WorldWideScience

Sample records for disappearance event observed

  1. 3D Evolution of a Filament Disappearance Event Observed by STEREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, S.; Schmieder, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Chandra, R.; Artzner, G.

    2009-10-01

    A filament disappearance event was observed on 22 May 2008 during our recent campaign JOP 178. The filament, situated in the Southern Hemisphere, showed sinistral chirality consistent with the hemispheric rule. The event was well observed by several observatories, in particular by THEMIS. One day, before the disappearance, Hα observations showed up- and down-flows in adjacent locations along the filament, which suggest plasma motions along twisted flux rope. THEMIS and GONG observations show shearing photospheric motions leading to magnetic flux canceling around barbs. STEREO A, B spacecraft with separation angle 52.4°, showed quite different views of this untwisting flux rope in He ii 304 Å images. Here, we reconstruct the three-dimensional geometry of the filament during its eruption phase using STEREO EUV He ii 304 Å images and find that the filament was highly inclined to the solar normal. The He ii 304 Å movies show individual threads, which oscillate and rise to an altitude of about 120 Mm with apparent velocities of about 100 km s-1 during the rapid evolution phase. Finally, as the flux rope expands into the corona, the filament disappears by becoming optically thin to undetectable levels. No CME was detected by STEREO, only a faint CME was recorded by LASCO at the beginning of the disappearance phase at 02:00 UT, which could be due to partial filament eruption. Further, STEREO Fe xii 195 Å images showed bright loops beneath the filament prior to the disappearance phase, suggesting magnetic reconnection below the flux rope.

  2. The formation and disappearance of filament barbs observed by SDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leping; Zhang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Employing six-day (August 16-21, 2010) SDO/AIA observations, we systematically investigate the formation and disappearance of 58 barbs of a northern (~N60) polar crown filament. Three different ways of barb formation are discovered, including (1) the convergence of surrounding moving materials (55.2%), (2) the flows of materials from the filament (37.9%), and (3) the material injections from neighboring brightening regions (6.9%). We also find three different types of barb disappearance, involving: (i) the bi-lateral movements (44.8%), and (ii) the outflowing (27.6%) of barb material resulting in the barb disappearance, as well as (iii) the barb disappearance associated with neighboring brightenings (27.6%). We propose that barbs exchange materials with the filament, surrounding atmosphere, and nearby brightening regions, causing the barb formation and disappearance.

  3. Observation of Energy and Baseline Dependent Reactor Antineutrino Disappearance in the RENO Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J H; Choi, W Q; Choi, Y; Jang, H I; Jang, J S; Jeon, E J; Joo, K K; Kim, B R; Kim, H S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kim, S Y; Kim, W; Kim, Y D; Ko, Y; Lee, D H; Lim, I T; Pac, M Y; Park, I G; Park, J S; Park, R G; Seo, H; Seo, S H; Seon, Y G; Shin, C D; Siyeon, K; Yang, J H; Yeo, I S; Yu, I

    2016-05-27

    The RENO experiment has analyzed about 500 live days of data to observe an energy dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} by comparing their prompt signal spectra measured in two identical near and far detectors. In the period between August of 2011 and January of 2013, the far (near) detector observed 31 541 (290 775) electron antineutrino candidate events with a background fraction of 4.9% (2.8%). The measured prompt spectra show an excess of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. A clear energy and baseline dependent disappearance of reactor ν[over ¯]_{e} is observed in the deficit of the observed number of ν[over ¯]_{e}. Based on the measured far-to-near ratio of prompt spectra, we obtain sin^{2}2θ_{13}=0.082±0.009(stat)±0.006(syst) and |Δm_{ee}^{2}|=[2.62_{-0.23}^{+0.21}(stat)_{-0.13}^{+0.12}(syst)]×10^{-3}  eV^{2}.

  4. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  5. Compulsory declaration of the disappearance, loss or theft of property and of serious events

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    Change The rules governing internal and external declarations have been modified as follows. Incidents concerning CERN access cards and CERN vehicle stickers must be reported as follows: in the case of theft, to the competent authorities of the country in which the theft was committed; in the case of loss or disappearance, to the Reception and Access Control Service. The Services responsible for issuing replacement documents will henceforth require the presentation of proof of declaration to the competent authorities (in the case of theft) or a declaration by the holder of the card or sticker, signed on his/her honour (in the case of loss). In both cases specific reference to the card or sticker concerned must be made. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch

  6. Geneva University: Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 19 March 2012 COLLOQUE DE PHYSIQUE 5 p.m. - École de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Observation of electron-antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay  Professor Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, a multinational collaboration operating in the south of China, today reported the first results of its search for the last, most elusive piece of a long-standing puzzle: how is it that neutrinos can appear to vanish as they travel? The surprising answer opens a gateway to a new understanding of fundamental physics and may eventually solve the riddle of why there is far more ordinary matter than antimatter in the Universe today....

  7. New Technologies of the Observer: #BringBack, Visualisation and Disappearance

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Sophie E.; Lury, Celia

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores two examples of non-visibility as a way of describing the specificity of contemporary surfaces of visualization. The two cases are the disappearance of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, the scheduled passenger flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, which lost contact with air traffic control on 8 March 2014 at 01:20 MYT, and the 276 Nigerian girls who went ‘missing’ at about the same time. The analysis is developed through an exploration of these examples in terms of the pattern...

  8. Hoar crystal development and disappearance at Dome C, Antarctica: observation by near-infrared photography and passive microwave satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Champollion

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hoar crystals episodically cover the snow surface in Antarctica and affect the roughness and reflective properties of the air–snow interface. However, little is known about their evolution and the processes responsible for their development and disappearance despite a probable influence on the surface mass balance and energy budget. To investigate hoar evolution, we use continuous observations of the surface by in situ near-infrared photography and by passive microwave remote sensing at Dome C in Antarctica. From the photography data, we retrieved a daily indicator of the presence/absence of hoar crystals using a texture analysis algorithm. The analysis of this 2 yr long time series shows that Dome C surface is covered almost half of the time by hoar. The development of hoar crystals takes a few days and seems to occur whatever the meteorological conditions. In contrast, the disappearance of hoar is rapid (a few hours and coincident with either strong winds or with moderate winds associated with a change in wind direction from southwest (the prevailing direction to southeast. From the microwave satellite data, we computed the polarisation ratio (i.e. horizontal over vertical polarised brightness temperatures, an indicator known to be sensitive to hoar in Greenland. Photography data and microwave polarisation ratio are correlated, i.e. high values of polarisation ratio which theoretically correspond to low snow density values near the surface are associated with the presence of hoar crystals in the photography data. Satellite data over nearly ten years (2002–2011 confirm that a strong decrease of the polarisation ratio (i.e. signature of hoar disappearance is associated with an increase of wind speed or a change in wind direction from the prevailing direction. The photography data provides, in addition, evidence of interactions between hoar and snowfall. Further adding the combined influence of wind speed and wind direction results in a

  9. VLF Observation of Long Ionospheric Recovery Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotts, B. R.; Inan, U. S.

    2006-12-01

    On the evening of 20 November 1992, three early/fast events were observed on the great circle path (GCP) from the NAU transmitter in Puerto Rico to Gander (GA), Newfoundland. These events were found to have significantly longer recovery times (up to 20 minutes) than any previously documented events. Typical early/fast events and Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events affect the D-region ionosphere near the night-time VLF-reflection height of ~85 km and exhibit recovery to pre-event levels of gigantic jets. In this context, preliminary results indicate that the lightning-associated VLF long recovery events appear to be more common in oceanic thunderstorms. In this paper, we present occurrence statistics and other measured properties of VLF long recovery events, observed on all-sea based and land based VLF great circle paths.

  10. Calculation of Fission Observables Through Event-by-Event Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randrup, J; Vogt, R

    2009-06-04

    The increased interest in more exclusive fission observables has demanded more detailed models. We present here a new computational model, FREYA, that aims to met this need by producing large samples of complete fission events from which any observable of interest can then be extracted consistently, including arbitrary correlations. The various model assumptions are described and the potential utility of the model is illustrated by means of several novel correlation observables.

  11. INSAR observations of the DPRK event series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, R. J.; Ford, S. R.; Walter, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (INSAR) data have revealed signals associated with the recent DPRK events in 2016 and 2017. These signals include decorrelation and indications of subsidence. Both standard phase differences and amplitude offsets are calculated. We show results of INSAR analysis as conducted using C and L band data and investigate the causes of the decorrelation (e.g. subsidence, landslide, or spall) and compare the observed signal with numerical models of deformation and seismic observations. A time series approach is applied to constrain post-event deformation at the weeks to months' timescale. We compare the INSAR observations of the DPRK tests with previous observations of events at other source regions using ERS archive data, which revealed a variety of post-seismic signatures. The signatures are evaluated with respect to the known geology and causes, including long-term surface relaxation and possible groundwater/thermal effects. Particular focus is on the sites on Pahute and Rainier Mesa, which displayed long-term subsidence signals that extended for several years after the explosions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC

  12. Physics and observations of tidal disruption events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Arun; Mageshwaran, Tamilan

    2018-04-01

    We describe a model of tidal disruption events (TDEs) with input physical parameters that include the black hole (BH) mass M•, the specific orbital energy E, the angular momentum J, the star mass M⊙ and radius R⊙. We calculate the rise time of the TDEs, the peak bolometric luminosity in terms of these physical parameters and a typical light curve of TDEs for various All Sky Survey (ASS) and Deep Sky Survey (DSS) missions. We then derive the expected detection rates and discuss the follow up of TDEs through observations in various spectral bands from X-rays to radio wavelengths.

  13. PULSAR OBSERVATIONS OF EXTREME SCATTERING EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, W. A.; Kerr, M.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Dai, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D.; Toomey, L.; Zhu, X. J.; You, X.-P.; Bailes, M.; Straten, W. van; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Keith, M. J.; Levin, Y.; Osłowski, S.; Wang, J. B.; Wen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Extreme scattering events (ESEs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) were first observed in regular flux measurements of compact extragalactic sources. They are characterized by a flux variation over a period of weeks, suggesting the passage of a “diverging plasma lens” across the line of sight (LOS). Modeling the refraction of such a lens indicates that the structure size must be of the order of AU and the electron density of the order of 10s of cm −3 . Similar structures have been observed in measurements of pulsar intensity scintillation and group delay. Here we report observations of two ESEs, showing increases in both intensity scintillation and dispersion made with the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array. These allow us to make more complete models of the ESE, including an estimate of the “outer-scale” of the turbulence in the plasma lens. These observations clearly show that the ESE structure is fully turbulent on an AU scale. They provide some support for the idea that the structures are extended along the LOS, such as would be the case for a scattering shell. The dispersion measurements also show a variety of AU scale structures that would not be called ESEs, yet involve electron density variations typical of ESEs and likely have the same origin

  14. Pulsar Observations of Extreme Scattering Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, W. A.; Kerr, M.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; You, X.-P.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Dai, S.; Keith, M. J.; Levin, Y.; Osłowski, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D.; Toomey, L.; van Straten, W.; Wang, J. B.; Wen, L.; Zhu, X. J.

    2015-08-01

    Extreme scattering events (ESEs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) were first observed in regular flux measurements of compact extragalactic sources. They are characterized by a flux variation over a period of weeks, suggesting the passage of a “diverging plasma lens” across the line of sight (LOS). Modeling the refraction of such a lens indicates that the structure size must be of the order of AU and the electron density of the order of 10s of cm-3. Similar structures have been observed in measurements of pulsar intensity scintillation and group delay. Here we report observations of two ESEs, showing increases in both intensity scintillation and dispersion made with the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array. These allow us to make more complete models of the ESE, including an estimate of the “outer-scale” of the turbulence in the plasma lens. These observations clearly show that the ESE structure is fully turbulent on an AU scale. They provide some support for the idea that the structures are extended along the LOS, such as would be the case for a scattering shell. The dispersion measurements also show a variety of AU scale structures that would not be called ESEs, yet involve electron density variations typical of ESEs and likely have the same origin.

  15. PULSAR OBSERVATIONS OF EXTREME SCATTERING EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, W. A. [ECE Department, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0407 (United States); Kerr, M.; Shannon, R. M.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Dai, S.; Ravi, V.; Reardon, D.; Toomey, L.; Zhu, X. J. [ATNF, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); You, X.-P. [Southwest University, Chongqing (China); Bailes, M.; Straten, W. van [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Bhat, N. D. R. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102 (Australia); Burke-Spolaor, S. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, 1200 E California Boulevard, CA 91125 (United States); Keith, M. J. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Levin, Y. [Monash Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia); Osłowski, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wang, J. B. [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 150 Science 1-Street, Urumqi, Xinjiang, 830011 (China); Wen, L., E-mail: bcoles@ucsd.edu [University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-08-01

    Extreme scattering events (ESEs) in the interstellar medium (ISM) were first observed in regular flux measurements of compact extragalactic sources. They are characterized by a flux variation over a period of weeks, suggesting the passage of a “diverging plasma lens” across the line of sight (LOS). Modeling the refraction of such a lens indicates that the structure size must be of the order of AU and the electron density of the order of 10s of cm{sup −3}. Similar structures have been observed in measurements of pulsar intensity scintillation and group delay. Here we report observations of two ESEs, showing increases in both intensity scintillation and dispersion made with the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array. These allow us to make more complete models of the ESE, including an estimate of the “outer-scale” of the turbulence in the plasma lens. These observations clearly show that the ESE structure is fully turbulent on an AU scale. They provide some support for the idea that the structures are extended along the LOS, such as would be the case for a scattering shell. The dispersion measurements also show a variety of AU scale structures that would not be called ESEs, yet involve electron density variations typical of ESEs and likely have the same origin.

  16. Validation in the Absence of Observed Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, John; Ezell, Barry

    2016-04-01

    This article addresses the problem of validating models in the absence of observed events, in the area of weapons of mass destruction terrorism risk assessment. We address that problem with a broadened definition of "validation," based on stepping "up" a level to considering the reason why decisionmakers seek validation, and from that basis redefine validation as testing how well the model can advise decisionmakers in terrorism risk management decisions. We develop that into two conditions: validation must be based on cues available in the observable world; and it must focus on what can be done to affect that observable world, i.e., risk management. That leads to two foci: (1) the real-world risk generating process, and (2) best use of available data. Based on our experience with nine WMD terrorism risk assessment models, we then describe three best use of available data pitfalls: SME confidence bias, lack of SME cross-referencing, and problematic initiation rates. Those two foci and three pitfalls provide a basis from which we define validation in this context in terms of four tests--Does the model: … capture initiation? … capture the sequence of events by which attack scenarios unfold? … consider unanticipated scenarios? … consider alternative causal chains? Finally, we corroborate our approach against three validation tests from the DOD literature: Is the model a correct representation of the process to be simulated? To what degree are the model results comparable to the real world? Over what range of inputs are the model results useful? © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Observation of monojet events and tentative interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztazabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Palla, F.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Donvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Engelhardt, A.; Foà, L.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moneta, L.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Abt, I.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Courault, F.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jacquet, M.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Park, I. C.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliwsi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; San Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-08-01

    A data sample corresponding to almost two million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP has been searched for monojet events. Three events were found, in agreement with the expectation from the process ee→γ*vvbar, with γ*→ffbar. Two events are hadronic, the third one being an e+e- pair. All monojet masses are in excess of 3 GeV/c2, and two of the event have large transverse momenta: 18.5 and 20.3 GeV/c. These kinematic characteristics are quite unlikely in the process ee→γ*vvbar. The probability of their occurence increases substantially when processes involving further Z or W exchanges are taken into account, but still remains at the 5% level.

  18. A new type of ion injection event observed by Viking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Lundin, R.; Woch, J.; Shapshak, M.; Elphinstone, R.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report on the observation of a new type of ion injection event observed by Viking spacecraft several degrees equatorward of the cusp. Its signature seems considerably different than previously reported events such as flux transfer events or impulsive or transient magnetosheath plasma injection events. It consists of low energy ions, as the pattern drops sharply above 100 to 200 eV

  19. Analyzing time-ordered event data with missed observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, Adriaan M.; van Loon, E. Emiel; Fokkema, Wimke; Lameris, Thomas K.; Nolet, Bart A.; van der Jeugd, Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    A common problem with observational datasets is that not all events of interest may be detected. For example, observing animals in the wild can difficult when animals move, hide, or cannot be closely approached. We consider time series of events recorded in conditions where events are occasionally

  20. ISOMER: Informative Segment Observations for Multimedia Event Recounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, C.; Burns, B.; Nevatia, R.; Snoek, C.; Bolles, B.; Myers, G.; Wang, W.; Yeh, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a system for multimedia event detection and recounting. The goal is to detect a high level event class in unconstrained web videos and generate event oriented summarization for display to users. For this purpose, we detect informative segments and collect observations for them,

  1. Analyzing time-ordered event data with missed observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokter, Adriaan M; van Loon, E Emiel; Fokkema, Wimke; Lameris, Thomas K; Nolet, Bart A; van der Jeugd, Henk P

    2017-09-01

    A common problem with observational datasets is that not all events of interest may be detected. For example, observing animals in the wild can difficult when animals move, hide, or cannot be closely approached. We consider time series of events recorded in conditions where events are occasionally missed by observers or observational devices. These time series are not restricted to behavioral protocols, but can be any cyclic or recurring process where discrete outcomes are observed. Undetected events cause biased inferences on the process of interest, and statistical analyses are needed that can identify and correct the compromised detection processes. Missed observations in time series lead to observed time intervals between events at multiples of the true inter-event time, which conveys information on their detection probability. We derive the theoretical probability density function for observed intervals between events that includes a probability of missed detection. Methodology and software tools are provided for analysis of event data with potential observation bias and its removal. The methodology was applied to simulation data and a case study of defecation rate estimation in geese, which is commonly used to estimate their digestive throughput and energetic uptake, or to calculate goose usage of a feeding site from dropping density. Simulations indicate that at a moderate chance to miss arrival events ( p  = 0.3), uncorrected arrival intervals were biased upward by up to a factor 3, while parameter values corrected for missed observations were within 1% of their true simulated value. A field case study shows that not accounting for missed observations leads to substantial underestimates of the true defecation rate in geese, and spurious rate differences between sites, which are introduced by differences in observational conditions. These results show that the derived methodology can be used to effectively remove observational biases in time-ordered event

  2. Disappearance and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to provide a summary of the existing evidence on the disappearance of comets and to draw conclusions regarding the physical processes involved in the disappearance. Information concerning the classification of evidence and the causes of apparent disappearance of comets is presented in a table. Attention is given to the dissipating comets, the headless sungrazing comet 1887 I, and the physical behavior of the dissipating comets and the related phenomena. It is found that all comets confined to the planetary region of the solar system decay on astronomically short time scales. However, only some of them appear to perish catastrophically. Some of the observed phenomena could be successfully interpreted. But little insight has been obtained into the character of the processes which the dissipating comets experience.

  3. Trends and characteristics observed in nuclear events based on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    2001-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA as a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. Nuclear events are reported to the INES with the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator, which runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. Since the operation of INES was initiated in 1990, approximately 500 events have been reported and disseminated. The present paper discusses the trends observed in nuclear events, such as overall trends of the reported events and characteristics of safety significant events with level 2 or higher, based on the INES reports. (author)

  4. The analysis of a complex fire event using multispaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Simona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a complex fire event that occurred on October 2016, in Middle East belligerent area. Two fire outbreaks were detected by different spacecraft monitoring instruments on board of TERRA, CALIPSO and AURA Earth Observation missions. Link with local weather conditions was examined using ERA Interim Reanalysis and CAMS datasets. The detection of the event by multiple sensors enabled a detailed characterization of fires and the comparison with different observational data.

  5. The analysis of a complex fire event using multispaceborne observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Simona; Carstea, Emil; Marmureanu, Luminita; Ene, Dragos; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Nicolae, Doina; Konsta, Dimitra; Amiridis, Vassilis; Proestakis, Emmanouil

    2018-04-01

    This study documents a complex fire event that occurred on October 2016, in Middle East belligerent area. Two fire outbreaks were detected by different spacecraft monitoring instruments on board of TERRA, CALIPSO and AURA Earth Observation missions. Link with local weather conditions was examined using ERA Interim Reanalysis and CAMS datasets. The detection of the event by multiple sensors enabled a detailed characterization of fires and the comparison with different observational data.

  6. An EAS event observed in the early stage of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, S. L. C.; Beggio, P. C.; de Carvalho, A. O.; Chinellato, J. A.; Mariano, A.; de Oliveira, R.; Shibuya, E. H.; Brazil-Japan Collaboration of Chacaltaya Emulsion Chamber Experiment

    2008-01-01

    Since 1969 the experiments of Brazil-Japan Collaboration showed the occurrence of a series of events, showing a region with a high concentration of electromagnetic particles, surrounded by isolated and/or groups of showers. These events were named "halo events" or "super-families". Currently, we have more than a dozen of such events. The first of them, due to its aspect, was named "Andromeda". We present here the main characteristics of a similar halo event, named C21S087I075. It has a halo region with many high energy showers in its border. Other small energy showers spread over the central and surrounding blocks (S088, S100, S101, I074). These isolated showers, classified as of hadronic or electromagnetic origin, present a fractional energy distribution compatible with that of a Centauro candidate event (C16S087I037), reported at this symposium [S.L.C. Barroso, P.C. Beggio, J.A. Chinellato, A.O. Carvalho, A. Mariano, R. Oliveira, E.H. Shibuya, in this issue of XIV ISVHECRI]. Moreover, the lateral distribution in the halo region is similar to that observed in other 3 halo events.

  7. Using Dawn to Observe SEP Events Past 2 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, M. N.; Russell, C. T.; Prettyman, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The launch of the STEREO spacecraft provided much insight into the longitudinal and radial distribution of solar energetic particles (SEPs) relative to their origin site. However, almost all of the observations of SEP events have been made exclusively near 1 AU. The Dawn mission, which orbited around Vesta before arriving at Ceres, provides an opportunity to analyze these events at much further distances. Although Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) is not optimized for SEP characterization, it is sensitive to protons greater than 4 MeV, making it capable of detecting a solar energetic particle event in its vicinity. Solar energetic particles in this area of the solar system are important as they are believed to cause sputtering at bodies such as Ceres and comets (Villarreal et al., 2017; Wurz et al., 2015). In this study, we use Dawn's GRaND data from 2011-2015 when Dawn was at distances between 2-3 AU. We compare the SEP events seen by Dawn with particle measurements at 1 AU using STEREO, Wind, and ACE to understand how the SEP events evolved past 1 AU.References: Villarreal, M. N., et al. (2017), The dependence of the Cerean exosphere on solar energetic particle events, Astrophys. J. Lett., 838, L8.Wurz, P. et al. (2015), Solar wind sputtering of dust on the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, A&A, 583, A22.

  8. AGILE OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavani, M.; Donnarumma, I.; Argan, A.; Monte, E. Del; Evangelista, Y.; Piano, G.; Munar-Adrover, P. [INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Antonelli, L. A. [ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), Via del Politecnico, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bulgarelli, A.; Marisaldi, M.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A. [INAF-IASF-Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Giuliani, A.; Caraveo, P. [INAF-IASF Milano, via E.Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Trois, A. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Poggio dei Pini, strada 54, I-09012 Capoterra (Italy); Barbiellini, G. [Dip. di Fisica, Universita’ di Trieste and INFN, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Cattaneo, P. W., E-mail: victor@roma2.infn.it.it [INFN-Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); and others

    2016-07-01

    We report the results of an extensive search through the AGILE data for a gamma-ray counterpart to the LIGO gravitational-wave (GW) event GW150914. Currently in spinning mode, AGILE has the potential of cover 80% of the sky with its gamma-ray instrument, more than 100 times a day. It turns out that AGILE came within a minute of the event time of observing the accessible GW150914 localization region. Interestingly, the gamma-ray detector exposed ∼65% of this region during the 100 s time intervals centered at −100 and +300 s from the event time. We determine a 2 σ flux upper limit in the band 50 MeV–10 GeV, UL = 1.9 × 10{sup −8} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, obtained ∼300 s after the event. The timing of this measurement is the fastest ever obtained for GW150914, and significantly constrains the electromagnetic emission of a possible high-energy counterpart. We also carried out a search for a gamma-ray precursor and delayed emission over five timescales ranging from minutes to days: in particular, we obtained an optimal exposure during the interval −150/−30 s. In all these observations, we do not detect a significant signal associated with GW150914. We do not reveal the weak transient source reported by Fermi -GBM 0.4 s after the event time. However, even though a gamma-ray counterpart of the GW150914 event was not detected, the prospects for future AGILE observations of GW sources are decidedly promising.

  9. Infrasonic observations of large-scale HE events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Rodney W.; Mutschlecner, J. Paul; Davidson, Masha B.; Noel, Susan D.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Infrasound Program has been operating since about mid-1982, making routine measurements of low frequency atmospheric acoustic propagation. Generally, the authors work between 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz; however, much of the work is concerned with the narrower range of 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Two permanent stations, St. George, UT, and Los Alamos, NM, have been operational since 1983, collecting data 24 hours a day. For the purposes of this discussion, the authors concentrate on their measurements of large, high explosive (HE) events at ranges of 250 km to 5330 km. Because their equipment is well suited for mobile deployments, they can easily establish temporary observing sites for special events. The measurements are from the permanent sites, as well as from various temporary sites. A few observations that are typical of the full data set are given.

  10. How do oocytes disappear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Musoles, F; Renau, J; Hernandez-Yago, J; Torres, J

    1975-07-29

    It has been study using transmission and scanner electron microscopy the mean procedures of dessaparence of the oocytes. On described three methods: 1. The necrosis of the oocytes. 2. The autolysis and fagocitosis by granulosa cells. 3. The migration of those to the superphicie and fall into the peritoneal cavity. Using the scanner electron microscopy in ovaries of fetus and newborn it seems the latest method to bee the most important during the intrauterine life. After the birth, this last phenomenon seems to disappear.

  11. The disappearance of flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soff, S.; Hartnack, C.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the disappearance of collective flow in the reaction plane in heavy-ion collisions within a microscopic model (QMD). A systematic study of the impact parameter dependence is performed for the system Ca+Ca. The balance energy strongly increases with impact parameter. Momentum dependent interactions reduce the balance energies for intermediate impact parameters b∼4.5 fm. Dynamical negative flow is not visible in the laboratory frame but does exist in the contact frame for the heavy system Au+Au. For semi-peripheral collisions of Ca+Ca with b∼6.5 fm a new two-component flow is discussed. Azimuthal distributions exhibit strong collectiv flow signals, even at the balance energy. (orig.)

  12. Fast radio burst event rate counts - I. Interpreting the observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquart, J.-P.; Ekers, R. D.

    2018-02-01

    The fluence distribution of the fast radio burst (FRB) population (the `source count' distribution, N (>F) ∝Fα), is a crucial diagnostic of its distance distribution, and hence the progenitor evolutionary history. We critically reanalyse current estimates of the FRB source count distribution. We demonstrate that the Lorimer burst (FRB 010724) is subject to discovery bias, and should be excluded from all statistical studies of the population. We re-examine the evidence for flat, α > -1, source count estimates based on the ratio of single-beam to multiple-beam detections with the Parkes multibeam receiver, and show that current data imply only a very weak constraint of α ≲ -1.3. A maximum-likelihood analysis applied to the portion of the Parkes FRB population detected above the observational completeness fluence of 2 Jy ms yields α = -2.6_{-1.3}^{+0.7 }. Uncertainties in the location of each FRB within the Parkes beam render estimates of the Parkes event rate uncertain in both normalizing survey area and the estimated post-beam-corrected completeness fluence; this uncertainty needs to be accounted for when comparing the event rate against event rates measured at other telescopes.

  13. W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

  14. Fermi Observations of the LIGO Event GW170104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A.; Cleveland, W. H.; Connaughton, V. [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Veres, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Hamburg, R.; Jenke, P. A.; Bhat, N. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Burns, E.; Canton, T. Dal [NASA Postdoctoral Program Fellow, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blackburn, L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Christensen, N. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN, 55057 (United States); Hui, C. M.; Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A. [Astrophysics Office, ST12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Preece, R. D. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Siellez, K. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Veitch, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Gibby, M. H., E-mail: kocevski@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: melissa.pesce.rollins@pi.infn.it, E-mail: nicola.omodei@stanford.edu, E-mail: giacomov@slac.stanford.edu [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Collaboration: (Fermi-LAT Collaboration); and others

    2017-09-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger (BBH) event GW170104. No candidate electromagnetic counterpart was detected by either GBM or LAT. A detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over timescales from seconds to days covering the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) localization region is presented. The resulting flux upper bound from the GBM is (5.2–9.4) × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 10–1000 keV range and from the LAT is (0.2–90) × 10{sup −9} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 0.1–1 GeV range. We also describe the improvements to our automated pipelines and analysis techniques for searching for and characterizing the potential electromagnetic counterparts for future gravitational-wave events from Advanced LIGO/Virgo.

  15. ISEE/IMP Observations of simultaneous upstream ion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, D.G.; Roelof, E.C.; Sanderson, T.R.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.

    1983-01-01

    Propagation of upstream energetic (50--200 keV) ions is analyzed in sixteen events observed simulataneously by solid state detectors on ISEE 3 at approx.200 R/sub E/ and on IMP 8 at approx.35 R/sub E/ from the earth. Conclusions are based on comparisons of the pitch angle distributions observed at the two spacecraft and transformed into the solar wind frame. They are beamlike at ISEE 3 and are confined to the outward hemisphere. When IMP 8 is furtherest from the bow shock, they are also usually beamlike, or hemispheric. However, when IMP 8 is closer to the bow shock, pancakelike distributions are observed. This systematic variation in the IMP 8 pitch angle distributions delimits a scattering region l< or approx. =14 R/sub E/ upstream of the earth's bow shock (l measured along the interplanetary magnetic field) that dominates ion propagation, influences the global distribution of fluxes in the foreshock, and may play a role in acceleration of the ions. When IMP 8 is beyond lapprox.15 R/sub E/, the propagation appears to be essentially scatter-free between IMP 8 and ISEE 3; this is deduced from the absence of earthward fluxes at IMP 8 as well as the tendency for the spin-averaged fluxes to be comparable at the two spacecraft

  16. Transition-zone observations of rapid flare events as observed by OSO-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lites, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    The rapid dissipation of flare energy has been observed in the transition-zone line of C IV at 1548.2 A using the University of Colorado spectrometer aboard OSO-8. Impulsive brightenings have been resolved with characteristic rise times as low as 3.5s. One event is analyzed in detail, and it is inferred that the electron density is greater than 2 x 10 to the 11th/cu cm at a temperature of 60,000 K, and that the flare energy is deposited at a rate of 2 ergs/cu cm per sec or greater. The temporal behavior of the intensity at the center of the C IV line is consistent with a nonequilibrium ionization of C III through C V. If this event is a result of the multiple tearing mode instability as the primary energy release mechanism, then the observations indicate a preflare magnetic field of about 175 G.

  17. Measurement of Underlying Event Observables with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Astalos, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of the Underlying Event (UE) is a crucial component in the complete description of both soft and hard QCD processes at hadron colliders. The ATLAS collaboration presents new results on the number and transversemomentum sum of charged particles as a function of the leading high pT track in events taken at a center of mass energy of 13 TeV. These results are presented in regions towards, transverse, and away from the leading track and allow to test the modelling of the Underlying Event in modern MC generators. Furthermore, eventshape variables based on charged particles have been measured in Z-events at 7 TeV and have been compared with the predictions of different stateoftheart MC generators. These measurements test the Underlying Event in a complementary way.

  18. Swift/BAT and RXTE Observations of the Peculiar X-ray Binary 4U 2206+54 - Disappearance of the 9.6 Day Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 2206+54 with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) do not show modulation at the previously reported period of 9.6 days found from observations made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Instead, the strongest peak in the power spectrum of the BAT light curve occurs at a period of 19.25+/-0.08 days, twice the period found with the RXTE ASM. The maximum of the folded BAT light curve is also delayed compared to the maximum of the folded ASM light curve. The most recent ASM data folded on twice the 9.6 day period show 'similar morphology to the folded BAT light curve. This suggests that the apparent period doubling is a recent secular change rather than an energy-dependent effect. The 9.6 day period is thus not a permanent strong feature of the light curve. We suggest that the orbital period of 4U 2206+54 may be twice the previously proposed value.

  19. Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-30

    mechanisms for foreshock , mainshock, and aftershock sequences using Seismic Research Observatory (SRO) data, EOS, 57(12), p. 954, 1976. Bache, T.C., W.L...the event as well as that of the immediate foreshock were 95 located (Allen and Nordquist, 1972) and where the largest surface displacements were...1972). Foreshock , main shock and larger aftershocks of the Borrego Mountain earthquake, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 787, 16-23. Bache

  20. An observation on a cosmic-ray induced event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawayanagi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors observed a big A-jet family in the chamber No. 21. In this paper summary of the family is given though some of the results are preliminary. Emulsion chamber technique has been giving a way of observing ultrahigh energy atmospheric interactions made by cosmic-ray radiations with fine spacial resolution and good stability for a long duration of exposure. The two-story structure of emulsion chamber adopted by Brasil-Japan Collaboration on Emulsion Chamber Experiments at Mt. Chacaltaya makes it possible to observe local interactions within the chamber in addition to atmospheric interactions at the same time. For this purpose an inner target layer of plastic/petroleum pitch is located between the upper and the lower parts of the chamber. The observation of these local interactions, called C-jets, is used to make auto-calibration of energies of observed cascade showers

  1. Magnetosphere energetics during substorm events IMP 8 and Geotail observations

    CERN Document Server

    Belehaki, A

    2001-01-01

    Magnetospheric energetics during substorm events is studied in this paper. Three events were selected, a weak substorm, a large isolated one and finally a prolonged period of substorm activity with multiple intensifications. It is assumed that the energy, that entered the magnetosphere due to electromagnetic coupling with the solar wind, is described by the epsilon parameter, proposed by Perreault and Akasofu (1978). High resolution, magnetic field and plasma data from the MGF and LEP experiments on board Geotail were analyzed to determine the timing of plasmoid release, its dimensions, its convection velocity and finally the energy carried by each plasmoid. Plasmoids were defined as structures with rotating magnetic fields and enhanced total pressure. Tailward plasmoid bulk speed in the distant tail varied from 350 to 750 km/s. Their dimensions in the X/sub GSM/ direction was found to be from 4.5 to 28 R/sub E/, and their duration did not exceed 5 min. The average energy carried by each plasmoid in the dista...

  2. Human event observations in the individual plant examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forester, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A major objective of the Individual Plant Examination Insights Program is to identify the important determinants of core damage frequency for the different reactor and containment types and plant designs as indicated in the IPEs. The human reliability analysis is a critical component of the probabilistic risk assessments which were done for the IPEs. The determination and selection of human actions for incorporation into the event and fault tree models and the quantification of their failure probabilities can have an important impact on the resulting estimates of CDF and risk. Two important goals of the NRCs IPE Insights Program are (1) to determine the extent to which human actions and their corresponding failure probabilities influenced the results of the IPEs and (2) to identify which factors played significant roles in determining the differences and similarities in the results of the HRA analyses across the different plants. To obtain the relevant information, the NRC`s IPE database, which contains information on plant design, CDF, and containment performance obtained from the IPEs, was used in conjunction with a systematic examination of the HRA analyses and results from the IPEs. Regarding the extent to which the results of the HRA analyses were significant contributors to the plants` CDFs, examinations of several different measures indicated that while individual human actions could have important influences on CDF for particular initiators, the HRA results did not appear to be the most significant driver of plant risk. Another finding was that while there were relatively wide variations in the calculated human error probabilities for similar events across plants, there was no evidence for any systematic variation as a function of the HRA methods used in the analyses. Much of the variability in HEP values can be explained by differences in plant characteristics and sequence-specific factors. Details of these results and other findings are discussed.

  3. Human event observations in the individual plant examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.

    1995-01-01

    A major objective of the Individual Plant Examination Insights Program is to identify the important determinants of core damage frequency for the different reactor and containment types and plant designs as indicated in the IPEs. The human reliability analysis is a critical component of the probabilistic risk assessments which were done for the IPEs. The determination and selection of human actions for incorporation into the event and fault tree models and the quantification of their failure probabilities can have an important impact on the resulting estimates of CDF and risk. Two important goals of the NRCs IPE Insights Program are (1) to determine the extent to which human actions and their corresponding failure probabilities influenced the results of the IPEs and (2) to identify which factors played significant roles in determining the differences and similarities in the results of the HRA analyses across the different plants. To obtain the relevant information, the NRC's IPE database, which contains information on plant design, CDF, and containment performance obtained from the IPEs, was used in conjunction with a systematic examination of the HRA analyses and results from the IPEs. Regarding the extent to which the results of the HRA analyses were significant contributors to the plants' CDFs, examinations of several different measures indicated that while individual human actions could have important influences on CDF for particular initiators, the HRA results did not appear to be the most significant driver of plant risk. Another finding was that while there were relatively wide variations in the calculated human error probabilities for similar events across plants, there was no evidence for any systematic variation as a function of the HRA methods used in the analyses. Much of the variability in HEP values can be explained by differences in plant characteristics and sequence-specific factors. Details of these results and other findings are discussed

  4. Human event observations in the individual plant examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.

    1995-01-01

    A major objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Insights Program is to identify the important determinants of core damage frequency (CDF) for the different reactor and containment types and plant designs as indicated in the IPEs. The human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical component of the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) which were done for the IPES. The determination and selection of human actions for incorporation into the event and fault tree models and the quantification of their failure probabilities can have an important impact on the resulting estimates of CDF and risk. Therefore, two important goals of the NRCs IPE Insights Program are (1) to determine the extent to which human actions and their corresponding failure probabilities influenced the results of the IPEs and (2) to identify which factors played significant roles in determining the differences and similarities in the results of the HRA analyses across the different plants. To obtain the relevant information, the NRC's IPE database, which contains information on plant design, CDF, and containment performance obtained from the IPES, was used in conjunction with a systematic examination of the HRA analyses and results from the IPES. Regarding the extent to which the results of the HRA analyses were significant contributors to the plants' CDFs, examinations of several different measures indicated that while individual human actions could have important influences on CDF for particular initiators, the HRA results did not appear to be the most significant driver of plant risk (CDF). Another finding was that while there were relatively wide variations in the calculated human error probabilities (HEPs) for similar events across plants, there was no evidence for any systematic variation as a function of the HRA methods used in the analyses

  5. Human event observations in the individual plant examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, E.; Forester, J.

    1994-01-01

    A main objective of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Individual Plant Examination (IPE) Insights Program is to document significant safety insights relative to core damage frequency (CDF) for the different reactor and containment types and plant designs as indicated in the IPEs. The Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a critical component of the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) which were done for the IPEs. The determination and selection of human actions for incorporation into the event and fault tree models and the quantification of their failure probabilities can have an important impact on the resulting estimates of CDF and risk. Therefore, two important goals of the NRCs IPE Insights Program are (1) to determine the extent to which human actions and their corresponding failure probabilities influenced the results of the IPEs and (2) to identify which factors played significant roles in determining the differences and similarities in the results of the HRA analyses across the different plants. To obtain the relevant information, the NRCs IPE database, which contains information on plant design, CDF, and containment performance obtained from the IPEs, was used in conjunction with a systematic examination of the HRA results from the IPEs

  6. Observational signature of high spin at the Event Horizon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Strominger, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    We analytically compute the observational appearance of an isotropically emitting point source on a circular, equatorial orbit near the horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. The primary image moves on a vertical line segment, in contrast to the primarily horizontal motion of the spinless case. Secondary images, also on the vertical line, display a rich caustic structure. If detected, this unique signature could serve as a `smoking gun' for a high spin black hole in nature.

  7. Large short-baseline νμ disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline ν μ →ν e oscillations and the data on short-baseline ν e disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline ν μ disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline ν e disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of ν μ is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin 2 2θ μμ > or approx. 0.1 for short-baseline ν μ disappearance generated by 0.2 2 2 , which could be measured in future experiments.

  8. August 1972 solar-terrestrial events: interplanetary magnetic field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-10-01

    A review is presented of the interplanetary magnetic field observations acquired in early August 1972 when four solar flares erupted in McMath Plage region 1976. Measurements of the interplanetary field were obtained by Earth satellites, HEOS-2 and Explorer 41, and by Pioneers 9 and 10 which, by good fortune, were radially aligned and only 45/sup 0/ east of the Earth-Sun direction. In response to the four flares, four interplanetary shocks were seen at Earth and at Pioneer 9, which was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.78 AU. However, at Pioneer 10, which was 2.2 AU from the Sun, only two forward shocks and one reverse shock were seen. The available magnetic field data acquired in the vicinity of the shocks are presented. Efforts to identify corresponding shocks at the several locations and to deduce their velocities of propagation between 0.8 and 2.2 AU are reviewed. The early studies were based on average velocities between the Sun and Pioneer 9, the Sun and Earth and the Sun and Pioneer 10. A large deceleration of the shocks between the Sun and 0.8 AU as well as between 0.8 and 2.2 AU was inferred. More recently the local velocities of the shocks at Pioneers 9 and 10 have become available. A comparision of these velocities shows little, if any, deceleration between 0.8 and 2.2 AU and implies that most or all of the deceleration actually occurred nearer the Sun. Evidence is also presented that shows a significant departure of the flare-generated shock fronts from spherical symmetry.

  9. Rapid Formation and Disappearance of a Filament Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand D.; Srivastava, Nandita; Mathew, Shibu K.; Martin, Sara F.

    2013-11-01

    We present observations of an activated quiescent filament obtained in Hα from the high-resolution Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 20 August 2010. The filament developed a barb in 10 min, which disappeared within the next 35 min. A data set from the DOT spanning 2 h was used to analyse this event. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images, which reveal flows in filament spine during this period. Photospheric magnetograms were used from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The analysis shows flows in the filament spine towards the barb location preceding its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Magnetograms reveal patches of minority polarity flux close to the end of the barb at its greatest elongation. The flows in the spine and barbs are along numerous threads that compose these typical filament structures. The flows are consistent with field-aligned threads and demonstrate that the replacement time of the mass in barbs, and by inference, in the spine is very rapid.

  10. Rates for parallax-shifted microlensing events from ground-based observations of the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalter, A.; Kamionkowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The parallax effect in ground-based microlensing (ML) observations consists of a distortion to the standard ML light curve arising from the Earth's orbital motion. This can be used to partially remove the degeneracy among the system parameters in the event timescale, t 0 . In most cases, the resolution in current ML surveys is not accurate enough to observe this effect, but parallax could conceivably be detected with frequent follow-up observations of ML events in progress, providing the photometric errors are small enough. We calculate the expected fraction of ML events where the shape distortions will be observable by such follow-up observations, adopting Galactic models for the lens and source distributions that are consistent with observed microlensing timescale distributions. We study the dependence of the rates for parallax-shifted events on the frequency of follow-up observations and on the precision of the photometry. For example, we find that for hourly observations with typical photometric errors of 0.01 mag, 6% of events where the lens is in the bulge, and 31% of events where the lens is in the disk (or ∼10% of events overall), will give rise to a measurable parallax shift at the 95% confidence level. These fractions may be increased by improved photometric accuracy and increased sampling frequency. While long-duration events are favored, the surveys would be effective in picking out such distortions in events with timescales as low as t 0 ∼20 days. We study the dependence of these fractions on the assumed disk mass function and find that a higher parallax incidence is favored by mass functions with higher mean masses. Parallax measurements yield the reduced transverse speed, v, which gives both the relative transverse speed and lens mass as a function of distance. We give examples of the accuracies with which v may be measured in typical parallax events. (Abstract Truncated)

  11. Properties of Coronal Shocks at the Origin of SEP events Observed by Only One Single Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.

    2017-12-01

    The simultaneous observation of solar energetic particle (SEP) events by multiple spacecraft distributed in the interplanetary medium depends not only on the spatial separation among the different spacecraft, but also on the properties of the particle sources and the characteristics of the SEP transport in interplanetary space. Among the SEP events observed by STEREO-A, STEREO-B and/or near-Earth spacecraft during solar cycle 24, we select SEP events observed by a single spacecraft (specifically, the SEP events observed only by near-Earth spacecraft on 2012 April 5, 2011 September 4, and 2013 August 17). We analyze whether the properties of the coronal shock associated with the origin of the events (as seen in extreme-ultraviolet and white-light coronal images) differ from those associated with SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. For the selected events we find that the associated CMEs are, in general, narrower than those associated with SEP events observed by two or three spacecraft. The confined extension of the parent coronal shock and the absence of magnetic connection between distant spacecraft and the regions of the expanding coronal shock able to efficiently accelerate SEPs seem to be the conditions leading to intense SEP events observed only over narrow regions of interplanetary space by spacecraft magnetically connected to regions close to the parent eruption site. Weak and gradual intensity increases observed in extended regions of space might involve transport processes and/or later connections established with interplanetary shocks. Systematic analyses of a larger number of events are required before drawing firm conclusions.

  12. Observation of events with an energetic forward neutron in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1996-05-01

    In deep inelastic neutral current scattering of positrons and protons at the center of mass energy of 300 GeV, we observe, with the ZEUS detector, events with a high energy neutron produced at very small scattering angles with respect to the proton direction. The events constitute a fixed fraction of the deep inelastic, neutral current event sample independent of Bjorken x and Q 2 in the range 3.10 -4 BJ -3 and 10 2 2 . (orig.)

  13. The first SEPServer event catalogue ~68-MeV solar proton events observed at 1 AU in 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Gasén Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available SEPServer is a three-year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework programme (FP7-SPACE of the European Union. The objective of the project is to provide access to state-of-the-art observations and analysis tools for the scientific community on solar energetic particle (SEP events and related electromagnetic (EM emissions. The project will eventually lead to better understanding of the particle acceleration and transport processes at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere. These processes lead to SEP events that form one of the key elements of space weather. In this paper we present the first results from the systematic analysis work performed on the following datasets: SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, Wind/WAVES and GOES X-rays. A catalogue of SEP events at 1 AU, with complete coverage over solar cycle 23, based on high-energy (~68-MeV protons from SOHO/ERNE and electron recordings of the events by SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM are presented. A total of 115 energetic particle events have been identified and analysed using velocity dispersion analysis (VDA for protons and time-shifting analysis (TSA for electrons and protons in order to infer the SEP release times at the Sun. EM observations during the times of the SEP event onset have been gathered and compared to the release time estimates of particles. Data from those events that occurred during the European day-time, i.e., those that also have observations from ground-based observatories included in SEPServer, are listed and a preliminary analysis of their associations is presented. We find that VDA results for protons can be a useful tool for the analysis of proton release times, but if the derived proton path length is out of a range of 1 AU < s ≲ 3 AU, the result of the analysis may be compromised, as indicated by the anti-correlation of the derived path length and release time delay from the associated X-ray flare. The average path length derived from VDA is about 1.9 times

  14. A Semi-Automatic, Remote-Controlled Video Observation System for Transient Luminous Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Thomas Højgaard; Neubert, Torsten; Laursen, Steen

    2003-01-01

    In support for global ELF/VLF observations, HF measurements in France, and conjugate photometry/VLF observations in South Africa, we developed and operated a semi-automatic, remotely controlled video system for the observation of middle-atmospheric transient luminous events (TLEs). Installed...

  15. Observations of hybrid seismic events at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat: July 1995 to September 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R.A.; Miller, A.D.; Lynch, L.; Power, J.

    1998-01-01

    Swarms of small repetitive events with similar waveforms and magnitudes are often observed during the emplacement of lava domes. Over 300 000 such events were recorded in association with the emplacement of the lava dome at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from August 1995 through August 1996. These events originated Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from August 1995 through August 1996. These events originated <2-3 km deep. They exhibited energy ranging over approximately 1.5-4.5 Hz and were broader band than typical long-period events. We term the events `hybrid' between long-period and volcano-tectonic. The events were more impulsive and broader band prior to, compared with during and after, periods of inferred increased magma flux rate. Individual swarms contained up to 10,000 events often exhibiting very similar magnitudes and waveforms throughout the swarm. Swarms lasted hours to weeks, during which inter-event intervals generally increased, then decreased, often several times. Long-duration swarms began about every two months starting in late September 1995. We speculate that the events were produced as the magma column degassed into adjacent cracks.

  16. Isotropic events observed with a borehole array in the Chelungpu fault zone, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kuo-Fong; Lin, Yen-Yu; Lee, Shiann-Jong; Mori, Jim; Brodsky, Emily E

    2012-07-27

    Shear failure is the dominant mode of earthquake-causing rock failure along faults. High fluid pressure can also potentially induce rock failure by opening cavities and cracks, but an active example of this process has not been directly observed in a fault zone. Using borehole array data collected along the low-stress Chelungpu fault zone, Taiwan, we observed several small seismic events (I-type events) in a fluid-rich permeable zone directly below the impermeable slip zone of the 1999 moment magnitude 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Modeling of the events suggests an isotropic, nonshear source mechanism likely associated with natural hydraulic fractures. These seismic events may be associated with the formation of veins and other fluid features often observed in rocks surrounding fault zones and may be similar to artificially induced hydraulic fracturing.

  17. Station Set Residual: Event Classification Using Historical Distribution of Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Mike; Lewis, Jennifer; Young, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Analysts working at the International Data Centre in support of treaty monitoring through the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization spend a significant amount of time reviewing hypothesized seismic events produced by an automatic processing system. When reviewing these events to determine their legitimacy, analysts take a variety of approaches that rely heavily on training and past experience. One method used by analysts to gauge the validity of an event involves examining the set of stations involved in the detection of an event. In particular, leveraging past experience, an analyst can say that an event located in a certain part of the world is expected to be detected by Stations A, B, and C. Implicit in this statement is that such an event would usually not be detected by Stations X, Y, or Z. For some well understood parts of the world, the absence of one or more "expected" stations—or the presence of one or more "unexpected" stations—is correlated with a hypothesized event's legitimacy and to its survival to the event bulletin. The primary objective of this research is to formalize and quantify the difference between the observed set of stations detecting some hypothesized event, versus the expected set of stations historically associated with detecting similar nearby events close in magnitude. This Station Set Residual can be quantified in many ways, some of which are correlated with the analysts' determination of whether or not the event is valid. We propose that this Station Set Residual score can be used to screen out certain classes of "false" events produced by automatic processing with a high degree of confidence, reducing the analyst burden. Moreover, we propose that the visualization of the historically expected distribution of detecting stations can be immediately useful as an analyst aid during their review process.

  18. Events per variable for risk differences and relative risks using pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Andersen, Per Kragh; Parner, Erik Thorlund

    2014-01-01

    A method based on pseudo-observations has been proposed for direct regression modeling of functionals of interest with right-censored data, including the survival function, the restricted mean and the cumulative incidence function in competing risks. The models, once the pseudo-observations have...... been computed, can be fitted using standard generalized estimating equation software. Regression models can however yield problematic results if the number of covariates is large in relation to the number of events observed. Guidelines of events per variable are often used in practice. These rules...

  19. First observations of transient luminous events in Indian sub-continent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Veenadhari, B.

    2014-01-01

    The article offers information on the initial observations of flashes of lightning discharge observed above thunderstorms. It mentions that the transient luminous events (TLE) are classified on the basis of their geometrical shape and luminosity into Sprites, Halos and Blue Starters. It also focu...

  20. An Observational Analysis of Coaching Behaviors for Career Development Event Teams: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna L.; Bowling, Amanda M.; Sharpless, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers can use coaching behaviors, along with their agricultural content knowledge to help their Career Development Event (CDE) teams succeed. This mixed methods, collective case study observed three SBAE teachers preparing multiple CDEs throughout the CDE season. The teachers observed had a previous…

  1. The Disappearance of Music Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ægidius, Andreas Lenander

    This paper focuses on the distinct technologies that operate behind, beyond, and below the concept of media. I theorize that the intricate complex of platforms, channels and formats for the consumption of cultural content is better understood through the lens of format theory (Aegidius, 2017; Ste...... we elaborate on the post-media conditions of the music industry through the use of format theory......., experience, and workings of a medium. It also names a set of rules according to which a technology can operate´ (Sterne, 2012, 7). Music consumption in the East Asian countries and especially Japan provides a remarkable and unique case for the continued and global disappearance of music media. But formats...... persist and govern the music experience. Here I focus on the ways in which traditional and physical music formats (CD) intersect with new media formats, e.g. the micromaterial music file and the music stream, here conceptualised as the internet protocols plus music file (Aegidius, 2017). I suggest...

  2. Observation and Interpretation of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. F.; Shih, A. Y.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Labrador, A. W.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Cummings, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection event. The observations were made during the December 5, 2006 X9 solar flare, located at E79, by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on the STEREO A and B spacecraft. Within 1-2 hours of the flare onset, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV protons arriving hours before the onset of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth. More than 70% of these particles arrived from a longitude within +-10 degrees of the Sun. The derived emission profile at the Sun lasted for more than an hour and had a profile remarkably similar to the GOES soft X-ray profile. The observed arrival directions and energy spectrum argue strongly that the particle events atoms that were stripped of their electrons upon entering the LET sensor. To our knowledge, this is the first reported observation of ENA emission from a solar flare/coronal mass ejection. We discuss possible origins for the production of ENAs in solar events, including charge-transfer reactions involving both flare and shock-accelerated protons. Assuming isotropic emission, we find that 2 x 10E28 ENAs escaped from the Sun in the upper hemisphere. Based on the 2.2 MeV gamma-ray emission observed by RHESSI in this event, and using measured and theoretical cross sections, we estimate that 3 x 10E31 ENAs with 1.8 - 5 MeV could be produced by protons accelerated in the flare. CME-driven shock acceleration is also a possible ENA source, but unfortunately there were no CME observations available from this event. Taking into account ENA losses, we conclude that the observed ENAs were most likely produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances 1.6 solar radii.

  3. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  4. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chazette Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  5. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    OpenAIRE

    Chazette Patrick; Royer Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  6. Remarks on the first two events in the supernova burst observed by Kamiokande II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    We examine the possibility, remote but not totally improbable, that one of the first two supernova events observed in the Kamiokande II detector consists of an electron neutrino scattering from an electron. From arguments of timing we show that this possibility can be realized only for the first event, and that it requires the electron-neutrino mass to be less than 2.5 eV. The occurrence of such an event means that, of the various Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar-neutrino problem, the nonadiabatic one is likely to be correct

  7. New method to analyze super-family events observed with emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amenomori, M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors have developed a clustering method to analyze family events observed with emulsion chambers at high mountains. The main purpose of this analysis is to estimate the main production height of individual events, angular spread of gamma-rays in each event and so on. These enable them to investigate hadronic interactions at energies over 10 16 eV inaccessible by the present high-energy accelerators. they examined their clustering method using Monte Carlo events, and found that for the family events whose production height is low (within 2-3 km above the observation point in air), their production heights and lateral spreads are well reproduced. They further applied their method to the super-family events (ΣE γ > 1000 TeV) observed with emulsion chambers at Mt. Kanbala (5500 m above sea-level). The results seem to suggest that particle production with large transverse momentum occurs with considerable frequency even in the fragmentation region in the energy region over 10 16 eV

  8. Conjugate observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves associated with traveling convection vortex events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Clauer, C. Robert; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Hartinger, Michael D.; Lessard, Marc R.; Matzka, Jürgen; Sibeck, David G.; Singer, Howard J.; Stolle, Claudia; Weimer, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhonghua

    2017-07-01

    We report on simultaneous observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves associated with traveling convection vortex (TCV) events caused by transient solar wind dynamic pressure (Pd) impulse events. The Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft located near the magnetopause observed radial fluctuations of the magnetopause, and the GOES spacecraft measured sudden compressions of the magnetosphere in response to sudden increases in Pd. During the transient events, EMIC waves were observed by interhemispheric conjugate ground-based magnetometer arrays as well as the GOES spacecraft. The spectral structures of the waves appear to be well correlated with the fluctuating motion of the magnetopause, showing compression-associated wave generation. In addition, the wave features are remarkably similar in conjugate hemispheres in terms of bandwidth, quasiperiodic wave power modulation, and polarization. Proton precipitation was also observed by the DMSP spacecraft during the wave events, from which the wave source region is estimated to be 72°-74° in magnetic latitude, consistent with the TCV center. The confluence of space-borne and ground instruments including the interhemispheric, high-latitude, fluxgate/induction coil magnetometer array allows us to constrain the EMIC source region while also confirming the relationship between EMIC waves and the TCV current system.

  9. Observation of an optical event horizon in a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciret, Charles; Leo, François; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther; Gorza, Simon-Pierre

    2016-01-11

    We report on the first experimental observation of an optical analogue of an event horizon in integrated nanophotonic waveguides, through the reflection of a continuous wave on an intense pulse. The experiment is performed in a dispersion-engineered silicon-on-insulator waveguide. In this medium, solitons do not suffer from Raman induced self-frequency shift as in silica fibers, a feature that is interesting for potential applications of optical event horizons. As shown by simulations, this also allows the observation of multiple reflections at the same time on fundamental solitons ejected by soliton fission.

  10. Observation of hard processes in rapidity gap events in {gamma}p interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, T.; Aid, S.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Appuhn, R.D.; Arpagaus, M.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Ban, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Barth, M.; Bassler, U.; Beck, H.P.; Behrend, H.J.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Bergstein, H.; Bernardi, G.; Bernet, R.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Besancon, M.; Beyer, R.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Blobel, V.; Borras, K.; Botterweck, F.; Boudry, V.; Braemer, A.; Brasse, F.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Brune, C.; Buchholz, R.; Buengener, L.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Charles, F.; Clarke, D.; Clegg, A.B.; Clerbaux, B.; Colombo, M.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Courau, A.; Coutures, C.; Cozzika, G.; Criegee, L.; Cussans, D.G.; Cvach, J.; Dagoret, S.; Dainton, J.B.; Danilov, M.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Deffur, E.; Delcourt, B.; Del Buono, L.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Di Nezza, P.; Dollfus, C.; Dowell, J.D.; Dreis, H.B.; Droutskoi, V.; Duboc, J.; Duellmann, D.; Duenger, O.; Duhm, H.; Ebert, J.; Ebert, T.R.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Eichenberger, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellison, R.J.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Evrard, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feeken, D.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Flamm, K.; Fleischer, M.; Flieser, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Fominykh, B.; Forbush, M.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Fretwurst, E.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gamerdinger, K.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gebauer, M.; Gellrich, A.; Genzel, H.; Gerhards, R.; Goerlach, U.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goldner, D.; Gonzalez-Pineiro, B.; Goodall, A.M.; Gorelov, I.; Goritchev, P.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Graessler, R.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Gruber, A.; Gruber, C.; Haack, J.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hamon, O.; Hampel, M.; Hanlon, E.M.; Hapke, M.; Haynes, W.J.; Heatherington, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; H1 Collaboration

    1995-02-06

    Events with no hadronic energy flow in a large interval of pseudo-rapidity in the proton direction are observed in photon-proton interactions at an average centre of mass energy left angle {radical}(s{sub {gamma}p}) right angle of 200 GeV. These events are interpreted as photon diffractive dissociation. Evidence for hard scattering in photon diffractive dissociation is demonstrated using inclusive single particle spectra, thrust as a function of transverse energy, and the observation of jet production. The data can be described by a Monte Carlo calculation including hard photon-pomeron scattering. ((orig.))

  11. Observations and Interpretations of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen Atoms from the December 5, 2006 Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Leske, R. A.; Shih, A. Y.; Stone, E. C.; Barghouty, A. f.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. c.; Labrador, A. W.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss recently reported observations of energetic neutral hydrogen atoms (ENAs) from an X9 solar flare/coronal mass ejection event on 5 December 2006, located at E79. The observations were made by the Low Energy Telescopes (LETs) on STEREO A and B. Prior to the arrival of the main solar energetic particle (SEP) event at Earth, both LETs observed a sudden burst of 1.6 to 15 MeV energetic neutral hydrogen atoms produced by either flare or shock-accelerated protons. RHESSI measurements of the 2.2-MeV gamma-ray line provide an estimate of the number of interacting flare-accelerated protons in this event, which leads to an improved estimate of ENA production by flare-accelerated protons. Taking into account ENA losses, we find that the observed ENAs must have been produced in the high corona at heliocentric distances > or equal to 2 solar radii. Although there are no CME images from this event, it is shown that CME-shock-accelerated protons can, in principle, produce a time-history consistent with the observations.

  12. Learning to make things happen: Infants' observational learning of social and physical causal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waismeyer, Anna; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2017-10-01

    Infants learn about cause and effect through hands-on experience; however, they also can learn about causality simply from observation. Such observational causal learning is a central mechanism by which infants learn from and about other people. Across three experiments, we tested infants' observational causal learning of both social and physical causal events. Experiment 1 assessed infants' learning of a physical event in the absence of visible spatial contact between the causes and effects. Experiment 2 developed a novel paradigm to assess whether infants could learn about a social causal event from third-party observation of a social interaction between two people. Experiment 3 compared learning of physical and social events when the outcomes occurred probabilistically (happening some, but not all, of the time). Infants demonstrated significant learning in all three experiments, although learning about probabilistic cause-effect relations was most difficult. These findings about infant observational causal learning have implications for children's rapid nonverbal learning about people, things, and their causal relations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Observation of hard scattering in photoproduction events with a large rapidity gap at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-11-01

    Events with a large rapidity gap and total transverse energy greater than 5 GeV have been observed in quasi-real photoproduction at HERA with the ZEUS detector. The distribution of these events as a function of the γp centre of mass energy is consistent with diffractive scattering. For total transverse energies above 12 GeV, the hadronic final states show predominantly a two-jet structure with each jet having a transverse energy greater than 4 GeV. For the two-jet events, little energy flow is found outside the jets. This observation is consistent with the hard scattering of a quasi-real photon with a colourless object in the proton. (orig.)

  14. Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Noel A.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…

  15. Direct AFM observation of an opening event of a DNA cuboid constructed via a prism structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2011-04-07

    A cuboid structure was constructed using a DNA origami design based on a square prism structure. The structure was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic light scattering. The real-time opening event of the cuboid was directly observed by high-speed AFM.

  16. Mutual event observations of solar system objects by SRC on Mars Express. Analysis and release of observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziese, R.; Willner, K.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Both Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, have been observed during several imaging campaigns by the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) on the Mars Express probe. Several tens of images are obtained during mutual event observations - when the Martian moons are both observed or together with another solar system body. These observations provide new opportunities to determine the bodies' positions in their orbits. Aims: A method was sought to automate the observation of the positions of the imaged bodies. Within one image sequence a similarly accurate localization of the objects in all images should be possible. Methods: Shape models of Phobos and Deimos are applied to simulate the appearance of the bodies in the images. Matching the illuminated simulation against the observation provides a reliable determination of the bodies' location within the image. To enhance the matching confidence several corrections need to be applied to the simulation to closely reconstruct the observation. Results: A list of 884 relative positions between the different objects is provided through the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/614/A15

  17. Gaseous elemental mercury depletion events observed at Cape Point during 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-G. Brunke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury in the marine boundary layer has been measured with a 15 min temporal resolution at the Global Atmosphere Watch station Cape Point since March 2007. The most prominent features of the data until July 2008 are the frequent occurrences of pollution (PEs and depletion events (DEs. Both types of events originate mostly within a short transport distance (up to about 100 km, which are embedded in air masses ranging from marine background to continental. The Hg/CO emission ratios observed during the PEs are within the range reported for biomass burning and industrial/urban emissions. The depletion of gaseous mercury during the DEs is in many cases almost complete and suggests an atmospheric residence time of elemental mercury as short as a few dozens of hours, which is in contrast to the commonly used estimate of approximately 1 year. The DEs observed at Cape Point are not accompanied by simultaneous depletion of ozone which distinguishes them from the halogen driven atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs observed in Polar Regions. Nonetheless, DEs similar to those observed at Cape Point have also been observed at other places in the marine boundary layer. Additional measurements of mercury speciation and of possible mercury oxidants are hence called for to reveal the chemical mechanism of the newly observed DEs and to assess its importance on larger scales.

  18. International Observe the Moon Night: Using Public Outreach Events to Tell Your Story to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B. C.; International Observe the Moon Night Coordinating Committee

    2011-12-01

    From various interpretations of the lunar "face," early pictograms of the Moon's phases, or to the use of the lunar cycle for festivals or harvests, the Moon has an undeniable influence on human civilization. International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) capitalizes on the human connection to the Moon by engaging the public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. In 2010 (InOMN's inaugural year), over 500,000 people attended events in 53 countries around the world. About 68% of InOMN hosts - astronomy clubs, museums, schools, or other groups - used the resources on the InOMN website (http://observethemoonnight.org). The InOMN website provided supporting materials for InOMN event hosts in the form of downloadable advertising materials, Moon maps, suggestions for hands-on educational activities, and links to lunar science content. InOMN event participants shared their experiences with the world using the Web and social media, event hosts shared their experiences with evaluation data, and amateur astronomers and photographers shared their images of the Moon through the lunar photography contest. The overwhelming response from InOMN in 2010 represents an untapped potential for infusing cutting edge lunar science and exploration into a large-scale public outreach event.

  19. STEREO/SEPT observations of upstream particle events: almost monoenergetic ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Klassen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of Almost Monoenergetic Ion (AMI events in the energy range of 100–1200 keV detected with the Solar Electron and Proton Telescope (SEPT onboard both STEREO spacecraft. The energy spectrum of AMI events contain 1, 2, or 3 narrow peaks with the relative width at half maximum of 0.1–0.7 and their energy maxima varies for different events from 120 to 1200 keV. These events were detected close to the bow-shock (STEREO-A&B and to the magnetopause at STEREO-B as well as unexpectedly far upstream of the bow-shock and far away from the magnetotail at distances up to 1100 RE (STEREO-B and 1900 RE (STEREO-A. We discuss the origin of AMI events, the connection to the Earth's bow-shock and to the magnetosphere, and the conditions of the interplanetary medium and magnetosphere under which these AMI bursts occur. Evidence that the detected spectral peaks were caused by quasi-monoenergetic beams of protons, helium, and heavier ions are given. Furthermore, we present the spatial distribution of all AMI events from December 2006 until August 2007.

  20. Assessment of Observational Uncertainty in Extreme Precipitation Events over the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinskey, E. A.; Loikith, P. C.; Waliser, D. E.; Goodman, A.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events are associated with numerous societal and environmental impacts. Furthermore, anthropogenic climate change is projected to alter precipitation intensity across portions of the Continental United States (CONUS). Therefore, a spatial understanding and intuitive means of monitoring extreme precipitation over time is critical. Towards this end, we apply an event-based indicator, developed as a part of NASA's support of the ongoing efforts of the US National Climate Assessment, which assigns categories to extreme precipitation events based on 3-day storm totals as a basis for dataset intercomparison. To assess observational uncertainty across a wide range of historical precipitation measurement approaches, we intercompare in situ station data from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN), satellite-derived precipitation data from NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), gridded in situ station data from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM), global reanalysis from NASA's Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis version 2 (MERRA 2), and regional reanalysis with gauge data assimilation from NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). Results suggest considerable variability across the five-dataset suite in the frequency, spatial extent, and magnitude of extreme precipitation events. Consistent with expectations, higher resolution datasets were found to resemble station data best and capture a greater frequency of high-end extreme events relative to lower spatial resolution datasets. The degree of dataset agreement varies regionally, however all datasets successfully capture the seasonal cycle of precipitation extremes across the CONUS. These intercomparison results provide additional insight about observational uncertainty and the ability of a range of precipitation measurement and analysis products to capture extreme precipitation event climatology. While the event category threshold is fixed

  1. Energetic electron precipitation characteristics observed from Antarctica during a flux dropout event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clilverd, Mark A.; Cobbett, Neil; Rodger, Craig J.; Brundell, James B.; Denton, Michael H.; Hartley, David P.; Rodriguez, Juan V.; Danskin, Donald; Raita, Tero; Spanswick, Emma L.

    2013-11-01

    from two autonomous VLF radio receiver systems installed in a remote region of the Antarctic in 2012 is used to take advantage of the juxtaposition of the L = 4.6 contour, and the Hawaii-Halley, Antarctica, great circle path as it passes over thick Antarctic ice shelf. The ice sheet conductivity leads to high sensitivity to changing D region conditions, and the quasi constant L shell highlights outer radiation belt processes. The ground-based instruments observed several energetic electron precipitation events over a moderately active 24 h period, during which the outer radiation belt electron flux declined at most energies and subsequently recovered. Combining the ground-based data with low and geosynchronous orbiting satellite observations on 27 February 2012, different driving mechanisms were observed for three precipitation events with clear signatures in phase space density and electron anisotropy. Comparison between flux measurements made by Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) in low Earth orbit and by the Antarctic instrumentation provides evidence of different cases of weak and strong diffusion into the bounce loss cone, helping to understand the physical mechanisms controlling the precipitation of energetic electrons into the atmosphere. Strong diffusion events occurred as the bounce loss cone. Two events had a factor of about 3 to 10 times more >30 keV flux than was reported by POES, more consistent with strong diffusion conditions.

  2. The comparison of SRs' variation affected by solar events observed in America and in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Williams, E.

    2017-12-01

    Schumann Resonances(SRs) are the electromagnetic resonance wave propagating in the earth-ionosphere cavity. Its characteristic of propagation are modified by the variation of ionosphere. So SRs can be the tools of monitoring the ionosphere which is often perturbed by solar events, x-ray emission and some other space-weather events (Roldugin et.al., 2004, De et al., 2010; Satori et.al., 2015). In present work, the amplitude and intrinsic frequencies of SRs observed at RID station in America and YSH station in China are compared. The variation of SRs during the solar flare on Feb. 15, 2011 are analyzed. Two-Dimensional Telegraph Equation(TDTE) method is used to simulate the perturbation of ionosphere by solar proton events. From the simulation and observation, the asymmetric construction of ionoshphere which is perturbed by the solar event will affect the amplitudes and frequencies of SRs. Due to the interfere influence of forward and backward propagation of electromagnetic field, the SR amplitude on different station will present different variation. The distance among the lightning source, observer and perturbed area will produce the different variation of amplitude and frequency for different station' SR.

  3. A Macro-Observation Scheme for Abnormal Event Detection in Daily-Life Video Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Wei-Yao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose a macro-observation scheme for abnormal event detection in daily life. The proposed macro-observation representation records the time-space energy of motions of all moving objects in a scene without segmenting individual object parts. The energy history of each pixel in the scene is instantly updated with exponential weights without explicitly specifying the duration of each activity. Since possible activities in daily life are numerous and distinct from each other and not all abnormal events can be foreseen, images from a video sequence that spans sufficient repetition of normal day-to-day activities are first randomly sampled. A constrained clustering model is proposed to partition the sampled images into groups. The new observed event that has distinct distance from any of the cluster centroids is then classified as an anomaly. The proposed method has been evaluated in daily work of a laboratory and BEHAVE benchmark dataset. The experimental results reveal that it can well detect abnormal events such as burglary and fighting as long as they last for a sufficient duration of time. The proposed method can be used as a support system for the scene that requires full time monitoring personnel.

  4. Dust storm events over Delhi: verification of dust AOD forecasts with satellite and surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Iyengar, Gopal R.; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Thar desert located in northwest part of India is considered as one of the major dust source. Dust storms originate in Thar desert during pre-monsoon season, affects large part of Indo-Gangetic plains. High dust loading causes the deterioration of the ambient air quality and degradation in visibility. Present study focuses on the identification of dust events and verification of the forecast of dust events over Delhi and western part of IG Plains, during the pre-monsoon season of 2015. Three dust events have been identified over Delhi during the study period. For all the selected days, Terra-MODIS AOD at 550 nm are found close to 1.0, while AURA-OMI AI shows high values. Dust AOD forecasts from NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) for the three selected dust events are verified against satellite (MODIS) and ground based observations (AERONET). Comparison of observed AODs at 550 nm from MODIS with NCUM predicted AODs reveals that NCUM is able to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of dust AOD, in these cases. Good correlation (~0.67) is obtained between the NCUM predicted dust AODs and location specific observations available from AERONET. Model under-predicted the AODs as compared to the AERONET observations. This may be mainly because the model account for only dust and no anthropogenic activities are considered. The results of the present study emphasize the requirement of more realistic representation of local dust emission in the model both of natural and anthropogenic origin, to improve the forecast of dust from NCUM during the dust events.

  5. Observation of an event of pair photoproduction of charmed anti D0D0-mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, M.I.; Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Bolta, J.M.; Bravo, L.; Cartacci, A.M.; Chernyavskii, M.M.; Conforto, B.; Conti, A.; Crosetti, G.; Dagliana, M.G.

    1981-12-01

    An event will be described which has been observed in an experiment on charmed particle production by labelled photons from the supersynchrotron of CERN. This event has been recorded simultaneously in nuclear photoemulsion and by the magnetic spectrometer Omega-prim. It has been interpreted as the first event of pair photoproduction of charmed neutral D 0 D 0 -mesons. For anti D 0 → K + π - π - π + , an intrinsic decay time of tau (anti D 0 ) = (0.14 +- 0.01) x 10 -13 sec has been obtained and for D 0 → anti K 0 tau - e + ν, two solutions have been obtained: tau 1 (D 0 ) = (3.4 +- 0.3) x 10 -13 sec and tau 2 (D 0 ) = (7.5 +- 0.3) x 10 -13 sec. (orig.)

  6. MMS Observations of the Evolution of Ion-Scale Flux Transfer Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Paterson, W.; Petrinec, S.; Zhou, M.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Chutter, M.; Fischer, D.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Le, G.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Slavin, J. A.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Flux transfer events are key processes in the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. Previously, the observed flux transfer events have had scale sizes of 10,000 km radius in the cross-section and connect about 2 MWb magnetic flux from solar wind to the terrestrial magnetosphere. Recently, from the high-temporal resolution MMS magnetic field data, many ion-scale FTEs have been found. These FTEs contains only about 2 kWb magnetic flux and are believed to be in an early stage of FTE evolution. With the help of the well-calibrated MMS data, we are also able to determine the velocity profile and forces within the FTE events. We find that some ion-scale FTEs are expanding as we expect, but there are also contracting FTEs. We examine the differences between the two classes of FTEs and their differences with the larger previously studied class of FTE.

  7. Experimental observation of 3-D, impulsive reconnection events in a laboratory plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorfman, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Lawrence, E.; Myers, C.; Tharp, T. D. [Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Fast, impulsive reconnection is commonly observed in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. In this work, impulsive, local, 3-D reconnection is identified for the first time in a laboratory current sheet. The two-fluid, impulsive reconnection events observed on the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) [Yamada et al., Phys Plasmas 4, 1936 (1997)] cannot be explained by 2-D models and are therefore fundamentally three-dimensional. Several signatures of flux ropes are identified with these events; 3-D high current density regions with O-point structure form during a slow buildup period that precedes a fast disruption of the reconnecting current layer. The observed drop in the reconnection current and spike in the reconnection rate during the disruption are due to ejection of these flux ropes from the layer. Underscoring the 3-D nature of the events, strong out-of-plane gradients in both the density and reconnecting magnetic field are found to play a key role in this process. Electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range are observed to peak at the disruption time; however, they are not the key physics responsible for the impulsive phenomena observed. Important features of the disruption dynamics cannot be explained by an anomalous resistivity model. An important discrepancy in the layer width and force balance between the collisionless regime of MRX and kinetic simulations is also revisited. The wider layers observed in MRX may be due to the formation of flux ropes with a wide range of sizes; consistent with this hypothesis, flux rope signatures are observed down to the smallest scales resolved by the diagnostics. Finally, a 3-D two-fluid model is proposed to explain how the observed out-of-plane variation may lead to a localized region of enhanced reconnection that spreads in the direction of the out-of-plane electron flow, ejecting flux ropes from the layer in a 3-D manner.

  8. Extreme temperature events on Greenland in observations and the MAR regional climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Amber A.; Eastoe, Emma; Fettweis, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributed 1.7-6.12 mm to global sea level between 1993 and 2010 and is expected to contribute 20-110 mm to future sea level rise by 2100. These estimates were produced by regional climate models (RCMs) which are known to be robust at the ice sheet scale but occasionally miss regional- and local-scale climate variability (e.g. Leeson et al., 2017; Medley et al., 2013). To date, the fidelity of these models in the context of short-period variability in time (i.e. intra-seasonal) has not been fully assessed, for example their ability to simulate extreme temperature events. We use an event identification algorithm commonly used in extreme value analysis, together with observations from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), to assess the ability of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) RCM to reproduce observed extreme positive-temperature events at 14 sites around Greenland. We find that MAR is able to accurately simulate the frequency and duration of these events but underestimates their magnitude by more than half a degree Celsius/kelvin, although this bias is much smaller than that exhibited by coarse-scale Era-Interim reanalysis data. As a result, melt energy in MAR output is underestimated by between 16 and 41 % depending on global forcing applied. Further work is needed to precisely determine the drivers of extreme temperature events, and why the model underperforms in this area, but our findings suggest that biases are passed into MAR from boundary forcing data. This is important because these forcings are common between RCMs and their range of predictions of past and future ice sheet melting. We propose that examining extreme events should become a routine part of global and regional climate model evaluation and that addressing shortcomings in this area should be a priority for model development.

  9. Erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular events in diabetic men: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Yamada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that erectile dysfunction (ED influences the risk of cardiovascular events (CV events. However, a meta-analysis of the overall risk of CV events associated with ED in patients with diabetes has not been performed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for pertinent articles (including references published between 1951 and April 22, 2012. English language reports of original observational cohort studies and cross-sectional studies were included. Pooled effect estimates were obtained by random effects meta-analysis. A total of 3,791 CV events were reported in 3 cohort studies and 9 cross-sectional studies (covering 22,586 subjects. Across the cohort studies, the overall odds ratio (OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.27; P0.05. Moreover, meta-regression analysis found no relationship between the method used to assess ED (questionnaire or interview, mean age, mean hemoglobin A(1c, mean body mass index, or mean duration of diabetes and the risk of CV events or CHD. In the cross-sectional studies, the OR of diabetic men with ED versus those without ED was 3.39 (95% CI: 2.58-4.44; P<0.001 for CV events (N = 9, 3.43 (95% CI: 2.46-4.77; P<0.001 for CHD (N = 7, and 2.63 (95% CI: 1.41-4.91; P = 0.002 for peripheral vascular disease (N = 5. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ED was associated with an increased risk of CV events in diabetic patients. Prevention and early detection of cardiovascular disease are important in the management of diabetes, especially in view of the rapid increase in its prevalence.

  10. Multiple flux rope events at the magnetopause observations by TC-1 on 18 March 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Xiao

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From 23:10 to 23:50 UT on 18 March 2004, the Double Star TC-1 spacecraft detected eight flux ropes at the outbound crossing of the southern dawnside magnetopause. A notable guide field existed inside all ropes. In the mean time the Cluster spacecraft were staying in the magnetosheath and found that the events occurred under the condition of southward IMF Bz and dominant negative IMF By. There are six ropes that appeared quasi-periodically, with a repeated period being approximately 1-4 min. The last flux rope lasts for a longer time interval with a larger peak in the BN variations; it can thus be referred to as a typical FTE. The 18 March 2004 event is quite similar to the multiple flux rope event observed by Cluster on 26 January 2001 at the northern duskside high-latitude magnetopause. A detailed comparison of these two events is made in the paper. Preliminary studies imply that both of these multiple flux ropes events seem to be produced by component reconnection at the dayside low-latitude magnetopause.

  11. Fγ: A new observable for photon-hadron discrimination in hybrid air shower events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechciol, M.; Risse, M.; Ruehl, P.; Settimo, M.; Younk, P. W.; Yushkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    To search for ultra-high-energy photons in primary cosmic rays, air shower observables are needed that allow a good separation between primary photons and primary hadrons. We present a new observable, Fγ, which can be extracted from ground-array data in hybrid events, where simultaneous measurements of the longitudinal and the lateral shower profile are performed. The observable is based on a template fit to the lateral distribution measured by the ground array with the template taking into account the complementary information from the measurement of the longitudinal profile, i.e. the primary energy and the geometry of the shower. Fγ shows a very good photon-hadron separation, which is even superior to the separation given by the well-known Xmax observable (the atmospheric depth of the shower maximum). At energies around 1 EeV (10 EeV), Fγ provides a background rejection better than 97.8 % (99.9 %) at a signal efficiency of 50 %. Advantages of the observable Fγ are its technical stability with respect to irregularities in the ground array (i.e. missing or temporarily non-operating stations) and that it can be applied over the full energy range accessible to the air shower detector, down to its threshold energy. Furthermore, Fγ complements nicely to Xmax such that both observables can well be combined to achieve an even better discrimination power, exploiting the rich information available in hybrid events.

  12. Observation of events with a large rapidity gap in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1993-07-01

    In deep inelastic, neutral current scattering of electrons and protons at √s=296 GeV, we observe in the ZEUS detector events with a large rapidity gap in the hadronic final state. They occur in the region of small Bjorken x and are observed up to Q 2 of 100 GeV 2 . They account for about 5% of the events with Q 2 ≥10 GeV 2 . Their general properties are inconsistent with the dominant mechanism of deep inelastic scattering, where color is transferred between the scattered quark and the proton remnant, and suggest that the underlying production mechanism is the diffractive dissociation of the virtual photon. (orig.)

  13. Muon neutrino disappearance at MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.

    2009-01-01

    A strong case has been made by several experiments that neutrinos oscillate, although important questions remain as to the mechanisms and precise values of the parameters. In the standard picture, two parameters describe the nature of how the neutrinos oscillate: the mass-squared difference between states and the mixing angle. The purpose of this thesis is to use data from the MINOS experiment to precisely measure the parameters associated with oscillations first observed in studies of atmospheric neutrinos. MINOS utilizes two similar detectors to observe the oscillatory nature of neutrinos. The Near Detector, located 1 km from the source, observes the unoscillated energy spectrum while the Far Detector, located 735 km away, is positioned to see the oscillation signal. Using the data in the Near Detector, a prediction of the expected neutrino spectrum at the Far Detector assuming no oscillations is made. By comparing this prediction with the MINOS data, the atmospheric mixing parameters are measured to be Δm 32 2 = 2.45 +0.12 -0.12 x 10 -3 eV 2 and sin 2 (2θ 32 ) = 1.00 -0.04 +0.00 (> 0.90 at 90% confidence level).

  14. Space Weather at Mars: MAVEN and MSL/RAD Observations of CME and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. O.; Ehresmann, B.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Guo, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Halekas, J. S.; Espley, J. R.; Thiemann, E.; Hassler, D.

    2017-12-01

    While MAVEN have been observing the space weather conditions driven by ICMEs and SEPs in orbit around Mars, MSL/RAD have been measuring the surface radiation environment due to E > 150 MeV/nuc SEPs and the higher-energy galactic cosmic rays. The suite of MAVEN instruments measuring the particles (SEP), plasma (SWIA) and fields (MAG) information provides detailed local space weather information regarding the solar activity-related fluctuations in the measured surface dose rates. At the same time, the related enhancements in the RAD surface dose rates indicate the degree to which the SEPs affect the lower atmosphere and surface. We will present an overview of the MAVEN observations together with the MSL/RAD measurements and focus our discussion on a number of space weather events driven by CMEs and SEPs. During the March 2015 solar storm period, a succession of CMEs produced intense SEP proton fluxes that were detected by MAVEN/SEP in the 20 keV to 6 MeV detected energy channels. At higher energies, MAVEN/SEP record `FTO' SEP events that were triggered by > 13 MeV energetic protons passing through all three silicon detector layers (Front, Thick, and Open). Using the detector response matrix for an FTO event (incident energy vs detected energy), the minimum incident energy of the SEP protons observed in March 2015 was inferred to be > 40 MeV. The lack of any notable enhancements in the surface dose rate by MSL/RAD suggests that the highest incident energies of the SEP protons were 150 MeV SEP protons impacted the Martian atmosphere and surface. The source of the October 2015 SEP event was probably the CME that erupted near the solar west limb with respect to the Sun-Mars line. As part of the discussion, we will also show solar-heliospheric observations from near-Earth assets together with WSA-Enlil-cone results for some global heliospheric context.

  15. LEP Events, TLE's, and Q-bursts observed from the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. C.; Kim, D.; Flint, Q. A.

    2017-12-01

    ELF/VLF measurements at Palmer Station, McMurdo Station, and South Pole Station, Antarctica are used to detect lightning-generated ELF/VLF radio atmospherics from around the globe and to remote sense ionospheric disturbances in the Southern hemisphere. The Antarctic ELF/VLF receivers complement a Northern hemisphere ELF/VLF monitoring array. In this paper, we present our latest observational results, including a full statistical analysis of conjugate observations of lightning-induced electron precipitation and radio atmospherics associated specifically with the transient luminous events known as gigantic jets and sprites.

  16. Fermi GBM Observations of LIGO Gravitational-Wave Event Gw150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, V.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Zhang, B.-B.; Camp, J.; Christensen, N.; Hui, C. M.; Jenke, P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    With an instantaneous view of 70% of the sky, the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) is an excellent partner in the search for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave (GW) events. GBM observations at the time of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) event GW150914 reveal the presence of a weak transient above 50 keV, 0.4 s after the GW event, with a false-alarm probability of 0.0022 (2.9(sigma)). This weak transient lasting 1 s was not detected by any other instrument and does not appear to be connected with other previously known astrophysical, solar, terrestrial, or magnetospheric activity. Its localization is ill-constrained but consistent with the direction of GW150914. The duration and spectrum of the transient event are consistent with a weak short gamma-ray burst (GRB) arriving at a large angle to the direction in which Fermi was pointing where the GBM detector response is not optimal. If the GBM transient is associated with GW150914, then this electromagnetic signal from a stellar mass black hole binary merger is unexpected. We calculate a luminosity in hard X-ray emission between 1 keV and 10 MeV of 1.8(sup +1.5, sub -1.0) x 10(exp 49) erg/s. Future joint observations of GW events by LIGO/Virgo and Fermi GBM could reveal whether the weak transient reported here is a plausible counterpart to GW150914 or a chance coincidence, and will further probe the connection between compact binary mergers and short GRBs.

  17. A survey of flux transfer events observed in the dayside magnetopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M. D.; Sibeck, D. G.; Lee, S. H.; Gonzalez, W.; Koga, D.

    2017-12-01

    Flux transfer events (FTE) have been interpreted to be results from transient magnetic reconnection and can be observed in the vicinity of the Earth's magnetopause, as well in other planets. FTE acts as a flux tube connecting the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere allowing the transference of particles, energy and momentum in both sides magnetopause. Their main signatures in satellite data are bipolar variation in the magnetic field component normal to the magnetopause, centered in an enhanced magnetic field strength. Other signatures such as pressure imbalance, bulk flow jets, and particle anisotropy distribution can be observed inside the those structures. We surveyed FTEs observed by MMS on the vicinity of the magnetopause (from x = 0 to 13Re and y = -12 to 12Re). Taking advantage of the MMS tetrahedron configuration we will employed timing analysis to determine the FTEs direction of motion and scale lengths. We will present information about occurrence related with IMF clock angle and other parameters, amplitude of the perturbations induced by the FTEs in the environment magnetic field and plasma; characteristic time and structure scale size. Using data from ACE, Wind and Artemis we can evaluate which is the best solar wind monitor for each FTE observed and then employ the appropriated lag time corresponding to FTE location and magnetic field orientation. The objective is to investigate the mechanisms of generation of FTEs comparing characteristics of the events observed on the dayside region and on the magnetopause flanks determining the motion and speed of FTEs.

  18. Utility of High Temporal Resolution Observations for Heat Health Event Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palecki, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Many heat health watch systems produce a binary on/off warning when conditions are predicted to exceed a given threshold during a day. Days with warnings and their mortality/morbidity statistics are analyzed relative to days not warned to determine the impacts of the event on human health, the effectiveness of warnings, and other statistics. The climate analyses of the heat waves or extreme temperature events are often performed with hourly or daily observations of air temperature, humidity, and other measured or derived variables, especially the maxima and minima of these data. However, since the beginning of the century, 5-minute observations are readily available for many weather and climate stations in the United States. NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has been collecting 5-minute observations from the NOAA Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) stations since 2000, and from the U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) stations since 2005. This presentation will demonstrate the efficacy of utilizing 5-minute environmental observations to characterize heat waves by counting the length of time conditions exceed extreme thresholds based on individual and multiple variables and on derived variables such as the heat index. The length and depth of recovery periods between daytime heating periods will also be examined. The length of time under extreme conditions will influence health outcomes for those directly exposed. Longer periods of dangerous conditions also could increase the chances for poor health outcomes for those only exposed intermittently through cumulative impacts.

  19. Air Twitter: Mashing Crowdsourced Air Quality Event Identification with Scientific Earth Observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    , which allows time series of the number of tweets hourly and daily. Monitoring the time series AQ events are identified from the background chatter about air quality. As the events are identified, collaborative, EventSpaces (Robinson, 2008) are created using the ESIP wiki to collect and merge social and scientific information about the event. The EventSpaces are monitored using Google Analytics. During the August California Fires the traffic increased five-fold to the ESIP wiki. Furthermore, the increase in traffic was entirely due to views of the SoCal FireEventSpace. A top driver to the site was through tweeting the link to the EventSpace and having that link re-tweeted by others like the LA Times. An interesting an unexpected observation, was that most of the increased traffic was coming from Southern California. So the right people were finding the right information at the right time. The overall benefit of using the online community as an AQ event indicator, allows specific effort to be made for initial documentation of air quality events and the result is a catalog of events with some sparse analysis that can be followed-up.

  20. Enigmatic Solar Wind Disappearance Events – Do We Understand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solar wind disappearance—polar field reversals—transient ... unlike its high speed counterpart that emanates only from large open field regions ..... Sheeley, N. R. Jr., Swanson, E. T., Wang, Y.-M. 1991, Out of the ecliptic tests of the inverse.

  1. Multiple-Satellite Observation of Magnetic Dip Event During the Substorm on 10 October 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaoguo; Chen, Lunjin; Zhu, Hui; Xia, Zhiyang; Reeves, G. D.; Xiong, Ying; Xie, Lun; Cao, Yong

    2017-09-01

    We present a multiple-satellite observation of the magnetic dip event during the substorm on 10 October 2013. The observation illustrates the temporal and spatial evolution of the magnetic dip and gives a compelling evidence that ring current ions induce the magnetic dip by enhanced plasma beta. The dip moves with the energetic ions in a comparable drift velocity and affects the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. In addition, the magnetic dip provides a favorable condition for the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave generation based on the linear theory analysis. The calculated proton diffusion coefficients show that the observed EMIC wave can lead to the pitch angle scattering losses of the ring current ions, which in turn partially relax the magnetic dip in the observations. This study enriches our understanding of magnetic dip evolution and demonstrates the important role of the magnetic dip for the coupling of radiation belt and ring current.

  2. Simulating flaring events in complex active regions driven by observed magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2011-05-01

    Context. We interpret solar flares as events originating in active regions that have reached the self organized critical state, by using a refined cellular automaton model with initial conditions derived from observations. Aims: We investigate whether the system, with its imposed physical elements, reaches a self organized critical state and whether well-known statistical properties of flares, such as scaling laws observed in the distribution functions of characteristic parameters, are reproduced after this state has been reached. Methods: To investigate whether the distribution functions of total energy, peak energy and event duration follow the expected scaling laws, we first applied a nonlinear force-free extrapolation that reconstructs the three-dimensional magnetic fields from two-dimensional vector magnetograms. We then locate magnetic discontinuities exceeding a threshold in the Laplacian of the magnetic field. These discontinuities are relaxed in local diffusion events, implemented in the form of cellular automaton evolution rules. Subsequent loading and relaxation steps lead the system to self organized criticality, after which the statistical properties of the simulated events are examined. Physical requirements, such as the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field vector, are approximately imposed on all elements of the model. Results: Our results show that self organized criticality is indeed reached when applying specific loading and relaxation rules. Power-law indices obtained from the distribution functions of the modeled flaring events are in good agreement with observations. Single power laws (peak and total flare energy) are obtained, as are power laws with exponential cutoff and double power laws (flare duration). The results are also compared with observational X-ray data from the GOES satellite for our active-region sample. Conclusions: We conclude that well-known statistical properties of flares are reproduced after the system has

  3. Plasma and field observations of a compressional Pc 5 wave event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Sckopke, N.; LaBelle, J.; Klecker, B.; Luehr, H.; Glassmeier, K.H.

    1987-01-01

    On October 24, 1984, the AMPTE/IRM satellite, on its inbound orbit in the 1,300 LT sector, observed a strong compressional Pc 5 event lasting for about an hour. The use of data from the full complement of detectors aboard the spacecraft allowed for detailed measurements of field and particle oscillations, with the latter covering energies from a few electron volts up to tens of keV (electrons) or even 1 MeV (protons). Both energetic proton and electron fluxes were anticorrelated with the compressional magnetic field oscillations, indicating that the event belongs to the class of in-phase events. But the energetic proton data also exhibited a new feature: Flux minima and maxima at low energies were observed somewhat later than those at higher energies. The magnetic and plasma pressure oscillations satisfy the pressure balance equation for the drift mirror mode much better than that for drift compressional Alfven waves. However, the classical criterion for the onset of the mirror instability is not satisfied. The low-energy particles showed clear signatures of gradient convection due to the wave electric field with the protons additionally undergoing gyration acceleration. The period of the pulsation decreased while the satellite was moving inward, in agreement with the individual L shell resonance model. But in contrast to earlier observations the periods of the compressional and transverse oscillations differed significantly (by ∼ 25%). The authors interpret this as Doppler shift due to spacecraft motion since in the present event the transverse oscillations did not have the purely radial (poloidal) polarization common to other published cases

  4. Observations of Lake-Breeze Events During the Toronto 2015 Pan-American Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Zen; Dehghan, Armin; Joe, Paul; Sills, David

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced meteorological observations were made during the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games in Toronto in order to measure the vertical and horizontal structure of lake-breeze events. Two scanning Doppler lidars (one fixed and one mobile), a C-band radar, and a network including 53 surface meteorological stations (mesonet) provided pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction measurements over Lake Ontario and urban areas. These observations captured the full evolution (prior, during, and after) of 27 lake-breeze events (73% of observation days) in order to characterize the convective and dynamic processes driving lake breezes at the local scale and mesoscale. The dominant signal of a passing lake-breeze front (LBF) was an increase in dew-point temperature of 2.3 ± 0.3°C, coinciding with a 180° shift in wind direction and a decrease in air temperature of 2.1 ± 0.2°C. Doppler lidar observations over the lake detected lake breezes 1 hour (on average) before detection by radar and mesonet. On days with the synoptic flow in the offshore direction, the lidars observed wedge-shaped LBFs with shallow depths, which inhibited the radar's ability to detect the lake breeze. The LBF's ground speed and inland penetration distance were found to be well-correlated (r = 0.78), with larger inland penetration distances occurring on days with non-opposing (non-offshore) synoptic flow. The observed enhanced vertical motion ({>} 1 m s^{-1}) at the LBF, observed by the lidar on 54% of lake-breeze days, was greater (at times {>} 2.5 m s^{-1}) than that observed in previous studies and longer-lasting over the lake than over land. The weaker and less pronounced lake-breeze structure over land is illustrated in two case studies highlighting the lifetime of the lake-breeze circulation and the impact of propagation distance on lake-breeze intensity.

  5. Observations of the Evolution of Ion Outflow During a Sawtooth Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, E. J.; Nowrouzi, N.; Kistler, L. M.; Cai, X.; Frey, H. U.

    2015-12-01

    Sawtooth oscillations are one of several convection modes known to exist in the magnetosphere. Recent simulations have suggested that O+^+ ions transported from the high-latitude ionosphere to the magnetotail can drive sawtooth events. We present observational case studies of sawtooth events using data from FAST near the noon-midnight meridional plane, Cluster in the magnetotail, GOES and LANL energetic particle sensors at geosynchronous orbit, and ACE solar wind data to investigate the evolution of ion outflow during sawtooth events and the question of whether O+^+ outflow from one tooth helps to drive subsequent teeth. We find that oxygen enters the tail from the lobes after each tooth onset, the oxygen fraction in the magnetotail often increases after a tooth onset, and that the oxygen fraction of outflowing ions increases after a tooth event both in the cusp and on the nightside. However, a significant amount of low energy oxygen (≲1 keV) can end up in the dayside inner magnetosphere.

  6. Observations of new particle formation events in the south-eastern Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Plauškaitė

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation and growth were observed at a coastal site (Preila station, Lithuania during 1997 and 2000-2002. The total amountof data analysed covers 291 one-day periods, 45 (15% of which were long-term, new particle formation days. Short-term nucleationevents (from a few minutes to one hour and long-term events (from one to eight hours were identified. The mean particlegrowth rate, condensation sink and condensable vapour source rate during nucleation events were 3.9 nm h-1, 1.45 × 10-3 cm-3 s-1 and 7.5 × 104 cm-3 s-1 respectively.The average formation rate J10 was 0.4 cm-3 s-1. The nucleation events were accompaniedmainly by air masses transported from the north (43% and north-west (19%. Meteorological parameters and trace gas (O3, SO2,NO2 concentrations were also analysed. It was found that nucleation events are related to high levels of solar radiation.

  7. Observations of IMF coherent structures and their relationship to SEP dropout events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Trenchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar energetic particle (SEP events from impulsive solar flares are often characterized by short-timescale modulations affecting, at the same time, particles with different energies. Several models and simulations suggest that these modulations are observed when SEPs propagate through magnetic structures with a different connection with the flare site. However, in situ observations rarely showed clear magnetic signatures associated with these modulations. In this paper we used the Grad–Shafranov reconstruction to perform a detailed analysis of the local magnetic field topology during the SEP event of 9–10 January 1999, characterized by several SEP dropouts. An optimization procedure is used to identify, during this SEP event, the magnetic structures which better satisfy the Grad–Shafranov assumptions and to evaluate the direction of their invariant axis. We found that these two-dimensional structures, which are flux ropes or current sheets with a more complex field topology, are generally associated with the maxima in the SEP counts. This association suggests that the SEPs propagate within these structures and, since their gyration radii is much smaller than the transverse dimension of these structure, cannot escape from them.

  8. XMM-NEWTON SLEW SURVEY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EVENT GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troja, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Read, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Leicester University, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Tiengo, A. [Istituto Universitario di Studi Superiori, piazza della Vittoria 15, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Salvaterra, R. [Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, INAF, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The detection of the first gravitational wave (GW) transient GW150914 prompted an extensive campaign of follow-up observations at all wavelengths. Although no dedicated XMM-Newton observations have been performed, the satellite passed through the GW150914 error region during normal operations. Here we report the analysis of the data taken during these satellite slews performed two hours and two weeks after the GW event. Our data cover 1.1 and 4.8 deg{sup 2} of the final GW localization region. No X-ray counterpart to GW150914 is found down to a sensitivity of 6 × 10{sup −13} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 0.2–2 keV band. Nevertheless, these observations show the great potential of XMM-Newton slew observations for searching for the electromagnetic counterparts of GW events. A series of adjacent slews performed in response to a GW trigger would take ≲1.5 days to cover most of the typical GW credible region. We discuss this scenario and its prospects for detecting the X-ray counterpart of future GW detections.

  9. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  10. Jellyfish: Observational Properties of Extreme Ram-Pressure Stripping Events in Massive Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conor, McPartland; Ebeling, Harald; Roediger, Elke

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the physical origin and observational signatures of extreme ram-pressure stripping (RPS) in 63 massive galaxy clusters at z=0.3-0.7, based on data in the F606W passband obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Using a training set of a dozen ``jellyfish" galaxies identified earlier in the same imaging data, we define quantitative morphological criteria to select candidate galaxies which are similar to known cases of RPS. Considering a sample of 16 ``jellyfish" galaxies (10 of which we present for the first time), we visually derive estimates of the projected direction of motion based on dynamical features such as apparent compression shocks and debris trails. Our findings suggest that the observed events occur primarily at large distances from the cluster core and involve infall trajectories featuring high impact parameters. Simple models of cluster growth show that such trajectories are consistent with two scenarios: 1) galaxy infall along filaments; and 2) infall at high velocities (≥1000 km/s) characteristic of cluster mergers. The observed distribution of events is best described by timescales of ˜few Myr in agreement with recent numerical simulations of RPS. The broader areal coverage of the Hubble Frontier Fields should provide an even larger sample of RPS events to determine the relative contributions of infall and cluster mergers. Prompted by the discovery of several jellyfish galaxies whose brightness in the F606W passband rivals or exceeds that of the respective brightest cluster galaxy, we attempt to constrain the luminosity function of galaxies undergoing RPS. The observed significant excess at the bright end compared to the luminosity functions of blue cluster members strongly suggests enhanced star formation, thus challenging theoretical and numerical studies according to which RPS merely displaces existing star-forming regions. In-depth studies of individual objects will help test our

  11. Thin current sheets observation by MMS during a near-Earth's magnetotail reconnection event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Varsani, A.; Nakamura, T.; Genestreti, K.; Plaschke, F.; Baumjohann, W.; Nagai, T.; Burch, J.; Cohen, I. J.; Ergun, R.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Le Contel, O.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Magnes, W.; Schwartz, S. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    During summer 2017, the four spacecraft of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission traversed the nightside magnetotail current sheet at an apogee of 25 RE. They detected a number of flow reversal events suggestive of the passage of the reconnection current sheet. Due to the mission's unprecedented high-time resolution and spatial separation well below the ion scales, structure of thin current sheets is well resolved both with plasma and field measurements. In this study we examine the detailed structure of thin current sheets during a flow reversal event from tailward flow to Earthward flow, when MMS crossed the center of the current sheet . We investigate the changes in the structure of the thin current sheet relative to the X-point based on multi-point analysis. We determine the motion and strength of the current sheet from curlometer calculations comparing these with currents obtained from the particle data. The observed structures of these current sheets are also compared with simulations.

  12. An observational and modeling study of the August 2017 Florida climate extreme event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konduru, R.; Singh, V.; Routray, A.

    2017-12-01

    A special report on the climate extremes by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) elucidates that the sole cause of disasters is due to the exposure and vulnerability of the human and natural system to the climate extremes. The cause of such a climate extreme could be anthropogenic or non-anthropogenic. Therefore, it is challenging to discern the critical factor of influence for a particular climate extreme. Such kind of perceptive study with reasonable confidence on climate extreme events is possible only if there exist any past case studies. A similar rarest climate extreme problem encountered in the case of Houston floods and extreme rainfall over Florida in August 2017. A continuum of hurricanes like Harvey and Irma targeted the Florida region and caused catastrophe. Due to the rarity of August 2017 Florida climate extreme event, it requires the in-depth study on this case. To understand the multi-faceted nature of the event, a study on the development of the Harvey hurricane and its progression and dynamics is significant. Current article focus on the observational and modeling study on the Harvey hurricane. A global model named as NCUM (The global UK Met office Unified Model (UM) operational at National Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting, India, was utilized to simulate the Harvey hurricane. The simulated rainfall and wind fields were compared with the observational datasets like Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission rainfall datasets and Era-Interim wind fields. The National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) automated tracking system was utilized to track the Harvey hurricane, and the tracks were analyzed statistically for different forecasts concerning the Harvey hurricane track of Joint Typhon Warning Centre. Further, the current study will be continued to investigate the atmospheric processes involved in the August 2017 Florida climate extreme event.

  13. Plasma Observations During the Mars Atmospheric Plume Event of March-April 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. J.; Barabash, S.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hall, B. E. S.; Holmstrom, M.; Lester, M.; Morgan, D. D.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Ramstad, R.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present initial analysis and conclusions from plasma observations made during the reported Mars Dust plume event of March - April 2012. During this period, multiple independent amateur observers detected a localized, high-altitude plume over the Martian dawn terminator [Sanchez-Lavega7 et al., Nature, 2015, doi:10.1038nature14162], the origin of which remains to be explained. We report on in-situ measurements of ionospheric plasma density and solar wind parameters throughout this interval made by Mars Express, obtained over the surface region, but at the opposing terminator. We tentatively conclude that the formation and/or transport of this plume to the altitudes where it was observed could be due in part the result of a large interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) encountering the Martian system. Interestingly, we note that a similar plume detection in May 1997 may also have been associated with a large ICME impact at Mars.

  14. Neutron-induced single event upsets in static RAMS observed at 10 km flight altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, J.; Becher, P.E.; Fynbo, P.B.; Raaby, P. Schultz, J.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron induced single event upsets (SEUs) in static memory devices (SRAMs) have so far been seen only in laboratory environments. The authors report observations of 14 neutron induced SEUs at commercial aircraft flight altitudes as well. The observed SEU rate at 10 km flight altitude based on exposure of 160 standard 256 Kbit CMOS SRAMs is 4.8 · 10 -8 upsets/bit/day. In the laboratory 117 SRAMs of two different brands were irradiated with fast neutrons from a Pu-Be source. A total of 176 SEUs have been observed, among these are two SEU pairs. The upset rates from the laboratory tests are compared to those found in the airborne SRAMS

  15. Event Horizon Telescope observations as probes for quantum structure of astrophysical black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Steven B.; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2018-04-01

    The need for a consistent quantum evolution for black holes has led to proposals that their semiclassical description is modified not just near the singularity, but at horizon or larger scales. If such modifications extend beyond the horizon, they influence regions accessible to distant observation. Natural candidates for these modifications behave like metric fluctuations, with characteristic length scales and timescales set by the horizon radius. We investigate the possibility of using the Event Horizon Telescope to observe these effects, if they have a strength sufficient to make quantum evolution consistent with unitarity, without introducing new scales. We find that such quantum fluctuations can introduce a strong time dependence for the shape and size of the shadow that a black hole casts on its surrounding emission. For the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, detecting the rapid time variability of its shadow will require nonimaging timing techniques. However, for the much larger black hole in the center of the M87 galaxy, a variable black-hole shadow, if present with these parameters, would be readily observable in the individual snapshots that will be obtained by the Event Horizon Telescope.

  16. Onsets of Solar Proton Events in Satellite and Ground Level Observations: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Rodriguez, Juan V.

    2018-03-01

    The early detection of solar proton event onsets is essential for protecting humans and electronics in space, as well as passengers and crew at aviation altitudes. Two commonly compared methods for observing solar proton events that are sufficiently large and energetic to be detected on the ground through the creation of secondary radiation—known as ground level enhancements (GLEs)—are (1) a network of ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) and (2) satellite-based particle detectors. Until recently, owing to the different time resolution of the two data sets, it has not been feasible to compare these two types of observations using the same detection algorithm. This paper presents a comparison between the two observational platforms using newly processed >100 MeV 1 min count rates and fluxes from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 8-12 satellites, and 1 min count rates from the Neutron Monitor Database. We applied the same detection algorithm to each data set (tuned to the different background noise levels of the instrument types). Seventeen SPEs with GLEs were studied: GLEs 55-70 from Solar Cycle 23 and GLE 71 from Solar Cycle 24. The median difference in the event detection times by GOES and NM data is 0 min, indicating no innate benefit in time of either system. The 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the onset time differences (GOES minus NMs) are -7.2 min, -1.5 min, 2.5 min, and 4.2 min, respectively. This is in contrast to previous studies in which NM detections led GOES by 8 to 52 min without accounting for different alert protocols.

  17. Free-choice family learning experiences at informal astronomy observing events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Matthew C.

    This qualitative study is an exploratory look at family experiences at night time telescope observing events, often called star parties. Four families participated in this study which looked at their expectations, experiences and agendas as well as the roles that identity and family culture played in the negotiation of meaning. Two families who had prior experience with attending star parties were recruited ahead of time and two other families who were first time visitors were recruited on-site at the observing event. Data were collected at two star parties. At each event, one experienced family was paired with an on-site family for the purposes of facilitating conversations about expectations and prior experiences. The results of this study showed that learning is constantly occurring among families, and that star parties and family culture were mediational means for making meaning. Expectations and agendas were found to affect the families' star party experiences and differences were observed between the expectations and experiences of families based on their prior experiences with star parties. These data also showed that family members are actively negotiating their individual and family identities. These families use their cultural history together to make sense of their star party experiences; however, the meaning that families were negotiating was often focused more on developing family and individual identity rather than science content. The families in this study used the star party context as a way to connect with each other, to make sense of their prior experiences, and as raw material for making sense of future experiences.

  18. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE DISAPPEARANCE ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F.; Gibson, R. R. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Myers, A. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Petitjean, P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Universite Paris 6, F-75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, D. G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bizyaev, D.; Brinkmann, J.; Malanushenko, E.; Oravetz, D. J.; Pan, K.; Simmons, A. E. [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349-0059 (United States); Weaver, B. A., E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present 21 examples of C IV broad absorption line (BAL) trough disappearance in 19 quasars selected from systematic multi-epoch observations of 582 bright BAL quasars (1.9 < z < 4.5) by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II (SDSS-I/II) and SDSS-III. The observations span 1.1-3.9 yr rest-frame timescales, longer than have been sampled in many previous BAL variability studies. On these timescales, Almost-Equal-To 2.3% of C IV BAL troughs disappear and Almost-Equal-To 3.3% of BAL quasars show a disappearing trough. These observed frequencies suggest that many C IV BAL absorbers spend on average at most a century along our line of sight to their quasar. Ten of the 19 BAL quasars showing C IV BAL disappearance have apparently transformed from BAL to non-BAL quasars; these are the first reported examples of such transformations. The BAL troughs that disappear tend to be those with small-to-moderate equivalent widths, relatively shallow depths, and high outflow velocities. Other non-disappearing C IV BALs in those nine objects having multiple troughs tend to weaken when one of them disappears, indicating a connection between the disappearing and non-disappearing troughs, even for velocity separations as large as 10,000-15,000 km s{sup -1}. We discuss possible origins of this connection including disk-wind rotation and changes in shielding gas.

  19. Characteristics and conditions of production of transient luminous events observed over a maritime storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soula, S.; van der Velde, O.; Palmiéri, J.

    2010-01-01

    On the night of 15/16 November 2007, cameras in southern France detected 30 transient luminous events (TLEs) over a storm located in the Corsican region (France). Among these TLEs, 19 were sprites, 6 were halos, and 5 were elves. For 26 of them, a positive “parent” cloud-to-ground lightning (P...... in a sequence had much lower peak currents. Several triangulated sprites were found to be shifted from their P+CG flashes by about 10 to 50 km and preferentially downstream. The observations suggest that the P+CG flashes can initiate both sprites and other CG flashes in a storm....

  20. Characterizing Turbulent Events at a Tidal Energy Site from Acoustic Doppler Velocity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Katherine; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Hamlington, Peter

    2013-11-01

    As interest in marine renewable energy increases, observations are crucial to understanding the environments encountered by energy conversion devices. Data obtained from an acoustic Doppler current profiler and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter at two locations in the Puget Sound, WA are used to perform a detailed analysis of the turbulent environment that is expected to be present at a turbine placed in a tidal strait. Metrics such as turbulence intensity, structure functions, probability density functions, intermittency, coherent turbulence kinetic energy, anisotropy invariants, and linear combinations of eigenvalues are used to characterize the turbulence. The results indicate that coherent turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity can be used to identify and parameterize different turbulent events in the flow. An analysis of the anisotropy characteristics leads to a physical description of turbulent events (defined using both turbulence intensity and coherent turbulent kinetic energy) as being dominated by one component of the Reynolds stresses. During non-turbulent events, the flow is dominated by two Reynolds stress components. The importance of these results for the development of realistic models of energy conversion devices is outlined. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences.

  1. Solar micro-bursts of 22. 2 GHz and their relationship to events observed at lower frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakey, J R [Universidade Mackenzie, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radio-Astronomia e Astrofisica

    1976-01-01

    Observations of McMath region 10433 at 22 GHz using a telescope with a 4 minutes of arc beam during July 1974 revealed the existence events or 'microbursts' with intensities below the sensitivity limit of normal solar patrol instruments. Many of these events were simply the high frequency counterpart of more intense bursts observed at lower frequencies. This note considers the small number of events which suggest that the gyro-synchrotron mechanism alone is incapable of explaining the observations and indicates that a thermal mechanism is needed to explain the high frequency event.

  2. Reconnection at the earth's magnetopause - Magnetic field observations and flux transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of plasma acceleration by magnetic-field-line reconnection at the earth magnetopause and the high-resolution three-dimensional plasma measurements obtained with the ISEE satellites are compared and illustrated with diagrams, graphs, drawings, and histograms. The history of reconnection theory and the results of early satellite observations are summarized; the thickness of the magnetopause current layer is discussed; problems in analyzing the polarization of current-layer rotation are considered; and the flux-transfer events responsible for periods of patchy reconnection are characterized in detail. The need for further observations and refinements of the theory to explain the initiation of reconnection and identify the mechanism determining whether it is patchy or steady-state is indicated.

  3. Cluster observations of bounday layer structure and a flux transfer event near the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fear

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available On the 25th January 2002 between 10:00 and 12:00 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern high-latitude cusp, the dayside magnetosphere and into the magnetosheath in a linear formation. In the magnetosphere the PEACE electron spectrometers on the four spacecraft all observed a series of transient bursts of magnetosheath-like plasma, but without bipolar magnetic signatures in the magnetopause normal component as might be expected if the plasma had been injected by transient reconnection (flux transfer events – FTEs. Reordering the data using the magnetopause transition parameter reveals that these plasma observations, the related variations in the magnetic field and the balance of magnetic and thermal gas pressures are consistent with transient entries into a stable high-latitude boundary layer structure. However, once some of the spacecraft entered the magnetosheath, FTE signatures were observed outside the magnetopause at the same time as some of the boundary layer entries occurred at the other spacecraft inside. Thus, (a the lack of a bipolar BN signature is inconsistent with the traditional picture of a magnetospheric FTE, and (b the cause of the observed entry of the spacecraft into the boundary layer (pressure pulse or passing magnetosheath FTE can only be determined by spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and bondary layers; Solar wind- magnetosphere interactions; Magnetosheath

  4. Cluster observations of bounday layer structure and a flux transfer event near the cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fear

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available On the 25th January 2002 between 10:00 and 12:00 UT, the four Cluster spacecraft passed through the northern high-latitude cusp, the dayside magnetosphere and into the magnetosheath in a linear formation. In the magnetosphere the PEACE electron spectrometers on the four spacecraft all observed a series of transient bursts of magnetosheath-like plasma, but without bipolar magnetic signatures in the magnetopause normal component as might be expected if the plasma had been injected by transient reconnection (flux transfer events – FTEs. Reordering the data using the magnetopause transition parameter reveals that these plasma observations, the related variations in the magnetic field and the balance of magnetic and thermal gas pressures are consistent with transient entries into a stable high-latitude boundary layer structure. However, once some of the spacecraft entered the magnetosheath, FTE signatures were observed outside the magnetopause at the same time as some of the boundary layer entries occurred at the other spacecraft inside. Thus, (a the lack of a bipolar BN signature is inconsistent with the traditional picture of a magnetospheric FTE, and (b the cause of the observed entry of the spacecraft into the boundary layer (pressure pulse or passing magnetosheath FTE can only be determined by spacecraft observations in the magnetosheath.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetopause, cusp and bondary layers; Solar wind- magnetosphere interactions; Magnetosheath

  5. Long-duration high-energy proton events observed by GOES in October 1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anttila

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider the prolonged injection of the high-energy (>10 MeV protons during the three successive events observed by GOES in October 1989. We apply a solar-rotation-stereoscopy approach to study the injection of the accelerated particles from the CME-driven interplanetary shock waves in order to find out how the effectiveness of the particle acceleration and/or escape depends on the angular distance from the shock axis. We use an empirical model for the proton injection at the shock and a standard model of the interplanetary transport. The model can reproduce rather well the observed intensity–time profiles of the October 1989 events. The deduced proton injection rate is highest at the nose of the shock; the injection spectrum is always harder near the Sun. The results seem to be consistent with the scheme that the CME-driven interplanetary shock waves accelerate a seed particle population of coronal origin.Key words. Interplanetary physics · Energetic particles · Solar physics · astrophysics and astronomy · Flares and mass ejections

  6. Observations of neutral winds, wind shears, and wave structure during a sporadic-E/QP event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Larsen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The second Sporadic E Experiment over Kyushu (SEEK-2 was carried out on 3 August 2002, during an active sporadic-E event that also showed quasi-periodic (QP echoes. Two rockets were launched into the event from Kagoshima Space Center in southern Japan 15 min apart. Both carried a suite of instruments, but the second rocket also released a trimethyl aluminum (TMA trail to measure the neutral winds and turbulence structure. In a number of earlier measurements in similar conditions, large winds and shears that were either unstable or close to instability were observed in the altitude range where the ionization layer occurred. The SEEK-2 wind measurements showed similar vertical structure, but unlike earlier experiments, there was a significant difference between the up-leg and down-leg wind profiles. In addition, wave or billow-like fluctuations were evident in the up-leg portion of the trail, while the lower portion of the down-leg trail was found to have extremely strong turbulence that led to a rapid break-up of the trail. The large east-west gradient in the winds and the strong turbulence have not been observed before. The wind profiles and shears, as well as the qualitative characteristics of the strong turbulence are presented, along with a discussion of the implications of the dynamical features. Keywords. Ionosphere (Mid-latitude ionosphere; Ionospheric irregularities; Electric field and currents

  7. Stress disorders of families of the disappeared: a controlled study in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, G J; Casco, L

    1994-12-01

    The effect of forced disappearance on the physical and psychological health of family members was assessed by interviews carried out in Honduras. Families of the disappeared were compared with two control groups: (1) families who lost a member due to accident or illness; and (2) families where no one had died within the past 10 years. Constellations of stress-related symptoms commonly seen in post-traumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders were approx. 2 times more prevalent in families of the disappeared as compared to the other two groups, indicating that families of the disappeared suffer over and above that due to normal grieving. It is suggested that the atmosphere of fear and isolation experienced by families of the disappeared is a causative factor in the prolongation of stress-related disorders years after the traumatic event.

  8. Coupling rainfall observations and satellite soil moisture for predicting event soil loss in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, Francesca; Brocca, Luca; Termite, Loris Francesco; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    The accuracy of water soil loss prediction depends on the ability of the model to account for effects of the physical phenomena causing the output and the accuracy by which the parameters have been determined. The process based models require considerable effort to obtain appropriate parameter values and their failure to produce better results than achieved using the USLE/RUSLE model, encourages the use of the USLE/RUSLE model in roles of which it was not designed. In particular it is widely used in watershed models even at the event temporal scale. At hillslope scale, spatial variability in soil and vegetation result in spatial variations in soil moisture and consequently in runoff within the area for which soil loss estimation is required, so the modeling approach required to produce those estimates needs to be sensitive to those spatial variations in runoff. Some models include explicit consideration of runoff in determining the erosive stresses but this increases the uncertainty of the prediction due to the difficulty in parameterising the models also because the direct measures of surface runoff are rare. The same remarks are effective also for the USLE/RUSLE models including direct consideration of runoff in the erosivity factor (i.e. USLE-M by Kinnell and Risse, 1998, and USLE-MM by Bagarello et al., 2008). Moreover actually most of the rainfall-runoff models are based on the knowledge of the pre-event soil moisture that is a fundamental variable in the rainfall-runoff transformation. In addiction soil moisture is a readily available datum being possible to have easily direct pre-event measures of soil moisture using in situ sensors or satellite observations at larger spatial scale; it is also possible to derive the antecedent water content with soil moisture simulation models. The attempt made in the study is to use the pre-event soil moisture to account for the spatial variation in runoff within the area for which the soil loss estimates are required. More

  9. Mercury fluxes over an Australian alpine grassland and observation of nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Howard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic gradient measurements of the air–surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM were undertaken over a 40 ha alpine grassland in Australia's Snowy Mountains region across a 3-week period during the late austral summer. Bi-directional GEM fluxes were observed throughout the study, with overall mean value of 0.2 ± 14.5 ng m−2 h−1 and mean nocturnal fluxes of −1.5 ± 7.8 ng m−2 h−1 compared to diurnal fluxes of 1.8 ± 18.6 ng m−2 h−1. Deposition velocities ranged from −2.2 to 2.9 cm s−1, whilst ambient GEM concentrations throughout the study were 0.59 ± 0.10 ng m−3. Cumulative GEM fluxes correlated well with 24 h running mean soil temperatures, and one precipitation event was shown to have a positive impact on diurnal emission fluxes. The underlying vegetation had largely senesced and showed little stomatal control on fluxes. Nocturnal atmospheric mercury depletion events (NAMDEs were observed concomitant with O3 depletion and dew formation under shallow, stable nocturnal boundary layers. A mass balance box model was able to reproduce ambient GEM concentration patterns during NAMDE and non-NAMDE nights without invoking chemical oxidation of GEM throughout the column, indicating a significant role of surface processes controlling deposition in these events. Surface deposition was enhanced under NAMDE nights, though uptake to dew likely represents less than one-fifth of this enhanced deposition. Instead, enhancement of the surface GEM gradient as a result of oxidation at the surface in the presence of dew is hypothesised to be responsible for a large portion of GEM depletion during these particular events. GEM emission pulses following nights with significant deposition provide evidence for the prompt recycling of 17 % of deposited mercury, with the remaining portion retained in surface sinks. The long-term impacts of any sinks are however likely to be minimal, as

  10. ENERGETIC PARTICLE OBSERVATIONS AND PROPAGATION IN THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HELIOSPHERE DURING THE 2006 DECEMBER EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malandraki, O. E.; Marsden, R. G.; Tranquille, C.; Lario, D.; Heber, B.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Forsyth, R. J.; Elliott, H. A.; Vogiatzis, I. I.; Geranios, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report observations of solar energetic particles obtained by the HI-SCALE and COSPIN/LET instruments onboard Ulysses during the period of isolated but intense solar activity in 2006 December, in the declining phase of the solar activity cycle. We present measurements of particle intensities and also discuss observations of particle anisotropies and composition in selected energy ranges. Active Region 10930 produced a series of major solar flares with the strongest one (X9.0) recorded on December 5 after it rotated into view on the solar east limb. Located over the South Pole of the Sun, at >72 0 S heliographic latitude and 2.8 AU radial distance, Ulysses provided unique measurements for assessing the nature of particle propagation to high latitudes under near-minimum solar activity conditions, in a relatively undisturbed heliosphere. The observations seem to exclude the possibility that magnetic field lines originating at low latitudes reached Ulysses, suggesting either that the energetic particles observed as large solar energetic particle (SEP) events over the South Pole of the Sun in 2006 December were released when propagating coronal waves reached high-latitude field lines connected to Ulysses, or underwent perpendicular diffusion. We also discuss comparisons with energetic particle data acquired by the STEREO and Advanced Composition Explorer in the ecliptic plane near 1 AU during this period.

  11. TRANSITION REGION AND CHROMOSPHERIC SIGNATURES OF IMPULSIVE HEATING EVENTS. I. OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Reep, Jeffrey W. [National Research Council Postdoctoral Fellow, Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Crump, Nicholas A. [Naval Center for Space Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Simões, Paulo J. A. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-20

    We exploit the high spatial resolution and high cadence of the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) to investigate the response of the transition region and chromosphere to energy deposition during a small flare. Simultaneous observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager provide constraints on the energetic electrons precipitating into the flare footpoints, while observations of the X-Ray Telescope , Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, and Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) allow us to measure the temperatures and emission measures from the resulting flare loops. We find clear evidence for heating over an extended period on the spatial scale of a single IRIS pixel. During the impulsive phase of this event, the intensities in each pixel for the Si iv 1402.770 Å, C ii 1334.535 Å, Mg ii 2796.354 Å, and O i 1355.598 Å emission lines are characterized by numerous small-scale bursts typically lasting 60 s or less. Redshifts are observed in Si iv, C ii, and Mg ii during the impulsive phase. Mg ii shows redshifts during the bursts and stationary emission at other times. The Si iv and C ii profiles, in contrast, are observed to be redshifted at all times during the impulsive phase. These persistent redshifts are a challenge for one-dimensional hydrodynamic models, which predict only short-duration downflows in response to impulsive heating. We conjecture that energy is being released on many small-scale filaments with a power-law distribution of heating rates.

  12. Field determination of bacterial disappearance in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1970-01-01

    The article presents two approaches to field determination of disappearance of viable, fecal bacteria after discharge with sewage into a marine environment. The first approach is based on simultaneous sampling for bacterial counting and monitoring of dilution using a conservative tracer, which is...

  13. Connecting macroscopic observables and microscopic assembly events in amyloid formation using coarse grained simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah S Bieler

    Full Text Available The pre-fibrillar stages of amyloid formation have been implicated in cellular toxicity, but have proved to be challenging to study directly in experiments and simulations. Rational strategies to suppress the formation of toxic amyloid oligomers require a better understanding of the mechanisms by which they are generated. We report Dynamical Monte Carlo simulations that allow us to study the early stages of amyloid formation. We use a generic, coarse-grained model of an amyloidogenic peptide that has two internal states: the first one representing the soluble random coil structure and the second one the [Formula: see text]-sheet conformation. We find that this system exhibits a propensity towards fibrillar self-assembly following the formation of a critical nucleus. Our calculations establish connections between the early nucleation events and the kinetic information available in the later stages of the aggregation process that are commonly probed in experiments. We analyze the kinetic behaviour in our simulations within the framework of the theory of classical nucleated polymerisation, and are able to connect the structural events at the early stages in amyloid growth with the resulting macroscopic observables such as the effective nucleus size. Furthermore, the free-energy landscapes that emerge from these simulations allow us to identify pertinent properties of the monomeric state that could be targeted to suppress oligomer formation.

  14. Energetic atomic and molecular ions of ionospheric origin observed in distant magnetotail flow-reversal events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Gloeckler, G.; Williams, D. J.; Mukai, T.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jacquey, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Kokubun, S.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    Energetic atomic (O(+1) and N(+1)) and molecular (O2(+1), NO(+1), and N2(+1)) ions of ionospheric origin were observed in Earth's magnetotail at X approximately -146 R(sub E) during two plasma sheet sunward/tailward flow-reversal events measured by instruments on the GEOTAIL spacecraft. These events were associated with concurrent ground-measured geomagnetic disturbance intensification at auroral-and mid-latitudes (Kp = 7(-)). Energetic ions in the sunward-component and tailward flows were from both the solar wind and ionosphere. Plasma and energetic ions participated in the flows. During tailward flow, ionospheric origin ion abundance ratios at approximately 200-900 km/s in the rest frame were N(+1)/O(+1) = approximately 25-30% and ((O2(+1), NO(+1), and N2(+1))/O(+1) = approximately 1-2%. We argue that tailward flow most likely initiated approximately 80-100 R(sub E) tailward of Earth and molecular ions were in the plasma sheet prior to geomagnetic intensification onset.

  15. Underlying event sensitive observables in Drell-Yan production using GENEVA

    CERN Document Server

    Alioli, Simone; Guns, Sam; Tackmann, Frank J.

    2016-11-09

    We present an extension of the GENEVA Monte Carlo framework to include multiple parton interactions (MPI) provided by PYTHIA8. This allows us to obtain predictions for underlying-event sensitive measurements in Drell-Yan production, in conjunction with GENEVA's fully-differential NNLO calculation, NNLL' resummation for the 0-jet resolution variable (beam thrust), and NLL resummation for the 1-jet resolution variable. We describe the interface with the parton shower algorithm and MPI model of PYTHIA8, which preserves both the precision of partonic N-jet cross sections in GENEVA as well as the shower accuracy and good description of soft hadronic physics of PYTHIA8. We present results for several underlying-event sensitive observables and compare to data from ATLAS and CMS as well as to standalone PYTHIA8 predictions. This includes a comparison with the recent ATLAS measurement of the beam thrust spectrum, which provides a potential avenue to fully disentangle the physical effects from the primary hard interact...

  16. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  17. Assessing distractors and teamwork during surgery: developing an event-based method for direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelandt, Julia C; Tschan, Franziska; Keller, Sandra; Beldi, Guido; Jenni, Nadja; Kurmann, Anita; Candinas, Daniel; Semmer, Norbert K

    2014-11-01

    To develop a behavioural observation method to simultaneously assess distractors and communication/teamwork during surgical procedures through direct, on-site observations; to establish the reliability of the method for long (>3 h) procedures. Observational categories for an event-based coding system were developed based on expert interviews, observations and a literature review. Using Cohen's κ and the intraclass correlation coefficient, interobserver agreement was assessed for 29 procedures. Agreement was calculated for the entire surgery, and for the 1st hour. In addition, interobserver agreement was assessed between two tired observers and between a tired and a non-tired observer after 3 h of surgery. The observational system has five codes for distractors (door openings, noise distractors, technical distractors, side conversations and interruptions), eight codes for communication/teamwork (case-relevant communication, teaching, leadership, problem solving, case-irrelevant communication, laughter, tension and communication with external visitors) and five contextual codes (incision, last stitch, personnel changes in the sterile team, location changes around the table and incidents). Based on 5-min intervals, Cohen's κ was good to excellent for distractors (0.74-0.98) and for communication/teamwork (0.70-1). Based on frequency counts, intraclass correlation coefficient was excellent for distractors (0.86-0.99) and good to excellent for communication/teamwork (0.45-0.99). After 3 h of surgery, Cohen's κ was 0.78-0.93 for distractors, and 0.79-1 for communication/teamwork. The observational method developed allows a single observer to simultaneously assess distractors and communication/teamwork. Even for long procedures, high interobserver agreement can be achieved. Data collected with this method allow for investigating separate or combined effects of distractions and communication/teamwork on surgical performance and patient outcomes. Published by the

  18. ONSETS AND SPECTRA OF IMPULSIVE SOLAR ENERGETIC ELECTRON EVENTS OBSERVED NEAR THE EARTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Reid, Hamish A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive solar energetic electrons are often observed in the interplanetary space near the Earth and have an attractive diagnostic potential for poorly understood solar flare acceleration processes. We investigate the transport of solar flare energetic electrons in the heliospheric plasma to understand the role of transport to the observed onset and spectral properties of the impulsive solar electron events. The propagation of energetic electrons in solar wind plasma is simulated from the acceleration region at the Sun to the Earth, taking into account self-consistent generation and absorption of electrostatic electron plasma (Langmuir) waves, effects of nonuniform plasma, collisions, and Landau damping. The simulations suggest that the beam-driven plasma turbulence and the effects of solar wind density inhomogeneity play a crucial role and lead to the appearance of (1) a spectral break for a single power-law injected electron spectrum, with the spectrum flatter below the break, (2) apparent early onset of low-energy electron injection, and (3) the apparent late maximum of low-energy electron injection. We show that the observed onsets, spectral flattening at low energies, and formation of a break energy at tens of keV is the direct manifestation of wave-particle interactions in nonuniform plasma of a single accelerated electron population with an initial power-law spectrum.

  19. BAYESIAN TECHNIQUES FOR COMPARING TIME-DEPENDENT GRMHD SIMULATIONS TO VARIABLE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junhan; Marrone, Daniel P.; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Medeiros, Lia; Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios, E-mail: junhankim@email.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a millimeter-wavelength, very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiment that is capable of observing black holes with horizon-scale resolution. Early observations have revealed variable horizon-scale emission in the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Comparing such observations to time-dependent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations requires statistical tools that explicitly consider the variability in both the data and the models. We develop here a Bayesian method to compare time-resolved simulation images to variable VLBI data, in order to infer model parameters and perform model comparisons. We use mock EHT data based on GRMHD simulations to explore the robustness of this Bayesian method and contrast it to approaches that do not consider the effects of variability. We find that time-independent models lead to offset values of the inferred parameters with artificially reduced uncertainties. Moreover, neglecting the variability in the data and the models often leads to erroneous model selections. We finally apply our method to the early EHT data on Sgr A*.

  20. Summary of exotic cosmic-ray events observed with the Mt. Fuji emulsion chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akashi, M.; Amenomori, M.; Konishi, E.

    1982-01-01

    The characters of peculiar gamma-ray families observed by a total of 700 m 2 year exposure of emulsion chambers at Mt.Fuji are presented. Their peculiarities are investigated in terms of clusterization and intercorrelation of various quantities of families. Double core families having clearly separated cores are selected by the cluster analysis method, and their structures are discussed in connection with large Pt and the type of incident primaries. The cluster analysis method is also applied to the examination of large multiplicity events so that we are free the limitation of spatial resolution. From the analysis of intercorrelation, it is stressed that the experimental data show larger fluctuations than expected ones from some model calculations

  1. SDSS-IV MaNGA: A Serendipitous Observation of a Potential Gas Accretion Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Edmond; Stark, David V.; Huang, Song; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Lin, Lihwai; Tremonti, Christy; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Drory, Niv; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Knapen, Johan H.; Maiolino, Roberto; Malanushenko, Olena; Masters, Karen L.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Pace, Zach; Pan, Kaike; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Schneider, Donald P.; Stott, John P.; Thomas, Daniel; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2016-12-01

    The nature of warm, ionized gas outside of galaxies may illuminate several key galaxy evolutionary processes. A serendipitous observation by the MaNGA survey has revealed a large, asymmetric Hα complex with no optical counterpart that extends ≈8″ (≈6.3 kpc) beyond the effective radius of a dusty, starbursting galaxy. This Hα extension is approximately three times the effective radius of the host galaxy and displays a tail-like morphology. We analyze its gas-phase metallicities, gaseous kinematics, and emission-line ratios and discuss whether this Hα extension could be diffuse ionized gas, a gas accretion event, or something else. We find that this warm, ionized gas structure is most consistent with gas accretion through recycled wind material, which could be an important process that regulates the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.

  2. SDSS-IV MaNGA: A SERENDIPITOUS OBSERVATION OF A POTENTIAL GAS ACCRETION EVENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Stark, David V.; Huang, Song; Rubin, Kate H. R.; Lin, Lihwai; Tremonti, Christy; Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Olena; Boquien, Médéric; Brownstein, Joel R.; Drory, Niv; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Knapen, Johan H.; Maiolino, Roberto; Masters, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of warm, ionized gas outside of galaxies may illuminate several key galaxy evolutionary processes. A serendipitous observation by the MaNGA survey has revealed a large, asymmetric H α complex with no optical counterpart that extends ≈8″ (≈6.3 kpc) beyond the effective radius of a dusty, starbursting galaxy. This H α extension is approximately three times the effective radius of the host galaxy and displays a tail-like morphology. We analyze its gas-phase metallicities, gaseous kinematics, and emission-line ratios and discuss whether this H α extension could be diffuse ionized gas, a gas accretion event, or something else. We find that this warm, ionized gas structure is most consistent with gas accretion through recycled wind material, which could be an important process that regulates the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.

  3. The Substructure of a Flux Transfer Event Observed by the MMS Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Sibeck, D. G.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Gershman, D.; Avanov, L.; Paterson, W. R.; Dorelli, J. C.; Ergun, R. E.; Russel, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    On 15 August 2015, MMS (Magnetospheric Multiscale mission), skimming the dusk magnetopause, detected an isolated region of an increased magnetic strength and bipolar Bn, indicating a flux transfer event (FTE). The four spacecraft in a tetrahedron allowed for investigations of the shape and motion of the FTE. In particular, high-resolution particle data facilitated our exploration of FTE substructures and their magnetic connectivity inside and surrounding the FTE. Combined field and plasma observations suggest that the core fields are open, magnetically connected to the northern magnetosphere from which high-energy particles leak; ion "D" distributions characterize the axis of flux ropes that carry old-opened field lines; counter streaming electrons superposed by parallel-heated components populate the periphery surrounding the FTE; and the interface between the core and draped regions contains a separatrix of newlyopened magnetic field lines that emanate from the X line above the FTE.

  4. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observations of Energetic Ion Response to Magnetotail Dipolarization Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B.; Anderson, B. J.; Sitnov, M. I.; Motoba, T.; Ohtani, S.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fuselier, S. A.; Giles, B. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Observations from the Energetic Ion Spectrometer (EIS) instruments aboard MMS have shown angular (pitch, elevation, azimuthal) asymmetries of energetic (>10s of keV) ions corresponding to dipolarization events in the near-Earth and distant magnetotail. In particular, EIS distinguishes the species composition of these ions (protons, helium, oxygen) and reveals apparent species-based differences in their response. This study presents analysis of the dynamic injection and mass-dependent response of energetic ions that likely result from the kinetic response of the ions to the time-varying electric and magnetic fields associated with injection process. Analysis is focused on discriminating between truly kinetic responses to the dynamics and the features that arise from large gyro-radii particles in the vicinity of strong spatial gradients. The study will focus on EIS measurements and include supplementary data from the FIELDS, FPI, and HPCA instruments.

  5. A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.B.; Anderson, M.L.; Dettinger, M.D.; Ralph, F.M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D.R.; Hartman, R.K.; Reynolds, D.W.; Johnson, L.E.; Schneider, T.L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S.I.; King, C.W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P.E.; Walls, C.; Mann, Dorte; Gottas, D.J.; Coleman, T.

    2013-01-01

    During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

  6. SDSS-IV MaNGA: A SERENDIPITOUS OBSERVATION OF A POTENTIAL GAS ACCRETION EVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Edmond; Stark, David V.; Huang, Song [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Rubin, Kate H. R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lin, Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Tremonti, Christy [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Olena [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Boquien, Médéric [Unidad de Astronomía, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avenida Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300 (Chile); Brownstein, Joel R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Drory, Niv [McDonald Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Gelfand, Joseph D. [NYU Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 129188, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Maiolino, Roberto [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Masters, Karen L., E-mail: ec2250@gmail.com [Institute for Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); and others

    2016-12-01

    The nature of warm, ionized gas outside of galaxies may illuminate several key galaxy evolutionary processes. A serendipitous observation by the MaNGA survey has revealed a large, asymmetric H α complex with no optical counterpart that extends ≈8″ (≈6.3 kpc) beyond the effective radius of a dusty, starbursting galaxy. This H α extension is approximately three times the effective radius of the host galaxy and displays a tail-like morphology. We analyze its gas-phase metallicities, gaseous kinematics, and emission-line ratios and discuss whether this H α extension could be diffuse ionized gas, a gas accretion event, or something else. We find that this warm, ionized gas structure is most consistent with gas accretion through recycled wind material, which could be an important process that regulates the low-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function.

  7. Fingerprints of a riming event on cloud radar Doppler spectra: observations and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kalesse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radar Doppler spectra measurements are exploited to study a riming event when precipitating ice from a seeder cloud sediment through a supercooled liquid water (SLW layer. The focus is on the "golden sample" case study for this type of analysis based on observations collected during the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM mobile facility AMF2 at Hyytiälä, Finland, during the Biogenic Aerosols – Effects on Clouds and Climate (BAECC field campaign. The presented analysis of the height evolution of the radar Doppler spectra is a state-of-the-art retrieval with profiling cloud radars in SLW layers beyond the traditional use of spectral moments. Dynamical effects are considered by following the particle population evolution along slanted tracks that are caused by horizontal advection of the cloud under wind shear conditions. In the SLW layer, the identified liquid peak is used as an air motion tracer to correct the Doppler spectra for vertical air motion and the ice peak is used to study the radar profiles of rimed particles. A 1-D steady-state bin microphysical model is constrained using the SLW and air motion profiles and cloud top radar observations. The observed radar moment profiles of the rimed snow can be simulated reasonably well by the model, but not without making several assumptions about the ice particle concentration and the relative role of deposition and aggregation. This suggests that in situ observations of key ice properties are needed to complement the profiling radar observations before process-oriented studies can effectively evaluate ice microphysical parameterizations.

  8. High-cadence observations of spicular-type events on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetye, J.; Doyle, J. G.; Scullion, E.; Nelson, C. J.; Kuridze, D.; Henriques, V.; Woeger, F.; Ray, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Chromospheric observations taken at high-cadence and high-spatial resolution show a range of spicule-like features, including Type-I, Type-II (as well as rapid blue-shifted excursions (RBEs) and rapid red-shifted excursions (RREs) which are thought to be on-disk counterparts of Type-II spicules) and those which seem to appear within a few seconds, which if interpreted as flows would imply mass flow velocities in excess of 1000 km s-1. Aims: This article seeks to quantify and study rapidly appearing spicular-type events. We also compare the multi-object multi-frame blind deconvolution (MOMFBD) and speckle reconstruction techniques to understand if these spicules are more favourably observed using a particular technique. Methods: We use spectral imaging observations taken with the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP) on the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope. Data was sampled at multiple positions within the Hα line profile for both an on-disk and limb location. Results: The data is host to numerous rapidly appearing features which are observed at different locations within the Hα line profile. The feature's durations vary between 10-20 s and lengths around 3500 km. Sometimes, a time delay in their appearance between the blue and red wings of 3-5 s is evident, whereas, sometimes they are near simultaneous. In some instances, features are observed to fade and then re-emerge at the same location several tens of seconds later. Conclusions: We provide the first statistical analysis of these spicules and suggest that these observations can be interpreted as the line-of-sight (LOS) movement of highly dynamic spicules moving in and out of the narrow 60 mÅ transmission filter that is used to observe in different parts of the Hα line profile. The LOS velocity component of the observed fast chromospheric features, manifested as Doppler shifts, are responsible for their appearance in the red and blue wings of Hα line. Additional work involving data at other

  9. Real-time observations of stressful events in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlNassar Sami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To identify and quantify factors causing stress in the operating room (OR and evaluate the relationship between these factors and surgeons′ stress level. Methods: This is a prospective observational study from 32 elective surgical procedures conducted in the OR of King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Before each operation, each surgeon was asked of stressors. Two interns observed 16 surgeries each, separately. The interns watched and took notes during the entire surgical procedure. During each operation, the observer recorded anxiety-inducing activities and events that occurred in real time by means of a checklist of 8 potential stressors: technical, patient problems, teamwork problems, time and management issues, distractions and interruptions, equipment problems, personal problems, and teaching. After each operation, surgeons were asked to answer the validated State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and self-report on their stress level from the 8 sources using a scale of 1-8 (1: stress free, 8: extremely stressful. The observer also recorded perceived stress levels experienced by the surgeons during the operation. Results: One hundred ten stressors were identified. Technical problems most frequently caused stress (16.4% and personal issues the least often (6.4%. Frequently encountered stressors (teaching and distractions/interruptions caused less stress to the surgeons. Technical factors, teamwork, and equipment problems occurred frequently and were also a major contributor to OR stress. All patients were discharged in good health and within 1 week of surgery. Conclusion: Certain stressful factors do occur among surgeons in the OR and can increase the potential for errors. Further research is required to determine the impact of stress on performance and the outcome of surgery.

  10. On the association of magnetic clouds with disappearing filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.

    1986-01-01

    We present evidence that an interplanetary magnetic cloud preceding an interaction region, observed at earth January 24, 1974, is associated with the eruptive filament or disparition brusque (DB) near central meridian on January 18. The DB also was associated with a long-decay soft X ray transient (LDE) and a long-duration gradual-rise-and-fall (GRF) radio burst. To assess whether magnetic clouds are generally associated with DBs, we present results from statistical testing of the relation of 33 magnetic clouds (and 33 control samples without magnetic clouds) to disappearing filaments near central meridian (approx. 99% confidence. There is a suggestion that clouds following shocks, probably launched at times of solar flares, are not as strongly associated with disappearing filaments as are clouds launched less violently

  11. Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Hung-Yi [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Wu, Kinwah [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Younsi, Ziri; Mizuno, Yosuke [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Max-von-Laue-Straße 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Asada, Keiichi; Nakamura, Masanori, E-mail: hpu@perimeterinstitute.ca, E-mail: asada@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: nakamura@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: kinwah.wu@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: younsi@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU No. 1, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2017-08-20

    The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.

  12. Forecast, observation and modelling of a deep stratospheric intrusion event over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of measurements was carried out in central and southeastern Europe within the framework of the EU project STACCATO (Influence of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange in a Changing Climate on Atmospheric Transport and Oxidation Capacity with the principle goal to create a comprehensive data set on stratospheric air intrusions into the troposphere along a rather frequently observed pathway over central Europe from the North Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. The measurements were based on predictions by suitable quasi-operational trajectory calculations using ECMWF forecast data. A predicted deep Stratosphere to Troposphere Transport (STT event, encountered during the STACCATO period on 20-21 June 2001, was followed by the measurements network almost from its inception. Observations provide evidence that the intrusion affected large parts of central and southeastern Europe. Especially, the ozone lidar observations on 20-21 June 2001 at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany captured the evolution of two marked tongues of high ozone with the first one descending to nearly 2 km, thus providing an excellent data set for model intercomparisons and validation. In addition, for the first time to our knowledge concurrent surface measurements of the cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be and 7Be and their ratio 10Be/7Be are presented together as stratospheric tracers in a case study of a stratospheric intrusion. The ozone tracer columns calculated with the FLEXPART model were found to be in good agreement with water vapour satellite images, capturing the evolution of the observed dry streamers of stratospheric origin. Furthermore, the time-height cross section of ozone tracer simulated with FLEXPART over Garmisch-Partenkirchen captures many details of the evolution of the two observed high-ozone filaments measured with the IFU lidar, thus demonstrating the considerable progress in model simulations. Finally, the modelled ozone (operationally available since October

  13. Transient Cosmic-ray Events beyond the Heliopause: Interpreting Voyager-1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kóta, J.; Jokipii, J. R. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    In 2013 March and 2014 May, Voyager-1 ( V1 ) experienced small but significant increases in the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the hundred MeV/n range. Additionally, V1 also saw episodic depletion of GCR flux around perpendicular pitch angles. We discuss the pitch-angle distribution and the time profiles of these events. In a previous paper, we interpreted the 2013 “bump” as the GCRs remotely sensing a shock that reached the magnetic field line passing through V1 : particles gained energy as they were reflected on the approaching region of the stronger magnetic field of the disturbance. Here, we point out that energy gain is not restricted to reflected particles—GCRs passing through the disturbance also gain energy. The effect should be present in a broad range of pitch angles with the maximum increase of GCR intensity predicted to occur at the critical reflection angle. In this paper, the shock is not step-like, but a gradual increase of the magnetic field strength, B , taking a few days, in agreement with V1 measurements. This smoothens the profile of the predicted bump in the GCR flux. We also address the linear episodic decreases seen around perpendicular pitch angles. These events are interpreted in terms of adiabatic cooling behind the shock due to the slow weakening of B . We present simple numerical model calculations and find that a gradual shock followed by a slow decrease of B , as observed, may account for both the episodic increases and the anisotropic depletion of GCR fluxes.

  14. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ju; Sun, Jielun; Zhou, Mingyu; Cheng, Zhigang; Li, Qingchun; Cao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jingjiang

    2018-03-01

    A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15). Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5) was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL) not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m-3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and aerosols but also in

  15. Measurement of Muon Neutrino Disappearance with the NOvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinton, Luke [Sussex U.

    2018-01-01

    The NOvA experiment consists of two functionally identical tracking calorimeter detectors which measure the neutrino energy and flavour composition of the NuMI beam at baselines of 1~km and 810~km. Measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters are extracted by comparing the neutrino energy spectrum in the far detector with predictions of the oscillated neutrino energy spectra that are made using information extracted from the near detector. Observation of muon neutrino disappearance allows NOvA to make measurements of the mass squared splitting $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ and the mixing angle $\\theta_{23}$. The measurement of $\\theta_{23}$ will provide insight into the make-up of the third mass eigenstate and probe the muon-tau symmetry hypothesis that requires $\\theta_{23} = \\pi/4$. This thesis introduces three methods to improve the sensitivity of NOvA's muon neutrino disappearance analysis. First, neutrino events are separated according to an estimate of their energy resolution to distinguish well resolved events from events that are not so well resolved. Second, an optimised neutrino energy binning is implemented that uses finer binning in the region of maximum muon neutrino disappearance. Third, a hybrid selection is introduced that selects muon neutrino events with greater efficiency and purity. The combination of these improvements produces an increase in the sensitivity of the analysis equivalent to collecting 40-100\\% more data across the range of possible values of $\\Delta m^2_{32}$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$. This thesis presents new results using a 14~ktonne detector equivalent exposure of $6.05\\times 10^{20}$~protons~on~target. A fit to the far detector data, assuming normal hierarchy, produces $\\Delta m^2_{32}=2.45^{+0.087}_{-0.079}\\times10^{-3}~\\text{eV}^2$ and $\\sin^2\\theta_{23}$ in the range 0.429~-~0.593 with two statistically degenerate best fit points at 0.481 and 0.547. This measurement is consistent with maximal mixing where $\\theta

  16. Material for 258 atom bombs disappeared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1988-01-01

    In a report published in the news magazine, 'Der Spiegel', it was said that IAEA safeguards obviously had failed, for large amounts of fissile material had disappeared, which could be turned into 258 atomic bombs. The article in this issue of atw by the former Deputy Director General with the IAEA Safeguards Division sketches the background to the assertions made by 'Der Spiegel' and presents an overview of the inspection and verification methods employed by IAEA. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Coronal Fine Structure in Dynamic Events Observed by Hi-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The High-Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July 11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region 11520. We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11 s (two Hi-C frames) and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the photon and readout noise. We compare the Hi-C events with those determined from AIA. We find that HI-C detects shorter and smaller events than AIA. We also find that the intensity increase in the Hi-C events is approx. 3 times greater than the intensity increase in the AIA events we conclude the events are related to linear sub-structure that is unresolved by AIA

  18. A High-Speed Spectroscopy System for Observing Lightning and Transient Luminous Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Austin, M.; Aguirre, F.; Tilles, J.; Nag, A.; Lazarus, S. M.; Rassoul, H.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present a high-speed spectroscopy system that can be used to record atmospheric electrical discharges, including lightning and transient luminous events. The system consists of a Phantom V1210 high-speed camera, a Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grism, an optional optical slit, and lenses. The spectrograph has the capability to record videos at speeds of 200,000 frames per second and has an effective wavelength band of 550-775 nm for the first order spectra. When the slit is used, the system has a spectral resolution of about 0.25 nm per pixel. We have constructed a durable enclosure made of heavy duty aluminum to house the high-speed spectrograph. It has two fans for continuous air flow and a removable tray to mount the spectrograph components. In addition, a Watec video camera (30 frames per second) is attached to the top of the enclosure to provide a scene view. A heavy duty Pelco pan/tilt motor is used to position the enclosure and can be controlled remotely through a Rasperry Pi computer. An observation campaign has been conducted during the summer and fall of 2017 at the Florida Institute of Technology. Several close cloud-to-ground discharges were recorded at 57,000 frames per second. The spectrum of a downward stepped negative leader and a positive cloud-to-ground return stroke will be reported on.

  19. Geographic distribution of lightning-induced electron pricipitation observed as VLF/LF perturbation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, U.S.; Wolf, T.G.; Carpenter, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    Expected occurrence characteristics of lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) events at longitudes of the western (110 0 W) versus eastern (71 0 W) Unted States are considered from the point of view of available trapped particle flux at the edge of the loss cone. Considered from the point of view of available trapped particle flux at the edge of the loss cone. Considering published data on nighttime fluxes of >68 keV electrons observed at L≅2.5, and for ''direct'' precipitation into the northern hemisphere induced by northern hemisphere lightning, the occurrence rate and flux levels are expected to a factor of 20--200 higher in the west than in the east, assuming no significant variation in lightning source activity with longitude. Again assuming lightning sources in the north, it is predicted that at 71 0 W, ''mirrored'' precipitation into the southern hemisphere would involve precipitation fluxes 30--300 times higher than ''direct'' precipitation into the noerthern hemisphere. However, at 110 0 W and again assuming lightning in the north, southern hemisphere precipitation would tend to be limited to that small fraction of particles that were initially scattered into the northern loss cone and that were then backscattered from the northern atmosphere so as to reach the south

  20. Ground-based solar radio observations of the August 1972 events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhonsle, R.V.; Degaonkar, S.S.; Alurkar, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-based observations of the variable solar radio emission ranging from few millimetres to decametres have been used here as a diagnostic tool to gain coherent phenomenological understanding of the great 2, 4 and 7 August, 1972 solar events in terms of dominant physical processes like generation and propagation of shock waves in the solar atmosphere, particle acceleration and trapping. Four major flares are selected for detailed analysis on the basis of their ability to produce energetic protons, shock waves, polar cap absorptions (PCA) and sudden commencement (SC) geomagnetic storms. A comparative study of their radio characteristics is made. Evidence is seen for the pulsations during microwave bursts by the mechanism similar to that proposed by McLean et al. (1971), to explain the pulsations in the metre wavelength continuum radiation. It is suggested that the multiple peaks observed in some microwave bursts may be attributable to individual flares occurring sequentially due to a single initiating flare. Attempts have been made to establish identification of Type II bursts with the interplanetary shock waves and SC geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, it is suggested that it is the mass behind the shock front which is the deciding factor for the detection of shock waves in the interplantary space. It appears that more work is necessary in order to identify which of the three moving Type IV bursts (Wild and Smerd, 1972), namely, advancing shock front, expanding magnetic arch and ejected plasma blob serves as the piston-driver behind the interplanetary shocks. The existing criteria for proton flare prediction have been summarized and two new criteria have been proposed. (Auth.)

  1. Effects of solar proton events on dayglow observed by the TIMED/SABER satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Xu, Jiyao; Smith, Anne K.; Chen, Guang-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The effect of solar proton events on the daytime O2 and OH airglows and ozone and atomic oxygen concentrations in the mesosphere is studied using data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). Five events occurred in September 2005, December 2006, March 2012, May 2013, and June 2015 that satisfy two criteria: the maximum proton fluxes are larger than 1000 pfu, and daytime data in the high latitude region are available from SABER. The event in December 2006 is studied in detail, and the effects of all five events are compared in brief. The results indicate that all four parameters in the mesosphere decrease during the events. During the event in 2006, the maximum depletions of O2 and OH dayglow emission rates and ozone and atomic oxygen volume mixing ratios at 70 km are respectively 31.6%, 37.0%, 42.4%, and 38.9%. The effect of the solar proton event changes with latitude, longitude, and altitude. The depletions due to the stronger events are larger on average than those due to the weaker events. The depletions of both dayglow emission rates are weaker than those of ozone and atomic oxygen. The responses of O2 and OH nightglow emissions around their peak altitudes to the SPEs are not as strong and regular as those for dayglow in the mesosphere.

  2. Aggressive Event Incidence using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R): A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto; Whittemore, Robin; Dixon, Jane

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify aggressive event incidence rates in the inpatient psychiatric setting, describe characteristics of events and differences based on aggression target and type (verbal vs. physical). A longitudinal study was carried out of aggressive events identified by workers in four inpatient psychiatric units using the Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R) over 6 weeks. A total of 113 aggressive events were recorded resulting in a rate of 13.27 events per bed per year. Verbal aggression was demonstrated in 86 % and physical aggression in 57 % of events. Most events (70.8 %, n = 81) targeted a worker. Compared to other targets, workers were 3.4 times more likely to feel threatened (95 % CI 1.2-9.6, χ 2  = 5.08, p = 0.0242), and less likely to have a visible injury (OR 0.15, 95 % CI 0.04-0.6; χ 2  = 7.1, p = 0.0078). Event severity ranged from 0 to 21 with a mean of 9.5(SD = 5.1), with 20 % considered severe. Verbal events had lower mean severity of 6.5(SD = 3.8) versus physical events with a severity of 11.8(SD = 4.8; t = 6.5, df = 111, p Aggression incidence was similar to incidence found in other studies. Workers were the target of most aggressive events and many were identified as having no understandable provocation. Further understanding of event characteristics will promote more effective prevention and management of aggressive events.

  3. Statistical survey of widely spread out solar electron events observed with STEREO and ACE with special attention to anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Gómez-Herrero, R.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Malandraki, O.; Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Context. In February 2011, the two STEREO spacecrafts reached a separation of 180 degrees in longitude, offering a complete view of the Sun for the first time ever. When the full Sun surface is visible, source active regions of solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be identified unambiguously. STEREO, in combination with near-Earth observatories such as ACE or SOHO, provides three well separated viewpoints, which build an unprecedented platform from which to investigate the longitudinal variations of SEP events. Aims: We show an ensemble of SEP events that were observed between 2009 and mid-2013 by at least two spacecrafts and show a remarkably wide particle spread in longitude (wide-spread events). The main selection criterion for these events was a longitudinal separation of at least 80 degrees between active region and spacecraft magnetic footpoint for the widest separated spacecraft. We investigate the events statistically in terms of peak intensities, onset delays, and rise times, and determine the spread of the longitudinal events, which is the range filled by SEPs during the events. Energetic electron anisotropies are investigated to distinguish the source and transport mechanisms that lead to the observed wide particle spreads. Methods: According to the anisotropy distributions, we divided the events into three classes depending on different source and transport scenarios. One potential mechanism for wide-spread events is efficient perpendicular transport in the interplanetary medium that competes with another scenario, which is a wide particle spread that occurs close to the Sun. In the latter case, the observations at 1 AU during the early phase of the events are expected to show significant anisotropies because of the wide injection range at the Sun and particle-focusing during the outward propagation, while in the first case only low anisotropies are anticipated. Results: We find events for both of these scenarios in our sample that match the

  4. Understanding the ballistic event : Methodology and observations relevant to ceramic armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Adam

    The only widely-accepted method of gauging the ballistic performance of a material is to carry out ballistic testing; due to the large volume of material required for a statistically robust test, this process is very expensive. Therefore a new test, or suite of tests, that employ widely-available and economically viable characterisation methods to screen candidate armour materials is highly desirable; in order to design such a test, more information on the armour/projectile interaction is required. This work presents the design process and results of using an adapted specimen configuration to increase the amount of information obtained from a ballistic test. By using a block of ballistic gel attached to the ceramic, the fragmentation generated during the ballistic event was captured and analysed. In parallel, quasi-static tests were carried out using ring-on-ring biaxial disc testing to investigate relationships between quasi-static and ballistic fragment fracture surfaces. Three contemporary ceramic armour materials were used to design the test and to act as a baseline; Sintox FA alumina, Hexoloy SA silicon carbide and 3M boron carbide. Attempts to analyse the post-test ballistic sample non-destructively using X-ray computed tomography (XCT) were unsuccessful due to the difference in the density of the materials and the compaction of fragments. However, the results of qualitative and quantitative fracture surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed similarities between the fracture surfaces of ballistic fragments at the edges of the tile and biaxial fragments; this suggests a relationship between quasi-static and ballistic fragments created away from the centre of impact, although additional research will be required to determine the reason for this. Ballistic event-induced porosity was observed and quantified on the fracture surfaces of silicon carbide samples, which decreased as distance from centre of impact increased; upon further analysis this

  5. Energy time dispersion of a new class of magnetospheric ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Anagnostopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed high time resolution (\\geq6 s data during the onset and the decay phase of several energetic (\\geq35 keV ion events observed near the Earth's bow shock by the CCE/AMPTE and IMP-7/8 spacecraft, during times of intense substorm/geomagnetic activity. We found that forward energy dispersion at the onset of events (earlier increase of middle energy ions and/or a delayed fall of the middle energy ion fluxes at the end of events are often evident in high time resolution data. The energy spectra at the onset and the decay of this kind of events show a characteristic hump at middle (50-120 keV energies and the angular distributions display either anisotropic or broad forms. The time scale of energy dispersion in the ion events examined was found to range from several seconds to \\sim1 h depending on the ion energies compared and on the rate of variation of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF direction. Several canditate processes are discussed to explain the observations and it is suggested that a rigidity dependent transport process of magnetospheric particles within the magnetosheath is most probably responsible for the detection of this new type of near bow shock magnetospheric ion events. The new class of ion events was observed within both the magnetosheath and the upstream region.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; planetary bow shocks

  6. A study of different colour reconnection settings for Pythia8 generator using underlying event observables

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A study of the performance of various colour reconnection models included in the Pythia8 Monte Carlo event generator is performed using leading charged-particle underlying event data in three centre-of-mass energies from Run 1 and Run 2, measured in ATLAS. Each model can be tuned to describe the data reasonably well.

  7. Characterizing low-mass binaries from observation of long-timescale caustic-crossing gravitational microlensing events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, I.-G; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y

    2012-01-01

    solution by follow-up radial-velocity observation. For both events, the caustic-crossing parts of the light curves, which are critical for determining the physical lens parameters, were resolved by high-cadence survey observations and thus it is expected that the number of microlensing binaries...

  8. Observation of seasonal variation of atmospheric multiple-muon events in the MINOS near and far detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2015-06-09

    We report the first observation of seasonal modulations in the rates of cosmic ray multiple-muon events at two underground sites, the MINOS Near Detector with an overburden of 225 mwe, and the MINOS Far Detector site at 2100 mwe. Thus, at the deeper site, multiple-muon events with muons separated by more than 8 m exhibit a seasonal rate that peaks during the summer, similar to that of single-muon events. In contrast and unexpectedly, the rate of multiple-muon events with muons separated by less than 5–8 m, and the rate of multiple-muon events in the smaller, shallower Near Detector, exhibit a seasonal rate modulation that peaks in the winter.

  9. THE ELECTRON DENSITY IN EXPLOSIVE TRANSITION REGION EVENTS OBSERVED BY IRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We discuss the intensity ratio of the O iv line at 1401.16 Å to the Si iv line at 1402.77 Å in Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph ( IRIS ) spectra. This intensity ratio is important if it can be used to measure high electron densities that cannot be measured using line intensity ratios of two different O iv lines from the multiplet within the IRIS wavelength range. Our discussion is in terms of considerably earlier observations made from the Skylab manned space station and other spectrometers on orbiting spacecraft. The earlier data on the O iv and Si iv ratio and other intersystem line ratios not available to IRIS are complementary to IRIS data. In this paper, we adopt a simple interpretation based on electron density. We adopt a set of assumptions and calculate the electron density as a function of velocity in the Si iv line profiles of two explosive events. At zero velocity the densities are about 2–3 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, and near 200 km s{sup -1} outflow speed the densities are about 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}. The densities increase with outflow speed up to about 150 km s{sup -1} after which they level off. Because of the difference in the temperature of formation of the two lines and other possible effects such as non-ionization equilibrium, these density measurements do not have the precision that would be available if there were some additional lines near the formation temperature of O iv.

  10. Multiple daytime nucleation events in semi-clean savannah and industrial environments in South Africa: analysis based on observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hirsikko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown very high frequencies of atmospheric new particle formation in different environments in South Africa. Our aim here was to investigate the causes for two or three consecutive daytime nucleation events, followed by subsequent particle growth during the same day. We analysed 108 and 31 such days observed in a polluted industrial and moderately polluted rural environments, respectively, in South Africa. The analysis was based on two years of measurements at each site. After rejecting the days having notable changes in the air mass origin or local wind direction, i.e. two major reasons for observed multiple nucleation events, we were able to investigate other factors causing this phenomenon. Clouds were present during, or in between most of the analysed multiple particle formation events. Therefore, some of these events may have been single events, interrupted somehow by the presence of clouds. From further analysis, we propose that the first nucleation and growth event of the day was often associated with the mixing of a residual air layer rich in SO2 (oxidized to sulphuric acid into the shallow surface-coupled layer. The second nucleation and growth event of the day usually started before midday and was sometimes associated with renewed SO2 emissions from industrial origin. However, it was also evident that vapours other than sulphuric acid were required for the particle growth during both events. This was especially the case when two simultaneously growing particle modes were observed. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the relative contributions of estimated H2SO4 and other vapours on the first and second nucleation and growth events of the day varied from day to day, depending on anthropogenic and natural emissions, as well as atmospheric conditions.

  11. International Observe the Moon Night: A Worldwide Public Observing Event that Annually Engages Scientists, Educators, and Citizen Enthusiasts in NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Jones, A. P.; Bleacher, L.; Wasser, M. L.; Day, B. H.; Shaner, A. J.; Bakerman, M. N.; Joseph, E.

    2017-12-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is an annual worldwide event, held in the fall, that celebrates lunar and planetary science and exploration. InOMN is sponsored by NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in collaboration with NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI), the NASA's Heliophysics Education Consortium, CosmoQuest, Night Sky Network, and Science Festival Alliance. Other key partners include the NASA Museum Alliance, Night Sky Network, and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. In 2017, InOMN will bring together thousands of people across the globe to observe and learn about the Moon and its connection to planetary science. We are partnering with the NASA Science Mission Directorate total solar eclipse team to highlight InOMN as an opportunity to harness and sustain the interest and momentum in space science and observation following the August 21st eclipse. This is part of a new partnership with the Sun-Earth Day team, through the Heliophysics Education Consortium, to better connect the two largest NASA-sponsored public engagement events, increase participation in both events, and share best practices in implementation and evaluation between the teams. Over 3,800 InOMN events have been registered between 2010 and 2016, engaging over 550,000 visitors worldwide. Most InOMN events are held in the United States, with strong representation from many other countries. InOMN events are evaluated to determine the value of the events and to allow us to improve the experience for event hosts and visitors. Our results show that InOMN events are hosted by scientists, educators, and citizen enthusiasts around the world who leverage InOMN to bring communities together, get visitors excited and learn about the Moon - and beyond, and share resources to extend engagement in lunar and planetary science and observation. Through InOMN, we annually provide resources such as event-specific Moon maps, presentations, advertising materials, and

  12. Atypical energetic particle events observed prior energetic particle enhancements associated with corotating interaction regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabarova, Olga; Malandraki, Olga; Zank, Gary; Jackson, Bernard; Bisi, Mario; Desai, Mihir; Li, Gang; le Roux, Jakobus; Yu, Hsiu-Shan

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies of mechanisms of particle acceleration in the heliosphere have revealed the importance of the comprehensive analysis of stream-stream interactions as well as the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) - stream interactions that often occur in the solar wind, producing huge magnetic cavities bounded by strong current sheets. Such cavities are usually filled with small-scale magnetic islands that trap and re-accelerate energetic particles (Zank et al. ApJ, 2014, 2015; le Roux et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016; Khabarova et al. ApJ, 2015, 2016). Crossings of these regions are associated with unusual variations in the energetic particle flux up to several MeV/nuc near the Earth's orbit. These energetic particle flux enhancements called "atypical energetic particle events" (AEPEs) are not associated with standard mechanisms of particle acceleration. The analysis of multi-spacecraft measurements of energetic particle flux, plasma and the interplanetary magnetic field shows that AEPEs have a local origin as they are observed by different spacecraft with a time delay corresponding to the solar wind propagation from one spacecraft to another, which is a signature of local particle acceleration in the region embedded in expanding and rotating background solar wind. AEPEs are often observed before the arrival of corotating interaction regions (CIRs) or stream interaction regions (SIRs) to the Earth's orbit. When fast solar wind streams catch up with slow solar wind, SIRs of compressed heated plasma or more regular CIRs are created at the leading edge of the high-speed stream. Since coronal holes are often long-lived structures, the same CIR re-appears often for several consecutive solar rotations. At low heliographic latitudes, such CIRs are typically bounded by forward and reverse waves on their leading and trailing edges, respectively, that steepen into shocks at heliocentric distances beyond 1 AU. Energetic ion increases have been frequently observed in association with CIR

  13. Observed versus predicted cardiovascular events and all-cause death in HIV infection: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Pucci, Giacomo; Baldelli, Franco; Schillaci, Giuseppe

    2017-06-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the applicability of an algorithm predicting 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) generated in the setting of the Framingham Heart Study to a real-life, contemporary Italian cohort of HIV-positive subjects. The study was an observational longitudinal cohort study. The probability for 10-year CVD events according to the Framingham algorithm was assessed in 369 consecutive HIV-positive participants free from overt CVD enrolled in 2004, who were followed for a median of 10.0 years (interquartile range, 9.1-10.1). Cardiovascular events included myocardial infarction, hospitalized heart failure, revascularized angina, sudden cardiac death, stroke, peripheral arterial disease. Over 3097 person-years of observation, we observed a total of 34 CVD events, whereas Framingham algorithm predicted the occurrence of 34.3 CVD events. CVD event rate was 11.0/1000 person-years of follow-up. In a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, Framingham risk equation showed an excellent predictive value for incident CVD events (c-statistics, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.76-0.90). In a multivariable Cox analysis, age, smoking and diabetes were independent predictors of CVD events. All-cause death rate was 20.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (n = 62 deaths). Causes of death included liver diseases (18), malignancies (14), AIDS-related (11); cardiovascular (9) and others (10). In a Cox analysis, age, AIDS diagnosis and chronic hepatitis were independent predictors of death. Observed CVD events in HIV-infected patients were well predicted by Framingham algorithm. Established major CVD risk factors are the strongest determinants of CVD morbidity in an Italian contemporary cohort of HIV-positive subjects. Interventions to modify traditional risk factors are urgently needed in HIV people.

  14. Numerical Simulation of a Breaking Gravity Wave Event Over Greenland Observed During Fastex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, James

    1997-01-01

    Measurements from the NOAA G4 research aircraft and high-resolution numerical simulations are used to study the evolution and dynamics of a large-amplitude gravity wave event over Greenland that took...

  15. Sensitive observables for color connections in three-jet events at Z0 pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Fenglan; Xie Qubing; Li Shiyuan

    2003-01-01

    By substituting the color separate singlet connections for the color neutral flow connections into JETSET7.4, authors select the three-jet events according to DURHAM algorithm in e + e - annihilation at Z 0 pole. It was found that the ratio of the special three-jet events defined by constraining the angles between different jets is sensitive to different kinds of color connections. For these special events, different connections lead to significant differences for the charged particle multiplicity of events and properties of the gluon jet. The differences become larger as y cut getting smaller. By taking appropriate y cut , as 0.0005 in this paper, the differences between these two kinds of color connections should be discriminated by experiments

  16. A Halo Event observed by the Hybrid Experiment at Mt. Chacaltaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Honda, K.; Inoue, N.; Kawasumi, N.; Martinic, N.; Navia O, C.; Ochi, N.; Ohmori, N.; Ohsawa, A.; Oliveira, C.; Shinozaki, K.; Tamada, M.; Ticona, R.; Tsushima, I.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment using an air shower array, a hadron calorimeter and an emulsion chamber is under way at Mt. Chacaltaya (5200 m, Bolivia). One of the highest energy events, having a halo (∼ 1 cm) in the centre of the family together with many γ-ray and hadron showers, is analyzed in detail. Available data for the event are on the halo (E halo =750 TeV) and on the high energy particles of electron/photon components by the emulsion chamber, and on the characteristics of the accompanied air shower (Ne=7.0x10 7 , s=0.59) by the air shower array. The diagram of the air shower size and the total energy of electron/photon components in the family, which shows discrepancy between the experimental data and simulated events (QGSJET code for nuclear collisions) in our previous reports, is discussed including the present event

  17. Reconstructing Methane Emission Events in the Arctic Ocean: Observations from the Past to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panieri, G.; Mienert, J.; Fornari, D. J.; Torres, M. E.; Lepland, A.

    2015-12-01

    Methane hydrates are ice-like crystals that are present along continental margins, occurring in the pore space of deep sediments or as massive blocks near the seafloor. They form in high pressure and low temperature environments constrained by thermodynamic stability, and supply of methane. In the Arctic, gas hydrates are abundant, and the methane released by their destabilization can affect local to global carbon budgets and cycles, ocean acidification, and benthic community survival. With the aim to locate in space and time the periodicity of methane venting, CAGE is engaged in a vast research program in the Arctic, a component of which comprises the analyses of numerous sediment cores and correlative geophysical and geochemical data from different areas. Here we present results from combined analyses of biogenic carbonate archives along the western Svalbard Margin, which reveal past methane venting events in this region. The reconstruction of paleo-methane discharge is complicated by precipitation of secondary carbonate on foraminifera shells, driven by an increase in alkalinity during anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The biogeochemical processes involved in methane cycling and processes that drive methane migration affect the depth where AOM occurs, with relevance to secondary carbonate formation. Our results show the value and complexity of separating primary vs. secondary signals in bioarchives with relevance to understanding fluid-burial history in methane seep provinces. Results from our core analyses are integrated with observations made during the CAGE15-2 cruise in May 2015, when we deployed a towed vehicle equipped with camera, multicore and water sampling capabilities. The instrument design was based on the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) MISO TowCam sled equipped with a deep-sea digital camera and CTD real-time system. Sediment sampling was visually-guided using this system. In one of the pockmarks along the Vestnesa Ridge where high

  18. ELF whistler events with a reduced intensity observed by the DEMETER spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahlava, J.; Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Kolmasova, I.; Parrot, M.

    2017-12-01

    A survey of VLF frequency-time spectrograms obtained by the DEMETER spacecraft (2004-2010, altitude about 700 km) revealed that the intensity of fractional hop whistlers is sometimes significantly reduced at specific frequencies. These frequencies are typically above about 3.4 kHz (second cutoff frequency of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide), and they vary smoothly in time. The events were explained by the wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and a resulting interference of the first few waveguide modes. We analyze the events whose frequency-time structure is rather similar, but at frequencies below 1 kHz. Altogether, 284 events are identified during the periods with active Burst mode, when high resolution data are measured by DEMETER. The vast majority of events (93%) occurs during the nighttime. All six electromagnetic field components are available, which allows us to perform a detailed wave analysis. An overview of the properties of these events is presented, and their possible origin is discussed.

  19. Observed differences in event structures of high-p/sub T/ π0 and single photon events produced in pp collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahm, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    The direct photon production in pp collisions for c.m. energies 31 less than or equal to 63 GeV and transverse momenta of up to 9 GeV/c were measured at the ISR by use of a segmented lead/liquid argon calorimeter. The observed γ/π 0 ratio was found to be a significantly larger than zero at 4 GeV/c in p/sub T/, increasing to 0.4 at 9 GeV/c. The average multiplicity on the trigger side for the single-photon events was found to be significantly lower than for π 0 events. The correlations in Δy and Δphi between the trigger particle and an additional particle were found to differe mainly at small Δy and Δphi. 3 figures

  20. Energies of precipitating electrons during pulsating aurora events derived from ionosonde observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDougall, J.W.; Hofstee, J.; Koehler, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The time-history of particle energies and fluxes associated with pulsating auroras in the morning sector is derived from ionosonde measurements. All the pulsating auroras studied showed a similar history with the pulsations occurring during a time interval of the order of an hour during which the average auroral Maxwellian characteristic energy stays relatively constant but the energy flux decreases progressively during the event. A possible explanation for this behaviour in terms of an injection of particles into a magnetospheric 'bottle' near the midnight meridian and the progressive precipitation out of the bottle during the pulsating event is suggested. (auth)

  1. Multi-spacecraft observations and transport simulations of solar energetic particles for the May 17th 2012 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battarbee, M.; Guo, J.; Dalla, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Swalwell, B.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Context. The injection, propagation and arrival of solar energetic particles (SEPs) during eruptive solar events is an important and current research topic of heliospheric physics. During the largest solar events, particles may have energies up to a few GeVs and sometimes even trigger ground-level enhancements (GLEs) at Earth. These large SEP events are best investigated through multi-spacecraft observations. Aims: We aim to study the first GLE-event of solar cycle 24, from 17th May 2012, using data from multiple spacecraft (SOHO, GOES, MSL, STEREO-A, STEREO-B and MESSENGER). These spacecraft are located throughout the inner heliosphere, at heliocentric distances between 0.34 and 1.5 astronomical units (au), covering nearly the whole range of heliospheric longitudes. Methods: We present and investigate sub-GeV proton time profiles for the event at several energy channels, obtained via different instruments aboard the above spacecraft. We investigated issues caused by magnetic connectivity, and present results of three-dimensional SEP propagation simulations. We gathered virtual time profiles and perform qualitative and quantitative comparisons with observations, assessed longitudinal injection and transport effects as well as peak intensities. Results: We distinguish different time profile shapes for well-connected and weakly connected observers, and find our onset time analysis to agree with this distinction. At select observers, we identify an additional low-energy component of Energetic Storm Particles (ESPs). Using well-connected observers for normalisation, our simulations are able to accurately recreate both time profile shapes and peak intensities at multiple observer locations. Conclusions: This synergetic approach combining numerical modelling with multi-spacecraft observations is crucial for understanding the propagation of SEPs within the interplanetary magnetic field. Our novel analysis provides valuable proof of the ability to simulate SEP propagation

  2. Using ENLIL and SEPMOD to Evaluate Shock Connectivity Influences on Gradual SEP Events Observed with STEREO and ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Mays, M. L.; Li, Y.; Bain, H. M.; Lee, C. O.; Odstrcil, D.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Cohen, C.; Leske, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    An observer's magnetic field connection to a SEP-producing interplanetary shock (or compression) source often appears to provide a good indicator of whether or not a SEP event occurs. As a result, some tools for SEP event modeling make use of this finding. However, a key assumption of these approaches is that the interplanetary magnetic field and heliospheric shock geometries are known throughout the event(s). We consider examples of SEP time profile calculations obtained with combined ENLIL and SEPMOD modeling where the results compare well with observations at multiple inner heliosphere sites, and compare them to cases where such comparisons show a relative lack of agreement. ENLIL does not include the shock inside 21 Rs or CME/ICME ejecta magnetic fields, but for the agreeable cases this does not seem to make a big difference. The number, size, speed and directions of related CMEs/ICMEs, and ENLIL field line geometry appear to play the most critical roles. This includes the inclusion of prior and parallel events that affect both the ICME propagation and magnetic field geometry and strength along the observer field line. It seems clear that if a SEP forecasting system is desired, we must continue to have instrumentation that allows us to specify global CME/ICME initiation geometry (coronagraphs, XUV/EUV imagers) and background solar wind structure (magnetographs).

  3. Cytogenetics observation and radiation influence evaluation of exposed persons in a discontinuous radiation exposure event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Liu Xiulin; Yang Guoshan; Ge Shili; Jin Cuizhen; Yao Bo

    2003-01-01

    The cytogenetics results and dose estimation of exposed and related persons in an discontinuous radiation exposure event were reported in this paper. According to dicentrics + ring and micronucleus results combined with clinical data, slight (middle) degree of subacute radiation symptom of the victim was diagnosed. A part of 52 examined persons were exposed to radiation in a certain degree

  4. Observation of rotational component in digital data of mining induced seismic events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Lednická, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 75-85 ISSN 1896-3145. [Ochrona środowiska w górnictwie podziemnym, odkrywkowym i otworowym. Wieliczka - Zakrzow, 16.05.2012-18.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rotational component * mining induced seismic event * field measurement Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  5. Analyses of Observed and Anticipated Changes in Extreme Climate Events in the Northwest Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmaveer Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, past (1970-2005 as well as future long term (2011-2099 trends in various extreme events of temperature and precipitation have been investigated over selected hydro-meteorological stations in the Sutlej river basin. The ensembles of two Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 models: third generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model and Hadley Centre Coupled Model have been used for simulation of future daily time series of temperature (maximum and minimum and precipitation under A2 emission scenario. Large scale atmospheric variables of both models and National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data sets have been downscaled using statistical downscaling technique at individual stations. A total number of 25 extreme indices of temperature (14 and precipitation (11 as specified by the Expert Team of the World Meteorological Organization and Climate Variability and Predictability are derived for the past and future periods. Trends in extreme indices are detected over time using the modified Mann-Kendall test method. The stations which have shown either decrease or no change in hot extreme events (i.e., maximum TMax, warm days, warm nights, maximum TMin, tropical nights, summer days and warm spell duration indicators for 1970–2005 and increase in cold extreme events (cool days, cool nights, frost days and cold spell duration indicators are predicted to increase and decrease respectively in the future. In addition, an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme precipitation events is also predicted.

  6. OGLE-2016-BLG-0168 Binary Microlensing Event: Prediction and Confirmation of the Microlens Parallax Effect from Space-based Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, I.-G.; Yee, J. C.; Jung, Y. K. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Udalski, A.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Szymański, M. K.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4,00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Novati, S. Calchi [IPAC, Mail Code 100-22, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Albrow, M. D. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Chung, S.-J.; Hwang, K.-H.; Ryu, Y.-H. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration; KMTNet Group; Spitzer Team; and others

    2017-11-01

    The microlens parallax is a crucial observable for conclusively identifying the nature of lens systems in microlensing events containing or composed of faint (even dark) astronomical objects such as planets, neutron stars, brown dwarfs, and black holes. With the commencement of a new era of microlensing in collaboration with space-based observations, the microlens parallax can be routinely measured. In addition, space-based observations can provide opportunities to verify the microlens parallax measured from ground-only observations and to find a unique solution to the lensing light-curve analysis. Furthermore, since most space-based observations cannot cover the full light curves of lensing events, it is also necessary to verify the reliability of the information extracted from fragmentary space-based light curves. We conduct a test based on the microlensing event OGLE-2016-BLG-0168, created by a binary lens system consisting of almost equal mass M-dwarf stars, to demonstrate that it is possible to verify the microlens parallax and to resolve degeneracies using the space-based light curve even though the observations are fragmentary. Since space-based observatories will frequently produce fragmentary light curves due to their short observing windows, the methodology of this test will be useful for next-generation microlensing experiments that combine space-based and ground-based collaboration.

  7. Analysis of mutual events of Galilean satellites observed from VBO during 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasundhara, R.; Selvakumar, G.; Anbazhagan, P.

    2017-06-01

    Results of analysis of 23 events of the 2014-2015 mutual event series from the Vainu Bappu Observatory are presented. Our intensity distribution model for the eclipsed/occulted satellite is based on the criterion that it simulates a rotational light curve that matches the ground-based light curve. Dichotomy in the scattering characteristics of the leading and trailing sides explains the basic shape of the rotational light curves of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. In the case of Io, the albedo map (courtesy United States Geological Survey) along with global values of scattering parameters works well. Mean values of residuals in (O - C) along and perpendicular to the track are found to be -3.3 and -3.4 mas, respectively, compared to 'L2' theory for the seven 2E1/2O1 events. The corresponding rms values are 8.7 and 7.8 mas, respectively. For the five 1E3/1O3 events, the along and perpendicular to the track mean residuals are 5.6 and 3.2 mas, respectively. The corresponding rms residuals are 6.8 and 10.5 mas, respectively. We compare the results using the chosen model (Model 1) with a uniform but limb-darkened disc (Model 2). The residuals with Model 2 of the 2E1/2O1 and 1E3/1O3 events indicate a bias along the satellite track. The extent and direction of bias are consistent with the shift of the light centre from the geometric centre. Results using Model 1, which intrinsically takes into account the intensity distribution, show no such bias.

  8. Water quantity and quality response of a green roof to storm events: Experimental and monitoring observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey M G; Todorov, Dimitar; Driscoll, Charles T; Montesdeoca, Mario

    2016-11-01

    Syracuse, New York is working under a court-ordered agreement to limit combined sewer overflows (CSO) to local surface waters. Green infrastructure technologies, including green roofs, are being implemented as part of a CSO abatement strategy and to develop co-benefits of diminished stormwater runoff, including decreased loading of contaminants to the wastewater system and surface waters. The objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of discharge associated with precipitation events over an annual cycle from a green roof in Syracuse, NY and to compare measurements from this monitoring program with results from a roof irrigation experiment. Wet deposition, roof drainage, and water quality were measured for 87 storm events during an approximately 12 month period over 2011-2012. Water and nutrient (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon) mass balances were conducted on an event basis to evaluate retention annually and during the growing and non-growing seasons. These results are compared with a hydrological manipulation experiment, which comprised of artificially watering of the roof. Loadings of nutrients were calculated for experimental and actual storms using the concentration of nutrients and the flow data of water discharging the roof. The green roof was effective in retaining precipitation quantity from storm events (mean percent retention 96.8%, SD = 2.7%, n = 87), although the relative fraction of water retained decreased with increases in the size of the event. There was no difference in water retention of the green roof for the growing and non-growing seasons. Drainage waters exhibited high concentration of nutrients during the warm temperature growing season, particularly total nitrogen and dissolved organic carbon. Overall, nutrient losses were low because of the strong retention of water. However, there was marked variation in the retention of nutrients by season due to variations in concentrations in roof

  9. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Mays, M. L.; Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D.

    2016-01-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  10. SHOCK CONNECTIVITY IN THE 2010 AUGUST AND 2012 JULY SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS INFERRED FROM OBSERVATIONS AND ENLIL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bain, H. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Mays, M. L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC (United States); Jian, L. K.; Odstrcil, D., E-mail: hbain@ssl.berkeley.edu [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    During periods of increased solar activity, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) can occur in close succession and proximity to one another. This can lead to the interaction and merger of CME ejecta as they propagate in the heliosphere. The particles accelerated in these shocks can result in complex solar energetic particle (SEP) events, as observing spacecraft form both remote and local shock connections. It can be challenging to understand these complex SEP events from in situ profiles alone. Multipoint observations of CMEs in the near-Sun environment, from the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory –Sun Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph, greatly improve our chances of identifying the origin of these accelerated particles. However, contextual information on conditions in the heliosphere, including the background solar wind conditions and shock structures, is essential for understanding SEP properties well enough to forecast their characteristics. Wang–Sheeley–Arge WSA-ENLIL + Cone modeling provides a tool to interpret major SEP event periods in the context of a realistic heliospheric model and to determine how much of what is observed in large SEP events depends on nonlocal magnetic connections to shock sources. We discuss observations of the SEP-rich periods of 2010 August and 2012 July in conjunction with ENLIL modeling. We find that much SEP activity can only be understood in the light of such models, and in particular from knowing about both remote and local shock source connections. These results must be folded into the investigations of the physics underlying the longitudinal extent of SEP events, and the source connection versus diffusion pictures of interpretations of SEP events.

  11. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Louise Nørgaard; Stenbøg, Anne Sofie Christensen; Albrechtslund, Anders

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  12. The (Dis)appearance of Ai Weiwei: Translations and (In)visibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbøg, Sofie; Nørgaard Glud, Louise; Albrechtslund, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a study of surveillance themes relating to Ai Weiwei’s highly discussed disappearance and later reappearance in 2011. Our study is based on an Actor-Network Theory (ANT) approach and we focus on the manifold negotiations and (in)visibilities relating to the dramatic events as well...... as Ai’s artwork and life....

  13. Observation of jets in high transverse energy events at the CERN proton antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Keeler, R.; Salvi, G.; Thompson, G.; Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Rich, J.; Sass, J.; Saudraix, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spiro, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Geer, S.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Kryn, D.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Orkin-Lecourtois, A.; Sajot, G.; Vrana, J.; Bacci, C.; Bernabei, R.; Ceradini, F.; Corden, M.; Dallman, D.; D'Angelo, S.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Eggert, K.; Ellis, N.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Frey, R.; Fruehwirth, R.; Garvey, J.; Giboni, K.L.; Gutierrez, P.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hodges, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Homer, R.J.; Karimaeki, V.; Kenyon, I.; Kernan, A.; Kinnunen, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Lehmann, H.; Leuchs, R.; McMahon, T.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Pimia, M.; Radermacher, E.; Ransdell, J.; Reithler, H.; Salvini, G.; Strauss, J.; Sumorok, K.; Szoncso, F.; Tscheslog, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Wahl, H.D.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.

    1983-01-01

    With a segmented total absorption calorimeter of large acceptance, we have measured the total transverse energy spectrum for panti p collisions at ssup(1/2)=540 GeV up to μEsub(T)=130 GeV in the pseudo-rapidity range vertical strokeetavertical stroke 40 GeV, the fraction of events with two jets increases with μEsub(T); this event structure is dominant for μEsub(T)> 100 GeV. We measure the inclusive jet cross section up to Esub(T)(jet)=60 GeV and the two-jet mass distribution up to 120 GeV/c 2 . The measured cross sections are compatible with the predictions of hard scattering models based on QCD. (orig.)

  14. STEREO/SEPT particle observations during the CIR event on 2011 August 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresing, N.; Heber, B.; Klassen, A.; Kühl, P.; Boettcher, S. I.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Wraase, S.

    2017-12-01

    Among others, shocks are known to be accelerators of energetic charged particles. However, many questions regarding the acceleration efficiency and the required conditions are not fully understood. In particular, the acceleration of electrons by shocks is often questioned. Recurrent energetic particle events are caused by the passage of Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) that have been extensively analysed by different instrumentation close to Earth. Measurements of the Solar Electron and Proton Telescope aboard the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory are utilized in the solar heliospheric community to investigate electron events. Due to its measurement principle, the magnet foil technique, ions can contribute to the electron channel. This effect is well known. During recurrent energetic particle events the averaged helium to proton ration is enhanced to more than 10%. The energy per nucleon spectra are nearly the same for protons and helium. Although the electron intensity profile is influenced by an ion contamination during the shock crossings it is not obvious that electrons are not enhanced during such periods. Computation using a GEANT4 simulation of the SEPT instrument resulted in response function for ions and electrons. These response functions have been utilzed to analyze the recurrent energetic particle event that was was measured by STEREO B on August 9, 2011. Assuming a constant helium to proton ratio and energy spectra described by a Band function we found that electron and ion measurement can be explained by the contribution of helium and protons with an helium to proton ratio of about 16%. Thus no electron enhancements are needed to explain the SEPT measurements.

  15. Observations of Blue Discharges Associated With Negative Narrow Bipolar Events in Active Deep Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Zhu, Baoyou; Lu, Gaopeng; Qin, Zilong; Lei, Jiuhou; Peng, Kang-Ming; Chen, Alfred B.; Huang, Anjing; Cummer, Steven A.; Chen, Mingli; Ma, Ming; Lyu, Fanchao; Zhou, Helin

    2018-03-01

    On 19 August 2012, the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite captured a sequence of seven blue discharges within 1 min that emanated from a parent thunderstorm over Lake Taihu in East China. The analysis of lightning activity produced in the thunderstorm indicates that at least six of these events occurred in association with negative narrow bipolar events (NBEs) that were concurrent with the blue discharge by less than 1 ms, and negative cloud-to-ground occurred within 6 s before each blue discharge, which is in agreement with the modeling presented by Krehbiel et al. (2008). Therefore, the frequent occurrence of negative cloud-to-ground could provide the favorable condition for the production of blue discharges, and negative NBEs are probably the initial event of blue discharges. The detection of negative NBEs might provide a convenient approach to detect the occurrence of blue discharges as lightning bolt shooting upward from the top of energetic thunderstorms.

  16. Multi-wavelength Observations of Two Explosive Events and Their Effects on the Solar Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustinus G. Admiranto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated two flares in the solar atmosphere that occurred on June 3, 2012 and July 6, 2012 and caused propagation of Moreton and EIT waves. In the June 3 event, we noticed a filament winking which presumably was caused by the wave propagation from the flare. An interesting feature of this event is that there was a reflection of this wave by a coronal hole located alongside the wave propagation, but not all of this wave was transmitted by the coronal hole. Using the running difference method, we calculated the speed of Moreton and EIT waves and we found values of 926 km/s before the reflection and 276 km/s after the reflection (Moreton wave and 1,127 km/s before the reflection and 46 km/s after the reflection (EIT wave. In the July 6 event, this phenomenon was accompanied by type II and type III solar radio bursts, and we also performed a running difference analysis to find the speed of the Moreton wave, obtaining a value of 988 km/s. The speed derived from the analysis of the solar radio burst was 1,200 km/s, and we assume that this difference was caused by the different nature of the motions in these phenomena, where the solar radio burst was caused by the propagating particles, not waves.

  17. Occurrence of blowing snow events at an alpine site over a 10-year period: Observations and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vionnet, V.; Guyomarc'h, G.; Naaim Bouvet, F.; Martin, E.; Durand, Y.; Bellot, H.; Bel, C.; Puglièse, P.

    2013-05-01

    Blowing snow events control the evolution of the snow pack in mountainous areas and cause inhomogeneous snow distribution. The goal of this study is to identify the main features of blowing snow events at an alpine site and assess the ability of the detailed snowpack model Crocus to reproduce the occurrence of these events in a 1D configuration. We created a database of blowing snow events observed over 10 years at our experimental site. Occurrences of blowing snow events were divided into cases with and without concurrent falling snow. Overall, snow transport is observed during 10.5% of the time in winter and occurs with concurrent falling snow 37.3% of the time. Wind speed and snow age control the frequency of occurrence. Model results illustrate the necessity of taking the wind-dependence of falling snow grain characteristics into account to simulate periods of snow transport and mass fluxes satisfactorily during those periods. The high rate of false alarms produced by the model is investigated in detail for winter 2010/2011 using measurements from snow particle counters.

  18. Observation of galactic cosmic ray spallation events from the SoHO mission 20-Year operation of LASCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutchmy, S.; Tavabi, E.; Urtado, O.

    2018-05-01

    A shower of secondary Cosmic Ray (CR) particles is produced at high altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere, so the primordial Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) are never directly measured outside the Earth magnetosphere and atmosphere. They approach the Earth and other planets in the complex pattern of rigidity's dependence, generally excluded by the magnetosphere. GCRs revealed by images of single nuclear reactions also called spallation events are described here. Such an event was seen on Nov. 29, 2015 using a unique LASCO C3 space coronagraph routine image taken during the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO) mission observing uninterruptedly at the Lagrangian L1 point. The spallation signature of a GCR identified well outside the Earth's magnetosphere is obtained for the 1st time. The resulting image includes different diverging linear "tracks" of varying intensity, leading to a single pixel; this frame identifies the site on the silicon CCD chip of the coronagraph camera. There was no solar flare reported at that time, nor Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) and no evidence of optical debris around the spacecraft. More examples of smaller CR events have been discovered through the 20 years of continuous observations from SoHO. This is the first spallation event from a CR, recorded outside the Earth's magnetosphere. We evaluate the probable energy of these events suggesting a plausible galactic source.

  19. A Note on the Observational Evidence for the Existence of Event Horizons in Astrophysical Black Hole Candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Bambi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today, astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the nonobservation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations.

  20. A note on the observational evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today, astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the nonobservation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations.

  1. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu

    2015-08-20

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011, the city was deluged with more than double the annual rainfall amount caused by convective storms. We used a high resolution, two-way nested domain WRF model to simulate the two rainfall episodes. Simulations include control runs initialized with National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecasting System (GFS) data and 3-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) data assimilation experiments conducted by assimilating NCEP prepbufr and radiance observations. Observations from Automated Weather Stations (AWS), synoptic charts, radar reflectivity and satellite pictures from the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia are used to assess the forecasting results. To evaluate the impact of the different assimilated observational datasets on the simulation of the major flooding event of 2009, we conducted 3DVAR experiments assimilating individual sources and a combination of all data sets. Results suggest that while the control run had a tendency to predict the storm earlier than observed, the assimilation of profile observations greatly improved the model\\'s thermodynamic structure and lead to better representation of simulated rainfall both in timing and amount. The experiment with assimilation of all available observations compared best with observed rainfall in terms of timing of the storm and rainfall distribution, demonstrating the importance of assimilating different types of observations. Retrospective experiments with and without data assimilation, for three different model lead times (48, 72 and 96-h), were performed to examine the skill of WRF model to predict the heavy rainfall events. Quantitative rainfall analysis of these simulations suggests that 48-h lead time runs with

  2. Multiwavelength follow-up observations of the tidal disruption event candidate 2XMMi J184725.1-631724

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dacheng; Strader, Jay; Carrasco, Eleazar R.; Godet, Olivier; Grupe, Dirk; Webb, Natalie A.; Barret, Didier; Irwin, Jimmy A.

    2018-03-01

    The ultrasoft X-ray flare 2XMMi J184725.1-631724 was serendipitously detected in two XMM-Newton observations in 2006 and 2007, with a peak luminosity of 6 × 1043 erg s-1. It was suggested to be a tidal disruption event (TDE) because its position is consistent with the centre of an inactive galaxy. It is the only known X-ray TDE candidate whose X-ray spectra showed evidence of a weak steep power-law component besides a dominant supersoft thermal disc. We have carried out multiwavelength follow-up observations of the event. Multiple X-ray monitorings show that the X-ray luminosity has decayed significantly after 2011. Especially, in our deep Chandra observation in 2013, we detected a very faint counterpart that supports the nuclear origin of 2XMMi J184725.1-631724 but had an X-ray flux a factor of ˜1000 lower than in the peak of the event. Compared with follow-up ultraviolet (UV) observations, we found that there might be some enhanced UV emission associated with the TDE in the first XMM-Newton observation. We also obtained a high-quality UV-optical spectrum with the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope and put a very tight constraint on the persistent nuclear activity, with a persistent X-ray luminosity expected to be lower than the peak of the flare by a factor of >2700. Therefore, our multiwavelength follow-up observations strongly support the TDE explanation of the event.

  3. Observations of hydrotectonic stress/strain events at a basement high at the Nicoya outer rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Brown, K. M.

    2005-12-01

    There is substantial and growing evidence from heat flow and coring investigations that the oceanic plate off Costa Rica is highly hydrologically active and that this activity is responsible for one of the most anomalously cold thermal environments encountered in the oceanic environment. Recent work by Fisher, et al. has identified limited regions above certain topographic highs with extremely high heat flows. Pore water profiles from cores above these thinly sedimented basement highs suggest upward flow on the order of ~1 cm/yr. These highs may be the principal regions of out-flow from the basement in this region and, thus, can potentially be used to constrain the general level of hydrologic activity. The nine Chemical and Aqueous Transport (CAT) meters we deployed at one of the highest heatflow sites provide a temporal record of both in-flow and out-flow of aqueous fluids at rates as low as 0.1 mm/yr. Our objective was to provide a direct measurement of long term flow rates to address the following questions: (1) What are the characteristic fluid fluxes at basement highs of the low heat flow region of the northern Costa Rican incoming plate, and (2) is this flow temporally variable? The results of the instrument deployments agree quite closely in general with the coring results in that the background rates are on the order of 1 cm/yr or less. There is, however, considerable detail in the temporal records which suggest small scale tectonic stress transients causing temporary increases in flow rate. While this is certainly not an area of major tectonic activity, the site is located at the top of the outer rise where one would expect bending-related stress and fault reactivation to occur. The CAT meters are capable of detecting minute strain events in the underlying sediments and therefore may be detecting small localized strain events. Two periods of increased flow lasting a few weeks each occur during the 5 month deployment and are indicated on all of the

  4. Analysis of the big halo event observed by Pamir emulsion chamber -P3B-90-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Seibun

    1986-01-01

    There is observed a big air family (named as 'P3B-90') with a large halo by Pamir carbon chamber, called P3B, in USSR-Japan joint experiment at Pamir plateau (4370 m above sea level). Total observed energy of this halo is estimated to be 19000 TeV. It penetrates through both the upper and the lower chamber without decreasing its size. Such strong penetrative power is due to the existence of many hadrons in the halo region which are produced through the atmospheric successive interactions. The energy ratio of hadronic part to electromagnetic part is 1/3 and it is nearly equal to the case of 'Andromeda' observed in Chacaltaya experiment. On the other hand, 298 shower spots (>1 TeV) with total observed energy 1163 TeV are found within about 30 cm of radius from the center of the family. Among the observed shower spots, 45 spots are identified as hadronic ones, whose total observed energy is 345 TeV and 253 spots are electromagnetic ones with total observed energy 818 TeV. There exists a large difference in the power index of the energy spectrum between the electromagnetic and the hadronic components. That is, the hadronic component has a harder spectrum than the electromagnetic component. It shows that there exist a lot of hadrons in high energy region among the observed shower spots. This seems to be a general tendency of the super-high energy families. (author)

  5. Disappearance of the in situ component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, B.; Le Pechoux, C.; Calais, G.; Reynaud-Bougnoux, A.; Bougnoux, P.; Le Floch, O.; Fetisoff, F.; Lemseffer, A.; Body, G.; Lansac, J.

    1992-01-01

    Local recurrence after conservative treatment of breast cancer is associated with a significant risk for metastasis. In order to identify criteria predictive of metastasis in this subset of women, a series of 35 patients with local relapse was analyzed among 512 consecutive patients treated with tumorectomy and radiotherapy. When relapse occurred within 2 years of initial treatment, overall 2-year survival from the time of local relapse was 39.5%. When local relapse occurred more than 2 years from initial therapy, 2-year survival was 80.5% (p<0.001). Pathological slides of both initial and recurrent tumors were reviewed and compared. In 17 patients, local relapse and initial tumor had the same morphological features, with an in-situ component either absent or present in the same proportion. Metastasis occurred in two of these patients. In contrast, 9 of 12 patients in whom the proportion of non-invasive carcinoma had decreased at the time of local recurrence developed metastasis. Overall 2-year survival from the time of relapse was significantly better in the former group of patients (93.3% versus 52.5%, p<0.05). It is concluded that early relapses have a poor prognostic significance and that disappearance of the in-situ component or increase of the invasive component at the time of relapse is a feature predictive of tumor-related death and that more intensive therapy might benefit to this subset of women. (author). 26 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  6. Event timing in associative learning: from biochemical reaction dynamics to behavioural observations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Yarali

    Full Text Available Associative learning relies on event timing. Fruit flies for example, once trained with an odour that precedes electric shock, subsequently avoid this odour (punishment learning; if, on the other hand the odour follows the shock during training, it is approached later on (relief learning. During training, an odour-induced Ca(++ signal and a shock-induced dopaminergic signal converge in the Kenyon cells, synergistically activating a Ca(++-calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase, which likely leads to the synaptic plasticity underlying the conditioned avoidance of the odour. In Aplysia, the effect of serotonin on the corresponding adenylate cyclase is bi-directionally modulated by Ca(++, depending on the relative timing of the two inputs. Using a computational approach, we quantitatively explore this biochemical property of the adenylate cyclase and show that it can generate the effect of event timing on associative learning. We overcome the shortage of behavioural data in Aplysia and biochemical data in Drosophila by combining findings from both systems.

  7. Reliability of P mode event classification using contemporaneous BiSON and GOLF observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoniello, R; Chaplin, W J; Elsworth, Y P; Garcia, R A

    2008-01-01

    We carried out a comparison of the signals seen in contemporaneous BiSON and GOLF data sets. Both instruments perform Doppler shift velocity measurements in integrated sunlight, although BiSON perform measurements from the two wings of potassium absorption line and GOLF from one wing of the NaD1 line. Discrepancies between the two datasets have been observed. We show,in fact, that the relative power depends on the wing in which GOLF data observes. During the blue wing period, the relative power is mugh higher than in BiSON datasets, while a good agreement has been observed during the red period.

  8. New Physical Insights about Tidal Disruption Events from a Comprehensive Observational Inventory at X-Ray Wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchettl, Katie [Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Guillochon, James [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of the X-ray emission from 70 transient sources that have been classified as tidal disruption events (TDEs) in the literature. We explore the properties of these candidates, using nearly three decades of X-ray observations to quantify their properties and characteristics. We find that the emission from X-ray TDEs increase by two to three orders of magnitude, compared to pre-flare constraints. These emissions evolve significantly with time, and decay with power-law indices that are typically shallower than the canonical t {sup −5/3} decay law, implying that X-ray TDEs are viscously delayed. These events exhibit enhanced (relative to galactic) column densities and are quite soft in nature, with no strong correlation between the amount of detected soft and hard emission. At their peak, jetted events have an X-ray to optical ratio ≫1, whereas non-jetted events have a ratio ∼1, which suggests that these events undergo reprocessing at different rates. X-ray TDEs have long T {sub 90} values, consistent with what would be expected from a viscously driven accretion disk formed by the disruption of a main-sequence star by a black hole with a mass <10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}. The isotropic luminosities of X-ray TDEs are bimodal, such that jetted and non-jetted events are separated by a “reprocessing valley” that we suggest is naturally populated by optical/UV TDEs that most likely produce X-rays, but this emission is “veiled” from observations due to reprocessing. Our results suggest that non-jetted X-ray TDEs likely originate from partial disruptions and/or disruptions of low-mass stars.

  9. Stressful life events and social health factors in women using anxiolytics and antidepressants: an Italian observational study in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Incau, Paola; Barbui, Corrado; Tubini, Jacopo; Conforti, Anita

    2011-04-01

    /or antidepressants use was observed. Further efforts are needed to increase our knowledge of the use of anxiolytics or antidepressants in relation to the occurrence of life events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On the feasibility of using satellite gravity observations for detecting large-scale solid mass transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peidou, Athina C.; Fotopoulos, Georgia; Pagiatakis, Spiros

    2017-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to assess the feasibility of utilizing dedicated satellite gravity missions in order to detect large-scale solid mass transfer events (e.g. landslides). Specifically, a sensitivity analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions in conjunction with simulated case studies is employed to predict gravity changes due to past subaerial and submarine mass transfer events, namely the Agulhas slump in southeastern Africa and the Heart Mountain Landslide in northwestern Wyoming. The detectability of these events is evaluated by taking into account the expected noise level in the GRACE gravity field solutions and simulating their impact on the gravity field through forward modelling of the mass transfer. The spectral content of the estimated gravity changes induced by a simulated large-scale landslide event is estimated for the known spatial resolution of the GRACE observations using wavelet multiresolution analysis. The results indicate that both the Agulhas slump and the Heart Mountain Landslide could have been detected by GRACE, resulting in {\\vert }0.4{\\vert } and {\\vert }0.18{\\vert } mGal change on GRACE solutions, respectively. The suggested methodology is further extended to the case studies of the submarine landslide in Tohoku, Japan, and the Grand Banks landslide in Newfoundland, Canada. The detectability of these events using GRACE solutions is assessed through their impact on the gravity field.

  11. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rademacher

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Proyecto de Investigaciòn Sismològica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94 in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, «rapid-fire» series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  12. Measurement of αs(MZ2) from hadronic event observables at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    The strong coupling α s (M Z 2 ) has been measured using hadronic decays of Z 0 bosons collected by the SLD experiment at SLAC. The data were compared with QCD predictions both at fixed order O(α s 2 ) and including resummed analytic formulas based on the next-to-leading logarithm approximation. In this comprehensive analysis we studied event shapes, jet rates, particle correlations, and angular energy flow, and checked the consistency between α s (M Z 2 ) values extracted from these different measures. Combining all results we obtain α s (M Z 2 )= 0.1200±0.0025 (expt) ±0.0078 (theor), where the dominant uncertainty is from uncalculated higher order contributions

  13. Observing painful events in others leads to a temporally extended general response facilitation in the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galang, Carl Michael; Naish, Katherine R; Arbabi, Keon; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2017-11-01

    Excitability in the motor cortex is modulated when we observe other people receiving a painful stimulus (Avenanti et al., Nat Neurosci 8(7):955-960, 2005). However, the task dependency of this modulation is not well understood, as different paradigms have yielded seemingly different results. Previous neurophysiological work employing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) suggests that watching another person's hand being pierced by a needle leads to a muscle specific inhibition, assessed via motor evoked potentials. Results from previous behavioural studies suggest that overt behavioural responses are facilitated due to pain observation (Morrison et al., Cereb Cortex 17:2214-2222, 2007b; Morrison et al., Cognition 104:407-416, 2007a). There are several paradigmatic differences both between typical TMS studies and behavioural studies, and within behavioural studies themselves, that limit our overall understanding of how pain observation affects the motor system. In the current study, we combine elements of typical TMS experimental designs in a behavioural assessment of how pain observation affects overt behavioural responding. Specifically, we examined the muscle specificity, timing, and direction of modulation of motor responses due to pain observation. To assess muscle specificity, we employed pain and non-pain videos from previous TMS studies in a Go/No-Go task in which participants responded by either pressing a key with their index finger or with their foot. To assess timing, we examined response times for Go signals presented at 0 or 500 ms after the video. Results indicate that observation of another individual receiving a painful stimulus leads to a non-effector specific, temporally extended response facilitation (e.g., finger and foot facilitation present at 0 and 500 ms delays), compared to observation of non-pain videos. This behavioural facilitation effect differs from the typical motor inhibition seen in TMS studies, and we argue that the effects of

  14. Ionospheric Data Assimilation and Targeted Observation Strategies: Proof of Concept Analysis in a Geomagnetic Storm Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelich, Eric; Durazo, Juan; Mahalov, Alex

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of the ionosphere involve complex interactions between the atmosphere, solar wind, cosmic radiation, and Earth's magnetic field. Geomagnetic storms arising from solar activity can perturb these dynamics sufficiently to disrupt radio and satellite communications. Efforts to predict ``space weather,'' including ionospheric dynamics, require the development of a data assimilation system that combines observing systems with appropriate forecast models. This talk will outline a proof-of-concept targeted observation strategy, consisting of the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, coupled with the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model, to select optimal locations where additional observations can be made to improve short-term ionospheric forecasts. Initial results using data and forecasts from the geomagnetic storm of 26-27 September 2011 will be described. Work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant Number FA9550-15-1-0096) and by the National Science Foundation (Grant Number DMS-0940314).

  15. Coordinated Cluster/Double Star observations of dayside flux transfer events on 6 April 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Pu, ZuYin; Zhou, XuZhi; Zhang, XianGuo; Dunlop, Malcolm; Fu, SuiYan; Xie, Lun; Zong, QiuGang; Xiao, ChiJie; Wang, XiaoGang; Liu, ZhenXing

    2008-10-01

    With the Double Star Program TC1 in the equatorial orbit and Cluster tetrahedron in the high latitude polar orbit, a conjunct observation of FTEs on the dayside magnetopause (MP) on April 6, 2004 is presented in this study. The FTEs observed by TC1 at low latitudes are characterized to be generated in the subsolar region and the obtained flux tube axes orientate along the predicted low latitude component magnetic reconnection X-line, indicating that these FTEs were more likely to be generated through multiple X-line reconnection or single X-line bursty reconnection. During the same period, Cluster also encountered a series of magnetosheath FTEs with their axes pointing roughly along the interplanetary magnetic field. At last, the global FTE configuration is obtained from observations in different locations, which is in good agreement with the "elbow shape" model.

  16. Satellite-Observed Black Water Events off Southwest Florida: Implications for Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jun; Hu, Chuanmin; Lapointe, Brian; Melo, Nelson; Johns, Elizabeth; Smith, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    A “black water” event, as observed from satellites, occurred off southwest Florida in 2012. Satellite observations suggested that the event started in early January and ended in mid-April 2012. The black water patch formed off central west Florida and advected southward towards Florida Bay and the Florida Keys with the shelf circulation, which was confirmed by satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories. Compared with a previous black water event in 2002, the 2012 event was weaker in terms...

  17. Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of dust on the Spirit Rover: Cleaning events, spectral properties, and aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alicia F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Sullivan, Robert; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Goetz, Walter; Madsen, Morten B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes dust deposits on the Spirit Rover over 2000 sols through examination of Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of specific locations on the rover body, including portions of the solar array, Pancam and Mini-TES calibration targets, and the magnets. This data set reveals the three "cleaning events" experienced by Spirit to date, the spectral properties of dust, and the tendency of dust particles to form aggregates 100 um and larger.

  18. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Caccia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with thermal circulation, the

  19. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, J.; Guénard, V.; Benech, B.; Campistron, B.; Drobinski, P.

    2004-11-01

    The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program) in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission) in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking), which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with thermal circulation, the vertical motions are

  20. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccia, J.L.; Guenard, V. [LSEET, CNRS/Univ. de Toulon, La Garde (France); Benech, B.; Campistron, B. [CRA/LA, CNRS/Obs. Midi-Pyrenees, Campistrous (France); Drobinski, P. [IPSL/SA, CNRS/Univ. de Paris VI, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhone-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhone-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (mesoscale alpine program) in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospheriques et de Transports d'Emission) in summer 2001. Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhone valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of ''flow around'' and ''flow over'' mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events. In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking), which is coherent with non-convective situations. In summer, due to the ground heating and to the interactions with

  1. Teaching Metaphorical Extensions of Private Events through Rival-Model Observation to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mark R.; Belisle, Jordan; Munoz, Bridget E.; Stanley, Caleb R.; Rowsey, Kyle E.

    2017-01-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of observational learning using the rival-model technique in teaching three children with autism to state metaphorical statements about emotions when provided a picture, as well as to intraverbally state an appropriate emotion when provided a scenario and corresponding metaphorical emotion. The results provide a…

  2. Analysis of a severe weather event over Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using observations and high-resolution modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad; Attada, Raju; Knio, Omar; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of a severe weather event that caused heavy wind and rainfall over Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on 11 September 2015 were investigated using available observations and the Weather Research and Forecasting model configured at 1 km resolution. Analysis of surface, upper air observations and model outputs reveals that the event was initiated by synoptic scale conditions that intensified by interaction with the local topography, triggering strong winds and high convective rainfall. The model predicted the observed characteristics of both rainfall and winds well, accurately predicting the maximum wind speed of 20–25 m s−1 that was sustained for about 2 h. A time series analysis of various atmospheric variables suggests a sudden fall in pressure, temperature and outgoing long wave radiation before the development of the storm, followed by a significant increase in wind speed, latent and moisture fluxes and change in wind direction during the mature stage of the storm. The model outputs suggest that the heavy rainfall was induced by a low-level moisture supply from the Red Sea combined with orographic lifting. Latent heat release from microphysical processes increased the vertical velocities in the mid-troposphere, further increasing the low-level convergence that strengthened the event.

  3. Analysis of a severe weather event over Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, using observations and high-resolution modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2017-08-10

    The dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of a severe weather event that caused heavy wind and rainfall over Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, on 11 September 2015 were investigated using available observations and the Weather Research and Forecasting model configured at 1 km resolution. Analysis of surface, upper air observations and model outputs reveals that the event was initiated by synoptic scale conditions that intensified by interaction with the local topography, triggering strong winds and high convective rainfall. The model predicted the observed characteristics of both rainfall and winds well, accurately predicting the maximum wind speed of 20–25 m s−1 that was sustained for about 2 h. A time series analysis of various atmospheric variables suggests a sudden fall in pressure, temperature and outgoing long wave radiation before the development of the storm, followed by a significant increase in wind speed, latent and moisture fluxes and change in wind direction during the mature stage of the storm. The model outputs suggest that the heavy rainfall was induced by a low-level moisture supply from the Red Sea combined with orographic lifting. Latent heat release from microphysical processes increased the vertical velocities in the mid-troposphere, further increasing the low-level convergence that strengthened the event.

  4. Space geodetic observations of repeating slow slip events beneath the Bonin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisa, Deasy; Heki, Kosuke

    2017-09-01

    The Pacific Plate subducts beneath the Philippine Sea Plate along the Izu-Bonin Trench. We investigated crustal movements at the Bonin Islands, using Global Navigation Satellite System and geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry data to reveal how the two plates converge in this subduction zone. These islands are located ∼100 km from the trench, just at the middle between the volcanic arc and the trench, making these islands suitable for detecting signatures of episodic deformation such as slow slip events (SSEs). During 2007-2016, we found five SSEs repeating quasi-periodically with similar displacement patterns. In estimating their fault parameters, we assumed that the fault lies on the prescribed plate boundary, and optimized the size, shape and position of the fault and dislocation vectors. Average fault slip was ∼5 cm, and the average moment magnitude was ∼6.9. We also found one SSE occurred in 2008 updip of the repeating SSE in response to an M6 class interplate earthquake. In spite of the frequent occurrence of SSEs, there is no evidence for long-term strain accumulation in the Bonin Islands that may lead to future megathrust earthquakes. Plate convergence in Mariana-type subduction zones may occur, to a large extent, episodically as repeating SSEs.

  5. Detection of a Type IIn Supernova in Optical Follow-up Observations of IceCube Neutrino Events

    OpenAIRE

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.

    2015-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.degrees 2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0...

  6. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Mironova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III, and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS, we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak

  7. Tethered to the EHR: Primary Care Physician Workload Assessment Using EHR Event Log Data and Time-Motion Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Brian G; Beasley, John W; Watkinson, Michelle D; Temte, Jonathan L; Tuan, Wen-Jan; Sinsky, Christine A; Gilchrist, Valerie J

    2017-09-01

    Primary care physicians spend nearly 2 hours on electronic health record (EHR) tasks per hour of direct patient care. Demand for non-face-to-face care, such as communication through a patient portal and administrative tasks, is increasing and contributing to burnout. The goal of this study was to assess time allocated by primary care physicians within the EHR as indicated by EHR user-event log data, both during clinic hours (defined as 8:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday through Friday) and outside clinic hours. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 142 family medicine physicians in a single system in southern Wisconsin. All Epic (Epic Systems Corporation) EHR interactions were captured from "event logging" records over a 3-year period for both direct patient care and non-face-to-face activities, and were validated by direct observation. EHR events were assigned to 1 of 15 EHR task categories and allocated to either during or after clinic hours. Clinicians spent 355 minutes (5.9 hours) of an 11.4-hour workday in the EHR per weekday per 1.0 clinical full-time equivalent: 269 minutes (4.5 hours) during clinic hours and 86 minutes (1.4 hours) after clinic hours. Clerical and administrative tasks including documentation, order entry, billing and coding, and system security accounted for nearly one-half of the total EHR time (157 minutes, 44.2%). Inbox management accounted for another 85 minutes (23.7%). Primary care physicians spend more than one-half of their workday, nearly 6 hours, interacting with the EHR during and after clinic hours. EHR event logs can identify areas of EHR-related work that could be delegated, thus reducing workload, improving professional satisfaction, and decreasing burnout. Direct time-motion observations validated EHR-event log data as a reliable source of information regarding clinician time allocation. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  8. Possible effect of extreme solar energetic particle event of 20 January 2005 on polar stratospheric aerosols: direct observational evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, I. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Petelina, S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic cosmic rays are the main source of ionization of the low-middle atmosphere, leading to associated changes in atmospheric properties. Via the hypothetical influence of ionization on aerosol growth and facilitated formation of clouds, this may be an important indirect link relating solar variability to climate. This effect is highly debated, however, since the proposed theoretical mechanisms still remain illusive and qualitative, and observational evidence is inconclusive and controversial. Therefore, important questions regarding the existence and magnitude of the effect, and particularly the fraction of aerosol particles that can form and grow, are still open. Here we present empirical evidence of the possible effect caused by cosmic rays upon polar stratospheric aerosols, based on a case study of an extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) event of 20 January 2005. Using aerosol data obtained over polar regions from different satellites with optical instruments that were operating during January 2005, such as the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III), and Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imaging System (OSIRIS), we found a significant simultaneous change in aerosol properties in both the Southern and Northern Polar regions in temporal association with the SEP event. We speculate that ionization of the atmosphere, which was abnormally high in the lower stratosphere during the extreme SEP event, might have led to formation of new particles and/or growth of preexisting ultrafine particles in the polar stratospheric region. However, a detailed interpretation of the effect is left for subsequent studies. This is the first time high vertical resolution measurements have been used to discuss possible production of stratospheric aerosols under the influence of cosmic ray induced ionization. The observed effect is marginally detectable for the analyzed severe SEP event and can be undetectable for the majority of weak-moderate events. The present

  9. Accurate Mass Measurements for Planetary Microlensing Events Using High Angular Resolution Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Beaulieu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The microlensing technique is a unique method to hunt for cold planets over a range of mass and separation, orbiting all varieties of host stars in the disk of our galaxy. It provides precise mass-ratio and projected separations in units of the Einstein ring radius. In order to obtain the physical parameters (mass, distance, orbital separation of the system, it is necessary to combine the result of light curve modeling with lens mass-distance relations and/or perform a Bayesian analysis with a galactic model. A first mass-distance relation could be obtained from a constraint on the Einstein ring radius if the crossing time of the source over the caustic is measured. It could then be supplemented by secondary constraints such as parallax measurements, ideally by using coinciding ground and space-born observations. These are still subject to degeneracies, like the orbital motion of the lens. A third mass-distance relation can be obtained thanks to constraints on the lens luminosity using high angular resolution observations with 8 m class telescopes or the Hubble Space Telescope. The latter route, although quite inexpensive in telescope time is very effective. If we have to rely heavily on Bayesian analysis and limited constraints on mass-distance relations, the physical parameters are determined to 30–40% typically. In a handful of cases, ground-space parallax is a powerful route to get stronger constraint on masses. High angular resolution observations will be able to constrain the luminosity of the lenses in the majority of the cases, and in favorable circumstances it is possible to derive physical parameters to 10% or better. Moreover, these constraints will be obtained in most of the planets to be discovered by the Euclid and WFIRST satellites. We describe here the state-of-the-art approaches to measure lens masses and distances with an emphasis on high angular resolution observations. We will discuss the challenges, recent results and

  10. The FU Orionis outburst as a thermal accretion event: Observational constraints for protostellar disk models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. R.; Lin, D. N. C.; Hartmann, L. W.; Kenyon, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The results of the time-dependent disk models developed in Bell & Lin are compared with observed properties of FU Orionis variables. Specific models are fit to the light curves of Fu Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1057 Cyg. The slow risetime of V1515 Cyg can be matched by a self-regulated outburst model. The rapid risetimes of FU Ori and V1057 Cyg can be fitted with the application of modest perturbations to the disk surface density. Model disks display spectral features characteristic of observed objects. The color evolution of V1057 Cyg is naturally explained if mass flux drops in the inner disk (r less than 1/4 AU) while remaining steady in the outer disk. The decrease in optical line width (rotational velocity) observed during the decay of V1057 Cyg may be accounted for by an outward-propagating ionization front. We predict that before final decay to the quiescent phase, short-wavelength line widths (lambda less than 1.5 microns) will again increase. It is suggested that FU Orionis outbursts primarily occur to systems during the embedded phase with ages less than several times 10(exp 5) yr.

  11. Vertical velocity and turbulence aspects during Mistral events as observed by UHF wind profilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Caccia

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this paper is to experimentally study mesoscale dynamical aspects of the Mistral in the coastal area located at the exit of the Rhône-valley. The Mistral is a northerly low-level flow blowing in southern France along the Rhône-valley axis, located between the French Alps and the Massif Central, towards the Mediterranean Sea. The experimental data are obtained by UHF wind profilers deployed during two major field campaigns, MAP (Mesoscale Alpine Program in autumn 1999, and ESCOMPTE (Expérience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphériques et de Transports d'Emission in summer 2001.

    Thanks to the use of the time evolution of the vertical profile of the horizontal wind vector, recent works have shown that the dynamics of the Mistral is highly dependent on the season because of the occurrence of specific synoptic patterns. In addition, during summer, thermal forcing leads to a combination of sea breeze with Mistral and weaker Mistral due to the enhanced friction while, during autumn, absence of convective turbulence leads to substantial acceleration as low-level jets are generated in the stably stratified planetary boundary layer. At the exit of the Rhône valley, the gap flow dynamics dominates, whereas at the lee of the Alps, the dynamics is driven by the relative contribution of "flow around" and "flow over" mechanisms, upstream of the Alps. This paper analyses vertical velocity and turbulence, i.e. turbulent dissipation rate, with data obtained by the same UHF wind profilers during the same Mistral events.

    In autumn, the motions are found to be globally and significantly subsident, which is coherent for a dry, cold and stable flow approaching the sea, and the turbulence is found to be of pure dynamical origin (wind shears and mountain/lee wave breaking, which is coherent with non-convective situations.

    MULTI-SPACECRAFT OBSERVATIONS AND TRANSPORT MODELING OF ENERGETIC ELECTRONS FOR A SERIES OF SOLAR PARTICLE EVENTS IN AUGUST 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dröge, W.; Kartavykh, Y. Y. [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Dresing, N.; Klassen, A. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    During 2010 August a series of solar particle events was observed by the two STEREO spacecraft as well as near-Earth spacecraft. The events, occurring on August 7, 14, and 18, originated from active regions 11093 and 11099. We combine in situ and remote-sensing observations with predictions from our model of three-dimensional anisotropic particle propagation in order to investigate the physical processes that caused the large angular spreads of energetic electrons during these events. In particular, we address the effects of the lateral transport of the electrons in the solar corona that is due to diffusion perpendicular to the average magnetic field in the interplanetary medium. We also study the influence of two coronal mass ejections and associated shock waves on the electron propagation, and a possible time variation of the transport conditions during the above period. For the August 18 event we also utilize electron observations from the MESSENGER spacecraft at a distance of 0.31 au from the Sun for an attempt to separate between radial and longitudinal dependencies in the transport process. Our modelings show that the parallel and perpendicular diffusion mean free paths of electrons can vary significantly not only as a function of the radial distance, but also of the heliospheric longitude. Normalized to a distance of 1 au, we derive values of λ {sub ∥} in the range of 0.15–0.6 au, and values of λ {sub ⊥} in the range of 0.005–0.01 au. We discuss how our results relate to various theoretical models for perpendicular diffusion, and whether there might be a functional relationship between the perpendicular and the parallel mean free path.

  12. SAR observation and model tracking of an oil spill event in coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Li, Xiaofeng; Xu, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Oil spills are a major contributor to marine pollution. The objective of this work is to simulate the oil spill trajectory of oil released from a pipeline leaking in the Gulf of Mexico with the GNOME (General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment) model. The model was developed by NOAA (National...... Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) to investigate the effects of different pollutants and environmental conditions on trajectory results. Also, a Texture-Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA) was used to delineate ocean oil slicks from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. During...

  13. Human megakaryoblastic proliferation and differentiation events observed by phase-contrast cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, I T; Domeyer, C; Bührer, C

    1997-01-01

    Microcinematographic documentation of mitoses, amitoses, endomitoses, or cytoplasmic fusion shortly after completion of mitoses was done in bone marrow specimens of patients with quantitative platelet disorders and controls. In patients with platelet disorders, most mitoses with cell duplication occurred in large promegakaryocytes after 4-fold nuclear and cytoplasmic enhancement. Normal specimens showed polyploidization happening in small megakaryoblasts, while mitoses with cell duplication were seen only after cultivation in freeze-thawed sera of patients with platelet disorders. Frequently, lymphocytes were observed to contact megakaryoblastic cells undergoing mitoses, amitoses and endomitoses and to enter the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes (emperipolesis), leaving it again after several hours.

  14. A Probabilistic and Observation Based Methodology to Estimate Small Craft Harbor Vulnerability to Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, A. S.; Lynett, P. J.; Ayca, A.

    2016-12-01

    calibrated, the model was able to hindcast the damage produced in Santa Cruz Harbor during the 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan events. Results of the Santa Cruz analysis will be presented and discussed.

  15. Observations and global numerical modelling of the St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, M.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Doornbos, E.; Astafieva, E.; Zakharenkova, I.

    2017-12-01

    With a sudden storm commencement (SSC) at 04:45 UT on St. Patrick's day 2015 started the most severe geomagnetic storm in solar cycle 24. It appeared as a two-stage geomagnetic storm with a minimum SYM-H value of -233 nT. In the response to the storm commencement in the first activation, a short-term positive effect in the ionospheric vertical electron content (VTEC) occurred at low- and mid-latitudes on the dayside. The second phase commencing around 12:30 UT lasted longer and caused significant and complex storm-time changes around the globe with hemispherical different ionospheric storm reactions in different longitudinal ranges. Swarm-C observations of the neutral mass density variation along the orbital path as well as Langmuir probe plasma and magnetometer measurements of all three Swarm satellites and global TEC records are used for physical interpretations and modelling of the positive/negative storm scenario. These observations pose a challenge for the global numerical modelling of thermosphere-ionosphere storm processes as the storm, which occurred around spring equinox, obviously signify the existence of other impact factors than seasonal dependence for hemispheric asymmetries to occur. Numerical simulation trials using the Potsdam version of the Upper Atmosphere Model (UAM-P) are presented to explain these peculiar M-I-T storm processes.

  16. Observation of the Higgs particle in gamma-gamma events and search for the Higgs particle in Z-gamma events at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the searches for the Higgs boson in events with photons in the final states, using the full proton-proton collision data collected by ATLAS at √(s)=7 and 8 TeV in 2011 and 2012. Higgs boson decays to photon pairs or to a photon and a Z boson decaying to di-electrons or di-muons are investigated. The event selection, the main backgrounds, the signal properties, and the statistical discrimination between the signal and background in data and the interpretation of the results in terms of a Standard Model Higgs boson are discussed. In the H → γγ channel a clear excess over the background is seen at a mass of m H =[126.8±0.2(stat)±0.7(syst)] GeV, with a local significance of 7.4 σ. In the rare decay channel H → Zγ no evidence of excess over the background is observed in the mass range 120-150 GeV, and, for a Higgs boson mass near the one obtained from the combined mass measurement in the γγ and 4-lepton final states, m H =125.5 GeV, an upper limit of 11 times the Standard Model prediction, at 95% confidence level, is set on the production cross section times the H → Zγ cross section. One of the most important ingredient for these measurements is the efficient reconstruction and identification of photons, and a precise knowledge of the trigger and identification performance. A significant part of the document is thus devoted to the photon performance optimisation and measurement activities that I carried on in the past three years. (author)

  17. Two long-term slow slip events around Tokyo Bay found by GNSS observation during 1996-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Yabe, Suguru

    2017-03-01

    Slow slip events (SSEs) with durations ranging from days to more than a decade have been observed in plate subduction zones around the world. In the Kanto district in Japan, several SSEs have been identified based on geodetic observations. However, none of these events have had durations largely exceeding a year. In this study, we show that long-term SSEs with durations longer than 3 years occurred before the year 2000 and after 2007 on the upper interface of the Philippine Sea Plate at depths of 30-40 km. The fault model determined by inversion of global navigation satellite system data is located northeast of Tokyo Bay, where a seismic gap and low seismic wave velocities were detected by seismological observations. Moreover, the acceleration periods of the fault slip corresponded well with increases in the background seismicity for shallower earthquakes. The slip history was also temporally correlated with the long-term shear stress changes governed mainly by non-tidal variations in the ocean bottom pressure. However, the predicted slip from the long-term stress change was too small to reproduce the observed slow slips. To prove the causal relationship between the SSEs and the external stress change, more advanced modeling is necessary to confirm whether such a small slip can trigger an SSE.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Tensile twin nucleation events coupled to neighboring slip observed in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, J.; Li, S.F.; Pokharel, R.; Lienert, U.; Rollett, A.D.; Suter, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Low-symmetry crystals and polycrystals have anisotropic mechanical properties which, given better understanding of their deformation modes, could lead to development of next generation materials. Understanding how grains in a bulk polycrystal interact will guide and improve material modeling. Here, we show that tensile twins, in hexagonal close-packed metals, form where the macroscopic stress does not generate appropriate shear stress and vice versa. We use non-destructive high-energy X-ray diffraction microscopy to map local crystal orientations in three dimensions in a series of tensile strain states in a zirconium polycrystal. Twins and intragranular orientation variations are observed and it is found that deformation-induced rotations in neighboring grains are spatially correlated with many twins. We conclude that deformation twinning involves complex multigrain interactions which must be included in polycrystal plasticity models

  19. Latitudinal extent of the January 2005 solar proton event in the Northern Hemisphere from satellite observations of hydroxyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Verronen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We utilise hydroxyl observations from the MLS/Aura satellite instrument to study the latitudinal extent of particle forcing in the northern polar region during the January 2005 solar proton event. MLS is the first satellite instrument to observe HOx changes during such an event. We also predict the hydroxyl changes with respect to the magnetic latitude by the Sodankylä Ion and Neutral Chemistry model, estimating the variable magnetic cutoff energies for protons using a parameterisation based on magnetosphere modelling and the planetary magnetic index Kp. In the middle and lower mesosphere, HOx species are good indicators of the changes in the atmosphere during solar proton events, because they respond rapidly to both increases and decreases in proton forcing. Also, atmospheric transport has a negligible effect on HOx because of its short chemical lifetime. The observations indicate the boundary of the proton forcing and a transition region, from none to the "full" effect, which ranges from about 57 to 64 degrees of magnetic latitude. When saturating the rigidity cutoff Kp at 6 in the model, as suggested by earlier studies using observations of cosmic radio noise absorption, the equatorward boundary of the transition region is offset by ≈2 degrees polewards compared with the data, thus the latitudinal extent of the proton forcing in the atmosphere is underestimated. However, the model predictions are in reasonable agreement with the MLS measurements when the Kp index is allowed to vary within its nominal range, i.e., from 1 to 9 in the cutoff calculation.

  1. Observing and modeling the spectrum of a slow slip event: Constraints on the scaling of slow slip and tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Bartlow, N. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-12-01

    We estimate the normalized moment rate spectrum of a slow slip event in Cascadia and then attempt to reproduce it. Our goal is to further assess whether a single physical mechanism could govern slow slip and tremor events, with durations that span 6 orders of magnitude, so we construct the spectrum by parameterizing a large slow slip event as the sum of a number of subevents with various durations. The spectrum estimate uses data from three sources: the GPS-based slip inversion of Bartlow et al (2011), PBO borehole strain measurements, and beamforming-based tremor moment estimates of Ghosh et al (2009). We find that at periods shorter than 1 day, the moment rate power spectrum decays as frequencyn, where n is between 0.7 and 1.4 when measured from strain and between 1.2 and 1.4 when inferred from tremor. The spectrum appears roughly flat at periods of 1 to 10 days, as both the 1-day-period strain and tremor data and the 6-day-period slip inversion data imply a moment rate power of 0.02 times the the total moment squared. We demonstrate one way to reproduce this spectrum: by constructing the large-scale slow slip event as the sum of a series of subevents. The shortest of these subevents could be interpreted as VLFEs or even LFEs, while longer subevents might represent the aseismic slip that drives rapid tremor reverals, streaks, or rapid tremor migrations. We pick the subevent magnitudes from a Gutenberg-Richter distribution and place the events randomly throughout a 30-day interval. Then we assign each subevent a duration that scales with its moment to a specified power. Finally, we create a moment rate function for each subevent and sum all of the moment rates. We compute the summed slow slip moment rate spectra with two approaches: a time-domain numerical computation and a frequency-domain analytical summation. Several sets of subevent parameters can allow the constructed slow slip event to match the observed spectrum. One allowable set of parameters is of

  2. Spatial clustering and repeating of seismic events observed along the 1976 Tangshan fault, north China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Chen, Qi-Fu; Cheng, Xin; Niu, Fenglin

    2007-12-01

    Spatial and temporal features of the seismicity occurring along the Tangshan fault in 2001-2006 were investigated with data recorded by the Beijing metropolitan digital Seismic Network. The relocated seismicity with the double difference method clearly exhibits a dextral bend in the middle of the fault. More than 85% of the earthquakes were found in the two clusters forming the northern segment where relatively small coseismic slips were observed during the 1976 M7.8 earthquake. The b values calculated from the seismicity occurring in the northern and southern segment are 1.03 +/- 0.02 and 0.85 +/- 0.03, respectively. The distinct seismicity and b values are probably the collective effect of the fault geometry and the regional stress field that has an ENE-WSW oriented compression. Using cross-correlation and fine relocation analyses, we also identified a total of 21 doublets and 25 multiplets that make up >50% of the total seismicity. Most of the sequences are aperiodic with recurrence intervals varying from a few minutes to hundreds of days. Based on a quasi-periodic sequence, we obtained a fault slip rate of <=2.6 mm/yr at ~15 km, which is consistent with surface GPS measurements.

  3. The Disappearing Forests. UNEP Environment Brief No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi (Kenya).

    Tropical forests cover 20 percent of the Earth's land surface, but they are rapidly disappearing, with some estimating the loss of 7.5 million hectares a year. This bulletin provides a set of key facts relating to this problem. It details: (1) factors involving the rate at which the forests are disappearing; (2) some of the effects of these losses…

  4. Activated T lymphocytes disappear from circulation during endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez Krabbe, Karen; Kemp, Helle Bruunsgaard; Qvist, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    of disappearance were characterized by an activated phenotype (CD45RA(-) CD45RO(+)) as well as a phenotype linked to apoptosis (CD95(+) CD28(-)). In conclusion, endotoxin-induced lymphopenia reflects the disappearance from the circulation of activated lymphocytes prone to undergo apoptosis....

  5. Field-aligned currents observed by CHAMP during the intense 2003 geomagnetic storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the characteristics of field-aligned currents (FACs in both hemispheres during the extreme storms in October and November 2003. High-resolution CHAMP magnetic data reflect the dynamics of FACs during these geomagnetic storms, which are different from normal periods. The peak intensity and most equatorward location of FACs in response to the storm phases are examined separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding large-scale FAC peak densities are, on average, enhanced by about a factor of 5 compared to the quiet-time FACs' strengths. And the FAC densities on the dayside are, on average, 2.5 times larger in the Southern (summer than in the Northern (winter Hemisphere, while the observed intensities on the nightside are comparable between the two hemispheres. Solar wind dynamic pressure is correlated with the FACs strength on the dayside. However, the latitudinal variations of the FACs are compared with the variations in Dst and the interplanetary magnetic field component Bz, in order to determine how these parameters control the large-scale FACs' configuration in the polar region. We have determined that (1 the equatorward shift of FACs on the dayside is directly controlled by the southward IMF Bz and there is a saturation of the latitudinal displacement for large value of negative Bz. In the winter hemisphere this saturation occurs at higher latitudes than in the summer hemisphere. (2 The equatorward expansion of the nightside FACs is delayed with respect to the solar wind input. The poleward recovery of FACs on the nightside is slower than on the dayside. The latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. (3 The latitudinal width of the FAC region on the nightside spreads over a wide range of about 25° in latitude.

  6. An Event Observed as a Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flash (TGF) and a Terrestrial Electron Beam (TEB) by Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbro, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Cramer, E.; Dwyer, J. R.; Roberts, O.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are sub-ms, intense flashes of gamma-rays. They are due to the acceleration of electrons with relativistic energies in thunderstorms that emit gamma-rays via bremsstrahlung. When these photons reach the upper atmosphere, they can produce secondary electrons and positrons that escape the atmosphere and propagate along the Earth's magnetic field line. Space instruments can detect these charged particles, known as Terrestrial Electron Beams (TEBs), after traveling thousands of kilometers from the thunderstorm. We present an event that was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) as both a TGF and a TEB. To our knowledge this is the first such event that has ever been observed. We interpret the first pulse as a TGF with a duration of 0.2 ms. After 0.5 ms a second pulse is seen with a duration of 2 ms that we interpret as a TEB. Confirming this interpretation, a third pulse is seen 90 ms later, which is understood as a TEB magnetic mirror pulse. The World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) and the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) detected a sferic, under the spacecraft footprint and within the southern magnetic footprint that is simultaneous with the first pulse. Along with the sferic, this unique observation allows us for the first time to test TGF and TEB models for the same event. We present Monte Carlo simulations of the first two pulses, including pitch angles for electrons and positrons, to see if the models can consistently describe the TGF/TEB spectra and time profiles originating from the same source.

  7. Observed and predicted reduction of ischemic cardiovascular events in the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Ingar; Boman, Kurt; Brudi, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) trial, combined ezetimibe (10 mg) and simvastatin (40 mg) decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 50% and ischemic cardiovascular event (ICE) risk by 22% compared to placebo. A larger decrease in ICE risk might have been...... expected for the degree of lipid-lowering observed. This analysis investigated relations between changes in lipoprotein components (LCs), and ICE risk decrease in the SEAS trial in all patients, by severity of aortic stenosis (AS), and compared to results of other clinical trials. A total of 1,570 patients...

  8. Radio observations of the γ-ray quasar 0528+134. Superluminal motion and an extreme scattering event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, M.; Reich, W.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Standke, K.; Britzen, S.; Reuter, H. P.; Reich, P.; Schlickeiser, R.; Fiedler, R. L.; Waltman, E. B.; Ghigo, F. D.; Johnston, K. J.

    1995-11-01

    We report on multifrequency radio observations made with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope, the IRAM 30-m telescope and the Green Bank Interferometer between 1992 and 1994 of the γ-ray quasar 0528+134. We present a new VLBI based map of 0528+134 at 22GHz with sub-mas angular resolution observed in November 1992. At that time the source was in a phase of brightening at all of our observing frequencies above 3GHz. The increase of brightness may be related to activity in the unresolved core component of the quasar. The VLBI map at 22GHz (epoch 1992.85) shows a one-sided core jet structure of ~5mas length. A new component close to the core indicates an apparent transverse velocity of β_app_object of the AGN and that a remnant of this outburst moved further outward in the jet until it became optically thin at radio frequencies after a few months. During the flare in July 1993 we observed with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope an unusually strong decrease of the flux density by about 50% at 4.75GHz and 10.55GHz and slightly less at 2.695GHz. This behaviour is also seen in the monitoring data at 2.25GHz and 8.3GHz taken with the Green Bank Interferometer (NRL-GBI). The event lasted less than three days at the higher frequencies and more than two weeks at 2.25GHz. For the case that this event is related to the intense radio flare some geometrical effects like a small variation of the viewing angle of the quasars jet orientated very close to the line of sight are considered, but found to be an unlikely explanation for the observed behaviour. Alternatively, an extreme scattering event by a small dense plasma cloud in the line of sight is able to match the observed time lag in the lightcurves if we take into account the mas-structure of the source and different spectra of the components on the basis of their brightness in the VLBI maps. The importance of interstellar scattering is stressed as 0528+134 is seen in the direction of the dark cloud Barnard 30 located at 400pc distance

  9. Cloud structure evolution of heavy rain events from the East-West Pacific Ocean: a combined global observation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaranom, A. B.; Nurjani, E.; Pujiastuti, I.

    2018-04-01

    Heavy rain events are often associated with flood hazards as one of the most devastating events across the globe. It is therefore essential to identify the evolution of heavy rainfall cloud structures, primarily from global satellite observation, as a tool to provide better disaster early warning systems. To identify the mechanism of heavy rainfall systems and its relationship with cloud development, especially over The Pacific Ocean, we aim to study the westward evolution of the convective systems over this area. Several datasets from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), CloudSat GEOPROF product, and ECMWF-reanalysis (ERA) interim were utilized to characterize the evolution. Geolocation and orbital time-lag analysis of the three different datasets for more than 8 years (2006-2014) could provide information related to the evolution of cloud structures associated with heavy rain events. In the first step, a heavy rainfall database was generated from TRMM. The CloudSat coordinate and time position were then matched with TRMM coordinate and time position. All of the processes were programatically conducted in fortran programming language. The result shows a transition between East and West Pacific ocean for TMI data.

  10. Voyager 1 Observations of a Recent Transient Disturbance in the Interstellar Medium Caused by an Energetic Solar Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Stone, E. C.; Cummings, A. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Decker, R. B.; Ness, N. F.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2016-12-01

    In late August 2012 the Voyager 1 spacecraft crossed the heliopause into the nearby interstellar medium. Since then the spacecraft has detected four distinct particle and field disturbances in the interstellar plasma, each believed to be produced by a shock originating from a solar event. Here we describe the fourth and most recent of these events. This event was first identified in the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) and Cosmic Ray (CRS) data around day 1, 2015, by the onset of a gradual downward trend in the intensity of galactic cosmic rays near 90° pitch angles. This decrease was briefly interrupted by a small recovery, and then resumed the decrease on day 100, 2015. The downward trend was followed about half a year later by the onset of intense bursts of electron plasma oscillations on day 250, 2015. The plasma oscillations continued with high intensities, the highest intensities yet observed, to about day 310, 2015, where they abruptly ended. The oscillation frequency was around 3.0 kHz, which corresponds to a local electron density of 0.11 cm-3, the highest yet measured in the interstellar medium. Near the end of the year, day 1, 2016, the downward trend in the 90° cosmic ray intensities reversed and started increasing, but has not yet returned to isotropy as of this writing. At the minimum, the 90° cosmic ray intensity at 200 MeV was depressed about 10% below the isotropic value. Overall, the new event has very similar characteristics to the three previous events, although differing in some details and of somewhat longer in duration. Most striking is the depression in the cosmic ray intensity near 90° pitch angles which in every case precedes the onset of the electron plasma oscillations. Since the electron plasma oscillations have been widely interpreted as being driven by electron beams streaming out ahead of an approaching shock (two of which have been directly detected), it appears that the depression in the cosmic ray intensities near 90° pitch

  11. Evidence for a saturable mechanism of disappearance of standard heparin in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boneu, B.; Caranobe, C.; Gabaig, A.M.; Dupouy, D.; Sie, P.; Buchanan, M.R.; Hirsh, J.

    1987-01-01

    This work demonstrates that after bolus intravenous injection standard heparin (SH) disappearance results from the combination of a saturable and a non saturable mechanism. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of SH were studied by measuring the disappearance of increasing doses (5 - 500 anti-factor Xa U/kg) of 125 I-heparin and of its biological effects. CPM curves allowed the determination of the half lives of heparin according to the dose injected. The half lives were clearly dose dependent and reached a plateau over 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg. The complex curve which describes the amount of heparin cleared per time unit after any given dose has been resolved into its two components reflecting a saturable and a non saturable mechanism of disappearance. For the doses less than 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg the saturable mechanism was preeminent and the anti-factor Xa activity disappearance followed an exponential pattern; for the doses less than 100 anti-factor Xa U/kg the contribution of the non saturable mechanism becomes more important and the anti-factor Xa activity disappearance followed a concave-convex pattern. Further experiments showed that the heparin half life shortened as the circulating anti-factor Xa activity decreased; this phenomenon may explain the concave-convex pattern of the curve of the anticoagulant effect observed after injection of large doses of SH

  12. Using ACE Observations of Interplanetary Particles and Magnetic Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog interplanetary events arriving at Earth including interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries, interplanetary shocks, and interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of interplanetary energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do interplanetary field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.

  13. Synthesis and disappearance of cholesterol and bile acids in miniature swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, J.; Butterfield, A.B.; Clow, D.J.; Lumb, W.V.; McClellan, M.A.; O'Deen, L.; Oh, S-Y.

    1986-01-01

    Minerature swine were fitted with indwelling cannulae at two sites in the gut and catheters in the aorta, portal vein and posterior vena cava. Radioactive acetate, alanine and glucose were administered via the duodenal cannula or the portal vein catheter and synthesis of cholesterol by gut or liver monitored via the aortic serum cholesterol specific activity. Ring labeled cholesterol was administered via jejunum and portal vein and various parameters of disappearance measured during 17 to 66 days. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and their subsequent disappearance from gut lumen were measured. Differences were observed in substrate preference of gut and liver and in fate of newly synthesized cholesterol. Cholesterol disappearance was found to follow a two component exponential in serum and a three component exponential in gut. Serum curves were similar to those reported for humans. Two hepatic pools of cholesterol, one accessible to lipoprotein synthesis (anabolic) and another accessible to enterohepatic circulation and 7-α-hydroxylase, were inducated

  14. Precision Search for Muon Antineutrino Disappearance Oscillations Using a Dual Baseline Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Gary Li [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A search for short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance with the SciBooNE and MiniBooNE experiments at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois is presented. Short baseline muon antineutrino disappearance measurements help constrain sterile neutrino models. The two detectors observe muon antineutrinos from the same beam, therefore the combined analysis of their data sets serves to partially constrain some of the flux and cross section uncertainties. A likelihood ratio method was used to set a 90% confidence level upper limit on muon antineutrino disappearance that dramatically improves upon prior sterile neutrino oscillation limits in the Δm2=0.1-100 eV2 region.

  15. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-04-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 131/I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers.

  16. Disappearance of some autonomously functioning thyroid nodules following TSH stimulation: Pathogenetic hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vattimo, A.; Pisani, M.; Martini, G.

    1983-01-01

    The disappearance of a hot nodule following TSH stimulation has been observed in 6 subjects with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule, in the thyroid scan obtained using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate and 131 I. These findings have been related by many workers to the hyperreactivity of the nodular tissue to TSH: the disappearance of the nodule is due to a more rapid turnover of the tracer. In this work a new pathogenetic hypothesis is proposed: the disappearance of hot thyroid nodules might be due to ischaemia induced by the reaction of the healthy tissue, which had previously been inhibited. This hypothesis is confirmed by the scans performed shortly after administration of the tracers. (orig.) [de

  17. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  18. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events out of the ecliptic: Ulysses/HI-SCALE energetic particle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Malandraki

    Full Text Available Solar energetic particle fluxes (Ee > 38 keV observed by the ULYSSES/HI-SCALE experiment are utilized as diagnostic tracers of the large-scale structure and topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF embedded within two well-identified Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs detected at 56° and 62° south heliolatitudes by ULYSSES during the solar maximum southern high-latitude pass. On the basis of the energetic solar particle observations it is concluded that: (A the high-latitude ICME magnetic structure observed in May 2000 causes a depression in the solar energetic electron intensities which can be accounted for by either a detached or an attached magnetic field topology for the ICME; (B during the traversal of the out-of-ecliptic ICME event observed in July 2000 energetic electrons injected at the Sun are channeled by the ICME and propagate freely along the ICME magnetic field lines to 62° S heliolatitude.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary magnetic fields

  19. Magnetic topology of coronal mass ejection events out of the ecliptic: Ulysses/HI-SCALE energetic particle observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Malandraki

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energetic particle fluxes (Ee > 38 keV observed by the ULYSSES/HI-SCALE experiment are utilized as diagnostic tracers of the large-scale structure and topology of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF embedded within two well-identified Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs detected at 56° and 62° south heliolatitudes by ULYSSES during the solar maximum southern high-latitude pass. On the basis of the energetic solar particle observations it is concluded that: (A the high-latitude ICME magnetic structure observed in May 2000 causes a depression in the solar energetic electron intensities which can be accounted for by either a detached or an attached magnetic field topology for the ICME; (B during the traversal of the out-of-ecliptic ICME event observed in July 2000 energetic electrons injected at the Sun are channeled by the ICME and propagate freely along the ICME magnetic field lines to 62° S heliolatitude.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles; interplanetary magnetic fields

  20. Disappearing Enantiomorphs: Single Handedness in Racemate Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parschau, Manfred; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2015-11-23

    Although crystallization is the most important method for the separation of enantiomers of chiral molecules in the chemical industry, the chiral recognition involved in this process is poorly understood at the molecular level. We report on the initial steps in the formation of layered racemate crystals from a racemic mixture, as observed by STM at submolecular resolution. Grown on a copper single-crystal surface, the chiral hydrocarbon heptahelicene formed chiral racemic lattice structures within the first layer. In the second layer, enantiomerically pure domains were observed, underneath which the first layer contained exclusively the other enantiomer. Hence, the system changed from a 2D racemate into a 3D racemate with enantiomerically pure layers after exceeding monolayer-saturation coverage. A chiral bias in form of a small enantiomeric excess suppressed the crystallization of one double-layer enantiomorph so that the pure minor enantiomer crystallized only in the second layer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Multiple Flux Rope Events at the High-Latitude Magnetopause: Cluster/Rapid Observation on January 26, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zong-Ying; Pu, Zu-Yin; Xiao, Chi-Jie; Xong, Qui-Gang; Fu, Sui-Yan; Xie, Lun; Shi, Quan-Qi; Cao, Jin-Bin; Liu, Zhen-Xing; Shen, Cao; Shi, Jian-Kui; Lu, Li; Wang, Nai-Quan; Chen, Tao; Fritz, T.; Glasmeier, K.-H.; Daly, P.; Reme, H.

    2004-04-01

    From 11:10 to 11:40UT on January 26, 2001 the four Cluster II spacecraft were located in the duskside high latitude regions of the magnetosheath and magnetosheath boundary layer (MSBL). During this time Interval the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) had a negative Bz component. A detailed study on the multiple flux ropes (MFRs) observed in this period is conducted in this paper. It is found that: (1) The multiple flux ropes in the high latitude MSBL appeared quasi-periodically with a repeated time period of about 78s, which is much shorter than the averaged occurring period (about 8-11min) of the flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause (MP). (2) All the flux ropes observed in this event had a strong core magnetic field. The axial orientation of the most flux ropes is found to lie in the direction of the minimum magnetic field variance; a few flux ropes had their axes lying in the direction of the middle magnetic field variance; while for the remainders their principle axes could not be determined by the method of Principal Axis Analysis (PAA). The reason that causes this complexity relys on the different trajectories of the spacecraft passing through the flux ropes. (3) Each flux rope had a good corresponding HT frame of reference in which it was in a quasi-steady state. All flux ropes moved along the surface of the MP in a similar direction indicating that these flux ropes all came from the dawnside low latitude. Their radial scale is 1-2RE, comparable to the normal diameter of FTEs observed atthe dayside MP. (4) The energetic ions originated from the magnetosphere flowed out to the magnetosheath on the whole, while the solar wind plasma flowed into the magnetosphere along the axis of the flux ropes. The flux ropes offered channels for the transport of the solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere and the escaping of the magnetospheric plasma into the interplanetary space. (5) Each event was accompanied by an enhanced reversal of the dusk

  2. Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease. Adebiyi Ayoade ... ological profiles of the disease. ... low serum albumin levels [8] act as a potentiating factor to trigger the ... 65% neutrophils, 25% lymphocytes,eosinophils 5% and.

  3. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to detect factors contributing to hypoxic events in the southern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R.; Johansen, A.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Caraballo Álvarez, I. O.; Taggart, M.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring and analyzing harmful algal blooms (HABs) and hypoxic events in the southern coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is important for watershed management and mitigation of environmental degradation. This study uncovered trends and dynamic characteristics of chlorophyll-a (Chl) concentration, sea surface temperature (SST), colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM), and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR); as evident in 8-day standard mapped image (SMI) products from the MODIS instrument on the Aqua platform from 2002-2015 using Clark Labs TerrSet Earth Trends Modeler (ETM). Predicted dissolved oxygen images were classified using a Multi-Layer Perceptron regression approach with in-situ data from the northern GoM. Additionally, sediment and nutrient loading values of the Grijalva-Usumacinta watershed were modeled using the ArcGIS Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Lastly, A Turbidity Index was generated using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) scenes for 2014-2015. Results, tools, and products will assist local environmental and health authorities in revising water quality standards and mitigating the impacts of future HABs and hypoxic events in the region. This project uses NASA's earth observations as a viable alternative to studying a region with no in-situ data.

  4. Injection of mineral dust into the free troposphere during fire events observed with polarization lidar at Limassol, Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nisantzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four-year observations (2010–2014 with EARLINET polarization lidar and AERONET sun/sky photometer at Limassol (34.7° N, 33° E, Cyprus, were used to study the soil dust content in lofted fire smoke plumes advected from Turkey. This first systematic attempt to characterize less than 3-day-old smoke plumes in terms of particle linear depolarization ratio (PDR, measured with lidar, contributes to the more general effort to properly describe the life cycle of free-tropospheric smoke–dust mixtures from the emission event to phases of long-range transport (> 4 days after emission. We found significant PDR differences with values from 9 to 18% in lofted aerosol layers when Turkish fires contributed to the aerosol burden and of 3–13 % when Turkish fires were absent. High Ångström exponents of 1.4–2.2 during all these events with lofted smoke layers, occurring between 1 and 3 km height, suggest the absence of a pronounced particle coarse mode. When plotted vs. travel time (spatial distance between Limassol and last fire area, PDR decreased strongly from initial values around 16–18% (1 day travel to 4–8% after 4 days of travel caused by deposition processes. This behavior was found to be in close agreement with findings described in the literature. Computation of particle extinction coefficient and mass concentrations, derived from the lidar observations, separately for fine-mode dust, coarse-mode dust, and non-dust aerosol components show extinction-related dust fractions on the order of 10% (for PDR =4%, travel times > 4 days and 50% (PDR =15%, 1 day travel time and respective mass-related dust fractions of 25% (PDR =4% to 80% (PDR =15%. Biomass burning should therefore be considered as another source of free tropospheric soil dust.

  5. Disappearance of statin following serum-stimulated cell cycle entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Lin, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Statin, a protein of 57,000 D, is present in the nuclei of quiescent of senescent fibroblasts, but is absent in their young replicating counterparts. Immunohistochemical survey of a variety of tissues demonstrates that the presence of statin is a marker for cells that are no longer involved in proliferation, i.e. those cells that are terminally differentiated. Statin expression was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy in serum-starved cultures whose replication had been reinitiated by raising the serum concentration from 0.5 to 10%. Prior to serum addition, more than 85% of the cells stained positively for statin. After stimulation with serum, the expression of statin disappeared rapidly within the first 12-14 h. On the other hand, and increase in the level of DNA synthesis, signifying entry into S phase, was observed initially at 18 h after serum stimulation, and reached maximal levels 6h later. Immunoprecipitation of statin derived from cells harvested at different intervals after serum stimulation revealed that the level of statin synthesis was reduced by 4 h and was hardly detectable at 8 h. These results demonstrate that (1) the synthesis of statin occurs primarily when cells are in a quiescent state, and declines rapidly when cells are induced to proliferate; (2) this decline precedes the transition from G1 to S phase

  6. Impact of agricultural management on pluvial flash floods - Case study of an extreme event observed in Austria in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumassegger, Simon; Achleitner, Stefan; Kohl, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Central Europe was affected by extreme flash floods in summer 2016 triggered by short, high-intensity storm cells. Besides fluvial runoff, local pluvial floods appear to increase recently. In frame of the research project SAFFER-CC (sensitivity assessment of critical condition for local flash floods - evaluating the recurrence under climate change) surface runoff and pluvial flooding is assessed using a coupled hydrological/2D hydrodynamic model for the severely affected municipality of Schwertberg, Upper Austria. In this small catchment several flooding events occurred in the last years, where the most severe event occurred during summer 2016. Several areas could only be reached after the flood wave subsided with observed flood marks up to one meter. The modeled catchment is intensively cultivated with maize, sugar beets, winter wheat and soy on the hillside and hence highly vulnerable to water erosion. The average inclination is relatively steep with 15 % leading to high flow velocities of surface runoff associated with large amounts of transported sediments. To assess the influence of land use and soil conservation on flash floods, field experiments with a portable irrigation spray installation were carried out at different locations. The test plots were subjected to rainfall with constant intensity of 100 mm/h for one hour. Consecutively a super intense, one hour lasting, rainfall hydrograph was applied after 30 minutes at the same plots, ranging from 50 mm/h to 200 mm/h. Surface runoff was collected and measured in a tank and water samples were taken to determine the suspended material load. Large differences of runoff coefficients were determined depending on the agricultural management. The largest discharge was measured in a maize field, where surface runoff occurred immediately after start of irrigation. The determined runoff coefficients ranged from 0.22 for soy up to 0.65 for maize for the same soil type and inclination. The conclusion that runoff is

  7. A Climatology of Dust-Emission Events over North Africa Based on 27 Years of Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, S.; Knippertz, P.; Schepanski, K.

    2012-04-01

    The huge quantity of mineral dust emitted annually from North Africa makes this area crucial to the global dust cycle. Once in the atmosphere, dust aerosols have a significant impact on the global radiation budget, clouds, the carbon cycle and can even act as a fertilizer to rain forests in South America. Current model estimates of dust production from North Africa are uncertain. At the heart of this problem is insufficient understanding of key dust emitting processes such as haboobs (cold pools generated through evaporation of convective precipitation), low-level jets (LLJs), and dry convection (dust devils and dust plumes). Scarce observations in this region, in particular in the Sahara, make model evaluation difficult. This work uses long-term surface observations from the MIDAS data set (~120 stations in the arid part of North Africa) to explore the diurnal, seasonal, decadal and geographical variations in dust emission events and their associated wind thresholds. The threshold values are determined from probability density functions of observed 10-minute anemomenter wind speeds. Emission events are defined using the present weather codes (WW) of SYNOP reports. These codes represent events of smaller intensity such as "Dust or sand raised by wind" to severe dust storms. During the 27-year study period (1984-2011) stations are required to have a minimum of 1000 dust observations to be included in the analysis. Dust emission frequency (DEF) is calculated for different time intervals (e.g. monthly, 3-hourly) taking into account the different number of measurements available at each station. North of 25°N a maximum during March-May is evident and relatively consistent over the whole North African region. Wind-speed thresholds for dust emission north of 25°N are higher than south of 25°N in the Sahel, where station-to-station variability is larger, and enhanced DEF activity during February-March is observed. The variability in this region is closely linked to the

  8. MMS observations of magnetic reconnection signatures of dissipating ion inertial-scale flux ropes associated with dipolarization events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Lu, S.; Le, G.; Cassak, P.; Eastwood, J. P.; Ozturk, D. S.; Zou, S.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C.; Moore, T. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of flux ropes is thought to be an integral part of the process that may have important consequences for the onset and subsequent rate of reconnection in the tail. Earthward flows, i.e. bursty bulk flows (BBFs), generate dipolarization fronts (DFs) as they interact with the closed magnetic flux in their path. Global hybrid simulations and THEMIS observations have shown that earthward-moving flux ropes can undergo magnetic reconnection with the near-Earth dipole field in the downtail region between the Near Earth Neutral Line and the near-Earth dipole field to create DFs-like signatures. In this study, we analyzed sequential "chains" of earthward-moving, ion-scale flux ropes embedded within DFs observed during MMS first tail season. MMS high-resolution plasma measurements indicate that these earthward flux ropes embedded in DFs have a mean bulk flow velocity and diameter of 250 km/s and 1000 km ( 2‒3 ion inertial length λi), respectively. Magnetic reconnection signatures preceding the flux rope/DF encounter were also observed. As the southward-pointing magnetic field in the leading edge of the flux rope reconnects with the northward-pointing geomagnetic field, the characteristic quadrupolar Hall magnetic field in the ion diffusion region and electron outflow jets in the north-south direction are observed. Our results strongly suggest that the earthward moving flux ropes brake and gradually dissipate due to magnetic reconnection with the near Earth magnetic field. We have also examined the occurrence rate of these dissipating flux ropes/DF events as a function of downtail distances.

  9. The First Simultaneous Microlensing Observations by Two Space Telescopes: Spitzer and Swift Reveal a Brown Dwarf in Event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartzvald, Y.; Li, Z.; Udalski, A.; Gould, A.; Sumi, T.; Street, R. A.; Calchi Novati, S.; Hundertmark, M.; Bozza, V.; Beichman, C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of microlensing events from multiple locations allow for the breaking of degeneracies between the physical properties of the lensing system, specifically by exploring different regions of the lens plane and by directly measuring the "microlens parallax". We report the discovery of a 30-65M J brown dwarf orbiting a K dwarf in the microlensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319. The system is located at a distance of approximately 5 kpc toward the Galactic Bulge. The event was observed by several ground-based groups as well as by Spitzer and Swift, allowing a measurement of the physical properties. However, the event is still subject to an eight-fold degeneracy, in particular the well-known close-wide degeneracy, and thus the projected separation between the two lens components is either approximately 0.25 au or approximately 45 au. This is the first microlensing event observed by Swift, with the UVOT camera. We study the region of microlensing parameter space to which Swift is sensitive, finding that though Swift could not measure the microlens parallax with respect to ground-based observations for this event, it can be important for other events. Specifically, it is important for detecting nearby brown dwarfs and free-floating planets in high magnification events.

  10. Correlation between lambda4278-A optical emissions and a Pc 1 pearl event observed at Siple Station, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mende, S.B.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Doolittle, J.H.; Armstrong, W.C.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed correlations were observed between the amplitude envelope of Pc 1 pulsations and zenith 4278 N 2 + intensity at Siple Station, Antarctica, (L=4.2) on August 1, 1977. Conjugate Pc 1 data at Roberval show a similar amplitude envelope and an approximate antiphase relationship. The frequency-time spectrogram of the ULF data shows none of the increasing dispersion associated with bouncing waves; i.e., the Pc 1 pulsation event is a periodic hydromagnetic emission. Analysis of the time delay between the particle-induced optical emission and the wave (42 s) using the ion cyclotron resonance theory shows that the delay is consistent with the resonance of Pc 1 and MeV protons near the northern conjugate of the Siple field line. Alternately, resonance theory using He + or O + ions as the interacting hot particles does fit the data if the interaction region is off the equator. The intensity of the measured light is higher than that which can be expected from precipitation of ions of normally observed densities

  11. Life on Mars - How it disappeared (if it was ever there)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. Imre; Koriem, Ali M.

    1989-01-01

    Information available on Mars chemistry suggest that conditions on early Mars may have been suitable for life. This paper examines the possible events that led to the disappearance of life, assuming it existed, from the surface of Mars. The sequence of events leading to life extinction on early Mars assumes the following steps: (1) a decrease of temperature and humidity levels, leading to a selection of microorganisms for tolerance of low temperatures and arid conditions; (2) further deterioration of environment leading to withdrawal of cold-adapted organisms to protected niches under the surface; (3) further cooling producing heavy stresses in these organisms; and (4) further deterioration of the environment resulting in extinction. This sequence of events is considered parallel events documented for the microbial community in the Ross Desert of Antarctica, where TEM examinations of the material detected progressive stages of cell damage and death.

  12. Observational analyses of dramatic developments of a severe air pollution event in the Beijing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid development of a severe air pollution event in Beijing, China, at the end of November 2015 was investigated with unprecedented observations collected during the field campaign of the Study of Urban Rainfall and Fog/Haze (SURF-15. Different from previous statistical analyses of air pollution events and their correlations with meteorological environmental conditions in the area, the role of turbulent mixing in the pollutant transfer was investigated in detail. The analyses indicate that the major pollution source associated with high particulate matter of diameter 2.5 µm (PM2.5 was from south of Beijing. Before the day of the dramatic PM2.5 increase, the nighttime downslope flow from the mountains to the west and north of Beijing reduced the surface PM2.5 concentration northwest of Beijing. The nighttime surface stable boundary layer (SBL not only kept the relatively less-polluted air near the surface, it also shielded the rough surface from the pollutant transfer by southwesterly winds above the SBL, leading to the fast transport of pollutants over the Beijing area at night. As the daytime convective turbulent mixing developed in the morning, turbulent mixing transported the elevated polluted air downward even though the weak surface wind was from northeast, leading to the dramatic increase of the surface PM2.5 concentration in the urban area. As a result of both turbulent mixing and advection processes with possible aerosol growth from secondary aerosol formation under the low-wind and high-humidity conditions, the PM2.5 concentration reached over 700 µg m−3 in the Beijing area by the end of the day. Contributions of the two transporting processes to the PM2.5 oscillations prior to this dramatic event were also analyzed. The study demonstrates the important role of large-eddy convective turbulent mixing in vertical transfer of pollutants and the role of the SBL in not only decoupling vertical transport of trace gases and

  13. Disappearing dark matter in brane world cosmology: New limits on noncompact extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, K.; Garnavich, P.M.; Mathews, G.J.; Kajino, T.; Yahiro, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore cosmological implications of dark matter as massive particles trapped on a brane embedded in a Randall-Sundrum noncompact higher dimension AdS 5 space. It is an unavoidable consequence of this cosmology that massive particles are metastable and can disappear into the bulk dimension. Here, we show that a massive dark matter particle (e.g. the lightest supersymmetric particle) is likely to have the shortest lifetime for disappearing into the bulk. We examine cosmological constraints on this new paradigm and show that disappearing dark matter is consistent (at the 95% confidence level) with all cosmological constraints, i.e., present observations of type Ia supernovae at the highest redshift, trends in the mass-to-light ratios of galaxy clusters with redshift, the fraction of x-ray emitting gas in rich clusters, and the spectrum of power fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background. A best 2σ concordance region is identified corresponding to a mean lifetime for dark matter disappearance of 15≤Γ -1 ≤80 Gyr. The implication of these results for brane-world physics is discussed

  14. Rape embryogenesis. IV. Appearance and disappearance of starch during embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tykarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch appears first in the suspensor of the proembryo with two-cell apical part. It is observed in the embryo proper from the octant stage. At first it is visible in all the embryo cells in the form of minute transient grains which disappear during cell divisions. But the columella mother cells and their derivatives have persistent large grains. When the embryo turns green in the heart stage a gradual accumulation of storage starch begins and lasts to the end of embryogenesis. Storage starch grains appear first in the auter cortex layers of the hypocotyl where the largest grains are to be found later, and afterwards in all the other tissues. Starch is usually absent in the frequently dividing cells, but even there it appears in the form of minute grains after the end of cell divisions. Disappearance of starch starts when the intensive green colour of the seed coat begins to fade. The first to disappear are the smallest granules in the regions where they were noted latest. In the embryo axis the starch grains remain deposited longest in dermatogen and cortex cells in the lower hypocotyl part. They are visible there, still when the seed turns brown. In black seeds starch may be only found in the columella the cells of which throughout embryogenesis contain amyloplasts filled with starch. These grains disappear completely at the time when the seeds become dry.

  15. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of [14C]ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected [14C]ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats

  16. Disappearance of a detached vapor mass in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Shigeaki; Miyasaka, Yoshiki; Izumi, Ryotaro.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on pool transition boiling of water under atmospheric pressure on a heated surface 10 mm in diameter were conducted for subcooling 15 - 50 K. The mass flux of condensation of a detached coalescent vapor bubble was experimentally estimated by a mathematical model based on the mass transfer mechanism of condensation. As a result, it is clarified that the mass flux of condensation of the detached bubble was influenced by the initial growing velocity of a vapor bubble immediately following the detached bubble. The disappearance velocity of the detached bubble defined as a ratio of the bubble diameter at the departure to the time required until the disappearance, is in the range 0.2 to 2.0 m/sec. The disappearance velocity is proportional to the initial growing velocity of the bubble, to the square of the heat flux of the heated surface and to the cube of the wall superheat, separately. (author)

  17. A General Relativistic Null Hypothesis Test with Event Horizon Telescope Observations of the Black Hole Shadow in Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P.

    2015-12-01

    The half opening angle of a Kerr black hole shadow is always equal to (5 ± 0.2)GM/Dc2, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of a shadow and verifying whether it is within this 4% range constitutes a null hypothesis test of general relativity. We show that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, is the optimal target for performing this test with upcoming observations using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We use the results of optical/IR monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the mass-to-distance ratio for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ∼4%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the properties of the scattering screen between Sgr A* and the Earth, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. Finally, we explore an edge detection scheme for interferometric data and a pattern matching algorithm based on the Hough/Radon transform and demonstrate that the shadow of the black hole at 1.3 mm can be localized, in principle, to within ∼9%. All these results suggest that our prior knowledge of the properties of the black hole, of scattering broadening, and of the accretion flow can only limit this general relativistic null hypothesis test with EHT observations of Sgr A* to ≲10%.

  18. A long Saharan dust event over the western Mediterranean: Lidar, Sun photometer observations, and regional dust modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    PéRez, C.; Nickovic, S.; Baldasano, J. M.; Sicard, M.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2006-08-01

    A long Saharan dust event affected the western Mediterranean in the period 12-28 June 2002. Dust was present mainly between 1- and 5-km height affecting most parts of the Iberian Peninsula and reaching western/central Europe. Intensive backscatter lidar observations over Barcelona (Spain) and Sun photometer data from two stations (El Arenosillo, Spain, and Avignon, France) are used to evaluate different configurations the Dust Regional Atmospheric Modeling (DREAM) system. DREAM currently operates dust forecasts over the Mediterranean region (http://www.bsc.es/projects/earthscience/DREAM/) considering four particle size bins while only the first two are relevant for long-range transport analysis since their life time is larger than 12 hours. A more detailed bin method is implemented, and two different dust distributions at sources are compared to the operational version. Evaluations are performed at two wavelengths (532 and 1064 nm). The dust horizontal and vertical structure simulated by DREAM shows very good qualitative agreement when compared to SeaWIFS satellite images and lidar height-time displays over Barcelona. When evaluating the modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD) against Sun photometer data, significant improvements are achieved with the use of the new detailed bin method. In general, the model underpredicts the AOD for increasing Ångström exponents because of the influence of anthropogenic pollution in the boundary layer. In fact, the modeled AOD is highly anticorrelated with the observed Ångström exponents. Avignon shows higher influence of small anthropogenic aerosols which explains the better results of the model at the wavelength of 1064 nm over this location. The uncertainties of backscatter lidar inversions (20-30%) are in the same order of magnitude as the differences between the model experiments. Better model results are obtained when comparing to lidar because most of the anthropogenic effect is removed.

  19. Multipoint observations of coronal mass ejection and solar energetic particle events on Mars and Earth during November 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to study ICMEs and SEPs at Earth, we present a detailed study of three CMEs and flares in late November 2001. In this period, Mars trailed Earth by 56 degrees solar longitude so that the two planets occupied interplanetary magnetic field lines...... not only ICME events but also SEP events at Mars, with good results providing a consistent picture of the events when combined with near-Earth data....

  20. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of

  1. Observation of Single Isolated Electrons of High Transverse Momentum in Events with Missing Transverse Energy at the CERN pp Collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    We report the results of a search for single isolated electrons of high transverse momentum at the CERN collider. Above 15 GeV/c, four events are found having large missing transverse energy along a direction opposite in azimuth to that of the high-pT electron. Both the configuration of the events...

  2. Calcific shoulder joint periarthritis. Disappearance of calcifications after laser therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussetti, P; Moroso, P; Palazzo, C

    1986-01-01

    The authors report their results in the laser therapy of 30 calcific joint periarthritis. In two out of the ten radiographed cases, at the end of therapy, the complete disappearance of calcifications has been shown and in one case a decrease in calcification volume has been demonstrated. In the follow up after 6 months, 80% of clinically checked patients had no painful relapse.

  3. The disappearance of Sphagnum imbricatum from Butterburn Flow, UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClymont, E.L.; Mauquoy, D.; Yeloff, D.; Broekens, P.; van Geel, B.; Charman, D.J.; Pancost, R.D.; Chambers, F.M.; Evershed, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    The disappearance of the previously abundant moss species Sphagnum imbricatum has been investigated at Butterburn Flow, northern England, using organic geochemical, elemental, macrofossil, pollen and testate amoebae analyses. Variations in the assemblage of peat-forming plants were tracked using the

  4. Brain urea increase is an early Huntington's disease pathogenic event observed in a prodromal transgenic sheep model and HD cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Renee R; Reid, Suzanne J; Brauning, Rudiger; Maclean, Paul; Mears, Emily R; Fourie, Imche; Patassini, Stefano; Cooper, Garth J S; Rudiger, Skye R; McLaughlan, Clive J; Verma, Paul J; Gusella, James F; MacDonald, Marcy E; Waldvogel, Henry J; Bawden, C Simon; Faull, Richard L M; Snell, Russell G

    2017-12-26

    The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin ( HTT ) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the early molecular events in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73 -line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene. Our HD OVT73 sheep are a prodromal model and exhibit minimal pathology and no detectable neuronal loss. We identified significantly increased levels of the urea transporter SLC14A1 in the OVT73 striatum, along with other important osmotic regulators. Further investigation revealed elevated levels of the metabolite urea in the OVT73 striatum and cerebellum, consistent with our recently published observation of increased urea in postmortem human brain from HD cases. Extending that finding, we demonstrate that postmortem human brain urea levels are elevated in a larger cohort of HD cases, including those with low-level neuropathology (Vonsattel grade 0/1). This elevation indicates increased protein catabolism, possibly as an alternate energy source given the generalized metabolic defect in HD. Increased urea and ammonia levels due to dysregulation of the urea cycle are known to cause neurologic impairment. Taken together, our findings indicate that aberrant urea metabolism could be the primary biochemical disruption initiating neuropathogenesis in HD.

  5. The Rates of Type I X-ray Bursts from Transients Observed with RXTE: Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, R. A.; Lin, D.; Cooper, R. L.; Narayan, R.

    2005-12-01

    We measure the rates of type I X-ray bursts from a likely complete sample of 37 non-pulsing Galactic X-ray transients observed with the RXTE ASM during 1996-2004. Our strategy is to test the prevailing paradigms for these sources, which are well-categorized in the literature as either neutron-star systems or black hole candidates. Burst rates are measured as a function of the bolometric luminosity, and the results are compared with burst models for neutron stars and for heavy compact objects with a solid surface. We use augmented versions of the models developed by Narayan & Heyl (2002; 2003). For a given mass, we consider a range of conditions in both the radius and the temperature at the boundary below the accretion layer. We find 135 type I bursts in 3.7 Ms of PCA light curves for the neutron-star group, and the burst rate function is generally consistent with the model predictions for bursts from accreting neutron stars. On the other hand, none of the (20) bursts candidates passed spectral criteria for type I bursts in 6.5 Ms of PCA light curves for black-hole binaries and candidates. The burst function upper limits are inconsistent with the predictions of the burst model for heavy compact objects with a solid surface. The consistency probability is found to be below 10-7 for dynamical black-hole binaries, falling to below 10-13 for the additional exposures of black-hole candidates. These results provide indirect evidence that black holes do have event horizons. This research was supported, in part, by NASA science programs.

  6. Life on Mars: How it disappeared (if it was ever there)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, E. Imre; Koriem, Ali M.

    The cryptoendolithic microbial community in the Ross Desert (McMurdo Dry Valleys) of Antarctica exists at temperatures significantly below the temperature optima of the primary producers. Surviving near the limit of their physiological adaptability, the organisms are under severe environmental stress, so further deterioration in the environment results in cell damage and death. The sequence of events leading to extinction is considered to be a terrestrial analog for disappearance of possible life on early Mars. Progressive stages of cell damage and death in the Ross Desert material are documented with transmission electron microscopy. Present address: Division of Rice Diseases, Plant Pathology Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt.

  7. Clinical and neuropsychological changes after the disappearance of seizures in a case of transient epileptic amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Sekimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a female patient with late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy who presented with transient amnesia as the sole ictal manifestation, an accelerated rate of forgetting daily life events, and a retrograde memory deficit. We describe the memory function of the patient both before and after the administration of antiseizure medication. After the patient's seizures were controlled with antiseizure drugs, her neuropsychological memory performance scores showed improvement. We presumed that the disappearance of seizures was associated with a decrease in the accelerated rate of forgetting medication. However, her lost memories were not recovered after the seizures were controlled by antiseizure medication.

  8. Dust events in Beijing, China (2004–2006: comparison of ground-based measurements with columnar integrated observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particle number size distributions spanning three years were used to characterize the frequency and intensity of atmospheric dust events in the urban areas of Beijing, China in combination with AERONET sun/sky radiometer data. Dust events were classified into two types based on the differences in particle number and volume size distributions and local weather conditions. This categorization was confirmed by aerosol index images, columnar aerosol optical properties, and vertical potential temperature profiles. During the type-1 events, dust particles dominated the total particle volume concentration (<10 μm, with a relative share over 70%. Anthropogenic particles in the Aitken and accumulation mode played a subordinate role here because of high wind speeds (>4 m s−1. The type-2 events occurred in rather stagnant air masses and were characterized by a lower volume fraction of coarse mode particles (on average, 55%. Columnar optical properties showed that the superposition of dust and anthropogenic aerosols in type-2 events resulted in a much higher AOD (average: 1.51 than for the rather pure dust aerosols in type-1 events (average AOD: 0.36. A discrepancy was found between the ground-based and column integrated particle volume size distributions, especially for the coarse mode particles. This discrepancy likely originates from both the limited comparability of particle volume size distributions derived from Sun photometer and in situ number size distributions, and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of particles during dust events.

  9. Disappearance of neutron magic numbers and deformation coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The disappearance of N=8, 20 and 28 magic numbers in the neutron excess nuclei is a representative example of the special features of the unstable nuclei. In this lecture of summer school, the problems of the magic number disappearance are presented. And the appearance of the deformation coexistence and the anomalous cluster structure come into the problem with them. At the begging the Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamic (AMD) framework is explained with finite range two body central force and Gorgny DIS force composed of the zero range spin-orbit force and saturability. Island of inversion is explained in the nuclear chart shown in the figure and energy curves of the nuclei near 32 Mg and the excitation level schemes of 32 Mg are shown in the serial figures. As one of the extreme example of the nuclear structure the deformation of 19 F is picked up. The level schemes and structures of 21 F are shown as well. The molecule-like structure in the island of inversion is clear. The rotational band energy of fluorine isotopes are shown up to 29 F. As a new deformation area, disappearance of N=28 magic number is in the spotlight recently. In this case it is characteristic properties that the parities of the orbits to form the gap must be the same but the angular momenta should be different by 2. According to the AMD research, it is shown that deformations of prolate, three-axis asymmetric and oblate characters coexist in the very low excitation energy region accompanying the disappearance of N=28 gap. The concept of magic numbers has been very fundamental in nuclear physics since the success of shell model. At present its disappearance in the unstable nuclei is one of the most challenging problems in the understanding of the nuclear many body problems. (S. Funahashi)

  10. Relative associations between depression and anxiety on adverse cardiovascular events: does a history of coronary artery disease matter? A prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, Roxanne; Bacon, Simon L; Arsenault, Andr?; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Laurin, Catherine; Blais, Lucie; Lavoie, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether depression and anxiety increase the risk of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), among patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Design and setting, and patients DECADE (Depression Effects on Coronary Artery Disease Events) is a prospective observational study of 2390 patients referred at the Montreal Heart Institute. Patients were followed for 8.8?years, between 1998 and 2009. Depression and anxiety were assessed using a psychi...

  11. Predicting extreme rainfall events over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Impact of data assimilation with conventional and satellite observations

    KAUST Repository

    Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Srinivas, C.V.; Langodan, Sabique; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The impact of variational data assimilation for predicting two heavy rainfall events that caused devastating floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia is studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. On 25 November 2009 and 26 January 2011

  12. Satellite-Observed Black Water Events off Southwest Florida: Implications for Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lapointe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A “black water” event, as observed from satellites, occurred off southwest Florida in 2012. Satellite observations suggested that the event started in early January and ended in mid-April 2012. The black water patch formed off central west Florida and advected southward towards Florida Bay and the Florida Keys with the shelf circulation, which was confirmed by satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories. Compared with a previous black water event in 2002, the 2012 event was weaker in terms of spatial and temporal coverage. An in situ survey indicated that the 2012 black water patch contained toxic K. brevis and had relatively low CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter and turbidity but high chlorophyll-a concentrations, while salinity was somewhat high compared with historical values. Further analysis revealed that the 2012 black water was formed by the K. brevis bloom initiated off central west Florida in late September 2011, while river runoff, Trichodesmium and possibly submarine groundwater discharge also played important roles in its formation. Black water patches can affect benthic coral reef communities by decreasing light availability at the bottom, and enhanced nutrient concentrations from black water patches support massive macroalgae growth that can overgrow coral reefs. It is thus important to continue the integrated observations where satellites provide synoptic and repeated observations of such adverse water quality events.

  13. Fusion events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fusion reactions between low energy heavy ions have a very high cross section. First measurements at energies around 30-40 MeV/nucleon indicated no residue of either complete or incomplete fusion, thus demonstrating the disappearance of this process. This is explained as being due to the high amount o energies transferred to the nucleus, what leads to its total dislocation in light fragments and particles. Exclusive analyses have permitted to mark clearly the presence of fusion processes in heavy systems at energies above 30-40 MeV/nucleon. Among the complete events of the Kr + Au reaction at 60 MeV/nucleon the majority correspond to binary collisions. Nevertheless, for the most considerable energy losses, a class of events do occur for which the detected fragments appears to be emitted from a unique source. These events correspond to an incomplete projectile-target fusion followed by a multifragmentation. Such events were singled out also in the reaction Xe + Sn at 50 MeV/nucleon. For the events in which the energy dissipation was maximal it was possible to isolate an isotropic group of events showing all the characteristics of fusion nuclei. The fusion is said to be incomplete as pre-equilibrium Z = 1 and Z = 2 particles are emitted. The cross section is of the order of 25 mb. Similar conclusions were drown for the systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. A cross section value of ∼ 20 mb was determined at 55 MeV/nucleon in the first case, while the measurement of evaporation light residues in the last system gave an upper limit of 20-30 mb for the cross section at 50 MeV/nucleon

  14. Possible effect of strong solar energetic particle events on polar stratospheric aerosol: a summary of observational results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironova, I A; Usoskin, I G

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents a summary of a phenomenological study of the response of the polar stratosphere to strong solar energetic particle (SEP) events corresponding to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays. This work is focused on evaluation of the possible influence of the atmospheric ionization caused by SEPs upon formation of aerosol particles in the stratosphere over polar regions. Following case studies of two major SEP/GLE events, in January 2005 and September 1989, and their possible effects on polar stratospheric aerosols, we present here the results of an analysis of variations of the daily profiles of the stratospheric aerosol parameters (aerosol extinction for different wavelengths, as well as Ångstrom exponent) for both polar hemispheres during SEP/GLE events of July 2000, April 2001 and October 2003, which form already five clear cases corresponding to extreme and strong SEP/GLE events. The obtained results suggest that an enhancement of ionization rate by a factor of about two in the polar region with night/cold/winter conditions can lead to the formation/growing of aerosol particles in the altitude range of 10–25 km. We also present a summary of the investigated effects based on the phenomenological study of the atmospheric application of extreme SEP events. (paper)

  15. Kinetics of the disappearance of Cr/sup 51/-labelled endotoxin from the circulation in domestic hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malwinska, K

    1974-01-01

    The clearance rate of Cr/sup 51/-labelled S. gallinarum endotoxin from the circulation of the hen was investigated. The relationship between the dose of endotoxin and the disappearance rate or radioactivity from the blood was observed. It was noted that radioactivity in the blood decreased faster after injection of 5 mg of endotoxin than after administration of 10 mg. These differences were most pronounced during the first hour of observation and diminished later. Blood radioactivity of Cr/sup 51/Cl/sub 3/ was disappearing slower than that of labelled endotoxin. 17 references, 1 figure.

  16. Detection of zero anisotropy at 5.2 AU during the November 1998 solar particle event: Ulysses Anisotropy Telescopes observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    Full Text Available For the first time during the mission, the Anisotropy Telescopes instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft measured constant zero anisotropy of protons in the 1.3-2.2 MeV energy range, for a period lasting more than three days. This measurement was made during the energetic particle event taking place at Ulysses between 25 November and 15 December 1998, an event characterised by constant high proton fluxes within a region delimited by two interplanetary forward shocks, at a distance of 5.2 AU from the Sun and heliographic latitude of 17°S. We present the ATs results for this event and discuss their possible interpretation and their relevance to the issue of intercalibration of the two telescopes.

    Key words: Interplanetary physics (energetic particles - Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles - Space plasma physics (instruments and techniques

  17. Catalogue of {>} 55 MeV Wide-longitude Solar Proton Events Observed by SOHO, ACE, and the STEREOs at {≈} 1 AU During 2009 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paassilta, Miikka; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Dresing, Nina; Vainio, Rami; Valtonen, Eino; Heber, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Based on energetic particle observations made at {≈} 1 AU, we present a catalogue of 46 wide-longitude ({>} 45°) solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected at multiple locations during 2009 - 2016. The particle kinetic energies of interest were chosen as {>} 55 MeV for protons and 0.18 - 0.31 MeV for electrons. We make use of proton data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron Experiment (SOHO/ERNE) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/High Energy Telescopes (STEREO/HET), together with electron data from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (ACE/EPAM) and the STEREO/ Solar Electron and Proton Telescopes (SEPT). We consider soft X-ray data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and coronal mass ejection (CME) observations made with the SOHO/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and STEREO/ Coronagraphs 1 and 2 (COR1, COR2) to establish the probable associations between SEP events and the related solar phenomena. Event onset times and peak intensities are determined; velocity dispersion analysis (VDA) and time-shifting analysis (TSA) are performed for protons; TSA is performed for electrons. In our event sample, there is a tendency for the highest peak intensities to occur when the observer is magnetically connected to solar regions west of the flare. Our estimates for the mean event width, derived as the standard deviation of a Gaussian curve modelling the SEP intensities (protons {≈} 44°, electrons {≈} 50°), largely agree with previous results for lower-energy SEPs. SEP release times with respect to event flares, as well as the event rise times, show no simple dependence on the observer's connection angle, suggesting that the source region extent and dominant particle acceleration and transport mechanisms are important in defining these characteristics of an event. There is no marked difference between the speed

  18. Milk production and in sacco disappearance of pasture NDF in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the effect of feeding low (2.4 kg/d), medium (4.8 kg/d) and high (7.2 kg/d) levels of a barley-based concentrate on milk production and in sacco ruminal disappearance of dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in Jersey cows grazing a Westerwold ryegrass pasture.

  19. Pulmonary deposition and disappearance of aerosolised secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolk, J.; Camps, J.; Feitsma, H. I.; Hermans, J.; Dijkman, J. H.; Pauwels, E. K.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The neutrophil elastase inhibitor, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), is a potential therapeutic tool in inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema. The distribution and disappearance in the lung of aerosolised recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) was investigated in healthy humans and in patients with cystic fibrosis or alpha 1-antitrypsin-associated emphysema. METHODS--To distinguish aerosolised rSLPI from endogenous SLPI the recombinant inhibitor was radiolabelled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) pertechnetate. Distribution and disappearance of aerosolised 99mTc-rSLPI in the lungs were studied by gamma radiation imaging. RESULTS--The deposition of 99mTc-rSLPI in normal volunteers was homogeneous in all lung lobes, while in patients with cystic fibrosis or emphysema only well ventilated areas showed deposition of the aerosol. The disappearance rate of 99mTc-rSLPI was biexponential. The half life of the rapid phase was 0.2-2.8 hours, while that of the slow phase was more than 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS--Future aerosol therapy with rSLPI will be most beneficial for well ventilated lung tissue that needs protection against neutrophil derived elastase. It may be more difficult to neutralise the burden of elastase in poorly ventilated, highly inflamed areas as are seen in cystic fibrosis. Images PMID:7638807

  20. Hypertension control after an initial cardiac event among Medicare patients with diabetes mellitus: A multidisciplinary group practice observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddha, Ashish; Smith, Maureen A; Palta, Mari; Johnson, Heather M

    2018-04-23

    Patients with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease have a high risk of mortality and/or recurrent cardiovascular events. Hypertension control is critical for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events. The objective was to determine rates and predictors of achieving hypertension control among Medicare patients with diabetes and uncontrolled hypertension after hospital discharge for an initial cardiac event. A retrospective analysis of linked electronic health record and Medicare data was performed. The primary outcome was hypertension control within 1 year after hospital discharge for an initial cardiac event. Cox proportional hazard models assessed sociodemographics, medications, utilization, and comorbidities as predictors of control. Medicare patients with diabetes were more likely to achieve hypertension control when prescribed beta-blockers at discharge or with a history of more specialty visits. Adults ≥ 80 were more likely to achieve control with diuretics. These findings demonstrate the importance of implementing guideline-directed multidisciplinary care in this complex and high-risk population. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The sequentially discounting autoregressive (SDAR) method for on-line automatic seismic event detecting on long term observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Toshioka, T.; Nakajima, T.; Narita, A.; Xue, Z.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, more and more Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) studies focus on seismicity monitoring. For the safety management of geological CO2 storage at Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Japan, an Advanced Traffic Light System (ATLS) combined different seismic messages (magnitudes, phases, distributions et al.) is proposed for injection controlling. The primary task for ATLS is the seismic events detection in a long-term sustained time series record. Considering the time-varying characteristics of Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of a long-term record and the uneven energy distributions of seismic event waveforms will increase the difficulty in automatic seismic detecting, in this work, an improved probability autoregressive (AR) method for automatic seismic event detecting is applied. This algorithm, called sequentially discounting AR learning (SDAR), can identify the effective seismic event in the time series through the Change Point detection (CPD) of the seismic record. In this method, an anomaly signal (seismic event) can be designed as a change point on the time series (seismic record). The statistical model of the signal in the neighborhood of event point will change, because of the seismic event occurrence. This means the SDAR aims to find the statistical irregularities of the record thought CPD. There are 3 advantages of SDAR. 1. Anti-noise ability. The SDAR does not use waveform messages (such as amplitude, energy, polarization) for signal detecting. Therefore, it is an appropriate technique for low SNR data. 2. Real-time estimation. When new data appears in the record, the probability distribution models can be automatic updated by SDAR for on-line processing. 3. Discounting property. the SDAR introduces a discounting parameter to decrease the influence of present statistic value on future data. It makes SDAR as a robust algorithm for non-stationary signal processing. Within these 3 advantages, the SDAR method can handle the non-stationary time-varying long

  2. Measurement of event-shape observables in $Z \\to \\ell^{+} \\ell^{-}$ events in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muskinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reisin, Hernan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-07-06

    Event-shape observables measured using charged particles in inclusive $Z$-boson events are presented, using the electron and muon decay modes of the $Z$ bosons. The measurements are based on an integrated luminosity of $1.1 {\\rm fb}^{-1}$ of proton--proton collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV. Charged-particle distributions, excluding the lepton--antilepton pair from the $Z$-boson decay, are measured in different ranges of transverse momentum of the $Z$ boson. Distributions include multiplicity, scalar sum of transverse momenta, beam thrust, transverse thrust, spherocity, and $\\mathcal{F}$-parameter, which are in particular sensitive to properties of the underlying event at small values of the $Z$-boson transverse momentum. The Sherpa event generator shows larger deviations from the measured observables than Pythia8 and Herwig7. Typically, all three Monte Carlo generators provide predictions that are in better agreement with the data at high $Z$-boso...

  3. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  4. A statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors from supernova SN 1987 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed statistical analysis of angular distribution of neutrino events observed in Kamiokande II and IMB detectors on UT 07:35, 2/23'87 is carried out. Distribution functions of the mean scattering angles in the reaction anti υ e p→e + n and υe→υe are constructed with account taken of the multiple Coulomb scattering and the experimental angular errors. The Smirnov and Wald-Wolfowitz run tests are used to test the hypothesis that the angular distributions of events from the two detectors agree with each other. We test with the use of the Kolmogorov and Mises statistical criterions the hypothesis that the recorded events all represent anti υ e p→e + n inelastic scatterings. Then the Neyman-Pearson test is applied to each event in testing the hypothesis anti υ e p→e + n against the alternative υe→υe. The hypotheses that the number of elastic events equals s=0, 1, 2, ... against the alternatives s≠0, 1, 2, ... are tested on the basis of the generalized likelihood ratio criterion. The confidence intervals for the number of elastic events are also constructed. The current supernova models fail to give a satisfactory account of the angular distribution data. (orig.)

  5. AFTERGLOW OBSERVATIONS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND THE EMERGING CLASS OF HYPER-ENERGETIC EVENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenko, S. B.; Butler, N. R.; Cobb, B. E.; Cucchiara, A.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Filippenko, A. V.; Frail, D. A.; Harrison, F. A.; Haislip, J. B.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Berger, E.; Chandra, P.; Fox, D. B.; Prochaska, J. X.; Glazebrook, K.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present broadband (radio, optical, and X-ray) light curves and spectra of the afterglows of four long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs; GRBs 090323, 090328, 090902B, and 090926A) detected by the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on the Fermi satellite. With its wide spectral bandpass, extending to GeV energies, Fermi is sensitive to GRBs with very large isotropic energy releases (10 54 erg). Although rare, these events are particularly important for testing GRB central-engine models. When combined with spectroscopic redshifts, our afterglow data for these four events are able to constrain jet collimation angles, the density structure of the circumburst medium, and both the true radiated energy release and the kinetic energy of the outflows. In agreement with our earlier work, we find that the relativistic energy budget of at least one of these events (GRB 090926A) exceeds the canonical value of 10 51 erg by an order of magnitude. Such energies pose a severe challenge for models in which the GRB is powered by a magnetar or a neutrino-driven collapsar, but remain compatible with theoretical expectations for magnetohydrodynamical collapsar models (e.g., the Blandford-Znajek mechanism). Our jet opening angles (θ) are similar to those found for pre-Fermi GRBs, but the large initial Lorentz factors (Γ 0 ) inferred from the detection of GeV photons imply θΓ 0 ∼ 70-90, values which are above those predicted in magnetohydrodynamic models of jet acceleration. Finally, we find that these Fermi-LAT events preferentially occur in a low-density circumburst environment, and we speculate that this might result from the lower mass-loss rates of their lower-metallicity progenitor stars. Future studies of Fermi-LAT afterglows at radio wavelengths with the order-of-magnitude improvement in sensitivity offered by the Extended Very Large Array should definitively establish the relativistic energy budgets of these events.

  6. Short-Term Biliary Stent Placement Contributing Common Bile Duct Stone Disappearance with Preservation of Duodenal Papilla Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the effect of biliary stent placement without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST on common bile duct stones (CBDS disappearance and the contribution of preserving the duodenal papilla function to reduce recurrence of CBDS. Methods. Sixty-six patients admitted for acute obstructive cholangitis due to CBDS who underwent biliary stent placement without EST for 2 years from March 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The second endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP was performed for treatment of CBDS 3 to 4 months after the first ERCP. We estimated the rate of stone disappearance at the time of second ERCP. Results. CBDS disappearance was observed in 32 (48.5% of 66 patients. The diameter of the bile ducts and the diameter of CBDS in patients with CBDS disappearance were significantly smaller than in those with CBDS requiring extraction (p=0.007 and p<0.001, resp.. Stone disappearance was evident when the diameter of bile ducts and that of CBDS were <10 and 7 mm, respectively (p=0.002. Conclusions. Short-term stent placement without EST eliminates CBDS while preserving duodenal papilla function and may be suitable for treating CBDS in patients with nondilated bile ducts and small CBDS.

  7. Very low frequency radio events with a reduced intensity observed by the low-altitude DEMETER spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Záhlava, J.; Němec, F.; Santolík, Ondřej; Kolmašová, Ivana; Parrot, M.; Rodger, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 11 (2015), s. 9781-9794 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100421206 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetosphere * DEMETER * VLF radio events Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021607/full

  8. The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Tom; Douka, Katerina; Wood, Rachel; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brock, Fiona; Basell, Laura; Camps, Marta; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Barroso-Ruíz, Cecillio; Bergman, Christopher; Boitard, Coralie; Boscato, Paolo; Caparrós, Miguel; Conard, Nicholas J; Draily, Christelle; Froment, Alain; Galván, Bertila; Gambassini, Paolo; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Grimaldi, Stefano; Haesaerts, Paul; Holt, Brigitte; Iriarte-Chiapusso, Maria-Jose; Jelinek, Arthur; Jordá Pardo, Jesús F; Maíllo-Fernández, José-Manuel; Marom, Anat; Maroto, Julià; Menéndez, Mario; Metz, Laure; Morin, Eugène; Moroni, Adriana; Negrino, Fabio; Panagopoulou, Eleni; Peresani, Marco; Pirson, Stéphane; de la Rasilla, Marco; Riel-Salvatore, Julien; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Santamaria, David; Semal, Patrick; Slimak, Ludovic; Soler, Joaquim; Soler, Narcís; Villaluenga, Aritza; Pinhasi, Ron; Jacobi, Roger

    2014-08-21

    The timing of Neanderthal disappearance and the extent to which they overlapped with the earliest incoming anatomically modern humans (AMHs) in Eurasia are key questions in palaeoanthropology. Determining the spatiotemporal relationship between the two populations is crucial if we are to understand the processes, timing and reasons leading to the disappearance of Neanderthals and the likelihood of cultural and genetic exchange. Serious technical challenges, however, have hindered reliable dating of the period, as the radiocarbon method reaches its limit at ∼50,000 years ago. Here we apply improved accelerator mass spectrometry (14)C techniques to construct robust chronologies from 40 key Mousterian and Neanderthal archaeological sites, ranging from Russia to Spain. Bayesian age modelling was used to generate probability distribution functions to determine the latest appearance date. We show that the Mousterian ended by 41,030-39,260 calibrated years bp (at 95.4% probability) across Europe. We also demonstrate that succeeding 'transitional' archaeological industries, one of which has been linked with Neanderthals (Châtelperronian), end at a similar time. Our data indicate that the disappearance of Neanderthals occurred at different times in different regions. Comparing the data with results obtained from the earliest dated AMH sites in Europe, associated with the Uluzzian technocomplex, allows us to quantify the temporal overlap between the two human groups. The results reveal a significant overlap of 2,600-5,400 years (at 95.4% probability). This has important implications for models seeking to explain the cultural, technological and biological elements involved in the replacement of Neanderthals by AMHs. A mosaic of populations in Europe during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition suggests that there was ample time for the transmission of cultural and symbolic behaviours, as well as possible genetic exchanges, between the two groups.

  9. Role of model ingredients on the directed flow and its disappearance using isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, R.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of different equations of state, momentum dependence of nuclear forces and in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross-sections on the directed flow and its disappearance. Our findings reveal that soft momentum-dependent equation of state along with reduced cross-section shows good agreement with the experimentally observed mass dependence of balance energy. (authors)

  10. When hope and grief intersect: rates and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved individuals and relatives of disappeared persons in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeke, Carina; Stammel, Nadine; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Forced disappearance is a frequent phenomenon in violent conflicts and regimes, yet little is known about unresolved grief processes as a possible outcome of the disappearance of a loved one. This study investigates prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its risk factors in a sample of persons who lost a significant other to disappearance as compared with a sample of bereaved individuals, both groups having experienced displacement due to the armed conflict in Colombia. In a cross-sectional study conducted in four Colombian provinces, 73 persons who lost a significant other to disappearance and 222 bereaved individuals completed measures of PGD (PG-13), depression (HSCL-25), and PTSD (PCL-C) via face-to-face interviews. Trauma- and loss-related variables, including the extent to which significant others of disappeared persons hoped that their loved one was still alive, were assessed. Results indicated that 23% of participants who lost a significant other to disappearance met criteria for PGD as compared to 31.5% in bereaved participants. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of symptom severity of PGD, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, or traumatic exposure. Regression analysis indicated that, among relatives and friends of disappeared persons, the extent of hope predicted PGD above and beyond depression severity whereas among bereaved persons, PGD was predicted by time since the loss, the number of traumatic events and symptom severity of PTSD and depression. The instruments were not validated for use in Colombia; generalizability of findings is limited. Forced disappearance is related to prolonged grief reactions, particularly when those left behind maintain hope that the disappeared person is still alive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Disappearance of superconductivity and critical resistance in thin indium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Satoshi; Nishida, Nobuhiko

    1991-01-01

    In thin granular films composed of two-dimensionally coupled indium particles, we have studied influences of average particle sizes anti d on the superconducting transition. For films with anti d=280A and 224A, superconducting transition temperature stays almost constant with increasing the sheet resistance R n in the normal state, while for a film with anti d=140A, it decreases linearly with R n . This means that the system changes to a dirty superconductor by reducing anti d. With further increasing R n , superconductivity disappears when R n exceeds the value R c of order h/4e 2 , which seems to correlate with anti d. (orig.)

  12. Measuring the Disappearance of Muon Neutrinos with the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radovic, Alexander [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It measures the flux from the predominately muon neutrino NuMI beam first 1 km from beam start and then again 735 km later using a pair of steel scintillator tracking calorimeters. The comparison of measured neutrino energy spectra at our Far Detector with the prediction based on our Near Detector measurement allows for a measurement of the parameters which define neutrino oscillations. This thesis will describe the most recent measurement of muon neutrino disappearance in the NuMI muon neutrino beam using the MINOS experiment.

  13. Directed transverse flow and its disappearance for asymmetric reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejot; Gautam, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the directed transverse flow for mass asymmetry reactions. This is done by keeping the target fixed and varying the projectile mass from 4 He to 131 Xe. We find that directed transverse flow is sensitive to the mass of the projectile. We also study the disappearance of flow at a particular impact parameter called Geometry of Vanishing Flow (GVF) for such mass asymmetry reactions. Our results indicate that GVF is sensitive to the beam energy as well as to the mass of the projectile.

  14. Unexpected disappearance of portal cavernoma on long-term anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Junior, Gilberto; Turon, Fanny; Hernandez-Gea, Virginia; Darnell, Anna; García-Criado, Ángeles; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2014-08-01

    Idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension is a rare disease of unknown etiology. Patients with idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension have an increased risk of developing portal vein thrombosis and this is especially prevalent when HIV is also present. We describe a unique case of a patient with idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension associated to HIV, who developed acute portal vein thrombosis that despite anticoagulation transformed in portal cavernoma and disappeared completely after five years of follow-up on continuous anticoagulation. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of high-beta superthermal plasma events in the close environment of Jupiter's bow shock as observed by Ulysses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhavilas, P. K.; Sarris, E. T.; Anagnostopoulos, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure (or of their energy densities) which is known as the plasma parameter 'beta'(β) has important implications to the propagation of energetic particles and the interaction of the solar wind with planetary magnetospheres. Although in the scientific literature the contribution of the superthermal particles to the plasma pressure is generally assumed negligible, we deduced, by analyzing energetic particles and magnetic field measurements recorded by the Ulysses spacecraft, that in a series of events, the energy density contained in the superthermal tail of the particle distribution is comparable to or even higher than the energy density of the magnetic field, creating conditions of high-beta plasma. More explicitly, in this paper we analyze Ulysses/HI-SCALE measurements of the energy density ratio (parameter β ep ) of the energetic ions'(20 keV to ∼5 MeV) to the magnetic field's in order to find occurrences of high-beta (β ep >1) superthermal plasma conditions in the environment of the Jovian magnetosphere, which is an interesting plasma laboratory and an important source of emissions in our solar system. In particular, we examine high-beta ion events close to Jupiter's bow shock, which are produced by two processes: (a) bow shock ion acceleration and (b) ion leakage from the magnetosphere.

  16. Coupling an aerosol box model with one-dimensional flow: a tool for understanding observations of new particle formation events

    OpenAIRE

    Kivekäs, N.; Carpman, J.; Roldin, P.; Leppä, J.; O'Connor, E. J.; Kristensson, A.; Asmi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Field observations of new particle formation and the subsequent particle growth are typically only possible at a fixed measurement location, and hence do not follow the temporal evolution of an air parcel in a Lagrangian sense. Standard analysis for determining formation and growth rates requires that the time-dependent formation rate and growth rate of the particles are spatially invariant; air parcel advection means that the observed temporal evolution of the particle size distribution at a...

  17. Within the International Collaboration CHAIN: a Summary of Events Observed with Flare Monitoring Telescope (FMT) in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, J.; Asai, A.; Morita, S.; Terrazas, R.; Cabezas, D.; Gutierrez, V.; Martinez, L.; Buleje, Y.; Loayza, R.; Nakamura, N.; Takasao, S.; Yoshinaga, Y.; Hillier, A.; Otsuji, K.; Shibata, K.; Ishitsuka, M.; Ueno, S.; Kitai, R.; Ishii, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Nagata, S.; Narukage, N.

    2014-02-01

    In 2008 we inaugurated the new Solar Observatory in collaboration with Faculty of Sciences of San Luis Gonzaga de Ica National University, 300 km south of Lima. In March of 2010 a Flare Monitoring Telescope of Hida Observatory of Kyoto University arrived to Ica, part of CHAIN Project (Continuous H-alpha Imaging Network). In October of the same year we hosted the First FMT Workshop in Ica, then in July of 2011 the Second FMT Workshop was opened. Since that we are focused on two events registered by FMT in Peru to publish results. FMT is a good tool to introduce young people from universities into scientific knowledge; it is good also for education in Solar Physics and outreach. Details of this successful collaboration will be explained in this presentation.

  18. On the Interpretation of the Fermi-GBM Transient Observed in Coincidence with LIGO Gravitational-wave Event GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaughton, V.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Christensen, N.; Hui, C. M.; Kocevski, D.; Littenberg, T.; McEnery, J. E.; Racusin, J.; Shawhan, P.; Veitch, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W.; Giles, M. M.; Gibby, M. H.; von Kienlin, A.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Roberts, O. J.; Stanbro, M.; Veres, P.

    2018-01-01

    The weak transient detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) 0.4 s after GW150914 has generated much speculation regarding its possible association with the black hole binary merger. Investigation of the GBM data by Connaughton et al. revealed a source location consistent with GW150914 and a spectrum consistent with a weak, short gamma-ray burst. Greiner et al. present an alternative technique for fitting background-limited data in the low-count regime, and call into question the spectral analysis and the significance of the detection of GW150914-GBM presented in Connaughton et al. The spectral analysis of Connaughton et al. is not subject to the limitations of the low-count regime noted by Greiner et al. We find Greiner et al. used an inconsistent source position and did not follow the steps taken in Connaughton et al. to mitigate the statistical shortcomings of their software when analyzing this weak event. We use the approach of Greiner et al. to verify that our original spectral analysis is not biased. The detection significance of GW150914-GBM is established empirically, with a false-alarm rate (FAR) of ∼ {10}-4 Hz. A post-trials false-alarm probability (FAP) of 2.2× {10}-3 (2.9σ ) of this transient being associated with GW150914 is based on the proximity in time to the gravitational-wave event of a transient with that FAR. The FAR and the FAP are unaffected by the spectral analysis that is the focus of Greiner et al.

  19. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  20. The case of the Disappearing House Sparrow (Passer domesticus indicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Dandapat

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The fluffy brown sparrows are 15cm in length and distributed all over India up to 4000m in the Himalayas. The disappearance of sparrows has been widely reported in India. The sparrow population in Andhra Pradesh alone had dropped by 80 per cent, and in other states like Kerala, Gujarat and Rajasthan, it had dipped by 20 per cent, while the decline in coastal areas was as sharp as 70 to 80 per cent. But reliable information on sparrow populations is not available. No one is actually counting and keeping a record of the sparrows. The spread of diseases due to decline in sparrow population is an alarming danger. Introduction of unleaded petrol, use of chemically treated seeds, flow of electromagnetic waves from cellphone towers, reducing areas of free growing weeds or reducing numbers of badly maintained buildings, competition for food by other species etc. are possible reasons for this disappearance. The BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB, a UK-based organisation and the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS have taken plan for the protection of sparrow population. [Vet. World 2010; 3(2.000: 97-100

  1. Genetic identification of children of the disappeared in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penchaszadeh, V B

    1997-01-01

    During the military dictatorship that ruled Argentina between 1976 and 1983, the security forces engaged in well-planned repression that included the abduction, torture, and disappearance of thousands of dissidents. Repression spared neither children nor pregnant women. Approximately 220 babies and children of the disappeared victims were abducted and kept mostly by families with connections with the military. After the restoration of democracy, attempts to find and identify the missing children were made, with the goal of restoring their personal and familial identities and returning them to their surviving relatives. The Association of Grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo and a number of geneticists who developed and applied methods of genetic identification to this human rights cause were instrumental in this quest. Initial use of histocompatibility (HLA) typing for genetic identification was later followed by nuclear DNA typing and mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Of 56 children found and identified, 30 were returned to their legitimate families, 13 remained with the families who had adopted them in good faith, 6 are still the subject of custody litigation in the courts, and 7 were found dead. Psychological and ethical guidelines protecting the best interests of the children were followed in all proceedings.

  2. Event-related mu-rhythm desynchronization during movement observation is impaired in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Poppe, N.R.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria; van Vugt, J.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patients with Parkinson’s disease often experience difficulties in adapting movements and learning alternative movements to compensate for symptoms. Since observation of movement has been demonstrated to lead to the formation of a lasting specific motor memory that resembled that elicited

  3. Field Learning: Experiential Learning through Participant Observation and Self-Reflection of Consumer Behavior at Sporting Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Tracey King

    2018-01-01

    As marketing educators, we can enhance student learning by providing experiences that go beyond the classroom and into the real world. In this way, we encourage students to become lifelong learners where they observe the world around them through the lens of what they have learned. This article describes a project used in an undergraduate-level…

  4. First Observations of SO2 from the Satellite Suomi NPP OMPS: Widespread Air Pollution Events Over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Dickerson, Russell R.; Carn, Simon A.; Ge, Cui; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Severe smog episodes over China in January 2013 received worldwide attention. This air pollution was distinguished by heavy loadings of fine particulate matter and SO2. To characterize these episodes, we employed the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite, Nadir Mapper (OMPS NM), an ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer flying on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) spacecraft since October 2011. We developed an advanced algorithm to quantify SO2 in the lower troposphere and achieved high-quality retrievals from OMPS NM, which are characterized by high precision, approx. 0.2 Dobson Units (DU; 1 DU = 2.69 x 10(exp 16) molecules/sq cm) for instantaneous field of view SO2 data and low biases (within +/-0.2 DU). Here we report SO2 retrievals and UV aerosol index data for these pollution events. The SO2 columns and the areas covered by high pollutant concentrations are quantified; the results reveal for the first time the full extent (an area of approx. 10(exp 6) sq km containing up to 60 kt of SO2) of these episodes.

  5. Plasma structure within poleward-moving cusp/cleft auroral transients: EISCAT Svalbard radar observations and an explanation in terms of large local time extent of events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We report high-resolution observations of the southward-IMF cusp/cleft ionosphere made on December 16th 1998 by the EISCAT (European incoherent scatter Svalbard radar (ESR, and compare them with observations of dayside auroral luminosity, as seen at a wavelength of 630 nm by a meridian scanning photometer at Ny Ålesund, and of plasma flows, as seen by the CUTLASS (co-operative UK twin location auroral sounding system Finland HF radar. The optical data reveal a series of poleward-moving transient red-line (630 nm enhancements, events that have been associated with bursts in the rate of magnetopause reconnection generating new open flux. The combined observations at this time have strong similarities to predictions of the effects of soft electron precipitation modulated by pulsed reconnection, as made by Davis and Lockwood (1996; however, the effects of rapid zonal flow in the ionosphere, caused by the magnetic curvature force on the newly opened field lines, are found to be a significant additional factor. In particular, it is shown how enhanced plasma loss rates induced by the rapid convection can explain two outstanding anomalies of the 630 nm transients, namely how minima in luminosity form between the poleward-moving events and how events can re-brighten as they move poleward. The observations show how cusp/cleft aurora and transient poleward-moving auroral forms appear in the ESR data and the conditions which cause enhanced 630 nm emission in the transients: they are an important first step in enabling the ESR to identify these features away from the winter solstice when supporting auroral observations are not available.Key words: Ionosphere (polar ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause; cusp and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  6. Transient Micromotors That Disappear When No Longer Needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanrui; Karshalev, Emil; Li, Jinxing; Soto, Fernando; Castillo, Roxanne; Campos, Isaac; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2016-11-22

    Transient self-destroyed micromotors that autonomously disappear in biological media at controlled rates upon completing their task, without leaving a toxic residue, are presented. The propulsion and degradation characteristics of the self-destroyed Mg/ZnO, Mg/Si, and Zn/Fe Janus micromotors and single-component Zn micromotors are described. The degradation of the Janus micromotors relies on the different corrosion rates of their core-shell components. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry measurements are used to probe the time-dependent degradation of the different constituents of the micromotors. The toxicity of the transient micromotors is discussed toward their potential use in biomedical applications. This concept of transient micromotors offers considerable potential for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  7. Nationalist Reconstructions in the Face of the Disappearance of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Kentel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Together with the conflictive negotiation abouth the definition and the feeling of nation, on a strategic level, the repercussions of globalisation (and especially the negotiations with the European Union are complicating the border issue and, as a consequence, the issue of unity (which is “always in danger”, according to the nationalist-Kemalist elites. The nationalist discourse is consumed on a popular level but, rather than simple consumption or pure strategic production, it is constituted as the production of different nationalisms in the tactics of everyday life. In this way, this article tackles the subject of the new nationalist productions, examining more deeply the tactics that range from survival to subversion or new religious rites in a situation of uncertainties and ambivalences brought about by globalisation, by a new encounter with the West and by the disappearance of borders.

  8. Disappearance of nucleosome positioning in mitotic chromatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Jun-ichiro; Ono, Tetsuya

    2005-04-15

    During mitosis, transcription is silenced and most transcription factors are displaced from their recognition sequences. By in vivo footprinting analysis, we have confirmed and extended previous studies showing loss of transcription factors from an RNA polymerase II promoter (c-FOS) and, for the first time, an RNA polymerase III promoter (U6) in HeLa cells. Because little was known about nucleosomal organization in mitotic chromosomes, we performed footprinting analysis for nucleosomes on these promoters in interphase and mitotic cells. During interphase, each of the promoters had a positioned nucleosome in the region intervening between proximal promoter elements and distal enhancer elements, but the strong nucleosome positioning disappeared during mitosis. Thus, the nucleosomal organization that appears to facilitate transcription in interphase cells may be lost in mitotic cells, and nucleosome positioning during mitosis does not seem to be a major component of the epigenetic mechanisms to mark genes for rapid reactivation after this phase.

  9. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  10. Coordinated Cluster, ground-based instrumentation and low-altitude satellite observations of transient poleward-moving events in the ionosphere and in the tail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available During the interval between 8:00–9:30 on 14 January 2001, the four Cluster spacecraft were moving from the central magnetospheric lobe, through the dusk sector mantle, on their way towards intersecting the magnetopause near 15:00 MLT and 15:00 UT. Throughout this interval, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR at Longyearbyen observed a series of poleward-moving transient events of enhanced F-region plasma concentration ("polar cap patches", with a repetition period of the order of 10 min. Allowing for the estimated solar wind propagation delay of 75 ( ± 5 min, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF had a southward component during most of the interval. The magnetic footprint of the Cluster spacecraft, mapped to the ionosphere using the Tsyganenko T96 model (with input conditions prevailing during this event, was to the east of the ESR beams. Around 09:05 UT, the DMSP-F12 satellite flew over the ESR and showed a sawtooth cusp ion dispersion signature that also extended into the electrons on the equatorward edge of the cusp, revealing a pulsed magnetopause reconnection. The consequent enhanced ionospheric flow events were imaged by the SuperDARN HF backscatter radars. The average convection patterns (derived using the AMIE technique on data from the magnetometers, the EISCAT and SuperDARN radars, and the DMSP satellites show that the associated poleward-moving events also convected over the predicted footprint of the Cluster spacecraft. Cluster observed enhancements in the fluxes of both electrons and ions. These events were found to be essentially identical at all four spacecraft, indicating that they had a much larger spatial scale than the satellite separation of the order of 600 km. Some of the events show a correspondence between the lowest energy magnetosheath electrons detected by the PEACE instrument on Cluster (10–20 eV and the topside ionospheric enhancements seen by the ESR (at 400–700 km. We suggest that a potential barrier at the

  11. The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance of 1991 September 28 using the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Alan; Uchida, Yutaka; Tsuneta, Saku; Strong, Keith T.; Acton, Loren W.; Hiei, Eijiro; Bruner, Marilyn E.; Watanabe, Takashi; Shibata, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    The structure of the coronal soft X-ray source associated with the dark filament disappearance on September 28, 1991, observed with the Soft X-ray Telescope, is examined as a possible example of the 'eruption-reconnection' model of filament disappearance. The results suggest, however, that this model may not fit. There is a strong possibility that much of the dark filament mass remains in the heated unwinding axial field.

  12. Pre-operative high sensitive C-reactive protein predicts cardiovascular events after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balciunas Mindaugas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein is a powerful independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. The relation between C-reactive protein (CRP concentration and in-hospital outcome, after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG, has not yet been established. The study aims to evaluate the predictive value of pre-operative CRP for in-hospital cardiovascular events after CABG surgery. High-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP levels were measured pre-operatively on the day of surgery in 66 patients scheduled for elective on pump CABG surgery. Post-operative cardiovascular events such as death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, myocardial damage, myocardial infarction and low output heart failure were recorded. During the first 30 days after surgery, 54 patients were free from observed events and 14 developed the following cardiovascular events: 10 (15% had myocardial damage, four (6% had low output heart failure and two (3% suffered stroke. No patients died during the follow-up period. Serum concentration of hs-CRP ≥ 3.3 mg/l (cut-off point obtained by ROC analysis was related to higher risk of post-operative cardiovascular events (36% vs 6%, P = 0.01, myocardial damage (24% vs 6%, P = 0.04 and low output heart failure (12% vs 0%, P = 0.04. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hs-CRP ≥ 3.3 mg/l ( P = 0.002, O.R.: 19.3 (95% confidence interval (CI 2.9-128.0, intra-operative transfusion of red blood cells ( P = 0.04, O.R.: 9.9 (95% C.I. 1.1-85.5 and absence of diuretics in daily antihypertensive treatment ( P = 0.02, O.R.: 15.1 (95% C.I. 1.4-160.6 were independent predictors of combined cardiovascular event. Patients having hs-CRP value greater or equal to 3.3 mg/l pre-operatively have an increased risk of post-operative cardiovascular events after on pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.

  13. Simvastatin-induced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojaković Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. Case Outline. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the ‘desirable’ range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day. The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day. At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. Conclusion. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways. It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  14. Simvastatin-lnduced nocturnal leg pain disappears with pravastatin substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojaković, Natasa; Igić, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    Statins have similar side effects that do not always occur at the same rate among the various statins. We present a case of simvastatin-induced muscle toxicity that disappeared when pravastatin was substituted for the original drug. A 74-year-old male, a nonsmoker, complained of severe nocturnal leg cramps. The patient also complained that similar painful cramping occurred when he walked rapidly or jogged. Because some components of his lipid panel exceeded the'desirable' range, and as he had a history of myocardial infarction, his family physician prescribed simvastatin (40 mg/day). The patient had taken this medication for the past eight years. The painful nocturnal episodes started two years ago and affected either one or the other leg. Four months ago we discontinued his simvastatin and prescribed pravastatin (80 mg/day). At a follow-up visit six weeks later, the patient reported that his leg pains at night and the pain experienced after brisk walking had disappeared. Four months after the substitution of pravastatin for simvastatin, the patient reported that his complete lack of symptoms had continued. These painful muscle cramps were probably caused by an inadequate vascular supply to the calf and foot muscles. Perhaps a combination of advanced age and atherosclerotic changes created a predisposition for the simvastatin-induced leg cramps. Pravastatin differs from simvastatin in several ways.l It is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 oxidases, and thus is not influenced by CYP 3A4 inhibitors like simvastatin. Also, simvastatin is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms located within the SLCO1B1 gene on the chromosome 12 and established myopathy, while pravastatin lacks this association. These differences may contribute to increased tolerance to pravastatin in this particular case.

  15. DIRECT OBSERVATIONS OF TETHER-CUTTING RECONNECTION DURING A MAJOR SOLAR EVENT FROM 2014 FEBRUARY 24 TO 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Shuhong; Li, Ting [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Cheng, Xin [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ma, Suli, E-mail: hdchen@nao.cas.cn [College of Science, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2014-12-20

    Using multi-wavelength data from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigated two successive solar flares, a C5.1 confined flare and an X4.9 ejective flare with a halo coronal mass ejection, in NOAA active region 11990 from 2014 February 24 to 25. Before the confined flare onset, EUV brightening beneath the filament was detected. As the flare began, a twisted helical flux rope (FR) wrapping around the filament moved upward and then stopped, and in the meantime an obvious X-ray source below it was observed. Prior to the ejective X4.9 flare, some pre-existing loop structures in the active region interacted with each other, which produced a brightening region beneath the filament. Meanwhile, a small flaring loop appeared below the interaction region and some new helical lines connecting the far ends of the loop structures were gradually formed and continually added into the former twisted FR. Then, due to the resulting imbalance between the magnetic pressure and tension, the new FR, together with the filament, erupted outward. Our observations coincide well with a tether-cutting model, suggesting that the two flares probably have the same triggering mechanism, i.e., tether-cutting reconnection. To our knowledge, this is the first direct observation of tether-cutting reconnection occurring between pre-existing loops in an active region. In the ejective flare case, the erupting filament exhibited an Ω-like kinked structure and underwent an exponential rise after a slow-rise phase, indicating that the kink instability might be also responsible for the eruption initiation.

  16. The structure of mid- and high-latitude ionosphere during September 1999 storm event obtained from GPS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shagimuratov

    Full Text Available TEC data, obtained from over 60 GPS stations, were used to study the ionospheric effects of the 12–16 September 1999 magnetic storm over Europe. The spatial and temporal changes of the ionosphere were analysed as a time series of TEC maps, which present 15 min averages of TEC. The data set consisting of GPS observations, collected by a dense network of European stations, with sampling rate of 30 s, enable the creation of TEC maps with high spatial and temporal resolution. The storm included the positive as well as the negative phase. The positive phase took place during the first storm day of 12 September 1999. The short-lived daytime TEC enhancement was observed at all latitudes. The maximal enhancement reached a factor of 1.3–1.5. On the second and third days, the negative phase of the storm developed. The TEC decrease was registered regardless of time of the day. The TEC depression exceeded 70% relative to quiet days. On the following days (15 and 16 September, a significant daytime enhancement of TEC was observed once again. The complex occurrence of the ionospheric storm was probably related to the features of development of the magnetic storm. We found out that during the storm the large and medium-scale irregularities developed in the high-latitude ionosphere. The multi-stations technique, employed to create TEC maps, was particularly successful while studying the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. We found out that the essential changes of TEC during the storm, which were registered at the auroral and sub-auroral ionosphere, were connected with the effect of the trough and its dynamics, which depends on geomagnetic activity.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric disturbances; auroral ionosphere; mid-latitude ionosphere

  17. Numerical and Observational Investigations of Long-Lived Mcs-Induced Severe Surface Wind Events: the Derecho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jerome Michael

    This study addresses the production of sustained, straight-line, severe surface winds associated with mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) of extratropical origin otherwise known as derechos. The physical processes which govern the observed derecho characteristics are identified and their possible forcing mechanisms are determined. Detailed observations of two derechos are presented along with simulations using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CSU-RAMS). The observations revealed a derecho environment characterized by strong vertical wind shear through the depth of the troposphere and large values of convective available potential energy (CAPE). The thermodynamic environment of the troposphere in each case had a distinct three-layer structure consisting of: (i) a surface-based stable layer of 1-to-2 km in depth, (ii) an elevated well -mixed layer of 2-4 km in depth, and (iii) an upper tropospheric layer of intermediate stability that extended to the tropopause. Two primary sets of simulations were performed to assess the impact of the observed environmental profiles on the derecho structure, propagation, and longevity. The first set consisted of nested-grid regional-scale simulations initialized from the standard NMC analyses on a domain having relatively coarse horizontal resolution (75 km). The second set of simulations consisted of two and three-dimensional experiments initialized in a horizontally homogeneous environment having a relatively fine horizontal resolution (2 km) and explicit microphysics. The results from these experiments indicate the importance of convectively -induced gravity waves on the MCS structure, propagation, longevity, and severe surface wind development. The sensitivity of the simulated convection and gravity waves to variations in the vertical wind shear and moisture profiles are described. Detailed Doppler radar analyses and 3-D simulations of a severe, bow echo squall line are presented which reveal

  18. A characterisation of sea-breeze events in the eastern Cantabrian coast (Spain) from observational data and WRF simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Yagüe, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The behaviour of the sea breeze along the north coast of Spain is investigated using observations of two topographically contrasting sites together with simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An objective and systematic selection method is used to detect sea-breeze days from a database of two summer months. The direction and intensity of the sea breeze are significantly affected by the topography of the area; indeed, the estimated sea-breeze intensity shows an opposite relationship with the cross-shore temperature gradient for both sites. WRF simulations reproduce the onset of the sea breeze, but some characteristics are not adequately simulated: they generally overestimate the wind speed, smooth the temperature evolution and they do not represent the correct interaction with the terrain-induced flows. Additionally, four sensitivity experiments are performed with the WRF model varying the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) scheme, as well as the grid analysis nudging for an anomalous case study which is incorrectly filtered. As the two simulations considering nudging reproduce an unreal (not observed) sea breeze, this day turns out to be of great interest: it allows to evaluate the influence of the passage of the sea-breeze front (SBF) in other variables mainly related to turbulence. Furthermore, the best model scores are obtained for the PBL scheme that does not use a TKE closure.

  19. Measurement of top quark and W boson polarisation observables with t-channel single-top-quark events in the ATLAS experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00288626

    This thesis presents two studies, one related with the alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector tracking system and other with the measurement of top quark and W boson polarisation observables using t-channel single-top-quark events. The first topic describes the implementation of a monitoring tool, which is used to monitor the Level 1 alignment corrections obtained in the calibration loop, as well as the use of constraints on the momentum and impact parameters biases using $Z \\rightarrow\\mu\\mu$ events on the alignment algorithms. These techniques were developed during 2012 data taking campaign and provide the most accurate description of the ATLAS Inner Detector. The second topic presents a detailed measurement of top quark and W boson polarisation observables using the 20.3 $fb^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. The measurement is performed using $t$-channel single top quark events and exploits the feature that the produced top quark is highly polarised along the direction of ...

  20. Finite-Horizon $H_\\infty $ Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Redundant Channels via An Observer-Type Event-Triggered Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenying; Wang, Zidong; Ho, Daniel W C

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the finite-horizon consensus problem for a class of discrete time-varying multiagent systems with external disturbances and missing measurements. To improve the communication reliability, redundant channels are introduced and the corresponding protocol is constructed for the information transmission over redundant channels. An event-triggered scheme is adopted to determine whether the information of agents should be transmitted to their neighbors. Subsequently, an observer-type event-triggered control protocol is proposed based on the latest received neighbors' information. The purpose of the addressed problem is to design a time-varying controller based on the observed information to achieve the consensus performance in a finite horizon. By utilizing a constrained recursive Riccati difference equation approach, some sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the consensus performance, and the controller parameters are also designed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the desired reliability of redundant channels and the effectiveness of the event-triggered control protocol.

  1. Event Reconstruction in the NOvA Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Biswaranjan [Indian Inst. Tech., Hyderabad; Davies, Gavin [Indiana U.; Psihas, Fernanda [Indiana U.

    2017-10-10

    The NOvA experiment observes oscillations in two channels (electron-neutrino appearance and muon-neutrino disappearance) using a predominantly muon-neutrino NuMI beam. The Near Detector records multiple overlapping neutrino interactions in each event and the Far Detector has a large background of cosmic rays due to being located on the surface. The oscillation analyses rely on the accurate reconstruction of neutrino interactions in order to precisely measure the neutrino energy and identify the neutrino flavor and interaction mode. Similarly, measurements of neutrino cross sections using the Near Detector require accurate identification of the particle content of each interaction. A series of pattern recognition techniques have been developed to split event records into individual spatially and temporally separated interactions, to estimate the interaction vertex, and to isolate and classify individual particles within the event. This combination of methods to achieve full event reconstruction in the NOvA detectors has discussed.

  2. MULTI-VIEWPOINT OBSERVATIONS OF A WIDELY DISTRIBUTED SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT: THE ROLE OF EUV WAVES AND WHITE-LIGHT SHOCK SIGNATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouloumvakos, A.; Patsourakos, S.; Nindos, A. [Section of Astrogeophysics, Department of Physics, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vourlidas, A. [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Anastasiadis, A.; Sandberg, I. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236 Penteli (Greece); Hillaris, A. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 15783 Athens (Greece)

    2016-04-10

    On 2012 March 7, two large eruptive events occurred in the same active region within 1 hr from each other. Each consisted of an X-class flare, a coronal mass ejection (CME), an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave, and a shock wave. The eruptions gave rise to a major solar energetic particle (SEP) event observed at widely separated (∼120°) points in the heliosphere. From multi-viewpoint energetic proton recordings we determine the proton release times at STEREO B and A (STB, STA) and the first Lagrange point (L1) of the Sun–Earth system. Using EUV and white-light data, we determine the evolution of the EUV waves in the low corona and reconstruct the global structure and kinematics of the first CME’s shock, respectively. We compare the energetic proton release time at each spacecraft with the EUV waves’ arrival times at the magnetically connected regions and the timing and location of the CME shock. We find that the first flare/CME is responsible for the SEP event at all three locations. The proton release at STB is consistent with arrival of the EUV wave and CME shock at the STB footpoint. The proton release time at L1 was significantly delayed compared to STB. Three-dimensional modeling of the CME shock shows that the particle release at L1 is consistent with the timing and location of the shock’s western flank. This indicates that at L1 the proton release did not occur in low corona but farther away from the Sun. However, the extent of the CME shock fails to explain the SEP event observed at STA. A transport process or a significantly distorted interplanetary magnetic field may be responsible.

  3. Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: a temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aken, HM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available -1 Deep-Sea Research Part 1: Oceanographic Research Papers February 2013/Vol. 72, pp 1-8 Observations of an early Agulhas current retroflection event in 2001: A temporary cessation of inter-ocean exchange south of Africa? H.M. van Akena,*, J.R.E.... Lutjeharms b, M. Rouault b,c, C. Whittle d,b, W.P.M. de Ruijter e aNIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, PO Box 59, Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands bDepartment of Oceanography, Mare Institute, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South...

  4. The Solar Energetic Particle Event of 2010 August 14: Connectivity with the Solar Source Inferred from Multiple Spacecraft Observations and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Raouafi, N. E. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von; Mays, M. L.; Mäkelä, P. A.; Xie, H.; Thakur, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bain, H. M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Zhang, M.; Zhao, L. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Cane, H. V. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia); Papaioannou, A. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15 236 Penteli (Greece); Riley, P., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Predictive Science, 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We analyze one of the first solar energetic particle (SEP) events of solar cycle 24 observed at widely separated spacecraft in order to assess the reliability of models currently used to determine the connectivity between the sources of SEPs at the Sun and spacecraft in the inner heliosphere. This SEP event was observed on 2010 August 14 by near-Earth spacecraft, STEREO-A (∼80° west of Earth) and STEREO-B (∼72° east of Earth). In contrast to near-Earth spacecraft, the footpoints of the nominal magnetic field lines connecting STEREO-A and STEREO-B with the Sun were separated from the region where the parent fast halo coronal mass ejection (CME) originated by ∼88° and ∼47° in longitude, respectively. We discuss the properties of the phenomena associated with this solar eruption. Extreme ultraviolet and white-light images are used to specify the extent of the associated CME-driven coronal shock. We then assess whether the SEPs observed at the three heliospheric locations were accelerated by this shock or whether transport mechanisms in the corona and/or interplanetary space provide an alternative explanation for the arrival of particles at the poorly connected spacecraft. A possible scenario consistent with the observations indicates that the observation of SEPs at STEREO-B and near Earth resulted from particle injection by the CME shock onto the field lines connecting to these spacecraft, whereas SEPs reached STEREO-A mostly via cross-field diffusive transport processes. The successes, limitations, and uncertainties of the methods used to resolve the connection between the acceleration sites of SEPs and the spacecraft are evaluated.

  5. Evolution of Precipitation Structure During the November DYNAMO MJO Event: Cloud-Resolving Model Intercomparison and Cross Validation Using Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowen; Janiga, Matthew A.; Wang, Shuguang; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Rowe, Angela; Xu, Weixin; Liu, Chuntao; Matsui, Toshihisa; Zhang, Chidong

    2018-04-01

    Evolution of precipitation structures are simulated and compared with radar observations for the November Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) event during the DYNAmics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign. Three ground-based, ship-borne, and spaceborne precipitation radars and three cloud-resolving models (CRMs) driven by observed large-scale forcing are used to study precipitation structures at different locations over the central equatorial Indian Ocean. Convective strength is represented by 0-dBZ echo-top heights, and convective organization by contiguous 17-dBZ areas. The multi-radar and multi-model framework allows for more stringent model validations. The emphasis is on testing models' ability to simulate subtle differences observed at different radar sites when the MJO event passed through. The results show that CRMs forced by site-specific large-scale forcing can reproduce not only common features in cloud populations but also subtle variations observed by different radars. The comparisons also revealed common deficiencies in CRM simulations where they underestimate radar echo-top heights for the strongest convection within large, organized precipitation features. Cross validations with multiple radars and models also enable quantitative comparisons in CRM sensitivity studies using different large-scale forcing, microphysical schemes and parameters, resolutions, and domain sizes. In terms of radar echo-top height temporal variations, many model sensitivity tests have better correlations than radar/model comparisons, indicating robustness in model performance on this aspect. It is further shown that well-validated model simulations could be used to constrain uncertainties in observed echo-top heights when the low-resolution surveillance scanning strategy is used.

  6. Landfast sea ice break-out events in the Chukchi Sea: Two case studies illuminating long-term observations at Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Mv, R.; Kambhamettu, C.; Fukamachi, Y.; Ohshima, K. I.

    2012-12-01

    Landfast sea ice in northern Alaska is an important coastal feature. It protects coasts from the impacts of storms, acts as a platform for travel and subsistence activities by native communities, and can be an obstacle to near-shore maritime enterprise. These services provided by landfast ice depend upon its presence and extent, as well as the ice cover's capacity to remain stably in place for long periods of time during the ice season. Along the eastern Chukchi coast and specifically at Barrow, Alaska, the near-shore ice conditions are highly dynamic. In recent years, break-outs of the landfast ice have been observed at Barrow, removing larger stretches of previously immobile landfast ice from shore and potentially threatening people and equipment. Indigenous knowledge by local Iñupiaq ice experts extending back several decades indicates that such events were rare or absent until the 1990s. Using imagery from a land-based marine radar, a component of the Barrow Sea Ice Observatory of the University of Alaska Fairbanks, landfast ice formation at Barrow, AK, has been tracked each season since 2005, and a number of break-out events have been identified. A detailed analysis of atmospheric, oceanic and sea ice conditions associated with such events can shed light on local knowledge and understanding of such events, and help develop approaches to predict and respond to break-outs. Here, two break-out events (on February 27, 2009 and March 24, 2010) are the subjects of case studies aimed at determining primary causes of break-outs. The radar imagery is used to track near-shore ice deformation prior to the break-out and to estimate the extent of grounded sea ice ridges. Oceanic and atmospheric data are used to estimate current and wind stress on the landfast ice cover. Sea level measurements provide insight as to whether or not a grounded ridge's keel could be lifted out of its bed, a potential precondition for a break-out to occur. Preliminary results suggest different

  7. The development of Haze Events observed by multi-satellite retrievals and Meteorological Analysis: A Case Study over Eastern China in December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Binbin; Du, Yong; Yao, Lingling; Huang, Dasong

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid development of national economy and urbanization, the haze has been one of the environment disasters in eastern China. It is necessary that building a model of monitoring the haze for preventing and solving it in the future. In this study, NPP/AOT(550nm) >1and GOCI/AOT(555nm) >1 are adopted to dynamically monitor severe haze events in December 2013 over eastern China. Meanwhile, wind field data from CDAS-NCEP/DOE Reanalysis data and air temperature data from CDAS-NCEP/FNL are adopted to study the mechanism of the occurrence, migration and decay of the haze events. The haze event is composed of two consecutive cases. The first case occurred during 4-9 December is an exogenous haze for Yangtze River Delta, whereas the second case appeared during 11-15 December is an endogenous haze. This result shows:1) With the improved two-stream approximation model, GOCI is successful used to retrieve AOT with compared AERONET AOT, which demonstrates to be feasible in monitoring severe haze events. 2)Because of the large-scale observation capacity of NPP/AOT(550nm) product (×6km) and the high temporal resolution of GOCI/AOT(555nm), this study establishes a framework that detect the large-scale haze events using both data sets. 3)Weak wind speed of less than 5 m*s-1 is important for the development of the haze but the inversion is not a necessary condition for the haze. The strong cold air mass from the northern Siberia area and from East China Sea is the main force for the immigration, diffusion and decay of this haze event. 4)The air quality around Yangtze River Delta in winter is apt to suffer widely divergent influences including exogenous hazes carried by winter northwestward monsoon flows from northern Asia, and endogenous hazes induced by the rapid development of urbanization. The hit of multiple hazes over Yangtze River Delta lead to one of the most severe polluted regions of haze in China. Key words: NPP/AOT;GOCI/AOT; Haze;dynamic monitoring

  8. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW th commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ 13

  9. Disappearance of Helicobacter without Antibiotics in 12 Patients with Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Helicobacter pylori in endoscopic gastric biopsies has been associated with a variety of diseases, including ulcers and gastritis. Although the natural history of H pylori in the gastric mucosa is unknown, antibiotic regimens have been used for eradication. Gastric biopsies from 6050 endoscopic procedures done by a single gastroenterologist from 1981 to 1994 were evaluated. Of these, 2860 from April 1, 1991 to September 30, 1994 had silver-stained biopsies to facilitate H pylori detection, and at least two upper endoscopic procedures were done with gastric biopsies in 188 patients. Twelve of the 188 patients with an initially positive H pylori gastric biopsy became H pylori-negative without antibiotic treatment for H pylori or other infection; 10 received omeprazole and two received no drug treatment. In two of the 12 patients recurrent H pylori in the gastric mucosa was also documented. These findings indicate that H pylori may disappear and reappear in the gastric mucosa with no specific antibiotic eradication regimen, although omeprazole may eradicate H pylori in vivo in some patients. The natural history of H pylori in gastric biopsies is poorly understood. Improved understanding, especially regarding the pathogenesis of upper gastrointestinal ulcerative and inflammatory disease processes, is essential before recommendations for specific antibiotic eradication regimens can be made.

  10. Improved Measurement of Electron-antineutrino Disappearance at Daya Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, D.A. [Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-15

    With 2.5× the previously reported exposure, the Daya Bay experiment has improved the measurement of the neutrino mixing parameter sin{sup 2}2θ{sub 13}=0.089±0.010(stat)±0.005(syst). Reactor anti-neutrinos were produced by six 2.9 GW{sub th} commercial power reactors, and measured by six 20-ton target-mass detectors of identical design. A total of 234,217 anti-neutrino candidates were detected in 127 days of exposure. An anti-neutrino rate of 0.944±0.007(stat)±0.003(syst) was measured by three detectors at a flux-weighted average distance of1648 m from the reactors, relative to two detectors at 470 m and one detector at 576 m. Detector design and depth underground limited the background to 5±0.3% (far detectors) and 2±0.2% (near detectors) of the candidate signals. The improved precision confirms the initial measurement of reactor anti-neutrino disappearance, and continues to be the most precise measurement of θ{sub 13}.

  11. Associations of obesity with tracheal intubation success on first attempt and adverse events in the emergency department: An analysis of the multicenter prospective observational study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Goto, Tadahiro; Shirasaka, Wataru; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Watase, Hiroko; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is deemed to increase the risk of difficult tracheal intubation. However, there is a dearth of research that examines the relationship of obesity with intubation success and adverse events in the emergency department (ED). We analyzed the data from a prospective, observational, multicenter study-the Japanese Emergency Airway Network (JEAN) 2 study from 2012 through 2016. We included all adults (aged ≥18 years) who underwent tracheal intubation in the ED. Patients were categorized into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI): lean (<25.0 kg/m²), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and obesity (≥30.0 kg/m²). Outcomes of interest were intubation success on the first attempt and intubation-related adverse events. Of 6,889 patients who are eligible for the analysis, 5,370 patients (77%) were lean, 1,177 (17%) were overweight, and 342 (4%) were obese. Compared to the lean patients, the intubation success rates were significantly lower in the overweight and obese patients (70.9% in lean, 66.4% in overweight, and 59.3% in obese patients; P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, compared to the lean patients, overweight (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.98) and obese (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95%CI, 0.49-0.79) patients had a significantly lower success rate on the first attempt. Additionally, obesity was significantly associated with a higher risk of adverse events (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95%CI, 1.23-2.13). Based on the data from a multicenter prospectively study, obesity was associated with a lower success rate on the first intubation attempt and a higher risk of adverse event in the ED.

  12. Higgsino dark matter or not: Role of disappearing track searches at the LHC and future colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hajime; Nagata, Natsumi; Otono, Hidetoshi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    Higgsino in supersymmetric standard models is known to be a promising candidate for dark matter in the Universe. Its phenomenological property is strongly affected by the gaugino fraction in the Higgsino-like state. If this is sizable, in other words, if gaugino masses are less than O (10) TeV, we may probe the Higgsino dark matter in future non-accelerator experiments such as dark matter direct searches and measurements of electric dipole moments. On the other hand, if gauginos are much heavier, then it is hard to search for Higgsino in these experiments. In this case, due to a lack of gaugino components, the mass difference between the neutral and charged Higgsinos is uniquely determined by electroweak interactions to be around 350 MeV, which makes the heavier charged state rather long-lived, with a decay length of about 1 cm. In this letter, we argue that a charged particle with a flight length of O (1) cm can be probed in disappearing-track searches if we require only two hits in the pixel detector. Even in this case, we can reduce background events with the help of the displaced-vertex reconstruction technique. We study the prospects of this search strategy at the LHC and future colliders for the Higgsino dark matter scenario. It is found that an almost pure Higgsino is indeed within the reach of the future 33 TeV collider experiments. We then discuss that the interplay among collider and non-accelerator experiments plays a crucial role in testing the Higgsino dark matter scenarios. Our strategy for disappearing-track searches can also enlarge the discovery potential of pure wino dark matter as well as other electroweak-charged dark matter candidates.

  13. Observation of W associated single top (tW) production and search for FCNC in tZ events in proton-proton collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Benelli, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    The first observation of the associated production of a single top quark and a $W$ boson in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC is presented. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 12.2 $\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$. The measurement is performed using events with two leptons and a jet originated from a b quark. A multivariate analysis based on kinematic properties is used to separate the signal from the $t\\bar{t}$ background. The signal is observed with a 6.0 standard deviation excess above a background only hypothesis.A production cross section of $23.4^{+5.5}_{-5.4}$ pb is measured, in agreement with the standard model expectation of $22.2\\pm1.5$ pb.\\\\A study of top-quark anomalous couplings is performed through the search for a single top-quark produced in association with a $Z$ boson. The event selection requires the presence of three isolated leptons, electrons or muons, and of at least one jet. The signal extraction is done using kinematic variables and i...

  14. Response of Land-Sea Interface in Xiamen Bay to Extreme Weather Events Observed with the Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array, a Multifunctional Sensors System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.; Hong, H.; Pan, W.; Zhang, C.

    2016-12-01

    Recent climate observations suggest that global climate change may result in an increase of extreme weather events (such as tropical cyclones, intense precipitation i.e. heavy rains) in frequency and/or intensity in certain world regions. Subtropical coastal regions are often densely populated areas experiencing rapid development and widespread changes to the aquatic environment. The biogeochemical and ecological responses of coastal systems to extreme weather events are of increasing concern. Enhanced river nutrients input following rain storms has been linked to the ecological responses at land-sea interface. These land-sea interactions can be studied using multifunctional sensors systems. In our study, the Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array, a monitoring system with multiple sensors, was deployed in Xiamen Bay for near real time measurements of different parameters. The Ecological Dynamic Buoy Array is a deep water net cage which functions in long-term synchronous observation of dynamic ecological characteristics with the support of an aerograph, water-watch, LOBO (Land/Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory), ADCP, CTD chain system, YSI vertical profiler, flow cytometer, sea surface camera, and "communication box". The study showed that rain storms during multiple typhoons resulted in greater fluctuations of salinity, N concentration, and other water environmental conditions, which might have been connected with algal blooms (so-called red tide) in Xiamen Bay.

  15. Observed and modelled effects of auroral precipitation on the thermal ionospheric plasma: comparing the MICA and Cascades2 sounding rocket events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, K. A.; Gayetsky, L.; Fernandes, P. A.; Zettergren, M. D.; Lessard, M.; Cohen, I. J.; Hampton, D. L.; Ahrns, J.; Hysell, D. L.; Powell, S.; Miceli, R. J.; Moen, J. I.; Bekkeng, T.

    2012-12-01

    Auroral precipitation can modify the ionospheric thermal plasma through a variety of processes. We examine and compare the events seen by two recent auroral sounding rockets carrying in situ thermal plasma instrumentation. The Cascades2 sounding rocket (March 2009, Poker Flat Research Range) traversed a pre-midnight poleward boundary intensification (PBI) event distinguished by a stationary Alfvenic curtain of field-aligned precipitation. The MICA sounding rocket (February 2012, Poker Flat Research Range) traveled through irregular precipitation following the passage of a strong westward-travelling surge. Previous modelling of the ionospheric effects of auroral precipitation used a one-dimensional model, TRANSCAR, which had a simplified treatment of electric fields and did not have the benefit of in situ thermal plasma data. This new study uses a new two-dimensional model which self-consistently calculates electric fields to explore both spatial and temporal effects, and compares to thermal plasma observations. A rigorous understanding of the ambient thermal plasma parameters and their effects on the local spacecraft sheath and charging, is required for quantitative interpretation of in situ thermal plasma observations. To complement this TRANSCAR analysis we therefore require a reliable means of interpreting in situ thermal plasma observation. This interpretation depends upon a rigorous plasma sheath model since the ambient ion energy is on the order of the spacecraft's sheath energy. A self-consistent PIC model is used to model the spacecraft sheath, and a test-particle approach then predicts the detector response for a given plasma environment. The model parameters are then modified until agreement is found with the in situ data. We find that for some situations, the thermal plasma parameters are strongly driven by the precipitation at the observation time. For other situations, the previous history of the precipitation at that position can have a stronger

  16. Common cortical responses evoked by appearance, disappearance and change of the human face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kida Tetsuo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To segregate luminance-related, face-related and non-specific components involved in spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activations to a face stimulus, we recorded cortical responses to face appearance (Onset, disappearance (Offset, and change (Change using magnetoencephalography. Results Activity in and around the primary visual cortex (V1/V2 showed luminance-dependent behavior. Any of the three events evoked activity in the middle occipital gyrus (MOG at 150 ms and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ at 250 ms after the onset of each event. Onset and Change activated the fusiform gyrus (FG, while Offset did not. This FG activation showed a triphasic waveform, consistent with results of intracranial recordings in humans. Conclusion Analysis employed in this study successfully segregated four different elements involved in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activations in response to a face stimulus. The results show the responses of MOG and TPJ to be associated with non-specific processes, such as the detection of abrupt changes or exogenous attention. Activity in FG corresponds to a face-specific response recorded by intracranial studies, and that in V1/V2 is related to a change in luminance.

  17. Spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula disappeared following cobalt 60 irradiation. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Toru; Yamamoto, Yuji; Asari, Syoji (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital, Ehime (Japan))

    1983-12-01

    The authors reported a case of spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula fed by meningohypophyseal trunk of the internal carotid artery, that completely disappeared following cobalt 60 irradiation to the region of fistula (27 days; total dose, 4,100 rad). A 65-year-old man was admitted to our hospital on May 25, 1982, with a two-week history of progressive prominence of the left eye, diplopia on left lateral gaze, and continuous intracranial bruit. He first noted redness of the left eye without apparent cause such as head trauma. On admission, slight nonpulsative exophthalmos, periorbital edema, chemosis, and venous congestion of the conjunctiva of the left eye were noted. The pupils were reactive and equal in size, and the left abducent nerve palsy was observed. Fundoscopic examination disclosed to be normal. No bruit was heard over the left orbital region. Left carotid angiography on May 28 demonstrated dural internal carotid-cavernous sinus fistula fed by meningohypophyseal trunk, and drained into superior and inferior ophthalmic veins and basilar venous plexus. Though the patient was treated only conservatively, symptoms became worse to decrease visual acuity. On July 14, we started cobalt 60 irradiation to the region of fistula (27 days; total dose 4,100 rad). Symptoms gradually improved about halfway through irradiation. After completion of irradiation, almost complete improvement of visual and ocular symptoms was observed except the left abducent nerve palsy. Repeated angiography on Aug. 20 revealed complete disappearance of fistula. Three months after treatment, no recurrence of symptoms was observed and the abducent nerve palsy persisted without improvement.

  18. Evaluation of NASA's MERRA Precipitation Product in Reproducing the Observed Trend and Distribution of Extreme Precipitation Events in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashouri, Hamed; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Hsu, Kuo-Lin; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Lee, Jaechoul; Wehner, Michael F.; Collow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) precipitation product in reproducing the trend and distribution of extreme precipitation events. Utilizing the extreme value theory, time-invariant and time-variant extreme value distributions are developed to model the trends and changes in the patterns of extreme precipitation events over the contiguous United States during 1979-2010. The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) U.S.Unified gridded observation data are used as the observational dataset. The CPC analysis shows that the eastern and western parts of the United States are experiencing positive and negative trends in annual maxima, respectively. The continental-scale patterns of change found in MERRA seem to reasonably mirror the observed patterns of change found in CPC. This is not previously expected, given the difficulty in constraining precipitation in reanalysis products. MERRA tends to overestimate the frequency at which the 99th percentile of precipitation is exceeded because this threshold tends to be lower in MERRA, making it easier to be exceeded. This feature is dominant during the summer months. MERRA tends to reproduce spatial patterns of the scale and location parameters of the generalized extreme value and generalized Pareto distributions. However, MERRA underestimates these parameters, particularly over the Gulf Coast states, leading to lower magnitudes in extreme precipitation events. Two issues in MERRA are identified: 1) MERRA shows a spurious negative trend in Nebraska and Kansas, which is most likely related to the changes in the satellite observing system over time that has apparently affected the water cycle in the central United States, and 2) the patterns of positive trend over the Gulf Coast states and along the East Coast seem to be correlated with the tropical cyclones in these regions. The analysis of the trends in the seasonal precipitation extremes indicates that

  19. [Disappearance of essential neck tremor after pontine base infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushitani, M; Inoue, H; Kawamura, K; Kageyama, T; Fujisawa, M; Nishinaka, K; Udaka, F; Kameyama, M

    1996-08-01

    Mechanism of essential tremor remains unknown. Central oscillators, postulated in thalamus, inferior olive, and spinal cord are thought to be important to form rhythmicity, and finally to stimulate spinal or medullary motor cells, leading trembling muscle contraction, tremor. Among several subtypes of essential familial tremor, including hand tremor, neck tremor, and voice tremor, essential neck tremor is a common disorder, and its pathophysiology seems different from that of typical essential hand tremor, since patients with essential hand tremor are responsive to beta blocker, whereas those with neck tremor are usually not. We experienced a 41-year-old left handed woman with essential neck tremor in whom neck titubation disappeared shortly after pontine base infarct. She was our patient in the outpatient clinic with the diagnosis of essential neck tremor. The tremor developed when she was teenage, and has been localized in the neck muscles. Alcohol intake had apparently diminished it transiently. Her mother also had the tremor in her neck. She was admitted to our hospital with sudden onset of right-sided limb weakness and speech disturbance. Neurological examination showed right hemiparesis including the ipsilateral face, scanning speech, and cerebellar limb ataxia on the same side. In addition, there was no tremor in her neck. Brain MR imaging revealed a pontine base infarct at the level of middle pons, which was consistent with paramedian artery territory. The hemiparesis and speech disturbance improved almost completely after treatment, and her neck tremor has never occurred in one year follow-up. In our patient, efficacy of alcohol imply that essential neck tremor and hand tremor had same central nervous pathway including central oscillator in common, and descending cortical fibers is seemingly associated with diminishing patient's tremor. Pathophysiology of essential neck tremor was discussed with reviewing previous literature.

  20. Conflicting results between randomized trials and observational studies on the impact of proton pump inhibitors on cardiovascular events when coadministered with dual antiplatelet therapy: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melloni, Chiara; Washam, Jeffrey B; Jones, W Schuyler; Halim, Sharif A; Hasselblad, Victor; Mayer, Stephanie B; Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Dolor, Rowena J

    2015-01-01

    Discordant results have been reported on the effects of concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for cardiovascular outcomes. We conducted a systematic review comparing the effectiveness and safety of concomitant use of PPIs and DAPT in the postdischarge treatment of unstable angina/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients. We searched for clinical studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1995 to 2012. Reviewers screened and extracted data, assessed applicability and quality, and graded the strength of evidence. We performed meta-analyses of direct comparisons when outcomes and follow-up periods were comparable. Thirty-five studies were eligible. Five (4 randomized controlled trials and 1 observational) assessed the effect of omeprazole when added to DAPT; the other 30 (observational) assessed the effect of PPIs as a class when compared with no PPIs. Random-effects meta-analyses of the studies assessing PPIs as a class consistently reported higher event rates in patients receiving PPIs for various clinical outcomes at 1 year (composite ischemic end points, all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, stroke, revascularization, and stent thrombosis). However, the results from randomized controlled trials evaluating omeprazole compared with placebo showed no difference in ischemic outcomes, despite a reduction in upper gastrointestinal bleeding with omeprazole. Large, well-conducted observational studies of PPIs and randomized controlled trials of omeprazole seem to provide conflicting results for the effect of PPIs on cardiovascular outcomes when coadministered with DAPT. Prospective trials that directly compare pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical events among specific PPI agents in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with DAPT are warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. A Comparison of Independent Event-Related Desynchronization Responses in Motor-Related Brain Areas to Movement Execution, Movement Imagery, and Movement Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duann, Jeng-Ren; Chiou, Jin-Chern

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) event-related desynchronization (ERD) induced by movement imagery or by observing biological movements performed by someone else has recently been used extensively for brain-computer interface-based applications, such as applications used in stroke rehabilitation training and motor skill learning. However, the ERD responses induced by the movement imagery and observation might not be as reliable as the ERD responses induced by movement execution. Given that studies on the reliability of the EEG ERD responses induced by these activities are still lacking, here we conducted an EEG experiment with movement imagery, movement observation, and movement execution, performed multiple times each in a pseudorandomized order in the same experimental runs. Then, independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to the EEG data to find the common motor-related EEG source activity shared by the three motor tasks. Finally, conditional EEG ERD responses associated with the three movement conditions were computed and compared. Among the three motor conditions, the EEG ERD responses induced by motor execution revealed the alpha power suppression with highest strengths and longest durations. The ERD responses of the movement imagery and movement observation only partially resembled the ERD pattern of the movement execution condition, with slightly better detectability for the ERD responses associated with the movement imagery and faster ERD responses for movement observation. This may indicate different levels of involvement in the same motor-related brain circuits during different movement conditions. In addition, because the resulting conditional EEG ERD responses from the ICA preprocessing came with minimal contamination from the non-related and/or artifactual noisy components, this result can play a role of the reference for devising a brain-computer interface using the EEG ERD features of movement imagery or observation.

  2. LOCAL INTERSTELLAR HYDROGEN'S DISAPPEARANCE AT 1 AU: FOUR YEARS OF IBEX IN THE RISING SOLAR CYCLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saul, Lukas; Rodríguez, Diego; Scheer, Juergen; Wurz, Peter; Bzowski, Maciej; Kubiak, Marzena; Sokół, Justina; Fuselier, Stephen; McComas, Dave; Möbius, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission has recently opened a new window on the interstellar medium (ISM) by imaging neutral atoms. One ''bright'' feature in the sky is the interstellar wind flowing into the solar system. Composed of remnants of stellar explosions as well as primordial gas and plasma, the ISM is by no means uniform. The interaction of the local ISM with the solar wind shapes our heliospheric environment with hydrogen being the dominant component of the very local ISM. In this paper, we report on direct sampling of the neutral hydrogen of the local ISM over four years of IBEX observations. The hydrogen wind observed at 1 AU has decreased and nearly disappeared as the solar activity has increased over the last four years; the signal at 1 AU has dropped off in 2012 by a factor of ∼8 to near background levels. The longitudinal offset has also increased with time presumably due to greater radiation pressure deflecting the interstellar wind. We present longitudinal and latitudinal arrival direction measurements of the bulk flow as measured over four years beginning at near solar minimum conditions. The H distribution we observe at 1 AU is expected to be different from that outside the heliopause due to ionization, photon pressure, gravity, and filtration by interactions with heliospheric plasma populations. These observations provide an important benchmark for modeling of the global heliospheric interaction. Based on these observations we suggest a further course of scientific action to observe neutral hydrogen over a full solar cycle with IBEX.

  3. Immunological measurements on the disappearance of creatine kinase MM from the circulation. [Immunoradiometric assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wevers, R A; van Landeghem, A A.J.; Mul-Steinbusch, M W.F.J.; Bijdendijk, J G; Weerts, P; Kloeg, P; Soons, J B.J. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1983-07-15

    Both a two-site immunoradiometric assay and a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for creatine kinase MM are described. Linearity, reproducibility and cross-reactivity of the assays are satisfactory. Creatine kinase MM incubated in a pH-controlled serum matrix loses its activity, but has its antigenic determinants affected as well. Of all the techniques used, only the immunoradiometric assay is capable of measuring part of the inactivated enzyme. Measurements with this assay on the sera of patients after a myocardial infarction show identical results for enzyme activity and creatine kinase protein quantity. The in vitro disappearance rate of creatine kinase activity is slow compared with the in vivo half-life of the enzyme. These two observations lead to the conclusion that creatine kinase is removed from the circulation long before it is inactivated in the blood stream.

  4. A measurement of muon neutrino disappearance with the MINOS detectors and NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanov, Rustem [Texas U.

    2008-08-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline two-detector neutrino oscillation experiment that uses a high intensity muon neutrino beam to investigate the phenomena of neutrino oscillations. The neutrino beam is produced by the NuMI facility at Fermilab, Batavia, Illinois, and is observed at near and far detectors placed 734 km apart. The neutrino interactions in the near detector are used to measure the initial muon neutrino fl The vast majority of neutrinos travel through the near detector and Earth matter without interactions. A fraction of muon neutrinos oscillate into other fl vors resulting in the disappearance of muon neutrinos at the far detector. This thesis presents a measurement of the muon neutrino oscillation parameters in the framework of the two-neutrino oscillation hypothesis.

  5. Immunological measurements on the disappearance of creatine kinase MM from the circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wevers, R.A.; Landeghem, A.A.J. van; Mul-Steinbusch, M.W.F.J.; Bijdendijk, J.G.; Weerts, P.; Kloeg, P.; Soons, J.B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Both a two-site immunoradiometric assay and a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for creatine kinase MM are described. Linearity, reproducibility and cross-reactivity of the assays are satisfactory. Creatine kinase MM incubated in a pH-controlled serum matrix loses its activity, but has its antigenic determinants affected as well. Of all the techniques used, only the immunoradiometric assay is capable of measuring part of the inactivated enzyme. Measurements with this assay on the sera of patients after a myocardial infarction show identical results for enzyme activity and creatine kinase protein quantity. The in vitro disappearance rate of creatine kinase activity is slow compared with the in vivo half-life of the enzyme. These two observations lead to the conclusion that creatine kinase is removed from the circulation long before it is inactivated in the blood stream. (Auth.)

  6. In situ observations of coral bleaching in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea during the 2015/2016 global coral bleaching event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Alison A; Ziegler, Maren; Roik, Anna; Röthig, Till; Hardenstine, Royale S; Emms, Madeleine A; Jensen, Thor; Voolstra, Christian R; Berumen, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Coral bleaching continues to be one of the most devastating and immediate impacts of climate change on coral reef ecosystems worldwide. In 2015, a major bleaching event was declared as the "3rd global coral bleaching event" by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, impacting a large number of reefs in every major ocean. The Red Sea was no exception, and we present herein in situ observations of the status of coral reefs in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea from September 2015, following extended periods of high temperatures reaching upwards of 32.5°C in our study area. We examined eleven reefs using line-intercept transects at three different depths, including all reefs that were surveyed during a previous bleaching event in 2010. Bleaching was most prevalent on inshore reefs (55.6% ± 14.6% of live coral cover exhibited bleaching) and on shallower transects (41% ± 10.2% of live corals surveyed at 5m depth) within reefs. Similar taxonomic groups (e.g., Agariciidae) were affected in 2015 and in 2010. Most interestingly, Acropora and Porites had similar bleaching rates (~30% each) and similar relative coral cover (~7% each) across all reefs in 2015. Coral genera with the highest levels of bleaching (>60%) were also among the rarest (coral cover) in 2015. While this bodes well for the relative retention of coral cover, it may ultimately lead to decreased species richness, often considered an important component of a healthy coral reef. The resultant long-term changes in these coral reef communities remain to be seen.

  7. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single Event Effect(SEE)Performance on Orbview-2 and Xray Timing Explorer(XTE)Solid State Recorders (SSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Ken A.; Gee, George; Safren, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Single Event Effect (SEE) in-flight data on Solid State Recorders (SSR) that have been collected over a long period of time for two NASA spacecraft: Orbview-2 and XTE. SEE flight data on solid-state memories give an opportunity to study the behavior in space of SEE sensitive commercial devices. The actual Single Event Upset (SEU) rates can be compared with the calculated rates based on environment models and ground test data. The SEE mitigation schemes can also be evaluated in actual implementation. A significant amount of data has already been published concerning observed SEE effects on memories in space. However, most of the data presented cover either a short period of time or a small number of devices. The data presented here has been collected on a large number of devices during several years. This allows statistically significant information about the effect of space weather fluctuations on SEU rates, and the effectiveness of SEE countermeasures used to be analyzed. Only Orbview-2 data is presented in this summary. XTE data will be included in the final paper.

  8. Exploring the influence of citizen involvement on the assimilation of crowdsourced observations: a modelling study based on the 2013 flood event in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Cortes Arevalo, Vivian Juliette; Wehn, Uta; Alfonso, Leonardo; Norbiato, Daniele; Monego, Martina; Ferri, Michele; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2018-01-01

    To improve hydrological predictions, real-time measurements derived from traditional physical sensors are integrated within mathematic models. Recently, traditional sensors are being complemented with crowdsourced data (social sensors). Although measurements from social sensors can be low cost and more spatially distributed, other factors like spatial variability of citizen involvement, decreasing involvement over time, variable observations accuracy and feasibility for model assimilation play an important role in accurate flood predictions. Only a few studies have investigated the benefit of assimilating uncertain crowdsourced data in hydrological and hydraulic models. In this study, we investigate the usefulness of assimilating crowdsourced observations from a heterogeneous network of static physical, static social and dynamic social sensors. We assess improvements in the model prediction performance for different spatial-temporal scenarios of citizen involvement levels. To that end, we simulate an extreme flood event that occurred in the Bacchiglione catchment (Italy) in May 2013 using a semi-distributed hydrological model with the station at Ponte degli Angeli (Vicenza) as the prediction-validation point. A conceptual hydrological model is implemented by the Alto Adriatico Water Authority and it is used to estimate runoff from the different sub-catchments, while a hydraulic model is implemented to propagate the flow along the river reach. In both models, a Kalman filter is implemented to assimilate the crowdsourced observations. Synthetic crowdsourced observations are generated for either static social or dynamic social sensors because these measures were not available at the time of the study. We consider two sets of experiments: (i) assuming random probability of receiving crowdsourced observations and (ii) using theoretical scenarios of citizen motivations, and consequent involvement levels, based on population distribution. The results demonstrate the

  9. A flux transfer event observed at the magnetopause by the Equator-S spacecraft and in the ionosphere by the CUTLASS HF radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Neudegg

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Observations of a flux transfer event (FTE have been made simultaneously by the Equator-S spacecraft near the dayside magnetopause whilst corresponding transient plasma flows were seen in the near-conjugate polar ionosphere by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar. Prior to the occurrence of the FTE, the magnetometer on the WIND spacecraft ~226 RE upstream of the Earth in the solar wind detected a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF which is estimated to have reached the subsolar magnetopause ~77 min later. Shortly afterwards the Equator-S magnetometer observed a typical bipolar FTE signature in the magnetic field component normal to the magnetopause, just inside the magnetosphere. Almost simultaneously the CUTLASS Finland radar observed a strong transient flow in the F region plasma between 78° and 83° magnetic latitude, near the ionospheric region predicted to map along geomagnetic field lines to the spacecraft. The flow signature (and the data set as a whole is found to be fully consistent with the view that the FTE was formed by a burst of magnetopause reconnection.Key words. Interplanetary physics (ionosphere-magnetosphere interaction · Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  10. An adverse event in a well-established cervical cancer screening program: an observational study of 19,000 females unsubscribed to the program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen MB

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Mette Bach Larsen,1 Hans Svanholm,1,2 Berit Andersen1 1Department of Public Health Programmes, 2Department of Pathology, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers, Denmark Introduction: In Denmark, an organized approach to cervical cancer screening has had national coverage since 1998. However, in 2013, it was discovered that 19,000 females had been unsubscribed from the Danish National Cervical Cancer Screening Program and had thus not received invitations or reminders as recommended by the health authorities. The study aims to report the essence of this adverse event and describe the outcomes of reestablishing invitations in terms of participation rates and screening results. Furthermore, patient compensations to affected females diagnosed with cervical cancer and coverage in the mass media was reported.Methods: An observational study based on information from the Danish Pathology Databank, the Department of Public Health Programs, and Infomedia (a Danish database of media coverage was carried out.Results: A total of 19,106 females were affected. Of those still in the screening age, 37.7% had been tested within 3 years or 5 years despite not receiving any invitation. A total of 21.6% reconfirmed their status as unsubscribed. Of the remaining females, 55.6% were tested within a year, and 94.6% of these test results were normal. Among females aged >64 years, 12.7% accepted the offer of a final screening test. Totally, 90% of these tests were normal. Nineteen females diagnosed with cervical cancer were compensated by the Danish Patient Compensation Association with a total of €693,000, ranging from €8,900 to €239,700. Coverage of cervical cancer screening in the mass media increased from 25 items in the 3 months prior to this adverse event to 590 items in the month when it became public.Conclusion: Even though more than one-third of the affected females were tested despite not receiving regular invitations to participate in the screening

  11. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  12. A comparison of the physical properties of desert dust retrieved from the sunphotometer observation of major events in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Mohamed; Alfaro, Sté phane C.; El Metwally, Mossad

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The objective of this work is to assess the variability of the size-distribution, real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the refractive index, asymmetry parameter (g), and single scattering albedo (SSA) of desert dust events observed in the Sahara, Sahel, and Arabian Peninsula areas. For this we use the level-2 inversions of 14 AERONET sunphotometers representative of the area of study. In the dataset, the dust-dominated events are discriminated on the basis of their large optical depth and low (<. 0.3) Ångström exponent (α) calculated between 440. nm and 870. nm. In all the volume size-distributions a coarse mode (CM) of particles is observed but a fine mode (FM) of particles with radii. <. 0.2. μm is also present. The volume fraction represented by the FM is lower (3%) during the most intense dust storms than during moderate ones (12%). The inter-site variability of the characteristics of the CM-dominated situations is found to be non-significant and at 440, 675, 870, and 1020. nm a common set of values can be adopted for n (1.54 ± 0.03, 1.53 ± 0.02, 1.50 ± 0.02, 1.48 ± 0.02), k (0.0037 ± 0.0007, 0.0012 ± 0.0002, 0.0011 ± 0.0002, 0.0012 ± 0.0002), g (0.77 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01, 0.73 ± 0.01, 0.74 ± 0.01), and the SSA (0.90 ± 0.02, 0.97 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01, 0.98 ± 0.01). However; during the less intense dust-events the growing influence of the FM leads to regional differentiation of the dust properties and 2 main areas can be distinguished: 1) the relatively clean central Sahara/Sahel, and 2) the more polluted continuum constituted by the Mediterranean coast and the Arabian Peninsula.

  13. In-situ, sunphotometer and Raman lidar observations of aerosol transport events in the western Mediterranean during the June 2013 ChArMEx campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totems, Julien; Sicard, Michael; Bertolin, Santi; Boytard, Mai-Lan; Chazette, Patrick; Comeron, Adolfo; Dulac, Francois; Hassanzadeh, Sahar; Lange, Diego; Marnas, Fabien; Munoz, Constantino; Shang, Xiaoxia

    2014-05-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of aerosol observations performed in June 2013 in the western Mediterranean at two stations set up in Barcelona and Menorca (Spain) in the framework of the ChArMEx (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment) project. The Barcelona station was equipped with the following fixed instruments belonging to the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC): an AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sun-photometer, an MPL (Micro Pulse Lidar) lidar and the UPC multi-wavelength lidar. The MPL lidar works at 532 nm and has a depolarization channel, while the UPC lidar works at 355, 532 and 1064 nm, and also includes two N2- (at 387 and 607 nm) and one H2O-Raman (at 407 nm) channels. The MPL system works continuously 24 hour/day. The UPC system was operated on alert in coordination with the research aircrafts plans involved in the campaign. In Cap d'en Font, Menorca, the mobile laboratory of the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement hosted an automated (AERONET) and a manual (Microtops) 5-lambda sunphotometer, a 3-lambda nephelometer, a 7-lambda aethalometer, as well as the LSCE Water vapor Aerosol LIdar (WALI). This mini Raman lidar, first developed and validated for the HyMEX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) campaign in 2012, works at 355 nm for eye safety and is designed with a short overlap distance (the lower troposphere. It includes depolarization, N2- and H2O-Raman channels. H2O observations have been calibrated on-site by different methods and show good agreement with balloon measurements. Observations at Cap d'en Font were quasi-continuous from June 10th to July 3rd, 2013. The lidar data at both stations helped direct the research aircrafts and balloon launches to interesting plumes of particles in real time for in-situ measurements. Among some light pollution background from the European continent, a typical Saharan dust event and an unusual American dust/biomass burning event are highlighted in our

  14. Observed Variability of Tsunamigenic Potential of Enormous Submarine Landslides Explained Through Modeling - A Comparison of the Holocene Storegga and Trænadjupet Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvholt, F.; Kim, J.; Laberg, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    The continental margin offshore Norway have experienced a range of giant submarine landslides having volumes ranging from hundreds to thousands of km3. The most recent and well documented of these events, are the 4500 BP Trænadjupet and the 8100 BP Storegga landslides. Both of these landslides are clay-rich, and involve common features such as retrogressive mass and momentum release mechanisms and weak layers that affect the tsunami generation. The retrogressive behaviour involved the release of several slide blocks which made the multistage failure and landslide evolution complex. The Storegga Slide reveals a rich and well documented onshore footprint in terms of paleotsunami deposits along the coastlines of Denmark, UK, the Faroe Islands, and Norway. In striking contrast, there exists no firm evidence of similar paleotsunami deposits from the younger Trænadjupet landslide. Here, we use a suit of new retrogressive and viscoplastic landslide models to simulate the run-out of both of these landslide events, and then couple the landslide to dispersive tsunami models. By using the new landslide models, we are able to obtain a better agreement with the observed paleotsunami deposits from the Storegga Slide compared to previous studies, and at the same time, to link the results to a landslide model that comply better with the slide morphology. Using the landslide model and soil parameters established for the Storegga Slide as the starting point, we set up a similar set of model scenarios for the Trænadjupet Slide. We discuss how the scenarios for the Trænadjupet landslide with different soil parameters produce different landslide velocities and tsunami heights. We then compare the resulting tsunami heights with constraints from the lack of onshore tsunami observations taking into account the contemporary shoreline position. Finally we briefly discuss the findings from the modeling in terms of both differences in tsunami observations and landslide morphology. The

  15. Rainfall and runoff Intensity-Duration-Frequency Curves for Washington State considering the change and uncertainty of observed and anticipated extreme rainfall and snow events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Mortuza, M. R.; Li, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The observed and anticipated increasing trends in extreme storm magnitude and frequency, as well as the associated flooding risk in the Pacific Northwest highlighted the need for revising and updating the local intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves, which are commonly used for designing critical water infrastructure. In Washington State, much of the drainage system installed in the last several decades uses IDF curves that are outdated by as much as half a century, making the system inadequate and vulnerable for flooding as seen more frequently in recent years. In this study, we have developed new and forward looking rainfall and runoff IDF curves for each county in Washington State using recently observed and projected precipitation data. Regional frequency analysis coupled with Bayesian uncertainty quantification and model averaging methods were used to developed and update the rainfall IDF curves, which were then used in watershed and snow models to develop the runoff IDF curves that explicitly account for effects of snow and drainage characteristic into the IDF curves and related designs. The resulted rainfall and runoff IDF curves provide more reliable, forward looking, and spatially resolved characteristics of storm events that can assist local decision makers and engineers to thoroughly review and/or update the current design standards for urban and rural storm water management infrastructure in order to reduce the potential ramifications of increasing severe storms and resulting floods on existing and planned storm drainage and flood management systems in the state.

  16. Lower Hybrid Frequency Range Waves Generated by Ion Polarization Drift Due to Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves: Analysis of an Event Observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of approximately 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD)parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic eld to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  17. The impact of different background errors in the assimilation of satellite radiances and in-situ observational data using WRFDA for three rainfall events over Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Zeinab; Azadi, Majid; Ghader, Sarmad

    2018-01-01

    Satellite radiances and in-situ observations are assimilated through Weather Research and Forecasting Data Assimilation (WRFDA) system into Advanced Research WRF (ARW) model over Iran and its neighboring area. Domain specific background error based on x and y components of wind speed (UV) control variables is calculated for WRFDA system and some sensitivity experiments are carried out to compare the impact of global background error and the domain specific background errors, both on the precipitation and 2-m temperature forecasts over Iran. Three precipitation events that occurred over the country during January, September and October 2014 are simulated in three different experiments and the results for precipitation and 2-m temperature are verified against the verifying surface observations. Results show that using domain specific background error improves 2-m temperature and 24-h accumulated precipitation forecasts consistently, while global background error may even degrade the forecasts compared to the experiments without data assimilation. The improvement in 2-m temperature is more evident during the first forecast hours and decreases significantly as the forecast length increases.

  18. Measurement of event-shape observables in Z→ℓ+ℓ− events in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Penc, Ondřej; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 7 (2016), 1-54, č. článku 375. ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : CERN LHC Coll * numerical calculations * Monte Carlo * thrust * ATLAS * event shape analysis * underlying event * kinematics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  19. Relative associations between depression and anxiety on adverse cardiovascular events: does a history of coronary artery disease matter? A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Roxanne; Bacon, Simon L; Arsenault, André; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Laurin, Catherine; Blais, Lucie; Lavoie, Kim L

    2015-12-15

    To assess whether depression and anxiety increase the risk of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), among patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). DECADE (Depression Effects on Coronary Artery Disease Events) is a prospective observational study of 2390 patients referred at the Montreal Heart Institute. Patients were followed for 8.8 years, between 1998 and 2009. Depression and anxiety were assessed using a psychiatric interview (Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders, PRIME-MD). Outcomes data were obtained from Quebec provincial databases. All-cause mortality and MACE. After adjustment for covariates, patients with depression were at increased risks of all-cause mortality (relative risk (RR)=2.84; 95% CI 1.25 to 6.49) compared with patients without depression. Anxiety was not associated with increased mortality risks (RR=0.86; 95% CI 0.31 to 2.36). When patients were stratified according to CAD status, depression increased the risk of mortality among patients with no CAD (RR=4.39; 95% CI 1.12 to 17.21), but not among patients with CAD (RR=2.32; 95% CI 0.78 to 6.88). Neither depression nor anxiety was associated with MACE among patients with or without CAD. Depression, but not anxiety, was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality in patients without CAD. The present study contributes to a better understanding of the relative and unique role of depression versus anxiety among patients with versus without CAD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Forced disappearance in an era of globalization: biopolitics, shadow networks, and imagined worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the practice of forced disappearance of persons on the part of paramilitary groups has become linked to specific processes of globalization. Global flows related to biopolitics, global crime networks, and dehumanizing imaginations reproduced by mass media together constitute a driving force behind forced disappearances. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the Colombian city of Medellín, I analyze how these global flows interact with local armed actors, helping create a climate conducive to forced disappearance. These mechanisms in Colombia show similarities to those in some African and Asian countries. Gaining insight into the mechanisms behind forced disappearance may help prevent it from occurring in the future. Enhancing social inclusion of residents, unraveling the transnational crime networks in which perpetrators are involved, and disseminating rehumanizing images of victims all contribute to curbing the practice of forced disappearance.

  1. Combination of High Rate, Real-time GNSS and Accelerometer Observations - Preliminary Results Using a Shake Table and Historic Earthquake Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Zimakov, Leonid; Raczka, Jared

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental requirements of an Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) system (and other mission critical applications) is to quickly detect and process the information from the strong motion event, i.e. event detection and location, magnitude estimation, and the peak ground motion estimation at the defined targeted site, thus allowing the civil protection authorities to provide pre-programmed emergency response actions: Slow down or stop rapid transit trains and high-speed trains; shutoff of gas pipelines and chemical facilities; stop elevators at the nearest floor; send alarms to hospitals, schools and other civil institutions. An important question associated with the EEW system is: can we measure displacements in real time with sufficient accuracy? Scientific GNSS networks are moving towards a model of real-time data acquisition, storage integrity, and real-time position and displacement calculations. This new paradigm allows the integration of real-time, high-rate GNSS displacement information with acceleration and velocity data to create very high-rate displacement records. The mating of these two instruments allows the creation of a new, very high-rate (200 Hz) displacement observable that has the full-scale displacement characteristics of GNSS and high-precision dynamic motions of seismic technologies. It is envisioned that these new observables can be used for earthquake early warning studies and other mission critical applications, such as volcano monitoring, building, bridge and dam monitoring systems. REF TEK a Division of Trimble has developed the integrated GNSS/Accelerograph system, model 160-09SG, which consists of REF TEK's fourth generation electronics, a 147-01 high-resolution ANSS Class A accelerometer, and Trimble GNSS receiver and antenna capable of real time, on board Precise Point Positioning (PPP) techniques with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered to the receiver directly via L-band satellite communications. The test we

  2. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as they are dangerous to cruise it over

  3. Temporal consistency of lidar observations during aerosol transport events in the framework of the ChArMEx/ADRIMED campaign at Minorca in June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chazette

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed synergetic daytime and nighttime active and passive remote-sensing observations at Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain, over more than 3 weeks during the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect in the Mediterranean (ChArMEx/ADRIMED special observation period (SOP 1a, June–July 2013. We characterized the aerosol optical properties and type in the low and middle troposphere using an automated procedure combining Rayleigh–Mie–Raman lidar (355, 387 and 407 nm with depolarization (355 nm and AERONET Cimel® sun-photometer data. Results show a high variability due to varying dynamical forcing. The mean column-averaged lidar backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER was close to 0.024 sr−1 (lidar ratio of  ∼ 41.7 sr, with a large dispersion of ±33 % over the whole observation period due to changing atmospheric transport regimes and aerosol sources. The ground-based remote-sensing measurements, coupled with satellite observations, allowed the documentation of (i dust particles up to 5 km (above sea level in altitude originating from Morocco and Algeria from 15 to 18 June with a peak in aerosol optical thickness (AOT of 0.25 ± 0.05 at 355 nm, (ii a long-range transport of biomass burning aerosol (AOT  =  0.18 ± 0.16 related to North American forest fires detected from 26 to 28 June 2013 by the lidar between 2 and 7 km and (iii mixture of local sources including marine aerosol particles and pollution from Spain. During the biomass burning event, the high value of the particle depolarization ratio (8–14 % may imply the presence of dust-like particles mixed with the biomass burning aerosols in the mid-troposphere. For the field campaign period, we also show linearity with SEVIRI retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness despite 35 % relative bias, which is discussed as a function of aerosol type.

  4. Measurement of jet substructure observables in $\\mathrm{t \\bar t}$ events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement of differential jet substructure observables is presented using $\\mathrm{t \\bar t}$ lepton+jets events from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13~\\mathrm{TeV}$ recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $35.9~\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$. Multiple jet substructure variables, such as the particle multiplicity, width, eccentricity, $p_\\mathrm{T}$ dispersion, N-subjettiness ratios, generalized angularities, and energy correlation functions, are measured for inclusive jets, as well as for identified bottom, light-quark, and gluon jets from the $\\mathrm{t \\bar t}$ final state. The results are unfolded to the stable-particle level and compared to predictions from POWHEG interfaced with PYTHIA 8 and HERWIG 7.1, as well as from SHERPA 2 and DIRE. A reasonable agreement between the data and the Monte Carlo predictions is found. From a comparison of the jet width distribution to the prediction, it is shown that a lower value of the effective strong coupling in t...

  5. Measurement of colour flow using jet-pull observables in $t\\bar{t}$ events with the ATLAS experiment at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Previous phenomenological studies and measurements have shown that weighted angular moments derived from jet constituents encode the colour connections between initiating partons which seed the jets. This note presents measurements of two such distributions, the jet-pull angle and jet-pull magnitude, both of which are derived from the jet-pull-angular moment. The measurement is performed in $t\\bar{t}$ events with one leptonically decaying $W$ boson and one hadronically decaying $W$ boson using $36.1\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s} = 13 \\, \\text{TeV}$ delivered by the Large Hadron Collider. The observables are measured for two di-jet systems, corresponding to the colour-connected daughters of the $W$ boson and the two $b$-jets from the top quark decays. To allow the comparison of the measured distributions to colour model predictions, they are unfolded to particle level, thereby removing experimental effects introduced by the detector. In general, the observa...

  6. Health Resource Utilization Associated with Skeletal-Related Events in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer: A European Subgroup Analysis from an Observational, Multinational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Bahl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to increase the understanding of health resource utilization (HRU associated with skeletal-related events (SREs occurring in patients with bone metastases secondary to advanced prostate cancer. A total of 120 patients from Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom were enrolled in this observational study. They had bone metastases secondary to prostate cancer and had experienced at least one SRE in the 97 days before giving informed consent. HRU data were collected retrospectively for 97 days before enrolment and prospectively for up to 18–21 months. HRU, including the number and duration of inpatient hospitalizations, number of outpatient and emergency department visits and procedures, was independently attributed by investigators to an SRE. Of the 222 SREs included in this analysis, 26% were associated with inpatient stays and the mean duration per SRE was 21.4 days (standard deviation (SD 17.8 days. Overall, 174 SREs (78% required an outpatient visit and the mean number of visits per SRE was 4.6 (SD 4.6. All SREs are associated with substantial HRU. Preventing SREs in patients with advanced prostate cancer and bone metastases may help to reduce the burden to both patients and European healthcare systems.

  7. Measurement of colour flow using jet-pull observables in $t\\bar{t}$ events with the ATLAS experiment at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; Abouzeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Afik, Yoav; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akilli, Ece; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albicocco, Pietro; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Alderweireldt, Sara Caroline; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allaire, Corentin; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alvarez Piqueras, Damian; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante Eric; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amoroso, Simone; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anisenkov, Alexey; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque Espinosa, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahmani, Marzieh; Baluch Bahrasemani, Sina; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Keith; Bakker, Pepijn Johannes; Bakshi Gupta, Debottam; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Bandyopadhyay, Anjishnu; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barkeloo, Jason Tylor Colt; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, Joao; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bauer, Kevin Thomas; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Helge Christoph; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Ayda; Beddall, Andrew; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas Alfons; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Bergsten, Laura Jean; Beringer, Juerg; Berlendis, Simon Paul; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Besjes, Geert-jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Betti, Alessandra; Bevan, Adrian John; Beyer, Julien-christopher; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bindi, Marcello; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bittrich, Carsten; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boerner, Daniela; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bolz, Arthur Eugen; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Bonilla, Johan Sebastian; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozson, Adam James; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Braren, Frued; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Briglin, Daniel Lawrence; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel Andreas; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Bruno, Salvatore; Brunt, Benjamin Hylton; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burch, Tyler James; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burger, Angela Maria; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas; Buescher, Daniel; Buescher, Volker; Buschmann, Eric; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urban, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cai, Huacheng; Cairo, Valentina Maria; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carlson, Benjamin Taylor; Carminati, Leonardo; Carney, Rebecca; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carra, Sonia; Carrillo Montoya, German David; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casha, Albert Francis; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castelijn, Remco; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Celebi, Emre; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Wing Sheung; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Cheng; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jue; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Kingman; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chiu, Yu Him Justin; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Yun Sang; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chu, Ming Chung; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Michael Ryan; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Conde Muino, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Felix; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Corradi, Massimo; Corrigan, Eric Edward; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Costa, Maria Jose; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Creager, Rachael Ann; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vincent; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto Gomez, Ana Rosario; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuth, Jakub; Czekierda, Sabina; Czodrowski, Patrick; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dahbi, Salah-eddine; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; D'amen, Gabriele; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Daneri, Maria Florencia; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James Alexandros; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Daubney, Thomas; D'Auria, Saverio; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davis, Douglas; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vasconcelos Corga, Kevin; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Delmastro, Marco; Delporte, Charles; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Demarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; D'eramo, Louis; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Devesa, Maria Roberta; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Bello, Francesco Armando; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Petrillo, Karri Folan; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Dickinson, Jennet; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fido; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobre, Monica; Dodsworth, David; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Donini, Julien; D'Onofrio, Monica; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dreyer, Etienne; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte Campderros, Jorge; Dubinin, Filipp; Dubreuil, Arnaud; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducourthial, Audrey; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Duehrssen, Michael; Dulsen, Carsten; Dumancic, Mirta; Dumitriu, Ana Elena; Duncan, Anna Kathryn; Dunford, Monica; Duperrin, Arnaud; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Dueren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Duvnjak, Damir; Dyndal, Mateusz; Dziedzic, Bartosz Sebastian; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; El Kosseifi, Rima; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Epland, Matthew Berg; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Errede, Steven; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Estrada Pastor, Oscar; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Fabiani, Veronica; Facini, Gabriel John; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; FARRELL, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Feickert, Matthew; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Minyu; Fenton, Michael James; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Fiedler, Frank; Filipcic, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Rob Roy Mac Gregor; Flick, Tobias; Flierl, Bernhard Matthias; Flores, Lucas Macrorie; Flores Castillo, Luis; Fomin, Nikolai; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Foerster, Fabian Alexander; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia Maria; Freund, Benjamin; Spolidoro Freund, Werner; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz Pawel; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram; Gan, KK; Ganguly, Sanmay; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia Pascual, Juan Antonio; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gee, Norman; Geisen, Jannik; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Helene; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gessner, Gregor; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiacomi, Nico; Giannetti, Paola; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillberg, Dag Ingemar; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugliarelli, Gilberto; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giulini, Maddalena; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos; Gkountoumis, Panagiotis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian Maximilian Volker; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Goncalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Gama, Rafael; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; Gonnella, Francesco; Gonski, Julia Lynne; Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorisek, Andrej; Goshaw, Alfred; Goessling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gottardo, Carlo Alberto; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Goy, Corinne; Gozani, Eitan; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Graham, Emily Charlotte; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Chloe; Gray, Heather; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Jorn; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Grummer, Aidan; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guerguichon, Antinea; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Gugel, Ralf; Gui, Bin; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Wen; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gurbuz, Saime; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutelman, Benjamin Jacque; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Guzik, Marcin Pawel; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageboeck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Han, Kunlin; Han, Liang; Han, Shuo; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hance, Michael; Handl, David Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hankache, Robert; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, Eva; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew Straiton; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, Ahmed; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havener, Laura Brittany; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heer, Sebastian; Heidegger, Kim Katrin; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon Frank-thomas; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Held, Alexander; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernandez Jimenez, Yesenia; Herr, Holger; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Herwig, Theodor Christian; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Higashino, Satoshi; Higon-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hildebrand, Kevin; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hils, Maximilian; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hiti, Bojan; Hladik, Ondrej; Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; Hoad, Xanthe; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Hohov, Dmytro; Holmes, Tova Ray; Holzbock, Michael; Homann, Michael; Honda, Shunsuke; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter Howard; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hostiuc, Alexandru; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hrdinka, Julia; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Huhtinen, Mika; Hunter, Robert Francis; Huo, Peng; Hupe, Andre Marc; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Hyneman, Rachel; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iguchi, Ryunosuke; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Iltzsche Speiser, Franziska; Introzzi, Gianluca; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Isacson, Max Fredrik; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Paul; Jacobs, Ruth Magdalena; Jain, Vivek; Jakel, Gunnar; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Janus, Piotr Andrzej; Jarlskog, Goeran; Javadov, Namig; Javurek, Tomas; Javurkova, Martina; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jelinskas, Adomas; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jezequel, Stephane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Zihao; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, Christian; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Roger; Jones, Samuel David; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanjir, Luka; Kano, Yuya; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawade, Kentaro; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kay, Ellis Fawn; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John Stakely; Kellermann, Edgar; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kendrick, James Andrew; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kersten, Susanne; Kersevan, Borut Paul; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khodinov, Alexander; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kiehn, Moritz; Kilby, Callum Robert; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; Kirchmeier, David; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitali, Vincent; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klapdor-kleingrothaus, Thorwald; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klingl, Tobias; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klitzner, Felix Fidelio; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith B F G; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Natalia; Koeneke, Karsten; Koenig, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Konya, Balazs; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Konstantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Koulouris, Aimilianos; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kourlitis, Evangelos; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitrii; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Krauss, Dominik; Kremer, Jakub Andrzej; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Jiri; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krueger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kulinich, Yakov Petrovich; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kupfer, Tobias; Kuprash, Oleg; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurth, Matthew Glenn; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; La Ruffa, Francesco; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lack, David Philip John; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Joern Christian; Langenberg, Robert Johannes; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Lapertosa, Alessandro; Laplace, Sandrine; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Lau, Tak Shun; Laudrain, Antoine; Law, Alexander Thomas; Laycock, Paul; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi Paul; Leblanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee JR, Lawrence; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Les, Robert; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Leveque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Quanyin; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lie, Ki; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Chiao-ying; Lin, Kuan-yu; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-hua; Linck, Rebecca Anne; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Jesse Kar Kee; Liu, Kun; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Peilian; Liu, Yanwen; Liu, Yanlin; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo, Cheuk Yee; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Loebinger, Fred; Loesle, Alena; Loew, Kevin Michael; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopez Lopez, Jorge Andres; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Losel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lu, Yun-Ju; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Fred; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lutz, Margaret Susan; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyu, Feng; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, LianLiang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Madysa, Nico; Maeda, Jumpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magerl, Veronika; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amelia; Majersky, Oliver; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandic, Igor; Maneira, Jose; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mankinen, Katja Hannele; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Marceca, Gino; March Ruiz, Luis; Marchese, Luigi; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel Edison; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martensson, Ulf Fredrik Mikael; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Christopher Blake; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez Perez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Mason, Lara Hannan; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Maettig, Peter; Maurer, Julien; Macek, Bostjan; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Maznas, Ioannis; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie Iain; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Joshua Angus; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; Mcnamara, Peter Charles; Mcnicol, Christopher John; McPherson, Robert; Meadows, Zachary Alden; Meehan, Samuel; Megy, Theo Jean; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meideck, Thomas; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mellenthin, Johannes Donatus; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Melzer, Alexander; Menary, Stephen Burns; Meng, Lingxin; Meng, Xiangting; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Merlassino, Claudia; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijovic, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuz, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Millar, Declan Andrew; Miller, David; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirto, Alessandro; Mistry, Khilesh Pradip; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mizukami, Atsushi; Mjoernmark, Jan-Ulf; Mkrtchyan, Tigran; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mogg, Philipp; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Moenig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llacer, Maria; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moschovakos, Paraschos; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Harry James; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey Andre; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murin, Pavel; Murray, Bill; Muskinja, Miha; Mwewa, Chilufya; Myagkov, Alexey; Myers, John; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara Jean May; Nelson, Michael Edward; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Newman, Paul; Ng, Tsz Yu; Ng, Yan Wing; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishu, Nishu; Nisius, Richard; Nitsche, Isabel; Nitta, Tatsumi; Nobe, Takuya; Noguchi, Yohei; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nomura, Marcelo Ayumu; Nooney, Tamsin; Nordberg, Markus; BIN NORJOHARUDDEEN, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Novotny, Radek; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Abreu Juliao Ochoa De Castro, Maria Ines; Ochoa, Jean-pierre; O'Connor, Kelsey; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver, Jason Lea; Olsson, Mats Joakim Robert; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; O'Neil, Dugan; Onofre, Antonio; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oppen, Henrik; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orgill, Emily Claire; Orlando, Nicola; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; O'Shea, Val; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panagoulias, Ilias; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; 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Ruehr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Russell, Heather Lynn; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ruttinger, Elias Michael; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Masahiko; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sampsonidou, Despoina; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Pineda, Arturo Rodolfo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Christian Oliver; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval Usme, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sano, Yuta; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, Joao; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawada, Ryu; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Timothy Paul; Scannicchio, Diana; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaefer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schenck, Ferdinand; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schildgen, Lara Katharina; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Enrico Junior; Schioppa, Marco; Schleicher, Katharina; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schouwenberg, Jeroen; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Sciandra, Andrea; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scornajenghi, Matteo; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Scyboz, Ludovic Michel; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seixas, Jose; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen Jacob; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Senkin, Sergey; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Severini, Horst; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shahinian, Jeffrey David; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Shen, Yu-Ting; Sherafati, Nima; Sherman, Alexander David; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shipsey, Ian Peter Joseph; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shlomi, Jonathan; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sideras Haddad, Elias; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, Jose Manuel; Silva, Manuel Jr; Silverstein, Samuel; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Siral, Ismet; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjoelin, Joergen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Nikita; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffa, Aaron Michael; Soffer, Abner; Sogaard, Andreas; Su, Daxian; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila- Serrano, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Weimin; Sopczak, Andre; Sopkova, Filomena; Sosa Corral, David Eduardo; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Sottocornola, Simone; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin Charles; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spano, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spieker, Thomas Malte; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapf, Birgit Sylvia; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon Holtsberg; Stark, Jan; Stark, Simon Holm; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staerz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Stegler, Martin; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stevenson, Thomas James; Stewart, Graeme; Stockton, Mark; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara Kristina; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Stroehmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Struebig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultan, Dms; Sultanov, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Suruliz, Kerim; Suster, Carl; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian J; Swift, Stewart Patrick; Sydorenko, Alexander; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc Bao; Tackmann, Kerstin; Kinghorn-taenzer, Joseph Peter; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Tahirovic, Elvedin; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takasugi, Eric Hayato; Takeda, Kosuke; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarek Abouelfadl Mohamed, Ahmed; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarna, Grigore; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Alan James; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temple, Darren Brian; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thais, Savannah Jennifer; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothee; Thiele, Fabian; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Stan; Thompson, Paul; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Tian, Yun; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Todt, Stefanie; Tojo, Junji; Tokar, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia; Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torro Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Treado, Colleen Jennifer; Trefzger, Thomas; Tresoldi, Fabio; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocme, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsang, Ka Wa; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tulbure, Traian Tiberiu; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Turchikhin, Semen; Turgeman, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Uno, Kenta; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usui, Junya; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vadla, Knut Oddvar Hoie; Vaidya, Amal; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valente, Marco; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Vallier, Alexis Roger Louis; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; Van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varni, Carlo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez Arenas, Gerardo Alexis; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Furelos, David; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Ambrosius Thomas; Vermeulen, Jos; Vetterli, Michel; Viaux Maira, Nicolas; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vishwakarma, Akanksha; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Von Buddenbrock, Stefan Erich; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Sfiligoj, Tina; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Zenis, Tibor; Zivkovic, Lidija; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner-kuhr, Jeannine; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakamiya, Kotaro; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Ann Miao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Qing; Wang, Renjie; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zirui; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Aaron Foley; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stephen Albert; Weber, Sebastian Mario; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weirich, Marcel; Weiser, Christian; Wells, Pippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Weston, Thomas Daniel; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Aaron; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Whitmore, Ben William; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkels, Emma; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wobisch, Markus; Wolf, Anton; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolff, Robert; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Vincent Wai Sum; Woods, Natasha Lee; Worm, Steven; Wosiek, Barbara; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xi, Zhaoxu; Xia, Ligang; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Xu, Tairan; Xu, Wenhao; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yajima, Kazuki; Yallup, David Paul; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamane, Fumiya; Yamatani, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Siqi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau, Kaven; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yigitbasi, Efe; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Christopher John; Young, Charles; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuen, Stephanie Pui Yan; Bin Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zacharis, George; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zemaityte, Gabija; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zenin, Oleg; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Liqing; Zhang, Matt; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Maosen; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, You; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zhulanov, Vladimir; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zou, Rui; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2018-01-01

    Previous phenomenological studies and measurements have shown that weighted angular moments derived from jet constituents encode the colour connections between initiating partons that seed the jets. This paper presents measurements of two such distributions, the jet-pull angle and jet-pull magnitude, both of which are derived from the jet-pull angular moment. The measurement is performed in $t\\bar{t}$ events with one leptonically decaying $W$ boson and one hadronically decaying $W$ boson, using $36.1\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data recorded by the ATLAS detector at $\\sqrt{s} = 13$ TeV delivered by the Large Hadron Collider. The observables are measured for two dijet systems, corresponding to the colour-connected daughters of the $W$ boson and the two $b$-jets from the top-quark decays. To allow the comparison of the measured distributions to colour model predictions, the measured distributions are unfolded to stable-particle level, after correcting for experimental effects introduced by the detector...

  8. Modelling macroseismic observations for historical earthquakes: the cases of the M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazachos, Giannis; Papazachos, Costas; Skarlatoudis, Andreas; Kkallas, Harris; Lekkas, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to model the spatial distribution of the strong ground motion for the large M = 7.0, 1954 Sofades and M = 6.8, 1957 Velestino events (southern Thessaly basin, central Greece), using the macroseismic intensities ( I M M up to 9+) observed within the broader Thessaly area. For this reason, we employ a modified stochastic method realised by the EXSIM algorithm for extended sources, in order to reproduce the damage distribution of these earthquakes, in an attempt to combine existing earthquake information and appropriate scaling relations with surface geology and to investigate the efficiency of the available macroseismic data. For site-effects assessment, we use a new digital geological map of the broader Thessaly basin, where geological formations are grouped by age and mapped on appropriate NEHRP soil classes. Using the previous approach, we estimate synthetic time series for different rupture scenarios and employ various calibrating relations between PGA/PGV and macroseismic intensity, allowing the generation of synthetic (stochastic) isoseismals. Also, different site amplification factors proposed for the broader Aegean area, according to local geology, are tested. Finally, we also perform a sensitivity analysis of the fault location, taking into account the available neotectonic data for the broader southern Thessaly fault zone. The finally determined fault locations are different than previously proposed, in agreement with the available neotectonic information. The observed macroseismic intensities are in good agreement with the ones derived from the synthetic waveforms, verifying both the usefulness of the approach, as well as of the macroseismic data used. Finally, site-effects show clear correlation with the geological classification employed, with constant amplification factors for each soil class generally providing better results than generic transfer functions.

  9. Event classification with the electronic detectors of the OPERA experiment using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierholzer, Martin C.

    2012-02-01

    The OPERA experiment searches for ν μ ν τ oscillations in appearance mode. It uses the emulsion cloud chamber (ECC) technique for a high spatial resolution combined with on-line components for event localisation and muon identification. The analysis of events in an ECC detector takes considerable time, especially in case of ν τ /ν e candidate events. A ranking of events by a probability for being a ν τ /ν e event can speed up the analysis of the OPERA experiment. An algorithm for such an event ranking based on a classification-type neural network is presented in this thesis. Almost all candidate events can be found within the first 30% of the analysed events if the described ranking is applied. This event ranking is currently applied for testing purposes by the OPERA collaboration, a decision on a full application for the whole analysis is pending. A similar neural network is used for discrimination between neutral and charged current events. This is used to observe neutrino oscillations in disappearance mode with the on-line components of the OPERA detector by measuring the energy dependence of the fraction of neutral current interactions. The confidence level of the observed oscillation effect is 87%. Assuming full mixing, the mass splitting has been determined to vertical stroke Δm 2 32 vertical stroke =2.8 -1.7 +1.4 .10 -3 eV 2 .

  10. Dynamical contibution of Mean Potential Vorticity pseudo-observations derived from MetOp/GOME2 Ozone data into weather forecast, a Mediterranean High Precipitation Event study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbii, Siham; Zazoui, Mimoun; Semane, Noureddine

    2015-04-01

    In the absence of observations covering the upper troposphere - lower stratophere, headquarters of several disturbances, and knowing that satellites are uniquely capable of providing uniform data coverage globally, a methodology is followed [1] to convert Total Column Ozone, observed by MetOp/GOME2, into pseudo-observations of Mean Potential Vorticity (MPV). The aim is to study the dynamical impact of Ozone data in the prediction of a Mediterranean Heavy Precipitation Event observed during 28-29 September 2012 in the context of HYMEX1. This study builds on a previously described methodology [2] that generates numerical weather prediction model initial conditions from ozone data. Indeed, the assimilation of MPV in a 3D-var framework is based on a linear regression between observed Ozone and vertical integrated Ertel PV. The latter is calculated using dynamical fields from the moroccan operational limited area model ALADIN-MAROC according to [3]: δθ fp p0 -R δU δV P V = - gξaδp- g-R-(p )Cp [(δp-)2 + (δp-)2] (1) Where ξa is the vertical component of the absolute vorticity, U and V the horizontal wind components, θ the potential temperature, R gas constant, Cp specific heat at constant pressure, p the pressure, p0 a reference pressure, g the gravity and f is the Coriolis parameter. The MPV is estimated using the following expression: --1--∫ P2 M PV = P1 - P2 P P V.δp 1 (2) With P1 = 500hPa and P2 = 100hPa In the present study, the linear regression is performed over September 2012 with a correlation coefficient of 0.8265 and is described as follows: M P V = 5.314610- 2 *O3 - 13.445 (3) where O3 and MPV are given in Dobson Unit (DU) and PVU (1 PV U = 10-6 m2 K kg-1 s-1), respectively. It is found that the ozone-influenced upper-level initializing fields affect the precipitation forecast, as diagnosed by a comparison with the ECMWF model. References [1] S. Sbii, N. Semane, Y. Michel, P. Arbogast and M. Zazoui (2012). Using METOP/GOME-2 data and MSG ozone

  11. High resolution solar observations in the context of space weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo

    Space weather has a great impact on the Earth and human life. It is important to study and monitor active regions on the solar surface and ultimately to predict space weather based on the Sun's activity. In this study, a system that uses the full power of speckle masking imaging by parallel processing to obtain high-spatial resolution images of the solar surface in near real-time has been developed and built. The application of this system greatly improves the ability to monitor the evolution of solar active regions and to predict the adverse effects of space weather. The data obtained by this system have also been used to study fine structures on the solar surface and their effects on the upper solar atmosphere. A solar active region has been studied using high resolution data obtained by speckle masking imaging. Evolution of a pore in an active region presented. Formation of a rudimentary penumbra is studied. The effects of the change of the magnetic fields on the upper level atmosphere is discussed. Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) have a great impact on space weather. To study the relationship between CMEs and filament disappearance, a list of 431 filament and prominence disappearance events has been compiled. Comparison of this list with CME data obtained by satellite has shown that most filament disappearances seem to have no corresponding CME events. Even for the limb events, only thirty percent of filament disappearances are associated with CMEs. A CME event that was observed on March 20, 2000 has been studied in detail. This event did not show the three-parts structure of typical CMEs. The kinematical and morphological properties of this event were examined.

  12. Tonle Sap Lake Water Storage Change Over 24 Years From Satellite Observation and Its Link With Mekong River Discharge and Climate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancamaria, S.; Frappart, F.; Normandin, C.; Blarel, F.; Bourrel, L.; Aumont, M.; Azema, P.; Vu, P. L.; Lubac, B.; Darrozes, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Tonle Sap lake is the largest freshwater lake in Southeast Asia and is located within the Mekong basin (mainly in Cambodia). It is one of he most productive ecosystem of the world and provide two thirds of Cambodia fish catch. It also plays a unique role on the Mekong basin hydrological cycle: during the monsoon period, the Mekong river partially flows to the lake, whereas during the dry season, the lake flows to the Mekong delta. It is therefore crucial to monitor and take into account this lake to estimate Mekong discharge to the ocean. However, in situ measurements of lake level and river discharge are very sparse (especially during the last decades) and computing lake storage variation from in situ data only is difficult due to the huge annual variation of lake area. That's why, satellite data (nadir radar altimetry and visible imagery) have been used to study its volume variation and its relationship with climate events and Mekong river discharge. Multi-mission altimetry data have been extracted (Topex, ERS-2, ENVISAT, Jason-1, Jason-2, Saral and Jason-3, using CTOH data extraction tools) to derive a lake water level from1993 to 2016, which varies from 3 m to 12 m. Lake area have been computed from MODIS data from 2000 to 2016 and varies from 3,400 km2 to 11,800 km2. These dataset clearly shows a relationship between lake water level and area, which has been used to estimate lake water volume change from 1995 to 2016, with a minimum in 2015 and a maximum in 2011. Lake's droughts and floods can be observed during moderate and strong El Nino/La Nina events, enhanced by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Besides, comparison with in situ discharge at the outlet of the Mekong basin (over 1995/2000 time period) shows that lake water level is 20 days time lagged and increases/decreases after Mekong discharge at its outlet. This time lag results of Mekong river partially flowing to the lake. Finally, high correlation between lake level and outlet discharge allows to

  13. On the disappearance of superfluidity in helium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannink, G.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments to investigate the changes in superfluid properties when helium films become thinner are reported. A thin-film oscillator, formed by two large filmreservoirs connected by a long and narrow tube, is used to study both the mass transport properties and the third-sound phenomena. Both sets of data are analysed in the framework of a two-fluid model. Absolute values for the areal superfluid density are deduced from the results, and also the observation of friction in the film itself is briefly discussed. A series of additional measurements of the thermo-mechanical effect in the reservoirs, with the purpose of determing the thickness at which onset of superfluidity occurs, are also reported. Finally the overall picture of the film properties is discussed on the basis of a phase diagram of the observed mobilities. (Auth.)

  14. Disappearance of the telomere dysfunction-induced stress response in fully senescent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakkenist, Christopher J; Drissi, Rachid; Wu, Jing; Kastan, Michael B; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2004-06-01

    Replicative senescence is a natural barrier to cellular proliferation that is triggered by telomere erosion and dysfunction. Here, we demonstrate that ATM activation and H2AX-gamma nuclear focus formation are sensitive markers of telomere dysfunction in primary human fibroblasts. Whereas the activated form of ATM and H2AX-gamma foci were rarely observed in early-passage cells, they were readily detected in late-passage cells. The ectopic expression of telomerase in late-passage cells abrogated ATM activation and H2AX-gamma focus formation, suggesting that these stress responses were the consequence of telomere dysfunction. ATM activation was induced in quiescent fibroblasts by inhibition of TRF2 binding to telomeres, indicating that telomere uncapping is sufficient to initiate the telomere signaling response; breakage of chromosomes with telomeric associations is not required for this activation. Although ATM activation and H2AX-gamma foci were readily observed in late-passage cells, they disappeared once cells became fully senescent, indicating that constitutive signaling from dysfunctional telomeres is not required for the maintenance of senescence.

  15. Rapid disappearance of a warm, dusty circumstellar disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, B; Rhee, Joseph H; Song, Inseok; Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2012-07-04

    Stars form with gaseous and dusty circumstellar envelopes, which rapidly settle into disks that eventually give rise to planetary systems. Understanding the process by which these disks evolve is paramount in developing an accurate theory of planet formation that can account for the variety of planetary systems discovered so far. The formation of Earth-like planets through collisional accumulation of rocky objects within a disk has mainly been explored in theoretical and computational work in which post-collision ejecta evolution typically is ignored, although recent work has considered the fate of such material. Here we report observations of a young, Sun-like star (TYC 8241 2652 1) where infrared flux from post-collisional ejecta has decreased drastically, by a factor of about 30, over a period of less than two years. The star seems to have gone from hosting substantial quantities of dusty ejecta, in a region analogous to where the rocky planets orbit in the Solar System, to retaining at most a meagre amount of cooler dust. Such a phase of rapid ejecta evolution has not been previously predicted or observed, and no currently available physical model satisfactorily explains the observations.

  16. Characteristics of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring: analysis of the ARCTAS, ARCPAC, and ARCIONS measurements and satellite BrO observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-H. Koo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ozone depletion events (ODEs are caused by halogen catalyzed ozone loss. In situ chemistry, advection of ozone-poor air mass, and vertical mixing in the lower troposphere are important factors affecting ODEs. To better characterize the ODEs, we analyze the combined set of surface, ozonesonde, and aircraft in situ measurements of ozone and bromine compounds during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS, the Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate (ARCPAC, and the Arctic Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study (ARCIONS experiments (April 2008. Tropospheric BrO columns retrieved from satellite measurements and back trajectory calculations are also used to investigate the characteristics of observed ODEs. In situ observations from these field experiments are inadequate to validate tropospheric BrO columns derived from satellite measurements. In view of this difficulty, we construct an ensemble of tropospheric column BrO estimates from two satellite (OMI and GOME-2 measurements and with three independent methods of calculating stratospheric BrO columns. Furthermore, we select analysis methods that do not depend on the absolute magnitude of column BrO, such as time-lagged correlation analysis of ozone and tropospheric column BrO, to understand characteristics of ODEs. Time-lagged correlation analysis between in situ (surface and ozonesonde measurements of ozone and satellite derived tropospheric BrO columns indicates that the ODEs are due to either local halogen-driven ozone loss or short-range (∼1 day transport from nearby regions with ozone depletion. The effect of in situ ozone loss is also evident in the diurnal variation difference between low (10th and 25th percentiles and higher percentiles of surface ozone concentrations at Alert, Canada. Aircraft observations indicate low-ozone air mass transported from adjacent high-BrO regions. Correlation analyses of ozone

  17. Context effects on smooth pursuit and manual interception of a disappearing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyenmeier, Philipp; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-07-01

    In our natural environment, we interact with moving objects that are surrounded by richly textured, dynamic visual contexts. Yet most laboratory studies on vision and movement show visual objects in front of uniform gray backgrounds. Context effects on eye movements have been widely studied, but it is less well known how visual contexts affect hand movements. Here we ask whether eye and hand movements integrate motion signals from target and context similarly or differently, and whether context effects on eye and hand change over time. We developed a track-intercept task requiring participants to track the initial launch of a moving object ("ball") with smooth pursuit eye movements. The ball disappeared after a brief presentation, and participants had to intercept it in a designated "hit zone." In two experiments ( n = 18 human observers each), the ball was shown in front of a uniform or a textured background that either was stationary or moved along with the target. Eye and hand movement latencies and speeds were similarly affected by the visual context, but eye and hand interception (eye position at time of interception, and hand interception timing error) did not differ significantly between context conditions. Eye and hand interception timing errors were strongly correlated on a trial-by-trial basis across all context conditions, highlighting the close relation between these responses in manual interception tasks. Our results indicate that visual contexts similarly affect eye and hand movements but that these effects may be short-lasting, affecting movement trajectories more than movement end points. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In a novel track-intercept paradigm, human observers tracked a briefly shown object moving across a textured, dynamic context and intercepted it with their finger after it had disappeared. Context motion significantly affected eye and hand movement latency and speed, but not interception accuracy; eye and hand position at interception were

  18. Food, energy, and water in an era of disappearing snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Li, S.; Xiao, M.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain snowpack stores a significant quantity of water in the western US, accumulating during the wet season and melting during the dry summers and supplying more than 65% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, energy production (both hydropower and thermal), and municipal and industrial uses. The importance of snow to western agriculture is demonstrated by the fact that most snow monitoring is performed by the US Department of Agriculture. In a paper published in 2005, we showed that roughly 70% of monitoring sites showed decreasing trends through 2002. Now, with 14 additional years of data, over 90% of snow monitoring sites with long records across the western US show declines through 2016, of which 33% are significant (vs 5% expected by chance) and 2% are significant and positive (vs 5% expected by chance). Declining trends are observed across all months, states, and climates, but are largest in spring, in the Pacific states, and in locations with mild winter climate. We corroborate and extend these observations using a gridded hydrology model, which also allows a robust estimate of total western snowpack and its decline. Averaged across the western US, the decline in total April 1 snow water equivalent since mid-century is roughly 15-30% or 25-50 km3, comparable in volume to the West's largest man-made reservoir, Lake Mead. In the absence of rapid reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases, these losses will accelerate; snow losses on this scale demonstrate the necessity of rethinking water storage, policy, and usage.

  19. Constraints on Oscillation Parameters from νe Appearance and νμ Disappearance in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, P.; Aliaga, L.; Ambrose, D.; Anfimov, N.; Antoshkin, A.; Arrieta-Diaz, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurisano, A.; Backhouse, C.; Baird, M.; Bambah, B. A.; Bays, K.; Behera, B.; Bending, S.; Bernstein, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhuyan, B.; Bian, J.; Blackburn, T.; Bolshakova, A.; Bromberg, C.; Brown, J.; Brunetti, G.; Buchanan, N.; Butkevich, A.; Bychkov, V.; Campbell, M.; Catano-Mur, E.; Childress, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Chowdhury, B.; Coan, T. E.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Colo, M.; Cooper, J.; Corwin, L.; Cremonesi, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Davies, G. S.; Davies, J. P.; Derwent, P. F.; Dharmapalan, R.; Ding, P.; Djurcic, Z.; Dukes, E. C.; Duyang, H.; Edayath, S.; Ehrlich, R.; Feldman, G. J.; Frank, M. J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Ghosh, T.; Giri, A.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Grichine, V.; Group, R.; Grover, D.; Guo, B.; Habig, A.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Hatzikoutelis, A.; Heller, K.; Himmel, A.; Holin, A.; Hylen, J.; Jediny, F.; Judah, M.; Kafka, G. K.; Kalra, D.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Kasetti, S.; Keloth, R.; Kolupaeva, L.; Kotelnikov, S.; Kourbanis, I.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Kurbanov, S.; Lang, K.; Lee, W. M.; Lin, S.; Liu, J.; Lokajicek, M.; Lozier, J.; Luchuk, S.; Maan, K.; Magill, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Matera, K.; Matveev, V.; Méndez, D. P.; Messier, M. D.; Meyer, H.; Miao, T.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Mohanta, R.; Moren, A.; Mualem, L.; Muether, M.; Mufson, S.; Murphy, R.; Musser, J.; Nelson, J. K.; Nichol, R.; Niner, E.; Norman, A.; Nosek, T.; Oksuzian, Y.; Olshevskiy, A.; Olson, T.; Paley, J.; Pandey, P.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Pershey, D.; Petrova, O.; Petti, R.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poling, R.; Potukuchi, B.; Principato, C.; Psihas, F.; Radovic, A.; Rameika, R. A.; Rebel, B.; Reed, B.; Rocco, D.; Rojas, P.; Ryabov, V.; Sachdev, K.; Sail, P.; Samoylov, O.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schroeter, R.; Sepulveda-Quiroz, J.; Shanahan, P.; Sheshukov, A.; Singh, J.; Singh, J.; Singh, P.; Singh, V.; Smolik, J.; Solomey, N.; Song, E.; Sousa, A.; Soustruznik, K.; Strait, M.; Suter, L.; Talaga, R. L.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tas, P.; Thayyullathil, R. B.; Thomas, J.; Tian, X.; Tognini, S. C.; Tripathi, J.; Tsaris, A.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Vasel, J.; Vinton, L.; Vold, A.; Vrba, T.; Wang, B.; Wetstein, M.; Whittington, D.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Wolcott, J.; Yadav, N.; Yang, S.; Zalesak, J.; Zamorano, B.; Zwaska, R.; NOvA Collaboration

    2017-06-01

    Results are reported from an improved measurement of νμ→νe transitions by the NOvA experiment. Using an exposure equivalent to 6.05 ×1 020 protons on target, 33 νe candidates are observed with a background of 8.2 ±0.8 (syst.). Combined with the latest NOvA νμ disappearance data and external constraints from reactor experiments on sin22 θ13, the hypothesis of inverted mass hierarchy with θ23 in the lower octant is disfavored at greater than 93% C.L. for all values of δC P.

  20. Temporal Evolution of Water and Dust in Comet 9P/Tempel 1 after the Deep Impact Event, as Observed from Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquel, Adeline; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Kelley, M. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Wooden, D. H.

    2010-10-01

    The Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft encountered comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005. The spacecraft released an impactor that collided with the comet nucleus and excavated (possibly unprocessed) cometary material in a prominent ejecta plume. Spectral maps covering 20'' x 67'' (1.85''/pixel) were acquired with the IRS instrument on the Spitzer Space Telescope at different times around the DI event: twice before impact (TI-41.3hrs and TI-22.9hrs) and twelve times after impact (between TI+0.67hrs and TI+1027hrs). These IRS observations are stored in the Spitzer data archive and presented by Lisse et al. (2006, Science 313, 635). We present the interpretation of 5.2-7.6 micrometer spectra obtained in the second order of the short-wavelength module (SL2). To reduce the contribution of artifacts in the spectra, 5x5 pixel extraction apertures (9.25''x9.25'') were used. The underlying continuum in the spectra provides information on the grain size distribution and color temperature of the dust ejecta. In order to determine the grain size distribution, we assumed that ejecta consist of a composition of both amorphous carbon and silicates. The grains are assumed to be spherical with sizes in range from 0.1 to 100 micrometers. We used the Mie theory to calculate the optical properties of each material and the temperature of the grain. We constrained the grain size distribution and velocities from the spectra and the temporal evolution of the dust flux. The dust mass and dust/gas ratio in the ejecta cloud are also derived and compared with other values published in the literature.

  1. Observation of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Events in an Off-Axis Horn-Focused Neutrino Beam Using the NOvA Prototype Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Enrique Arrieta [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The NOνA is a long base-line neutrino oscillation experiment. It will study the oscillations between muon and electron neutrinos through the Earth. NOνA consists of two detectors separated by 810 km. Each detector will measure the electron neutrino content of the neutrino (NuMI) beam. Differences between the measurements will reveal details about the oscillation channel. The NOνA collaboration built a prototype detector on the surface at Fermilab in order to develop calibration, simulation, and reconstruction tools, using real data. This 220 ton detector is 110 mrad off the NuMI beam axis. This off-axis location allows the observation of neutrino interactions with energies around 2 GeV, where neutrinos come predominantly from charged kaon decays. During the period between October 2011 and April 2012, the prototype detector collected neutrino data from 1.67 × 1020 protons on target delivered by the NuMI beam. This analysis selected a number of candidate charged current muon neutrino events from the prototype data, which is 30% lower than predicted by the NOνA Monte Carlo simulation. The analysis suggests that the discrepancy comes from an over estimation of the neutrino flux in the Monte Carlo simulation, and in particular, from neutrinos generated in charged kaon decays. The ratio of measured divided by the simulated flux of muon neutrinos coming from charged kaon decays is: 0.70+0.108 -0.094. The NOνA collaboration may use the findings of this analysis to introduce a more accurate prediction of the neutrino flux produced by the NuMI beam in future Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. A search for muon neutrino and antineutrino disappearance in the Booster Neutrino Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, Kendall Brianna McConnel [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This dissertation presents a search for vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance with the MiniBooNE experiment in the Δm2 region of a few eV2. Disappearance measurements in this oscillation region constrain sterile neutrino models and CPT violation in the lepton sector. Fits to the shape of the vμ and $\\bar{v}$μ energy spectra reveal no evidence for disappearance in either mode. This is the first test of $\\bar{v}$μ disappearance between Δm2 = 0.1 - 10 eV2. In addition, prospects for performing a joint analysis using the SciBooNE detector in conjunction with MiniBooNE are discussed.

  3. Disappearing neutrinos at KamLAND suport the case for neutrino mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, G

    2002-01-01

    Measurements from KamLAND, show that anti-neutrinos emanating from nearby nuclear reactors are "disappearing," which indicates they have mass and can oscillate or change from one type to another (2 pages)

  4. Evaluation of adverse events and imaging quality in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using generic CT contrast developed in South Korea: A multicenter prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Sung; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Micheal Yong; Rha, Sung Eun; Lee, Soo Rim; Hwang, Seong Su; Lim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jeong Mi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical safety and usefulness of the Prosure®300 in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. This prospective study was approved by our center's Institutional Review Board. This study included 727 patients in four hospitals who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using Prosure®300 from December 2010 to June 2011. Adverse events were classified into minor and major adverse events. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between adverse events and patient gender, age, underlying disease, and amount of injected contrast agent. Two radiologists independently evaluated imaging quality as poor, insufficient, sufficient, good, or very good. One hundred seventy-six out of 727 patients complained of adverse events, but most of them were minor adverse events. Five patients complained of dyspnea and one patient had hoarseness, but recovered without treatment. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher in men (p = 0.011), and a greater amount of injected contrast agent was related to a higher rate of adverse events (p = 0.000). Imaging quality was evaluated as 'good' or 'very good' in all cases. Prosure®300, a generic CT contrast agent developed in South Korea, can be used in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT

  5. Evaluation of adverse events and imaging quality in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using generic CT contrast developed in South Korea: A multicenter prospective observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsan Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Micheal Yong; Rha, Sung Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Rim [Dept. of Radiology, Uijeongbu St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Seong Su [Dept. of Radiology, St. Vincent Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Yeon Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Mi [Dept. of Radiology, Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical safety and usefulness of the Prosure®300 in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT. This prospective study was approved by our center's Institutional Review Board. This study included 727 patients in four hospitals who underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT using Prosure®300 from December 2010 to June 2011. Adverse events were classified into minor and major adverse events. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between adverse events and patient gender, age, underlying disease, and amount of injected contrast agent. Two radiologists independently evaluated imaging quality as poor, insufficient, sufficient, good, or very good. One hundred seventy-six out of 727 patients complained of adverse events, but most of them were minor adverse events. Five patients complained of dyspnea and one patient had hoarseness, but recovered without treatment. The rate of adverse events was significantly higher in men (p = 0.011), and a greater amount of injected contrast agent was related to a higher rate of adverse events (p = 0.000). Imaging quality was evaluated as 'good' or 'very good' in all cases. Prosure®300, a generic CT contrast agent developed in South Korea, can be used in contrast-enhanced abdominal CT.

  6. Russian desman (Desmana moschata: Talpidae at the edge of disappearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Rutovskaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The population of the Russian desman in all historical areas is currently no more than 8000–10,000 individuals. The estimated population size of the Russian desman is based on direct surveys during 2010–2016. We observed over 266 km of the coastline in eight regions where the desman lives. Since the early 20th century the number of specimens has been steadily declining. In addition to the previously described factors that determine the reduction of the population size, such as land reclamation, the construction of hydroelectric stations and the flourishing of poaching at the end of the last century, the status of the Russian desman population is adversely affected by periodic droughts and the absence of floods. Currently Protected Areas remain as the only passive measure to protect the Russian desman in the absence of a programme to species protection nor state support.

  7. Predicted disappearance of Cephalantheropsis obcordata in Luofu Mountain due to changes in rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ju Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past century, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.74°C and extreme weather events have become prevalent. Recent studies have shown that species have shifted from high-elevation areas to low ones because the rise in temperature has increased rainfall. These outcomes challenge the existing hypothesis about the responses of species to climate change. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the use of data on the biological characteristics and reproductive behavior of Cephalantheropsis obcordata in Luofu Mountain, Guangdong, China, trends in the population size of the species were predicted based on several factors. The response of C. obcordata to climate change was verified by integrating it with analytical findings on meteorological data and an artificially simulated environment of water change. The results showed that C. obcordata can grow only in waterlogged streams. The species can produce fruit with many seeds by insect pollination; however, very few seeds can burgeon to become seedlings, with most of those seedlings not maturing into the sexually reproductive phase, and grass plants will die after reproduction. The current population's age pyramid is kettle-shaped; it has a Deevey type I survival curve; and its net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, as well as finite rate of increase are all very low. The population used in the artificial simulation perished due to seasonal drought. CONCLUSIONS: The change in rainfall patterns caused by climate warming has altered the water environment of C. obcordata in Luofu Mountain, thereby restricting seed burgeoning as well as seedling growth and shortening the life span of the plant. The growth rate of the C. obcordata population is in descending order, and models of population trend predict that the population in Luofu Mountain will disappear in 23 years.

  8. Multi-variable X-band radar observation and tracking of ash plume from Mt. Etna volcano on November 23, 2013 event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Riccci, Matteo; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Marzano, Frank S.

    2015-04-01

    Ground based weather radar observations of volcanic ash clouds are gaining momentum after recent works which demonstrated their potential use either as stand alone tool or in combination with satellite retrievals. From an operational standpoint, radar data have been mainly exploited to derive the height of ash plume and its temporal-spatial development, taking into account the radar limitation of detecting coarse ash particles (from approximately 20 microns to 10 millimeters and above in terms of particle's radius). More sophisticated radar retrievals can include airborne ash concentration, ash fall rate and out-flux rate. Marzano et al. developed several volcanic ash radar retrieval (VARR) schemes, even though their practical use is still subject to a robust validation activity. The latter is made particularly difficult due to the lack of field campaigns with multiple observations and the scarce repetition of volcanic events. The radar variable, often used to infer the physical features of actual ash clouds, is the radar reflectivity named ZHH. It is related to ash particle size distribution and it shows a nice power law relationship with ash concentration. This makes ZHH largely used in radar-volcanology studies. However, weather radars are often able to detect Doppler frequency shifts and, more and more, they have a polarization-diversity capability. The former means that wind speed spectrum of the ash cloud is potentially inferable, whereas the latter implies that variables other than ZHH are available. Theoretically, these additional radar variables are linked to the degree of eccentricity of ash particles, their orientation and density as well as the presence of strong turbulence effects. Thus, the opportunity to refine the ash radar estimates so far developed can benefit from the thorough analysis of radar Doppler and polarization diversity. In this work we show a detailed analysis of Doppler shifts and polarization variables measured by the X band radar

  9. Search for sterile neutrinos in muon neutrino disappearance mode at FNAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Morgunova, O.; Roganova, T.; Bagulya, A.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dalkarov, O.; Mingazheva, R.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N.; Vladymyrov, M.; Benettoni, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Lippi, I.; Longhin, A.; Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Marsella, G.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C.; Calabrese, M.; Fiore, G.; Surdo, A.; Cecchetti, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Guerzoni, M.; Laurenti, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sirri, G.; Togo, V.; Del Prete, A.; Papadia, G.; De Robertis, G.; Fini, R.A.; Loddo, F.; Pastore, A.; De Serio, M.; Paparella, L.; Simone, S.; Klicek, B.; Jakovcic, K.; Malenica, M.; Stipcevic, M.; Kose, U.; Nessi, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Spurio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Polukhina, N.; Rosa, G.; Stanco, L.; Tenti, M.

    2017-01-01

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos. To this aim the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA-like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time-schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi-site Liquid-Argon detectors at FNAL. The settled physics case and the kind of proposed experiment on the Booster neutrino beam would definitively clarify the existing tension between the ν μ disappearance and the ν e appearance/disappearance at the eV mass scale. In the context of neutrino oscillations the measurement of ν μ disappearance is a robust and fast approach to either reject or discover new neutrino states at the eV mass scale. We discuss an experimental program able to extend by more than one order of magnitude (for neutrino disappearance) and by almost one order of magnitude (for antineutrino disappearance) the present range of sensitivity for the mixing angle between standard and sterile neutrinos. These extensions are larger than those achieved in any other proposal presented so far. (orig.)

  10. Search for sterile neutrinos in muon neutrino disappearance mode at FNAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, A.; Bagulya, A.; Benettoni, M.; Bernardini, P.; Brugnera, R.; Calabrese, M.; Cecchetti, A.; Cecchini, S.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dalkarov, O.; Del Prete, A.; De Robertis, G.; De Serio, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dusini, S.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Fini, R. A.; Fiore, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Klicek, B.; Kose, U.; Jakovcic, K.; Laurenti, G.; Lippi, I.; Loddo, F.; Longhin, A.; Malenica, M.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marsella, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Mingazheva, R.; Morgunova, O.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Nessi, M.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Papadia, G.; Paparella, L.; Pasqualini, L.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Roda, M.; Roganova, T.; Rosa, G.; Sahnoun, Z.; Shchedrina, T.; Simone, S.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Vladymyrov, M.

    2017-01-01

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos. To this aim the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA-like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time-schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi-site Liquid-Argon detectors at FNAL. The settled physics case and the kind of proposed experiment on the Booster neutrino beam would definitively clarify the existing tension between the ν _{μ } disappearance and the ν e appearance/disappearance at the eV mass scale. In the context of neutrino oscillations the measurement of ν _{μ } disappearance is a robust and fast approach to either reject or discover new neutrino states at the eV mass scale. We discuss an experimental program able to extend by more than one order of magnitude (for neutrino disappearance) and by almost one order of magnitude (for antineutrino disappearance) the present range of sensitivity for the mixing angle between standard and sterile neutrinos. These extensions are larger than those achieved in any other proposal presented so far.

  11. Search for sterile neutrinos in muon neutrino disappearance mode at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Morgunova, O.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU SINP), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bagulya, A.; Chernyavskiy, M.; Dalkarov, O.; Mingazheva, R.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N.; Vladymyrov, M. [Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Benettoni, M.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Lippi, I.; Longhin, A. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bernardini, P.; Mancarella, G.; Marsella, G. [Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padua (Italy); Calabrese, M.; Fiore, G.; Surdo, A. [INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Cecchetti, A.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Cecchini, S.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Guerzoni, M.; Laurenti, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Sahnoun, Z.; Sirri, G.; Togo, V. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Del Prete, A.; Papadia, G. [INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy); Universita del Salento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Lecce (Italy); De Robertis, G.; Fini, R.A.; Loddo, F.; Pastore, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); De Serio, M.; Paparella, L.; Simone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Klicek, B.; Jakovcic, K.; Malenica, M.; Stipcevic, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kose, U.; Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Margiotta, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Spurio, M. [INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Muciaccia, M.T. [Universita di Bari, Dipartimento di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Polukhina, N. [Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rosa, G. [INFN, Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Stanco, L. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Tenti, M. [Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); NFN-CNAF, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    The NESSiE Collaboration has been setup to undertake a conclusive experiment to clarify the muon-neutrino disappearance measurements at short baselines in order to put severe constraints to models with more than the three-standard neutrinos. To this aim the current FNAL-Booster neutrino beam for a Short-Baseline experiment was carefully evaluated by considering the use of magnetic spectrometers at two sites, near and far ones. The detector locations were studied, together with the achievable performances of two OPERA-like spectrometers. The study was constrained by the availability of existing hardware and a time-schedule compatible with the undergoing project of multi-site Liquid-Argon detectors at FNAL. The settled physics case and the kind of proposed experiment on the Booster neutrino beam would definitively clarify the existing tension between the ν{sub μ} disappearance and the ν{sub e} appearance/disappearance at the eV mass scale. In the context of neutrino oscillations the measurement of ν{sub μ} disappearance is a robust and fast approach to either reject or discover new neutrino states at the eV mass scale. We discuss an experimental program able to extend by more than one order of magnitude (for neutrino disappearance) and by almost one order of magnitude (for antineutrino disappearance) the present range of sensitivity for the mixing angle between standard and sterile neutrinos. These extensions are larger than those achieved in any other proposal presented so far. (orig.)

  12. Study of the effect of solar flares on VLF signals during D-layer preparation or disappearance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Palit, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    "Very Low Frequency" (VLF) is one of the bands of the Radio waves having frequency 3-30 KHz, which propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In relation to propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, low mass and high mobility cause electrons to play a vital role. Electrons are not distributed uniformly in the ionosphere and depending on this factor, ionosphere has different layers namely D, E and F. Different ionospheric layers generally exist during day and night time. During day-time when the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere is Sun, the lower most layer of ionosphere is D-layer. But during the night-time when Sun is absent and cosmic ray is the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere, this D-layer disappears and E-layer becomes the lower most region of the ionosphere. Normally, patterns of VLF signal depend on regular solar flux variations. However, during solar flares extra energetic particles are released from Sun, which makes the changes in the ionization of the ionosphere and these changes can perturb VLF signal amplitude. Usually if a solar flare occurs during any time of day, it only affects the amplitude and phase of the VLF signals. But in the present work, we found the if the flare occurs during D-layer preparation / disappearance time, then it will not only affect to amplitude and phase of the VLF signals but also to terminator times of VLF signals. We have observed that the sun set terminator time of the VLF signals shifted towards night time due to the effect of a M-class solar flare which occurred during the D-layer disappearance time. The shift is so high that it crossed 5σ level. We are now trying to a make model using the ion-chemistry and LWPC code to explain this observed effect.

  13. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using νμ disappearance in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhouse, Christopher James

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δm atm 2 and sin 2 2θ atm ). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of ν μ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the ν μ -disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the ν μ -disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm 2 = 2.32 -0.08 +0.12 x 10 -3 eV 2 , sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly (bar ν) μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ(bar m) 2 = (3.36 -0.40 +0.46 (stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10 -3 eV 2 , sin 2 2(bar θ) = 0.86 -0.12 0 .11 (stat.) ± 0.01(syst.). The tension between these results is intriguing, and additional antineutrino data is currently being taken in order to further investigate this apparent discrepancy.

  14. Improved measurement of electron antineutrino disappearance at Daya Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Fengpeng; Bai Jingzhi; An Qi

    2013-01-01

    We report an improved measurement of the neutrino mixing angle θ13 from the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. We exclude a zero value for sin 2 2θ 13 with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations. Electron antineutrinos from six reactors of 2.9 GW th were detected in six antineutrino detectors deployed in two near (flux-weighted baselines of 470 m and 576 m) and one far (1648 m) underground experimental halls. Using 139 days of data, 28909 (205308) electron antineutrino candidates were detected at the far hall (near halls). The ratio of the observed to the expected number of antineutrinos assuming no oscillations at the far hall is 0.944±0.007(stat.)±0.003(syst.). An analysis of the relative rates in six detectors finds sin 2 2θ 13 =0.089±0.010(stat.)±0.005(syst.) in a three-neutrino framework. (authors)

  15. A comparative analysis of predictors for 1-year recurrent acute coronary syndromes events, by age group: the Greek observational study of ACS (GREECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Notara, Venetia; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Pitsavos, Christos; Antonoulas, Antonis; Kogias, Yannis; Mantas, Yannis; Stravopodis, Petros; Zombolos, Spyros; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the potential differences in risk factors' profile for in-hospital mortality and up to 1-year prognosis, between younger and older patients with first acute coronary syndromes (ACS). From October 2003 to September 2004, 1323 patients with first ACS event from 6 urban and rural Greek hospitals were enrolled into the study, classified as those period of 6-months, the event-rate was higher among the younger patients (p < 0.001). Current smoking was associated with increased risk of 1-month recurrent events, in patients < 65 years (p < 0.05). Myocardial infarction and history of diabetes were associated with increased risk in older patients (p < 0.1). Age-specific identification of the risk factors for recurrent events may have important clinical and public health implications and lead to the development of more effective risk reduction strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immuno-Virological Discordance and the Risk of NonAIDS and AIDS Events in a Large Observational Cohort of HIV-Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoufaly, Alexander; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Reekie, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated....

  17. Inter-observer agreement of canine and feline paroxysmal event semiology and classification by veterinary neurology specialists and non-specialists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Packer, Rowena M A; Berendt, Mette