias,Former President of Cyprus,Distinguished guests,Ladies and gentlemen,Good morning!It’s really an honor to attend the Roundtable on Cooperation&Development of Cities along the Silk Road Economic Belt.On behalf of the International Department of the CPC Central Committee and the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CAPAD),I’d like to take this

  5. The Basic Principles of China's Development of Human Rights and NGOs

    LiuJingqin; WangWei


    From July 6 to 7,2004,co-sponsored by Chinese Association for International Understanding (CAFIU),China Foundation for Human Rights Development (CFHRD) and the Friedrich Ebert Foundation of Germany (Ebert Foundation),the 6th Sino-German Seminar on Human Rights was held in Berlin of Germany.Mr.Liu Jingqin,head of the Chinese delegation,senior advisor of CFHRD and Vice President of Chinese People's Association for Peace and Disarmament,made a keynote speech at the seminar.The following is the full text of his speech.

  6. Convention between Romania and the Great Powers on the 12th of September 1944

    Stefan GHEORGHE


    Full Text Available The formula for the “unconditional surrender” adopted in Casablanca on the 24th of January 1943 was meant to acquaint the governmentsof the states at war with the United Nations with the treatment and the terms of their countries would have to take, no matter when or why they mightwithdraw. As far as Romania was concerned, the terms of surrender included, among others, demobilisation and disarmament, handing over warmaterials, amends etc, all of which were to be imposed on by the three great powers and had been thought mainly to secure safety and to carrying onthe warfare against Germany. These objectives were considered to have deep political implications.

  7. Ways of decision of problem of forming for the cadets of the special qualities, need the militiaman to successful counteract against the armed attack

    Bondarenko V.V.


    Full Text Available Directions of forming of the special qualities of workers of militia are certain. Information is systematized about the real collisions of workers of militia with criminals. Conformities to law are rotined in the conduct of a be out for scalps criminal. The necessity of development and perfection of the special qualities of workers of militia is exposed. The terms of the hidden attack of criminal are considered. The necessity of mastering of knowledge is rotined about preparatory motions of the armed criminal. Directions of perfection of the special physical and psychical qualities, forming of abilities and skills of implementation of receptions of disarmament, are resulted.

  8. Work together for new methods of development along the Silk Road, build a community of shared interests and enjoy common prosperity of Eurasian continent——Speech at the opening ceremony of the 19th Eurasian Summit

    YU Hongjun


    (April 6th,Istanbul)Distinguished Mr.President Suver,Ladies and Gentlemen,Dear Friends,From the outset,let me extend,on behalf of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament,my heartfelt thanks to Marmara Foundation for inviting me to attend the 19th Eurasian Summit in the beautiful city of Istanbul.The theme of the Summit:"Silk Road Economic Belt"bears great historic and immediate relevance.In history,the Silk Road served as an


    Marcos Valle Machado da Silva


    Full Text Available This study analyses the Foreign Policy during the president Lula government over the Defense and Security issues, comparing these ones with the previous government of president Fernando Henrique Cardoso to identify de continuity, specifically nuances or even ruptures about these themes. To that aim we will use the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations and Nuclear Arms Control and Disarmament as Defense and Security themes. Thus we intend to identify the continuity traces or even rupture on the themes of Defense and Security of the Brazilian Foreign Police along the governments of the two last Brazilian Heads of State.

  10. CPAPD Vice President Mr. Ma Biao Visits Morocco and Greece


    At the respective invitation of the Amadeus Institute and the World Peace Council(WPC),Mr.Ma Biao,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and Vice President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)led a CPAPD delegation on a good-will visit to Morocco and Greece during November 10 to 19,2015.During the stay in Morocco,Mr.Ma Biao respectively met with Moroccan Senate Vice

  11. The Artisanal Nuke

    Dixon, M. C.


    There have been many words written about the value and importance of nuclear disarmament. There have been many words written about the value and importance to the U.S. defense posture of nuclear weapons. This thesis will not be about either one of those points of view. The commentary will not purport to tell anyone that there is a need or there is not a need for one nuclear weapon or thousands of nuclear weapons. This study is more about, "well, they are here -- now what?"

  12. Director`s series on proliferation

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.


    This fifth edition contains some of the papers that were presented in July 1994 at the Lawrence Livermore National conference entitled ``NPT: Review and Extension.`` Topics covered include: strategic warning and new nuclear states, the future for nuclear weapons, possibly stopping North Korean nukes without a war, Article VI of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty from the Chinese perspective, Article VI issues, Article VI and other NPT issues form the perspective of Russia, NPT review and extension, and finally problems facing total nuclear disarmament.

  13. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    Tertrais, B


    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  14. The fight against weapons of mass destruction at the crossroads; La lutte contre la proliferation des armes de destruction massive a la croisee des chemins

    Biad, A. [Rouen Univ., Faculte de Droit, de Sciences Economiques et de Gestion, 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France)


    Under the joint pressure of the US unilateralism and of some proliferating countries, the non-proliferation regimes are today at the crossroads. Despite the enormous efforts mobilized so far, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction appears as inescapable. This article analyzes the reasons of the continuous erosion of non-proliferation regimes and the possible means to delay this phenomenon: counter-proliferation measures, control of exported nuclear technologies and equipments, use of diplomatic and politico-economical means, controlled multilateral disarmament. (J.S.)

  15. Implementing DDR in Settings of Ongoing Conflict: The Organization and Fragmentation of Armed Groups in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Joanne Richards


    Full Text Available Although it is common for armed groups to splinter (or “fragment” during contexts of multi-party civil war, current guidance on Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR does not address the challenges that arise when recalcitrant fighters, unwilling to report to DDR, break ranks and form new armed groups. This Practice Note addresses this issue, drawing lessons from the multi-party context of the DRC and from the experiences of former members of three armed groups: the Rally for Congolese Democracy-Goma (RCD-Goma, the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP, and the DRC national army (FARDC. While the findings indicate that the fragmentation of armed groups may encourage desertion and subsequent participation in DDR, they also show that active armed groups may monitor DDR programs and track those who demobilize. Remobilization may follow, either as active armed groups target ex-combatants for forced re-recruitment or as ex-combatants remobilize in armed groups of their own choice. Given these dynamics, practitioners in settings of partial peace may find it useful to consider non-traditional methods of DDR such as the use of mobile patrols and mobile disarmament units. The temporary relocation of ex-combatants to safe areas free from armed groups, or to protected transitional assistance camps, may also help to minimize remobilization during the reintegration phase.

  16. Beyond arms control? Looking for the lost paradigm..; Au-dela de l'arms control? A la recherche du paradigme perdu..

    Dahan, P


    Since the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the international relations have become more complex and the arms control concept, born during the cold war and implemented during the 3 last decades is today marking time. Disarmament and non-proliferation, which were the keystones of arms control and international negotiations, are today undergoing erosion. This article analyzes the change of situation between the end of the 20. century and the beginning of the 21. century. Three steps are defined by the author: a 'flux' step with the signature of a huge number of international agreements about non-proliferation and arms control, a stagnation step marked by the difficulties of implementing some of the existing treaties and by the violation by some states of some of them, and a 'reflux' step marked by a freezing up of the bilateral US-Russian disarmament process and a general renouncement of the multilateral arms control concept. (J.S.)

  17. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    Brown, J. editor


    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  18. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Lehman, R.F. II


    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  19. Template identification technology of nuclear warheads and components

    Liu Su-Ping; Gong Jian; Hao Fan-Hua; Hu Guang-Chun


    Template identification technology (TIT) is designed for the scenarios where a batch of disarmed nuclear weapons or components would be dismantled to observe a nuclear disarmament treaty.The core function played by the TIT is to make a judgment on whether the verified item belongs to a certain kind of nuclear weapons or component (NW/NC) or to which kind the verified item belongs.This paper analyses the functions played by the TIT in the process of NW/NC dismantlement,and proposes that two phases would be followed when applying the TIT:firstly to establish NW/NC templates with a sample of size n drawn from a certain kind of disarmament NW;secondly to authenticate NW/NC by means of the TIT.This paper also expatiates some terms related to the concept of the TIT and investigates on the development status of NW/NC TIT based on radiation signatures.The study concludes that the design of template structure is crucial to the establishment of an effective TIT and that starting from different research angles and aiming at the same goal of classification different template structures and corresponding template identification methods can be built up to meet specific identification requirements.

  20. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Casey, Leslie A.


    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  1. Cooperative Security: A New Paradigm For A World Without Nuclear Weapons?

    Marc Finaud


    Full Text Available If there is a loose consensus on aiming at a world free of nuclear weapons in the future, there are clear oppositions as to the timeframe as well as the means for achieving this goal. The approach to nuclear disarmament followed to date has only yielded limited success because it has been conceived in isolation from global and regional security environments and threat perceptions. A new paradigm should thus be sought in order to reconcile nuclear powers’ security doctrines with global aspirations for a safer world, and ensure that nuclear powers derive their security less from others’ insecurity but from mutually beneficial cooperative security. This should not become a pretext for preserving nuclear weapons for ever. It will on the contrary require parallel tracks addressing the initial motivations for acquiring nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD, in particular in the context of regional conflicts, as well as dealing with the current issues necessarily related to nuclear disarmament (missile defence, weaponization of space, conventional imbalances and future weapon systems. Ultimately, in a globalised nuclear-weapon free world, state security will not require nuclear weapons because it will be inserted into a broader network encompass­ing all aspects of security addressed in cooperative and multilateral approaches.

  2. "Securing our survival (SOS": non-state actors and the campaign for a nuclear weapons convention through the prism of securitisation theory

    Renata H. Dalaqua


    Full Text Available This article analyses the security practices of the anti-nuclear movement in the post-Cold War period through the prism of securitisation theory. By exploring Buzan and Wæver's conceptual developments on macrosecuritisations, the practices involved in the struggle against the Bomb are interpreted as securitising moves, in which the anti-nuclear movement is the leading securitiser. In the capacity of securitising actors, nuclear abolition activists argue that nuclear disarmament, under a Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC, would be the only way to protect humankind from the threat posed by the existence of nuclear weapons. The empirical analysis of these non-state actors and their campaign for a NWC shows that, despite uttering security, the anti-nuclear movement has so far failed to achieve the proposed security measure, that is, nuclear disarmament. Nonetheless, securitisation has been instrumental for these non-state actors as a way of raising an issue on the agenda of decision-makers and urging them to take action.

  3. Weapons plutonium for electricity: a win-win-win solution

    Goldschmidt, P. [Synatom, Brussels (Belgium)


    Incorporating recovered weapons-grade plutonium into mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel to produce electricity in currently operating reactors is presented as the best option for its disposition from a European utilities perspective. It would be a win-win-win solution. Firstly, it would be a win for the US government as the only technology readily available on an industrial scale and therefore the fastest way to convert the surplus plutonium to a highly proliferation resistant spent fuel form, as well as being the most cost-effective option. It would also have the political advantages of proving to the world that the US is dedicated to the elimination of its surplus plutonium without delay, receiving support from the Western allies of the US, and encouraging the Russians to take the same route. Secondly, it would be a win for the US utilities both in economic terms and in improving their public image through their contribution to world disarmament. Finally, it would be a win for the world as the fastest route to making disarmament irreversible and as the only solution that conserves natural resources. (8 figures; 14 references) (UK).

  4. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.


    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  5. Between Pacifism and Nuclear Energy (1930-1955)

    de Mendoza, Diego Hurtado


    The atomic bomb American program known as Manhattan Project has been studied in detail. Historians argue that the beginning of this program is rooted in the letter Einstein sent to American President Roosevelt in the summer of 1939. This article examines Einstein's activities before 1933 as radical pacifist in favor of the principles of universal disarmament and outspoken supporter of individual war resistance and the shift of this posture when Hitler came to power in 1933. In this context, we discuss the role played by nuclear physicists during the Second World War and Einstein's decision to promote the construction of an atomic weapon in the United States. Finally, the article analyzes Einstein's struggle against the atomic race during the beginning of the cold war.

  6. Test report for the infrasound prototype: For a CTBT IMS station

    Breding, D.R.; Kromer, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitaker, R.W.; Sandoval, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    This document describes the results of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) Infrasound Prototype Development Test and Evaluation (DT&E). During DT&E the infrasound prototype was evaluated against requirements listed in the System Requirements Document (SRD) based on the Conference on Disarmament/Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban/Working Papers 224 and 283 and the Preparatory Commission specifications as defined in CTBT/PC/II/1/Add.2, Appendix X, Table 5. The evaluation was conducted during a two-day period, August 6-7, 18997. The System Test Plan (STP) defined the plan and methods to test the infrasound prototype. Specific tests that were performed are detailed in the Test Procedures (TP).

  7. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Garry Jacobs


    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  8. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    Kaushik, Mrinal


    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  9. Development and Humanitarian Agencies Behind the Lines: Establishing Security in the Operational Space

    Han Zhili


    @@ It has been widely recognized that development and humanitarian agencies play a key role in post-conflict peace building. The anarchical and chaotic conditions of failing states are considered the sources of conflict. International military response is not enough to uproot the sources or to prevent conflict from reviving. In the long term, coordinated development and humanitarian program are required to help failing states reform their political institutions, improve security and judicial systems, promote social and economic development, and eradicate underlying socio-economic, cultural and humanitarian problems leading to the conflict. ① It is not equally recognized,however, that development and humanitarian agencies also contribute in the campaign by international military forces to establish a workable level of security in the operational space. In this essay, I examine three important roles that development and humanitarian agencies play in this regard, namely: mine action, Disarmament, Demobilization,Rehabilitation and Reintegration (DDRR) , and intelligence.

  10. Reconciling reintegration: the complexity of economic and social reintegration of ex-combatants in Burundi.

    Willems, Rens; van Leeuwen, Mathijs


    The extent to which disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programmes initiated by state or multilateral agencies can realise the reintegration of ex-combatants remains debated. While some consider that DDR should have the ambition to result in long-term reintegration, others argue that DDR should focus on short-term goals. This paper explores experiences with the reintegration of ex-combatants in Burundi. It shows the interconnectedness of economic and social reintegration processes, and demonstrates that the reintegration of ex-combatants cannot be seen in isolation from the wider recovery and development context in which DDR is taking place. Moreover, the case demonstrates that reconciliation and social reintegration are deeply interconnected, to the extent that social reintegration may fail if reconciliation is not taken into account. Rather than a debate between long- and short-term goals, the focus should therefore be on increasing the understanding of reintegration processes and finding ways in which programmes can contribute to those.

  11. The Role of Nuclear Diplomacy

    S. Sriwidjaja


    Full Text Available In the midst of nuclear countries and non-nuclear countries in the framework of non-proliferation and disarmament, Indonesia has played an important role. Indonesia has been actively involved in each activity at the international level to create a world free from nuclear weapons. This involvements needs to be maintained and increased in the years to come. As a large country, Indonesia should play a key role in the field of nuclear diplomacy. All of the efforts of nuclear diplomacy as mentioned above had a clear objective to support Indonesia’s energy program, at the institution framework as well as capacity building. Indonesia’s effort is also directed to attain appropriated international public acceptance.

  12. An overview of the IAEA action team activities in Iraq

    Dillon, G.; Baute, J. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Vienna (Austria)


    Following Iraq withdrawal from Kuwait, the United Nations Security Council adopted its resolution 687 (1991), setting out the terms of the cease fire agreement. Those terms, inter alia, requested the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out immediate on-site inspection of Iraq nuclear capabilities, to prepare and carry out a plan for the destruction, removal and rendering harmless of all assets relevant to the design and production of nuclear weapons, and to design and eventually implement a plan for the ongoing monitoring and verification of Iraq compliance with its related obligations under Security Council resolutions. This paper summarises the work of the IAEA Iraq Action Team, established by the Director General to carry out the practical tasks necessary to implement the requests of the Security Council. It also highlights the lessons learned from a unique regime of disarmament and verification. (author)

  13. Simulation of neutron multiplicity measurements using Geant4. Open source software for nuclear arms control

    Kuett, Moritz


    Nuclear arms control, including nuclear safeguards and verification technologies for nuclear disarmament typically use software as part of many different technological applications. This thesis proposes to use three open source criteria for such software, allowing users and developers to have free access to a program, have access to the full source code and be able to publish modifications for the program. This proposition is presented and analyzed in detail, together with the description of the development of ''Open Neutron Multiplicity Simulation'', an open source software tool to simulate neutron multiplicity measurements. The description includes physical background of the method, details of the developed program and a comprehensive set of validation calculations.

  14. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Jonah Leff


    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  15. GSETT 3: a test of an experimental international seismic monitoring system

    F. Ringdal


    Full Text Available The UN Conference on Disarmament's Group of Scientific Experts (GSE was established in 1976 to consider international co operative measures to detect and identify seismic events. Over the years, the GSE has developed and tested several concepts for an International Seismic Monitoring System (ISMS for the purpose of assisting in the verification of a potential comprehensive test ban treaty. The GSE is now planning its third global technical test. (GSETT 3 in order to test new and revisled concepts for an ISMS. GSETT 3 wili be an unprecedented global effort to conduct an operationally realistic test of rapid collection, distribution and processing of seismie data. A global network of seismograph stations will provide data to an International Data Center, where the data will be processed an results made available to participants. The full scaIe phase of GSETT 3 is scheduled to begin in January 1995.

  16. Insurgency, militias and DDR as part of security sector reconstruction in Iraq: how not to do it.

    Ozerdem, Alpaslan


    One of the most demanding challenges since the occupation of Iraq in 2003 has been the establishment of security and stability. The continuation of violence by myriad armed groups is yet to be tackled as part of a comprehensive security sector reform initiative in which effective disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) of former combatants will constitute a litmus test of success or failure. In Iraq, much insurgent and militia activity is shadowy and difficult to trace. However, those involved can be divided into two main categories: insurgent groups; and Shi'a militias. In a highly complex and insecure environment such as this, resulting from the presence of many armed groups with varying agendas and objectives, the conduct of a DDR process will be an extremely sensitive and testing task both for Iraq and the international community. Appropriate preparation for such a process is clearly an imperative for the generation of peace in the country.

  17. Desarme, desmovilización y reintegración en Camboya

    Adriana Escobar


    Full Text Available Cambodia is sadly known for the terrible crimes committed during the Khmer Rouge regime between 1975 and 1979. The history that followed this period was marked by a multifaceted conflict that lasted for nearly 20 more years. In this particularly complex context, the process of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR was essential to guarantee the transition of this devastated country towards peace and stability. The objective of this article is to present the initiatives of DDR in Cambodia between 1992 and 2002, the challenges and difficulties brought by their implementation, and the causes of their failure. The article also outlines the government's policy that led to the dismantlement of the Khmer Rouge in the 1990s, as well as the arms control programs implemented between 2000 and 2008. These two measures contributed successfully to pacify the country, to improve security conditions and to mitigate the failure of DDR.

  18. Academic Training turns to matters of science and society


    Once again, CERN has opened its doors to matters of science and society. A recent academic training lecture series tackled the thorny issue of arms control. Although an issue far from normal training needs of CERN personnel, the series was well attended. Aseries of lectures about arms control at CERN? Surely some mistake! But there are many reasons why one of the world's most important physics laboratories should consider such weighty political and ethical matters - not least the concern for the issues felt by members of the CERN community. A large number of people followed the full series of lectures on arms control and disarmament by Francesco Calogero, Professor of theoretical physics at Rome's 'La Sapienza' University, demonstrating that CERN people are not only interested in purely scientific matters, but also in the implications for society. Professor Calogero, a former Secretary General of Pugwash1) and currently Chairman of the Pugwash Council, observed that, 'even if I dealt, albeit tersely, with the...

  19. Technology transfer significance of the International Safeguards Project Office

    Marcuse, W.; Waligura, A.J.


    The safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are of major importance to the non-proliferation objectives of the United States of America and other nations of the world. Assurance of safeguards effectiveness is mandatory to continued peaceful use of nuclear power. To enhance the ability of the IAEA to apply safeguards effectively, and to ensure that the IAEA does not lack technical assistance in critical areas, the US Congress has made available a special authorization for a Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS). This substantial program of technology transfer was initiated in 1976. The United States Departments of State and Energy, the Arms control and Disarmament Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have each accepted responsibility for parts of the Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards. Funding is provided by state through the Foreign Assistance Act. This report provides a discussion of this program.

  20. Is there any future for nuclear weapons?; Les armes nucleaires ont-elles un avenir?

    Heisbourg, F.


    Nuclear weapons occupy a paradoxal place both in the collective imagination and in the historical reality: on the one hand everybody dreads the apocalypse horror, and on the other hand, dissuasion appears as an unchanging and quite comfortable situation. However, the world has become multipolar in this domain as well. The geopolitical map is reconstructing. Doctrinal revisions, initiatives against nuclear weapons proliferation, and nuclear disarmament measures are now on the agenda. The best foreign and French experts examine for the first time the consequences of these evolutions. They analyse in particular the split up risks and the potential consequences of a nuclear conflict in regions where atomic arms have become a key-component of the strategic landscape: Middle-Est, Far-East, Southern Asia. The choices France and its allies will have to face are examined as well. (J.S.)

  1. Supporting Technology for Chain of Custody of Nuclear Weapons and Materials throughout the Dismantlement and Disposition Processes

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Benz, Jacob M.; Denlinger, Laura S.


    The ratification and ongoing implementation of the New START Treaty have been widely regarded as noteworthy global security achievements for both the Obama Administration and the Putin (formerly Medvedev) regime. But deeper cuts that move beyond the United States and Russia to engage the P-5 and other nuclear weapons possessor states are envisioned under future arms control regimes, and are indeed required for the P-5 in accordance with their Article VI disarmament obligations in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Future verification needs will include monitoring the cessation of production of new fissile material for weapons, monitoring storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondary stages, and other materials. A fundamental challenge to implementing a nuclear disarmament regime is the ability to thwart unauthorized material diversion throughout the dismantlement and disposition process through strong chain of custody implementation. Verifying the declared presence, or absence, of nuclear materials and weapons components throughout the dismantlement and disposition lifecycle is a critical aspect of the disarmament process. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under these future arms control regimes will require new solutions. Since any acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes to prevent the release of classified or other proliferation-sensitive information, non-nuclear non-sensitive modalities may provide significant new verification tools which do not require the use of additional information barriers. Alternative verification technologies based upon electromagnetic and acoustics could potentially play an important role in fulfilling the challenging requirements of future verification regimes. For example, researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic

  2. The INF Treaty Compliance Disputes and Its Future Implications

    Jiang; Yimin; Wu; Jun


    The Treaty on Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces(simplified as the INF Treaty)was signed by the United States and the former Soviet Union on December 8,1987 and formally entered into force as of June 1,1988 in the wake of exchanging the instruments of ratification.By comprehensively banning the ground-launched missiles range from 500-5500km possessed by both countries,the INF Treaty for the first time in history achieved the substantial reduction of both countries’nuclear arsenals and introduced the on-site inspection,on which the verification regime in future nuclear disarmament treaties like START I,START II as well as New START are built.Those features of the treaty provide historic implications for its contribution to both strategic stability and international security.

  3. Truth Commissions in Latin America. The hope of a new future

    Nelson Molina Valencia


    Full Text Available This article presents the implementation of the right to the truth of the victims, through the creation of eleven Commissions of Truth, established in Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Uruguay, Peru, Paraguay, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras and Brasil, which emerged as the product of peace agreements or transitional processes. The Commissions of Truth received the assignment to investigate violations of Human Rights and breaches of International Humanitarian Law by military dictatorships, authoritarian regimes or internal armed conflicts. This review shows, that in addition to the subjects that constitute the Commissions, they work due to eight conditions: determined duration; legitimacy; themes; working methodologies; media of dissemination of results; attention to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration processes; repair strategies, request for forgiveness and reconciliation. The existence of the Commissions of Truth, while transforming the conflicts they serve, have not reached, as a strategy, the integral promotion of connivance and reconciliation.

  4. The year 2000 examination conference of the non-proliferation treaty and the future of the nuclear non-proliferation regime; La conference d'examen 2000 du TNP et l'avenir du regime de non-proliferation nucleaire

    Grand, C. [Institut d' Etudes Politiques de Paris, 75 (France); Ecole Speciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr-Coetquidan (France)


    The nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty (NPT), signed on July 1, 1968 and enforced on March 5, 1970, has been progressively considered as the headstone of the international non-proliferation and disarmament regime. The sixth NPT examination conference took place at New York (USA) in the year 2000, 5 years after the previous conference but also after the first nuclear weapon tests of India and Pakistan. This article recalls up the main non-proliferation events that took place between the 1995 and 2000 conferences and presents the progresses and results of the New York conference. Finally, it wonders about the ambiguities in the conclusions of this last conference. (J.S.)

  5. The invisible soldiers: understanding how the life experiences of girl child soldiers impacts upon their health and rehabilitation needs.

    Stevens, Amy Jane


    There are estimated 120,000 girl child soldiers worldwide. Recruitment makes girls vulnerable to the violence of war, torture, psychological trauma and sexual abuse with huge impact on their physical, mental and reproductive health. Despite this, girl soldiers often remain an invisible and marginalised group frequently neglected from disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes. This is not just a local issue: with former child soldiers seeking asylum as refugees there is an increasing need for health workers in the destination countries to understand their health needs in order to inform appropriate holistic service provision. This review provides an overview of how the duties and life experiences of girl soldiers, including gender-specific abuses, impacts upon their health and concludes with a summary of recommendations as to how their rehabilitation needs can be addressed.

  6. How to end the nuclear nightmare

    Speiser, S.M.


    An international lawyer examines the underlying causes of and ways to remove the Soviet-US enmity. He traces the history of distrust between the superpowers to differences in ideology and political systems, expansionism based on nationalism, and the human drive for power, and concludes that these tensions compel us to be enemies. Ideology is the only difference between the superpowers that can be removed. Capitalism could be made compatible with communism by distributing corporate stock to everyone. Eliminating poverty and exploitation would remove the ideological barrier to world peace and nuclear disarmament, making it worthwhile for the Soviet self-interest to cooperate with the US. The capitalistic system and Western freedoms would be preserved, and religious leaders could solve the dilemma of liberation theology. 61 references, 3 figures.

  7. DDR and the Internal Organization of Non-State Armed Groups

    Brian McQuinn


    Full Text Available This paper argues that demobilization, disarmament and reintegration (DDR trajectories of non-state armed groups are shaped by a group’s internal organization. Extensive research by political scientists has demonstrated a correlation between internal features of armed groups and their behaviour (e.g. extent of violence used against local communities. I extend this analysis to DDR outcomes by illustrating how two features of an armed group’s internal organization – command profile and financing architecture – influence post-conflict DDR trajectories. To substantiate the theory, four case studies from Colombia, Nepal and Libya are reviewed. The article concludes with the limitations and opportunities of this approach, including the potential of predicting DDR challenges.

  8. South America and the proliferation of biological weapons

    Tatiana Coutto


    Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of regional institutions and political practices in strengthening multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation regimes. Particular attention is devoted to coordination between Brazil and Argentina with a view to forging a "South American position" vis-à-vis the Biological and Toxins Weapons Convention (BTWC. Empirical evidence suggests that informal arrangements between the two countries were capable of involving other South American leaders and promoting the exchange of information among different groups of states, most notably during the 2006 BTWC review conference. This paper also sheds light on the identification of specific features that allow for increasing visibility and actorness of regional powers in promoting universality of multilateral security regimes (MSR, as well as the limitations faced by these players.

  9. “Her place among the nations of the earth”: Irish votes at the UN General Assembly, 1955-2005

    Christophe Gillissen


    Full Text Available Since joining the United Nations in 1955, Ireland has enjoyed a good reputation within the organization because of its commitment to multilateral diplomacy and its progressive position on human rights, self-determination and disarmament. However, when voting on resolutions in the General Assembly, the Irish delegation must take into account its effectiveness and impact on the UN, as well as the position of other countries. The USA has exerted particular pressure from the beginning, and since 1973 Ireland has also had to comply with the requirements of European solidarity. Nonetheless, various studies of Irish votes at the General Assembly show that on the whole Ireland has maintained a distinctive profile, faithful to its traditional values. Despite some changes over time, continuity seems to be the hallmark of Ireland’s UN policy, which is characterised by a moderate, constructive approach within the framework of a progressive grouping of states

  10. Consuming Danger, Signifying Danger: Postnuclear Monuments, museums and Gardens

    Mira Engler


    Full Text Available Marked by the scientific discovery of atomic energy, the nuclear age, which spans the twentieth century, has changed the nature of culture as well as the landscape. Despite recent talks on nuclear disarmament, the dread of nuclear arms production, proliferation, and waste storage is pervasive at both global and local levels, haunting governments, communities, and individuals alike. Nuclear sites concern not only scientists and politicians but also environmental designers. The need to evoke a cultural discourse, protect future generations, reveal or conceal radioactive burial sites, and recycle retired installations engenders the participation of artists and designers. How do designers intersect with these hellish places? Do we have a potent role in addressing this conundrum? In what follows, I confront the consumption and design of today’s most daunting places - the landscapes of nuclear and radioactive material production, processing, testing, and burial.

  11. Militarism and world health.

    Kiefer, C W


    Militarism is a rapidly growing factor in that complex network of social, political and economic causes of ill health among the world's poor. This complex of causes is driving a spiral of class inequality, political instability, and military repression in many less developed nations. These nations share a uniform security doctrine, which has major health impacts. Here five impacts are noted: diversion of resources, suppression of dissent, military classism, environment damage, and crime and terrorism. The demand stimulated by the recent Persian Gulf War for expensive, high-technology weapons may deepen Third World debt and fuel the cycle of poverty, ill health, social unrest, and military oppression. International health workers need to take account of the causes and effects of militarism in their studies of health problems. Their work could be aided by organizations that promote disarmament and environment preservation.

  12. Report of a Workshop in Nuclear Forces and Nonproliferation held at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) Review and the 2010 Conference (RevCon) of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The issues discussed are at the heart of the debate on nuclear policy issues such asfuture nuclear weapons requirements and nonproliferation, but also the stockpile stewardship program and infrastructure modernization. The workshop discussions reflected the importance of the NPRfor defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21s1 century threats and providing guidance that will shape NNSA and DoD programs. They also highlighted its importancefor NPT diplomacy. The discussion noted the report of the bipartisan Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States, and the expectation that the NPR would likely reflect its consensus to a large degree (although the Administration was not bound by the report). There was widespread support for developing thefoundationsfor a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. The discussion also revealed a convergence of views, but no consensus, on a number of important issues, including the diminished role but continued importance of nuclear weapons; the need to take action to ensure the sustainability of the stockpile, and the recapitalization of the infrastructure and expertise; and the need to take action to promote nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament objectives.

  13. Desde Angra hacia Teherán: la política nuclear brasileña bajo la administración Lula From Angra to Tehran: Brazilian nuclear policy under Lula’s administration

    Diego Santos Vieira de JESUS


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es explicar las posiciones adoptadas por Brasil bajo la administración Lula (2003-2010 sobre la no proliferación, el desarme y el control de las armas nucleares. Con el objetivo de reforzar su posición de solucionador de controversias y ampliar su participación en las instituciones internacionales, Brasil deseó intermediar entre los Estados que contaban con armas nucleares así como también aquellos que no las tenían. Además, intentó presionar a los Estados con armas nucleares por el cumplimiento de sus obligaciones de desarme y por la reducción de las asimetrías en sus relaciones con los países más fuertes en el ámbito nuclear. Los brasileños también buscaron mantener la flexibilidad para garantizar la seguridad de su propio programa atómico.The aim of this article is to explain the positions taken by Brazil under Lula’s administration (2003-2010 on nuclear non-proliferation, disarmament and arms control. In order to strengthen its position in dispute settlement and to expand its participation in international institutions, Brazil wished to intermediate between nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear weapon States. The country also tried to pressure the nuclear weapon States to fulfill their disarmament obligations and to reduce asymmetries in relations with the strongest countries in the nuclear arena. The Brazilians also sought to maintain flexibility to ensure the safety of their own atomic program.

  14. Ukraine At The Fulcrum: A Nuclear House Of Cards

    Natalie Manaeva Rice


    Full Text Available The foundation of preserving and enhancing global nuclear security rests on three fundamental pillars: nuclear disarmament; preventing further proliferation of nuclear weapons; and international cooperation aimed at safeguarding nuclear materials. Today, experts argue that the recent decision of Russian president Vladimir Putin to cut cooperative efforts to secure nuclear materials are placing in peril the future of international efforts to promote global nuclear security. We argue that in addition to the clear erosion of the third pillar of nuclear security, there are more threatening ramifications resulting from the recent actions of Russia in Ukraine. The aggressive actions of Russia in Ukraine, together with the unwillingness of the international community to exert sufficient pressure on Russia to honor the promises made to Ukraine in exchange for giving up nuclear weapons in 1990s (the Budapest Memorandum are detrimental to non-proliferation objectives and reach far beyond the geographic boundaries of the current conflict. In addition, they may disrupt both further nuclear disarmament and stimulate proliferation of nuclear weapons. To the government of any country who has resisted the push toward nuclearization based on trust placed in international agreements, the inactions and/or inability of the international community to resist or reverse Russia’s illegal actions must cause great concern. If binding diplomatic agreements are seen to only bind one party – the weaker party – that party will understandably be very hesitant to place full faith in any diplomatic document short of a binding treaty that has clear and required enforcement mechanisms. This is especially true when the stakes are a country’s national security and ultimately its sovereignty. If any one of these nations moved toward nuclear status, the atomic dominos would surely begin to tumble, and the delicate nuclear equilibrium that defines the global nuclear security

  15. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report



    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  16. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs


    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.


    Tom COPPEN


    Full Text Available Much has been written about perceived weaknesses of the NPT and the challenges it has been facing over the last decades. Analysing the most important provisions of the NPT, this article demonstrates how the treaty has managed to maintain its central role in the non-proliferation regime since its conclusion, and how it retains enough flexibility within its review mechanism and its managerial approach to supervision to keep this position for the decades to come. The theoretical framework of the article is formed by theory of arms control law, relevant features of which are: a large influence of politics and national interests of states on the rule of law; its flexible yet treaty-based nature; and the distinctive role of supervision in order to ensure compliance with primary rules. The article analyses key NPT provisions. Based on Article VIII, the NPT Review Conferences have both an important political and legal function. They are the NPT’s mechanism for review, implementation and supervision; in legal terms, they enable the evolution of the NPT based on subsequent agreement and practice. The NPT articles on non-proliferation and disarmament illustrate how the NPT has evolved to close off loopholes (Articles I and II and retains its flexibility whilst providing a global platform for negotiations on nuclear disarmament (Article VI. Article III evolved and must be understood to oblige NPT states to sign an Additional Protocol (AP with the IAEA. Article IV sets the parameters for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, but leaves room for negotiation and conflict. The supervision of the NPT, illustrated by the case of Iran, is a complicated process involving international organisations such as the IAEA and the UNSC; while these may play important roles, however, the enforcement of the NPT is ultimately left to the NPT states themselves.

  18. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    DiFilippo, Anthony


    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  19. Single Step to Orbit; a First Step in a Cooperative Space Exploration Initiative

    Lusignan, Bruce; Sivalingam, Shivan


    At the end of the Cold War, disarmament planners included a recommendation to ease reduction of the U.S. and Russian aerospace industries by creating cooperative scientific pursuits. The idea was not new, having earlier been suggested by Eisenhower and Khrushchev to reduce the pressure of the "Military Industrial Complex" by undertaking joint space exploration. The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) proposed at the end of the Cold War by President Bush and Premier Gorbachev was another attempt to ease the disarmament process by giving the bloated war industries something better to do. The engineering talent and the space rockets could be used for peaceful pursuits, notably for going back to the Moon and then on to Mars with human exploration and settlement. At the beginning of this process in 1992 staff of the Stanford Center for International Cooperation in Space attended the International Space University in Canada, met with Russian participants and invited a Russian team to work with us on a joint Stanford-Russian Mars Exploration Study. A CIA student and Airforce and Navy students just happened to join the Stanford course the next year and all students were aware that the leader of the four Russian engineers was well versed in Russian security. But, as long as they did their homework, they were welcome to participate with other students in defining the Mars mission and the three engineers they sent were excellent. At the end of this study we were invited to give a briefing to Dr. Edward Teller at Stanford's Hoover Institution of War and Peace. We were also encouraged to hold a press conference on Capitol Hill to introduce the study to the world. At a pre-conference briefing at the Space Council, we were asked to please remind the press that President Bush had asked for a cooperative exploration proposal not a U.S. alone initiative. The Stanford-Russian study used Russia's Energia launchers, priced at $300 Million each. The mission totaled out to $71.5 Billion


    BENEA Ciprian-Beniamin


    technology with strongest religious sentiment than we can face a terrifying drama. A nuclear nuke in the hands of a terrorist organization is the worst nightmare mankind could face. Countries with nuclear arms (Russian Federation and Pakistan were courted by dangerous organizations, which searched to gain access to fissile material. But there is a hope, and the paper presents it in an indirect manner: if public conscience activates in direction of nuclear disarmament, nuclear could become the hope for a better future. Nuclear disarmament would mean a safer world, while peaceful nuclear expansion will mean cleaner energy and greater access to electricity in more areas, all of them creating a better world and a civilization proud of its name.

  1. 宏观噪声方法在铀部件分析中的应用研究%Research on Uranium Components Analysis Based on Macro-noise Analysis Method

    谢军华; 刘知贵; 张活力; 任立学


    Depth Nuclear Disarmament relates to identification and discrimination of Nuclear War Head. The key of Depth Nuclear Disarmament is identification and discrimination of Nuclear Components of Nuclear War Head, and Nuclear Components of Nuclear War Head are mainly Plutonium components and Uranium components. So analysis of Uranium components attributes is one of the important contents of arms control verification. By analyzing fission reaction of active induced uranium components, we acquired its fission laws. According the laws, computer simulation was used to actively induce the random pulse counting signal of uranium components. Using macro-noise analysis method to deal with random pulse counting signal, we obtained auto-correlation function, cross-correlation function, auto power spectral densities, cross power spectral densities and multiplicity, and features functions of simulation data. Thus the methodology to the characteristics of fission time correlation signal of active induced uranium components was established with macro-noise analysis.%深度核裁军涉及到核弹头的认证和鉴别,关键是对核弹头中核部件的认证和鉴别,核弹头中的核部件主要是钚部件和铀部件,那么,对铀部件属性的分析是军控核查技术的重要内容之一.通过分析主动诱发铀部件的裂变反应过程,得到裂变规律,据此,采用计算机仿真主动诱发铀部件的随机脉冲计数信号.使用宏观噪声分析方法处理随机脉冲计数信号,得到仿真数据的自相关函数与互相关函数、功率谱密度与互谱密度及多重性等特征数据,并建立了主动诱发铀部件裂变时间关联信号特性的宏观噪声分析方法,为认证提供了依据.

  2. Experiencias históricas recientes de reintegración de excombatientes en Colombia

    Álvaro Villarraga


    Full Text Available In the absence of a comprehensive peace agreement that enables the end of Colombia's armed conflict, there have been peace agreements with several guerrillas' organizations such as the M19, the EPL and others. Despite this, hostilities persist other guerrillas (FARC and ELN. At the same time, there was an agreement with paramilitary groups to achieve their deactivation. As a result, in the last decades there have been disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR experiences that have notorious differences according to the nature of the different armed groups, the processes carried out with each of them and their circumstances. However, the reintegration process is very similar for all participants in terms of the services offer by the institution in charged of the reintegration phase. The main difference of these DDR processes is related to the collective political aspiration hoped for by the insurgent forces following their insertion as a civilian group within legality. Simultaneously, the individual desertion and reintegration process comes up as a different case due to its application outside of a peace process frame. This individual dynamic cannot be seen as a demobilization process as the recent governments have assumed it.

  3. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.


    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  4. A Staged Reading of the Play: Reykjavik


    Reykjavik is the capital of Iceland, an island country located about 500 miles northwest of Scotland in the North Atlantic. In 1986 Mikhail Gorbachev, the Chairman of the Politburo of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party, invited Ronald Reagan, the President of the United States, to meet with him. The play Reykjavik is a dramatic reconstruction of the two-day summit meeting during which the world leaders almost reached agreement on the total abolition of their countries' nuclear weapons. The play uses the actual transcripts of the Reykjavik meeting as well as the memoirs of both Reagan and Gorbachev. Join us for a dramatic staged reading of Reykjavik and find out how close the two superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States, came to eliminating their nuclear weapons. He playwright is Richard Rhodes, the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of 24 books. He has written his first play, and it spins off of his research into the history of nuclear weapons. The staged reading is performed by the Washington based Tonic Theater Company:[]. After the performance, the play director and actors as well as experts on nuclear disarmament will be available for a talk-back discussion of the play with the audience. Produced by Brian Schwartz, Brooklyn College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York and Gregory Mack of the APS Washington office.

  5. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai


    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  6. Report of a workshop on nuclear forces and nonproliferation Woodrow Wilson international center for scholars, Washington, DC October 28, 2010

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    A workshop sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was held at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, on October 28, 2010. The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review and the 2010 NPT Review Conference. The discussions reflected the importance of the NPR for defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21st century threats and providing guidance for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs and, for many but not all participants, highlighted its role in the successful outcome of the NPT RevCon. There was widespread support for the NPR and its role in developing the foundations for a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. However, some participants raised concerns about its implementation and its long-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  7. The Arms Trade Treaty Opens New Possibilities at the UN

    John Scales Avery


    Full Text Available On 2 April, 2013, the Arms Trade Treaty, which had been blocked for ten years in the consensus-bound Conference on Disarmament in Geneva, was put directly before the United Nations General Assembly, and was passed by a massive majority. This historic victory opens new possibilities for progress on other seemingly intractable issues. In particular, it gives hope that a Nuclear Weapons Convention might be adopted by a direct vote on the floor of the General Assembly. The adoption of the NWC, even if achieved against the bitter opposition of the nuclear weapon states, would make it clear that the world’s peoples consider the threat of an all-destroying thermonuclear war to be completely unacceptable.Other precedents can be found in the International Criminal Court and the Ottawa Land Mine Treaty, both of which were adopted despite the vehement opposition of militarily powerful states. The Arms Trade Treaty, the ICC and the Land Mine Treaty all represent great steps forward. Although they may function imperfectly because of powerful opposition, they make the question of legality clear. In time, world public opinion will force aggressor states to follow international law.

  8. Interim Stabilisation in Fragile Security Situations

    Nat J. Colletta


    Full Text Available For more than two decades a conventional approach to security promotion has been widely applied by multilateral and bilateral agencies during war-to-peace transitions. Advocates of this approach typically recommend a combination of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR and security sector reform (SSR to consolidate peace-making and peace-building processes (Colletta et al 2009, Muggah 2006. Notwithstanding the broad acceptance of such activities – and the theory that underlies them – there is little evidence that such interventions have contributed to any enduring solution to conflict and fragility (Muggah 2009. Indeed, analysts have come to recognise that the political, economic and social pre-conditions for DDR and SSR – including a relatively functional government, a reasonably stable labour market and a minimum level of social trust – are seldom in place. Even when these ambitious pre-requisites have been achieved, it is not clear that they are sufficient for DDR and SSR to take hold. Nevertheless, these orthodoxies persist in security promotion policy and practice.

  9. A conceptual framework for verifying the multinational Chemical Weapons Convention

    Apt, K.E.


    The United States has for several years sought an effective, global ban on the production, possession, and use of chemical weapons (CW). In 1984, then-Vice President Bush submitted to the ongoing Conference on Disarmament in Geneva a draft comprehensive Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); since then, he has supported the multinational process for CWC implementation. Given the high visibility of a CW treaty, policy makers face some major questions. Is such a treaty more valuable to national security than a chemical deterrent capability How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered How useful will the treaty be if key nations or geographical regions are not covered What constitutes an effective CWC verification regime, and can the objectives of this regime be achieved How would signatories respond to noncompliance by other signatories The answers to such questions will be important in determining the level of support, both nationally and internationally, for the multinational CWC. In addressing the issue of effective verification, it is important to consider how the CWC objectives devolve into general requirements for the verification regime. Translating these requirements into specific monitoring and inspection activities helps in understanding the extent and limitations of effective CWC verification. 4 refs.

  10. Russia's nuclear weapons dilemma: A cooperative approach to international security in the 1990s. Master's thesis

    Wuchte, T.A.


    Although the threat of an East/West confrontation has diminished, additional concerns have been raised by new and unforeseen dangers to European and global security. Both the Russian Federation and the West want to mitigate the potential dangers arising from rapidly disintegrating control of a nuclear arsenal scattered throughout the former Soviet republics. These concerns have sparked a wide range of Western responses, most notably the U.S. decision to assist Russia with the construction of a nuclear weapons storage facility near the Siberian city of Tomsk 7. By assessing the threat of nuclear proliferation and the United State's interaction with the Russian Federation in resolving this nuclear dilemma, one can gain some measure of confidence about Moscow's reliability as a partner in nuclear arms control, disarmament, and in staunching proliferation. This paper concludes by comparing the emergent framework of international cooperation between Russia and the United States to the traditional Realpolitik balance of power policies that characterized the Cold War. The conclusion notes that the international community has started to adopt a more global view toward problem solving, but that obstacles still exist that can either slow such progress or cause a return to more traditional attitudes as seen during the Cold War. Because of this uncertainty, we must continue to press forward with new ideas and discard Cold War prejudices.

  11. From the nuclear stalemate to a nuclear-weapon free world. In memory of Klaus Fuchs; Vom atomaren Patt zu einer von Atomwaffen freien Welt. Zum Gedenken an Klaus Fuchs

    Flach, Guenter; Fuchs-Kittowski, Klaus (eds.)


    The following topics were dealt with: The first soviet atomic bomb and Klaus Fuchs, in illusory worlds of Andrei Sakharov, Edward Teller, and Klaus Fuchs, Klaus Fuchs as grandfather of the hydrogen bomb, memories of and thinking about Klaus Fuchs, the Scottish years of Klaus Fuchs 1937-1941, Klaus Fuchs in the mirror of the Venona documents, Gernot Zippe and the ultracentrifuge or east-west technology transfer in the cold war, secret impulses for the soviet nuclear project, responsibility of knowledge with anti-facism, philosophy, and science as well as peace as the first human right in the work of Klaus Fuchs, the request of Klaus Fuchs for a lasting peace, Klaus Fuchs in Daniel Granin's roman ''Escape to Russia'', ways to a nuclear-weapon free world, Otto Hahn and the declarations of Mainau and Goettingen, nuclear winter, initiatives of the GDR for the prohibition of weapons of mass destruction, nuclear weapons in negative entropy, militarism and antimilitarism of the nuclear age, contributions of the young Klaus Fuchs to statistical physics, nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the responsibility of the scientists for a socially effective and efficient energy change, Berlin-Bucher contributions to a world free of biological weapons. (HSI)

  12. King in a maverick style.

    Abbasi, K


    This article features Maurice King, who is advocating a one-child world. King was born in 1927 in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and studied at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and St. Thomas Hospital, London. He first worked as a pathologist, moving to Africa in 1956. He was always willing to fight injustice, objecting to not being allowed to train black Africans. He authored ¿Medical Care in Developing Countries,¿ considered the ¿Bible¿ of the primary health care movement. By 1985, he was teaching public health medicine at Leeds University, having spent most of his time in Africa working on various projects for the WHO, and was focusing on primary health care. His other great cause then was nuclear disarmament. His lecture to the Royal Society of Medicine on health of Africa in 1988 ignited his interest in demography. He had then championed ideas, which initially provoked outrage, such as the case with ¿entrapment,¿ the hardinian taboo, and now his concept of the lockstep. He had claimed that the US State Department, together with UN, the World Bank and the Roman Catholic Church, is actively preventing population issues being discussed fully. He may appear on the surface as obsessed with imposing a one-child world and paranoid about the role of the US; but a closer analysis reveals a deep affection for Africa and a missionary zeal to surmount the problems of overpopulation.

  13. A treaty on the cutoff of fissile material for nuclear weapons - What to cover? How to verify?

    Schaper, A. [Peace Research Inst., Frankfurt (Germany)


    Since 1946, a cutoff has been proposed. In 1993, the topic was placed on the agenda of the CD. The establishment of an Ad Hoc Committee in the CD with a mandate to negotiate a fissile material cutoff treaty struggled with difficulties for more than a year. The central dispute was whether the mandate should refer to existing un-safeguarded stockpiles. The underlying conflict of the CTBT negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation The same conflict is now blocking progress with FMCT negotiations in the CD. At the center of technical proliferation concerns is direct use material that can be used for nuclear warheads without any further enrichment or reprocessing. Those materials are plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU). A broader category of materials is defined as all those containing any fissile isotopes, called special fissionable materials. In order ta verify that no direct use materials are abused for military purposes, also special fissionable materials must be controlled. An even broader category is simply called nuclear materials. Pu and HEU can be distinguished into the following categories of utilisation: 1. military direct use material in operational nuclear weapons and their logistics pipeline, 2. military direct use material held in reserve for military purposes, in assembled weapons or in other forms, 3. military direct use material withdrawn from dismantled weapons, 4. military direct use material considered excess and designated for transfer into civilian use, 5. military direct use material considered excess and declared for transfer into civilian use, 6. direct use material currently in reactors or their logistics pipelines and storages, and 7. irradiated Pu and HEU in spent fuel from reactors, or in vitrified form for final disposal. Large quantities of materials are neither inside weapons nor declared excess. So far, there are no legal obligations for NWS for limitations, declarations, or

  14. 临城劫车案中的民国政象及国民党的政治诉求——基于《民国日报》对临案报道的考察口徐基中%The Political Situation and the Kuomintang's Political Appeals in the Case of Lincheng Car Hijacking:A Case Study on The Republic of China Daily's Reports



    The case of Lingcheng Car Hijacking was well-known in the history of the Republic of China. There was a large amount of coverage on this case on the Kuomintang's paper The Republic of China Daily, including a great number of editorials and news comments. Concerning the political situation of the time, it shows that the appeal of the Daily focused on disarmament and union. However, this appeal was impossibly achieved eventually as constraint of social and historical context and relying on wrong path and power.%临城劫车案是民国史上轰动一时的大案,国民党党报《民国日报》对此做了大量报道,并撰发了相当数量的言论(社论)和时评。结合当时的民国政象,可以看出,《民国日报》在临案中所表达出的是国民党这样一种政治诉求:裁兵与统一。但是,由于当时的社会历史环境所限,以及依赖了错误的路径和力量,这一政治诉求最终是无法实现的。

  15. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    Anthony L. Crawford


    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  16. Concepts of peace education: A view of western experience

    Burns, Robin; Aspeslagh, Robert


    Approaches to the theory and practice of peace education are as varied as the situations across the world in which it is undertaken. Against a framework established by the Peace Education Commission of IPRA, current trends in the conceptualization and experience of peace education (from a Western view-point) are considered and reveal (1) acceptance of `development' with `justice' and `human rights' as integral to the concept of peace; (2) emphasis on the psychological as well as socio-political, economic and structural conditions that maintain present injustices and oppressions; (3) renewed efforts to try out innovative educational approaches to a variety of learning situations, from the pre-school to adult formal and non-formal settings; (4) new concern about the materials, content and techniques of learning; and (5) fresh examination of the inter-relationships between theory and practice, research and action. Analyzing a number of conceptual approaches to peace and disarmament education, the authors support a political, participatory strategy and set it in a historical context. Hence, its connection with development education and the significance and implications of a global perspective are demonstrated. The global perspective is seen as a growing-point for peace education today, providing the potential for political consciousness and action.

  17. Control and Regulation of Private Security Providers in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Comparative Analysis

    Francesca Caonero


    Full Text Available States and different international players have drafted legal frameworks to adequately regulate the phenomenon of privatization of security. Among these initiatives is the Project for a Possible Convention on Private Military and Security Companies, prepared with guidance from the United Nations Human Rights Council. The objective of this proposed convention is to provide a universal framework to regulate these companies.The United Nations Regional Center for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has studied this Proposed Convention and contrasted it with existing national regulations. The objective of this study is to identify whether and how States already comply with some of the provisions contained in this proposal.Based on the study of national private security law, UNLIREC has contrasted it with the Convention Proposal identifying the different items in this document that are referred to in the different national regulations from various countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.As a result of this legal contrast, it can be observed that laws in some States in the region include significant legal aspects put forth in the Proposed Convention, such as licenses, registry and training. Other States go beyond that, stipulating specific regulations that can be noted. Others, on the contrary, lack any provisions regarding control and regulation of private security providers.DOI:

  18. The nuclear threat; La menace nucleaire

    Tertrais, Bruno


    For a long time, a small group of big powers has been the only holder of nuclear weapons (US, USSR, Great Britain, France and China). Since then, new weapons have come out on the geopolitical scene: Israel, India, Pakistan, and some others remain uncertain and generate a worrying atmosphere (North Korea, Iran..). But what is the real risk with nuclear proliferation? Should we dread about it? Is nuclear terrorism a real threat? What are the political stakes of nuclear weapons? Is disarmament a real solution? These are some of the questions that the author answers in a precise and clear manner in this book. Contents: 1 - from monopoly to proliferation: who owns nuclear weapons today, why is it so coveted, is it easy to make one?; 2 - the newcomers: what do we really know about the Iranian nuclear programme, Iran and North Korea: between negotiation and confrontation; 3 - international control and regulation: do we have reliable information, how do we know what we know, Iraq: was there a 'lie' somewhere, who are the states who have renounced nuclear weapons?; 4 - the future: is there still a nuclear warfare risk, what if Pakistani weapons fall into islamic hands, is nuclear terrorism a fantasy or a real risk?

  19. ω-Hydroxyemodin Limits Staphylococcus aureus Quorum Sensing-Mediated Pathogenesis and Inflammation

    Daly, Seth M.; Elmore, Bradley O.; Kavanaugh, Jeffrey S.; Triplett, Kathleen D.; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A.; El-Elimat, Tamam; Crosby, Heidi A.; Femling, Jon K.; Cech, Nadja B.; Horswill, Alexander R.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.


    Antibiotic-resistant pathogens are a global health threat. Small molecules that inhibit bacterial virulence have been suggested as alternatives or adjuncts to conventional antibiotics, as they may limit pathogenesis and increase bacterial susceptibility to host killing. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of invasive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) in both the hospital and community settings, and it is also becoming increasingly antibiotic resistant. Quorum sensing (QS) mediated by the accessory gene regulator (agr) controls virulence factor production essential for causing SSTIs. We recently identified ω-hydroxyemodin (OHM), a polyhydroxyanthraquinone isolated from solid-phase cultures of Penicillium restrictum, as a suppressor of QS and a compound sought for the further characterization of the mechanism of action. At concentrations that are nontoxic to eukaryotic cells and subinhibitory to bacterial growth, OHM prevented agr signaling by all four S. aureus agr alleles. OHM inhibited QS by direct binding to AgrA, the response regulator encoded by the agr operon, preventing the interaction of AgrA with the agr P2 promoter. Importantly, OHM was efficacious in a mouse model of S. aureus SSTI. Decreased dermonecrosis with OHM treatment was associated with enhanced bacterial clearance and reductions in inflammatory cytokine transcription and expression at the site of infection. Furthermore, OHM treatment enhanced the immune cell killing of S. aureus in vitro in an agr-dependent manner. These data suggest that bacterial disarmament through the suppression of S. aureus QS may bolster the host innate immune response and limit inflammation. PMID:25645827

  20. Consultation and cooperation in NATO: nuclear planning, 1975-1987

    Chernoff, F.B.


    This study looks at three types of explanation of international cooperation, which deal in different ways with communication and consultation. Themost-general theoretical explanation contrasts recent realist theories, like those of Waltz and Gilpin, with Keohane's functional theory of regimes. Secondly, the study looks at theories of information flow and processing (an element of consultation) within the alliance, like those of Deutsch and Steinbruner. Such theories explain governmental behavior using concepts like equilibrium of systems and feedback loop. Third, the study considers hypotheses that deal specifically with NATO and military alliances. The hypotheses relate alliance consultation processes to the cooperativeness of the cases' outcomes. Evidence is drawn from case studies of NATO decision-making. The cases include politically sensitive deployment issues, like the enhanced radiation warhead controversy in 1977-78 and the intermediate-range nuclear force deployment decision in 1979, and important, but less politically volatile arms-control decisions, including the 1975 option three proposal, the French plan for a conference on disarmament in Europe, approved in 1980, and the 1987 American zero-zero proposal on short- and intermediate-range nuclear forces in Europe.

  1. Female peacemakers in republican cultures during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries | Republicanas en pie de paz: la sustitución de las armas por la justicia, el arbitraje y el derecho (1868-1899

    María Dolores Ramos


    Full Text Available This article examines the discourse and mobilization in favour of peace by republican women during the second half of the nineteenth century. Its protagonists established an associative movement and employed combative tactics rooted in civil society; they rebelled against the drafts, refused to condone the war, and called for disarmament and different means of arbitration, incidentally helping to reformulate the concept of social citizenship within the sphere of left-wing political culture. | En el artículo se abordan los discursos y movilizaciones por la paz de las mujeres republicanas durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. Sus protagonistas construyeron un movimiento asociativo y unas tácticas de lucha enraizadas en la sociedad civil, se rebelaron contra las quintas, negaron autoridad moral a la guerra y reclamaron a los gobiernos el desarme y diferentes prácticas de arbitraje, contribuyendo de paso a reformular el concepto de ciudadanía social en el ámbito de las culturas políticas de izquierdas.

  2. History of Nuclear India

    Chaturvedi, Ram


    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  3. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  4. CMC Participation in the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) Workshop: Defense, Technology and Cooperative Security in South Asia

    Biringer, K.L.; Olsen, J.


    As an ongoing part of the collaborative efforts between the Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) at Sandia National Laboratories, the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), staff from the CMC served as faculty in conducting a workshop in Shanghai, China. Sponsor of the workshop was the Regional Centre for Strategic Studies (RCSS) based in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The workshop included participants from throughout South Asia and China. The CMC presented four sessions related to the role of monitoring technologies in promoting regional security and building confidence among nations. Participation in these workshops supports U.S. efforts to further regional cooperation and promote arms control, nonproliferation and other cooperative securily measures and supplements efforts funded by DOE and ACDA over the past four years. The RCSS Shanghai meeting permitted a continued CMC involvement in regionally conducted training for anew generation of leaders in government, the military, and academia throughout South Asia and China. Nuclear issues are clearly a dominant South Asian concern since the nuclear tests of May 1998. However, there remains a strong interest in identifying opportunities for increased trade and reduced tensions in other areas. The RCSS and other regional organizations are enthusiastic about continued CMC involvement in future regional courses.

  5. Proliferation of weapons and armed violence in the private security sector in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and opportunities for taking action

    Rémi Bacouillard


    Full Text Available The United Nations Regional Centre for Peace, Disarmament and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean (UNLIREC has been monitoring various media in 19 countries and has documented more than 100 newspaper articles on cases of armed violence and the proliferation offirearms in the private security sector. The objective of this investigation is to analyze reported cases and systematize a typology regarding such cases, in order to prove the existence of problems in the private security sector which is a source and a victim of insecurity. This study reveals the frequency with which these cases occur, as well as the fact that they occur in different countries of the region, demonstrating that the cases being studied are not isolated cases and that they encourage the States and companies within the sector to address this disturbing reality.Finally, this article presents a series of initiatives that can be implemented by competent national authorities on the subject, as well as by the companies within the sector, to face the challenges posed by the handling, ownership and use of firearms with the privatization of the security sectorin the region.DOI:

  6. State-of-the-art in biosafety and biosecurity in European countries.

    Bielecka, Anna; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar


    The terms biosafety and biosecurity are widely used in different concepts and refer not only to protection of human beings and their surrounding environment against hazardous biological agent, but also to global disarmament of weapons of mass destruction. As a result, the biosafety and biosecurity issues should be considered interdisciplinary based on multilateral agreements against proliferation of biological weapons, public health and environmental protection. This publication presents information on both, international and national biosafety and biosecurity legislation. Status of national implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, penalization issues and measures to account for and secure production, use, storage of particularly dangerous pathogens or activities involving humans, plants and animals where infection may pose a risk have been analyzed. Safety and security measures in laboratories have been studied. Moreover, dual-use technology and measures of secure transport of biohazard materials have been also taken into account. In addition, genetic engineering regulations, biosecurity activities in laboratories and code of conducts have been investigated, as well.

  7. Football and post-war reintegration: exploring the role of sport in DDR processes in Sierra Leone.

    Dyck, Christopher B


    Growing enthusiasm for 'Sport for development and peace' (SDP) projects around the world has created a much greater interest among critical scholars seeking to interrogate potential gains, extant limitations and challenges of using sport to advance 'development' and 'peace' in Africa. Despite this interest, the role of sport in post-conflict peace building remains poorly understood. Since peace building, as a field of study, lends itself to practical approaches that seek to address underlying sources of violent conflict, it is surprising that it has neglected to take an interest in sport, especially its grassroots models. In Africa, football (soccer) in particular has a strong appeal because of its popularity and ability to mobilise individuals and communities. Through a case study on Sierra Leone, this paper focuses on sports in a particularly prominent post-civil war UN intervention—the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) process—to determine how ex-youth combatants, camp administrators and caregivers perceive the role and significance of sporting activities in interim care centres (ICCS) or DDR camps. It argues that sporting experiences in ddr processes are fruitful microcosms for understanding nuanced forms of violence and healing among youth combatants during their reintegration process.

  8. Change detection in satellite images

    Thonnessen, U.; Hofele, G.; Middelmann, W.


    Change detection plays an important role in different military areas as strategic reconnaissance, verification of armament and disarmament control and damage assessment. It is the process of identifying differences in the state of an object or phenomenon by observing it at different times. The availability of spaceborne reconnaissance systems with high spatial resolution, multi spectral capabilities, and short revisit times offer new perspectives for change detection. Before performing any kind of change detection it is necessary to separate changes of interest from changes caused by differences in data acquisition parameters. In these cases it is necessary to perform a pre-processing to correct the data or to normalize it. Image registration and, corresponding to this task, the ortho-rectification of the image data is a further prerequisite for change detection. If feasible, a 1-to-1 geometric correspondence should be aspired for. Change detection on an iconic level with a succeeding interpretation of the changes by the observer is often proposed; nevertheless an automatic knowledge-based analysis delivering the interpretation of the changes on a semantic level should be the aim of the future. We present first results of change detection on a structural level concerning urban areas. After pre-processing, the images are segmented in areas of interest and structural analysis is applied to these regions to extract descriptions of urban infrastructure like buildings, roads and tanks of refineries. These descriptions are matched to detect changes and similarities.

  9. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Lott, Alexander


    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  10. Beyond Gang Truces and Mano Dura Policies: Towards Substitutive Security Governance in Latin America

    Moritz Schuberth


    Full Text Available With responses to urban violence receiving increasing academic attention, the literature on anti-gang efforts in Latin America has focused mainly on coercive 'mano dura' policies and cooperative gang truces. Yet, there remains a paucity of studies going beyond such carrots-and-sticks approaches towards gangs. To fill this gap, this study investigates the possibilities and limitations of substitutive security governance across Latin America and the Caribbean. More specifically, this article looks at Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR programmes in Medellín, Armed Violence Reduction and Prevention (AVRP efforts in Haiti and Security Sector Reform (SSR in Guatemala and Rio de Janeiro. It will be argued that communities are driven to support gangs against the oppressive state when they are indiscriminately targeted through muscular operations. Likewise, engaging gangs in dialogue grants them legitimacy and further weakens the position of the state. Therefore, the only sustainable solution lies in substitutive security governance, which aims to replace the functions gangs fulfil for their members, sponsors, and the community in which they are nested with a modern and accountable state that is bound by the rule of law. Still, substitutive strategies vis-à-vis gangs have their own limitations, which can only be overcome by way of an integrated and coordinated framework.

  11. The Problem with Templates: Learning from Organic Gang-Related Violence Reduction

    Dennis Rodgers


    Full Text Available This article considers what demobilisation, disarmament, and reintegration (DDR programmes might learn from research on gangs and the problems associated with government-instituted ‘wars on gangs’ putatively aimed at reducing or fighting gang-related violence. It begins by considering interventions associated with the global war on gangs, and compares their underlying premises and practices with those of DDR programmes while highlighting how both are plagued with problems associated with drawing on de-contextualized templates. Drawing on long-term ethnographic research carried out in Nicaragua and South Africa, the article then goes on to explore why individuals leave gangs, focusing in particular on the more organic processes that deplete gangs of their members, as well as the consequences that the different possible occupational trajectories of ex-gang members can have for patterns of violence. These offer a number of potential lessons for DDR programmes, particularly with regard to reducing violence in a realistic and sustainable manner.

  12. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    Lott, Alexander


    Full Text Available The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in connection with sea-dumped chemical weapons and nuclear material under international law of the sea, international environmental law and disarmament law. Such mapping is important for considering options to tackle the pollution to the Arctic ecosystems and because there seems to be yet no such analysis across the legal fields carried out. This paper aims first at identifying the scale and approximate locations of sea-disposed nuclear waste and chemical weapons in the Arctic Ocean. The analysis will further focus on ascertaining the possibilities to minimize their adverse effects on the Arctic marine environment under the applicable legal framework. It will be argued in this manuscript that due to the corrosion of the chemical weapons and nuclear material containers, recovering, rather than confining this hazardous waste might be counterproductive as it might cause a sudden and widespread release of chemical agents or radionuclides when surfacing. In this regard, carrying out an environmental impact assessment prior to each such remediation operation would be necessary to determine the most suitable technique for minimizing or eliminating pollution.

  13. Kan die kernwapenwedloop deur kern-wapenbeheer beëindig word?

    A. W. van Tonder


    Full Text Available The slogans of the "walkers for peace " in the Uniled Slates of America anti in Western Europe (and also in South Africa against the proliferation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology as well as the growing probability of a nuclear war in the light of president Reagan's rearmament plan, arc born of the numerous failures of nuclear disarmament and arms control. The ever- increasing danger that goes along with nuclear proliferation in the sense of weapon production and the handling of radioactive waste urges us to look more seriously than ever at nuclear technology. The article deals with some of the efforts to control the proliferation process as well as efforts to limit or reduce nuclear arms. Some essential  factors that negatively influence the discussions are pointed out and finally it is concluded that because of the sin-induced brokenness of man’s heart, control over nuclear arms proliferation has just partial success. The abolition of weapon production and total disarm­ ament are ideals that will, in this era that precedes the second coming of Christ, not be fulfilled. Thus, the nuclear arms race will inevitably continue.

  14. "Educating for peace from a society without peace" conditions to build it

    Mtro.Juan Romero Morones


    Full Text Available Educating for peace from a society without peace is a proposal based in four conditions. The first condition relates to the human beings´ welfare situation, condition violated by poverty and misery in the world, so long these conditions exist it will be impossible to establish peace. Beyond the practice of living well, it has been proposed “a well living”, based on beings´ equality, no matter if they are human or not, all this in order to find a prosperous life for everyone.The second condition to establish peace refers to respect and concern for living human rights in all areas. The third condition is to promote and ”ead” (educating society into a democratic life, it means that by via policy, peace can be achieved. The fourth condition is the disarmament, this means that guns and bullets don´t govern the people´s fate as has happened so far. Only in the extent that everybody gets involved in an educational process to live these four conditions it will be possible a living peace approach.

  15. 核武迷思

    罗恩·罗森伯姆; 威译引(翻译)


    2063年8月8日。核裁军决议日(Nucler Disarmament Decision Day)。当我们以这个视角回顾过去.2024年的第一场“小型”核战争的起因依旧无从得知。不过町以确定的是,它一旦发生,一切就改变了。幸存者们发现。核战争不再只是个传说,核灭绝也许会在不久的将来成为可能。真相逐渐显露出来:警告可能无效。事故可能发生。恐怖分子可能会偷走导弹弹头。来源不明的炸弹可能无端爆炸,

  16. The Principle of Integration in International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL with Reference to the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC

    Marina Abdul Majid


    Full Text Available The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC does not explicitly refer to sustainable development despite the fact that other United Nations (UN disarmament documents prescribe that international environmental law principles and sustainable development be considered among arms control agreements. This study’s objective is to utilize the principle of integration’s three components of environmental, economic, and social development, as found in the International Sustainable Development Law (ISDL from the New Delhi Declaration (Delhi Declaration of Principles of International Law Relating to Sustainable Development, in order to evaluate whether the BWC contains such components; thereby, making it possible for the BWC to contribute to sustainable development. The methodology of this study is necessarily qualitative, given that it is a socio-legal research that relies on international agreements such as the BWC, declarations, resolutions, plans of implementation, other non-binding documents of the UN, and secondary resources—all of which are analyzed through a document analysis. The results show that the BWC addresses the environment (Article II, prohibits transfers relating to export controls, international trade, and economic development (Article III, while at the same time, covering social development concerns, health, and diseases that make up the international social law (Article X. Since the BWC is found to be capable of contributing to sustainable development, it is concluded that ISDL cannot be restricted to international environmental, economic, and social law, but should be expanded to include international arms control law.

  17. Brazilian foreign affairs: social capital and the democratic discourse in South America

    Rafael Duarte Villa


    Full Text Available Brazilian elites as well as foreign policy-makers have long shared a common belief that the ideas of democracy and democratization should serve as some "road map" to foreign policy-making. In areas such as security, regional integration, and disarmament, the goal has been to generate a positive social capital as well as to build trusting relations with Brazilian neighbors in South America. Therefore, under the impact of ideas brought about by new world visions, Brazilian foreign policy has changed a domestic policy feature - the democratic rearrangement of the political system - into a condition and resource for foreign policy-making towards South America. The result has been a fine improvement of Brazilian image and credibility in the regional South American scenario. In other words, there has been a significant increment in "trust" towards Brazil. This argument has been developed based on extracts and transcripts from official diplomatic speeches from Brazilian foreign policy-makers as well as a historical reconstruction of Brazil's diplomatic relations with two South American countries. Our study was based on two cases: Brazilian-Venezuelan and Brazilian-Argentine relations in the 80's and the 90's.

  18. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs.

    Pitschmann, Vladimír; Hon, Zdeněk


    Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots); it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  19. Integration and Power-Sharing: What are the Future Options for Armed Non-State Actors in the Myanmar Peace Process?

    Helene Maria Kyed


    Full Text Available Myanmar is confronted with a contested peace process after over six decades of armed conflict between the national army and around 20 ethnic Armed Non-State Actors (ANSAs in the country’s resource rich borderlands. Although a Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement (NCA was signed by eight ANSAs in October 2015, other groups have not, and fighting continues in some areas. A key controversy is insecurity about the future political and economic positions of the ANSAs, along with mistrust in the army’s commitment to peace. In this article we discuss five re-integration options for ANSA members, including not only economic integration, but also integration into political parties, local government, civil society organisations and the security sector. We argue that conventional DDR programming is unrealistic in Myanmar, because the ANSAs are strongly opposed to any disarmament and demobilization before a far reaching political settlement towards federalism is reached. This calls for a more flexible sequencing of DDR that begins with reintegration options or what has been called RDD. In addition, reintegration efforts should not only be technical exercises, but be firmly embedded in disaggregated power-sharing guarantees, including for lower- and middle-ranking ANSA members at the local level. This will not only support more sustainable peace, but also help build more trust in the peace process. We conclude the article by considering the role of the international community.

  20. Triangulation, Emotional Reactivity, and Violence in the Niger Delta

    Benjamin Aigbe Okonofua


    Full Text Available The Niger Delta conflict, for many years, was blamed on myriad forces, including greed, economic exploitation, pollution and ecological damage, resource appropriation and distribution disputes, ethno-religious antagonisms, poverty, unemployment, large-scale infrastructural deficits, corruption, militarization of oil producing communities and election processes, sociopolitical marginalization, cultism, and weapons proliferation. While all of these issues are important, they are not nearly as important as the deliberate roles played by high-level social, economic, and political interests who activated violence as a means to secure economic advantage from the delta’s oil industry. This study shines the light on this small, exclusive, and very powerful group whose actions triggered off the violence and yet are at the center of efforts to institute peace including the current disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program. I argue that unless the contributions of these powerful interests are carefully teased out and the structures they have built to advantage themselves from the conflict are dismantled, peace will remain elusive in the Niger Delta.

  1. The UN panel of governmental experts on small arms: a Canadian perspective on their report

    DeClerq, D.G. [Non-Proliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament Consultant, Kars, Ontario (Canada)


    After the end of the Cold War, the United Nations, some individual governments, non-govermental research organizations and academia began to focus increased attention on light weapons as an arms control proliferation issue particularly within the context of intrastate warfare and destabilizing criminal activities. In 1995 the Secretary-General to the Security Council in a report entitled, An Agenda for Peace stressed the need for 'practical disarmament in the context of the conflicts that the UN is actually dealing with and of the weapons most of them light weapons, that are actually killing people in the hundreds of thousands. Light weapons and small arms have been the subject of some 12 UN resolutions and documents among them, UN Resolution 49175M which addressed illicit arms trafficking and Annex I of UN Document A151142 which provided 'Guidelines for International Arms Transfers.' Within a different context, the UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Vienna recently made recommendations on the impact of small arms, primarily within the framework of criminal activities, accidents and suicides, illicit firearms trafficking, and domestic, regional and interregional firearms regulations. On 12 December 1995, Japan introduced Resolution 50/01/70 B which was the first attempt by the UN to clearly address small arms and light weapons as an arms control issue. (author)

  2. Climate change, conflict and health.

    Bowles, Devin C; Butler, Colin D; Morisetti, Neil


    Future climate change is predicted to diminish essential natural resource availability in many regions and perhaps globally. The resulting scarcity of water, food and livelihoods could lead to increasingly desperate populations that challenge governments, enhancing the risk of intra- and interstate conflict. Defence establishments and some political scientists view climate change as a potential threat to peace. While the medical literature increasingly recognises climate change as a fundamental health risk, the dimension of climate change-associated conflict has so far received little attention, despite its profound health implications. Many analysts link climate change with a heightened risk of conflict via causal pathways which involve diminishing or changing resource availability. Plausible consequences include: increased frequency of civil conflict in developing countries; terrorism, asymmetric warfare, state failure; and major regional conflicts. The medical understanding of these threats is inadequate, given the scale of health implications. The medical and public health communities have often been reluctant to interpret conflict as a health issue. However, at times, medical workers have proven powerful and effective peace advocates, most notably with regard to nuclear disarmament. The public is more motivated to mitigate climate change when it is framed as a health issue. Improved medical understanding of the association between climate change and conflict could strengthen mitigation efforts and increase cooperation to cope with the climate change that is now inevitable. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  3. G8 global partnership. 2004-2005-2006 activity report; Partenariat mondial du G8. Rapport d'activite 2004-2005-2006



    The Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction was launched by the heads of state and government of the G8 at the G8 summit in Kananaskis in June 2002. Fourteen other countries have since joined this G8 initiative. The aim of this partnership is to 'prevent terrorists, or those who harbor them, from acquiring or developing nuclear, chemical radiological and biological weapons, missiles, and related materials, equipment and technology'. Within the framework of the Partnership, the participants have agreed to support cooperation projects, starting with Russia, to promote non-proliferation, disarmament, the fight against terrorism and nuclear safety. The destruction of chemical weapons, the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposal of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists are among the priority concerns expressed. Ukraine has also been a beneficiary of this partnership since 2004. The participants in this initiative have agreed to contribute up to 20 billion dollars (up to 750 million euros from France) to support these projects over a period of ten years from 2002. A group of experts from the G8 on the Global Partnership (the GPWG = Global Partnership Working Group) meets regularly and gives an account of the progress made with this initiative in its annual report to the G8. These annual reports are published at the G8 summits. This document is the 2004 to 2006 activity report of the G8 global partnership.

  4. Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors.

    Murray, Joseph; Cerqueira, Daniel Ricardo de Castro; Kahn, Tulio


    Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years. Since 1990, the growth of the Brazilian prison population has been enormous, resulting in the fourth largest prison population in the world. Through a systematic review of the literature, we identified 10 studies assessing the prevalence of self-reported offending in Brazil and 9 studies examining risk factors. Levels of self-reported offending seem quite high among school students in Brazil. Individual and family-level risk factors identified in Brazil are very similar to those found in high-income countries.

  5. Application of CWC analytical procedures for safeguards; Analysis of phosphorus-containing organic chemical signatures from environmental samples; Final report on task FIN A844 on the Finnish support programme to IAEA safeguards

    Rautio, M.; Bjoerk, H.; Haekkinen, V.; Kostiainen, O.; Kuitunen, M.L.; Lehtonen, P.; Mesilaakso, M.; Soederstroem, M. [Finnish Inst. for Verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention, Helsinki (Finland)


    Solvent extraction can be used for the recovery of U and Pu from irradiated fuel. The most potential organic chemical signatures are extractants and solvents used in reprocessing plants. The PUREX process is widely used in reprocessing. It uses tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as extractant in an organic solvent for U and Pu from irradiated fuel and U from its ores. TBP is a strong extractant for tetra and hexavalent actinides from nitric acid media. Stable complexes are formed between actinide nitrate and TBP which are soluble in the organic phase. Sample containing TBP and some radiolysis products can indicate that TBP is used for reprocessing nuclear fuel. The TBP will decompose in the PUREX process to mono-and dibutyl phosphates (MBP and DBP). TBP, DBP and MBP have been analysed from air, water, soil, and sediment samples according to slightly modified procedures presented in Recommended Operating Procedures for Sampling and Analysis in the Verification of Chemical Disarmament. The limits of detection for the phosphates have been determined for air, water and soil samples. (orig.) (12 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.).

  6. De-alerting of U.S. nuclear forces: a critical appraisal

    Bailey, K C; Barish, F


    Since the end of the Cold War, there have been pressures by disarmament advocates to move more quickly to draw down, toward zero, the number of nuclear weapons in U.S. and Russian arsenals. They criticize the process of negotiating arms control agreements as being too slow, and point out that treaty implementation is hampered by the necessity of ratification by the U.S. Senate and Russian Duma. One method of moving more rapidly toward nuclear abolition suggested by some analysts is de-alerting of nuclear-weapon delivery systems. De-alerting is defined as taking steps that increase significantly the time required to launch a given delivery vehicle armed with a nuclear warhead. Although there is little inclination by the U.S. Government to de-alert its nuclear forces at present, some academic literature and press stories continue to advocate such steps. This paper offers a critique of de-alerting proposals together with an assessment of the dangers of accidental, unauthorized, or unintended use of nuclear weapons. It concludes that de-alerting nuclear forces would be extremely de-stabilizing, principally because it would increase the value to an opponent of launching a first strike.

  7. Nuclear rapprochement in Argentina and Brazil: Workshop summary

    James E. Doyle


    On October 21 and 22, 1998, the Center for International Security Affairs at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Center for Global Security and Cooperation at Science Applications International Corporation hosted the first of a series of work-shops on states that have chosen to roll back their pursuit of nuclear arms. The objective of the workshop series is to conduct a systematic evaluation of the roles played by U.S. nonproliferation policy in cases of nuclear rollback or restraint and to provide recommendations for future nonproliferation efforts based on lessons learned. Key attendees at the workshop included officials and former officials from the foreign ministries of Argentina and Brazil, and current and former officials from the U.S. Department of State, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and the Department of Energy (DOE). Scholars and independent researchers who have examined nuclear policy in Argentina and Brazil also participated. This workshop report includes important background information that helps set the stage for assessing nuclear policies in Argentina and Brazil. It describes national perspectives and areas of consensus and debate among the participants, particularly on the questions of lessons learned and their salience to proliferation challenges in other states. It also summarizes key questions and propositions regarding the roles played in these cases by U.S. nonproliferation policy.

  8. Religious Groups as Interest Groups: The United States Catholic Bishops in the Welfare Reform Debate of 1995–1996 and the Health Care Reform Debate of 2009–20101

    Anne Marie Cammisa


    Full Text Available The United States has a long history of religious influence on public policy: the anti-slavery movement, progressivism, prohibition, civil rights, abortion, school vouchers, school prayer and nuclear disarmament are all issues that have involved religion and religious groups in policymaking. In recent decades, the number of religious interest groups (as well as interest groups in general has greatly expanded, but the role that the religious organizations play as interest groups in the policy arena has received relatively little attention. How are they similar to and different from other interest groups? What tactics do they use? How successful are they? Under what conditions is success or failure more likely? This article examines Roman Catholic religious groups as interest groups in the congressional policymaking process. First, it places Catholic interest groups in the context of the interest group literature, and second, it examines Catholic interest groups’ activity in the passage of welfare reform in 1996 and in the passage of health care reform in 2010. In both cases, they played a greater role in context-setting than in actually changing provisions.

  9. International reactions after the resumption of nuclear tests: lot of noise for nothing?; Les reactions internationales a la reprise des essais nucleaires: beaucoup de bruit pour rien?

    Montesquieu, E. de


    In 1995, the French President announced that France would perform an ultimate campaign of nuclear tests before a complete banishment as soon as spring 1996. The campaign effectively ended on time and six tests took place between September 5, 1995 and January 27, 1996. The disarmament process went on and the international negotiations in progress at that time were not affected by the French policy. However, this campaign has caused a strong emotion, if not in the entire World, at least in part of the planet and in particular in Western Europe. This report analyses the reactions from the different governments and from the public opinion and shows their impact on the French diplomacy. Content: Part 1 - general considerations: 1 - lot of noise for nothing?: the objectives of French diplomacy; the acts (a quasi lack of sanctions, a temporary degradation of our relations with a limited number of countries); the rhetoric (diplomatic regrets in first time, slip-ups in the second time, the public opinion weight); 2 - the lessons learnt: the opinion and the management of the foreign policy (the image of France, the communication fight); the geopolitical lessons (European Union: community solidarity and European defense; the South Pacific area); 3 - a case study: Japan: the time of uncertainties (domestic situation, external policy); the Japanese reactions after the tests resumption. Part 2 - synthesis of reactions after the resumption of nuclear tests by France: Pacific bordering countries (South Pacific, Latin America); Western Europe countries; non-European countries; Conclusions.

  10. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century


    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  11. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century


    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  12. Performance Test of CCTV in a Test Field

    Seo, Hyung Min [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    On April 12-13, 2010, US President Obama hosted a Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, DC, to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism, an issue which he has identified as the most immediate and extreme threat to global security. The Summit focused on the security of nuclear materials, nonproliferation, disarmament, and peaceful nuclear energy. At the summit, the Republic of Korea was chosen as the host of the next Summit in 2012. This series of events reflects the growing global interest on 'Nuclear Security' and as the host country of the next Nuclear Summit it is the time for Korea to strengthen the physical protection regime for nuclear facilities as a first step of securing its nuclear security capability. KINAC has been operating Test field as a mean of preparing solid backup data for reviewing and revising DBT (Design Basis Threat) and to test components of the conventional physical protection system. CCTV is a key component which is used worldwide for the assessment measure of alarms. In terms of performance test of CCTV, there are several elements such as image quality, coverage and mechanical features (speed of zoom-in-out, capture, angle shift etc.). Speaking of image quality acquired by the CCTV, the quality is subject to resolution, monitor specification, camera housing, camera mounting and lightening. Thus it is clear that performance tests on image quality should consider those factors and vary the factors respectively in order to verify the influence and the interaction among those. Nevertheless due to the restrictions of the current Test field, this paper focuses on the image quality through resolution test under the various lightening conditions

  13. Burma/Myanmar: Challenges of a Ceasefire Accord in Karen State Burma/Myanmar: Herausforderungen eines Waffenstillstandsabkommens im Karen-Staat

    Paul Core


    Full Text Available Burma (Myanmar has seen some of the longest-running insurgencies in the world, which have had a devastating effect on local populations and the country as a whole. While the Karen National Union (KNU, which has fought successive Burmese governments since 1949, is in a critical phase of its life, the KNU/KNLA Peace Council (KPC is experiencing life under a ceasefire accord with the Burmese government, the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC. Major challenges have occurred since the ceasefire and future developments are uncertain. Like all ceasefire groups in the country, the KPC has come under immense pressure to follow the government’s “seven-step road map” to democracy, compete in the 2010 elections, and transform its troops into a border guard force under the control of the Burmese military or face disarmament. This article seeks to provide some insights into a ceasefire group, to analyse the failures and successes of the ceasefire accord, and to outline future challenges to the country. Myanmar (Burma ist bis heute Schauplatz von anhaltenden ethnischen Konflikten, welche einen erheblichen Einfluss auf lokale Bevölkerungen und das ganze Land haben. Während die Karen National Union, die seit dem Jahr 1949 gegen die burmesische Regierung kämpft, sich in einer kritischen Phase befindet, hat das KNU/KNLA Peace Council seinen eigenen Frieden mit der Militärregierung geschlossen. Seit dem Waffenstillstand haben sich erhebliche Herausforderungen aufgetan und zukünftige Entwicklungen sind ungewiss. Wie alle Waffenstillstandsgruppen im Land steht die Gruppe unter dem Druck der Regierung, dem „Sieben-Punkte-Fahrplan zur disziplinierten Demokratie“ zu folgen und damit eine politische Partei zu gründen sowie seine Truppen in eine Grenztruppe unter Kontrolle des burmesischen Militärs zu transformieren. Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in eine Waffenstillstandsgruppe, analysiert die Erfolge sowie Misserfolge des

  14. Former Military Networks a Threat to Peace? The Demobilisation and Remobilization of Renamo in Central Mozambique

    Nikkie Wiegink


    Full Text Available Renamo’s recent upsurge against the Mozambican Frelimo-led government after 22 years of relative stability has challenged the country’s often celebrated disarmament, demobilization and reintegration process (1992 to 1994. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Maringue (Sofala province, the location of the rebels’ wartime headquarters and a post-war Renamo stronghold, this paper shows that while the DDR program supposedly ended Renamo’s command and control structure, the former rebel network continued to be a central feature of ex-combatants’ social worlds. Former Renamo combatants spend most of their time in the company of their ‘colleagues of the trenches’ and engaged in relationships of dependency with political Renamo leaders and former commanders. These relationships were not only shaped by the former military structure, but also by friendship, marriage, and patronage dynamics, providing ex-Renamo combatants with physical and economic safety, a sense of belonging and economic possibilities. Recent events in Mozambique suggest that the post-conflict continuation of informal wartime networks is a threat to peace and a failure of demobilization. Nevertheless, the fieldwork conducted in Maringue reveals that the dismantling of the command and control structure is often in vain, as it may be worthwhile for ex-combatants to maintain ties with their former military group for various reasons. Therefore, I argue that it may be useful to consider these networks based on the former armed group in processes of violence reduction, also in the development of DDR programs, as these may offer possibilities for the re-positioning and transformation of (former armed actors.

  15. World Peace Through Law: Rethinking an Old Theory

    James Ranney


    Full Text Available The author sets about re-thinking the old concept of “World Peace Through Law” (WPTL, meaning replacing the use of international force with the global rule of law. He traces the history of the WPTL concept back to the British legal philosopher Jeremy Bentham, whose 1789 ‘Plan for an Universal and Perpetual Peace’ proposed “a plan of general and permanent pacification for all Europe,” with troop reductions(especially in naval forces and “a Common Court of Judicature” to resolve differences between nations. The author’s 21st century version of WPTL bears an uncanny resemblance to Bentham’s original proposal, calling for: 1 arms reductions (including abolition of nuclear weapons; 2 a four-stage comprehensive system of compulsory alternative dispute resolution(compulsory negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and adjudication; and 3 various enforcement mechanisms, including an international peace force.The author argues that now is the time for adoption of what is a mainstream middle-of-the-road proposition (previously adopted by four past American presidents, including Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Dwight David Eisenhower, and John F. Kennedy that is neither “too little” (our current strategy of “collective insecurity” nor “too much” (world government or world federalism. Instead, WPTL calls for only 1 arms reductions, not general and complete disarmament; 2 compulsory international alternative dispute resolution systems, not a global legislature; and 3 means of effective enforcement (including an international police force, not pacifism.The whole concept of WPTL has been sadly neglected over the past half century. It is time to take a new look at the concept in this, the nuclear age.

  16. Historical Survey of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty%《不扩散核武器条约》的历史审视



    Although Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty is a product of power politics, it objectively plays an active role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation. As the foundation stone of nuclear non-proliferation regime, the treaty has experienced a lot of severe tests and nowadays is facing many challenges, which will have a bright future. In order to achieve the goal of Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament and the right of non-nuclear states to peacefully use nuclear energy should be paid more attention in the future. Only in this way can the glorious desire of nuclear-free world be realized.%《不扩散核武器条约》虽然是强权政治的产物,但它在客观上为防止核扩散起着积极作用,是核不扩散体制的基石。该条约经历了许多严峻的考验,当今也面临不少的挑战,不扩散核武器条约的未来还是美好的。为了实现不扩散核武器条约的目标,今后更应关注核裁军和无核国家和平利用核能的权利。只有这样,无核世界的美好愿望才能实现。

  17. The Use of Remote Sensing Satellites for Verification in International Law

    Hettling, J. K.

    The contribution is a very sensitive topic which is currently about to gain significance and importance in the international community. It implies questions of international law as well as the contemplation of new developments and decisions in international politics. The paper will begin with the meaning and current status of verification in international law as well as the legal basis of satellite remote sensing in international treaties and resolutions. For the verification part, this implies giving a definition of verification and naming its fields of application and the different means of verification. For the remote sensing part, it involves the identification of relevant provisions in the Outer Space Treaty and the United Nations General Assembly Principles on Remote Sensing. Furthermore it shall be looked at practical examples: in how far have remote sensing satellites been used to verify international obligations? Are there treaties which would considerably profit from the use of remote sensing satellites? In this respect, there are various examples which can be contemplated, such as the ABM Treaty (even though out of force now), the SALT and START Agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Conventional Test Ban Treaty. It will be mentioned also that NGOs have started to verify international conventions, e.g. Landmine Monitor is verifying the Mine-Ban Convention. Apart from verifying arms control and disarmament treaties, satellites can also strengthen the negotiation of peace agreements (such as the Dayton Peace Talks) and the prevention of international conflicts from arising. Verification has played an increasingly prominent role in high-profile UN operations. Verification and monitoring can be applied to the whole range of elements that constitute a peace implementation process, ranging from the military aspects through electoral monitoring and human rights monitoring, from negotiating an accord to finally monitoring it. Last but not least the

  18. Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Somali ex-combatants: A validation study

    Rockstroh Brigitte


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Somalia, a large number of active and former combatants are affected by psychological problems such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This disorder impairs their ability to re-integrate into civilian life. However, many screening instruments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder used in post-conflict settings have limited validity. Here we report on development and validation of a screening tool for PTSD in Somali language with a sample of ex-combatants. Methods We adapted the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS to reflect linguistic and cultural differences within the Somali community so that local interviewers could be trained to administer the scale. For validation purposes, a randomly selected group of 135 Somali ex-combatants was screened by trained local interviewers; 64 of them were then re-assessed by trained clinical psychologists using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Results The screening instrument showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .86, convergent validity with the CIDI (sensitivity = .90; specificity = .90 as well as concurrent validity: positive cases showed higher SRQ-20 scores, higher prevalence of psychotic symptoms, and higher levels of intake of the local stimulant drug khat. Compared to a single cut-off score, the multi-criteria scoring, in keeping with the DSM-IV, produced more diagnostic specificity. Conclusion The results provide evidence that our screening instrument is a reliable and valid method to detect PTSD among Somali ex-combatants. A future Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Program in Somalia is recommended to screen for PTSD in order to identify ex-combatants with special psycho-social needs.

  19. The Niger Delta Amnesty Program

    Benjamin A. Okonofua


    Full Text Available The armed conflict between militias and government forces in Nigeria’s Niger Delta region has spanned for more than two decades, defying all solutions. A disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR program was established in August 2015 in effort to end the violence and has remained in place. It is a radically different approach from past approaches that displayed zero tolerance to all political challenges to oil production or the allocation of oil profits. The approach appeared to be immediately successful in that it forced a ceasefire, engaged militants in planned programs to rehabilitate and reintegrate them into civilian society, and opened up the oil wells (many of which had been shut due to the crisis with the effect of increasing government revenue, which depends 85% on oil exports. Yet, few studies have attempted to understand the dynamics within the country that are responsible for the design and implementation of this broad policy shift or to understand whether and how the current initiative is able to end the conflict and institute peace beyond the short term. This study, therefore, is important because it provides a critical perspective that anticipates and explains emerging issues with the Niger Delta Amnesty Program, which have implications for DDR adaptation and implementation all over the world. Ultimately, the research demonstrates how the DDR program both transforms the Niger Delta conflict and becomes embroiled in intense contestations not only about the mechanism for transforming the targeted population but also whether and how the program incorporates women who are being deprioritized by the program.

  20. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including

  1. Surrendering to the Big Picture: Historical and Legal Perspectives on Accountability in the Democratic Republic of Congo Following the Defeat of the March 23 Movement

    Janet McKnight


    Full Text Available It remains to be seen whether the past few months will mark a genuine turning point in the conflict in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, as the rebel faction March 23 Movement (M23 announced the end of its 20-month insurgency against the government on 5 November 2013. News of the rebel group’s surrender following its political and military defeat signals an important moment of hope and renewed prospects of peace and stability in a region prone to protracted armed conflict. However, long-term stability in the country and in the region will require a multi-faceted process consisting of comprehensive accountability for human rights violations that have been committed by all parties to the conflict. In this article, I will first lay out the historical context of the fighting and the root causes of conflict present long before M23’s entrance onto the scene as a splintered rebel faction so as to understand M23’s place within the country’s history of protracted violence. Next, I will explain the violations of international humanitarian and human rights law committed by all possible parties, including rebel and government groups, as well as individual criminal responsibility and corporate liability. Lastly, I will chart the pathways of criminal and social accountability at various levels of international and domestic justice systems to see how the DRC may continue to build long-term local stability in the eastern parts of the country by addressing the question of accountability for international crimes. This brief analysis aims to provide a broader understanding of a complex conflict beyond the defeat and disarmament of M23, albeit a key group in a region of contentious cross-border conflict.

  2. Position paper on nuclear proliferation issues preventing nuclear proliferation. A duty for the nuclear community

    Goldschmidt, Pierre; Bonin, Bernard [ENS High Scientific Council, Brussels (Belgium)


    The production of electricity from nuclear power plants is widely seen today as having an increasing role to play in meeting global energy requirements in a sustainable manner. Conscious of the inherently sensitive nature of nuclear technology and materials the ENS-HSC (European Nuclear Society - High Scientific Council) is well aware that a severe safety, security, environmental or proliferation mishap stemming from nuclear energy anywhere in the world would undermine the potential for nuclear energy to contribute to the global energy supply and the minimization of harmful carbon emissions. While the safety of nuclear power plants has continuously improved over the last three decades, the same degree of success cannot be claimed when it comes to the achievements of the international community in stemming the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. This unfortunate situation is due to both technical and political reasons. The European nuclear industry is committed to the exclusively peaceful use of nuclear energy and to export nuclear facilities and related materials, equipment and technology solely in accordance with relevant national export laws and regulations, Nuclear Suppliers Group guidelines and pertinent United Nations Security Council Resolutions. The ENS-HSC considers that, as a manifestation of their strong commitment to nonproliferation, it is important for the nuclear industry to pay special attention to and promote proliferation-resistant designs and to take IAEA safeguards requirements into account at the design stage. Preventing nuclear proliferation is primarily the responsibility of states but, as major stakeholders, the nuclear industry and scientific community should actively support nuclear disarmament as foreseen in the Non-Proliferation Treaty and measures necessary to strengthen the non-proliferation regime, particularly the international control of the flux of nuclear material and technology. (orig.)

  3. Vaccines for children: policies, politics and poverty.

    Obaro, S K; Palmer, A


    The dawn of the 21st century ushered in spectacular advances in vaccine production technology. However, the benefits of these developments have been largely confined to the world's most affluent and least afflicted. Of the 14 million deaths that occur world-wide in children aged less than 5 years, over 95% of these occur in developing countries and at least 70% are caused by infections for which vaccines are already available in other countries. While impoverished countries do not have a right to be assisted with the provision of funds or vaccines by affluent developed countries, an initiative for the global eradication of a vaccine preventable disease, requires a global effort. Assisting developing countries to achieve such goals should be a high priority for wealthy nations, even if only to protect their own populations. With improved international travel, not only can newly emerging diseases spread across the globe, but pathogens eliminated from one population can be re-imported by travellers or immigrants. In contrast, the recent decline in acceptance of immunisation programmes in developed countries are secondary to strong anti-vaccine movements attributing unproven adverse reactions to vaccines, placing these life-saving vaccines into disrepute. A fertile ground for propagation of these ideologies is created by parents who in their lifetime may not have seen a child killed or maimed from bacterial meningitis or measles and therefore have little understanding of the risk-benefit of vaccination. The development and deployment of vaccines must be a global effort as are the treaties for global disarmament for weapons of mass destruction.

  4. Sweden and the making of nuclear non-proliferation: from indecision to assertiveness

    Dassen, L. van [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Peace and Conflict Research


    Swedish research on nuclear weapons started at a modest scale in 1945 but was soon expanded. By the early 1950s the research programme started to face some of the problems that were going to accompany it for the rest of its life: different priorities and cost-estimates were made by the sectors that wanted to develop nuclear energy and those working on the bomb. Moreover, an introduction of nuclear weapons would lead to a major redistribution of resources to the disadvantage of the navy and army. The public and political debates intensified during the 1950s and culminated in 1960. At first, pro-nuclear voices had been strongest but were soon challenged by interest groups, unions and peace movements. 1960, a committee within the government had established a compromise: Nuclear weapons research for production of weapons would be terminated, while research on the consequences of nuclear weapons would continue. It was a cosmetic decision that could cover for a continued research on weapons design. Nevertheless, there are some general qualities from the debates that indicate why the outcome was that Sweden signed the NPT in 1968. First, the number of interested persons, groups movements and party politicians engaged in the issue increased every time the issue came up. Secondly, the segments of society that supported the nuclear option remained roughly the same. No strong movements rallied to the defence of this position. On the other hand, the anti-nuclear wing received more and more followers. Third, there was a marked tendency by virtually all actors (except the military) to include every sign of progress in international disarmament and non-proliferation efforts as arguments against Swedish proliferation. Since 1968, the non-proliferation choice has ben manifested through Sweden``s adherence to the NPT and this has been accompanied by a strong commitment to other non-proliferation initiatives. Refs.

  5. International Sport Movement in the Context of the Global Problems of Mankind

    Stafeev Dmitriy Valeryevich


    Full Text Available As a result of globalization process the world becomes more and more integrated, the role of “hard” power becomes lower, while the role of “soft” power, vice versa, increases. Sport as one of the most important spheres of human activities, faces both positive and negative effects of globalization. Sport has an important function in the concept of “soft” security, and this importance is evidenced by serious attention, paid by the United Nations and other international organizations. The UN established the International Day of port, and it organizes regular meetings and conferences devoted to sport. Plenty of the UN Organizations officially use sport to achieve their aims. Sports diplomacy is believed to have reconciling, uniting role; sport must contribute to resolution of the most part of contemporary global problems. Abilities of the Information age allow using positive effect caused by sport events with maximal benefits. There is understanding in the UN, that sport alone cannot solve all global problems, but it can relieve their consequences. Therefore sport is used to struggle over such problems, as poverty; peace and security problems; disarmament necessity; human rights and democracy problems; demography, ecology and energy problems, difficulties with medical care and provision. On the other hand, sport suffers from globalization; it loses its initial function of competition due to politicization and commercialization. Even new issues of confrontation appear because of sports. Only global governance over sport, establishment of general rules and clear goals and their joint accomplishment can allow the international sports movement become a real force in fight against global problems.

  6. Considerations on nonproliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper summarizes the past history of worldwide nonproliferation regime, then proposes the future improvements on the regime. Present worldwide nonproliferation regime have been formulated during the cold war era. Therefore, the structure and measures of the regime were heavily influenced by the features of cold war era. Though the cold war was over, still new international order does not seem to be on the horizon, we need to review the present regime and to improve the regime compatible to new world situation. Generally speaking, the nonproliferation regime have gained moderate success so far. We could point out the following features as a kind of success: (1) No increase of overt Nuclear Weapon State (NWS), (2) All five NWSs have finally participated to the NPT, (3) South Africa has destroyed its nuclear weapons and became Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS), (4) Successful conclusions of some regional arrangements, such as Tlatelolco, Ralotonga, and (5) Strengthening of export control on sensitive items. On the other hand, we recognize the following points as the failures of the regime. (6) India, Pakistan and Israel reject to join the NPT, (7) Existence of some violation against NPT regime, i.e. Iraqi case and DPRK case, (8) Insufficient effective measures against brain drain problem, (9) Risk exists for the long term extension of NPT, and (10) Insufficient flexibility to meet changing boundary conditions. We would propose the various measures for strengthening to meet changing boundary conditions, as follows: (11) Measures to be taken along with future civil use of Plutonium, (12) Strengthening and rationalizing international safeguards, (13) Countermeasures for emerging new types of nuclear proliferation, (14) Strengthening nuclear material control in NWS, (15) Measures to be taken for nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons, and (16) Nuclear disarmament. (author).

  7. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including


    Anthony L. Crawford


    MODIFIED PAPER TITLE AND ABSTRACT DUE TO SLIGHTLY MODIFIED SCOPE: TITLE: Nonlinear Force Profile Used to Increase the Performance of a Haptic User Interface for Teleoperating a Robotic Hand Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space. The research associated with this paper hypothesizes that a user interface and complementary radiation compatible robotic hand that integrates the human hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, nonlinear strength profile, reduction of active degrees of freedom during the transition from manipulation to grasping, and just noticeable difference force sensation characteristics will enhance a user’s teleoperation performance. The main contribution of this research is in that a system that concisely integrates all these factors has yet to be developed and furthermore has yet to be applied to a hazardous environment as those referenced above. In fact, the most prominent slave manipulator teleoperation technology in use today is based on a design patented in 1945 (Patent 2632574) [1]. The robotic hand/user interface systems of similar function as the one being developed in this research limit their design input requirements in the best case to only complementing the hand’s anthropometric properties, speed capability, and linearly scaled force application relationship (e.g. robotic force is a constant, 4 times that of the user). In this paper a nonlinear relationship between the force experienced between the user interface and the robotic hand was devised based on property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand. The results show that such a relationship when subjected to a manipulation task and grasping task produces increased performance compared to the

  9. SRS vitrification studies in support of the U.S. program for disposition of excess plutonium

    Wicks, G.G.; McKibben, J.M.; Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.


    Many thousands of nuclear weapons are being retired in the U.S. and Russian as a result of nuclear disarmament activities. These efforts are expected to produce a surplus of about 50 MT of weapons grade plutonium (Pu) in each country. In addition to this inventory, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has more than 20 MT of Pu scrap, residue, etc., and Russian is also believed to have at least as much of this type of material. The entire surplus Pu inventories in the U.S. and Russian present a clear and immediate danger to national and international security. It is important that a solution be found to secure and manage this material effectively and that such an effort be implemented as quickly as possible. One option under consideration is vitrification of Pu into a safe, durable, accountable and proliferation-resistant form. As a result of decades to experience within the DOE community involving vitrification of a variety of hazardous and radioactive wastes, this existing technology can now be expanded to include mobilization of large amounts of Pu. This technology can then be implemented rapidly using the many existing resources currently available. An overall strategy to vitrify many different types of Pu will be already developed throughout the waste management community can be used in a staged Pu vitrification effort. This approach uses the flexible vitrification technology already available and can even be made portable so that it may be brought to the source and ultimately, used to produce a consistent and common borosilicate glass composition for the vitrified Pu. The final composition of this product can be made similar to nationally and internationally accepted HLW glasses.

  10. Corporate interests, philanthropies, and the peace movement.

    Wright, T; Rodriguez, F; Waitzkin, H


    Corporate and philanthropic involvement in the peace movement is growing. In considering medical peace groups as examples, we have studied the ways that corporate and philanthropic funding have shaped the course of activism. Our methods have included: review of the Foundations Grant Index from 1974-1983; analysis of corporations' and foundations' criteria for grants in the categories of peace, arms control, and disarmament; interviews with leaders of activist organizations and with foundation officials; and our own experiences in the peace movement. Corporate interests in preventing nuclear war stem from a concern for global stability in which world markets may expand, and from a hope to frame issues posed by the peace movement in a way that will not challenge basic structures of power and finance. Several general features make peace groups respectable and attractive to philanthropies; an uncritical stance toward corporate participation in the arms race; a viewpoint that the main danger of nuclear war stems from a profound, bilateral conflict between the United States and the Soviet Union; and a single-issue focus that does not deal with the many related problems reflecting the injustices of capitalism. The two major medical groups working for peace, Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) and International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW), have accomplished many goals; however, their adherence to subtle criteria of respectability and their dependence on philanthropic funding have limited the scope of their activism. The struggle for peace can not succeed without fundamental changes in the corporate system that initiates, maintains, and promotes the arms race.

  11. Hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma in hierarchical game for resource competition

    Fujimoto, Yuma; Sagawa, Takahiro; Kaneko, Kunihiko


    Dilemmas in cooperation are one of the major concerns in game theory. In a public goods game, each individual cooperates by paying a cost or defecting without paying it, and receives a reward from the group out of the collected cost. Thus, defecting is beneficial for each individual, while cooperation is beneficial for the group. Now, groups (say, countries) consisting of individuals also play games. To study such a multi-level game, we introduce a hierarchical game in which multiple groups compete for limited resources by utilizing the collected cost in each group, where the power to appropriate resources increases with the population of the group. Analyzing this hierarchical game, we found a hierarchical prisoner’s dilemma, in which groups choose the defecting policy (say, armament) as a Nash strategy to optimize each group’s benefit, while cooperation optimizes the total benefit. On the other hand, for each individual, refusing to pay the cost (say, tax) is a Nash strategy, which turns out to be a cooperation policy for the group, thus leading to a hierarchical dilemma. Here the group reward increases with the group size. However, we find that there exists an optimal group size that maximizes the individual payoff. Furthermore, when the population asymmetry between two groups is large, the smaller group will choose a cooperation policy (say, disarmament) to avoid excessive response from the larger group, and the prisoner’s dilemma between the groups is resolved. Accordingly, the relevance of this hierarchical game on policy selection in society and the optimal size of human or animal groups are discussed.

  12. The Cold War final stage in La Vanguardia: fear, pacifism and propaganda (1979-1984 | El último ciclo de la Guerra Fría en La Vanguardia: miedo, pacifismo y propaganda (1979-1984

    Coral Morera Hernández


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the speeches issued by La Vanguardia at the end of détente between the blocks, in the period from 1979 to 1984. From a historical context of the period, we proceed to content analysis, quantitative and qualitative, around two topics: disarmament and terrorism. In moments of high tension of the Cold War, of great historical and political relevance, but above all, time for a big ideological friction, the head’s attitude was characterized by rigor and weighting. The denouncement of the irresponsability of the blocks to attend policy strategies, the rearmament, European marginality and the terrorist threat, are the main concerns extracted from the study. | Este artículo analiza los discursos emitidos por La Vanguardia con motivo del fin de la distensión entre los bloques en el período que abarca desde 1979 hasta 1984. A partir de una contextualización histórica concreta, nos ocupamos del vaciado de prensa y análisis de contenido, cuantitativo y cualitativo, en torno a dos bloques temáticos: el desarme y el terrorismo. En unos años de máxima tensión de la Guerra Fría, de gran trascendencia histórica y política, pero sobre todo, de máxima fricción ideológica, la actitud de la cabecera catalana estuvo caracterizada por el rigor y la ponderación. La denuncia de la irresponsabilidad de los bloques por atender a estrategias políticas, junto con el rearme, la marginalidad europea y la amenaza terrorista, son las principales preocupaciones argumentales que surgen del estudio.

  13. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, the relationship

    Graham, Thomas, Jr.


    The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is the most important international security arrangement that we have that is protecting the world community and this has been true for many years. But it did not happen by accident, it is a strategic bargain in which 184 states gave up the right forever to acquire the most powerful weapon ever created in exchange for a commitment from the five states allowed to keep nuclear weapons under the NPT (U.S., U.K., Russia, France and China), to share peaceful nuclear technology and to engage in disarmament negotiations aimed at the ultimate elimination of their nuclear stockpiles. The most important part of this is the comprehensive nuclear test ban (CTBT); the thinking by the 184 NPT non-nuclear weapon states was and is that they understand that the elimination of nuclear weapon stockpiles is a long way off, but at least the NPT nuclear weapon states could stop testing the weapons. The CTBT has been ratified by 161 states but by its terms it can only come into force if 44 nuclear potential states ratify; 36 have of the 44 have ratified it, the remaining eight include the United States and seven others, most of whom are in effect waiting for the United States. No state has tested a nuclear weapon-except for complete outlier North Korea-in 15 years. There appears to be no chance that the U.S. Senate will approve the CTBT for ratification in the foreseeable future, but the NPT may not survive without it. Perhaps it is time to consider an interim measure, for the UN Security Council to declare that any future nuclear weapon test any time, anywhere is a "threat to peace and security", in effect a violation of international law, which in today's world it clearly would be.


    Gabriela Barreto David


    Full Text Available Introduction: Futsal has been expanding worldwide. In the game the central objective is the goal, because its amount determines the outcome of the match. Therefore, it is important to study the determinants of goal and meet influential variables in its obtaining, as the place and time that it occurs, the move sources, the technical performance or how other variables can contribute to the planning of the training of the teams. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of goals and associated factors in women's futsal Championship matches of Rio Grande do Sul State in 2011. Materials and methods: It was analyzed 12 matches of Universidade Católica de Pelotas (UCPel in the State Championship, women's Futsal in 2011. Through video and the score sheet it were analyzed variables associated with the marking of goals, among them, the time of occurrence (first or second, the influence of the row goalkeeper, technical performance of the team at the time of the goal and the court sector that led to the goal. Results: Over the games there were 28 goals scored in favor and 63 against the UCPel. The largest number occurred in the final 10 minutes of the matches and originated in the opposite area. The influence of the row goalkeeper was small and only in the final moments. Technical performance aspects such as disarmament and missed passes have correlation with goals scored and conceded. Conclusion: It is suggested to emphasize the training in techniques and tactics similar to those actions that happen in the final minutes and reorganize defensive systems used to protect your area, because it is within it that occur more goals.

  15. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs

    Vladimír Pitschmann


    Full Text Available Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots; it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks.

  16. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime; O tratado sobre a nao proliferacao de armas nucleares (TNP) e a insercao do Estado brasileiro no regime dele decorrente

    Silva, Marcos Valle Machado da


    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  17. Nuclear Explosion Monitoring History and Research and Development

    Hawkins, W. L.; Zucca, J. J.


    Within a year after the nuclear detonations over Hiroshima and Nagasaki the Baruch Plan was presented to the newly formed United Nations Atomic Energy Commission (June 14, 1946) to establish nuclear disarmament and international control over all nuclear activities. These controls would allow only the peaceful use of atomic energy. The plan was rejected through a Security Council veto primarily because of the resistance to unlimited inspections. Since that time there have been many multilateral, and bilateral agreements, and unilateral declarations to limit or eliminate nuclear detonations. Almost all of theses agreements (i.e. treaties) call for some type of monitoring. We will review a timeline showing the history of nuclear testing and the more important treaties. We will also describe testing operations, containment, phenomenology, and observations. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which has been signed by 179 countries (ratified by 144) established the International Monitoring System global verification regime which employs seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic and radionuclide monitoring techniques. The CTBT also includes on-site inspection to clarify whether a nuclear explosion has been carried out in violation of the Treaty. The US Department of Energy (DOE) through its National Nuclear Security Agency's Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring R&D Program supports research by US National Laboratories, and universities and industry internationally to detect, locate, and identify nuclear detonations. This research program builds on the broad base of monitoring expertise developed over several decades. Annually the DOE and the US Department of Defense jointly solicit monitoring research proposals. Areas of research include: seismic regional characterization and wave propagation, seismic event detection and location, seismic identification and source characterization, hydroacoustic monitoring, radionuclide monitoring, infrasound monitoring, and

  18. Virtual nuclear weapons

    Pilat, J.F.


    The term virtual nuclear weapons proliferation and arsenals, as opposed to actual weapons and arsenals, has entered in recent years the American lexicon of nuclear strategy, arms control, and nonproliferation. While the term seems to have an intuitive appeal, largely due to its cyberspace imagery, its current use is still vague and loose. The author believes, however, that if the term is clearly delineated, it might offer a promising approach to conceptualizing certain current problems of proliferation. The first use is in a reference to an old problem that has resurfaced recently: the problem of growing availability of weapon-usable nuclear materials in civilian nuclear programs along with materials made `excess` to defense needs by current arms reduction and dismantlement. It is argued that the availability of these vast materials, either by declared nuclear-weapon states or by technologically advanced nonweapon states, makes it possible for those states to rapidly assemble and deploy nuclear weapons. The second use has quite a different set of connotations. It is derived conceptually from the imagery of computer-generated reality. In this use, one thinks of virtual proliferation and arsenals not in terms of the physical hardware required to make the bomb but rather in terms of the knowledge/experience required to design, assemble, and deploy the arsenal. Virtual weapons are a physics reality and cannot be ignored in a world where knowledge, experience, materials, and other requirements to make nuclear weapons are widespread, and where dramatic army reductions and, in some cases, disarmament are realities. These concepts are useful in defining a continuum of virtual capabilities, ranging from those at the low end that derive from general technology diffusion and the existence of nuclear energy programs to those at the high end that involve conscious decisions to develop or maintain militarily significant nuclear-weapon capabilities.

  19. Curbing international transfers of arms and military technology

    Vayrynen, R.


    The magnitude of the value and quantity of transfers of arms and military technology, the internationalization and commercialization of armaments industry (through vastly increased direct investments, through co-production, licensing and sub-contracting arrangements), the supply of training and technical services as adjuncts of arms supply, the blurring of the dividing line between military and civilian technology--all have made control measures infinitely more complicated and difficult. What compounds the difficulty is the fact that, since an overwhelmingly preponderant portion of arms transfers is made up of government-to-government transactions, control measures must emanate from supplying and/or receiving governments. But even if by some miracle these measures were forthcoming and proved effective, they will have touched only a small part of the problem of disarmament, because the share of international transfers of arms and military technology amounts to only 5 to 6% of the total world military expenditure. The other, far larger and more intractable, part relates to the staggering stockpiles of both conventional and nuclear weapon systems, almost wholly concentrated in the hands of the two superpowers. Both transfers and stockpiles of armaments are inextricably enmeshed in the existing international structure, epitomized in a dominance-dependency relationship. This paper examines the measures that the supplier nations and recipient nations can take unilaterally, bilaterally, and multilaterally to curb arms transfers, and comes to the conclusion that unilateral initiatives, especially on the part of receiving nations, are more feasible. Not to take such initiatives on the ground that they cannot succeed unless taken in concert is only an excuse for doing nothing.


    Soyalp TAMÇELİK


    Full Text Available In this research, the reasons and consequences of the Greek Cypriots‟ activities of armament have been examined. Therefore, the main purpose of the research is to show what the disarmament activities during the discussions taking place between the sides in Cyprus stand for. The issue of disarmament is a matter which has been accepted as a principle by both parties in Cyprus. However, it is not an issue which has been conclusively resolved between the sides. The main reason for this is that the defense strategy of Greek Cypriots is based more on the aim to „attack‟. Moreover, not only do Greek Cypriots give importance to offensive weapons of the new generation, but also shape their programs of armament accordingly. This way, the Greek Cypriots attempt to transform the balance of power in the region to their own benefit. Actually, the most significant inconvenience of this method is that it is highly expensive and drives both sides towards an arms race. Eventually, this situation has caused an uncontrolled arms race to start on the island. Therefore, this race rightfully leads the concerning parties and guarantor states towards unrest. From this aspect, the efforts of the Greek Cypriots to arm not only threatens the peace in Cyprus which continues in tranquility, but at the same time damages regional peace, disrupts the balances, and triggers the arms race. The proposals put forth for demilitarization and clearing of weapons for the settlement of this situation has been viewed by Greek Cypriots as a strategic step taken in order to eliminate the Treaties of Guarantee and Alliance. On the other hand, although the Turks are not against these two principles, they oppose the amendment of the Treaties of Guarantee and Alliance. Based on this reality, this research is composed of two main sections. In the first section, some important concepts related to disarmament in Cyprus have been hypothetically addressed and evaluated. In the second and

  1. Nuclear Waste Disposal and Strategies for Predicting Long-Term Performance of Material

    Wicks, G G


    Ceramics have been an important part of the nuclear community for many years. On December 2, 1942, an historic event occurred under the West Stands of Stagg Field, at the University of Chicago. Man initiated his first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction and controlled it. The impact of this event on civilization is considered by many as monumental and compared by some to other significant events in history, such as the invention of the steam engine and the manufacturing of the first automobile. Making this event possible and the successful operation of this first man-made nuclear reactor, was the use of forty tons of UO2. The use of natural or enriched UO2 is still used today as a nuclear fuel in many nuclear power plants operating world-wide. Other ceramic materials, such as 238Pu, are used for other important purposes, such as ceramic fuels for space exploration to provide electrical power to operate instruments on board spacecrafts. Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are used to supply electrical power and consist of a nuclear heat source and converter to transform heat energy from radioactive decay into electrical power, thus providing reliable and relatively uniform power over the very long lifetime of a mission. These sources have been used in the Galileo spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and for scientific investigations of Saturn with the Cassini spacecraft. Still another very important series of applications using the unique properties of ceramics in the nuclear field, are as immobilization matrices for management of some of the most hazardous wastes known to man. For example, in long-term management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, glass matrices are currently in production immobilizing high-level radioactive materials, and cementious forms have also been produced to incorporate low level wastes. Also, as part of nuclear disarmament activities, assemblages of crystalline phases are being developed for immobilizing weapons grade plutonium, to

  2. Science Advising in the Legislative and Executive Branches

    Zimmerman, Peter D.


    Almost every action of modern government has some scientific and technical component. However, most senior officials who must set policy and make decisions have little or no scientific training. As a result a small, but growing, number of professional scientists have left their research careers for new ones providing the needed technical advice. Interestingly enough, the job of "science adviser" is very different in the Executive Branch than it is in Congress. The major part of that difference comes from the responsibilities of the parent organization: the Executive actually sets the policies, proposes budgets, and then must perform. As science adviser to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and, after its merger with the State Department, I felt that I had a direct effect on how some issues were resolved. Congress, on the other hand, has the responsibility for authorizing and appropriating funds and setting the terms for their use. It exerts much of its power through holding hearings to make points to the public and the administration, but the adviser is usually placed bureaucratically much closer to the Senator or Congressman being advised than to a principal within the Executive Branch and may have more opportunities to communicate with his boss A science adviser is paid to advise on science, not policy, and must do his or her best not to shape the science to fit a desired outcome, the adviser's or the boss's. There are never enough scientists on staff to cover the territory; in all likelihood, there never will be. That makes it incumbent upon the adviser to reach out to his colleagues in ever-widening circles and across boundaries of disciplines. It certainly means learning new science along the way -- when I joined the SFRC staff last summer, I never dreamed that I would have to learn so much biology and medicine in a matter of days. The science community also has an obligation if it wants to see good science advising in Washington: be available; provide

  3. 《大西洋宪章》构建和平思想的价值探析%Research on the Peace Building Thoughts in the Atlantic Charter



    《大西洋宪章》是二战史上一个具有重要历史意义的文献,它在颁布后成为反法西斯盟国构建世界政治经济新秩序的总蓝图,集中体现了盟国战后和平建设的思想和方略,如反殖民主义和反扩张主义、经济国际主义、社会安全和集体裁军等。表现出战时盟国进行的和平建设所具有的积极特征,首先是建设和平条件的全面性,积极和平建设和消极和平建设的兼顾;其次是和平建设的公正性、广泛性和开放性。在《大西洋宪章》指导下,正是战时盟国进行的和平建设所具有的这些积极特征确保了战后世界整体和平的出现。%The Atlantic Charter was an important historic literature in the World War II history, it become the total blueprint according to which anti-fascist allies building a new world political and economic order after enactment. It embodies allies' postwar peace-building thinking, such as the anti-colonialism and anti - expansionism, economic internationalism,, social security and col- lective disarmament. It also demonstrated the positive features of the allies' peace - building, firstly, the conditions of the compre- hensive peace-building, taking both positive peace building and peace-building into account; secondly, the fairness, broadness and openness of peace-building. It is just these positive characteristics that ensues the presence of postwar total peace.

  4. Development of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of chemical warfare agent and their degradation products in environmental samples.

    Nawała, Jakub; Czupryński, Krzysztof; Popiel, Stanisław; Dziedzic, Daniel; Bełdowski, Jacek


    After World War II approximately 50,000 tons of chemical weapons were dumped in the Baltic Sea by the Soviet Union under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference on Disarmament. These dumped chemical warfare agents still possess a major threat to the marine environment and to human life. Therefore, continue monitoring of these munitions is essential. In this work, we present the application of new solid phase microextraction fibers in analysis of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products. It can be concluded that the best fiber for analysis of sulfur mustard and its degradation products is butyl acrylate (BA), whereas for analysis of organoarsenic compounds and chloroacetophenone, the best fiber is a co-polymer of methyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA). In order to achieve the lowest LOD and LOQ the samples should be divided into two subsamples. One of them should be analyzed using a BA fiber, and the second one using a MA/MMA fiber. When the fast analysis is required, the microextraction should be performed by use of a butyl acrylate fiber because the extraction efficiency of organoarsenic compounds for this fiber is acceptable. Next, we have elaborated of the HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS method for analysis of CWA degradation products in environmental samples using laboratory obtained fibers The analytical method for analysis of organosulfur and organoarsenic compounds was optimized and validated. The LOD's for all target chemicals were between 0.03 and 0.65 ppb. Then, the analytical method developed by us, was used for the analysis of sediment and pore water samples from the Baltic Sea. During these studies, 80 samples were analyzed. It was found that 25 sediments and 5 pore water samples contained CWA degradation products such as 1,4-dithiane, 1,4-oxathiane or triphenylarsine, the latter being a component of arsine oil. The obtained data is evidence that the CWAs present in the Baltic Sea have leaked into the general marine environment.

  5. A. Sakharov and Fusion Research

    Coppi, Bruno


    In the landmark paper by Tamm and Sakharov [1], a controlled nuclear fusion reactor based on an axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration whose principles remain valid to this day, was proposed. In the light of present understanding of plasma physics the virtues (e.g. that of considering the D-D reaction) and the shortcomings of this paper are pointed out. In fact, relatively recent results of theoretical plasma physics (e.g. discovery of the so called second stability region) and advances in high field magnet technology have made it possible to identify the parameters of meaningful experiments capable of exploring D-D and D-^3He burn conditions. At the same time an experimental program (IGNIR) has been undertaken through a (funded) collaboration between Italy and Russia to investigate D-T plasmas close to ignition conditions based on an advanced high field toroidal confinement configuration. A. Sakharov envisioned a bolder approach to fusion research than that advocated by some of his contemporaries. The time taken to design and decide to fabricate the first experiment capable of reaching ignition conditions is due in part to the problem of gaining an adequate understanding the expected physics of fusion burning plasmas. However, most of the relevant financial effort has gone in the pursuit of slow and indirect enterprises complying with the ``playing it safe'' tendencies of large organizations or motivated by the purpose to develop technologies or maintain a high level of expertise in plasma physics to the expected benefit of other kinds of endeavors. The creativity demonstrated by A. Sakharov in dealing with civil rights and disarmament issues is needed, while maintaining our concerns for energy and the environment on a global scale, to orient the funding for fusion research toward a direct and well based scientific effort on concepts for which a variety of developments can be envisioned. These can span from uncovering new physics relevant, for instance

  6. 对离婚案件可仲裁性的探讨%Discussion of the Arbitrability of Divorce Cases



    现行仲裁法将离婚案件排除在仲裁庭的管辖范围之外,这样的规定有一定的不合理性。本文从概念、特征和意义、标准出发,将离婚案件放到具体的标准当中进行讨论,从而得出结论:简单的将涉及婚姻、收养、监护、扶养、继承关系的争议排除在可仲裁性争议之外是不合理的。离婚争议中,确认婚姻关系解除是不可以提交仲裁解决,但就其他方面,即使涉及身份关系,法律也没有强制要求相关财产问题必须由法院解决,这给仲裁解决有了可能性。所以,应区别具体情况,关键看案件中具体的争议事项是否符合争议可仲裁性的标准,应当将可仲裁性的标准放到案件的具体争议性质中去判断,而不是简单地以案件类型论。%Current arbitration law excludes the divorce cases from the jurisdiction of the arbitral court.Such a provision is a certain degree of irrationality.This article,proceeding from the discussion on the arbitrability of the dispute,and from the concept,characteristics and significance and its standards,puts a divorce case on a discussion under specific standard,making a conclusion that simply excluding the dispute related to marriage,adoption,guardianship,maintenance and inheritance relationships out of the arbitrability of disputes is not reasonable.In divorce dispute,recognized marriage disarmament could not be submitted to arbitration,but for the other aspects,the law does not require that the relevant property issues be resolved by the courts,even involving personal status,thus leaving the possibility to arbitration.Therefore,specific circumstances should be differentiated,the key of which is to see whether the specific subject matter in dispute in the case meets the standards of arbitrability disputes.The standard of arbitrability should be placed in specific controversial nature of the case to judge,rather than simply to think about the type of the cases.

  7. Armas estratégicas e poder no sistema internacional: o advento das armas de energia direta e seu impacto potencial sobre a guerra e a distribuição multipolar de capacidades Strategic weapons and power in international system: the arise of direct energy weapons and their potential impact over the war and multipolar distribution of capabilities

    Fabrício Schiavo Ávila


    in the international system over the next decade. The present work analyzes the real possibilities of the USA achieving an effective nuclear primacy condition, which requires the complete disarmament of all other powers. Since a nuclear war between the three countries has a very high political cost, disputes tend to be settled on the operational sphere. In order to demonstrate this final point, we made comparative use of two nuclear war scenarios. The article concludes by establishing the tactical and operational conditions that Russia and China seems to counting with in order to defeat United States if a shooting war comes.

  8. A half century perspective on the International Geophysical Year (IGY) - A Template for the International Polar Year 2007 (IPY 2007)?

    Behrendt, J. C.


    glaciologists and geophysicists with geologic training. Biology was not an IGY discipline, but even in this case, noted ornithologist, Carl Ekland (at Wilkes Station), carried out significant investigations of skuas. Physical oceanographic investigations resulted in geologic and biological sampling of the sea floor as well. A very few of the significant accomplishments of the IGY include the discovery of the Van Allen belts (the symbol of the IGY was a satellite circling the earth); the observation (at Mauna Loa) and recognition of the rapid global increase in carbon dioxide; the first major models of Arctic sea ice formation, decay, and drift; and the mapping of the midocean ridge system. In Antarctica, a first approximation of the mass of the ice sheet including the order of magnitude thicker ice than previously known (4 km) was a highlight. A baseline of mean annual temperatures measured (to about 0.1 degree accuracy) at about 40 km intervals along thousands of km of oversnow traverses was defined. Three World Data Centers were established; scientific results and data were deposited and made freely available to all. The peaceful international cooperation in Antarctica led directly to the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959, with the first disarmament and freedom of inspection and scientific investigations clauses in history, covering a large area of the earth. I anticipate even greater international scientific cooperation from the IPY 2007. A new generation of polar scientists was developed as a result of IGY; a few of us are still active in Antarctic research. A similar result will provide continuity for the next 50 years.

  9. G8 global partnership. France's contribution; Partenariat mondial du G8. L'action de la France



    During the G8 summit at Kananaskis (Canada) in June 2002, G8 Leaders decided to launch the Global Partnership against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. Under this initiative, partners support specific cooperation projects to address non-proliferation, disarmament, counter-terrorism and nuclear safety issues. Since then, thirteen other donor countries have joined the initiative from which the Ukraine may also now benefit. France intends to make an effective contribution, up to 750 million euros, to the implementation of this initiative, giving priority to a genuine partnership between France and Russia covering projects in the nuclear, chemical and biological fields. France intends to be involved in the various fields identified at Kananaskis: in the nuclear field, it is participating in nuclear submarine dismantling actions and contributes to the improvement of nuclear safety and security. It also supports the program for the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes. France is also involved in the destruction of chemical weapons and intends to develop responses to bio-terrorist threats, while promoting reemployment of scientists. To optimise its action, France has committed itself to both multilateral and bilateral programs. In the multilateral framework, France contributes to: - the NDEP fund (Northern Dimension Environment Partnership) which will finance projects related to the dismantling of nuclear submarines and remediation of the sites concerned; - the MPDG (Multilateral Plutonium Disposition Group), whose objective is to enable the disposition of Russian weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes; - the construction of the new Chernobyl shelter in the Ukraine. France is also developing bilateral cooperation, primarily with Russia: - in the nuclear field, the implementing agreement negotiated in the framework of the Multilateral Environmental

  10. 俄罗斯外交的新变化%New Changes in Russian Diplomacy

    李兴; 姜磊


    As a superpower,the success and failure of Soviet diplomacy deserves careful pondering and summarizing,and is of great reference significance to the current diplomacy of the great powers.Today's Russian diplomacy has drawn on the lessons of making enemies all around in the Soviet era,and is exerting its geo-superiority of crossing Europe and Asia and the influence of connecting the east and the west.Russia and the U.S.have signed a number of significant nuclear disarmament treaties to limit and further reduce the quantity of offensive strategic weapons.They give up the arms race,but still maintain very strong military strength.With multi-faceted diplomacy and no-enemies diplomacy,Russia attaches importance to the economic construction and commercial interests,and especially to energy diplomacy.As a member of the "BRICs",Russia has proposed the concept of establishing an innovating modern state.20 years later after the disintegration of the Soviet Union,Russia returns to the world again as a major power.Russia,after all,is Russia.Of course,for Russia,it can't be completed in a day to change the economic structure of over-reliance on energy and resources.The weak economy is still a bottleneck to confine the influence of Russian diplomacy.%作为一个超级大国,苏联外交的成败得失值得世人深思、总结,并对当今大国外交有重要的借鉴意义。今日的俄罗斯外交,吸取了苏联时期四面树敌的教训,发挥俄罗斯地跨欧亚的地缘优势和连贯东西的影响。俄美之间先后签订了若干重大的核裁军条约,限制和进一步削减进攻性战略武器,放弃军备竞赛,但仍然维持相当强的军力。俄罗斯实行全方位、无敌国外交,重视经济建设和商业利益,特别是能源外交,提出建设创新型现代化国家构想,成为"金砖四国"之一。作为一个大国,俄罗斯在苏联解体20年后又重返世界。俄罗斯毕竟是俄罗斯。当然,改变过分依赖

  11. The USA Space Policy in the Context of the Termination of the Arms Race

    L. V. Zhuravlova


    Full Text Available The USA Space Policy as one of the leading factors in the process of the arms race’ stop in late 80’s and early 90’s has been examined in the article. American Presidential Directives, international agreements and a wide range of research provided an opportunity to make informative conclusions about the positive role of space topics in the process of a detente and «Cold War» ending. It is important to note that the development of astronautics became one of the spin-offs from «Cold War» and the arms race, as it was the nuclear race logic that stimulated the development of weapons. At the same time, in the process of US-Soviet competition, space became a new sphere of international relations. Therefore, the cooperation in the space sphere became a symbol of the compromise and good will that were required during the most difficult negotiations about arms reduction. The warming and detente periods of international relations have been indicated. Furthermore, the majority of American and Russian researchers conclude that the Strategic Defense Initiative of Reagan became an important element of the USA strategy on the Soviet Union’s pressure, pushing it to more constructive position in negotiations on disarmament. Further results showed the effectiveness of the detente policies’ process of the USA government in this sphere. In addition, the uncertainty in the possibilities of the Soviet economy to respond to the challenge of a new stage of the space systems’ scientific and technological rivalry led to the reduction of armaments of the Soviet Union. At the same time, it was space topics discussion that provided the deepening of the detente process. It is worth to note, that space cooperation relations, which recovered during 80’s-early 90’s, have turned into an important political signal transmission channel between the two countries and caused the facilitating interaction between the parties on wider range of problems. And in the

  12. An Evaluation of North Korea’s Nuclear Test by Belbasi Nuclear Tests Monitoring Center-KOERI

    Necmioglu, O.; Meral Ozel, N.; Semin, K.


    event, we saw a very clear P arrival at 01:05:47 (GMT) at BRTR SP array. The result of the f-k analysis performed in Geotool software, installed at NDC facilities in 2008 and is in full use currently, was also indicating that the arrival belongs to the DPRK event. When comparing our f-k results (calculated at 1-2 Hz) with IDC-REB, however, we have noticed that our calculation and therefore corresponding residuals (calculated with reference to REB residuals) are much better in comparison to REB. The reasons of this ambiguity have been explored and for the first time a comprehensive seismological analysis of a Nuclear Test has been conducted in Turkey. CTBT has an important role for the implementation of the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and it is a key element for the pursuit of nuclear disarmament. In this study, we would like to reflect the technical and scientific aspects of the 25 May 2009 DPRK event analysis, together with our involvement in CTBT(O) affairs, which we believe it brings new dimensions to Turkey especially in the area of Geophysics.

  13. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I


    The role of Sweden in disarmament and non-proliferation efforts extends from the late 1940's to the present. It covers active support to place nuclear weapons under international control and participation in practically all control regimes aimed at non-proliferation and elimination of any mass destruction capability. Sweden has also made available highly competent and high-ranking officers to serve many of the institutions and organisations supporting the political work and operative functions in this field. Until 1968, Sweden had a double-track policy where both the nuclear weapons option and non-proliferation as a possibility were pursued and investigated. After 1968, non-proliferation became the established policy, and the nuclear programme, materials and activities have since served exclusively peaceful purposes. It appears possible that the IAEA could, after a short period of initial implementation, be in a position to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in Sweden. Sweden has undertaken to ensure the transparency of its nuclear programme by providing all relevant information and by facilitating physical access, as necessary, and by addressing any questions and issues of concern in a direct and open-minded manner. The implementation of traditional safeguards should continue effectively, to enable the Agency to draw its conclusions on the absence of diversion of declared nuclear material in Sweden in the future. Using its reporting mechanisms, the Agency should share these conclusions with Member States so as to ensure that the objectives of the strengthened safeguards are met. Under these conditions, IAEA could and would decide to proceed with the implementation of integrated safeguard measures at the declared facilities and locations in Sweden. It is proposed that IAEA would participate in annual PIV's, but would, however, detach from routine verification work to the extent possible and make full use of the

  14. Respostas brasileiras à violência e novas mediações: o caso do Grupo Cultural AfroReggae e a experiência do projeto Juventude e Polícia Brazilian responses to violence and new forms of mediation: the case of the Grupo Cultural AfroReggae and the experience of the project Youth and the Police

    Sílvia Ramos


    Full Text Available O artigo discute aspectos das respostas brasileiras à violência urbana, focalizando tanto políticas governamentais de segurança pública como ações da sociedade civil. Identifica e inexistência de uma política nacional de segurança pública, indica experiências governamentais bem-sucedidas em estados e municípios e focaliza a atuação das polícias. Ao analisar as respostas da sociedade civil, destaca a experiência da campanha do desarmamento e o papel da mídia. O trabalho situa o surgimento de grupos de jovens de favelas organizados em torno de experiências culturais que, em vários aspectos, se caracterizam como "novos mediadores" na sociedade. Esses grupos tematizam a violência e procuram construir novos estereótipos que dissociem os jovens de periferia das imagens de criminalidade. O artigo descreve em particular o caso do grupo cultural AfroReggae, do Rio de Janeiro, e a experiência piloto em batalhões da Polícia Militar de Minas Gerais, o projeto Juventude e Polícia. Argumentase que o grupo AfroReggae é tipicamente um novo mediador e que a iniciativa de realizar um projeto com a polícia abre novas perspectivas no campo da reduzida tradição participativa de organizações da sociedade civil na esfera da segurança pública e em projetos de cooperação com a polícia.This article points out some aspects of the Brazilian's response to the urban violence, focusing both official policies of public security and civil society's actions. Identifies a lack on the national policy of public security, indicates successful governmental experiences carried out on some states and counties, and concentrates on the Police's actions. Analyzing the responses of the civil society, points out the experience of the Campaign for Disarmament and the role of the media. The paper shows the rising of groups of young people living in the favelas that became organized around cultural experiences that, in multiple aspects, characterize them as

  15. The consumption of khat and other drugs in Somali combatants: a cross-sectional study.

    Michael Odenwald


    .7%, 99% CI 0%-30.4%, ingesting psychoactive tablets (8.5%, 99% CI 0%-24.4%, drinking alcohol (5.3%, 99% CI 0%-13.8%, inhaling solvents (1.8%, 99% CI 0%-5.1%, and eating hemp seeds (0.6%, 99% CI 0%-2.0%. Perceived use of khat differs little between northern and southern Somalia, but perceived use of other drugs reaches alarmingly high levels in some regions of the south, especially related to smoking cannabis and using psychoactive tablets. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that drug use has quantitatively and qualitatively changed over the course of conflicts in southern Somalia, as current patterns are in contrast to traditional use. Although future studies using random sampling methods need to confirm our results, we hypothesize that drug-related problems of armed staff and other vulnerable groups in southern Somalia has reached proportions formerly unknown to the country, especially as we believe that any biases in our data would lead to an underestimation of actual drug use. We recommend that future disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR programs need to be prepared to deal with significant drug-related problems in Somalia.

  16. Cybersecurity threats to satellite communications: Towards a typology of state actor responses

    Housen-Couriel, Deborah


    hostile events. At present, four key normative international law regimes influence the types of measures that may be undertaken by states: the UN Charter's collective security regime; space law (governing the launching of objects and their space activities, including liability for damages); global telecommunications law (governing data transmissions and protection of infrastructures); and the substantive law relating to transborder freedom of information. Moreover, the nascent normative framework that will eventually apply to state and non-state activities in cyberspace will also be relevant to satellite communications, although it has been largely excluded from analyses and studies. In summary, this article proposes a typology of hostile events, both kinetic and cyber-enabled, that are liable to disrupt satellite communications; and it reviews the four key relevant legal regimes and notes the challenges of nascent cybersecurity law on the international plane. The article concludes by advocating for the establishment of a framework for effective elucidation of appropriate legal remedies at the international level in responding to kinetic, virtual and hybrid threats and hostile disruptions to satellite communications. ASAT of various types, including hostile interference with satellite transmissions, has also been treated as a critical issue in the context of the increasing militarization of space, as addressed under the auspices of the United Nations' Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) and Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA). For example, in the 2013 Report of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures in Outer Space Activities (herein, "GGE") it was noted that the outer space environment is becoming "…increasingly congested, contested and competitive. In the context of international peace and security, there is growing concern that threats to vital space capabilities may increase during the next decade as a result of

  17. Obituary: Hans Albrecht Bethe, 1906-2005

    Wijers, Ralph


    head-on and not allowing himself to be side-tracked by those who would deem the problem be much more complex and difficult, moving straight forward like an intellectual battleship ("The H.A. Bethe Way," as his collaborator Gerald E. Brown would dub the style). Bethe's involvement in the Project brought to light his abilities in the managerial and political arena, which he used later to much effect to influence the wider world; he was among those who fought hard during the Cold War to contain the impact of the terrible weapons he had helped invent. As his two children, Henry and Monica, were born, the war years also made him a family man. As his father did with him, he often took them on long walks, in the hills around Ithaca or further afield; he much enjoyed walking, and mountains. Just after the war, during and following the June 1947 Shelter Island Conference, Bethe made another of his great contributions to physics—some might say his greatest. The experiments by Willis Lamb and Robert Retherford, on what came to be known as the "Lamb shift," were discussed, and during the meeting the assembled crowd (Richard Feynman, Julian Schwinger, and Hendrick Kramers among them) got stuck on the infinities of QED. During the train ride home, Bethe managed to compute the correct answer by realizing that the complex QED machinery could be bypassed, the H.A. Bethe Way. His 1967 Nobel Prize spurred a brief revival of Bethe's interest in astrophysics, but his work in the following years continued to focus on nuclear physics and dense matter (and disarmament and nuclear power, of course). In 1978 he re-entered astrophysics with a bang: Bethe was losing interest in nuclear physics and, after a few years of trying, Gerry Brown lured him back to astrophysics during a stay at the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (NORDITA). The refugee from Hitler and the refugee from McCarthy jointly attacked the problem of supernova collapse. Bethe had the crucial insight that the low entropy