Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga
Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...
Brooks, Tony; Petersson, Eva; Hasselblad, Stefan
This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother...... and the special teacher that conducted the sessions. Following the gift to the mother of a video recording that depicted the young adult’s progress as a result of the sessions it was found that upon viewing he was able to recognize himself and associate to his activities. Further, when watching alongside his...
Marti, Patrizia; Pollini, Alessandro; Rullo, Alessia
tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses...... the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children....
Purpose. To establish whether interactive drama has any effect on the responses of people with complex neurological disabilities resident in a long term care facility. Method. This was a service evaluation using interviews with a group of 31 independently consenting long term care residents, and 27
This study of 20 elementary-school children with severe disabilities examined differences in their interactions with friends without disabilities compared with interactions with acquaintances without disabilities. Friends and acquaintances did not differ in developmental level, language age, functional movement, or social competence. Group…
Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.
Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…
Baston-Buest, Dunja M; Porn, Anne C; Schanz, Andrea; Kruessel, Jan-S; Janni, Wolfgang; Hess, Alexandra P
Angiogenesis is required for successful implantation of the invading blastocyst. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important key player in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling during the implantation process. Besides its well-characterized receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to play an additional role in the signaling process of angiogenesis in human endometrium during the menstrual cycle, as a co-receptor of VEGF. These findings led to the hypothesis that NRP-1 might play a role in the vascular remodeling process during embryo implantation and the establishment of a pregnancy. NRP-1 mRNA transcript and protein expression were investigated in human choriocarcinoma cell lines (JEG-3, Jar and BeWo) aiming to evaluate the expression of NRP-1 in vitro, as well as in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy, by western blot analysis (three samples of each trimester of pregnancy). The localization of NRP-1 in human decidua of all three trimesters of pregnancy was analyzed by immunohistochemistry (five samples of each trimester of pregnancy). NRP-1 transcript and protein were expressed in all cell lines examined. Corresponding to the analysis of human tissue by western blot and the localization by immunohistochemistry, NRP-1 protein higher expressed in samples of early pregnancy in comparison to the end of pregnancy. NRP-1 was expressed in the decidua, villi and invading cytotrophoblast of all samples investigated. This is the first study clearly showing the expression of NRP-1 in human decidua and trophoblast, suggesting an important role for the VEGF co-receptor NRP-1 besides the established receptor VEGFR2 at the embryo-maternal interface during embryonic implantation and placentation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abrams, Jules C.
The article proposes a dynamic-developmental-interaction approach to individuals with learning disabilities (LD) which addresses the absence of certain fundamental ego skills. Emotional conomitants to LD (such as low frustration tolerance and overcompensation) are noted, and intervention techniques based on the dynamic-developmental interaction…
Azorin, J.M.; Ianez, E.; Fernandez Jover, E.; Sabater, J.M.
This paper describes a technique to control remotely a robot arm from his eyes movement. This method will help disabled people to control a robot in order to aid them to perform tasks in their daily lives. The electrooculography technique (EOG) is used to detect the eyes movement. EOG registers the potential difference between the cornea and the retina using electrodes. The eyes movement is used to control a remote robot arm of 6 degrees of freedom. First, the paper introduces several eye movement techniques to interact with devices, focusing on the EOG one. Then, the paper describes the system that allows interacting with a robot through the eyes movement. Finally, the paper shows some experimental results related to the robot controlled by the EOG-based interface. (Author).
I propose an "Interaction Model of Mental Disability (IMMD)". Several models based on ICIDH are being proposed and tested around the world focusing on different aspects of disability. Though ICIDH is an inclusive model in health services, social security, insurance, education, and so on, the remarkable point of IMMD is to visualize the mutual relation of mental disability (impairment, disability and handicap) and other factors (environmental factors, personal factors). IMMD is a practical reh...
Johnson, Hilary; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine; Iacono, Teresa
Background: Social interaction is integral to social inclusion. Little is known about the nature of social interaction between adults with severe intellectual disability and those with whom they engage. Method: Participants were six adults with intellectual disability and people identified as those with whom they shared demonstrable pleasurable…
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problem of accessibility and quality of higher education for students with disabilities. We describe our experience in organising network interaction between the MSUPE Resource and Training Center for Disabled People established in 2016-2017 and partner universities in ‘fixed territories’. The need for cooperation and network interaction arises from the high demand for the cooperation of efforts of leading experts, researchers, methodologists and instructors necessary for improving the quality and accessibility of higher education for persons with disabilities. The Resource and Training Center offers counseling for the partner universities, arranges advanced training for those responsible for teaching of the disabled, and offers specialized equipment for temporary use. In this article, we emphasize the importance of organizing network interactions with universities and social partners in order to ensure accessibility of higher education for students with disabilities.
Brooks, Sharon; Paterson, Gail
This article describes a project about using contact work with people with learning disabilities and autistic spectrum disorder. People with learning disabilities and additional autistic spectrum disorder are at risk of becoming socially isolated because of their difficulties in interacting with others. Contact work is a form of Pre-Therapy, which…
Antonsson, H; Aström, S; Lundström, M; Graneheim, U H
Communicative difficulties affect interactions between people with learning disabilities and their carers. Despite such difficulties, however, some carers seem to interact successfully with people who have limited ability to communicate verbally and exhibit challenging behaviour. This study aims to illuminate skilled interaction among carers working in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. Interactions between 16 caregivers and 11 residents with learning disabilities were recorded on video. Verbal and non-verbal interaction skills among the carers were identified. Four caring situations with people with learning disabilities were chosen to illuminate skilled interaction. The transcribed text was subjected to qualitative content analysis and core stories were created. The results show that skilled interaction between the carers and the people with learning disabilities is based upon being confirming, sharing daily life experience, giving time and space, and using congruent and distinct language. In this paper we present examples that offer concrete suggestions of how to promote successful interaction and create meaning in the shared day-to-day life in special accommodations for people with learning disabilities. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bergsland, Andreas; Wechsler, Robert
The authors have developed a new hardware/software device for persons with disabilities (the MotionComposer), and in the process created a number of interactive dance pieces for non- disabled professional dancers. The paper briefly describes the hardware and motion tracking software of the device before going into more detail concerning the mapping strategies and sound design applied to three interactive dance pieces. The paper concludes by discussing a particular philosophy championing trans...
Nijs, Sara; Maes, Bea
Social interactions may positively influence developmental and quality of life outcomes. Research in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) mostly investigated interactions with caregivers. This literature review focuses on peer interactions of persons with PIMD. A computerized literature search of three databases was…
Bollman, Jessica R.; Davis, Paula K.
This study examined the effectiveness of behavioral skills training in teaching 2 adult women with mild intellectual disabilities to report inappropriate staff-to-resident interactions. The reporting skill included making a self-advocacy response, walking away, and reporting the interaction. Participants' performance was measured during baseline,…
Ng, Aubrey Hui Shyuan; Schulze, Kim; Rudrud, Eric; Leaf, Justin B.
This study implemented a modified teaching interaction procedure to teach social skills to 4 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder with an intellectual disability. A multiple baseline design across social skills and replicated across participants was utilized to evaluate the effects of the modified teaching interaction procedure. The…
Ine, Hostyn; Heleen, Neerinckx; Bea, Maes
Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes…
Hostyn, Ine; Maes, Bea
Background: High quality interactions are of crucial importance for quality of life of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). This literature review describes and synthesises studies addressing the interaction between persons with PIMD and their partners. Method: A computerised literature search using defined…
Samoocha, David; Bruinvels, David J; Anema, Johannes R; Steenbeek, Romy; van der Beek, Allard J
Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It is hypothesized that empowerment of these claimants will enhance the physician-patient relationship by shifting claimants from a passive role to a more active and constructive role during disability assessments. Furthermore, empowerment of claimants may lead to a more realistic expectation and acceptance of the assessment outcome among claimants and may lead to a more accurate assessment by the physician. In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT), 230 claimants will be randomized to either the intervention or control group. For the intervention group, an interactive website was designed http://www.wiagesprek.nl using an Intervention Mapping procedure. This website was tested during a pilot study among 51 claimants. The final version of the website consists of five interactive modules, in which claimants will be prepared and empowered step-by-step, prior to their upcoming disability assessment. Other website components are a forum, a personal health record, a personal diary, and information on disability assessment procedures, return to work, and coping with disease and work disability. Subjects from the control group will be directed to a website with commonly available information only. Approximately two weeks prior to their disability assessment, disability claimants will be recruited through the Dutch Workers Insurance Authority (UWV). Outcomes will be assessed at five occasions: directly after recruitment (baseline), prior to disability assessment, directly after disability assessment as well as 6 and 16 weeks after the assessment. The study's primary outcome is empowerment, measured with the Vrijbaan questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include claimants' satisfaction
Bruinvels David J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It is hypothesized that empowerment of these claimants will enhance the physician-patient relationship by shifting claimants from a passive role to a more active and constructive role during disability assessments. Furthermore, empowerment of claimants may lead to a more realistic expectation and acceptance of the assessment outcome among claimants and may lead to a more accurate assessment by the physician. Methods/Design In a two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT, 230 claimants will be randomized to either the intervention or control group. For the intervention group, an interactive website was designed http://www.wiagesprek.nl using an Intervention Mapping procedure. This website was tested during a pilot study among 51 claimants. The final version of the website consists of five interactive modules, in which claimants will be prepared and empowered step-by-step, prior to their upcoming disability assessment. Other website components are a forum, a personal health record, a personal diary, and information on disability assessment procedures, return to work, and coping with disease and work disability. Subjects from the control group will be directed to a website with commonly available information only. Approximately two weeks prior to their disability assessment, disability claimants will be recruited through the Dutch Workers Insurance Authority (UWV. Outcomes will be assessed at five occasions: directly after recruitment (baseline, prior to disability assessment, directly after disability assessment as well as 6 and 16 weeks after the assessment. The study's primary outcome is empowerment, measured with the Vrijbaan questionnaire
Students with a disability in inclusive classes often face problems with peer acceptance, friendships and peer interactions. In this paper, the relationship between these difficulties in social participation and the attitudes that typically developing adolescents hold towards peers with a disability at the level of the class was explored. A…
Norén, Niklas; Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd
Asking a question can be a highly challenging task for a person with multiple disabilities, but questions have not received much attention in research on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Conversation analysis is employed to examine an instance of multiparty interaction where...... a speech and language therapist supports a child with multiple disabilities to ask a question with a communication board. The question is accomplished through a practice where the action is built as a trajectory of interactional steps. Each step is built using ways of involvement that establish different...
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71…
Reuzel, Ellen; Embregts, Petri J. C. M.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Jahoda, Andrew
Social interactions between staff and clients with an intellectual disability contain synchronized turn-taking patterns. Synchrony can increase rapport and cooperation between individuals. This study investigated whether verbal interactional dominance and balance, an indication of attunement between
Maria Valéria Pena; Barbara Brakarz
In the aftermath of Hurricane Mitch in 1998, the Honduras Interactive Environmental Learning and Science Promotion Project "Profuturo" was launched as a multi-sectoral effort designed to encourage and expand scientific, environmental, and cultural knowledge and management in the context of Honduras' sustainable development needs and ethnic diversity. Profuturo benefits Hondurans by providi...
Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine
People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the methodological approach that was used to achieve this. In this qualitative study, two dyads consisting of a person with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and a teacher or carer were filmed as they engaged in school-based activities. Two 1-hour videotapes were transcribed and analysed using grounded theory. Attuning was identified within the theory proposed here as a central process that calibrates and regulates communication. Attuning is conceptualized as a bidirectional, dyadic communication process. Understanding this process may support more effective communication between people with severe or profound intellectual and multiple disability and their interaction partners. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berry, Ruth; Firth, Graham; Leeming, Catherine; Sharma, Vishal
Intensive Interaction was initially developed in the 1980s as an educational approach for developing social communication and engagement with people with severe or profound intellectual disabilities and/or autism. Intensive Interaction has subsequently been adopted by a range of practitioners and professionals working in learning disability services and has a broad multi-disciplinary acceptance, being recommended in a number of UK governmental guidance documents. Despite this, there has been limited work on developing a deeper psychological understanding of the approach. This study utilises a qualitative description/thematic analysis approach to explore how clinical psychologists conceptualise the approach with regard to currently accepted psychological theories, as well as looking at other factors that influence their adoption and advocacy. The sample deliberately consisted of eight NHS (National Health Service) clinical psychologists known to be using or advocating the use of Intensive Interaction with people with a learning disability. The results of this study indicate that although the participants referred to some theories that might explain the beneficial outcomes of Intensive Interaction, these theories were rarely explicitly or clearly referenced, resulting in the authors having to attribute specific theoretical positions on the basis of inductive analysis of the participants' responses. Moreover, the participants provided varying views on how Intensive Interaction might be conceptualised, highlighting the lack of a generally accepted, psychologically framed definition of the approach. In conclusion, it was felt that further research is required to develop a specifically psychological understanding of Intensive Interaction alongside the formation of a Special Interest Group, which might have this task as one of its aims. There appeared to be a limited recognition amongst the participants of the specific psychological theories that can be seen to explain
Argentzell, Elisabeth; Leufstadius, Christel; Eklund, Mona
Engaging in social interaction has, for people with psychiatric disabilities, been shown to enhance well-being and the experience of meaning and to generally prevent the worsening of mental illness. The aim of the study was to investigate how day centre attendees differed from non-attendees regarding different aspects of social interaction and to investigate how occupational factors, including day centre attendance, and previously known predictors were related to social interaction in the study sample as a whole. A total of 93 day centre attendees and 82 non-attendees with psychiatric disabilities were examined regarding social interaction, subjective perception of occupation, activity level, sense of self-mastery and socio-demographic and clinical variables. Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics, mainly logistic regression. Social support was mainly provided by informal caregivers such as family members. The day centre attendees had more social relations but did not experience better quality or closeness in their relationships than non-attendees. Important factors for social interaction were subjective perceptions of daily occupation, being married/cohabiting, self-mastery and severity of psychiatric symptoms. Alternative ways of enhancing social interactions in the community is needed, targeting the group's feeling of satisfaction and value in daily life together with self-mastery. © The Author(s) 2013.
Jahoda, Andrew; Selkirk, Mhairi; Trower, Peter; Pert, Carol; Stenfert Kroese, Biza; Dagnan, Dave; Burford, Bronwen
Establishing a collaborative relationship is a cornerstone of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Increasingly CBT is being offered to people with intellectual disabilities who may have problems with receptive and expressive communication, and a history of disadvantage or discrimination in their relationships with those in positions of power. Consequently, they may have difficulty establishing a collaborative interaction with their therapist. This paper uses a novel method of interactional analysis to examine if collaboration increases as therapy progresses. Fifteen participants with borderline to mild intellectual disabilities and significant problems of depression, anxiety and anger were recruited from specialist clinical services to participate in this study. Verbatim transcripts of therapy sessions 4 and 9 were coded using an initiative-response method of analysing power distribution in dialogue, to investigate collaboration at the level of therapeutic interaction. The initiative-response scores indicated that power was relatively equally distributed between clients and therapists. On this measure there was no significant increase in collaboration as therapy progressed, as the dialogues were relatively equal from session 4. Analyses of the pattern of interaction showed that whilst the therapists asked most questions, the clients contributed to the flow of the analysis and played an active part in dialogues. The implications of these findings are discussed, along with the possible uses of such interactional analyses in identifying barriers to communication and ways of establishing effective therapeutic dialogue.
Nicola J. Pitchford
Full Text Available Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils. We report the first observational study of a group of 33 pupils with SEND from two primary schools in Malawi that are implementing a new digital technology intervention which uses touch-screen tablets to deliver interactive apps designed to teach basic mathematical skills. The apps contain topics that align to the national curriculum. To assess learning gains, rate of progress (minutes per topic for each pupil was determined by calculating the average time taken to complete a topic. Progress rate was then correlated with teacher ratings of extent of disability and independent ratings of pupil engagement with the apps. Results showed SEND pupils could interact with the apps and all pupils passed at least one topic. Average progress rate for SEND pupils was twice as long as mainstream peers. Stepwise regression revealed extent of disability significantly predicted progress rate. Further exploratory correlations revealed pupils with moderate to severe difficulties with hearing and/or language made slower progress through the apps than those with greater functionality in these two domains because the use of verbal instructions within the apps limited their capacity to learn. This original quantitative analysis demonstrates that interactive apps can raise learning standards in pupils with SEND but may have limited utility for pupils with severe difficulties. Software modifications are needed to
Pitchford, Nicola J; Kamchedzera, Elizabeth; Hubber, Paula J; Chigeda, Antonie L
Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils. We report the first observational study of a group of 33 pupils with SEND from two primary schools in Malawi that are implementing a new digital technology intervention which uses touch-screen tablets to deliver interactive apps designed to teach basic mathematical skills. The apps contain topics that align to the national curriculum. To assess learning gains, rate of progress (minutes per topic) for each pupil was determined by calculating the average time taken to complete a topic. Progress rate was then correlated with teacher ratings of extent of disability and independent ratings of pupil engagement with the apps. Results showed SEND pupils could interact with the apps and all pupils passed at least one topic. Average progress rate for SEND pupils was twice as long as mainstream peers. Stepwise regression revealed extent of disability significantly predicted progress rate. Further exploratory correlations revealed pupils with moderate to severe difficulties with hearing and/or language made slower progress through the apps than those with greater functionality in these two domains because the use of verbal instructions within the apps limited their capacity to learn. This original quantitative analysis demonstrates that interactive apps can raise learning standards in pupils with SEND but may have limited utility for pupils with severe difficulties. Software modifications are needed to address specific
Terrazas-Arellanes, Fatima E.; Gallard M., Alejandro J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Walden, Emily D.
The purpose of this study was to document the design, classroom implementation, and effectiveness of interactive online units to enhance science learning over 3 years among students with learning disabilities, English learners, and general education students. Results of a randomised controlled trial with 2,303 middle school students and 71 teachers across 13 schools in two states indicated that online units effectively deepened science knowledge across all three student groups. Comparing all treatment and control students on pretest-to-posttest improvement on standards-based content-specific assessments, there were statistically significant mean differences (17% improvement treatment vs. 6% control; p English learner status, indicating that these two groups performed similarly to their peers; students with learning disabilities had significantly lower assessment scores overall. Teachers and students were moderately satisfied with the units.
Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen
The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).
Goldstein, H; Cisar, C L
We investigated the effects of teaching sociodramatic scripts on subsequent interaction among three triads, each containing 2 typical children and 1 child with autistic characteristics. The same type and rate of teacher prompts were implemented throughout structured play observations to avoid the confounding effects of script training and teacher prompting. After learning the scripts, all children demonstrated more frequent theme-related social behavior. These improvements in social-communicative interaction were replicated with the training of three sociodramatic scripts (i.e., pet shop, carnival, magic show) according to a multiple baseline design. These effects were maintained during the training of successive scripts and when the triads were reconstituted to include new but similarly trained partners. Results provided support for the inclusion of systematic training of scripts to enhance interaction among children with and without disabilities during sociodramatic play.
Eustace-DeBaun, Casey Elizabeth
Effective approaches for teaching vocabulary to various populations of learners is a topic of current research (Barr, Eslami, & Malatesha, 2012) yet little research is dedicated to students with learning disabilities in the science classroom. Within this study the interac-tive word wall was used as a tool to build vocabulary and to encourage usage of new sub-ject-specific terminology. The experiment utilized quasi-experimental pre-post test com-parison group design using interrupted time-series (Johnson & Christiensen, 2007) due to the inability to randomize participants and establish a clear control group. The data was collected across four units of terminology and with a student satisfaction survey. Stu-dents reported at least seventy percent satisfaction with the use of Interactive Word Walls and demonstrated some performance increase in both vocabulary retention and reading comprehension when utilizing Interactive Word Walls.
Stevens, Joseph J; Schulte, Ann C
This study examined mathematics achievement growth of students without disabilities (SWoD) and students with learning disabilities (LD) and tested whether growth and LD status interacted with student demographic characteristics. Growth was estimated in a statewide sample of 79,554 students over Grades 3 to 7. The LD group was significantly lower in achievement in each grade and had less growth than the SWoD group. We also found that student demographic characteristics were significantly related to mathematics growth, but only three demographic characteristics were statistically significant as interactions. We found that LD-SWoD differences at Grade 3 were moderated by student sex, while Black race/ethnicity and free or reduced lunch (FRL) status moderated LD-SWoD differences at all grades. These results provide practitioners and policy makers with more specific information about which particular LD students show faster or slower growth in mathematics. Our results show that simply including predictors in a regression equation may produce different results than direct testing of interactions and achievement gaps may be larger for some LD subgroups of students than previously reported.
Harrold, M; Lutzker, J R; Campbell, R V; Touchette, P E
Child Management Training (CMT) involves compliance training with a focus on consistent use of antecedents and consequences. Planned Activities Training (PAT) focuses on teaching parents to plan for and engage in activities with their children. A multiple probe design counterbalancing PAT and CMT showed that PAT and CMT were about equally effective in improving mother-child interactions in four families with children with developmental disabilities. Responses to a social validation questionnaire indicated that parents were satisfied with the services received, and that PAT was the slightly preferred treatment. Prior research demonstrated that PAT enhanced the results of CMT. The practical advantages of PAT over CMT are discussed.
Samoocha, D.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Anema, R.J.; Steenbeek, R.; Beek, A.J.V.D.
Background. Individuals claiming a disability benefit after long-term sickness absence, have to undergo medical disability assessments. These assessments, often carried out by specialized physicians, can be complicated by wrong expectations or defensive attitudes of disability benefit claimants. It
Potharst, Eva S.; Schuengel, Carlo; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.; Kok, Joke H.; Houtzager, Bregje A.
Aim: To investigate differences in the quality of motherchild interaction between preterm- and term-born children at age 5, and to study the association of motherchild interaction with sociodemographic characteristics and child disability. Methods: Preterm children (n = 94), born at <30 weeks
Potharst, E.S.; Schuengel, C.; Last, B.F.; van Wassenaer, A.G.; Kok, J.H.; Houtzager, B.A.
Aim: To investigate differences in the quality of mother-child interaction between preterm- and term-born children at age 5, and to study the association of mother-child interaction with sociodemographic characteristics and child disability. Methods: Preterm children (n = 94), born at <30 weeks'
Ayala, Vivian Luz
In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to
Carter, Erik W; Sisco, Lynn G; Brown, Lissa; Brickham, Dana; Al-Khabbaz, Zainab A
We examined the peer interactions and academic engagement of 23 middle and high school students with developmental disabilities within inclusive academic and elective classrooms. The extent to which students with and without disabilities interacted socially was highly variable and influenced by instructional format, the proximity of general and special educators, and curricular area. Peer interactions occurred more often within small group instructional formats, when students were not receiving direct support from a paraprofessional or special educator, and in elective courses. Academic engagement also varied, with higher levels evidenced during one-to-one or small group instruction and when in proximity of general or special educators. Implications for designing effective support strategies for students with autism and/or intellectual disability within general education classrooms are discussed.
Hostyn, Ine; Ine, Hostyn; Neerinckx, Heleen; Heleen, Neerinckx; Maes, Bea; Bea, Maes
Few studies have examined joint attention in interactions with persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), despite its important role in high-quality interaction. The purpose of this study is to describe the attention-directing behaviours of persons with PIMD and their direct support staff and the attention episodes resulting from their interactions, and to understand how these variables relate to each other. Video observations of 17 staff-client dyads were coded using partial interval recording. The results showed considerable variation across individuals and dyads. In general, persons with PIMD directed the attention of staff members infrequently. The staff members frequently directed their clients' attention towards a topic of interest but did not often use the tactile modality. Within the staff-client dyad, there was not much joint attention; however, shared attention episodes occurred frequently. Shared attention and joint attention are strongly correlated. A negative correlation was found between clients not using attention-directing behaviours and staff members using tactile methods to direct the attention, and joint attention episodes. This study presents both directions for future research and practical implications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Hendriks, A.H.C.; Bosman, A.M.T.
Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an
Willems, A.; Embregts, P.; Hendriks, L.; Bosman, A.
Background: Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an interpersonal model. As in functional analysis,…
Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Hendriks, A.H.C.; Bosman, A.M.T.
Background Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an
Dammeyer, Jesper; Koppe, Simo
Research in social interaction and nonverbal communication among individuals with severe developmental disabilities also includes the study of body movements. Advances in analytical technology give new possibilities for measuring body movements more accurately and reliably. One such advance is the Qualisys Motion Capture System (QMCS), which…
Smith, Ashlyn L.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.
This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent…
Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham
The effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of five children with disabilities (4 with autism, 1 with a sensory processing disorder) were the focus of the intervention study described in this research report. The interventions with each child were conducted over 4 or 5 days in the children's homes and involved…
Schepis, Maureen M.; Reid, Dennis H.
A young adult with multiple disabilities (profound mental retardation, spastic quadriplegia, and visual impairment) was provided with a voice output communication aid (VOCA) which allowed communication through synthesized speech. Both educational and residential staff members interacted with the individual more frequently when she had access to…
Bloeming-Wolbrink, K.A.; Janssen, M.J.; Ruijssenaars, A.J.J.M.; Menke, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.
This study examined the effects of the first 2 years of the ongoing Project CHANGE, aimed at improving interaction and communication in adults with congenital deafblindness (CDB) and an intellectual disability (ID). Six adults with no history of deafblind education participated in this study. These
This Article argues that the practice of holding so many adjudicative proceedings related to disability in private settings (e.g., guardianship, special education due process, civil commitment, and social security) relative to our strong normative presumption of public access to adjudication may cultivate and perpetuate stigma in contravention of the goals of inclusion and enhanced agency set forth in antidiscrimination laws. Descriptively, the law has a complicated history with disability--initially rendering disability invisible; later, underwriting particular narratives of disability synonymous with incapacity; and, in recent history, promoting the full socio-economic visibility of people with disabilities. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the marquee civil rights legislation for people with disabilities (about to enter its twenty-fifth year), expresses a national approach to disability that recognizes the role of society in its construction, maintenance, and potential remedy. However, the ADA’s mission is incomplete. It has not generated the types of interactions between people with disabilities and nondisabled people empirically shown to deconstruct deeply entrenched social stigma. Prescriptively, procedural design can act as an "ntistigma agent"to resist and mitigate disability stigma. This Article focuses on one element of institutional design--public access to adjudication--as a potential tool to construct and disseminate counter-narratives of disability. The unique substantive focus in disability adjudication on questions of agency provides a potential public space for the negotiation of nuanced definitions of disability and capacity more reflective of the human condition.
Background Despite recent recognition of the need for preventive sexual health materials for people with intellectual disability (ID), there have been remarkably few health-based interventions designed for people with mild to moderate ID. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computer-based interactive multimedia (CBIM) program to teach HIV/AIDS knowledge, skills, and decision-making. Methods Twenty-five women with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The study used a quasi-experimental within-subjects design to assess the efficacy of the CBIM program. Research participants completed five qualitative and quantitative instruments that assessed HIV knowledge, and decision-making skills regarding HIV prevention practices and condom application skills (i.e., demonstration of skills opening a condom and putting it on a model penis). In addition, 18 service providers who work with women with ID reviewed the program and completed a demographics questionnaire and a professional customer satisfaction survey. Results Women with ID showed statistically significant increases from pretest to posttest in all knowledge and skill domains. Furthermore, the statistical gains were accompanied by medium to large effect sizes. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability). Conclusions The results of this study indicate the CBIM program was effective in increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge and skills among women with ID, who live both semi-independently and independently, in a single-session intervention. Since the CBIM program is not dependent on staff for instructional delivery, it is a highly efficient teaching tool; and CBIM is an efficacious means to provide behavioral health content, compensating for the dearth of available health promotion materials for people with ID. As such, it has a potential for broad distribution and implementation by medical practitioners, and
Smith, Ashlyn L; Romski, Maryann; Sevcik, Rose A
This study examined communication interaction patterns when one sibling had a developmental disability as well as the role of communication skills in sibling relationship quality. Thirty sibling dyads were categorized into one of three communication status groups: emerging, context-dependent, and independent communicators. Independent communicators and their siblings did not differ in terms of syntactic complexity but typically developing siblings dominated the interaction and exhibited greater lexical diversity regardless of communication status. Communication status did not impact the warmth/closeness, rivalry, or conflict in the sibling relationship, but siblings of independent communicators engaged in the greatest amount of helping and managing behaviors. These results represent a first step in understanding the role of communication skills in the sibling relationship for families of children with disabilities.
Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting
Logistic regression analysis based on data from 822 Han Chinese oldest old aged 92+ demonstrated that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 and tea drinking at around age 60 or at present time were significantly associated with lower risk of cognitive disability...... at advanced ages. Associations between tea drinking and reduced cognitive disability were much stronger among carriers of the genotypes of FOXO1A-266 or FOXO3-310 or FOXO3-292 compared with noncarriers, and it was reconfirmed by analysis of three-way interactions across FOXO genotypes, tea drinking at around...... age 60, and at present time. Based on prior findings from animal and human cell models, we postulate that intake of tea compounds may activate FOXO gene expression, which in turn may positively affect cognitive function in the oldest old population. Our empirical findings imply that the health...
The thesis aims to explore subjective experiences of everyday occupation, social interaction and the view of the worker role among people with psychiatric disabilities(PD), while also addressing the importance of day centre attendance. The thesis consists of one qualitative study, exploring which characteristics in everyday occupation provide meaning to people with PD, and three quantitative studies based on questionnaires to both day centre attendees and non-attendees. Study I showed that fe...
Willems, A.P.A.M.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Hendriks, A.H.C.
Background Relationships between support staff and clients with intellectual disability (ID) are important for quality of care, especially when dealing with challenging behaviour. Building upon an interpersonal model, this study investigates the influence of client challenging behaviour, staff
Hodes, M. W.; Meppelder, M.; de Moor, M.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.
Background: This study tested whether video-feedback intervention based on attachment and coercion theory increased harmonious parent–child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Methods: Observer ratings of
Reuzel, Ellen; Embregts, Petri J C M; Bosman, Anna M T; Cox, Ralf F A; van Nieuwenhuijzen, Maroesjka; Jahoda, Andrew
Social interactions between staff and clients with an intellectual disability contain synchronized turn-taking patterns. Synchrony can increase rapport and cooperation between individuals. This study investigated whether verbal interactional dominance and balance, an indication of attunement between staff and clients with ID, are associated with synchrony of turn-taking patterns during staff-client interactions and whether the level of dominance and balance is related to the observed quality of the social interactions. Nineteen staff members video-recorded a social interaction with one of their clients in which the client asked for support. The recordings were analyzed using Cross Recurrence Quantification Analysis and Initiative Response Analysis. Fifteen staff observers as well as client observers completed a questionnaire on the quality of the video-recorded interactions. Staff and clients' patterns of verbal interactional dominance and balance were associated with the synchrony of their turn-taking behaviors. Staff's dominance was associated with a higher level of synchrony of turn taking, whereas client's dominance was associated with a lower level of synchrony. The patterns of verbal interactional dominance and balance were associated with staff observer reports about the quality of the interactions. The study suggested that staff and clients have a tendency to be sensitive to different aspects of interactions, which in turn may have different functions.
Okrainec, J. Alexa; Hughes, M. Jeffry
This study investigated the features of verbal disagreements arising among 25 adolescent students with mild intellectual disabilities and 25 of their typical peers. Transcripts of a learning task were coded using an adaptation of Eisenberg's (1992) scheme for analyzing verbal conflicts. Findings of the study indicate: (1) in verbal conflict…
Nientimp, Edward G.; Cole, Christine L.
Evaluated effects of procedure to teach appropriate social responses to adolescents with severe disabilities by employing ABA withdrawal design, replicated twice with two students, and AB design with third student. Results showed increases in correct responding and decreases in echolalia following intervention. Generalization of appropriate…
Griffiths, Colin; Smith, Martine
Background: People with severe and profound intellectual disability typically demonstrate a limited ability to communicate effectively. Most of their communications are non-verbal, often idiosyncratic and ambiguous. This article aims to identify the process that regulates communications of this group of people with others and to describe the…
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Lucyshyn, Joseph M; Fossett, Brenda; Bakeman, Roger; Cheremshynski, Christy; Miller, Lynn; Lohrmann, Sharon; Binnendyk, Lauren; Khan, Sophia; Chinn, Stephen; Kwon, Samantha; Irvin, Larry K
The efficacy and consequential validity of an ecological approach to behavioral intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities was examined. The approach aimed to transform coercive into constructive parent-child interaction in family routines. Ten families participated, including 10 mothers and fathers and 10 children 3-8 years old with developmental disabilities. Thirty-six family routines were selected (2 to 4 per family). Dependent measures included child problem behavior, routine steps completed, and coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. For each family, a single case, multiple baseline design was employed with three phases: baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Visual analysis evaluated the functional relation between intervention and improvements in child behavior and routine participation. Nonparametric tests across families evaluated the statistical significance of these improvements. Sequential analyses within families and univariate analyses across families examined changes from baseline to intervention in the percentage and odds ratio of coercive and constructive parent-child interaction. Multiple baseline results documented functional or basic effects for 8 of 10 families. Nonparametric tests showed these changes to be significant. Follow-up showed durability at 11 to 24 months postintervention. Sequential analyses documented the transformation of coercive into constructive processes for 9 of 10 families. Univariate analyses across families showed significant improvements in 2- and 4-step coercive and constructive processes but not in odds ratio. Results offer evidence of the efficacy of the approach and consequential validity of the ecological unit of analysis, parent-child interaction in family routines. Future studies should improve efficiency, and outcomes for families experiencing family systems challenges.
Schwartz, Ariel E; Kramer, Jessica M
Peer mentoring may be an effective approach for fostering skill development for mentors and mentees with developmental disabilities. However, little is known about how mentors with developmental disabilities perceive and enact their roles. (1) How do young adults with developmental disabilities describe their role as a peer mentor in the context of instrumental peer mentoring? (2) How do they enact their perceived roles? Thematic analysis of semi-structured reflections completed by six mentors with developmental disabilities (ages 17-35) with multiple mentoring experiences. Mentors perceived themselves as professionals with a primary role of teaching, and for some mentoring relationships, a secondary role of developing an interpersonal relationship. To enact these roles, mentors used a supportive interactional approach characterized by actions such as encouragement and sharing examples and dispositions, such as flexibility and patience. Mentors monitored mentee learning and engagement within the mentoring session and, as needed, adjusted their approach to optimize mentee learning and engagement. To successfully manage their interactional approach, mentors used supports such as peer mentoring scripts, tip sheets, and supervisors. While mentors reported several actions for teaching, they may benefit from training to learn approaches to facilitate more consistent development of interpersonal relationships. Implications for Rehabilitation Peer mentoring may be an effective approach for fostering skill development for young adult mentors and mentees with developmental disabilities. In this study, young adult peer mentors with developmental disabilities perceived themselves as professionals with a primary role of teaching and a secondary role of developing an interpersonal relationship. Peer mentors used actions and dispositions that matched their perceived roles and supported mentees with developmental disabilities to engage in instrumental mentoring. With supports and
Willems, A; Embregts, P; Hendriks, L; Bosman, A
Training support staff in dealing with challenging behaviour in clients with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed. The goal of this study is to determine which elements need to be incorporated in a training on staff interactions with these clients, building upon a framework and an interpersonal model. As in functional analysis, this study tests the influence of client interpersonal behaviour, three types of staff reactions to challenging behaviour, two types of staff psychological resources and staff team climate on four styles of staff interpersonal behaviour. A total of 318 support staff members completed a questionnaire on staff interpersonal behaviour for 44 clients with ID and challenging behaviour, as well as seven questionnaires on client interpersonal behaviour, staff emotions, attributions, self-efficacy, self-reflection, coping styles and team climate. The influence of these seven factors on four staff interpersonal behaviours was examined using multilevel multiple regression analysis. Friendly-warm and dominant client interpersonal behaviour had a significant positive impact on friendly and assertive control staff behaviour, respectively. Also, there was a strong influence of staff negative and positive emotions, as well as their self-efficacy, on most of the staff interpersonal behaviours. Staff self-reflection, insight and avoidance-focused coping style had an impact on some staff interpersonal behaviours. Staff team climate only predicted higher support-seeking staff behaviour. In conducting a functional analysis of staff interpersonal behaviour, the results of this study can be used both as a framework in staff-client interaction training and in clinical practice for treating challenging behaviour. The emphasis in training and practice should not only be on the bidirectional dynamics of control and affiliation between staff and clients, but also - in order of importance - on the impact of staff emotions, self-efficacy, self-reflection and insight
Gilson, Carly B.; Carter, Erik W.
The employment outcomes for young adults with autism or intellectual disability (ID) lag far behind those of their peers without disabilities. Most postsecondary education programs for students with disabilities incorporate internship experiences to foster employment skills. However, the proximity of job coaches may inadvertently hinder social…
Ying F Liu
Full Text Available Cell-adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily play critical roles in brain development, as well as in maintaining synaptic plasticity, the dysfunction of which is known to cause cognitive impairment. Recently dysfunction of KIRREL3, a synaptic molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily, has been implicated in several neurodevelopmental conditions including intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and in the neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome. However, the molecular mechanisms of its physiological actions remain largely unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that the KIRREL3 extracellular domain interacts with brain expressed proteins MAP1B and MYO16 and its intracellular domain can potentially interact with ATP1B1, UFC1, and SHMT2. The interactions were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and colocalization analyses of proteins expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, mouse neuronal cells, and rat primary neuronal cells. Furthermore, we show KIRREL3 colocalization with the marker for the Golgi apparatus and synaptic vesicles. Previously, we have shown that KIRREL3 interacts with the X-linked intellectual disability associated synaptic scaffolding protein CASK through its cytoplasmic domain. In addition, we found a genomic deletion encompassing MAP1B in one patient with intellectual disability, microcephaly and seizures and deletions encompassing MYO16 in two unrelated patients with intellectual disability, autism and microcephaly. MAP1B has been previously implicated in synaptogenesis and is involved in the development of the actin-based membrane skeleton. MYO16 is expressed in hippocampal neurons and also indirectly affects actin cytoskeleton through its interaction with WAVE1 complex. We speculate KIRREL3 interacting proteins are potential candidates for intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, our findings provide further insight into understanding the molecular
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Prior, Jeremy; Derryberry, Graham
Findings from two studies investigating the effects of a socially interactive robot on the vocalization production of young children with disabilities are reported. The two studies included seven children with autism, two children with Down syndrome, and two children with attention deficit disorders. The Language ENvironment Analysis (LENA)…
Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Zijlmans, L.; Gerits, L.; Bosman, A.M.T.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a training program focusing on improvement of emotional intelligence (EI) and support staffs’ awareness of their behaviour towards people with an intellectual disability based on interactional patterns. The support provided regarding
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon
Findings from a survey of parents' ratings of seven different human-like qualities of four socially interactive robots are reported. The four robots were Popchilla, Keepon, Kaspar, and CosmoBot. The participants were 96 parents and other primary caregivers of young children with disabilities 1 to 12 years of age. Results showed that Popchilla, a…
Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Embler, Davon
A number of different types of socially interactive robots are being used as part of interventions with young children with disabilities to promote their joint attention and language skills. Parents' judgments of two dimensions (acceptance and importance) of the social validity of four different social robots were the focus of the study described…
Rousseau, Jacqueline; Potvin, Louise; Dutil, Elisabeth; Falta, Patricia
The "Model of Competence" has been recently elaborated to help expand our understanding relating to a person's interaction with the environment. Specifically, it seeks to deal with the issues related to the home adaptation (the home layout and equipment) for a person living with motor disabilities. This theoretical model takes into account various characteristics of the person as well as of the environment, by re-grouping six concepts: person, environment, activity, role, competence and handicap situation. The "Model of Competence" is distinct because it includes: (1) both the human and the nonhuman dimension of the environment; (2) personal characteristics other than the strictly physical ones; (3) a clear identification of the interaction between the person and the environment; and (4) a means of operationalizing it via an assessment instrument. This model proposes an innovative approach to the person-environment relation in terms of personalizing accessibility, and thereby offers a new approach to understanding the concept of universal access. It has been developed for research and application, and addresses several disciplines.
Goldstein, H; Cisar, C L
We investigated the effects of teaching sociodramatic scripts on subsequent interaction among three triads, each containing 2 typical children and 1 child with autistic characteristics. The same type and rate of teacher prompts were implemented throughout structured play observations to avoid the confounding effects of script training and teacher prompting. After learning the scripts, all children demonstrated more frequent theme-related social behavior. These improvements in social-communica...
Full Text Available User demotivation is habitual in a long-term rehabilitation process, because this process usually consists in repetitive and intensive activities which become boring after hundreds of sessions. Research studies have shown that serious games help to motivate users in a rehabilitation process. Motor rehabilitation consists of body movements that can be captured and patients can have difficulties in holding physical devices. For this reason, therapy studies include vision input devices and propose what features are desirable for rehabilitation serious games. In this paper, we present a case of success, an interactive multimedia system using a serious game to improve abilities of patients with cerebral palsy.
Academic bioethics does not appear to be interested in communication and its ethical concerns unless communication is to do with issues such as capacity, consent, truth telling and confidentiality. In contrast practitioners are interested in actually communicating with their patients and they are often particularly perplexed when it comes to people with profound disabilities where communication appears disrupted. Although some new and not so new communication strategies, and especially intensive interaction, are available, little has been written on either the ethical concerns these may present or the deeper concepts that underpin them. This article explores the practical applications of some of these communication strategies. By engaging these strategies with theology, and specifically Pope John Paul's Theology of the Body, this article identifies and addresses some significant ethical issues that may arise, notably the risk of dualism and of objectifying the human person. Moreover it provides communication strategies with a rationale that goes beyond practicalities to one based on respect for human dignity, justice and solidarity.
Keywords: ADDIE Model, Interactive Multimedia, and students with learning difficulties. Kajian ini mengenai pembangunan modul pengajaran dan pembelajaran (P&P yang berbantukan kepada penggunaan komputer multimedia animasi interaktif. Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk menjawab beberapa persoalan kajian iaitu, untuk meningkatkan minat dan motivasi pelajar pendidikan khas dan untuk memudahkan pelajar mengenal suku kata (KV+KV. Proses membangunkan perisian ini adalah berdasarkan kepada Model ADDIE yang mempunyai lima fasa iaitu “Analysis”, “Design”, “Development”, “Implementation” dan “Evaluation”. Pemilihan tajuk mengenal suku kata (KV+KV adalah untuk membantu pelajar-pelajar pendidikan khas dalam proses membaca. Proses kajian ini menggunakan Teori Pembelajaran Multimedia oleh Mayer, dan teori ini juga adalah berdasarkan kepada Teori Beban Kongnitif Sweller ( Chandler & Sweller . Kajian ini menggunakan kaedah kualitatif dan reka bentuk kajian ialah kajian kes. Sampel dalam kajian ini ialah seramai 4 orang pelajar yang dipilih secara sampel bertujuan yang telah dibentuk dalam satu kumpulan iaitu Kumpulan A. Instrumen kajian yang digunakan ialah ujian pra, ujian pos dan soal selidik. Dapatan kajian telah mendapati bahawa terdapat peningkatan pencapaian dalam ujian pra dan ujian pos yang menggunakan kaedah multimedia bagi Kumpulan A iaitu sebanyak (60 % . Pembelajaran yang menggunakan kaedah Multimedia Animasi Interaktif bukan sahaja dapat menarik minat dan memberi motivasi kepada pelajar, secara tidak langsung juga pelajar pendidikan khas ini dapat membaca.
Lund, Emily M.; Seekins, Tom
This study assessed the relationship between exposure to classmates with visible impairments in primary and secondary schools with later attitudes toward people with disabilities. Fifty college students (mean age = 20.28 years; 76% female) completed measures assessing the extent and quality of recalled exposure to classmates with disabilities in…
Full Text Available Young children with multiple disabilities (e.g., both cognitive and motor disabilities are confronted with severe limitations in language development from birth and later on. Stimulating the adult-child communication can decrease these limitations. Within LinguaBytes, a three-year research program, we try to stimulate language development by developing an interactive and adaptive play and learning environment, incorporating tangible objects and multimedia content, based on interactive storytelling and anchored instruction. The development of a product for such a heterogeneous user group presents substantial challenges. We use a Research-through-Design method, that is, an iterative process of developing subsequent experiential prototypes and then testing them in real-life settings, for example, a center for rehabilitation medicine. This article gives an outline of the development of the LinguaBytes play and learning environment from the earliest studies up to the current prototype, CLICK-IT.
Johnston, V; Jull, G; Souvlis, T; Jimmieson, N L
This study explored the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors in the workplace on neck pain and disability in female computer users. A self-report survey was used to collect data on physical risk factors (monitor location, duration of time spent using the keyboard and mouse) and psychosocial domains (as assessed by the Job Content Questionnaire). The neck disability index was the outcome measure. Interactions among the physical and psychosocial factors were examined in analysis of covariance. High supervisor support, decision authority and skill discretion protect against the negative impact of (1) time spent on computer-based tasks, (2) non-optimal placement of the computer monitor and (3) long duration of mouse use. Office workers with greater neck pain experience a combination of high physical and low psychosocial stressors at work. Prevention and intervention strategies that target both sets of risk factors are likely to be more successful than single intervention programmes. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The results of this study demonstrate that the interaction of physical and psychosocial factors in the workplace has a stronger association with neck pain and disability than the presence of either factor alone. This finding has important implications for strategies aimed at the prevention of musculoskeletal problems in office workers.
The point of departure in this text is the ongoing qualitative interdisciplinary research project RHYME (www.RHYME.no), which addresses the lack of health-promoting interactive and musical Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for families with children with severe disabilities. The project explores a new treatment paradigm based on collaborative, tangible, interactive net-based musical “smart things” with multimedia capabilities. The goal in RHYME is twofold: (1) to reduce isolation and passivity, and (2) to promote health and well-being. Co-creation is suggested as a possible path to achieving these goals, by evoking feelings, for example, or accommodating the needs to act and to create social relations; co-creation also motivates users to communicate and collaborate within (new) social relations. This article engages co-creation by incorporating aspects connected to interaction design and the field of music and health. Empirical observations will be referred to. The research question is as follows: What might co-creation imply for families of children with disabilities when musical and interactive tangibles are used as health-promoting implements? PMID:23930992
The point of departure in this text is the ongoing qualitative interdisciplinary research project RHYME (www.RHYME.no), which addresses the lack of health-promoting interactive and musical Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for families with children with severe disabilities. The project explores a new treatment paradigm based on collaborative, tangible, interactive net-based musical "smart things" with multimedia capabilities. The goal in RHYME is twofold: (1) to reduce isolation and passivity, and (2) to promote health and well-being. Co-creation is suggested as a possible path to achieving these goals, by evoking feelings, for example, or accommodating the needs to act and to create social relations; co-creation also motivates users to communicate and collaborate within (new) social relations. This article engages co-creation by incorporating aspects connected to interaction design and the field of music and health. Empirical observations will be referred to. The research question is as follows: What might co-creation imply for families of children with disabilities when musical and interactive tangibles are used as health-promoting implements?
Francescutti, Carlo; Gongolo, Francesco; Simoncello, Andrea; Frattura, Lucilla
There is a connection between the definition of disability in a person-environment framework, the development of appropriate assessment strategies and instruments, and the logic underpinning the organization of benefits and services to confront disability. The Italian Ministry of Health and Ministry of Labor and Social Policies supported a three-year project for the definition of a common framework and a standardised protocol for disability evaluation based on ICF. The research agenda of the project identified 6 phases: 1) adoption of a definition of disability; 2) analytical breakdown of the contents of disability definition, so as to indicate as clearly as possible the core information essential to guide the evaluation process; 3) definition of a data collection protocol; 4) national implementation of the protocol and collection of approximately 1,000 profiles; 5) proposal of a profile analysis and definition of groups of cases with similar functioning profiles; 6) trial of the proposal with the collected data. The data was analyzed in different ways: descriptive analysis, application of the person-environment interactions classification tree, and cluster analysis. A sample of 1,051 persons from 8 Italian regions was collected that represented different functioning conditions in all the phases of the life cycle. The aggregate result of the person-environment interactions was summarized. The majority of activities resulted with no problems in all of the A&P chapters. Nearly 50.000 facilitators codes were opened. The main frequent facilitators were family members, health and social professionals, assistive devices and both health and social systems, services and politics. The focus of the person-environment interaction evaluation was on the A&P domains, differentiating those in which performance presented limitations and restrictions from those in which performance had no or light limitations and restrictions. Communication(d3) and Learning and Applying Knowledge
van Oorsouw, W.M.W.J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.; Bosman, A.M.T.
Background Hastings (2010) has recently emphasised 3 aspects in the training of staff who serve clients with mild to moderate intellectual disability and challenging behaviour (CB): Staff attitudes, self-awareness, and clients' perspectives. This study investigates whether programs include these
Brunt, D; Rask, M
A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.
Evaluating the Quality of the Interaction between Persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities and Direct Support Staff: A Preliminary Application of Three Observation Scales from Parent-Infant Research
Hostyn, Ine; Petry, Katja; Lambrechts, Greet; Maes, Bea
Background: Affective and reciprocal interactions with others are essential for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD), but it is a challenge to assess their quality. This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of instruments from parent-infant research to evaluate these interactions. Method: Eighteen videotaped…
Stensæth, Karette; Ruud, Even
Digital music technology represents new challenges as well as new possibilities for the discipline and practice of music therapy. When such technology also incorporates interactivity, even further steps are taken in our efforts to improve health and wellbeing through musical means. This article explores how interaction with a new type of interactive musical tangibles can contribute to health and life quality for certain children with disabilities and developmental disorders. Its point of depa...
Hodes, M W; Meppelder, M; de Moor, M; Kef, S; Schuengel, C
This study tested whether video-feedback intervention based on attachment and coercion theory increased harmonious parent-child interaction and sensitive discipline of parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Observer ratings of video-recorded structured interaction tasks at home formed pretest, post-test, and 3-month follow-up outcome data in a randomized controlled trial with 85 families. Repeated measures analyses of variance and covariance were conducted to test for the intervention effect and possible moderation by IQ and adaptive functioning. The intervention effect on harmonious parent-child interaction was conditional on parental social adaptive behaviour at pretest, with lower adaptive functioning associated with stronger intervention benefit at post-test and follow-up compared to care as usual. Intervention effects were not conditional on parental IQ. Intervention effects for sensitive discipline were not found. Although the video-feedback intervention did not affect observed parenting for the average parent, it may benefit interaction between children and parents with lower parental adaptive functioning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
... of illnesses and disabilities Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities and ADHD Learning disabilities affect how you ... ADHD. Learning disabilities Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Learning disabilities top Having a learning disability does not ...
Lykke Hindhede, Anette
Using disability theory as a framework and social science theories of identity to strengthen the arguments, this paper explores empirically how working-age adults confront the medical diagnosis of hearing impairment. For most participants hearing impairment threatens the stability of social...... interaction and the construction of hearing disabled identities is seen as shaped in the interaction with the hearing impaired person‟s surroundings. In order to overcome the potential stigmatisation the „passing‟ as normal becomes predominant. For many the diagnosis provokes radical redefinitions of the self....... The discursively produced categorisation and subjectivity of senescence mean that rehabilitation technologies such as hearing aids identify a particular life-style (disabled) which determines their social significance. Thus wearing a hearing aid works against the contemporary attempt to create socially ideal...
Full Text Available We welcome Andrew Haig's critique of our paper, "Disability & Health: A research agenda" in Social Inclusion. Our paper sought to identify research priorities to better understand, provide enhanced services and a better quality of life for people with disabilities, particularly in relation to their health and wellbeing. Haig's critique makes several important points that deserve serious consideration. His comments reflect a view of the relationship between disability and health which is different from the one we have espoused. Specifically, Haig argues that (a disability is a health problem, (b medical rehabilitation should be separated from Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR, and (c the evidence base for medical rehabilitation is much stronger than for CBR. We address each of these points below arguing that while some types of disability clearly result from health problems; often disability is not experienced as a health problem; and sometimes, disability in interaction with restricted access is the cause of health problems.
Responsive parenting style and synchronous parent-child interactions have a positive impact on children in terms of language, cognitive, and social-emotional development. Despite widely documented benefits of music therapy on parent-child interactions, empirical evidence for the effects of music therapy on parent-child synchrony is lacking. To examine effects of parent-child dyads' participation in a six-week home-based music therapy program on parent response, child initiation, and parent-child synchrony, as well as parents' daily use of musical activities with their child. Twenty-six parent-child dyads participated in this pretest-posttest within-subject single-group design study. Participating dyads included parents and their child with disabilities or developmental delays (ages 1-3 years inclusive). Parent-child dyads participated in a home-based music therapy program that included six weekly 40-minute sessions, and incorporated five responsive teaching strategies (i.e., affect, match, reciprocity, shared control, and contingency). Observational data were recorded for parent-child interactions and parent-child synchrony. Parents' positive physical and verbal responses, as well as children's positive verbal initiations, increased significantly pre- to post-intervention; however, children's positive physical initiations did not increase significantly. Parent-child synchrony also improved significantly pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the use of home-based music therapy programs to facilitate parent-child interactions in the areas of parental responsiveness and child-initiated communication, as well as parent-child synchrony. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ling, Bin; Allison, Colin; Nicholl, J. Ross; Moodley, Luke; Roberts, Dave
The Disabilities Information Flow (DIF) project at the University of St Andrews has sought to provide a means of efficiently managing all student disabilities information within the institution and provide appropriate role-based service interfaces for all staff who need to routinely interact with this information. This paper describes the software…
Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.
Gustafsson, Klas; Marklund, Staffan; Aronsson, Gunnar; Wikman, Anders; Floderus, Birgitta
The study examines various combinations of levels of social isolation in private life and peripheral work position as predictors of disability pension (DP). A second aim was to test the potential interaction effects (above additivity) of social isolation and peripheral work position on the future risk of DP, and to provide results for men and women by age. The study was based on a sample of 45567 women and men from the Swedish population who had been interviewed between 1992 and 2007. Further information on DP and diagnoses was obtained from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency's database (1993-2011). The studied predictors were related to DP using Cox's proportional hazard regression. The analyses were stratified on sex and age (20-39 years, 40-64 years), with control for selected confounders. Increased risks of DP were found for most combinations of social isolation and peripheral work position in all strata. The hazard ratios (HRs) for joint exposure to high degree of social isolation and a peripheral work position were particularly strong among men aged 20-39 (HR 5.70; CI 95% 3.74-8.69) and women aged 20-39 (HR 4.07; CI 2.99-5.56). An interaction effect from combined exposure was found for women in both age groups as well as a tendency in the same direction among young men. However, after confounder control the effects did not reach significance. Individuals who were socially isolated and in a peripheral work position had an increased risk of future DP. The fact that an interaction effect was found among women indicates that a combination of social isolation and peripheral work position may reinforce adverse health effects. There was no evidence that a peripheral work position can be compensated by a high degree of social intergration in private life.
Brands, Ingrid M H; Wade, Derick T; Stapert, Sven Z; van Heugten, Caroline M
To describe a new model of the adaptation process following acquired brain injury, based on the patient's goals, the patient's abilities and the emotional response to the changes and the possible discrepancy between goals and achievements. The process of adaptation after acquired brain injury is characterized by a continuous interaction of two processes: achieving maximal restoration of function and adjusting to the alterations and losses that occur in the various domains of functioning. Consequently, adaptation requires a balanced mix of restoration-oriented coping and loss-oriented coping. The commonly used framework to explain adaptation and coping, 'The Theory of Stress and Coping' of Lazarus and Folkman, does not capture this interactive duality. This model additionally considers theories concerned with self-regulation of behaviour, self-awareness and self-efficacy, and with the setting and achievement of goals. THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL: Our model proposes the simultaneous and continuous interaction of two pathways; goal pursuit (short term and long term) or revision as a result of success and failure in reducing distance between current state and expected future state and an affective response that is generated by the experienced goal-performance discrepancies. This affective response, in turn, influences the goals set. This two-dimensional representation covers the processes mentioned above: restoration of function and consideration of long-term limitations. We propose that adaptation centres on readjustment of long-term goals to new achievable but desired and important goals, and that this adjustment underlies re-establishing emotional stability. We discuss how the proposed model is related to actual rehabilitation practice.
Hengeveld, B.; Voort, R.; Hummels, C.; De Moor, J.; Van Balkom, H.; Overbeeke, K.; Van der Helm, A.
Young children with multiple disabilities (e.g., both cognitive and motor disabilities) are confronted with severe limitations in language development from birth and later on. Stimulating the adult-child communication can decrease these limitations. Within LinguaBytes, a three-year research program,
The concept of disability from an ethical viewpoint was examined. Whether disability results from the way society is built and the way ideas and judgments considering disability are established in a communal interaction was discussed (i.e., is disability socially created and constructed?). Although views on disability emphasizing its social nature are basically sound, they are also insufficient because they fail to consider the normative dimension attached to the concept of disability. The core of the concept of disability is ethical, which is why a moral philosophical examination of the concept is needed. Three possible ethical theories of disability (universal, objective, subjectivist, and communitarian) are briefly presented and discussed and a preliminary outline of a basis for a sound ethical model of disability presented.
Riddle, Christopher A
Recent discussions surrounding the conceptualising of disability has resulted in a stalemate between British sociologists and philosophers. The stagnation of theorizing that has occurred threatens not only academic pursuits and the advancement of theoretical interpretations within the Disability Studies community, but also how we educate and advocate politically, legally, and socially. More pointedly, many activists and theorists in the UK appear to believe the British social model is the only effective means of understanding and advocating on behalf of people with disabilities. This model, largely reliant upon materialist research traditions, contends that disability is a form of social oppression and hence, is a phenomenon that should be conceptualised in social terms. Individual properties such as impairments are disregarded as they are viewed to be unimportant in the analysis of the social causes of disability. Concurrently, many bioethicists and philosophers have embraced what Tom Shakespeare has classified as an 'Interactional Approach' to disability--that "the experience of a disabled person results from the relationship between factors intrinsic to the individual, and the extrinsic factors arising from the wider context in which she finds herself". I intend to demonstrate that the benefits of the British social model are now outweighed by its burdens. I suggest, as Jerome Bickenbach has, that while it may be somewhat churlish to critique the social model in light of its political success, taken literally, it implies that people with disabilities require no additional health resources by virtue of their impairments. Despite the eloquent arguments that have preceded me by interactional theorists, none have been accepted as evidence of fallacious reasoning by British social model theorists. This article is an attempt to clarify why it is that the types of arguments British social model theorists have been offering are misguided. I suggest that the British
... below average Development way below that of peers Intelligence quotient (IQ) score below 70 on a standardized ... Social. Nutrition programs can reduce disability associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and poverty ...
... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Patient Organizations CHADD - Children and ... NICHD) See all related organizations Publications Problemas de aprendizaje Order NINDS Publications Definition Learning disabilities are disorders ...
... books. While his friends were meeting for pickup soccer games after school, he was back home in ... sometimes thought to contribute to learning disabilities. Poor nutrition early in life also may lead to learning ...
This thesis is an analysis of the under-researched subject of disability in Trinidad and Tobago and presents an understanding of the concepts and contestations of disability as it is lived and experienced by disabled people in T&T. In it disability is explored in the context of identity construction, power relations and self-empowerment, and takes into account the ways in which that identity is shaped by historical events, cultural relations, social interactions and political structures.\\ud \\...
... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...
Witteveen, Josefine S.; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Dombroski, Thais C. D.; van Bakel, Nick H. M.; Nillesen, Willy M.; van Hulten, Josephus A.; Jansen, Eric J. R.; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S. Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M.; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A.; Visser, Jasper E.; Brunner, Han G.; Martens, Gerard J. M.; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M.
Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder ( ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor
Witteveen, J.S.; Willemsen, M.H.; Dombroski, T.C.; Bakel, N.H. van; Nillesen, W.M.; Hulten, J.A. van; Jansen, E.J.; Verkaik, D.; Veenstra-Knol, H.E.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Wassink-Ruiter, J.S.; Vincent, M.; David, A.; Le Caignec, C.; Schieving, J.; Gilissen, C.; Foulds, N.; Rump, P.; Strom, T.; Cremer, K.; Zink, A.M.; Engels, H.; Munnik, S.A. de; Visser, J.E.; Brunner, H.G.; Martens, G.J.; Pfundt, R.P.; Kleefstra, T.; Kolk, S.M.
Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor
This study investigated the perspectives of 23 first-generation Asian American mothers of children with developmental disabilities. The intent was to explore the working relationships between the mothers and professionals in health care and special education in the United States. The participants in this study were from China, Taiwan, Vietnam,…
Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD
This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...
This booklet uses hypothetical case examples to illustrate the definition, causal theories, and specific types of learning disabilities (LD). The cognitive and language performance of students with LD is compared to standard developmental milestones, and common approaches to the identification and education of children with LD are outlined.…
Full Text Available This paper tracks a series of conversations between a women's and gender studies professor and two of her undergraduate students, all of whom are interested in disability studies. We explore the links between disability and feminism, and to think through the possibilities of having disability studies become part of the academy. Our primarily positive interactions with the academic institution and our interest in disability studies has led to our argument that disability is in fact a feminist issue. Disability studies has allowed each of us to re-conceptualize our own relationships to feminist theory, and shaped our ability to envision a better academic environment for all students. Keywords: feminist disability studies, intersectionality, pedagogy, mental disability
Witteveen, Josefine S; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Dombroski, Thaís C D; van Bakel, Nick H M; Nillesen, Willy M; van Hulten, Josephus A; Jansen, Eric J R; Verkaik, Dave; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M A; Wassink-Ruiter, Jolien S Klein; Vincent, Marie; David, Albert; Le Caignec, Cedric; Schieving, Jolanda; Gilissen, Christian; Foulds, Nicola; Rump, Patrick; Strom, Tim; Cremer, Kirsten; Zink, Alexander M; Engels, Hartmut; de Munnik, Sonja A; Visser, Jasper E; Brunner, Han G; Martens, Gerard J M; Pfundt, Rolph; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Kolk, Sharon M
Numerous genes are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their dysfunction is often poorly characterized. Here we identified dominant mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor and MeCP2 interactor switch-insensitive 3 family member A (SIN3A; chromosome 15q24.2) in individuals who, in addition to mild intellectual disability and ASD, share striking features, including facial dysmorphisms, microcephaly and short stature. This phenotype is highly related to that of individuals with atypical 15q24 microdeletions, linking SIN3A to this microdeletion syndrome. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed subtle abnormalities, including corpus callosum hypoplasia and ventriculomegaly. Intriguingly, in vivo functional knockdown of Sin3a led to reduced cortical neurogenesis, altered neuronal identity and aberrant corticocortical projections in the developing mouse brain. Together, our data establish that haploinsufficiency of SIN3A is associated with mild syndromic intellectual disability and that SIN3A can be considered to be a key transcriptional regulator of cortical brain development.
Dunst, Carl J.; Prior, Jeremy; Hamby, Deborah W.; Trivette, Carol M.
Findings from two studies of 11 young children with autism, Down syndrome, or attention deficit disorders investigating the effects of Popchilla, a socially interactive robot, on the children's affective behavior are reported. The children were observed under two conditions, child-toy interactions and child-robot interactions, and ratings of child…
In this thesis four empirical studies dealt with children with profound multiple disabilities and their parents with regard to: (a) how parents perceived interaction with their children (b) how observed child/parent interaction was linked to behavior style of the children as perceived by the parents (c) how parents of children with profound multiple disabilities perceived child/parent interaction and behavior style of their children in comparison to parents to children without disabilities ma...
Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.
Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…
Choi, Nari; Ostendorf, Raymond
Parents' perception of disabilities and special education services can impact the way they interact with professionals providing services for their children with disabilities. In addition, the cultural background of parents plays an important role in their perception of disabilities, as well as how they communicate with professionals. Thus, it is…
Floyd, Frank J.; Purcell, Susan E.; Richardson, Shana S.; Kupersmidt, Janis B.
We examined sibling relationships for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and assessed implications for their social functioning. Targets (total N = 212) had either intellectual disability, a chronic illness/physical disability, or no disability. Nontarget siblings reported on relationship quality, sibling interactions were…
Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They succ...
Célia Cristina Nunes
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was: (a To describe the relationship in sibling's dyads, separated in two groups – G1, with pre-adolescent mentally retarded sibling, and G2, with this adult sibling; (b To compare the performance of both groups in the interactions; and (3 To evaluate differences in the relationships between the groups when family social support is taken into account. Sessions of sibling's interactions were videotaped, and self-report instruments were used. The caretakers answered scales of social support. Results suggested differences concerning the behavior of the helper of the sibling with characteristic development, with highest occurrence in G1. Scales' results indicated statistically significant difference for the Parenting Support from Family/Friends Scale, showing less support for G1. It is possible to suggest that because families from G1 have less support from this level from families and friends, a bigger demand of help is required from the disabled member, which can be compensated by the young siblings with typical development, who perform the helper's role in greater level than the adults.
Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Lindegaard, Hanne
The dilemma addressed is how private homes and their residents change when the home becomes a hybrid of both workspace and private space. When assistive technologies designed for institutions enter the home, the everyday practices of disabled persons and their relatives change in interaction...... are shaped in the interplay with everyday life in private homes. Through an emphasis on embodiment, script and domestication, the authors illustrate how relations are developed or not developed between the disabled person and the non-human artefacts....
Social Security Administration — The dataset includes fiscal year data for initial claims for SSA disability benefits that were referred to a state agency for a disability determination. Specific...
Hayhoe, Celia Ray; Smith, Mike, CPF
The purpose of disability income insurance is to partially replace your income if you are unable to work because of sickness or an accident. This guide reviews the types of disability insurance, important terms and concepts and employer provided benefits.
... Over a billion people, about 15% of the world's population, have some form of disability. Between 110 million ... disability. This corresponds to about 15% of the world's population. Between 110 million (2.2%) and 190 million ( ...
Samuel W Logan
Full Text Available Background: Social mobility is defined as the co-occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. Social mobility is a product of dynamic child-environment interactions and thus likely to vary across contexts (e.g., classroom, gymnasium and playground. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in children’s social mobility (1 across contexts by age, and (2 between non-disabled and disabled children. Method: Participants (n = 55 non-disabled and 3 disabled children; Mage = 3.1 years, SD = 1.4 were video-recorded within a university-based early learning center. Children were recorded for 20 minutes in each context: classroom, gymnasium, and playground. A 15-second momentary time sampling method was used to code social mobility, the simultaneous occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. This variable was calculated as percent time within each context. Results: A planned Friedman’s rank ANOVA (n = 55, stratified by age, indicated that older children (3-5 years old differed across contexts in their social mobility (χ2 (2 ~ 7.3 – 10.5, p < 0.025, whereas younger children (1-2 years old were similar across contexts. Social mobility was significantly lower in the classroom compared to the playground and gymnasium (with no difference between the latter contexts for older children. Visual analysis confirmed that disabled children (n = 3 engaged in substantially less time in social mobility (average 0% - 1%, compared to non-disabled, age-similar peers (2-3 year olds average 1% -12% across all contexts. Conclusion: A substantial gap exists between non-disabled and disabled children for social mobility. There is an increase in magnitude and variability of social mobility around age 3 that suggests the gap between non-disabled and disabled children will continue to widen.
Lignugaris/Kraft, Benjamin; Salzberg, Charles L.; Rule, S.; Stowitschek, J. J.
The social interactions of employees with and without developmental disabilities were observed in two community employment settings during work and breaks. Conversations were frequent and generally concerned work-related topics. Target workers different in how often they interacted with coworkers with and without developmental disabilities. During work, workers with developmental disabilities received commands more often than did their counterparts without developmental disabilities. Work-rel...
Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica
Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Practice, science and governance in interaction: European effort for the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine.
Stucki, Gerold; Zampolini, Mauro; Juocevicius, Alvydas; Negrini, Stefano; Christodoulou, Nicolas
Since its launch in 2001, relevant international, regional and national PRM bodies have aimed to implement the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), whereby contributing to the development of suitable practical tools. These tools are available for implementing the ICF in day-to-day clinical practice, standardized reporting of functioning outcomes in quality management and research, and guiding evidence-informed policy. Educational efforts have reinforced PRM physicians' and other rehabilitation professionals' ICF knowledge, and numerous implementation projects have explored how the ICF is applied in clinical practice, research and policy. Largely lacking though is the system-wide implementation of ICF in day-to-day practice across all rehabilitation services of national health systems. In Europe, system-wide implementation of ICF requires the interaction between practice, science and governance. Considering its mandate, the UEMS PRM Section and Board have decided to lead a European effort towards system-wide ICF implementation in PRM, rehabilitation and health care at large, in interaction with governments, non-governmental actors and the private sector, and aligned with ISPRM's collaboration plan with WHO. In this paper we present the current PRM internal and external policy agenda towards system-wide ICF implementation and the corresponding implementation action plan, while highlighting priority action steps - promotion of ICF-based standardized reporting in national quality management and assurance programs, development of unambiguous rehabilitation service descriptions using the International Classification System for Service Organization in Health-related Rehabilitation, development of Clinical Assessment Schedules, qualitative linkage and quantitative mapping of data to the ICF, and the cultural adaptation of the ICF Clinical Data Collection Tool in European languages.
Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E
Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (ptouch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Lidia Perenc; Mieczysław Radochoński; Anna Radochońska
Background The current study examined possible prosocial benefits of having a disabled sibling. Until now research has mainly focused on the negative effects of having a sibling with a disability. We hypothesized that regular and frequent interactions with a disabled person should result in an increase of positive attitude and empathy toward other people who are in a disadvantageous situation. Participants and procedure A sample of 208 students from public secondary school...
Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David
Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694
Full Text Available This article sets out to increase awareness regarding the wide and universal significance of disability, as well as the important benefits of an Integrated Disability Management (IDM approach. The scientific basis for IDM is explored in the first place through an analysis of its relationship to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. The conceptual paradigm of the ICF shares an ideological position with the IDM approach in that they are both underpinned by dynamic and multidimensional constructions of disability, which imply equally holistic and interdisciplinary responses. The IDM approach can be applied across a diversity of human situations to provide solutions that reflect the multifaceted and widespread nature of disability. The IDM approach is intended as a strategy capable of handling: inclusion of people with disabilities, active aging of human resources, health and safety in the workplace, prevention of disabilities and various diseases, return-to-work, absenteeism, and presenteeism.
Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.
Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Hason-Shaked, Meiran; Silberg, Tamar; Shpigelman, Carmit-Noa; Roe, David
Women with disabilities may face social negative attitudes with regard to their being mothers. In addition, attitudes toward different disabilities form a hierarchy, with more positive attitudes being displayed toward persons with physical disabilities than toward persons with psychiatric disabilities. Current observational study examined whether the relationship between a woman's type of disability (psychiatric vs. physical) and the social attitude towards her would be moderated by her being presented as a mother. University students (N = 100) filled out the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities and the Social Distance Scale, after reading one of six randomly assigned fictitious vignettes. The vignettes consisted of a woman with a physical disability/a woman with a psychiatric disability/a woman without a disability, who either was or was not a mother. Type of disability was found to have a main effect in some attitude domains, suggesting that attitudes toward women with physical disabilities were better than attitudes towards women with psychiatric disabilities. An interaction between type of disability and motherhood was found for the interpersonal distress subscale of the attitudes scale. It was found that when women had physical disabilities, there was no change in attitude towards them regardless of whether they were presented as mothers or not; However, when the target woman had a psychiatric disability, and she was presented as a mother, negative attitudes were generated towards her. The study demonstrates the existence of a hierarchy of stigmatization and the effect of being a mother on stigmatization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Platt, Jennifer M.; Janeczko, Donna
This article presents adaptations for teaching art to students with disabilities. Various techniques, methods, and materials are described by category of disability, including students with mental disabilities, visual impairments, hearing impairments, learning disabilities, emotional disabilities, and physical disabilities. (JDD)
Groce, N; Challenger, E; Berman-Bieler, R; Farkas, A; Yilmaz, N; Schultink, W; Clark, D; Kaplan, C; Kerac, M
There is increasing international interest in the links between malnutrition and disability: both are major global public health problems, both are key human rights concerns, and both are currently prominent within the global health agenda. In this review, interactions between the two fields are explored and it is argued that strengthening links would lead to important mutual benefits and synergies. At numerous points throughout the life-cycle, malnutrition can cause or contribute to an individual’s physical, sensory, intellectual or mental health disability. By working more closely together, these problems can be transformed into opportunities: nutrition services and programmes for children and adults can act as entry points to address and, in some cases, avoid or mitigate disability; disability programmes can improve nutrition for the children and adults they serve. For this to happen, however, political commitment and resources are needed, as are better data. PMID:25309998
Floyd, Frank J; Olsen, Darren L
Family interactions are potential contexts for children with intellectual and learning disabilities to develop skillful social behaviors needed to relate effectively with peers. This study examined problem solving interactions within families of elementary school-age children (7-11 years) with intellectual disability (n = 37), specific learning disabilities (n =48), and without disabilities (n = 22). After accounting for group differences in children's behaviors and peer acceptance, across all groups, mothers' behaviors that encouraged egalitarian problem solving predicted more engaged and skillful problem solving by the children. However, mothers' controlling, directive behaviors predicted fewer of these behaviors by the children. Fathers' behaviors had mixed associations with the children's actions, possibly because they were reactive to children's unengaged and negative behaviors. For the children, greater involvement, more facilitative behaviors, and less negativity with their families were associated with greater acceptance from their peers, supporting family-peer linkages for children at risk for peer rejection.
Caroline A. Bonham
Full Text Available Background. Anxiety disorders are associated with considerable disability in the domains of (1 work, (2 social, and (3 family and home interactions. Psychiatric comorbidity is also known to be associated with disability. Methods. Data from the Cross-National Collaborative Panic Study was used to identify rates of comorbid diagnoses, anxiety and depression symptom ratings, and Sheehan disability scale ratings from a clinical sample of 1165 adults with panic disorder. Results. Comorbid diagnoses of agoraphobia, major depression, and social phobia were associated with disability across the three domains of work, social, and family and home interactions. The symptom of agoraphobic avoidance makes the largest contribution to disability but there is no single symptom cluster that entirely predicts impairment and disability. Limitations. The findings about the relative contributions that comorbid diagnoses make to disability only apply to a population with panic disorder. Conclusions. Although panic disorder is not generally considered to be among the serious and persistent mental illnesses, when it is comorbid with other diagnoses, it is associated with considerable impairment. In particular, the presence of agoraphobic avoidance should alert the clinician to the likelihood of important functional impairment. When measuring the functional impact of comorbid anxiety disorders, both the categorical and the dimensional approaches to diagnosis make valuable contributions.
Rodriguez, Valerie J.; Glover-Graf, Noreen M.; Blanco, E. Lisette
The role of religiosity and spirituality in the process of adjustment to disability is of increasing interest to rehabilitation professionals. Beginning with the Kubler-Ross models of grief and adjustment to disability and terminal illness, a number of stage models have included spiritual and religious interactions as a part of the adjustment…
BACKGROUND: Delay in leprosy diagnosis and treatment causes disabilities due to nerve damage, immunological reactions and bacillary infiltration. Leprosy disability leads not only to physical dysfunction and activity limitation but also disrupts social interaction of affected individuals by creating stigma and discrimination.
Dunja Maria Baston-Buest
Full Text Available Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression. Western blot analyses of MAPK and Wnt members were performed, followed by analysis of spheroid interactions between human endometrial cells and extravillous trophoblast cells. By mimicking embryo contact using IL-1β, we showed less ERK and c-Jun activation by depletion of Syndecan-1 and less Frizzled 4 production as part of the canonical Wnt pathway. Additionally, more beta-catenin was phosphorylated and therefore degraded after depletion of Syndecan-1. Secretion of CXC motif ligand 1 depends on MEK-1 with respect to Syndecan-1. Regarding the interaction of endometrial and trophoblast cells, the spheroid center-to-center distances were smaller after depletion of Syndecan-1. Therefore, Syndecan-1 seems to affect signaling processes relevant to signaling and intercellular interaction at the trophoblast-decidual interface.
Stout, Tom A E
The first month of equine pregnancy covers a period of rapid growth and development, during which the single-cell zygote metamorphoses into an embryo with a functional circulation and precursors of many important organs, enclosed within extraembryonic membranes responsible for nutrient uptake and
Kjeldsen, Lena; Amby, Finn
Danish governments have continuously proclaimed goals of raising the employment rate for people with disabilities, most recently in the publication “10 goal for social mobility” (Government 2016). In spite of this, the employment rate for people with disabilities has been more than 30 percent less...... than that of people without disabilities for more than a decade (Larsen & Høgelund 2015). An explanation of this difference could be the limited connection between these general goals, the employment laws and the actual implementation of the goals in the job centers (Amby 2015). Earlier Danish studies...... have by large focused on employment and disability at the stage where the client already has been categorized as having a disability (e.g. Møller & Stone 2013). This study offers new insight to the field in a Danish context by exploring the process in which people with disabilities are categorized...
Joyceane Bezerra de Menezes
Full Text Available It analyzes the social model of disability approach that is adopted by the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Unlike the medical model, disability shall be understood as the interaction between the limitation or natural deterrent suffering person in their physical functions, mental and / or intellectual and social barriers. The paper follows qualitative analysis, basing on bibliographical and documentary research that showed the change in paradigm of international documents on human rights, focusing on the inclusion of people with disabilities and mitigation of social barriers to participate in community life, social and politician.
Cremer, Helmuth; Lozachmeur, Jean-Marie; Pestieau, Pierre
This Paper studies the design of retirement and disability policies. It illustrates the often observed exit from the labour force of healthy workers through disability insurance schemes. Two types of individuals, disabled and leisure-prone ones, have the same disutility for labour and cannot be distinguished. They are not, however, counted in the same way in social welfare. Benefits depend on retirement age and on the (reported) health status. We determine first- and second-best optimal benef...
For the theoretical part of this master's thesis foreign literature and finished foreign researches were studied. In this part of the thesis the characteristics of mothers with intellectual disabilities; factors, which influence the success of carrying out their mother role; and the rights of people with intellectual disabilities as parents, all based on Slovene legislation are included. We listed reasons for limiting reproduction for women with intellectual disabilities and issues concerning...
Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T
Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.
Durocher, Joan; Lord, Janet; Defranco, Allison
The United States invests billions of taxpayer dollars each year into foreign assistance programs that foster international diplomacy and development directed toward improving the quality of life for people around the world. These programs develop economies and combat poverty, promote democracy and governance, build new infrastructure, advance and protect human rights, among other development goals. The United States cannot effectively accomplish the goals of foreign assistance programs unless it undertakes measures to ensure that the programs are accessible to and inclusive of people with disabilities. The United States has been a leader in advancing the rights of people with disabilities and must continue to promote disability rights through its international development work. Overseas economic development will not be successful unless people with disabilities are included. Because of the significant number of people with disabilities in developing countries, if they are not included, the very economic growth the United States is trying to foster will be hindered. The goals of democracy and governance programs cannot be achieved without the inclusion of people with disabilities. In many countries, domestic law contains blatant discriminatory provisions for people with disabilities that undermine access to justice and full participation in society. The provisions that discriminate against people with disabilities include arbitrary exclusions in electoral codes, sweeping plenary guardianship laws with no due-process protections, discriminatory banking practices, and inaccessible court proceedings. National disability legal frameworks remain underdeveloped throughout the world. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wallace, Robyn A
Preventable poor health outcomes for adults with intellectual disability in health settings have been known about for years. Subsequent analysis and the sorts of reasonable adjustments required in health and disability support settings to address these health gaps are well described, but have not really been embedded in practice in any significant way in either setting. As far as health is concerned, implementation of the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS, the Scheme) affords an opportunity to recognise individual needs of people with intellectual disability to provide reasonable and necessary functional support for access to mainstream health services, to build capacity of mainstream health providers to supply services and to increase individual capacity to access services. Together these strands have potential to transform health outcomes. Success of the Scheme, however, rests on as yet incompletely defined operational interaction between NDIS and mainstream health services and inherently involves the disability sector. This interaction is especially relevant for adults with intellectual disability, known high users of hospitals and for whom hospital outcomes are particularly poor and preventable. Keys to better hospital outcomes are first, the receiving of quality person-centred healthcare from physicians and hospitals taking into account significance of intellectual disability and second, formulation of organised quality functional supports during hospitalisation. Achieving these require sophisticated engagement between consumers, the National Disability Insurance Agency, Commonwealth, State and Territory government leaders, senior hospital and disability administrators, NDIS service providers and clinicians and involves cross fertilisation of values, sharing of operational policies and procedures, determination of boundaries of fiscal responsibility for functional supports in hospital. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Célia Cristina Nunes
Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram: (a caracterizar a interação entre díades de irmãos, divididas em dois grupos - G1, com o irmão deficiente mental pré-adolescente, e G2, com esse irmão adulto; (b comparar os desempenhos dos grupos nas interações; e (c avaliar diferenças entre os grupos nas interações, considerando o apoio social da família. Foram realizadas sessões de observação de interações, e aplicação de instrumentos de auto-relato; os cuidadores responderam escalas para avaliação do apoio social. Os resultados sugeriram diferença no comportamento de ajudante do irmão com desenvolvimento típico, com taxa de ocorrência maior para G1. Nas escalas, houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na Escala de Apoio à Maternidade/Paternidade, revelando-se menor apoio para G1. Especula-se que, como as famílias do G1 recebem menor apoio deste nível, há maior demanda de ajuda requerida pelo filho deficiente, que pode ser suprida pelos irmãos menores com desenvolvimento típico, que desempenham o papel de ajudante em maior escala que os adultos.The purpose of the present study was: (a To describe the relationship in sibling's dyads, separated in two groups - G1, with pre-adolescent mentally retarded sibling, and G2, with this adult sibling; (b To compare the performance of both groups in the interactions; and (3 To evaluate differences in the relationships between the groups when family social support is taken into account. Sessions of sibling's interactions were videotaped, and self-report instruments were used. The caretakers answered scales of social support. Results suggested differences concerning the behavior of the helper of the sibling with characteristic development, with highest occurrence in G1. Scales' results indicated statistically significant difference for the Parenting Support from Family/Friends Scale, showing less support for G1. It is possible to suggest that because families from G1 have less support
Gandell, Terry S.; Laufer, Dorothy
A telecommunications curriculum was developed for students (ages 15-21) with physical disabilities. Curriculum content included an internal mailbox program (Mailbox), interactive communication system (Blisscom), bulletin board system (Arctel), and a mainframe system (Compuserv). (JDD)
Alapetite, Alexandre; Hansen, John Paulin
This paper focuses on digital aids for sight impairment and motor disabilities. We propose an Internet of Things (IoT) platform for discovering nearby items, getting their status, and interacting with them by e.g. voice commands or gaze gestures. The technology is based on Bluetooth Low Energy...
The aim of the article is to discuss the relationship between disability, educational level and employment, and to scrutinize how disability and education interact to impact employment – a link that has been observed in several studies. The article uses analyses of EU-SILC data to illustrate that conclusions about whether higher education reduces labour-market inequalities between disabled and non-disabled, depends in part on the analytical strategies used, which in turn are guided by implici...
US Department of Education, 2007
Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…
Salter, Erica K
From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.
Dwyer, Kevin P.
This report discusses disciplining children with disabilities in schools, in the context of the legal requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Practical concepts are explained in terms of the school's responsibility to: (1) maintain a safe environment; (2) teach a code of discipline to all students; (3) use the…
Bogdan, Robert; And Others
From the early nineteenth century to the present, horror, gangster, and adventure films, television, the comics, and newspapers have shown physical and mental disabilities to connote murder, violence, and danger. Such false portrayals have promoted negative public attitudes toward people with disabilities. (Author/MJL)
Brown, S E
People with disabilities have, for the most part, failed to identify with each other as a group. This has been detrimental because it has built a sense of isolation when a camaraderie based upon existing commonalities could have been developed. During the past ten to twenty years, there has been a great deal of discussion about appropriate language to use when discussing disability issues. This discussion has been a part of a larger debate concerning the existence of a disability culture. I believe that there is indeed a disability culture and I am a proponent of identifying and passing on stories which contribute to that culture. I have chosen to use mythology to convey this message and have begun with a focus on heroes - people who do something out of the ordinary. It is contended that almost all people with disabilities have performed heroic activities because of the pervasive discrimination encountered by each individual with a disability. Creating a disability mythology is an attempt to recognize and promote heroes within the disabled community and to advocate the importance of telling other people how positive change has occurred through instances of individual heroism.
State Employees Division of Senior and Disabilities Services DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Assistance Senior Benefits Program Medicare Substance Abuse Treatment Alaska Tribal Child Welfare Compact ; Senior and Disabilities Services Page Content Director Duane Mayes photo image. Duane Mayes Director
Anderson, David W.
People often hold stereotypical notions about disability, assuming people with significant disabilities offer little in terms of friendship or contribution. Some are even repulsed by that person's physical appearance. Such responses, evident within the Christian community as well, fail to acknowledge the inherent worth of the person as created in…
Full Text Available Disabled people, amidst political and social gains, continue to experience discrimination in multiple areas. Understanding how such discrimination, named here as ableism, operates is important and may require studying perspectives of people who do not claim a disability identity. Ableism may be expressed in a number of ways, and examining how a particular group, in this case siblings of disabled people, understand and value disability may contribute to overall understandings about how ableism works. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore relationships between siblings of disabled people's broad societal understandings of disability and their attitudes towards it. In order to tease out this relationship further we have also examined factors that impact how people define disability. Using both social psychological and sociological approaches, we have contextualized individual attitudes as providing additional new information about social meanings of disability, and set this study's results against the larger backdrops of debates over meanings of disability within Disability Studies. In our research, participants revealed complex understandings of disability, but most often defined disability as preventing or slowing action, as an atypical function, a lack of independence, and as a socially constructed obstacle. Participants' unconscious (implicit disability attitudes significantly related to their understandings of disability as lacking independence, impairment, and/or in relation to the norm, and their conscious (explicit disability attitudes. Moreover, longer employment in a disability-related industry was correlated with defining disability as a general difference, rather than as slowing or limiting of tasks.
Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri
Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.
Currently, dominant web accessibility standards do not respect disability as a complex and culturally contingent interaction; recognizing that disability is a variable, contrary and political power relation, rather than a biological limit. Against this background there is clear scope to broaden the ways in which accessibility standards are understood, developed and applied. Commentary. The values that shape and are shaped by legislation promote universal, statistical and automated approaches to web accessibility. This results in web accessibility standards conveying powerful norms fixing the relationship between technology and disability, irrespective of geographical, social, technological or cultural diversity. Web accessibility standards are designed to enact universal principles; however, they express partial and biopolitical understandings of the relation between disability and technology. These values can be limiting, and potentially counter-productive, for example, for the majority of disabled people in the "Global South" where different contexts constitute different disabilities and different experiences of web access. To create more robust, accessible outcomes for disabled people, research and standards practice should diversify to embrace more interactional accounts of disability in different settings. Implications for Rehabilitation Creating accessible experiences is an essential aspect of rehabilitation. Web standards promote universal accessibility as a property of an online resource or service. This undervalues the importance of the user's intentions, expertize, their context, and the complex social and cultural nature of disability. Standardized, universal approaches to web accessibility may lead to counterproductive outcomes for disabled people whose impairments and circumstances do not meet Western disability and accessibility norms. Accessible experiences for rehabilitation can be enhanced through an additional focus on holistic approaches to
Nario-Redmond, Michelle R; Gospodinov, Dobromir; Cobb, Angela
To investigate the impact of disability simulations on mood, self-ascribed disability stereotypes, attitudes about interacting with disabled individuals, and behavioral intentions for improving campus accessibility. Experiment 1 evaluated disability-awareness simulations by randomly assigning undergraduates (N = 60) with and without disabilities to stations simulating either dyslexia, hearing or mobility impairments. Experiment 2 extended the field study into the lab where undergraduates (N = 50) with and without disabilities each completed low vision, hearing impairment, and dyslexia simulations. Both studies incorporated pretest-posttest measures of mood, self-ascribed disability stereotypes, and attitudinal measures. In both experiments, disability simulations made participants feel more confused, embarrassed, helpless, and more vulnerable to becoming disabled themselves compared to baseline. Following the simulations, empathetic concern (warmth) toward disabled people increased in both studies, but attitudes about interacting did not improve. In Experiment 1, postsimulation anxiety, embarrassment, and helplessness were highest for those who used wheelchairs or simulated dyslexia. In Experiment 2, participants judged themselves less competent, expressed more pity, expressed more interaction discomfort, and were not more willing to interview disabled students for an accessibility project following the simulations compared to baseline. In addition, Experiment 2 found frustration, guilt, anxiety, and depression were most pronounced among those who interacted with disabled people less than once per month. Simulating disabilities promotes distress and fails to improve attitudes toward disabled people, undermining efforts to improve integration even while participants report more empathetic concern and "understanding of what the disability experience is like." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Kishore, M Thomas
Understanding the disability impact on parenting and caregiving is important for intervention. The present study was designed to understand the differences in perceived disability impact and related coping in mothers having children with intellectual disabilities alone compared to those having children with intellectual disabilities and additional disabilities. Accordingly, 30 mothers of children with intellectual disabilities and 30 mothers of children with intellectual and additional disabilities were assessed for disability impact and coping. Group differences for disability impact were present in specific domains but not overall. Despite variations in coping pattern, both positive and negative coping strategies were observed in both groups. The results may imply that the impact of intellectual disability is so pervasive that except in certain domains mothers may not perceive the further impact of additional disabilities. Positive coping does not rule out negative coping strategies. These findings have specific relevance to service delivery in a cultural context.
Full Text Available Anesthetizing an intellectually disabled patient is a challenge due to lack of cognition and communication which makes perioperative evaluation difficult. The presence of associated medical problems and lack of cooperation further complicates the anesthetic technique. An online literature search was performed using keywords anesthesia, intellectually disabled, and mentally retarded and relevant articles were included for review. There is scarcity of literature dealing with intellectually disabled patients. The present review highlights the anesthetic challenges, their relevant evidence-based management, and the role of caretakers in the perioperative period. Proper understanding of the associated problems along with a considerate and unhurried approach are the essentials of anesthetic management of these patients.
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper argues against Appel's recent proposal-in this journal-that there is a fundamental human right to sexual pleasure, and that therefore the sexual pleasure of severely disabled people should be publicly funded-by thereby partially legalising prostitution. An alternative is proposed that does not need to pose a new positive human right; does not need public funding; does not need the legalisation of prostitution; and that would offer a better experience to the severely disabled: charitable non-profit organisations whose members would voluntarily and freely provide sexual pleasure to the severely disabled.
Eddey, Gary E; Robey, Kenneth L
Cultural competence extends beyond understanding those values, beliefs, and needs that are associated with patients' age or gender or with their racial, ethnic, or religious backgrounds. People hold many simultaneous cultural associations, and each have implications for the care process. The "culture of disability" is a pan-ethnic culture for which a set of physician competencies are required to ensure appropriate, culturally sensitive care to persons with congenital or acquired disabilities. Such competencies include communicating with patients who have deficits in verbal communication and avoidance of infantilizing speech; understanding the values and needs of persons with disabilities; the ability to encourage self-advocacy skills of patients and families; acknowledging the core values of disability culture including the emphasis on interdependence rather than independence; and feeling comfortable with patients with complex disabilities. Medical schools have developed programs to increase students' exposure to persons with disabilities and it is suggested that such programs are most effective when they are the result of collaboration with community-based facilities or organizations that serve persons with disabilities in the natural environment. Combining lecture-based instruction and structured experiences with the opportunity for students to interact with patients in their natural environments may facilitate development of competencies with respect to patients with disabilities. The culture of disability should be included as one of the many cultures addressed in cultural competence initiatives in medical school and residency curricula.
Full Text Available Objective: To provide an update on disability and rehabilitation in Mongolia, and to identify potential barriers and facilitators for implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Disability Action Plan (GDAP. Methods: A 4-member rehabilitation team from the Royal Melbourne Hospital conducted an intensive 6-day workshop at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences, for local healthcare professionals (n = 77 from medical rehabilitation facilities (urban/rural, public/private and non-governmental organizations. A modified Delphi method (interactive sessions, consensus agreement identified challenges for rehabilitation service provision and disability education and attitudes, using GDAP objectives. Results: The GDAP summary actions were considered useful for clinicians, policy-makers, government and persons with disabilities. The main challenges identified were: limited knowledge of disability services and rehabilitation within healthcare sectors; lack of coordination between sectors; geo-topographical issues; limited skilled workforces; lack of disability data, guidelines and accreditation standards; poor legislation and political commitment. The facilitators were: strong leadership; advocacy of disability-inclusive development; investment in local infrastructure/human resources; opportunities for coordination and partnerships between the healthcare sector and other stakeholders; research opportunities; and dissemination of information. Conclusion: Disability and rehabilitation is an emerging priority in Mongolia to address the rights and needs of persons with disabilities. The GDAP provides guidance to facilitate access and strengthen rehabilitation services.
... for Educators Search English Español What Is an Intellectual Disability? KidsHealth / For Kids / What Is an Intellectual Disability? ... learning and becoming an independent person. What Causes Intellectual Disabilities? Intellectual disabilities happen because the brain gets injured ...
A Comparison of the Effects of Video Modeling Other and Peer-Implemented Pivotal Response Training to Video Modeling Other on Positive Social Interactions of Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
Young children with developmental disabilities (DD) frequently have delays in social play skills. Students with DD may require social skills instruction in order to be successful in playing cooperatively with others. These opportunities to practice social play skills learned from specialized interventions must be available throughout the school…
Full Text Available Locating occupational therapy within gendered and racialized systems of power, the authors consider the intersectional nature of critical disability studies discourse and the need for occupational therapy to incorporate such values into practice. This article discusses ways in which occupational therapy as a profession and individual therapists can align with or resist the economic determination which has come to dominate medical systems. It considers some of the political background to the history of the profession and its relationship with power. This positioning of the profession is explored against the impact of neoliberal economic policy on health, rights, service delivery and disability, and against some key issues, the pressure of ageing populations and the positon of occupational therapists as women professionals. Current policies present a critical challenge to central occupational therapy tenets. Occupational therapists may find themselves working both in alliance with disabled people and disability activists, and against them.
Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about learning more about kids who have disabilities. Created: 5/22/2014 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH). Date Released: 5/22/2014.
... risk behaviors and higher rates of premature death. Secondary conditions Secondary conditions occur in addition to (and ... Provide evidence-based guidelines for assessment and treatment. Data and research Include people with disabilities in health ...
Jespersen, Louise Norman; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Tjørnhøj-thomsen, Tine
highlighted as affecting quality of life. The use of social tactics to avoid confrontation with certain aspects of their disability was common among participants. Conclusions: Across disabilities, caregiving, dependency, understanding and acceptance, and discrimination and prejudice were all important aspects......Purpose: We explored which shared aspects of social relations were considered important to the quality of life of persons between the ages of 10 and 40 years living with a disability. We examined how social relations were experienced as affecting quality of life and social participation. Materials...... and methods: Fifteen focus groups involving 48 persons with disabilities were conducted using photo elicitation, preference ranking and props. Focus group interviews were supplemented with seven individual interviews with individuals unable to participate in focus groups. All focus group interviews...
... play, learn, speak, behave, and move (for example, crawling and walking). Children develop at their own pace, ... person’s lifetime. Most developmental disabilities begin before a baby is born, but some can happen after birth ...
Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H
Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Draper, William R; Hawley, Carolyn E; McMahon, Brian T; Reid, Christine A; Barbir, Lara A
The purpose of this study is to examine the possible interactions of predictor variables pertaining to perceived disability claims contained in a large governmental database. Specifically, it is a retrospective analysis of US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) data for the entire population of workplace discrimination claims based on the "regarded as disabled" prong of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) definition of disability. The study utilized records extracted from a "master database" of over two million charges of workplace discrimination in the Integrated Mission System of the EEOC. This database includes all ADA-related discrimination allegations filed from July 26, 1992 through December 31, 2008. Chi squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) was employed to analyze interaction effects of relevant variables, such as issue (grievance) and industry type. The research question addressed by CHAID is: What combination of factors are associated with merit outcomes for people making ADA EEOC allegations who are "regarded as" having disabilities? The CHAID analysis shows how merit outcome is predicted by the interaction of relevant variables. Issue was found to be the most prominent variable in determining merit outcome, followed by industry type, but the picture is made more complex by qualifications regarding age and race data. Although discharge was the most frequent grievance among charging parties in the perceived disability group, its merit outcome was significantly less than that for the leading factor of hiring.
Plomin, Robert; Kovas, Yulia
The authors reviewed recent quantitative genetic research on learning disabilities that led to the conclusion that genetic diagnoses differ from traditional diagnoses in that the effects of relevant genes are largely general rather than specific. This research suggests that most genes associated with common learning disabilities--language impairment, reading disability, and mathematics disability--are generalists in 3 ways. First, genes that affect common learning disabilities are largely the same genes responsible for normal variation in learning abilities. Second, genes that affect any aspect of a learning disability affect other aspects of the disability. Third, genes that affect one learning disability are also likely to affect other learning disabilities. These quantitative genetic findings have far-reaching implications for molecular genetics and neuroscience as well as psychology. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane
Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of
Seval Cambaz Ulas
Full Text Available In Turkey there are approximately 8.5 million (% 12.3 disabled people. While the ratio of orthopedic, visual, auditory, speech, and talking disabilities and mental disability is 2.6%, the ratio of the people who have chronic diseases is 9.7% In our country, by the beginning of 1982 Constitution, there have been a lot of legal regulations. If the services for disabled persons considered as social security-related legislation for care, healthcare, education, employment and practices; the legal regulation on the year 2005 (The Disability Law no. 5378 has covered many blankness and also evolved the services to the disabled people. However, despite these recent legal regulation it is questionable that if the services for the disabled are adequate or not. In this review, the services, which offered to the disabled people, are evaluated as the topics mentioned above. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 483-488
Cole, Terry Stokes
Science teachers have long noticed the fact that their students come to school with their own concepts, produced from daily experiences and interactions with the world around them. Sometimes these ideas are in agreement with accepted scientific theories, but often they are not. These "incorrect" ideas, or "misconceptions" have been the focus of many studies, which can be helpful to teachers when planning their lessons. However, there is a dearth of information that is geared specifically to students with learning disabilities. These students generally have deficits in areas of perception and learning that could conceivably influence the way they formulate concepts. The purpose of this study was to examine the concepts held by students with learning disabilities on the causes of the day/night cycle, the phases of the moon, and the seasons. An interview format was judged to be the best method of ensuring that the students' ideas were clearly documented. The subjects were five, sixth-grade students in a city school, who had been determined to have a learning disability. In examining the results, there did not seem to be any direct link between the type of misconception formed and the learning deficit of the child. It seemed more likely that students formed their concepts the way students usually do, but the various disabilities they exhibited interfered with their learning of more appropriate conceptions. The results of this study will be helpful to science teachers, curriculum planners, or anyone who works with students who have learning disabilities. It is hoped that this will begin to fill a void in the area of learning disabilities research.
Kortteinen, Hanna; Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo
We studied the connection of IQ, reading disability (RD) and their interaction with reading, spelling and other cognitive skills in adolescents with average IQ and RD (n = 22), average IQ, non-RD (n = 71), below average IQ and RD (n = 29), and below average IQ non-RD (n = 33). IQ was not connected to reading and spelling in subjects without RD,…
Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A
Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.
Gilman, Sander L
How does society imagine mental illness? Does this shift radically over time and with different social attitudes as well as scientific discoveries about the origins and meanings of mental illness? What happens when we begin to think about mental illness as madness, as a malleable concept constantly shifting its meaning? We thus look at the meanings associated with 'general paralysis of the insane' in the nineteenth century and autism today in regard to disability. In this case study we examine the claims by scholars such as the anthropologist Emily Martin and the psychiatrist Kay Jamison as to the relationship between mental illness, disability and creativity. Today, the health sciences have become concerned with mental illness as a form of disability. How does this change the meaning of madness for practitioners and patients? © The Author(s) 2014.
This study explores how the ‘care’ of able-bodied employees and managers (observers) affects their relationships with colleagues with cerebral palsy. Disability researchers have established that ‘help’ and ‘care’ may cause feelings of dependency with the recipient. However, few workplace studies...... have investigated the potential negative consequences of ‘caring for’ colleagues with disabilities. Through open-ended interviews conducted in 2013 in 13 Danish work organizations with 13 employees with cerebral palsy and 62 observers, the study examines how the relational aspect of ‘care’ may result...... in relationships between colleagues of ‘parent–child’ or ‘helper–helpless’. The study thus clarifies the inherent contradictions embedded in the dynamics of organizational behaviour in relation to employees with disabilities, namely that workplaces may hire a person with physical limitations (perhaps to deflect...
Shields, Nora; Taylor, Nicholas F.
Purpose: To determine whether contact over 8 weeks with a person with disability benefits physiotherapy students' attitudes toward disability and their development of professional behaviours and skills. Methods: Sixteen adults with Down syndrome were matched with 16 physiotherapy students (13 women, 3 men; mean age 22.5 [SD 3.0] years) and randomized to either an 8-week, twice-weekly walking programme or an 8-week, once-weekly social activities programme. Students completed the Interaction wi...
[Purpose] This study analyzes awareness and participation behavior in disabled sports and disability understanding after Tokyo's bid for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. [Subjects and Methods] The study conducted a cross survey on 220 registrants of an Internet research firm. It analyzed: the awareness of citizens and their behavioral changes, in the aftermath of the allocation of Olympic and Paralympic Games; subject attributes and education level; recognition of disabled sports; and the awareness and behavior of participants, with regard to disabled sports. The analysis was conducted using SPSS Ver. 21 (IBM). [Results] The subjects were not interested in watching (72.2%), participating (76.8%), or volunteering (71.8%) in disabled sports. In addition, 76.8% of the subjects exhibited no behavioral changes-such as by watching, participating, or volunteering in disabled sports-after the Olympics and Paralympics bid decision. [Conclusion] This study's subjects had no confidence in their disability knowledge and no opportunities to interact with disabled persons. Furthermore, the bids for mega-events such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games did not lead to behavioral changes concerning disabled sports. Therefore, disability understanding should promote and deepen participation behavior in disabled sports.
Oliver, Mike; Barnes, Colin
This paper traces the relationship between the emergence of disability studies and the struggle for meaningful inclusion for disabled people with particular reference to the work of a pivotal figure in these developments: Len Barton. It is argued that the links between disability activism and the academy were responsible for the emergence of…
Evans, Nancy J.; Assadi, Jennifer L.; Herriott, Todd K.
The authors advocate for a constructionist interpretation of disability, grounded in a social justice perspective, by discussing disability paradigms, factors that influence attitudes and attitude change regarding disability, and disability ally development and behaviors.
Allegra Stout; Ariel Schwartz
Although few colleges and universities offer undergraduate disability studies curricula, our own experiences suggest that higher education settings provide opportunities for students to engage with and act upon disability studies theories and concepts. To learn more about the interactions between undergraduate student groups and disability studies, we interviewed students and faculty on three campuses. We found that students not only access disability studies theory through both formal and in...
Lauer, E. A; Houtenville, A. J.
The "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement" is a companion report to the "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium." The "Supplement" presents statistics on the same topics as the "Compendium," with additional categorizations by demographic characteristics including age, gender and race/ethnicity. In…
People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities â a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce. Created: 12/28/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Date Released: 12/28/2016.
Alvaro, San Martín; Rafael, Pagani Mario
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent...
Hasselblad, Stefan; Petersson, Eva; Brooks, Tony
This paper reflects upon a case study where exploration, play and empowerment in interactive therapy sessions with audio and visual stimuli resulted in achievement, self-esteem and a shared pride between a young adult with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD), his mother and the spe...
People with disabilities in America are twice as likely to be unemployed than people without disabilities â a fact that can be eliminated. Dr. Shannon Griffin-Blake tells us how we can give people with disabilities an opportunity to thrive in the workforce.
Lauer, E. A.; Houtenville, A. J.
The "Annual Disability Statistics Compendium" and its compliment, the "Annual Disability Statistics Supplement," are publications of statistics about people with disabilities and about the government programs which serve them. The "Compendium" and "Supplement" are designed to serve as a summary of government…
Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…
Forber-Pratt, Anjali J; Lyew, Dominique A; Mueller, Carlyn; Samples, Leah B
The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize existing empirical research on disability identity development. This review is organized to present the demographics of participants and types of disabilities represented in the existing data, measures of disability identity development and theoretical models of disability identity development. Electronic databases (EBSCO, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Sociological Abstracts) were searched for all peer reviewed empirical studies published between 1980 and 2017. Articles were excluded if they were theoretical and/or did not include participants with disabilities, or focused on a disability-specific community identity rather than general disability identity. Empirical articles (N = 41) were included in the final review. An overwhelming majority (75.6%) were qualitative in nature, with only 22% of the articles reviewed being quantitative and only 1 that utilized a mixed methods design. The results suggest that disability identity can be considered a unique phenomenon that shapes persons' ways of seeing themselves, their bodies, and their way of interacting with the world. Disability identity development has the potential to become an important factor in developing effective interventions and/or therapies. Identity development is a fundamentally social process, and identities are formed through mirroring, modeling, and recognition through available identity resources, and so it is imperative that able-bodied professionals (i.e., rehabilitation professionals, therapists, teachers and caregivers) working with individuals with disabilities become aware of this developmental process to be able to better support individuals along this journey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Salti, Nisreen; Ghattas, Hala
Potential interactions between malnutrition and disability are increasingly recognized, and both are important global health issues. Causal effects working from nutrition to disability and from disability back to nutrition present an empirical challenge to measuring either of these effects. However, disability affects nutrition whatever the cause of disability, whereas nutrition is likelier to affect disease-related disability than war- or work-related disability. This paper investigates the association of food insufficiency with the risk of physical disability. Data on disability by cause allow us to address the difficulty of reverse causality. Multinomial logit regressions of disability by cause on food insufficiency are run using survey data from 2010 on 2575 Palestinian refugee households in Lebanon. Controls include household sociodemographic, health and economic characteristics. Regressions of food insufficiency on disability by cause are also run. Disability has a significant coefficient in regressions of food insufficiency, whatever the cause of disability; but in regressions of disability on food insufficiency, food insufficiency is significant only for disease-related disability (log odds of disease-related disability .78 higher, p = .008). The difference in the results by cause of disability is evidence of a significant association between food insufficiency and disease-related disability, net of any reverse effect from disability to food access. The association between disease-related disability and food insufficiency is statistically significant suggesting that even taking into account feedback from disability to nutrition, nutrition is an effective level of intervention to avert the poverty-disability trap resulting from the impoverishing effect of disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaesberg, Mary Ann; Murray, Kenneth T.
Presents a 35-item checklist of practical activities for school district compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The checklist is based on ADA statutes, other civil rights legislation and litigation, as well as pertinent regulations and the legislative history of the act contained in the Congressional Record. (MLF)
... for loving and fulfilling relationships with others. Individual rights to sexuality, which is essential to human health and well-being, have been denied. This loss has negatively affected people with intellectual disabilities in gender identity, friendships, self-esteem, body image ...
in 13 different work organisations. The primary finding of the study is that observers spontaneously refer to other ‘different’ people (e.g., transvestites, homosexuals, immigrants) when talking about a colleague with impairments. This finding suggests that disability is simultaneously a discursive...... discourses of ableism (which automatically produce difference) and tolerance and inclusiveness (which automatically render it problematic to talk about difference)....
... actually be at an advantage in terms of effective health information exchange in care coordination, due to local ... those patients with a disability had received an exercise recommendation at a doctor ... sponsors health promotion workshops designed to be provided by organizations ...
Redford, a veteran 5th grade teacher, addresses the question of whether, in the case of students with dyslexia, "it's time to ditch the disability classification and replace it with more positive language that embraces and appreciates [the condition] as a 'neurodifference' instead." Her answer is no--at least in the current education…
Original title: Jeugd met beperkingen. Taking part in society in an ordinary way is not self-evident for children and young people with a physical or intellectual disability. They often encounter more obstacles in going to school, finding a job and in their leisure time than other people of
This essay explores the multiple sites where disability appears in the history of medicine and suggests ways in which medical historians can self-consciously incorporate a disability perspective into their own work. Just as medical historians have much to learn from disability historians, disability historians could benefit from looking more closely at the history of medicine. While disability cannot (and should not) be reduced to disease, the fact remains that some forms of disability are brought about by disease processes, and some require daily regimes of home health care, therapy, and pain management. How the disabled have interacted with health care institutions, caretakers, and the medical establishment is too significant to be written out of its history.
Kearney, Penelope M; Pryor, Julie
Nursing conceptualizes disability from largely medical and individual perspectives that do not consider its social dimensions. Disabled people are critical of this paradigm and its impact on their health care. The aims of this paper are to review the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), including its history and the theoretical models upon which it is based and to discuss its relevance as a conceptual framework for nursing. The paper presents a critical overview of concepts of disability and their implications for nursing and argues that a broader view is necessary. It examines ICF and its relationship to changing paradigms of disability and presents some applications for nursing. The ICF, with its acknowledgement of the interaction between people and their environments in health and disability, is a useful conceptual framework for nursing education, practice and research. It has the potential to expand nurses' thinking and practice by increasing awareness of the social, political and cultural dimensions of disability.
Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas
This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shabunova Aleksandra Anatol’evna
Full Text Available Disability employment is a major tool for creating inclusive society. In Russia, the main obstacles to employment of the disabled are imperfect statutory measures aimed at improving competitiveness of this population group in the labor market; low prestige of jobs for people with disabilities; the employers’ unwillingness to hire disabled people. The purpose of this study is to determine the barriers disabled people face on the labor market and to justify the expedience of investing public funds in activities aimed at promoting disabled employment. Works of Russian and foreign authors, national statistics, results of sociological surveys of the population and people with disabilities conducted on the territory of the Vologda Oblast in 2013–2015 represent the information base of the study. The article reviews the impact of employment quotas for the disabled; in particular, it has been established that the number of the employed under such quotas during the period from 2008 to 2014 has declined. Based on the results of domestic research the authors have determined the reasons underlying lack of effectiveness of this social policy tool. One of the problems of promoting disability employment is training and re-training of the disabled. According to official statistics, only 38% of the employed disabled who live in a city are employed in the area of their specialty. At the same time, the results of research h of Russian authors show that training of an expert (even with consideration of their health capacities pays off within 4 years. Using the example of the Vologda Oblast, the authors show that annual tax revenues in employment of the disabled to jobs with wages close to the regional average may reach 33 million rubles. They also estimate the approximate regional cost of workplace equipment for the disabled. Finally, the authors propose a list of key courses of action on increasing competitiveness of the disabled in the labor market
Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.
We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…
Gelšvartas, Julius; Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis
Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.
Simutis, Rimvydas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis
Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities. PMID:29686827
Full Text Available Difficulty in communicating is one of the key challenges for people suffering from severe motor and speech disabilities. Often such person can communicate and interact with the environment only using assistive technologies. This paper presents a multifunctional user interface designed to improve communication efficiency and person independence. The main component of this interface is a projection mapping technique used to highlight objects in the environment. Projection mapping makes it possible to create a natural augmented reality information presentation method. The user interface combines a depth sensor and a projector to create camera-projector system. We provide a detailed description of camera-projector system calibration procedure. The described system performs tabletop object detection and automatic projection mapping. Multiple user input modalities have been integrated into the multifunctional user interface. Such system can be adapted to the needs of people with various disabilities.
Coren, Esther; Hutchfield, Jemeela; Thomae, Manuela; Gustafsson, Carina
Intellectual disability may impact on an individual's capacity to parent a child effectively. Research suggests that the number of intellectually disabled people with children is increasing. Children of parents with intellectual disabilities may be at increased risk of neglectful care which could lead to health, developmental and behavioural problems, or increased risk of intellectual disability.However, there is some indication that some parents with intellectual disabilities are able to provide adequate child care if they are given appropriate training and support to do so. To assess the effectiveness of parent training interventions to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities We searched the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ASSIA, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International, MetaRegister of Controlled Trials, and ZETOC. Randomised controlled trials comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disabilities with usual care or with a control group. Outcomes of interest were: the attainment of parenting skills specific to the intervention, safe home practices and the understanding of child health. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and undertook data extraction. Three trials met the inclusion criteria for this review but no meta-analysis was possible. One study reported improved maternal-child interaction following group parent training compared with the control group. The second study reported some improvements in parents knowledge of life threatening emergencies, ability to recognise dangers and identify precautions and smaller improvements in their ability to implement precautions, use medicines safely and recognise child illness and symptoms. The third study reported improvement in child care and safety skills following the intervention. There is some risk of bias in the
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Poggesi, Anna; Gouw, Alida; van der Flier, Wiesje
To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed...... at evaluating age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) as an independent predictor of the transition to disability (according to Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale) or death in independent elderly subjects that were followed up for 3 years. At baseline, a standardized neurological examination.......0 years, 45 % males), 327 (51.7 %) presented at the initial visit with ≥1 neurological abnormality and 242 (38 %) reached the main study outcome. Cox regression analyses, adjusting for MRI features and other determinants of functional decline, showed that the baseline presence of any neurological...
Chen, Mel Y
This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dincer, Baris; Erbas, Dilek
This study describes the communication repair behaviors used by nonverbal students with developmental disabilities in the interactions they were involved in with their teachers during free play activities. All children were students at centers serving student with developmental disabilities at Anadolu University in Turkey. Data were collected by…
Tsibidaki, Assimina; Tsamparli, Anastasia
Introduction: The interaction of the family with disabled children with the support networks is a research area of high interest (Hendriks, De Moor, Oud & Savelberg, 2000). It has been shown that support networks may prove to be very helpful for a family and especially for a family with a disabled child. Support networks play a primordial role…
Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand
Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…
Chadwick, Darren D.; Quinn, Sally; Fullwood, Chris
Background: Information and communication technologies, with the Internet at the forefront, have the potential to enhance the knowledge, service, employment, development and social interactional opportunities available to people with intellectual disabilities. Despite this, people with intellectual disabilities are not accessing the Internet to…
Nijs, S.; Vlaskamp, C.; Maes, B.
BACKGROUND: The complex disabilities of children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) impede their presentation of peer directed behaviours. Interactions with typically developing peers have been observed to be more frequent than those with peers with PIMD. The typically
LaChapelle, Diane L; Lavoie, Susan; Higgins, Nancy C; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas
This experimental study investigated how physical attractiveness, disability cue, and diagnostic ambiguity stereotypes impact perceptions of a patient's pain/disability and personality. After viewing photographs of women pictured with or without a cane, accompanied by descriptions of the women's diagnosis (fibromyalgia or rheumatoid arthritis), 147 university students rated the women's pain/disability and personality. Analyses revealed that more attractive women received lower ratings on pain/disability and higher ratings (more positive) on personality. Moreover, those pictured with a disability cue got higher ratings on both pain/disability and personality, and those with medical evidence of pathology (less ambiguity) got higher ratings on pain/disability and lower ratings on personality. Examination of the 3 stereotypes in a single study enabled an evaluation of their interactions. An Attractiveness × Disability Cue × Diagnostic Ambiguity interaction for ratings of pain/disability revealed that the presence of both medical evidence and a disability cue were needed to override the strong "beautiful is healthy" stereotype. Significant 2-way interactions for ratings of personality indicated that the impact of the disability stereotype tends to be overshadowed by the attractiveness stereotype. The results indicate that these stereotypes have a large effect on perceptions of women with chronic pain and that attractiveness, a contextual variable unrelated to the pain experience, exerts an even stronger effect when there is less objective information available. This could have clinical ramifications for assessment and treatment of patients with chronic pain, which often occurs in the absence of "objective" medical evidence or any external cues of disability. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
... inclusion of individuals with disabilities on the teams that develop the cloud and Web technologies... Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research--Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects... Rehabilitative Services announces a priority under the Disability Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers...
Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper
Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...
Beatriz Martínez Ríos
Full Text Available It is estimated that persons with disabilities represent 15% of the world population. There is a strong link between poverty and disability. Population with disabilities is among the most disadvantaged and discriminated. However, development economic theories have forgotten essential matters about this population, contributing towards their invisibility and poverty. The Capability Approach from a Human Rights based approach brings us a new dimension. The extraordinary costs that arise from a disability and from the psychological, physical and social barriers that persons with disabilities face, contribute to their poverty, lack of freedom and vulneration of human rights, as put forward by current studies on this subject. International co-operation becomes a very valuable tool to be used for the promotion of the rights of persons with disabilities and overcoming poverty.
Teodiano Freire Bastos
Full Text Available Severe disabled children have little chance of environmental and social exploration and discovery, and due to this lack of interaction and independency, it may lead to an idea that they are unable to do anything by themselves. Trying to help these children on this situation, educational robotics can offer and aid, once it can give them a certain degree of independency in exploration of environment. The system developed in this work allows the child to transmit the commands to a robot. Sensors placed on the child’s body can obtain information from head movement or muscle signals to command the robot to carry out tasks. With the use of this system, the disabled children get a better cognitive development and social interaction, balancing in a certain way, the negative effects of their disabilities.
MARÍA LAURA SERRA
Full Text Available Women with disabilities are doubly discriminated against and socially excluded: through gender and disability. In order to perform an in-depth analysis of their actual situation, it is necessary to understand which models have been able to provide legal and political answers to this issue. Hence, the feminist model can be identified, on the basis of which we might elaborate upon its possible ties with the social model of disability. This study shows the correctness of feminist conclusions when dealing with inequality between men and women, but it also proves the inaccurateness of feminism in its approach on women with disabilities.
黃瓊儀 Chiung-Yi Huang
Full Text Available 本研究主要目的在探討國中普通班七年級身心障礙學生親子互動及自我概念對多面向學校適應（師生關係、同儕關係、活動參與、學校氣氛、學業成就、合宜行為）之影響。本研究使用特殊教育長期追蹤資料庫所蒐集的1,482 位身心障礙學生資料，透過結構方程模式來檢定親子互動對自我概念與學校適應的直接效果、自我概念對學校適應的直接效果，以及探討親子互動透過自我概念影響學校適應之間接效果。研究結果顯示：親子互動對自我概念、師生關係、活動參與、學校氣氛、學業成就、合宜行為均有正向顯著影響，但親子互動對同儕關係之影響未達顯著；自我概念對師生關係、同儕關係、活動參與及學校氣氛有正向顯著影響，但自我概念對學業成就、合宜行為之影響未達顯著；親子互動透過自我概念對師生關 係、同儕關係、活動參與、學校氣氛有正向顯著的間接效果。最後針對研究結果，提出相關討論與建議。 This study explored the relationships between the parent-child interaction, self-concept, and school adjustment of junior high school students with disabilities. A sample of 1,482 junior high school students with disabilities were selected from the surveys of the Special Needs Education Longitudinal Study (SNELS. On the basis of empirical and theoretical research, a causal model of the parent-child interaction, self-concept, and multiple dimensions of school adjustment of junior high school students with disabilities (teacher-student relationship, peer relationship, activity participation, school climate, academic achievement, and appropriate behavior was formed and validated using structural equation modeling. The mediation effect of the self-concept variable was evaluated. The findings demonstrated that parent-child interaction had no significant effect on peer relationship
Officer, Alana; Shakespeare, Tom
The "World Report on Disability" was requested by the World Health Assembly, the governing body of the World Health Organization (WHO). Because disability is broader than health, WHO partnered with the World Bank. The "World Report" was published in 2011 and provides a comprehensive scientific analysis on the global situation…
Full Text Available Background The current study examined possible prosocial benefits of having a disabled sibling. Until now research has mainly focused on the negative effects of having a sibling with a disability. We hypothesized that regular and frequent interactions with a disabled person should result in an increase of positive attitude and empathy toward other people who are in a disadvantageous situation. Participants and procedure A sample of 208 students from public secondary schools (middle and high schools completed the Polish version of the Prosocial Tendencies Measure (PTM in order to assess the tendencies to prosocial behaviors in different conditions. Participants were between 13 and 18 years old. Ninety-six adolescents had a disabled sibling (group T and 112 constituted the control group (group C. Results Results showed that group T generally scored higher than group C in the number of helping behaviors. Furthermore, girls scored higher than boys in anonymous prosocial behaviors. The older adolescents are more inclined to use helping behaviors both in anonymous and compliant situations than their younger colleagues. Conclusions Presence of disabled children in a family context may facilitate prosocial behavior in their non-disabled siblings. Older participants less frequently described themselves as prosocial in public situations. In contrast, younger adolescents reported weaker prosocial tendencies in anonymous and compliant situations. The effect of gender on prosocial tendencies was significant for public prosocial behavior, with a higher level achieved by males in this domain. Data analysis also showed significantly greater emotional and altruistic tendencies in females than in males.
Models or paradigms of disability are used to guide health care professionals' perceptions so that they can serve people with disabilities, enhance their futures, and facilitate the resources they need. Health care curricula, which in essence train students to make such decisions, are influenced by these models. The medical model, which locates disability within the individual, assumes the individual with a disability is a victim who must be cured or made more normal. The functional-limitation paradigm expands on the medical model, focusing on the interaction of physical or mental limitations with social and environmental factors. The economic model, based on the concept of employability, emphasizes a health-related inability (or limited ability) to work rather than physical functioning of the individual. The sociopolitical model views disability as a policy and civil rights issue. Health care professionals face a dilemma as the disability rights movement demands a shift in social power from the paternalistic view of the medical model to the autonomist view of the sociopolitical model. The question is asked if curricula are preparing our future health care professionals to distinguish how to view each situation and each individual through the lens of the appropriate model.
Velayutham, Banurekha; Kangusamy, Boopathi; Mehendale, Sanjay
Information on disability is essential for the government to formulate policies, allocate adequate resources and implement appropriate programmes. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of disability and describe the types of disability by gender, age and geographical regions in Tamil Nadu, India. We analysed the 2011 Census cross-sectional survey data of Tamil Nadu. Age-adjusted disability rates and disability rates per 100 000 population were calculated. There were 1 179 963 disabled individuals in Tamil Nadu in 2011, a disability rate of 1635 per 100 000 population. Disability in movement, hearing and sight individually accounted for 24%, 19% and 11% of the total disability, respectively. Sixteen districts had disability rates above the state average. As age advanced, disability rates increased; the highest disability rate of 2533 per 100 000 was among people aged 60 years and above. The disability rates were higher in males compared to females (1819 v. 1451 per 100 000). Rural areas had higher disability areas compared to urban (1670 v. 1599 per 100 000). Currently married, working populations and literate populations had lower disability rates. Disability rate in the Scheduled Castes was higher at 1763 per 100 000 compared to the Scheduled Tribes and other social groups. Multiple disability was high in the age groups 0-19 years and 60 years and above. Physical or mental disability was observed in 1.6% of the population of Tamil Nadu. Research is warranted to identify underlying causes and interventions to reduce the burden of disability in the state.
Full Text Available Intercultural communication presents a number of challenges that are less of an issue in same-culture interactions. This is important because travel and technological capability enable more and more immigrants, business people, tourists, etc. to engage in such interactions. One group of people that comprises 10% of the world population, the disabled, is increasingly being mainstreamed within cultures as well as traveling to other countries. Research finds that the disabled are often marginalized and discriminated against within their own country. When the abled enter an intercultural interaction with the disabled the communication challenges are even greater. Communication Complex, a metatheoretical perspective on communication that embraces a constitutive definition of communication combined with a neuroscience understanding of interaction, offers a deeper, yet highly practical explanation of the level of complexity that such an encounter entails. This article offers a brief introduction to this way of understanding intercultural communication, along with the suggestion that future studies and practical guides should take disabilities into account when analyzing or building skills.
Duryan, Meri; Nikolik, Dragan; van Merode, Godefridus; Curfs, Leopold
Organizations providing services to persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) are complex because of many interacting stakeholders with often different and competing interests. The combination of increased consumer demand and diminished resources makes organizational planning a challenge for the managers of such organizations. Such challenges…
Qiu, S.; Osawa, H.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.
Gaze signals are frequently used by the sighted in social interactions as visual cues. However, these signals and cues are hardly accessible for people with visual disability. A conceptual design of E-Gaze glasses is proposed, assistive to create gaze communication between blind and sighted people
Kavanagh, Anne Marie; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Bentley, Rebecca; Milner, Allison
Acquisition of a disability in adulthood has been associated with a reduction in mental health. We tested the hypothesis that low wealth prior to disability acquisition is associated with a greater deterioration in mental health than for people with high wealth. We assess whether level of wealth prior to disability acquisition modifies this association using 12 waves of data (2001-2012) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey--a population-based cohort study of working-age Australians. Eligible participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (1977 participants, 13,518 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression was conducted with a product term between wealth prior to disability (in tertiles) and disability acquisition with the mental health component score of the SF-36 as the outcome. In models adjusted for time-varying confounders, there was evidence of negative effect measure modification by prior wealth of the association between disability acquisition and mental health (interaction term for lowest wealth tertile: -2.2 points, 95% CI -3.1 points, -1.2, pwealth was associated with a greater decline in mental health following disability acquisition (-3.3 points, 95% CI -4.0, -2.5) than high wealth (-1.1 points, 95% CI -1.7, -0.5). The findings suggest that low wealth prior to disability acquisition in adulthood results in a greater deterioration in mental health than among those with high wealth.
Mac-Seing, Muriel; Zarowsky, Christina
Reproductive health remains a major global health issue. People with disabilities face additional discrimination and barriers to access which need to be better understood. To contribute to future interventions, we examined the intersections between gender and disability related to reproductive health in sub-Saharan Africa in the qualitative literature. We conducted a meta-synthesis, using a taxonomic analysis. An inductive and iterative approach was adopted to allow exploration of new and emergent semantic variations in themes. NVivo 11 Plus was used to code themes. Ten qualitative studies from six sub-Saharan African countries were analysed. Two main thematic areas emerged from the analysis: 1) gendered roles of people with disabilities are programmed by sociocultural normativity, including perceptions about sexuality. They are exacerbated by the hegemony of ableism and influenced by the type of reproductive health issues experienced by people with disabilities; and 2) experiences of disability in interaction with a reproductive health issue are exacerbated by the type of disability, influenced by the type of barriers to access, and perceived differently depending upon the actors involved. The intersections between gender and disability embodied by people with disabilities are multiple and complex. Not only do imposed gendered roles influence the lives of people with disabilities, but their experiences of disability are also intricately linked to gender. An intersectional analysis is proposed as a useful support to developing future perspectives.
In the helpful article "Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology," Joseph Stramondo adds to the critique of actually existing bioethics and explains why disability activists and scholars so often find fault with the arguments of bioethicists. He is careful not to stereotype either community-rightly, given that bioethicists endorse positions as disparate as utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, and feminist ethics, among others. Although Stramondo never explicitly mentions utilitarians or liberals, it seems probable that these are the main targets of his discontent. The disability community, as he concedes, is also a broad church. Yet for this reason, I do not believe that you can read off positions on bioethics questions from either disability embodiment or disability organization affiliation. © 2016 The Hastings Center.
Discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, which bans discrimination against the disabled by private-sector employers. Describes the hiring practices and experiences of several companies that have employed disabled people. (JOW)
ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.
This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)
Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer
Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.
Borsci, Simone; Federici, Stefano; Mele, Maria Laura
This book provides the necessary tools for the evaluation of the interaction between the user who is disabled and the computer system that was designed to assist that person. The book creates an evaluation process that is able to assess the user's satisfaction with a developed system. Presenting a new theoretical perspective in the human computer interaction evaluation of disabled persons, it takes into account all of the individuals involved in the evaluation process.
Full Text Available Women have suffered from drug abuse for conturies, although formal Treatment assistance for women has been recognized as important only during the past few decades. The nature and underlying reasons for women's drug abuse differ from men’s behavior in many ways. It is finally understood that research on men will not simply translate into effective solutions for women as well. Here deal with the many issues that can arise in working with disabled women suffered from drug abuse because biologically, Culturally, and socially, their experience is different from that of men and other women and key theme For this discourse is that a woman who suffered from drug abuse is first and foremost a woman. Disabled women also have specific issues that must acknowledge and incorporate into the counseling, social work and other experince, so, here review is based on more than 25 years of the collective experience and firsthand knowledge of Monique Cohen and their Counselors at The CASPAR outpatient Clinic in Cambridge, Massachusett (2000 about women with drug abuse and alcoholism. The clinic Provides omprehensive substance abuse treatment to Individuals and Families struggling with either one or multiple addictions.
Mercier, C; Picard, S
The association between poverty and intellectual disability (ID) has been well documented. However, little is known about persons with ID who face circumstances of extreme poverty, such as homelessness. This paper describes the situation of persons with ID who were or are homeless in Montreal and are currently receiving services from a team dedicated to homeless persons. (1) To describe the characteristics, history and current situation of these persons; and (2) to report within-group differences as a function of gender and current residential status. The data were collected from files using an anonymous chart summary. Descriptive statistics on the whole sample (n = 68) and inferential statistics on cross-tabulations by gender and residential status were performed. Persons with ID exhibited several related problems. Some of these persons, primarily women, experienced relatively short periods of homelessness and their situations stabilised once they were identified and followed up. Other persons with ID experienced chronic homelessness that appeared to parallel the number and severity of their other problems. When compared with a previous epidemiological study of the homeless in Montreal, the population of homeless persons with ID differed from the overall homeless population in a number of respects. The results suggest prevention and intervention targets. The need for epidemiological research appears particularly clear in light of the fact that below-average intellectual functioning has been identified as a risk factor for homelessness and a predisposing factor for vulnerability among street people. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wolfe, C V
These cases represent individuals who feel they have a severe impairment and are "disabled." They have been labeled with fibromyalgia. They are truly distressed. Their symptoms, their courses, are more chronic and refractory than those of medically ill patients, and they are high users of medical services, laboratory investigations, and surgical procedures. These patients see multiple providers simultaneously and frequently switch physicians. They are difficult to care for, and they reject psychosocial factors as an influence on their symptoms. Such persons "see themselves as victims worthy of a star appearance on the Oprah Winfrey show. A sense of bitterness emerges...." Shorter, a historian, believes that fibromyalgia is "heaven-sent to doctors as a diagnostic label for pain patients who display an important neurotic component in their illness. Our culture increasingly encourages patients to conceive vague and nonspecific symptoms as evidence of real disease and to seek specialist help for them; and the rising ascendancy of the media and the breakdown of the family encourage patients to acquire the fixed belief that they have a given illness...." Regarding the finding of "disability," this is a social construct, and many authors believe it is society and the judicial system who must decide who can work. To remain objective, the physician should report the objective clinical information. Physicians need not and should not sit in judgment of the veracity of another human being.
Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela
Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system…
Taylor, Steven J.
As a topic of study, disability is not new at institutions of higher education. Psychological and intellectual disabilities have been of interest in psychiatry and psychology at least since the late 1800s and early 1900s. The post-World War II era, in particular, witnessed the rapid expansion of academic programs in special education, vocational…
ten Klooster, Peter M.; Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Gout-related disability is an underestimated and understudied problem. More qualitative and quantitative studies are needed that examine the concept of disability in gout and its impact on patients’ lives, both during and between disease flares. Moreover, future studies should try to identify
DeFries, J. C.; And Others
Results obtained from the center's six research projects are reviewed, including research on psychometric assessment of twins with reading disabilities, reading and language processes, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and executive functions, linkage analysis and physical mapping, computer-based remediation of reading disabilities, and…
Contributes to the social theorization of physical access for people with disabilities by critically exploring how Ulrich Beck's "reflexive modernisation" thesis might be applied to the geographical understanding of disability. Demonstrates how Beck's theoretical framework can be used to enrich people's understanding of the genesis and mediation…
San Martín, Alvaro; Pagani, Mario Rafael
Intellectual disability, commonly known as mental retardation in the International Classification of Disease from World Health Organization, is the term that describes an intellectual and adaptive cognitive disability that begins in early life during the developmental period. Currently the term intellectual disability is the preferred one. Although our understanding of the physiological basis of learning and learning disability is poor, a general idea is that such condition is quite permanent. However, investigations in animal models suggest that learning disability can be functional in nature and as such reversible through pharmacology or appropriate learning paradigms. A fraction of the cases of intellectual disability is caused by point mutations or deletions in genes that encode for proteins of the RAS/MAP kinase signaling pathway known as RASopathies. Here we examined the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in this group of genetic disorders focusing in studies which provide evidence that intellectual disability is potentially treatable and curable. The evidence presented supports the idea that with the appropriate understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, intellectual disability could be treated pharmacologically and perhaps through specific mechanistic-based teaching strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social Security Administration — DICARS is the legacy system supporting business processes in the Disability Quality Branches (DQBs). It supports quality reviews of DDS disability determinations....
Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen
and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge.......This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit...... this offers. We analyze an incident at a polling booth during the 2013 Danish Municipal election. This renders visible some of the complex socio-material processes through which citizens and the Danish state co-enact and co-authorize one another. We highlight how ‘detachments’ are vital to such processes...
Beliveau, P J H; Boulos, D; Zamorski, M A
Combat operations in Southwest Asia have exposed millions of military personnel to risk of mental disorders and physical injuries, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). The contribution of specific disorders to disability is, however, uncertain. To estimate the contributions of mental and physical health conditions to disability in military personnel. The sample consisted of military personnel who participated in the cross-sectional 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey. Disability was measured using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health was used to classify participants with moderate/severe disability. Chronic mental disorders and physical conditions were measured by self-reported health professional diagnoses, and their contribution to disability was assessed using logistic regression and resulting population attributable fractions. Data were collected from 6696 military members. The prevalence of moderate/severe disability was 10%. Mental disorders accounted for 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23-31%) and physical conditions 62% (95% CI 56-67%) of the burden of disability. Chronic musculoskeletal problems 33% (95% CI 26-39%), back problems 29% (95% CI 23-35%), mood disorders 16% (95% CI 11-19%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 9% (95% CI 5-12%) were the leading contributors to disability. After-effects of TBI accounted for only 3% (95% CI 1-4%) of disability. Mental and physical health interacted broadly, such that those with mental disorders experienced disproportionate disability in the presence of physical conditions. Chronic musculoskeletal conditions, back problems, mood disorders and PTSD are primary areas of focus in prevention and control of disability in military personnel.
Full Text Available Neurological disorders with a prolonged course, either remediable or otherwise are being seen increasingly in clinical practice and many such patients are young and are part of some organization or other wherein their services are needed if they were healthy and fit. The neurologists who are on the panel of these organizations are asked to certify whether these subjects are fit to work or how long they should be given leave. These certificates may be produced in the court of law and may be subjected to verification by another neurologist or a medical board. At present there are no standard guidelines in our country to effect such certification unlike in orthopedic specialty or in ophthalmology. The following is a beginning, based on which the neurologist can certify the neurological disability of such subjects and convey the same meaning to all neurologists across the country.
This article contributes to research examining the work situations of employees with disabilities. This is performed by demonstrating how able-bodied norms affect the work lives of employees with cerebral palsy in Danish work organizations. Thus, this article investigates how able-bodied managers...... and employees talk about their co-workers with cerebral palsy and examines the narratives of diversity among able-bodied managers and employees when they discuss the work situation of their colleagues with cerebral palsy. The empirical point of departure is six weeks of participant observations in two work...... organizations along with interviews conducted in 13 work organizations with 19 managers and 43 colleagues who work with an employee with cerebral palsy on a daily basis. The article finds two dominating narratives regarding diversity that have to do with being either ‘different but the same’ or ‘just different...
Full Text Available Parenthood in persons with intellectual disability (ID is an issue of concern for the family, guardians, and professionals as there are many sentiments and problems involved: financial, technical, medical, legal, and above all moral. People with intellectual, developmental, or other disabilities have feelings, want relationships, and are able to have children also. The attitude of society has changed through time from the early eugenic concern with heredity and fertility, to a focus on the risk to the children due to parental neglect or abuse, to acceptance and a search for solutions to parental training and support. This change can be seen as a result of a shift from institutional care to community care and normalization. This paper reviews available research, prevalence, service issues, experience from around the world, and relates to the situation in Israel. Jewish Law has been very progressive regarding the possibility of marriage between persons with ID (in contrast to American Law where historically this right has been denied, until recently. Recent research has shown that, in the case of such a union resulting in children, although they require some supervision, family, friends, and social welfare agencies have scrutinized these families so much they are in constant fear of their child being taken away. There is little information on the number of such cases and an overall dearth of information on the effects on the children, although one recent study from the U.K. has shown a varied picture of resilience and a close, warm relationship later on with the family and especially the mother.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. Methods A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. Results The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. Conclusions There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.
Støver, Morten; Pape, Kristine; Johnsen, Roar; Fleten, Nils; Sund, Erik R; Claussen, Bjørgulf; Ose, Solveig Osborg; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon
The decision to grant a disability pension is usually the end of a long process of medical examinations, treatment and rehabilitation attempts. This study investigates to what extent the time spent on rehabilitation time prior to disability pension is associated with characteristics of the individual or the local employment and welfare office, measured as municipality variance. A study of 2,533 40 to 42 year olds who received disability pension over a period of 18 years. The logarithm of the rehabilitation time before granting a disability pension was analysed with multilevel regression. The rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted ranged from 30 to 5,508 days. Baseline health characteristics were only moderately associated with rehabilitation time. Younger people and people with unemployment periods had longer rehabilitation time before a disability pension was granted. There were only minor differences in rehabilitation time between men and women and between different levels of education. Approximately 2% of the total variance in rehabilitation time could be attributed to the municipality of residence. There is a higher threshold for granting a disability pension to younger persons and those who are expecting periods of unemployment, which is reflected in the extended rehabilitation requirements for these groups. The longer rehabilitation period for persons with psychiatric disorders might reflect a lack of common knowledge on the working capacity of and the fitted rehabilitation programs for people with psychiatric disorders.
Full Text Available Sport was used to complement therapy in original form, improve of motor patterns and reeducate functions of people with disabilities. With a passing of time, sport evolved to integrated part of rehabilitation as an element of improvement. Moreover, he became as a tool to improve the social integration of people which finished the treatment or/and have deficits. We can notice the huge sport development of people with disabilities, which was initiated by Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s who claimed that view of sport is equal for people with disabilities and able-bodied people. The quality of physical activity of people with disabilities is indicated by motor preparation, training and sport (wellness, nutritionist, sport and exercise psychologist which currently is all the same except individual approach to particular dysfunction of the person with disability. Sport allow to develop not only physical sphere, but also teaches social integration, teamwork skills, self-discipline, improves the quality of life and outcome of the ADL scale (activities of daily living scale of people with disabilities which do sport actively. The variety of sports disciplines and ability to use appropriate orthopedic stuff allows to activate people with every kind of disabilities and dysfunction.
Reinhardt, Jan D; Pennycott, Andrew; Fellinghauer, Bernd A G
The portrayal of disabled people in the media can influence the public's perception of disability in both positive and negative ways. In this article, an experimental before and after design is used to determine the effects of a short film on the attitudes of non-disabled and disabled persons concerning employment and productivity of persons with disabilities. Three questions were posed to 480 study participants prior to and following a short film featuring a police officer with paraplegia. Linear mixed models were used to assess the effects of time point and disability status on the responses. The non-disabled participants' ratings of eligibility for employment of a paraplegic man and estimates of the employment rate of disabled people were significantly enhanced following the film. Nevertheless, the film had no significant effects on the ratings given by participants with disabilities in terms of eligibility, employment rate or productivity. This investigation highlights the potentially important influence of media portrayal and coverage of people with disabilities on attitudes of the public concerning disability. Restrictions in participation may result from an interaction of persons with impairments with an environment that is dominated by negative attitudes towards disability The portrayal of disabled people in the media can influence the public's attitudes towards disability in both positive and negative ways In this experimental study, attitudes of the general public were significantly improved following viewing a short film featuring a positive media portrayal of a police officer with paraplegia.
Tee, Stephen; Cowen, Michelle
Good practice demands a clinical practice culture positively disposed to students with disabilities. Equality legislation seeks to protect those with a disability from either direct or indirect discrimination. The balance between providing "reasonable adjustments" for the student, whilst ensuring "Fitness to Practice", and ultimate employability, requires a close partnership between higher education and practice mentors. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of a range of interactive resources, used in the preparation of mentors to help them address the specific learning needs of disabled students. The evaluation revealed the benefit of student 'stories' in helping mentors to understand the support needs of disabled students and ensure reasonable adjustments are implemented in compliance with disability legislation. The interactive resources have been helpful in promoting positive action towards disabled students' learning, empathic understanding of mental health issues and knowledge and skills acquisition in support of dyslexic students. Implementing reasonable adjustments in practice requires a close working partnership between HEI's and mentors who appreciate support in understanding the development and application of coping strategies to overcome disabilities. Effective preparation of mentors is essential to ensure that opportunities for disabled students to succeed are maximised. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
TITLE: Perception and coping with the specific learning disabilities impacts on everyday life of children with this diagnosis. ABSTRACT This text is focused on recognition of impacts of the specific learning disabilities on everyday life as the children with this diagnosis themselves see it and the strategies used by these children in order to cope with these disabilities. The theoretical part summarizes the necessary knowledge of the early school age developmental stage, the interaction of a...
Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which ... disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. ... their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it ...
jurisprudence of the United States of America as well as to guidelines provided ... gender discrimination, but also disability discrimination especially, in the workplace, ..... Montalti and Bellengère "Is a right to affirmative action the solution to the.
Christine O'Rourke - Lang
Full Text Available This issue of Global Education Review examines the global context of disability and how in different geographic locations, socioeconomic factors, domestic policy, and disability perspectives impact access to special education services, and the types of resources and interventions available to individuals with diverse learning needs. Practices in countries including India, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Liberia, and Kenya were studied and implications for meeting the special education needs for children and adults with disabilities and their families are discussed
Lindley, Lisa C
Children with intellectual disability commonly lack access to pediatric hospice care services. Residential care may be a critical component in providing access to hospice care for children with intellectual disability. This research tested whether residential care intensifies the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization (ie, hospice enrollment, hospice length of stay), while controlling for demographic characteristics. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted using 2008 to 2010 California Medicaid claims data. The odds of children with intellectual disability in residential care enrolling in hospice care were 3 times higher than their counterparts in their last year of life, when controlling for demographics. Residential care promoted hospice enrollment among children with intellectual disability. The interaction between intellectual disability and residential care was not related to hospice length of stay. Residential care did not attenuate or intensify the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice length of stay. The findings highlight the important role of residential care in facilitating hospice enrollment for children with intellectual disability. More research is needed to understand the capability of residential care staff to identify children with intellectual disability earlier in their end-of-life trajectory and initiate longer hospice length of stays.
Lisa S. Patchner
Full Text Available During the past fifty years a revolution in how we recognize advocate, medically treat, and interact with people with disabilities has taken place within contemporary society. From historical civil rights legislation to greater access to society’s rights and benefits, to technological advances and population longevity, people with disabilities are integrating themselves into society. As we begin to explore the 21st Century new concerns regarding the cost of chronic care and society’s desire to fund these costs are beginning to emerge. The desire to qualify the cost of care by functional longevity has begun to emerge in both private and public service delivery systems. As professional social workers begin to expand their sociopolitical influence, they will be challenged to uphold the rights of self-determination that people with disabilities have striven to attain.
The disability rights movement grounds material critiques of the treatment of people with disabilities in a social constructionist perspective, locating disability in the social rather than physical realm, and demedicalizing the concept of disability. However, this conceptualization is threatened by the medicalization of non-normative erections as…
Background: The term "intellectual disability" is increasingly used to refer to people with learning disabilities in British learning disability policy, practice and research. This change is undoubtedly a reflection of the changing international context. The inclusion of the term "intellectual disability" has been particularly…
textabstractThe main aim of this thesis is to investigate the clinical significance of headache-related disability; the clinical importance of assessing disability, the means of recognising the patients with severe disability and the development of new ways to assess headache-related disability
Gerschick, Thomas J.
Presents a theory of the connections between disabilities and gender, arguing that because bodies are so central to gender, people with disabilities are vulnerable to being denied gender recognition. Though both sexes experience devaluation and discrimination when disabled, being disabled further diminishes women's already devalued status. For…
Olkin, Rhoda; Pledger, Constance
Although the field of disabilities studies incorporates psychology within its interdisciplinary purview, it embodies a distinct perspective consonant with the new paradigm of disability. Although psychology has begun embracing diversity, disability remains marginalized. Examines the foundational ideas of disability studies, training in disability…
Meade, Michelle A; Mahmoudi, Elham; Lee, Shoou-Yih
healthcare among individuals with disabilities. The Model of Healthcare Disparities and Disability (MHDD) provides a framework for conceptualizing how healthcare disparities impact disability and specifically, how a mismatch between personal and environmental factors may result in reduced healthcare access and quality, which in turn may lead to reduced functioning, activity and participation among individuals with impairments and chronic health conditions. Researchers, health providers, policy makers and community advocate groups who are engaged in devising interventions aimed at reducing healthcare disparities would benefit from the discussions. Implications for Rehabilitation Evaluates the main models of healthcare disparity and disability to create an integrated framework. Provides a comprehensive conceptual model of healthcare disparity that specifically targets issues related to individuals with disabilities. Conceptualizes how personal and environmental factors interact to produce disparities in access to healthcare and healthcare quality. Recognizes and targets modifiable factors to reduce disparities between and within individuals with disabilities.
Kastrup, Virgínia; Cassinelli, Alvaro; Quérette, Paulo; Bergstrom, Niklas; Sampaio, Eliana
Visually disabled people increasingly use computers in everyday life, thanks to novel assistive technologies better tailored to their cognitive functioning. Like sighted people, many are interested in computer games - videogames and audio-games. Tactile-games are beginning to emerge. The Tactile Radar is a device through which a visually disabled person is able to detect distal obstacles. In this study, it is connected to a computer running a tactile-game. The game consists in finding and collecting randomly arranged coins in a virtual room. The study was conducted with nine congenital blind people including both sexes, aged 20-64 years old. Complementary methods of first and third person were used: the debriefing interview and the quasi-experimental design. The results indicate that the Tactile Radar is suitable for the creation of computer games specifically tailored for visually disabled people. Furthermore, the device seems capable of eliciting a powerful immersive experience. Methodologically speaking, this research contributes to the consolidation and development of first and third person complementary methods, particularly useful in disabled people research field, including the evaluation by users of the Tactile Radar effectiveness in a virtual reality context. Implications for rehabilitation Despite the growing interest in virtual games for visually disabled people, they still find barriers to access such games. Through the development of assistive technologies such as the Tactile Radar, applied in virtual games, we can create new opportunities for leisure, socialization and education for visually disabled people. The results of our study indicate that the Tactile Radar is adapted to the creation of video games for visually disabled people, providing a playful interaction with the players.
Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; Kavanagh, Anne Marie; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Milner, Allison
Disability acquisition in adulthood is associated with deterioration in mental health. Social support may act as a "buffer" against poor mental health following disability acquisition. We tested the hypothesis that women and men with low social support experienced larger declines in mental health on acquisition of a disability compared to women and men with high social support. We assessed whether social support, measured both prior and subsequent to disability acquisition, modified the association between disability acquisition and mental health using 14 annual waves of data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey. Participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (2200 participants, 15,724 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression models were used to estimate average differences in mental health between waves with and without disability, for women and men separately. We tested for effect measure modification of the association by social support, including a three-way interaction between disability and social support prior and subsequent to disability acquisition. Though the effects of disability acquisition on mental health were much larger for women, for both women and men there was a consistent pattern of association with social support. There was evidence that social support modified the association between disability acquisition and mental health, with the largest effects for those experiencing a change from high to low social support subsequent to disability and for people with consistently low social support. These findings highlight the importance of developing new policy and practice strategies to improve the mental health of people with disabilities, including interventions to promote social support at the time of disability acquisition.
Mitra, Monika; Akobirshoev, Ilhom; Moring, Nechama Sammet; Long-Bellil, Linda; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Smith, Lauren D; Iezzoni, Lisa I
Previous qualitative studies suggest that women with physical disabilities face disability-specific barriers and challenges related to prenatal care accessibility and quality. This study aims to examine the pregnancy and prenatal care experiences and needs of U.S. mothers with physical disabilities and their perceptions of their interactions with their maternity care clinicians. We conducted the first survey of maternity care access and experiences of women with physical disabilities from 37 states. The survey was disseminated in partnership with disability community agencies and via social media and targeted U.S. women with a range of physical disabilities who had given birth in the past 10 years. The survey included questions regarding prenatal care quality and childbirth and labor experiences. A total of 126 women with various physical disability types from 37 states completed the survey. Almost half of the respondents (53.2%) reported that their physical disability was a big factor in their selection of a maternity care provider and 40.3% of women reported that their prenatal care provider knew little or nothing about the impact of their physical disability on their pregnancy. Controlling for maternal demographic characteristics and use of mobility equipment, women who reported that their prenatal care provider lacked knowledge of disability and those who felt they were not given adequate information were more likely to report unmet needs for prenatal care. The findings from this study suggest the need for training and education for clinicians regarding the prenatal care needs of women with physical disabilities.
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Jagoda, Sue; Cremer, Bob
Summarizes proceedings and student experiences at the 1980 Science Career Workshop for Physically Disabled Students at the Lawrence Hall of Science (University of California). Includes a description of the key-note speaker's topics, and other workshop activities. (DS)
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Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel
This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation…
Frick, Marty; And Others
Includes "Reviewing Commitment to Individuals with Disabilities" (Frick); "Modifying Laboratory Equipment" (Silletto); "Equine Facilitated Therapy" (Hoover et al.); "Horticultural Therapy" (Rees, Iverson); "How Accessible Is Your Agriculture Program? (Delks, Sillery); "Agricultural Education for…
... provides the most current information on research, practice, theory, issues, and trends to broaden understanding and improve ... These services make LDA the leading resource for information on learning disabilities. Learn more about: Auditory Processing ... Processing Disorder ...
Jukes, Mark; Aspinall, Susan-Louise
Leadership is seen as critical for the transformation of learning disability services and has been further emphasised since the publication of Transforming Care, the Department of Health's response to the review of events at Winterbourne View. What is clear within learning disability nursing and services is the demand for leadership in the quest for improving the quality and effectiveness of services across health and social care. This article discusses the challenges for the undergraduate learning disability nurse with the recommendation to pursue a framework that promotes and focuses on integrating knowledge transfer into services for people with a learning disability. It explores practice change using the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework, and the example of the involvement of service users in practitioner training on the Mental Capacity Act 2005 and consent and capacity to consent for treatment.
... complica- tions of NF1 include: • Learning disabilities: Although intelligence is usually within the normal range, 50-60% ... and the ability to access meaning from the printed word. 5 Recent ﬁndings suggest that a high ...
David Allen Larson
Full Text Available Persons with disabilities often find themselves marginalized by society and by our justice systems. We can improve access to justice by training better advocates. Advocates not only must be knowledgeable concerning relevant laws and regulations, but also must be able to interact effectively on a personal, professional level with persons who have disabilities. We also want to make certain that persons with disabilities have the opportunity to learn to advocate for themselves and for other persons with disabilities. Technologies are available that can help us accomplish these goals. This article provides a brief survey of legal protections (and gaps in such protection for persons with disabilities. Successful advocate training programs from around the world are identified and described. The article provides examples of how technology is being used to support these efforts and provides suggestions regarding additional ways in which technology could be employed. Law schools around the world have begun to embrace the goal of better advocacy, but improving access will require well-prepared advocates to answer the call. Training advocates to provide services to a population that may have significantly different needs even within that population may be a more efficient and effective way to improve access to justice than by attempting to draft laws and regulations that somehow address all possible circumstances.
Full Text Available This paper aims to question the living conditions of disabled people in the 21st century from the framework of social justice. The concept of “social justice” has a long history, influenced by the works of numerous writers including Rawls (1971, Miller (1999, Reeves (2005, Fainstein (2009, Marcuse (2009 and Harvey (1992, 2009 and by the recent debates on inequality, diversity, segregation, exclusion, and discrimination. The debates on segregation, exclusion and discrimination are generally focused on inequalities in terms of economic, ethnic and gender dimensions; however, in these debates, there is very little reference to unequal opportunities of disabled people. On the other hand, the diversity issue is generally discussed with respect to ethnic and cultural elements, again with very little concern for the rights of disabled people. In many developing countries, including Turkey, a legal framework for addressing disability issues has started to be put in place. Awareness among governments and society of the needs and rights of people with disabilities is growing. In the last decade in Turkey, the difficulties faced by disabled people have started to be taken into consideration seriously. Before that, the only information about the disabled population could be obtained from General Population Census in Turkey. In 2002 “Turkey Disability Survey” was carried out collectively by the State Institute of Statistics and the Presidency of Administration on Disabled People. In this survey, it has been targeted to estimate the number of disabled people and comprehend their socio-economic characteristics, their problems in social life, expectations, types and causes of disability, regional differences and also the proportion of population having chronic illnesses. After this survey, many projects have started to be realized in order to propose strategies for eliminating discrimination in Turkey. In this paper, we will
Sexuality is one of the many phenomena which are least openly discussed particularly in the African culture. Sexuality is conceived variously in different cultures and disability is seen as a threat to sexuality in many of the cultures. Meanwhile, sexuality is regarded as a central theme in the development of self-esteem and self-identity since it has been conceived within the bodily perfection and bodily beauty complexes. Thus, the way sexuality is conceived for people with disabilities form...
John k. McNamara
This paper presents a prevention model for supporting children with learning disabilities. The model holds that children can be identified as at-risk for learning disabilities by identifying and supporting potential academic failure early in their elementary years. A prevention model includes two elements, identification and instruction. Identification entails recognizing those children at-risk for poor achievement in the early primary grades. The second component of the model is to...
Cypaite, Asta; Šerkšnien, Justina; Rudžioniene, Jurgita
Disabled students who makes relatively small part of the academic society are in risk to disappear among all other students, due to their communication and mobility difficulties have less possibilities to satisfy their needs, ensuring their rights to qualitative studies, equal opportunities in the labor market and social integration. A topic about information accessibility for disabled students is extremely important because of their information exclusion in their study process at the un...
Hurley, Anne D
This article examines reviews and research on the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders in people with intellectual disability published from September 2004 to December 2005. Patients with intellectual disability have limitations in verbal ability, and with increasing levels of disability may have an atypical clinical presentation. Thus, methods to diagnose mood disorders were a major research focus. Informant-rating scales and two self-report instruments provided data on thought patterns, aberrant behavior, appetite, and suicidality. Behavioral symptoms such as aggression were frequently associated with mood disorders. Pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy were found to be effective treatments. Mood disorders were frequently identified in people with intellectual disability, although suicide was still quite rare. Patients with milder levels of disability can use self-report measures and can be diagnosed using standard criteria with little modification. For those with more severe disability, diagnosis is challenging and often requires the use of residual categories. Atypical clinical presentation, including maladaptive behaviors, lent support for 'behavioral equivalent' substitutes of standard criteria. Typical pharmacological agents were effective for depression and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant bipolar disorder.
Meloy, Linda L.; Deville, Craig; Frisbie, David A.
A study examined the effect of a read aloud testing accommodation on 260 middle school students with and without learning disabilities in reading. Students with learning disabilities in reading, as well as those without, exhibited statistically significant gains with the read aloud test administration. Interaction effects were not significant.…
Luciana Erina Palma
Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the participation of a student with physical disability in physical education classes of a 2nd year elementary school in a regular school. We observed seven physical education classes, the information was recorded on an observation form and later was applied an interview with pre-established guidelines to disabled student. The datas were analyzed from two categories: a Students with Disabilities and Participation in Physical Education classes and b the relationship between student with Disabilities and Colleagues. From the data, it was observed that most of the activities proposed by the teacher in physical education classes, favored the inclusion of the students who had physical disabilities, in addition to that, there was an interaction between him and his classmates. Thus, we can affirm that inclusion is being accomplished in the classroom and in physical education classes surveyed.
... seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability and rehabilitation research; (2) determine...; (3) identify research gaps; (4) identify mechanisms of integrating research and practice; and (5... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-- Disability...
Pearl, Phillip L; Sable, Craig; Evans, Sarah; Knight, Joseph; Cunningham, Parker; Lotrecchiano, Gaetano R; Gropman, Andrea; Stuart, Sheela; Glass, Penny; Conway, Anne; Ramadan, Issam; Paiva, Tania; Batshaw, Mark L; Packer, Roger J
A telemedicine program was developed between the Children's National Medical Center (CNMC) in Washington, DC, and the Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Foundation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A needs assessment and a curriculum of on-site training conferences were devised preparatory to an ongoing telemedicine consultation program for children with neurodevelopmental disabilities in the underserved eastern region of the UAE. Weekly telemedicine consultations are provided by a multidisciplinary faculty. Patients are presented in the UAE with their therapists and families. Real-time (video over Internet protocol; average connection, 768 kilobits/s) telemedicine conferences are held weekly following previews of medical records. A full consultation report follows each telemedicine session. Between February 29, 2012 and June 26, 2013, 48 weekly 1-h live interactive telemedicine consultations were conducted on 48 patients (28 males, 20 females; age range, 8 months-22 years; median age, 5.4 years). The primary diagnoses were cerebral palsy, neurogenetic disorders, autism, neuromuscular disorders, congenital anomalies, global developmental delay, systemic disease, and epilepsy. Common comorbidities were cognitive impairment, communication disorders, and behavioral disorders. Specific recommendations included imaging and DNA studies, antiseizure management, spasticity management including botulinum toxin protocols, and specific therapy modalities including taping techniques, customized body vests, and speech/language and behavioral therapy. Improved outcomes reported were in clinician satisfaction, achievement of therapy goals for patients, and requests for ongoing sessions. Weekly telemedicine sessions coupled with triannual training conferences were successfully implemented in a clinical program dedicated to patients with neurodevelopmental disabilities by the Center for Neuroscience at CNMC and the UAE government. International consultations in neurodevelopmental
Näslund, Rebecka; Qais Al Said, Shariffa Khalid
This article examines how a group of students with visual disabilities speak about becoming disabled and living with disability in relation to: material entities, practices, and their own expectations regarding the future in the Sultanate of Oman. It draws upon individual interviews among six adults with visual disabilities. The article outlines, from a material semiotics approach, how various forms of modes of ordering enact disability. An interdisciplinary approach, informed by disability s...
Bogart, Kathleen R
Current theories of adaptation to disability do not address differences in adaptation to congenital or acquired disability. Although people with congenital disabilities are generally assumed to be better adapted than people with acquired disabilities, few studies have tested this, and even fewer have attempted to explain the mechanisms behind these differences. This study tested the proposition that whether a disability is congenital or acquired plays an important role in the development of the disability self-concept (consisting of disability identity and disability self-efficacy), which in turn, affects satisfaction with life. It was predicted that disability self-concept would be better developed among people with congenital, compared with acquired disabilities, predicting greater satisfaction with life in those with acquired conditions. 226 participants with congenital and acquired mobility disabilities completed a cross-sectional online questionnaire measuring satisfaction with life, self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and demographic information. Self-esteem, disability identity, disability self-efficacy, and income were significant predictors of satisfaction with life. Congenital onset predicted higher satisfaction with life; disability identity and disability self-efficacy, but not self-esteem, partially mediated the relationship. Findings highlight the distinction between adaptation to congenital versus acquired disability and the importance of disability self-concept, which are underresearched constructs. Results suggest that rather than attempting to "normalize" individuals with disabilities, health care professionals should foster their disability self-concept. Possible ways to improve disability self-concept are discussed, such as involvement in the disability community and disability pride. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Klug Marilyn G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tourette Syndrome (TS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. Learning disabilities are frequently comorbid with TS. Using the largest sample of TS patients ever reported, we sought to identify differences between subjects with TS only and subjects with TS and a comorbid learning disability. Methods We used the Tourette Syndrome International Consortium database (TIC to compare subjects with comorbid Tourette Syndrome and learning disabilities (TS + LD to subjects who did not have a comorbid learning disability (TS - LD. The TIC database contained 5,500 subjects. We had usable data on 5,450 subjects. Results We found 1,235 subjects with TS + LD. Significant differences between the TS + LD group and the TS - LD group were found for gender (.001, age onset (.030, age first seen (.001, age at diagnosis (.001, prenatal problems (.001, sibling or other family member with tics (.024, two or more affected family members (.009, and severe tics (.046. We used logistic modeling to identify the optimal prediction model of group membership. This resulted in a five variable model with the epidemiologic performance characteristics of accuracy 65.2% (model correctly classified 4,406 of 5,450 subjects, sensitivity 66.1%, and specificity 62.2%. Conclusion Subjects with TS have high prevalence rates of comorbid learning disabilities. We identified phenotype differences between the TS - LD group compared to TS + LD group. In the evaluation of subjects with TS, the presence of a learning disability should always be a consideration. ADHD may be an important comorbid condition in the diagnosis of LD or may also be a potential confounder. Further research on etiology, course and response to intervention for subjects with TS only and TS with learning disabilities is needed.
Wenger, Jodi; Downes, Alison; Blum, Nathan; Augustyn, Marilyn
Amad is a wonderful 16-year-old young man from Syria who has recently relocated to the United States from his war-torn native country. In his last few years in Syria, he was primarily at home with his mother, and they sought refuge with a maternal aunt in the United States seeking asylum and treatment of Amad's disability.At 8 years of age, he had intelligence testing in the United Arab Emirates, which showed a verbal intelligence score on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC) of 68 and a performance of 64. His working memory was 67 and his processing speed was 65. On arrival in the United States, his achievement was roughly at a third-grade level in Arabic. In the year and a half that he has been in the United States, he quickly improved his English skills, which he learned as a toddler. His father remains in Syria unable to safely immigrate and his mother is raising him alone in the United States with the help of her sister.They come to you for an urgent care visit because Amad recently was accused of sexual harassment by two girls at his high school. He is in a substantially separate program but is included for lunch and technology. While in the computer laboratory, he repeatedly approached the girls and asks them to "date" him, and on 1 occasion sat behind 1 girl and repeatedly reached out to stroke her long blonde hair.His mother is distraught because she recently found out that Amad also has a Facebook page and had been attempting to contact the same two girls on social media. The girls' parents recently threatened to file criminal harassment charges and Amad's mother comes to you asking for help with making Amad stop this activity. What would you do next?
Kuvalekar, Kunal; Kamath, Ramachandra; Ashok, Lena; Shetty, Bhartesh; Mayya, Shreemathi; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi
Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL) of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL) and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under persons with disability act.
Full Text Available Background: Disability is not just a health problem or attribute of individuals, but it reflects the problems individuals experience in their interaction with society and physical movements. Disabled persons remain neglected part of society and they also experience various barriers due to restriction of participation. Objectives: The aim was to assess the quality of life (QOL of physically disabled persons, the impact of physical disability on activities of daily living (ADL and to study the awareness about laws and facilities available for disabled persons. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted among 130 physical disabled persons who were selected using convenience sampling technique. The WHO BREF scale was used to assess QOL, while assessment of ADL was done using Barthel Index. Socio-demographic assessment was done using Udai Pareek scale. SPSS version 15.0 was used to analyze data. Categorical variables were expressed as frequencies and percentages. As per guidelines physical, psychological, social, and environmental domain scores for WHO BREF scale were calculated. Results: Among the study participants, 36.2% had a disability from birth that is, congenital. The second common cause of disability was found to be postpolio residual paralysis as it was found among 26.2% respondents. Other causes found were stroke/paralysis and accidents, in 19.2% and 18.5% respondents, respectively. Activities such as transfer, mobility, and stair climbing showed greater impact of physical disability. It was found that 11.5% respondents required help in one of the ADL. QOL score was found to be low under the psychological domain reflecting on negative feelings, bodily image, appearance, spirituality, and self-esteem of respondents. Conclusion: Physical disability had affected social participation as well as marriage of the respondents. However, it was found that very few of them are aware about facilities provided under
Rickson, Daphne; Warren, Penny
We investigated a continuing education course in creative music making, initiated to promote the inclusion of young people with intellectual disability in a university setting. Despite organizers' attempts to foster diversity within the student cohort, enrolments were almost exclusively from students who had intellectual disability. Being in the university environment, and in a place of higher learning, seemed to be valued by some. However, students' main focus was on group musicking in a dedicated music room rather than interacting with the wider university community. Those who did not identify as disabled believed it was important to continue to address the barriers to wider inclusion. While acknowledging the risks around mediating the social interactions of young people with intellectual disability, we argue that future courses should include activities specifically designed to bring them to classes with typical students and to the wider activities of the university.
Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Justice, Laura; Sawyer, Brook
Interaction with peers is an important contributor to young children's social and cognitive development. Yet, little is known about the nature of social networks within preschool inclusive classrooms. The current study applied a social network analysis to characterize children's peer interactions in inclusive classrooms and their relations with children's disability status. The participants were 485 preschoolers from 64 early childhood special education (ECSE) inclusive classrooms. Results from teachers' report of children's social networks showed that children with disabilities formed smaller play networks compared to their typically developing peers in the classroom, but no evidence indicated that children with disabilities engaged in more conflict networks than their counterparts. Children's play and conflict networks were segregated by children's disability status.
Lund, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten
population of 2,697 non-disabled older men and women from The Danish Longitudinal Study on Preventive Home Visits. RESULTS: living alone and low social participation were significant risk factors for later male disability onset. Not being satisfied with the social relations was significantly associated...... with onset of disability for both genders. Among men who lived alone low social participation was a significant predictor of disability onset [odds ratio, OR = 2.30 (1.00-5.29)]; for cohabiting men social participation was not associated with disability onset, [adjusted OR = 0.91 (0.49-1.71)]. Similar...... results were present concerning satisfaction with the social relations among men. There was no significant interaction for women. CONCLUSIONS: the study suggests that men who live alone can possibly alleviate their risk of disability onset by being socially active and by having access to satisfactory...
Sin, Chih Hoong; Fong, Janice
This paper is a report of the findings of a General Formal Investigation launched by the Disability Rights Commission, Great Britain into the impact of regulatory fitness standards on disabled people, and on nursing students and nurses in particular. The potential for systemic discrimination against disabled nursing professionals lies in the existence and nature of regulatory fitness standards, as well as in how these are interpreted and implemented in practice. A review of relevant legislation, regulation and guidance was conducted to explore the interaction of the regulatory framework with the Disability Discrimination Act. A formal call to key national stakeholder organizations solicited information on perceptions of the regulatory framework and the adequacy of guidance issued. Independent research was commissioned on disabled people's disclosure of disability, informal and formal decision-making around fitness within the educational, and employment contexts. An Inquiry Panel examined all evidence sources, solicited further oral evidence from key organizations, and developed recommendations. No mention was found of the Disability Discrimination Act in any regulation and guidance governing nursing prior to 2006. There are particular requirements for 'good health and good character'. Respondents from key national stakeholder organizations, higher educational institutions and employers struggle to interpret the fitness requirements consistently. Implementation is variable, with reliance on ad hoc self-initiated strategies. The variability of interpretation and implementation can lead to discrimination against disabled people. The imprecision of fitness requirements and variability of implementation raise serious doubts about their utility in managing risk.
Busse, Jason W; Dolinschi, Roman; Clarke, Andrew; Scott, Liz; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Amick, Benjamin C; Rivilis, Irina; Cole, Donald
Return to work after a leave on disability is a common phenomenon, but little is known about the attitudes of employees or their supervisors towards the disability management process. We report on employee and supervisor feedback from one disability management experience. 389 consecutive employees from the Ontario offices of a single private Canadian insurance company returning to work from short-term disability, and their supervisors. We surveyed employees and their supervisors about their experience with, and attitudes towards, the disability management process. Of those surveyed, 88 employees and 75 supervisors provided data (response rates of 22.6% and 19.3% respectively). The majority of respondents (79.1% of employees and supervisors) endorsed positive attitudes towards their disability management experience. More than 25% of employees disagreed with the following three items: case managers contributed to recovery, case managers removed barriers to recovery, and sufficient support was provided in the return to work process. More than 25% of employees and managers reported that a commitment to modify an unhelpful work situation was not followed through. The majority of participating employees returning to work from short-term disability, and their supervisors, reported a high level of satisfaction with the disability management process. Areas that may benefit from attention include some aspects of case manager-employee interaction and ensuring that support during the return to work process is provided, including modification to work situations when appropriate.
Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J
We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities.
Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Floyd, Frank J.
We examined prospectively the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities. PMID:26505872
Full Text Available In the fifth decade of the internet, accessibility for all, especially those with disabilities, is central to digital inclusion. Yet internationally, the score card on internet and accessibility remains mixed, at best; and woefully inadequate, at worst. Via an Australian case study, we argue that it is imperative to better understand how internet technology interacts with the life worlds and dynamics of disability, and we suggest how policy can be articulated and improved to put people with disabilities on an equal basis to others in digital societies.
Stewart, Miriam; Barnfather, Alison; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Ray, Lynne; Letourneau, Nicole
Adolescents with cerebral palsy and spina bifida report restricted interactions with peers and gaps in social support. A pilot online support intervention offered interactions with peers. Five mentors with cerebral palsy or spina bifida and 22 adolescents with the same disabilities met weekly online for 25 group sessions over six months.…
Odom, Samuel L.; McConnell, Scott R.; McEvoy, Mary A.; Peterson, Carla; Ostrosky, Michaelene; Chandler, Lynette K.; Spicuzza, Richard J.; Skellenger, Annette; Creighton, Michelle; Favazza, Paddy C.
A study compared the effects of different intervention approaches designed to promote peer-related social competence of 83 preschool children with disabilities. Analyses indicated that the peer-mediated condition had the greatest and most sustained effect on children's participation in social interaction and on the quality of interaction.…
Boyle, Bryan; Arnedillo-Sánchez, Inmaculada
This paper describes the application of collaboration scripts to guide social interaction behaviours of children with intellectual disabilities. The use of such scripts demonstrate potential as a means of creating CSCL environments that can be used to provide children with communication and social interaction impairments with a platform for learning and practicing such skills in a meaningful social context.
Negin H. Goodrich
Full Text Available Exploring major requisites to establish an Iranian disability studies, the aim of this study is to determine how a local literature of disability can be formed in Iran, as well as how the Iranian and global disability studies might interchange disability knowledge. In an analysis of the responses to a qualitative questionnaire, three themes emerged: rudimentary resources, disability literature, and political prerequisites. Accordingly, human and financial resources, a bank of Farsi and English literature on disability, as well as developing academic relations between Iranian and international disability scholars (as an outcome of improving the Iran-USA political affairs are essential to form a local disability studies in Iran and to engage it in the global discussions of disability studies. Keywords: disability, global disability studies, Iran
Apdullah Yayık; Yakup Kutlu
This paper aims to develop brain-computer interface system based on electroencephalography that can aid disabled people in daily life. The system relies on one of the most effective event-related potential wave, P300, which can be elicited by oddball paradigm. Developed application has a basic interaction tool that enables disabled people to convey their needs to other people selecting related objects. These objects pseudo-randomly flash in a visual interface on computer screen. The user must...
Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura
This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.
Roush, Susan E; Sharby, Nancy
The purposes of this perspective article are: (1) to explore models of disability from the perspective of the academic discipline of disability studies (DS), (2) to consider the paradox of improving functional capacities while valuing disability as diversity, (3) to identify how physical therapy's use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) disablement model intersects with various disability models, and (4) to apply this broader understanding of disability to physical therapist practice, education, and research. The DS literature has been critical of rehabilitation professionals, particularly targeting the medical model of disability. In contrast, advocates for a social model of disability recognize disability as diversity. It is paradoxical for physical therapy to simultaneously work to ameliorate disability while celebrating it as diversity. The ICF biopsychosocial disablement model offers a mechanism to practice within this paradox and suggests that it is no longer sufficient to conceptualize disability as a purely individual matter that requires attention in isolation from the impact of the larger society.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this research was to compare the body image between disabled athletes with disabled and non-disabled non- athletes. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional and comparative study, fifty disabled athletes from the handicapped sports club, fifty disabled non athletes from Kahrizak disabled rest house and fifty non athlete healthy persons from governmental administrations were selected randomly by classified clustered method and their body image were compared. Data collection tools included a personal information questionnaire and a physical self description questionnaire (PSDQ which included 11 sub-scales such as power, endurance, coordination, general health, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, fat, body appearance, body activity and the global physical. The statistical procedures used in this study comprised one way ANOVA and the Newman-keuls test. Results: Body image of disabled athletes in the sub-scales of power, endurance, coordination, flexibility, self-esteem, athletic competence, body activity were higher than disabled and non-disabled individuals who were not athletes (P&le0.001. In addition the sub-scales of the body fat (P=0.012, body appearance (P=0.002 and general health (P=0.001, the results showed that a higher significance for the disabled athletes, however, there wasn’t significant difference for the non-disabled athletes. Conclusion: Thus the result showed that the attitude of the disabled and non-disabled individual in due to their continuous physical activity in that the disabled athletes have got better body images as compared to the disabled and non-disabled individual who have not physical activity.
... Disabled Under the Statutory Definition? Under the Act, we have full power and authority to make rules and.... Sections 205(a), 702(a)(5), and 1631(d)(1). In addition, we have the power to promulgate regulations that... How we evaluate symptoms, including pain. * * * * * (b) * * * In cases decided by a State agency...
Rioux, Marcia H., Ed.; Bach, Michael, Ed.
This book is the product of a forum titled New Research Directions and Paradigms, held at the Congress of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Mental Deficiency in Australia in August 1992. The book presents 13 chapters, all written within a critical paradigm for disability research which critiques the reification of…
Poggesi, A.; Gouw, A.; van der Flier, W.M.; Pracucci, G.; Chabriat, H.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Fazekas, F.; Ferro, J.M.; Blahak, C.; Langhorne, P.; O'Brien, J.; Schmidt, R.; Visser, M.C.; Wahlund, L.O.; Waldemar, G.; Wallin, A.; Scheltens, P.; Inzitari, D.; Pantoni, L.
To investigate the role of neurological abnormalities and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions in predicting global functional decline in a cohort of initially independent-living elderly subjects. The Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) Study, involving 11 European centres, was primarily aimed
Kulow, Marianne DelPo
Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…
Wood, Tara; Dolmage, Jay; Price, Margaret; Lewiecki-Wilson, Cynthia
The authors' perception, as specialists at the intersection of disability studies and composition studies, is that disability has arrived--in the sense that it is now on most peoples' radar. Most have come to think of it as "Disability 2.0": the state where acceptance of disabled students and teachers as belonging in our…
Haydon-Laurelut, Mark Andrew
Knowledge about disabled people has and continues to be dominated by the medical and allied professions and inevitably this provides only one story of disabled life: a story of a problem seeking solutions (Grue, 2015). The rehabilitative professions write most of what is read and written about disability. As a family therapist I wondered how family therapy might be constructing disability? If, as Michalko (2012) has noted, medicine finds a home in all kinds of places to what extent has it mad...
Alison Elizabeth Germaine
Full Text Available This article explores disability and depression, especially as they relate to masculinity and power, within Thor comics. Societal interpretations of disability are also discussed in terms of comics' ability to both challenge and reinforce these interpretations; further, aspects of comics design are investigated within the symbolic realm of disability and depression, illustrating the portrayal of disability and depression via characteristics such as color, panels, and facial expressions.
Disability Insurance (DI) is a public program that provides income support to persons unable to continue work due to disability. The difficulty of defining disability, however, has raised the possibility that this program may be subsidizing the early retirement of workers who are not truly disabled. A critical input for assessing the optimal size of the DI program is therefore the elasticity of labor force participation with respect to benefits generosity. Unfortunately, this parameter has be...
Pooja Manghirmalani; Darshana More; Kavita Jain
The endeavor of this work is to support the special education community in their quest to be with the mainstream. The initial segment of the paper gives an exhaustive study of the different mechanisms of diagnosing learning disability. After diagnosis of learning disability the further classification of learning disability that is dyslexia, dysgraphia or dyscalculia are fuzzy. Hence the paper proposes a model based on Fuzzy Expert System which enables the classification of learning disability...
Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1–3,* Sara JT Guilcher,1,3,4,* Lauren Webster,1 Richard H Glazier,1–3 Susan B Jaglal,1 Ahmed M Bayoumi,1,3 1Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, 4Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: Despite more frequent use of health services by people living with disability, the quality of preventive care received may be suboptimal. In this retrospective cohort study, we used administrative data to examine the relationship between cholesterol testing and levels of disability and morbidity among women and men in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We linked multiple provincial-level databases in this study. In stratified analyses for women and men, we used multivariable logistic regression to examine differences in cholesterol testing, and we tested for an interaction effect between disability and morbidity. In a secondary analysis, we tested for a three-way interaction between sex, disability, and morbidity on the entire cohort. Results: There was an interaction between morbidity and disability for both women and men. Women and men with no chronic conditions appeared to be least likely to be up-to-date on cholesterol testing, and among this group, those with moderate disability were more likely to be up-to-date on cholesterol testing than those with no disability (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.90 for women; AOR =1.16; 95% CI 1.00–1.34 for men. Among women and men who had one chronic condition, having severe disability put them at significant disadvantage versus those with no disability. Only 58.5% of men with no disability and no chronic conditions were up-to-date on cholesterol testing. Conclusion: An intermediate level
Kramer, Jessica; Barth, Yishai; Curtis, Katie; Livingston, Kit; O'Neil, Madeline; Smith, Zach; Vallier, Samantha; Wolfe, Ashley
This paper describes a participatory research process in which six youth with disabilities (Youth Panel) participated in the development and evaluation of a manualized advocacy training, Project TEAM (Teens making Environment and Activity Modifications). Project TEAM teaches youth with disabilities how to identify environmental barriers, generate solutions, and request accommodations. The Youth Panel conducted their evaluation after the university researcher implemented Project TEAM with three groups of trainees. The Youth Panel designed and administered a survey and focus group to evaluate enjoyment and usefulness of Project TEAM with support from an advocate/researcher. Members of the Youth Panel analyzed survey response frequencies. The advocate/researcher conducted a content analysis of the open-ended responses. Sixteen of 21 Project TEAM trainees participated in the evaluation. The evaluation results suggest that the trainees found the interactive and individualized aspects of the Project TEAM most enjoyable and useful. Some instructional materials were difficult for trainees with cognitive disabilities to understand. The Youth Panel's involvement in the development of Project TEAM may explain the relatively positive experiences reported by trainees. Project TEAM should continue to provide trainees with the opportunity to apply concepts in real-life situations. Project TEAM requires revisions to ensure it is enjoyable and useful for youth with a variety of disabilities. • Group process strategies, picture-based data collection materials, peer teamwork, and mentorship from adults with disabilities can enable youth with disabilities to engage in research. • Collaborating with youth with disabilities in the development of new rehabilitation approaches may enhance the relevance of interventions for other youth with disabilities. • Youth with cognitive disabilities participating in advocacy and environment-focused interventions may prefer interactive and
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
Proponents of a social model of disability derive their arguments from social constructionism. They combine different disabling conditions under one term: disability. Subsequently, they apply the specific viewpoint of the disability rights social movement of people with physical disabilities to other conditions such as intellectual disabilities,…
Walker, Michael J.
The Disabled Veterans Outreach Program (DVOP) administered by the Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration arranges training and placement for disabled veterans in local job service offices. These employees then assist in placing other disabled veterans on jobs. Some typical DVOP success stories are described. (MF)
Discussions of disability should be within a clearly-defined moral framework if the disabled person's rights are to be translated into society's duty to the disabled. An ethical system based on modern versions of utilitarianism is suggested as a moral framework, supplemented by prescriptions based on social justice and respect. (Author/CB)
Presser, Harriet B.; Altman, Barbara
More than one-fifth of employed persons with disabilities work late or rotating shifts, about the same as nondisabled workers. Day workers with disabilities receive lower hourly wages than nondisabled workers. Except for men, nonday workers with disabilities receive wages similar to their nondisabled counterparts. (Contains 27 references.)…
Livneh, Hanoch; Antonak, Richard F.
Used cross-sectional design to collect data on phases of adaptation to disability as measured by the Reactions to Impairment and Disability Inventory among 112 inpatients and 92 outpatients at rehabilitation facilities. Results generally support the existence of a psychosocial adaptation process to physical disability. Incongruities between the…
Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)
Rhodes, Penny; Nocon, Andrew; Small, Neil; Wright, John
Through examining the case of people with epilepsy (which, as we demonstrate, has an ambiguous status in relation to both popular and academic conceptions of disability) we explore the fluid, negotiable and contingent nature of identity and, in particular, the identification as "disabled". Disability, we argue, cannot be reduced to either biology…
Kolbe, Sherry L.
The 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act amendments offered a welcome shield for disabled students who found themselves unfairly disciplined within their school placements. Highlights the disagreements that continue over the bill's interpretation, and the fight by advocates for the disabled to limit unreasonable suspensions and…
Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat
This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…
Draper, William R.; Reid, Christine A.; McMahon, Brian T.
This article documents the employment discrimination experienced by Americans "regarded as" disabled (but not medically verified as such), using the Integrated Mission System of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). Claimants who were perceived as disabled, as contrasted with those with documented disabilities, were more likely…
Ciot, Melania-Gabriela; Van Hove, Geert
There is a wide range of media representations of disability, but not just because of the societal stigma. They are a function of norms of journalism as well as biases among people with disabilities themselves. This article is a contribution to the issue of social representation of persons with disabilities from a Romanian perspective, which will…
State Employees Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education DHSS State of Alaska Home ; Governor's Council on Disabilities and Special Education Page Content Untitled Document Patrick Reinhart : follow GCDSE to 40404 The Governor's Council on Disabilities & Special Education is pleased to award
Zavala, Jesus; Mims, Joan
The study compared 10 learning disabled and 10 non-learning disabled limited English proficient Mexican American elementary grade children. Six tests were identified as predicting learning disabilities including the Prueba de Lectura y Lenguaje Escrito and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. (Author/DB)
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...
Pierce, Patricia A.
Reports the findings of Lou Harris and Associates (1987) on what employers are doing to employ people with disabilities and what their experiences with disabled employees have been. Presents strategies that provide a model for addressing the needs of the disabled population and provide them with opportunities. (JS)
Sullivan, Patricia M.
The focus of this paper is children with disabilities exposed to a broad range of violence types including child maltreatment, domestic violence, community violence, and war and terrorism. Because disability research must be interpreted on the basis of the definitional paradigm employed, definitions of disability status and current prevalence…
Fletcher, Jack M; Grigorenko, Elena L
Over the past 50 years, research on children and adults with learning disabilities has seen significant advances. Neuropsychological research historically focused on the administration of tests sensitive to brain dysfunction to identify putative neural mechanisms underlying learning disabilities that would serve as the basis for treatment. Led by research on classifying and identifying learning disabilities, four pivotal changes in research paradigms have produced a contemporary scientific, interdisciplinary, and international understanding of these disabilities. These changes are (1) the emergence of cognitive science, (2) the development of quantitative and molecular genetics, (3) the advent of noninvasive structural and functional neuroimaging, and (4) experimental trials of interventions focused on improving academic skills and addressing comorbid conditions. Implications for practice indicate a need to move neuropsychological assessment away from a primary focus on systematic, comprehensive assessment of cognitive skills toward more targeted performance-based assessments of academic achievement, comorbid conditions, and intervention response that lead directly to evidence-based treatment plans. Future research will continue to cross disciplinary boundaries to address questions regarding the interaction of neurobiological and contextual variables, the importance of individual differences in treatment response, and an expanded research base on (a) the most severe cases, (b) older people with LDs, and (c) domains of math problem solving, reading comprehension, and written expression. (JINS, 2017, 23, 930-940).
McLean, Kenneth A; Hardie, Samantha; Paul, Abigail; Paul, Gary; Savage, Iain; Shields, Paul; Symes, Rebecca; Wilson, Joanna; Winstanley, Catherine; Harden, Jeni
People with disabilities in the Republic of Moldova continue to experience considerable discrimination and social exclusion. The Moldovan government recently affirmed their commitment to promote community integration. However, there remains limited evidence to facilitate understanding of these issues, and barriers to the integrative process. This study explored the knowledge and attitudes towards disability of young people within Moldova. A qualitative approach was adopted and 3 semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with schoolchildren (n = 12), aged 13-15 years. These interviews focussed on different aspects of disability, and community integration. Pictorial and written vignettes were used to stimulate discussion. The interviews were conducted and recorded in Romanian, and were subsequently translated into English to facilitate thematic data analysis. Identified themes included: (1) Knowledge and understanding of disability. The young people's knowledge was limited and framed by the medical model of disability; (2) Attitudes towards community integration. A bias against long-term care institutions, but differing views regarding integration; (3) Perceptions of barriers to community integration: (i) Cultural barriers. Negative, even hostile attitudes towards disability; (ii) Policy barriers. Poor support services; and (iii) Physical barriers. Ongoing issues regarding accessibility. People with disabilities in Moldova experience negative cultural attitudes linked to an outdated conception of disability itself. There are inadequate community support services and infrastructure which act as barriers to inclusion. At present, there can be limited interaction and participation of people with disabilities within local communities, and so few opportunities to refute persistent stereotypes and stigma surrounding disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kavanagh, Anne Marie; Aitken, Zoe; Krnjacki, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony Daniel; Bentley, Rebecca; Milner, Allison
Background Acquisition of a disability in adulthood has been associated with a reduction in mental health. We tested the hypothesis that low wealth prior to disability acquisition is associated with a greater deterioration in mental health than for people with high wealth. Methods We assess whether level of wealth prior to disability acquisition modifies this association using 12 waves of data (2001–2012) from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia survey–a population-based cohort study of working-age Australians. Eligible participants reported at least two consecutive waves of disability preceded by at least two consecutive waves without disability (1977 participants, 13,518 observations). Fixed-effects linear regression was conducted with a product term between wealth prior to disability (in tertiles) and disability acquisition with the mental health component score of the SF–36 as the outcome. Results In models adjusted for time-varying confounders, there was evidence of negative effect measure modification by prior wealth of the association between disability acquisition and mental health (interaction term for lowest wealth tertile: -2.2 points, 95% CI -3.1 points, -1.2, pwealth was associated with a greater decline in mental health following disability acquisition (-3.3 points, 95% CI -4.0, -2.5) than high wealth (-1.1 points, 95% CI -1.7, -0.5). Conclusion The findings suggest that low wealth prior to disability acquisition in adulthood results in a greater deterioration in mental health than among those with high wealth. PMID:26444990
Whitson, Heather E; Cousins, Scott W; Burchett, Bruce M; Hybels, Celia F; Pieper, Carl F; Cohen, Harvey J
To determine the risk of disability in individuals with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment and to compare the magnitude of risk associated with visual impairment, cognitive impairment, or the multimorbidity. Prospective cohort. North Carolina. Three thousand eight hundred seventy-eight participants in the North Carolina Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly with nonmissing visual status, cognitive status, and disability status data at baseline Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (cognitive impairment defined as > or =4 errors), self reported visual acuity (visual impairment defined as inability to see well enough to recognize a friend across the street or to read newspaper print), demographic and health-related variables, disability status (activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), mobility), death, and time to nursing home placement. Participants with coexisting visual and cognitive impairment were at greater risk of IADL disability (odds ratio (OR)=6.50, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.34-9.75), mobility disability (OR=4.04, 95% CI=2.49-6.54), ADL disability (OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.87-4.32), and incident ADL disability (OR=3.66, 95%, CI=2.36-5.65). In each case, the estimated OR associated with the multimorbidity was greater than the estimated OR associated with visual or cognitive impairment alone, a pattern that was not observed for other adverse outcomes assessed. No significant interactions were observed between cognitive impairment and visual impairment as predictors of disability status. Individuals with coexisting visual impairment and cognitive impairment are at high risk of disability, with each condition contributing additively to disability risk. Further study is needed to improve functional trajectories in patients with this prevalent multimorbidity. When visual or cognitive impairment is present, efforts to maximize the other function may be beneficial.
Kritsotakis, George; Galanis, Petros; Papastefanakis, Emmanouil; Meidani, Flora; Philalithis, Anastas E; Kalokairinou, Athena; Sourtzi, Panayota
To examine and compare undergraduate healthcare students' attitudes towards people with physical or intellectual disabilities in Greece. The experience that people with disabilities have with health care is a complex interaction between their medical condition and the social and physical environment. Attitudes of the nursing and healthcare staff affect the quality of care and people's adaptation to their disability, self-image and rehabilitation outcomes. Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Nursing, Social Work and Medicine students (N = 1007, 79.4% female) attending three universities (Athens, Crete) completed during 2014-2016 two standardised scales regarding physical (ATDP-B) and intellectual disability (CLAS-ID). Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Attitudes towards people with physical disabilities in Greece (ATDP-B scores) were poor with scores just above the mid-point. Medical studies and higher knowledge and work with individuals with physical disabilities signified marginally more positive attitudes. Gender and age displayed no associations with attitudes. Regarding intellectual disability (CLAS-ID scores), nursing students had slightly less positive attitudes in "Similarity" but more positive attitudes in "Sheltering" subscales. Previous work and contact was related to more favourable and higher age to less favourable "Similarity" and "Sheltering" attitudes. Males had higher "Exclusion" scores. Those who knew people with intellectual disabilities had less favourable "Empowerment" attitudes. Knowledge was related to more positive attitudes in all four CLAS-ID subscales. Greek health and social care students showed poor attitudes towards people with physical and intellectual disability. When holding unfavourable attitudes, healthcare professionals become less involved with the people they care for and they do not provide nursing care to the best of their abilities. Undergraduate and continuing education, along with
Chia, S H
Groupwork can be effective in meeting a range of needs presented by students with profound learning disabilities. This article describes the process involved in setting up groups for these students, and includes examples of a group session and methods for evaluating groupwork.
Sapir, Selma C.
The author discusses controversial issues in the field of learning disabilities (LD). Among topics addressed are conflicting definitions of LD and the impact of the operational definition accepted by the US Government; etiological questions concerning the separation of neurological, environmental, and emotional factors; approaches used in training…
Nolan, John D.; Driscoll, Rosemary L.
Memory storage and retrieval of learning disabled (LD) and normal children at two age levels (8-9 years and 11-12 years) were compared using a multitrial free recall paradigm. Stimuli were two lists of 20 high frequency nouns. Each child was tested individually on both lists on different days; one presentation was blocked, one random with…
Pool, Donald A.
The paper examines issues, philosophy and guidelines for psychological assessment of the disabled. Focused on are: (1) adjustments in testing procedures and (2) applicability of standard norms with commonly used psychological test instruments for the assessment of ability, interest, and personality. The importance of accurate assessment for…
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; O'Neill, Lotte; Kongsted, Alice
Objective: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). Methods: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...
lives of disabled people (Barnes & Mercer 2005, Paterson & Hughes 2010). A recurrent theme in this study’s transcribed and coded interviews was not an awareness of bullying and harassment, as other studies have found (e.g., Fevre et al. 2013), but rather how managers and employees without impairments...
... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...
Kenyon, Elinor; Beail, Nigel; Jackson, Tom
Studies have focused on the experience of diagnosis from the perspectives of parents of children with learning disabilities, but there has been limited methodologically rigorous investigation into the experience for the person themselves. Eight participants were recruited from a range of different backgrounds. Interviews were analysed using…
Heisler, Alice B.
Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)
Singh, Delar K.
This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…
Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee
A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)
Full Text Available Abstract My research will focus on some of the more pertinent changes that need to take place on a societal level in order to better serve disabled people and allow them to participate in all facets of community life. I will argue that three of the most significant changes that must take place include educating society on disabilities and disabled persons creating and enforcing better laws that truly help disabled persons and expanding the definitions of disability and disabled person to include a broader spectrum of ailments inflictions and handicaps. The changes which I support will be presented in a research-driven paper. I will highlight the current UK disability laws in place and point out some of their shortcomings. Then I will explore the worldview of society as a whole as it pertains to disabled peoples and suggest changes that need to take place and how educators can help facilitate these changes. Finally I will explain the shortcomings of the most common definitions used for disability and disabled persons and offer alternatives that incorporate a broader range of people and ailments. My audience will be any citizen whose political jurisdiction is under the UK disability mandate although anyone from any society would benefit from reading my paper due to the universality of this topic.
Andersson, Anders-Petter; Cappelen , Birgitta
Our voice and body are important parts of our self-experience, and our communication and relational possibilities. They gradually become more im portant for Interaction Design due to increased development of tangible interaction and mobile communication. In this paper we present and discuss our work with voice and tangible interaction in our ongoing research project RHYME. The goal is to improve health for families, adults and children with disabilities through use of collaborative, musica...
Crouch, Ronald; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D
For students with disabilities, the process of school inclusion often begins with a move from segregated settings into general education classrooms. School transitions can be stressful as students adjust to a new environment. This study examines the adjustment of 133 students with and without disabilities who moved from a school that served primarily students with disabilities into 23 public schools in a large urban school district in the Midwest. These students and 111 of their teachers and other school staff rated the degree that students felt they belonged in their new schools and the quality of their social interactions. Results show that students who experienced more positive and fewer negative social interactions with school staff had higher school belonging. Teachers accurately noted whether students felt they belonged in their new settings, but were not consistently able to identify student perceptions of negative social interactions with staff. Implications for inclusion and improving our educational system are explored.
Full Text Available -evaluated before the next iteration. During the re-evaluation its current fitness value is compared with its previous fitness value, i.e. its fitness value after the previous iteration. If the two values differ more than a specified value, 2922 978... when the true POF is unknown. The size of the non-dominated solution set can also be used to measure an algorithm’s performance . Ca´mara et al. proposed measures of accuracy, stability and reaction capacity of an algorithm, that are based...
Shin, So Young
To evolve a management plan for rheumatoid arthritis, it is necessary to understand the patient's symptom experience and disablement process. This paper aims to introduce and critique two models as a conceptual foundation from which to construct a new model for arthritis care. A Disability Intervention Model for Older Adults with Arthritis includes three interrelated concepts of symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and symptom outcomes that correspond to the Theory of Symptom Management. These main concepts influence or are influenced by contextual factors that are situated within the domains of person, environment, and health/illness. It accepts the bidirectional, complex, dynamic interactions among all components within the model representing the comprehensive aspects of the disablement process and its interventions in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis. In spite of some limitations such as confusion or complexity within the model, the Disability Intervention Model for Older Adults with Arthritis has strengths in that it encompasses the majority of the concepts of the two models, attempts to compensate for the limitations of the two models, and aims to understand the impact of rheumatoid arthritis on a patient's physical, cognitive, and emotional health status, socioeconomic status, and well-being. Therefore, it can be utilized as a guiding theoretical framework for arthritis care and research to improve the functional status of older adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Ilunga Tshiswaka, Daudet; Loggins Clay, Shondra; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Alston, Reginald; Lewis, Allen
To examine the relationships among Assistive Technology (AT) use, race, type of disability and selected other demographic characteristics. Using 2009 National Health Interview Survey, descriptive statistics, statistical interactions and binary logistic regression were performed to identify, contrast and predict the likelihood of using AT based on the type of disability among African Americans (AAs) and European Americans (EAs). We found that more AAs (10% within group proportion of total AAs) used AT compared to EAs (7.5% within group proportion of total EAs). Physical (p disabling conditions that predict the use of AT than AAs, whereas AAs had more demographic characteristics beyond race that predict AT use than EAs. Disparities were observed in AT usage by disability types and demographic characteristics between AAs and EAs. Moreover, the predictive strength of AT usage based on disability types and other demographic variables differed by races. Overall, the findings about the different relationships among race, disability type, and AT use are found. Implications for Rehabilitation The finding may inform the development of initiatives by rehabilitation leaders to encourage the use of AT by AAs and EAs according to their type of impairment. Having identified physical impairment as statistically significant predictor of AT use greater among AAs, rehabilitation leaders should ensure that people living with those types of disability have access to the corresponding type of AT and can use them effectively.
Neal-Boylan, Leslie; Hopkins, Amy; Skeete, Rachel; Hartmann, Sarah B; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Nunez-Smith, Marcella
The authors sought to generate insights and hypotheses about the professional experiences of registered nurses and physicians with self-identified disabilities to inform local and national policy conversations on supporting a diverse health care workforce. In 2009-2010, the authors conducted in-depth interviews in person and over the telephone with a sample of licensed registered nurses and physicians across the country who self-identified as having a permanent disability. They coded the interview transcripts to identify key themes across the participants' responses. The authors interviewed 10 registered nurses and 10 physicians. Five novel and consistent themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) Living and working with a physical/sensory disability narrows the career choices and trajectories of nurses and physicians, (2) nurses and physicians struggle with decisions regarding whether to disclose and discuss their disabilities at work, (3) nurses and physicians rarely seek legally guaranteed workplace accommodations, instead viewing patient safety as a personal responsibility, (4) interpersonal interactions often reflect the institutional climate and set the tone for how welcome nurses and physicians feel at work, and (5) reactions to workplace disability-related challenges run an emotional spectrum from anger and grief to resilience and optimism. The responses revealed several missed opportunities for supporting health care professionals with disabilities in the workplace. These findings should inform the continuing debate regarding what defines "reasonable accommodation" and how to create a workplace that is welcoming for nurses and physicians with disabilities.
Manago, Bianca; Davis, Jenny L; Goar, Carla
For parents of children with disabilities, stigmatization is part of everyday life. To resist the negative social and emotional consequences of stigma, parents both challenge and deflect social devaluations. Challenges work to upend the stigmatizing structure, while deflections maintain the interaction order. We examine how parents of children with disabilities deploy deflections and challenges, and how their stigma resistance strategies combine with available models of disability discourse. Disability discourse falls into two broad categories: medical and social. The medical model emphasizes diagnostic labels and treats impairment as an individual deficit, while the social model centralizes unaccommodating social structures. The social model's activist underpinnings make it a logical frame for parents to use as they challenge disability stigma. In turn, the medical model's focus on individual "improvement" seems to most closely align with stigma deflections. However, the relationship between stigma resistance strategies and models of disability is an empirical question not yet addressed in the literature. In this study, we examine 117 instances of stigmatization from 40 interviews with 43 parents, and document how parents respond. We find that challenges and deflections do not map cleanly onto the social or medical models. Rather, parents invoke medical and social meanings in ways that serve diverse ends, sometimes centralizing a medical label to challenge stigma, and sometimes recognizing disabling social structures, but deflecting stigma nonetheless. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The International Federation of Social Workers adopted a new global definition of social work in 2014. Although promotion of social cohesion and respect for diversities was included in the new definition, social work practices for promoting cultural citizenship were still under-developed in Japan. Since the 1990s, community arts organizations in Australia have developed community engagement projects for people with disabilities through digital media production, such as digital storytelling, film making etc. It is important to develop collaborative methods between social workers and artists to promote cultural citizenship as social inclusion for minority groups such as immigrants and people with disabilities. With the aid of social workers and artists working in disability care fields, iPad digital storytelling workshops for people with intellectual disabilities were organized in Fukui, Japan, from 2013 to 2014. The digital media training programs for human service professionals and social work students were organized in Sydney, Australia, and Fukui, Japan, prior to these workshops. During this research project, we conducted interviews with participants to understand the ways in which people with disabilities and the local community interact with each other through digital storytelling. This paper explores two key questions. Firstly, we examine how digital storytelling can be employed for community engagement between people with disabilities and the local community and how it can help them achieve cultural citizenship. Secondly, we investigate how we can develop social work practices for people with disabilities through digital storytelling.
The plays of William Shakespeare were reviewed for references to disabilities, aging and disability, and older characters with disabilities. Shakespeare's references draw from traditional cultural notions about older people with disabilities. These traditional notions include people with physical disabilities being evil, the entertainment value of disabilty, and those who were mentally ill being wild and animal-like. He viewed the aging process as disabling and old age as a time when individuals lost some abilities to function, particularly when it came to mental capacity and physical mobility. His writings show that he used disability as a literary tool to add dimension to characters and set them apart. Contemporary literature continues to share some of Shakespeare's view on aging and disability but also departs from them in important ways. For example, contemporary treatment of disabilities and aging places more emphasis on the human side of the affects of aging and disabilities. Disabilities and aging are not cast in the same negative terms as Shakespeare used.
Park, Yung Keun; Kim, Je Ho
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine prejudices and attitudes of students in the department of physical therapy, in order to suggest basic data for constructing an effective program to develop a positive attitude toward people with disabilities and lower social distance from them. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, students in the department of physical therapy participate in the survey examining prejudices and attitude towards people with disabilities. [Results] First, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had contact on a frequent basis currently with those who have disabilities. Second, there were statistically significant differences in the prejudice against people with disabilities among student groups divided by whether they had an experience of being harmed by people with disabilities. Third, there was a correlation among prejudices against people with disabilities with each other that is articulated in the eighth domain. Finally, as a result of regression analysis, the students' attitudes towards people with disabilities were explained appropriately by the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome. [Conclusion] It is crucial to create an environment where University students in the department of physical therapy can have positive interactions with people with disabilities, to reduce the overall prejudices, and specifically, the prejudices about performance of daily tasks and about NIMBY syndrome.
Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
This research aimed to develop and design Geographical Information Systems (GIS) for facilitating disabled people by presenting some useful disabled information on the Google Map. The map could provide information about disabled types of people such as blind, deaf and physical movement. This research employed the Multiview 2 theory and method to plan and find out the problems in real world situation. This research used many designing data structure methods such as Data Flow Diagram, and ER-Diagram. The research focused into two parts: server site and client site which included the interface for Web-based application. The clear information of disable people on the map was useful for facilitating disabled people to find some useful information. In addition, it provided specialized data for company and government officers for managing and planning local facilities for disabled people in the cities. The disable could access the system through the Internet access at any time by using mobile or portable devices.
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers, which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.
Full Text Available A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n=101 and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n=130 solved tests on procedural calculation and number knowledge, numerical facility and visuospatial skills. Metacognitive skilfulness was assessed through calibration measures, a questionnaire, stimulated recall, and thematic analyses after a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings and to avoid imposing the researcher’s structures and assumptions. In our dataset the isolated group (MD did worse than the comorbid group (M+RD on mental representation, dealing with contextual information and number knowledge. However the comorbid group did worse on the number sense tasks. No significant differences were found between the MD and M+RD adults for fact retrieval, procedural calculation and visuo spatial tasks. In addition adults with MD overestimated their mathematics results, whereas individuals with M+RD underestimated their results in the calibration task. Moreover, adults with M+RD thought that they were worse on the evaluation of the own results, the evaluation of the own capacities and on monitoring when things went wrong compared with adults in the M+RD group. Thematic analyses revealed that many adults had problems with planning and keeping track of steps and that supporting surroundings were important protective factors towards the chances of success. Consequences for the assessment of metacognition in adults and for the support of adults with mathematical disabilities are discussed.
McArthur, Polly; Burch, Lillian; Moore, Katherine; Hodges, Mary Sue
This article describes interactive learning about independent living for people with disabilities and features the partnership of the College of Nursing and a Center for Independent Living (CIL). Using qualitative descriptive approach, students' written reflections were analyzed. Through "Xtreme Challenge," 82 undergraduate nursing students participated in aspects of independent living as well as identifying barriers. Students were engaged and learned to consider the person before the disability. Moreover, students valued the activity leaders' openness, which facilitated understanding the point of view of a person with disability. The value of partnership was evident as it allowed students to participate in active learning, which led to growth in the affective domain. Students became aware of potential education resources through the CIL. This article will guide educators in designing experiences that teach nursing care at the individual, family, and community level for people living with disabilities. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Smith, Andrew C
Full Text Available ............................................................................................. 6 • Towards an affordable alternative educational video game input device ............ 7 • Hand-crafted physical syntax elements for illetterate children: initial concepts ... 9 • Providing disabled persons in developing countries access... communication and player coordination skills development. • Hand-crafted physical syntax elements for illetterate children: initial concepts A more comprehensive presentation on these research results was presented at IDC: Interaction Design for Children...
Ali, Syed Asif; Soomro, Safeeullah; Memon, Abdul Ghafoor; Baqi, Abdul
There are various types of disability egress in world like blindness, deafness, and Physical disabilities. It is quite difficult to deal with people with disability. Learning disability (LD) is types of disability totally different from general disability. To deal children with learning disability is difficult for both parents and teacher. As parent deal with only single child so it bit easy. But teacher deals with different students at a time so its more difficult to deal with group of stude...
Full Text Available The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine. In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤ 9, ASPECTS = 10 were excluded, and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS. A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01 of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS > 2. We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5 ± 12.8 years (55% Males. Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347. Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367 and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204. Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability.
Beare, Richard; Chen, Jian; Phan, Thanh G
The summed Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is useful for predicting stroke outcome. The anatomical information in the CT template is rarely used for this purpose because traditional regression methods are not adept at handling collinearity (relatedness) among brain regions. While penalized logistic regression (PLR) can handle collinearity, it does not provide an intuitive understanding of the interaction among network structures in a way that eigenvector method such as PageRank can (used in Google search engine). In this exploratory analysis we applied graph theoretical analysis to explore the relationship among ASPECTS regions with respect to disability outcome. The Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive (VISTA) was searched for patients who had infarct in at least one ASPECTS region (ASPECTS ≤ 9, ASPECTS = 10 were excluded), and disability (modified Rankin score/mRS). A directed graph was created from a cross correlation matrix (thresholded at false discovery rate of 0.01) of the ASPECTS regions and demographic variables and disability (mRS > 2). We estimated the network-based importance of each ASPECTS region by comparing PageRank and node strength measures. These results were compared with those from PLR. There were 185 subjects, average age 67.5 ± 12.8 years (55% Males). Model 1: demographic variables having no direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank was M2 (0.225, bootstrap 95% CI 0.215-0.347). Model 2: demographic variables having direct connection with disability, the highest PageRank were M2 (0.205, bootstrap 95% CI 0.194-0.367) and M5 (0.125, bootstrap 95% CI 0.096-0.204). Both models illustrate the importance of M2 region to disability. The PageRank method reveals complex interaction among ASPECTS regions with respects to disability. This approach may help to understand the infarcted brain network involved in stroke disability.
Quinn, P Roger
After a workplace injury or disability, there is a period of hardship and adjustment for the injured party as well as all stakeholders in the workers' compensation process. Ultimately, however, return to work is considered. The author reviews this often challenging exercise from the Canadian perspective and stresses the need for timely intervention, honest communication, the coordination of information and resources--and the need for flexibility. A case study on low back pain is included.
Bolduc, François V.; Tully, Tim
Mental retardation—known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability—is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been use...
Bolduc, François V; Tully, Tim
Mental retardation--known more commonly nowadays as intellectual disability--is a severe neurological condition affecting up to 3% of the general population. As a result of the analysis of familial cases and recent advances in clinical genetic testing, great strides have been made in our understanding of the genetic etiologies of mental retardation. Nonetheless, no treatment is currently clinically available to patients suffering from intellectual disability. Several animal models have been used in the study of memory and cognition. Established paradigms in Drosophila have recently captured cognitive defects in fly mutants for orthologs of genes involved in human intellectual disability. We review here three protocols designed to understand the molecular genetic basis of learning and memory in Drosophila and the genes identified so far with relation to mental retardation. In addition, we explore the mental retardation genes for which evidence of neuronal dysfunction other than memory has been established in Drosophila. Finally, we summarize the findings in Drosophila for mental retardation genes for which no neuronal information is yet available. All in all, this review illustrates the impressive overlap between genes identified in human mental retardation and genes involved in physiological learning and memory.
Lederer, Valérie; Loisel, Patrick; Rivard, Michèle; Champagne, François
Researchers are confronted to numerous definitions of work ability/disability, influenced by their context of emergence, discipline, purpose, underlying paradigm and relationship to time. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the concept through a systematic scoping review and the development of an integrative concept map of work (dis)ability. The research questions are: How has work (dis)ability been conceptualized from the perspectives of research, practice, policy and industry in the published scientific literature? How has the conceptualization of work (dis)ability evolved over time? A search strategy was designed with a library scientist to retrieve scientific publications containing explicit definition(s) of work (dis)ability in leading-edge databases. The screening and the extraction of the definitions were achieved by duplicate assessment. The definitions were subject to a comparative analysis based on the grounded theory approach. In total, 423 abstracts were retrieved from the bibliographic databases. After removing duplicates, 280 unique records were screened for inclusion. A final set of 115 publications containing unique original conceptual definitions served as basis for analysis. The scientific literature does not reflect a shared, integrated vision of the exact nature and dimensions of work (dis)ability. However, except for a few definitions, there seems to be a consensus that work (dis)ability is a relational concept resulting from the interaction of multiple dimensions that influence each other through different ecological levels. The conceptualization of work (dis)ability also seems to have become more dynamic over time. The way work (dis)ability is defined has important implications for research, compensation and rehabilitation.
Terrill, Alexandra L; Molton, Ivan R
Middle-age may be a challenging time for people with physical disabilities as life demands, secondary symptoms such as fatigue, and risk for depression increase, yet little is known about types, levels, and impact of life stressors in individuals aging with disability. Our aims were to describe aging- and disability-associated life stressors, explore gender differences, and evaluate effects of resilience on adjustment to these stressors. Longitudinal data analysis of self-report surveys completed by 541 middle-aged community-dwelling participants with long-term physical disability from baseline to 5-year follow-up. 97% of participants endorsed one or more stressful life events (M = 8.2, SD = 4.9), all of whom endorsed at least one life stressor with a negative impact. Reporting more life stressors and having lower resilience were significantly associated with developing more depressive symptoms. Interaction analyses indicated that women developed more depressive symptoms as negative impact increased than men. Findings suggest that middle-aged individuals with physical disability experience a range of life stressors, many with negative impact. Women are at higher risk of depressive symptoms than men. Resilience may buffer against negative impact of life stressors on development of depressive symptoms. Targeted intervention to increase resilience, especially in women, may decrease risk of depression in persons aging with disability. Implications for Rehabilitation Middle-age adults living with physical disability experience a number of aging- and disability-associated stressors that can have a negative impact and contribute to depression. Women aging with disability who experience more negative impact from life stressors may be more vulnerable to developing depression. Providing interventions that enhance resilience when faced with life stressors could prevent development of depression.
Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.
Foti, Calogero; Albensi, Caterina; Giordani, Laura; Azeufack Ngueko, Yannick; Sanou Sobze, Martin; Colizzi, Vittorio
Rehabilitation services for disabled persons are lacking in countries with limited economic resources. Reliable and objective data are needed to plan for their implementation and to determine the burden of disability in these countries. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in June 2013 among people living in Dschang Health District, in the West region of Cameroon, to collect information about socio-demographic aspects of physically disabled subjects and health determinants of disabilities. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire in French. In total, 159 physically disabled subjects were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 36 years [± SD 17.26], 55.9% of subjects were female, and 33.8% had a low educational-level. The most frequently reported disabilities were orthopaedic problems (mainly fractures) [45.8%], infectious diseases [29.1%]), and neurological disabilities (mainly hemiplegia [33.3%], hemiparesis [23.8%], and monoplegia [23.8%]). The main causes of disability were trauma due to traffic accidents (17.8%) and inappropriate medical interventions (14.5%). Disability was related to age and 50% of participants experienced social discrimination. Disabled subjects with low-incomes (from 50.000 to 200.000 XAF) were required to pay for rehabilitative care (XAF 10.000 to 100.000), and up to 83% had appealed for improved quality of Rehabilitation Medicine. Although Law n. 83/013 for the protection of persons with disabilities in Cameroon dates back to 1983, the results of this study show that disabled people, and children in particular, are still marginalized, vulnerable and have little chance of recovery. Therefore, there is a clear need to improve the quality and availability of rehabilitative care services , with programmatic interventions that ensure implementation of existing laws, improve access to rehabilitative services, provide disabled persons with the necessary specialty medical products, and eliminate barriers to their social
Problems in fairly allocating welfare and health resources are very often located in the spaces where citizens interact directly with state workers. This study draws on observations of doctor-patient encounters in disability assessments for the South African disability grant (DG) to examine how doctor-patient interactions and patient agency shape social welfare allocation in a context of high poverty and inequality. Data were gathered via interviews with healthcare workers and observations of doctor-patient interactions in twelve clinics and three hospitals in the Western Cape province between October 2013 and August 2014. Twenty-four doctors were interviewed, of whom seventeen were observed conducting a total of 216 consultations with patients. Two training sessions of DG assessors were also observed. Findings show that interactions between doctors and patients are sites of negotiation and contestation over rights to social assistance. Claimants' understanding of disability differed from biomedical and bureaucratic definitions. Patients attempted to influence doctors' decisions through narratives of suffering and performances of disability. Others used verbal or physical abuse as a form of protest against perceived unfair treatment. To defend themselves from these pressures and maintain authority in these interactions, doctors employed coping strategies that distanced and objectified claimants. This resulted in strained doctor-patient relationships and made the DG system confusing to the public. This demonstrates the importance of considering trust, power dynamics and the exercise of agency by both patients and providers in understanding policy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Research investigating the psychological difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's disease (PD is dominated by individualistic neurobiological and psychological perspectives. Therefore, this opinion paper draws on a reformulation of the social model of disability, Thomas' (1999 and (2007 social relational approach to disablism, to offer an alternative way of conceptualising psychological difficulties experienced by people with PD. This opinion paper explores the ways in which socially imposed restrictions and stigma may contribute to psychological difficulties by using Thomas' (2007 concept of psychoemotional disablism. By using the lens of psychoemotional disablism, this paper demonstrates that people with PD can be exposed to stigmatising attitudes and interactions which could contribute to restrictions, feelings of shame, and psychological difficulties such as depression. Accordingly, it is argued that further attention to the link between psychological difficulties and social dimensions of disablism in PD is needed in both research arenas and clinical practice to broaden understandings and interventions for people with PD.
Giannini, Margaret J; Bergmark, Brian; Kreshover, Samantha; Elias, Eileen; Plummer, Caitlin; O'Keefe, Eileen
Disability is not a category of disease but rather relates to the physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or mental disorders that substantially limit one or more major life activities. These functional limitations have been found to be predictive of suicide, with psychiatric comorbidities increasing the risk for suicide. Enormous gaps exist in the understanding of the relationship between disability and suicide. We reviewed the current literature addressing the prevalence of and risk factors for suicide among persons with three major disabling conditions and identify priorities for future research. We performed a literature review investigating the relationship between three major disabilities (intellectual disability, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis) and suicide. To ensure thorough evaluation of the available literature, we searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar with terms including "suicide," "disability," "intellectual disability," "spinal cord injury," "multiple sclerosis," and permutations thereof. By this method we evaluated 110 articles and included 21 in the review. Suicide rates are significantly higher among persons with multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury than in the general population. A more nuanced picture of suicide rates and risk factors exists for the intellectual disability population, in which it appears that rates of suicide risk factors are higher than among the general population while suicide rates may be lower. The highest rates of suicide are reported among study populations of persons with multiple sclerosis, followed by persons with spinal cord injury, and then individuals with intellectual disability. Suicide among persons with disabilities is a complex and pressing public health concern. Urgent research priorities include (1) valid estimates of suicide rates among persons with disabilities by age cohort; (2) assessment of the predictive importance of suicide risk factors; and (3) determination of best
Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A
Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.
Aron, Laudan; Loprest, Pamela
Education is important for all children, but even more so for children with disabilities, whose social and economic opportunities may be limited. In this article, Laudan Aron and Pamela Loprest assess how well the nation's education system is serving students with disabilities. Aron and Loprest trace the evolution of the special education system in the United States from its origins in the civil rights movement of the mid-twentieth century. They note the dual character of federal legislation, which both guarantees eligible children with disabilities the right to a "free, appropriate public education in the least restrictive setting" and establishes a federal funding program to help meet this goal. They then review the types of services and accommodations these children receive from infancy through young adulthood. The special education system has given children with disabilities much greater access to public education, established an infrastructure for educating them, helped with the earlier identification of disabilities, and promoted greater inclusion of these children alongside their nondisabled peers. Despite these advances, many problems remain, including the over- and underidentification of certain subgroups of students, delays in identifying and serving students, and bureaucratic, regulatory, and financial barriers that complicate the program for everyone involved. More important, the authors show that special education students still lag behind their nondisabled peers in educational achievements, are often held to lower expectations, are less likely to take the full academic curriculum in high school, and are more likely to drop out of school. Only limited evidence is available on the effectiveness of specific special education services or on how to improve student achievement for this important subgroup of students. Improving the system will require better ways of understanding and measuring both ends of the special education continuum, namely, what
Ryan C. Parrey
Full Text Available Disorienting encounter with disability are those in which the meaning of disability is an open question, and in which our relation to it is questionable. This essay explores the relationship between disability and disorientation on conceptual but also concrete levels. First, I examine the connection between disability and disorientation within disability studies. Second, I provide a preliminary sketch of disorientation through what I call ontic disruption and ontological disorientation. Third, I take up Leder's (1990 articulation of bodily disappearance and embodied dysappearance to address ableist violence. Finally, I develop the notion of dysorientation — a prolonged, persistent or recurrent sense of disorientation — as a useful concept for understanding experiences of ableism but also as a significant meeting point between impairment and disability.
Lipenga, Ken J
This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu's The language of me and William Zulu's Spring will come , the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.
Ken J. Lipenga
Full Text Available This article examines the representation of disability by disabled black South African men as portrayed in two texts from the autosomatography genre, which encompasses first-person narratives of illness and disability. Drawing on extracts from Musa E. Zulu’s The language of me and William Zulu’s Spring will come, the article argues that physical disability affects heteronormative concepts of masculinity by altering the body, which is the primary referent for the construction and performance of hegemonic masculinity. In ableist contexts, the male disabled body may be accorded labels of asexuality. This article therefore reveals how male characters with disabilities reconstruct the male self by both reintegrating themselves within the dominant grid of masculinity and reformulating some of the tenets of hegemonic masculinity.
Cubero, Christopher G
Does situational leadership style impact workers with disabilities? Situational leadership as a model and style of organizational management is defined. With a concentration on workers with disabilities, employer and employee perceptions of the workplace environment are analyzed as a contributing factor to the choice of leadership styles. Leadership style and its potential impact on workers with disabilities are included. Advantages of situational leadership style as an organizational model for managers that matches the intricate needs of workers with disabilities are argued. Methods for increasing awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities in the workplace and improving leadership models are discussed. Implications and potential outcomes for workers with disabilities based on the use of situational leadership by managers are discussed.
Full Text Available The article applies Alfred Schutz’s phenomenologically grounded sociological perspective to explore how persons with a congenital motor disability or having a disability ever since their childhood construct and maintain their significant social reality through subjective meanings and how they interpret their disabled bodies. Their personal narratives are based on qualitative in-depth interviews and suggest that these persons face the disability only during secondary socialization, after internalization of social typifications of disabled body of negative meaning, the overcoming of which and successful socialization requires the involvement into new social group or community, i.e., into a positive social structure, confirming their identity. This article performs cognitive function and contributes to the social workers‘ understanding and knowledge building in order to get a re-evaluating the social needs of people with congenital physical disability.
Full Text Available People with developmental disabilities can experience any psychological abnormalitiy and psychiatric illness as do people without developmental disabilities. Due to different diagnostic criteria, assessment procedures and instruments, we lack definite prevalence rates for people with developmental disabilities, also suffering from mental health problems, eventhough most studies place the rate at 20 to 40%. One of the possible treatment alternatives for augmenting psychological well-being is psychotherapy, but is extremely rarely used for people with severe and profound disabilities, where speech cannot be the main therapeutic medium. So, those that are included in the psychotherapuetic process are predominantly clients with mild developmental disabilities, and they are mostly in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Recently, two models of (psychotherapy for persons with severe and profound developmental disabilities were developed: developmental-dynamic relationship therapy and attachment-based behaviour therapy for children. Conceptually, they both originate form developmental psychoanalytic theories.
Lyon, Lori; Houser, Rick
As educators strongly influence the attitudes of their students, the purpose of this study was to determine nurse educator attitudes toward people with disabilities. Inadequate education of health professionals is a known barrier to care for people with disability. Continuing calls for improved education of health professionals compel an assessment of nurse educator attitudes. This was a cross-sectional, correlational web-based survey of nurse educators (n = 126). Nurse educator attitudes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and multiple regression analysis. Nurse educators held discriminatory attitudes toward people with disabilities, though most preferred a biopsychosocial model of disability. Forty-four percent lacked knowledge of disability-related aims, objectives, or outcomes within the curriculum. To advance equity in health care, nurse educators must confront personal bias and teach competent care of people with disabilities.
Birgul Elbozan Cumurcu
Full Text Available Physical disability is termed as disturbance or defect which impede or eliminate human body’s ability by disturbing human structure and shape. Physical disability may occur due to neonatal, natal or postnatal causes. People with physical disability have some natural needs as everyone. They are known to have difficulties in many areas of life. In society, sexual lives of these individuals are treated as an unknown and ignored issue, and moreover it has been assumed that they have no such needs. Disabled patients experience many troubles in their life domains including sexuality. This article provides information about physical disability and sexuality, and difficulties with which disabled people faces in their sexual life and overviews literature on this topic.
Jenell Lynn-Senter Wittmer
Full Text Available Previous organizational research has focused heavily on organizational commitment, for employees in general, as well as for specific minority groups. However, there is a large gap in the research literature concerning the organizational commitment of people with disabilities. The current study contributes to the literature both by investigating the predictors of reported organizational commitment of people with disabilities, as well by examining organizational-level predictors, rather than individual-level phenomena. Additionally, rather than examining legal or compliance issues related to people with disabilities, as is found in most previous research, the current study examines contextual predictors of organizational commitment, pro-disability climate, pro-disability technology, and availability of flexible work arrangements. Structural equation modeling results suggest that there is a chain effect of pro-disability climate, which impacts the organizational commitment of people with disabilities through pro-disability technology and flexible work arrangements. Implications for both research and human resource practitioners are discussed.
... Policy and Measurement; Overview Information and Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal... Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research: Overview Information and Notice Inviting... between income support programs, poverty, disability, and employment success; the [[Page 39425...
Full Text Available To marry and form a household of one’s own was the expected life course of most people in the nineteenth century, but little is known about whether individuals with disabilities shared the same demographic experience of marriage as non-disabled did. This study examines this issue by analyzing the marital chances of a group of disabled people—i.e. blind, deaf mute, crippled and with mental disabilities—compared with a non-disabled reference group. Our results show that about a quarter of the disabled individuals did marry, even though their marital propensities were significantly lower than those of non-disabled people. These propensities also differed by gender and type of disability. We suggest that the lower marital chances and the variation we found within the group of disabled people indicate the level of social exclusion they faced in society.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of a disabling impairment. 404... Definition of a disabling impairment. (a) Disabled workers, persons disabled since childhood and, for months... disabling impairment is an impairment (or combination of impairments) which, of itself, is so severe that it...
Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.
This article critiques the treatment of disability as cultural difference by the theorists of the "social model" and "minority group model" of disability. Both models include all of the various disabling conditions under one term--disability--and fail to distinguish disabilities from cultural differences (e.g., race, ethnicity, or gender…
Michiel Ras; Isolde Woittiez; Hetty van Kempen; Klarita Sadiraj
Original title: Steeds meer verstandelijk gehandicapten? Demand for intellectual disability care has grown strongly in the Netherlands in recent years. Partly at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP measured the number of people with intellectual disabilities applying for care. The results are contained in this report. Our inventory reveals that demand for intellectual disability care has risen by an average of 9% pe...
Merrick, Joav; Merrick, Efrat; Morad, Mohammed; Kandel, Isack
It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption and in fact the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.
Full Text Available It has been assumed that impaired intellectual capacity could act as a buffer to suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. The few studies that have been conducted contest this assumption, and in fact, the findings showed that the characteristics of suicidality in the population of children and adolescents with intellectual disability are very similar to other adolescents without intellectual disability. This paper reviews the few studies conducted and describe the symptomatology in this population.
Hudson, Robyn Lynn
Previous studies on postsecondary graduation rates indicated that college students with disabilities have lower graduation rates than students without disabilities. As many college students do not disclose their disability to their institution upon enrollment, the effect of the timing of disability disclosure on graduation rates warranted examination. This study was a quantitative study of 14,401 undergraduate students at one large research university in the years 2002, 2003, and 2004, of w...
Bell, David N.F.; Heitmüller, Axel
The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. This paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the US, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are low ...
Merikangas, Kathleen R; Ames, Minnie; Cui, Lihong; Stang, Paul E; Ustun, T Bedirhan; Von Korff, Michael; Kessler, Ronald C
There is limited information that accounts for comorbidity on the impact of role disability associated with a wide range of mental and physical disorders in population-based samples. To estimate the comparative effects of common mental and physical conditions on role disability in the general population using a novel method that accounts for comorbidity. Direct interviews about physical and mental conditions during the past year. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative series of face-to-face interviews. A nationally representative sample of adults living in households (N = 5962 respondents, 18 years and older). Disability in major life roles was assessed with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. Simulations that allow for complex interactions among conditions were used to estimate the conditions' effects on disability days, when respondents were completely unable to carry out their usual daily activities because of problems with mental or physical health, in the past 12 months. An estimated 53.4% of US adults have 1 or more of the mental or physical conditions assessed in the survey. These respondents report an average 32.1 more role-disability days in the past year than demographically matched controls, equivalent to nearly 3.6 billion days of role disability in the population. Musculoskeletal disorders and major depression had the greatest effects on disability days. Mental conditions accounted for more than half as many disability days as all physical conditions at the population level. Associations of specific conditions with disability decreased substantially after controlling for comorbidity, suggesting that prior studies, which generally did not control for comorbidity, overestimated disease-specific effects. The staggering amount of health-related disability associated with mental and physical conditions should be considered in establishing priorities for the allocation of health care and research
Social Security Administration — While Social Security is best known for providing retirement benefits, the program also provides Disability Insurance (DI) protection to workers and their families...
Social Security Administration — The Social Security Administration (SSA) conducts periodic CDRs to ensure that only those beneficiaries who remain disabled continue to receive monthly benefits. The...
Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J
Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus
. Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...
Full Text Available The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD is a modern human rights treaty with innovative components. It impacts on disability studies as well as human rights law. Two innovations are scrutinized in this article: the model of disability and the equality and discrimination concepts of the CRPD. It is argued that the CRPD manifests a shift from the medical model to the human rights model of disability. Six propositions are offered why and how the human rights model differs from the social model of disability. It is further maintained that the CRPD introduces a new definition of discrimination into international public law. The underlying equality concept can be categorized as transformative equality with both individual and group oriented components. The applied methodology of this research is legal doctrinal analysis and disability studies model analysis. The main finding is that the human rights model of disability improves the social model of disability. Three different models of disability can be attributed to different concepts of equality. The medical model corresponds with formal equality, while the social model with substantive equality and the human rights model can be linked with transformative equality.
Aquino, Katherine C.
Disability is often viewed as an obstacle to postsecondary inclusion, but not a characteristic of student diversity. Additionally, current theoretical frameworks isolate disability from other student diversity characteristics. In response, a new conceptual framework, the Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model (DDDM), was created to address…
... would deprive the disability and rehabilitation community in the U.S. of knowledge from many other... Project (DRRP)-- International Exchange of Knowledge and Experts in Disability and Rehabilitation Research... priority for a DRRP entitled International Exchange of Knowledge and Experts in Disability and...
Bouck, Emily C.; Satsangi, Rajiv
Students with mild intellectual disability generally garner less individual attention in research, as they are often aggregated with students with moderate and severe intellectual disability or students with other high incidence disabilities. This study used the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) to look at the personal…
This paper aims to discuss how science and technology studies (STS) can inform disability studies and challenge dominant approaches, such as the medical and the social models, in the ordering and representation of disability. Disability studies and STS have followed somewhat parallel paths in the history of ideas. From a positivist approach to…
... Disabilities Act, or individuals with disabilities who are eligible for the vocational rehabilitation program... vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs, or other programs serving transition-age youth with disabilities. (b... preference, or invitational through a notice in the Federal Register. The effect of each type of priority...
Corr McEvoy, Sandra; Keenan, Emer
Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities have traditionally been very negative, resulting in people with intellectual disabilities being treated badly by other. This claim was explored by conducting focus groups with adults who have an intellectual disability to find out about their everyday experiences in different places and using…
Verstraete, Pieter; Söderfeldt, Yva
To date, the historical entanglement of disability and happiness has not been considered an object worth of historical inquiry. Nor has the intersection of disability and emotions been used as a lens to examine the history of disability. Our paper aims at filling this academic void by analysing a wide range of philosophical, anthropological,…
Lau, Won-Fong K.; Ortega, Karina; Sharkey, Jill
Students with learning disabilities have been found to lack self-awareness about their disability, likely contributing to several challenges they experience, such as social skill deficits. At the same time, there is limited research investigating interventions to effectively increase disability self-awareness among this population. The current…
... living for individuals with disabilities and their families. Types of Priorities When inviting... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA Number: 84.133A-09] Final Priority; National Institute on Disability... . Through the implementation of the Plan, NIDRR seeks to: (1) Improve the quality and utility of disability...
Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata
The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…
McCabe, Janet; Holmes, Dave
To explore the experiences of nurses providing sexual health care to adolescents with physical and/or developmental disabilities, with attention to the institutional and social discourses that shape these interactions. Previous research has shown that nurses demonstrate a lack of attention to the impact of illness or disability on sexual health. However, in their therapeutic relationship with patients and families, nurses are in an ideal position to promote sexual health. A critical ethnography study was conducted in an urban paediatric rehabilitative facility. Field work occurred over 4 months (2008-2009) and data collection included interviews (n = 9), key informant discussions, collection of documentary evidence and observation of the institutional setting. Four themes were identified (institutional space, professional interactions, engaging with sexuality, nursing experience), which revealed that nurse-patient interactions about sexual health were affected by a complex network of discourses. These encounters were shaped by practical discourses, such as time and space and by more complex discourses, such as professional relationships, normalization and asexuality. Nurses occupy and strive to maintain, the role of a caring agent. However, aspects of the clinical, institutional and broader social environments may undermine their ability to promote sexual health. In nurses' efforts to maintain therapeutic relationships with clients, sexual health is often medicalised to legitimize it as an appropriate topic of discussion with patients and families. Facilities serving youth with disabilities should take steps to address barriers to the delivery of sexual health promotion and several solutions are proposed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Dywejko, Barbara; Rotter, Iwona; Kemicer-Chmielewska, Ewa; Karakiewicz, Beata
Sport among disabled people is becoming more and more popular. It is happening mostly due to the growing number of sports centres for the disabled, and the widespread popularization of this form of activity by organi- zations working for the benefit of disabled people. Also, the mass media play an important role in the process. The aim of the study a comparison of the knowledge and opinions about disabled sports of physical education students and disabled athletes. The research was conducted using two dif- ferent questionnaires. One of them was given to students of Physical Education, the other to members of a disabled sports club, "Start". The questionnaires consisted of two sections: a personal profile, and 17 questions about disabled sports. 45 full-time students of Physical Education at the University of Szczecin: 30 (66.7%) women and 15 (33.3%) men. The average age of the group was 23.6 years. The second group, from the disabled sports club, consisted of 33 people, 18 (54.5%) women and 15 (45.5%) men; the aver- age age of the participants was 28.6 years. Among the disabled people, 10 (30.3%) people were unable to name any disabled athlete; among the. group of able-bodied students, there were 33 (73.3%) people who were not able to do the same thing. According to students, disabled people do sports mainly for rehabilitation purposes (51.1%). According to the disabled students' group, however, sport for disabled people means satisfaction and higher self-esteem (36.36%). When it comes to the best source of information on the subject, television proved to be the best one among the media. The able-bodied students rated their knowledge of disabled sports as satisfactory (66.7%), while only 6% of disabled students considered the knowledge of able-bodied people about disabled sports to be satisfactory. 1. The knowledge about disabled sports among students of physical education is superficial. The disabled also do not possess an extensive knowledge about disabled sports
Full Text Available Disability is conceived as a person–context interaction. Physical and social environments are identified as intervention targets for improving social participation and independence. In comparison to the body of research on place and health, relatively few reports have been published on residential environments and disability in the health sciences literature. We reviewed studies evaluating the socioenvironmental correlates of disability. Searches were conducted in Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for peer-reviewed articles published between 1997 and 2014. We found many environmental factors to be associated with disability, particularly area-level socioeconomic status and rurality. However, diversity in conceptual and methodological approaches to such research yields a limited basis for comparing studies. Conceptual inconsistencies in operational measures of disability and conceptual disagreement between studies potentially affect understanding of socioenvironmental influences. Similarly, greater precision in socioenvironmental measures and in study designs are likely to improve inference. Consistent and generalisable support for socioenvironmental influences on disability in the general adult population is scarce.
Ngo, Hong; Shin, Jin Y; Nhan, Nguyen Viet; Yang, Lawrence H
Intellectual disabilities are as prevalent in East Asian countries as in the West (0.06%-1.3%). Widespread discrimination against intellectual disabilities in Asia may initiate stigma that places unfair restrictions on the social life of these individuals and their caregivers. We utilised established stigma frameworks to assess the extent to which a child's intellectual disability contributes to the social exclusion of caregivers in Vietnam. A mixed quantitative and qualitative approach was employed to examine the experience of social life restriction among parents of children with intellectual disabilities. The child's disability level and restrictions on caregivers' social experiences were assessed among 70 mothers and fathers recruited from schools in Hue City, Vietnam. Qualitative responses describing social exclusion were also recorded. Caregivers reported elevated levels of social exclusion. As hypothesised, parents of children with greater intellectual disability experienced more restrictions on their social life (Beta = 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.27-1.30, standard error = 0.26, p stigma, which in turn restricts key social interactions among caregivers. Psycho-educational interventions may address the social domains in which caregivers are impacted and encourage sustained help-seeking among caregivers for their children.
Cooney, Patricia; Jackman, Catherine; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary
Background Despite the evidence base for computer-assisted cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the general population, it has not yet been adapted for use with adults who have an intellectual disability. Aims To evaluate the utility of a CBT computer game for adults who have an intellectual disability. Method A 2 × 3 (group × time) randomised controlled trial design was used. Fifty-two adults with mild to moderate intellectual disability and anxiety or depression were randomly allocated to two groups: computerised CBT (cCBT) or psychiatric treatment as usual (TAU), and assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Forty-nine participants were included in the final analysis. Results A significant group × time interaction was observed on the primary outcome measure of anxiety (Glasgow Anxiety Scale for people with an Intellectual Disability), favouring cCBT over TAU, but not on the primary outcome measure of depression (Glasgow Depression Scale for people with a Learning Disability). A medium effect size for anxiety symptoms was observed at post-treatment and a large effect size was observed after follow-up. Reliability of Change Indices indicated that the intervention produced clinically significant change in the cCBT group in comparison with TAU. Conclusions As the first application of cCBT for adults with intellectual disability, this intervention appears to be a useful treatment option to reduce anxiety symptoms in this population. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.
Luciana Ramos Baleotti
Full Text Available The way one conceives disabled people seems to influence the actions directed toward them. Occupational therapists constitute a part of health professionals that direct their actions based on a comprehensive view of disability. The aim of this study was to identify and analyze the conception of disability from the standpoint of occupational therapists. Fifteen university teachers of Occupational Therapy undergraduate courses participated in this study: seven from public universities and eight from private institutions, located in mid-sized municipalities in the state of São Paulo. The data were collected by means of a scale denominated “Escala de Avaliação da Concepção de Deficiência” (Rating Scale for Conception of Disability. The results show that the subjects tend to follow interactional, social conceptions of disability. This study yields contributions to understand the conception of disability held by teachers of Occupational Therapy. This conception certainly guides their teaching performance and affects the training of future professionals.
Full Text Available The United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities recognizes the right of people with disabilities to attain full social participation without discrimination on the basis of disability. Furthermore, mobility is one of the most important life habits for achieving such participation. Providing people with disabilities with information regarding accessible paths and accessible urban places therefore plays a vital role in achieving these goals. The accessibility of urban places and pedestrian networks depends, however, on the interaction between human capabilities and environmental factors, and may be subdivided into physical or social factors. An optimal analysis of accessibility requires both kinds of factors, social as well as physical. Although there has been considerable work concerning the physical aspects of the environment, social aspects have been largely neglected. In this paper, we highlight the importance of the social dimension of environments and consider a more integrated approach for accessibility assessment. We highlight the ways by which social factors such as policies can be incorporated into accessibility assessment of pedestrian networks for people with motor disabilities. Furthermore, we propose a framework to assess the accessibility of pedestrian network segments that incorporates the confidence level of people with motor disabilities. This framework is then used as a tool to investigate the influence of different policies on accessibility conditions of pedestrian networks. The methodology is implemented in the Saint-Roch neighborhood in Quebec City and the effectiveness of three policy actions is examined by way of illustration.
Alberto J Lopez
Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly important to understand how epigenetic mechanisms control gene expression during neurodevelopment. Two epigenetic mechanisms that have received considerable attention are DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Human exome sequencing and genome-wide association studies have linked several neurobiological disorders to genes whose products actively regulate DNA methylation and histone acetylation. More recently, a third major epigenetic mechanism, nucleosome remodeling, has been implicated in human developmental and intellectual disability disorders. Nucleosome remodeling is driven primarily through nucleosome remodeling complexes with specialized ATP-dependent enzymes. These enzymes directly interact with DNA or chromatin structure, as well as histone subunits, to restructure the shape and organization of nucleosome positioning to ultimately regulate gene expression. Of particular interest is the neuron-specific Brg1/hBrm Associated Factor (nBAF complex. Mutations in nBAF subunit genes have so far been linked to Coffin-Siris syndrome, Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, schizophrenia, and Autism Spectrum Disorder. Together, these human developmental and intellectual disability disorders are powerful examples of the impact of epigenetic modulation on gene expression. This review focuses on the new and emerging role of nucleosome remodeling in neurodevelopmental and intellectual disability disorders and whether nucleosome remodeling affects gene expression required for cognition independently of its role in regulating gene expression required for development.
Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the interaction of children with special needs and horses, which attempts to demonstrate the effects of hipoterapy in helping children with disabilities. The research was conducted on a group of 20 children with disabilities who participated in this type of therapy for 8 months (January-August 2015 in LeorinÅ£ Leisure Center and Riding Therapy, which owns 6 horses. This study was conducted by a psychologist pre- and post-evaluation and there were followed skills and cognitive function, motor skills, spatial-temporal orientation skills, sensory-perceptual organization, examining language and personality of children. In the first stage an initial assessment of children was made representing the starting point to see to what extent children are, what special needs they have and what gaps need to be recovered or what skills and qualities may be based in therapy. After 3 months of hippotherapy, in April 2015, there was made intermediar evaluation of beneficiaries to see if the intended results were achieved and where to optimise the therapy. The final evaluation was conducted in August 2015, after four months from the intermediar evaluation. Applying hippotherapy for children with various disabilities, it was found that children moving better, move better, speak more easily, communicate and become more careful. Besides outcomes of hippotherapy and results are measurable and easily to observe such as satisfaction to participate in hippotherapy sessions and gettingÂ into contact with the horses.
Full Text Available The low level of physical fitness of intellectually disabled individuals is most often the result of a sedentary lifestyle and the lack of the possibility for these individuals to take part in various forms of physical activity, and as a consequence these individuals are often unable to take part in any form of planned physical activities, are unable to adequately perform everyday activities and have limited abilities for performing workrelated duties. Regular physical activity can have a preventive effect, can reduce health risks and prevent the onset of various illnesses, as well as to promote an active lifestyle and increase physical and work capacities among the members of this particular population. Sport can play an important role in the life of individuals with intellectual disability as it represents a good basis for the development of physical and cognitive abilities. Team sports, which include interaction among a large number of people, a decision-making processes in a variety of situations and the understanding of the game itself in its constituent parts can be used as an effective and practical treatment of individuals with intellectual disability.
Szollos, Agnes A.; McCabe, Marita P.
The sexuality of 25 individuals with mild intellectual disability was assessed based on interviews that addressed their knowledge, experience, feelings, and needs. Compared to 39 college students and 10 care staff, subjects demonstrated a lower level of sex knowledge, less interactive sexual experience, equal frequencies of same-sex experiences,…
Boardman, Alison G.; Buckley, Pamela; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Gregory; Scornavacco, Karla; Klingner, Janette K.
This study examines the interaction between the fidelity of implementation of a set of research-based strategies--Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)--and outcomes for students with mild to moderate disabilities using data from two nonoverlapping studies in middle school language arts and reading classrooms (Study 1) and middle school social…
Sajith, S. G.; Clarke, D.
Background: Melatonin is used to treat sleep disorders in both children and adults with intellectual disability (ID), although it has no product license for such use. The evidence for its efficacy, potential adverse effects and drug interactions are reviewed in the context of prescribing to people with ID. Methods: A literature search was…
This study examined the relationship among grandparent support, family functioning, and parental stress on families with children with and without disabilities between the ages of 2 and 12 years. Families are viewed as an ever-changing complex system with reciprocal interactions. One possible stressor on the family system is the birth of a child…
Gantschnig, Brigitte E.; Hemmingsson, Helena; la Cour, Karen
with disabilities appreciated attending regular schools. Being a part of school life was identified to include experiences of participation and nonparticipation. Different aspects of the environment influence experiences of participation and awareness of differences are facilitated through interaction with peers....... Together, the findings complement empirical insights to the understanding of experienced and performed involvement combined with subjective dimensions of environmental features that influence participation....
Pancsofar, Nadya; Petroff, Jerry G.; Lewis, Alex
Father-child interactions can positively influence child development and learning, and greater father involvement in children's education can support overall positive family functioning, especially in families with children with disabilities. As the number of dual-earner families in America has increased, more and more fathers have assumed care…
The report lists competencies for teachers in every day interactions with learning disabled students. Developed by a task force, the competencies are intended to serve as general guidelines. Information is presented on the goal, assessment competencies, and instructional competencies for the following areas: classroom management, spoken language,…
Reynolds, Brooke M.; Gast, David L.; Luscre, Deanna
The effectiveness of a self-management intervention on social interaction behaviors was evaluated for students with disabilities and social deficits. Four students enrolled in a general education kindergarten classroom were taught to self-monitor social initiations during nonstructured social time via a digital wrist counter. The number of social…
Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane P.; Bryant, Brian R.; McKenna, John W.; Hou, Fangjuan; Ok, Min Wook
Many students with learning disabilities demonstrate difficulty in developing a conceptual understanding of mathematical topics. Researchers recommend using visual models to support student learning of the concepts and skills necessary to complete abstract and symbolic mathematical problems. Virtual manipulatives (i.e., interactive visual models)…
Stanley, Patricia D.; And Others
This study examined relationships between self-esteem, depression, and race in 70 learning disabled high school students (39 white and 31 black). Subjects were administered the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory and the Children's Depression Inventory. Statistical analysis indicated a significant sex by race interaction. Both white females and…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total disability and disability causation... Section 718.204 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL... than those listed in Table B1 (Males) or Table B2 (Females) in Appendix B to this part for an...
Suffering from communication disabilities limits a person’s ability to participate in communicative and social interactions, public democratic debates and learning activities. The possibility of trying out ideas and opinions is weakened and it might have an impact on the ability to tell one’s life...... inclusion and empowering people with communication difficulties are offered. However, more knowledge about how learners with special challenges benefit from ICT in their communication and learning and what kind of technology that qualify rehabilitation is needed. Based on research with people suffering from...
Knowledge of, beliefs about and attitudes to disability: implications for health ... communities often only learnt about disability following the birth of a disabled child. ... to education and the availability of transport, particularly amongst caregivers ...
... Cleft Lip and Palate MalaCards: x-linked intellectual disability, siderius type March of Dimes: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate Merck Manual Consumer Version: Intellectual Disability Orphanet: X-linked intellectual disability, Siderius type Patient ...
Gharebaghi, Amin; Mostafavi, Mir-Abolfazl; Edwards, Geoffrey; Fougeyrollas, Patrick; Gamache, Stéphanie; Grenier, Yan
Our contemporary understanding of disability is rooted in the idea that disability is the product of human-environment interaction processes. People may be functionally limited, but this becomes a disability only when they engage with their immediate social and physical environments. Any attempt to address issues of mobility in relation to people with disabilities should be grounded in an ontology that encompasses this understanding. The objective of this study is to provide a methodology to integrate the social and physical environments in the development of a mobility ontology for people with motor disabilities (PWMD). We propose to create subclasses of concepts based on a Nature-Development distinction rather than creating separate social and physical subclasses. This allows the relationships between social and physical elements to be modelled in a more compact and efficient way by specifying them locally within each entity, and better accommodates the complexities of the human-environment interaction as well. Based on this approach, an ontology for mobility of PWMD considering four main elements - the social and physical environmental factors, human factors, life habits related to mobility and possible goals of mobility - is presented. We demonstrate that employing the Nature-Development perspective facilitates the process of developing useful ontologies, especially for defining the relationships between the social and physical parts of the environment. This is a fundamental issue for modelling the interaction between humans and their social and physical environments for a broad range of applications, including the development of geospatial assistive technologies for navigation of PWMD. Implications for rehabilitation The proposed perspective may actually have much broader interests beyond the issue of disability - much of the interesting dynamics in city development arises from the interaction between human-developed components - the built environment and its
Gharebaghi, Amin; Abolfazl Mostafavi, Mir
Social dimension of environment is an important aspect that should be reflected in research works related to studying the interactions between human and the environment. However, this dimension is usually neglected when representing the environment in geographic information systems for different applications. For instance, disability as a result of the interaction between human and environment is influenced by social and physical dimensions of environment. Although, this aspect is highlighted in most conceptual disability models by defining various taxonomies of the environment, from ontological perspective justifying and connecting social dimension to the physical dimension of the environment is not clearly determined. Integrating social dimension of the environment with its physical dimension for disability studies is a challenging task, which is the main objective of the present study. Here, we review some of the disability models and their perspective about classifying the environment. Then, from ontological perspective, their limitations are discussed and a new approach for the classification of concepts form the environment is presented. This approach facilitates and simplifies integration of social dimension in ontologies for more effective assessment of disability issue in Geographic Information System.
Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lahti, Jouni
We examined the risk of disability retirement by smoking and physical activity, and particularly whether the risk due to smoking is affected by the level of physical activity. Additionally, the contribution of baseline health, sociodemographic and work-related factors to the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with disability retirement was considered. Cohort study. Helsinki, Finland. Employees of the City of Helsinki, aged 40-60 years at baseline in 2000-2002, were followed up using complete register data from the Finnish Centre of Pensions until the end of 2010 (n=6390, with a consent to register linkage from 74%). All-cause disability retirement (ICD-10). Altogether, 608 employees (9.5%) retired due to disability during the follow-up. Cox regression models were fitted to examine the joint associations of smoking and physical activity with subsequent disability retirement. Never-smokers, ex-smokers and moderate smokers who were inactive or moderately active had an increased risk of disability retirement, but if they were vigorously active, they had no excess risk. Instead, all heavy smokers (15 or more cigarettes per day among women, and 20 or more among men), irrespective of physical activity, had an increased risk of disability retirement. The examined associations attenuated but remained for ex-smokers and heavy smokers after adjustments for gender, age, socioeconomic position, mental and physical workload, problem drinking, body mass index and self-rated health. No gender interactions were found. Vigorous physical activity might help prevent disability retirement not only among never-smokers, but even among ex-smokers and moderate smokers. However, among heavy smokers, physical activity is not sufficient to eliminate the adverse effects of smoking on health and work ability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Bell, David; Heitmueller, Axel
The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. Exploiting both pooled and longitudinal data, this paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the USA, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are higher uncertainty around litigation costs, low levels of general awareness about the Act among disabled people and employers, and a lack of financial support.
Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri
The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...
Zysberg, Leehu; Kasler, Jon
The literature is conflicted around the subject of the emotional abilities of individuals with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLDs): While many claim cognitive challenges are associated with emotional difficulties, some suggest emotional and interpersonal abilities are not compromised in such disorders and may help individuals compensate and cope effectively with the challenges they meet in learning environments. Two studies explored differences in emotional intelligence (EI) between young adults with and without SLD. Two samples (matched on gender, approximate age, and program of study; n = 100, and unmatched; n = 584) of college students took self-report and performance-based tests of EI (Ability-EI) as well as a measure of self-esteem and demographics associated with college performance (e.g.: SAT scores, gender, etc.). The results showed that while SAT scores and ability emotional intelligence (Ability-EI) were associated with college GPA, Ability-EI did not differ between the two groups, while self-report measures of EI and self-esteem did show differences, with the group with learning disabilities ranking lower. The effects remained stable when we controlled for demographics and potential intervening factors. The results suggest that EI may play a protective role in the association between background variables and college attainment in students with SLD. The results may provide a basis for interventions to empower students with SLD in academia.
Beckett, Angharad E.
In the United Kingdom, the introduction of the Disability Equality Duty 2006 has provided a new window of opportunity to promote the idea that education has a role to play in changing non-disabled children/young people's attitudes towards disabled people. This article explores the issues raised by the application of the Disability Equality Duty to…
Tamara Álvarez Robles
Full Text Available Right to education is a fundamental right, internationally recognized. However, this assumption is conditioned by personal circumstances, details, of the holder. In any case, we should emphasize the double dimension of this, firstly the right to receive education/teaching, secondly its consideration as a channel of integration and social participation. It is due to this situation, the involvement of the public powers, in order to implement and develop of this right, must be promoted. The application of the right to education to people that suffer disabilities has got a great degree of importance under The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, held in New York in December 2006. At that time the international community implications were really consolidated. This situation has changed dramatically with the economic crisis that we are suffering in recent times. This is the main reason for the present study, an appeal to implement and apply regulation about disabilities at University studies trough the reform of their statutes and by the increase of the level of the information and training of their workers, especially professors. The universalization of rights, such as education, faces difficulties in achieving its fullness as all holders differ with respect to other recipients of this right. The challenge of this work is to visualize the situation in a very specific environment, university education, and in a very precise context that is the Kingdom of Spain. However, globalization should assume ownership the main problems and challenges identified in this work. It will be checked in the prolix character of legislation that rules theright af everyone, although you were different to be the holder of the right to education. The existence of a huge number of authorities who supports an inclusive model collides with exogenous difficulties, especially the lack of means, but also endogenous, as the lack of involvement of any of the
This study measures the longitudinal effect of disability on earnings, marriage, and divorce. The data come from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data on longitudinal earnings. Using event-study methods, the results show that the onset of a work-preventing disability is associated with a precipitous decline…
Bazna, Maysaa; Reid, D. Kim
Learning disabilities education in Kuwait grew from Kuwaiti's wholesale importation of the Western, medical model of disability--a model basically incompatible with Kuwaiti culture. Conflicting factors include its problematic normal/abnormal binary, its assumption that the "deficit" is located in the student and the segregation of…
Poll, L.H.D.; Waterham, R.P.
From February 1992 until the end of 1993, the authors ((IPO) Institute for Perception Research) participated in a European ((TIDE) Technology Initiative for Disabled and Elderly) project which addressed the problem arising for visually disabled computer-users from the growing use of Graphical User
Giangreco, Michael F.
Research and experience tell us a great deal about how to successfully educate students with intellectual disability, but unfortunately this knowledge remains underutilized and inconsistently applied, writes researcher Michael F. Giangreco. Students with intellectual disability who have virtually identical profiles but live in different locales…
Kelsey, Daniel; Smart, Julie F.
The academic field and the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling focuses on one aspect of social justice, assisting individuals with disabilities to attain full community inclusion. Nonetheless, social justice focuses on many marginalized groups and in the related fields of counseling and psychology, those with disabilities are rarely…
The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…
Hayes, Cheryl W.
The paper reviews Belgian philosophy toward the education of learning disabled students and cites the differences between American behaviorally-oriented theory and Belgian emphasis on identifying the underlying causes of the disability. Academic methods observed in Belgium (including psychodrama and perceptual motor training) are discussed and are…
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Moss, Colleen K.
Trying out for the school play. Performing in the band. Joining a sports team or club. These experiences are memorable parts of middle and high school life. For many students with disabilities, however, these everyday school experiences remain elusive. Although the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) clearly states that IEP teams…
Fitch, E. Frank
Disability and dependence are integral to the human experience and yet have been largely marginalized or denigrated within Western philosophy. Joining a growing counter narrative from the disability studies movement, several mainstream moral philosophers are helping to redress this error. In this essay, the author discusses ideas from four such…
Miller, Maury; Gresham, Pamela; Fouts, Bonnia
Preservice general education classroom teachers in an inclusion course were asked to describe their own earliest memories of students with disabilities in school. Substantial literature links early memories to subsequent thoughts and attitudes. Subjects also completed the Opinions Relative to Integration of Students with Disabilities attitude…
Alphin, Henry C., Jr., Ed.; Lavine, Jennie, Ed.; Chan, Roy Y., Ed.
Education is the foundation to almost all successful lives. It is vital that learning opportunities are available on a global scale, regardless of individual disabilities or differences, and to create more inclusive educational practices. "Disability and Equity in Higher Education Accessibility" is a comprehensive reference source for…
This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…
Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; And Others
This paper reviews ongoing research designed to specify the cognitive, behavioral, and neuroanatomical phenotypes of specific genetic etiologies of learning disability. The genetic disorders at the focus of the research include reading disability, neurofibromatosis type 1, Tourette syndrome, and fragile X syndrome. Implications for identifying…
Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.
Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.
Children with disabilities are an integral part of Zimbabwean society. However these children face insurmountable challenges that hinder their human and social capital development. The current study used a mixed methodology approach to examine the socioeconomic circumstances of children living with disabilities ...
The law of 11th February 2005 relating to the equality of the rights and opportunities, participation and citizenship of disabled people was a major step forward. Nevertheless, more progress is needed to ensure more consideration is given to disabled people.
Berliss, Jane; And Others
Eight articles review the progress achieved in making library computing technologies and library services accessible to people with disabilities. Adaptive technologies, automated conversion into Braille, and successful programs that demonstrate compliance with the American with Disabilities Act are described. A resource list is included. (EA)
García, Beatriz; Ortiz Gil, Amelia
Commission 46 proposed, in 2012, the creation of an interdisciplinary WG in which astronomers work together with educators and disability specialists to develop new teaching and learning strategies devoted to generate resources of impact among disabled populations, which are usually away from astronomy. We present some of the achivements and new challenges.
Hatice Yildirim Sari
Full Text Available Mentally disabled individuals are at risk of health problems. In fact, health problems are more frequent in mentally disabled individuals than in the general population and mentally disabled individuals less frequently use health care facilities. It has been shown that mentally disabled individuals frequently have nutritional problems. They may suffer from low weight, malnutrition, high weight, pica, iron and zinc deficiencies and absorption and eating disorders. Activities can be limited due to motor disability and restricted movements. Depending on insufficient liquid intake and dietary fiber, constipation can be frequent. Another problem is sleep disorders such as irregular sleep hours, short sleep, waking up at night and daytime sleepiness. Visual-hearing losses, epilepsy, motor disability, hepatitis A infection and poor oral hygiene are more frequent in mentally disabled children than in the general population. The mentally disabled have limited health care facilities, poorer health status than the general population and difficulties in demanding for health care and expressing health problems. Therefore, they should be provided with more health promotion services. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 145-150
This article provides an overview of the core principles and implications of emancipatory disability research. It suggests the emancipatory research paradigm has begun to transform the material and social relations of research production and concludes by suggesting that emancipatory disability should be perceived as a process rather than a…
Safran, Stephen P.
This article discusses using movies to teach students about disabilities. It addresses considerations in choosing movies, gauging the accuracy of the portrayal, and identifying positive images and negative stereotypes. A checklist for evaluating positive and negative representations is provided, along with a format to assess disability portrayal…
Testa, Renée; Pantelis, Christos; Fontenelle, Leonardo F
Our objective was to describe the prevalence, comorbidity, and neuropsychological profiles of children with hoarding and learning disabilities. From 61 children with learning disabilities, 16.4% exhibited hoarding as a major clinical issue. Although children with learning disabilities and hoarding displayed greater rates of obsessive-compulsive disorder (30%) as compared to those with learning disabilities without hoarding (5.9%), the majority of patients belonging to the former group did not display obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis. When learning disability patients with hoarding were compared to age-, sex-, and IQ-matched learning disability subjects without hoarding, hoarders exhibited a slower learning curve on word list-learning task. In conclusion, salient hoarding behaviors were found to be relatively common in a sample of children with learning disabilities and not necessarily associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder, supporting its nosological independence. It is unclear whether underlying cognitive features may play a major role in the development of hoarding behaviors in children with learning disabilities.
Large corporations are in a unique position to employ the disabled, but they sometimes lack the motivation to do so. The author discusses elements of a corporate policy for the disabled, ways of formulating and disseminating it, assignment of responsibility, changes in management attitudes, and the special case of the multinational company.…
Wisniewski, Lech; Sedlak, Robert
Describes a variety of devices that can assist students with disabilities. Highlights recently developed devices for students with specific learning disabilities, and with vision, hearing, health, physical, and speech and language impairments. The devices can help rehabilitate, reeducate, facilitate normalcy, or augment current functioning. (GLR)
Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...
Luciani , Annie
International audience; The expression instrumental interaction as been introduced by Claude Cadoz to identify a human-object interaction during which a human manipulates a physical object - an instrument - in order to perform a manual task. Classical examples of instrumental interaction are all the professional manual tasks: playing violin, cutting fabrics by hand, moulding a paste, etc.... Instrumental interaction differs from other types of interaction (called symbolic or iconic interactio...
Full Text Available A higher proportion of working- age persons receive disability assistance in the Nordic countries and the Netherlands than in other European countries. Whereas current research emphasizes the connection between disability assistance and rates of labor force exit, to date there has been no exploration of how welfare state context influences individual self-reported disability. Using nationally representative data from 15 countries (n = 88, 478, I find that residents of generous welfare states are significantly more likely to report a disability net of self-reported health, sociodemographic, and labor force characteristics and, notably, that this association extends to younger and more educated workers. I argue that welfare state context may directly shape what it means to be disabled, which may have consequences for evaluations of welfare state performance and social exclusion.
Full Text Available Developmental disabilities consist of conditions that delay or impair the physical, cognitive, and/or psychological development of children. If not intervened at the earliest, these disabilities will cause significant negative impact on multiple domains of functioning such as learning, language, self-care and capacity for independent living. Common developmental disabilities include autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disabilities, developmental delay and cerebral palsy. About one fourth of young children in developing countries are at risk for or have developmental delay or disabilities. Inadequate stimulation has significant negative impact on physical, socioemotional and cognitive development of children. Hence early scientific intervention programs are necessary in the management of children at risk for developmental delay.
Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Objectives Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors in response to their child’s pain (overprotection, minimizing and/or encouragement) interact with child coping characteristics (e.g., catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relationship between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children’s level of maladaptive coping (i.e., pain catastrophizing). Methods Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: protection, minimizing, and encouragement/monitoring subscales). Results Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relationship between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relationship between parent protectiveness and disability. Conclusions The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined in part by the child’s coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP. PMID:25121521
Cunningham, Natoshia R; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita
Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning, and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors (overprotection, minimizing, and/or encouragement) in response to their child's pain interact with child coping characteristics (eg, catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relation between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children's levels of maladaptive coping (ie, pain catastrophizing). Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated in the study. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: Protection, Minimizing, and Encouragement/Monitoring subscales). Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relation between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relation between parent protectiveness and disability. The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined, in part, by the child's coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP.
Stramondo, Joseph A
The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. © 2016 The Hastings Center.
Hestad, Oeystein; Linhjell, Dag
An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been
Jeffrey M. Broida
Full Text Available Results of a recent study concerning computer technology and people with disabilities indicate that virtual reality tours are effective in conveying information and, in some cases, reducing anxiety. One hundred and ten subjects with physical disabilities participated in the study, and seven quantitative and qualitative instruments were used to assess study variables. Three physical locations were recreated virtually and include interactivity, captioning, digital audio and video, mapping, and other features. The implications may be valuable in both physical and virtual educational settings as educators strive to serve a growing student population.