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Sample records for disabled older adults

  1. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

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    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  2. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  3. Incidence of Dementia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

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    Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…

  4. Gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability among Chinese older adults.

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    Zhong, Yaqin; Wang, Jian; Nicholas, Stephen

    2017-09-02

    Gender difference and life-course socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability may exist among older adults. However, the association is less well understood among Chinese older population. The objective is to provide empirical evidences on this issue by exploring the association between gender, childhood and adult socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability. Data from the 2013 wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) was utilized. Functional disability was assessed by the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by birthplace, father's education and occupation. Adult SES was measured in terms of education and household income. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess the association between gender, childhood and adult SES and functional disability. Based on a sample of 18,448 older adults aged 45 years old and above, our results showed that the prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was higher among women than men, but gender difference disappeared after adult SES and adult health were controlled. Harsh conditions during childhood were associated with functional disability but in multivariate analyses only father's education was associated with IADL disability (OR for no education = 1.198; 95% CI = 1.062-1.353). Current SES such as higher education and good economic situation are protective factors of functional disability. Childhood and adult SES were both related to functional disability among older adults. Our findings highlight the need for policies and programs aimed at decreasing social inequalities during childhood and early adulthood, which could reduce socioeconomic inequalities in functional disability in later life.

  5. Older and Younger Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Factors Associated with Future Plans

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    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lee, Yue-Chune; Lin, Li-Chan; Kroger, Teppo; Chang, Ai-Ning

    2009-01-01

    A structured interview survey was conducted in a major city in Taiwan to explore and compare older and younger family primary caregivers' well being and their future caregiving plans for these adults with intellectual disability. The sample size was 315 caregivers who were 55 years or older and who cared for adults with intellectual disability and…

  6. Measuring Physical Activity with Pedometers in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Reactivity and Number of Days

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa; Van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen

    The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate valid average weekly step counts and reactivity was investigated for older adults with intellectual disability. Participants (N = 268) with borderline to severe intellectual disability ages 50 years and older were instructed to

  7. Restrictions of physical activity participation in older adults with disability: employing keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyo-Man; Kim, Chun-Jong; Park, Chae-Hee; Byeun, Jung-Kyun; Seo, Geon-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Older adults with disability might have been increasing due to the rapid aging of society. Many studies showed that physical activity is an essential part for improving quality of life in later lives. Regular physical activity is an efficient means that has roles of primary prevention and secondary prevention. However, there were few studies regarding older adults with disability and physical activity participation. The purpose of this current study was to investigate restriction factors to regularly participate older adults with disability in physical activity by employing keyword network analysis. Two hundred twenty-nine older adults with disability who were over 65 including aging with disability and disability with aging in type of physical disability and brain lesions defined by disabled person welfare law partook in the open questionnaire assessing barriers to participate in physical activity. The results showed that the keyword the most often used was 'Traffic' which was total of 21 times (3.47%) and the same proportion as in the 'personal' and 'economical'. Exercise was considered the most central keyword for participating in physical activity and keywords such as facility, physical activity, disabled, program, transportation, gym, discomfort, opportunity, and leisure activity were associated with exercise. In conclusion, it is necessary to educate older persons with disability about a true meaning of physical activity and providing more physical activity opportunities and decreasing inconvenience should be systematically structured in Korea.

  8. Choices for Mobility Independence: Transportation Options for Older Adults and People with Disabilities

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    ... are the requirements to qualify for the service? Cost: The fees for transportation services will vary and may include a reduced rate or no-cost service for older adults and people with disabilities. ...

  9. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  10. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

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    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  11. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity as perceived by older adults with intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel-Speet, M. van; Evenhuis, H.M.; Wijck, R. van; Empelen, P. van; Echteld, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID

  12. Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity as Perceived by Older Adults With Intellectual Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID

  13. Therapeutic home adaptations for older adults with disabilities.

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    Unwin, Brian K; Andrews, Christopher M; Andrews, Patrick M; Hanson, Janice L

    2009-11-01

    Family physicians commonly care for older patients with disabilities. Many of these patients need help maintaining a therapeutic home environment to preserve their comfort and independence. Patients often have little time to decide how to address the limitations of newly-acquired disabilities. Physicians can provide patients with general recommendations in home modification after careful history and assessment. Universal design features, such as one-story living, no-step entries, and wide hallways and doors, are key adaptations for patients with physical disabilities. Home adaptations for patients with dementia include general safety measures such as grab bars and door alarms, and securing potentially hazardous items, such as cleaning supplies and medications. Improved lighting and color contrast, enlarged print materials, and vision aids can assist patients with limited vision. Patients with hearing impairments may benefit from interventions that provide supplemental visual and vibratory cues and alarms. Although funding sources are available, home modification is often a nonreimbursed expense. However, sufficient home modifications may allow the patient and caregivers to safely remain in the home without transitioning to a long-term care facility.

  14. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

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    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  15. Prevalence of dementia-associated disability among Chinese older adults: results from a national sample survey.

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    Li, Ning; Zhang, Lei; Du, Wei; Pang, Lihua; Guo, Chao; Chen, Gong; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2015-03-01

    Due to rapid population aging and a tidal wave of dementia, dementia has become an urgent public health issue in China. Few large-scale surveys on dementia have been conducted in China and little was known about the magnitude of dysfunction and disability caused by dementia. In this study, using national sample survey data, we aimed to describe the prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability, its associated factors, and daily activities and social functions of people with dementia-associated disability in Chinese older adults. We used the second China National Sample Survey on Disability, comprising 2,526,145 persons from 771,797 households. Identification for dementia was based on consensus manuals. Standard weighting procedures were used to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. Population weighted numbers, weighted prevalence, and the odd ratios (ORs) were calculated. The prevalence rate of dementia-associated disability was 4.64% (95% CI: 4.26-5.01) and it accounted for 41.03% of mental disability among Chinese older adults. Urban residence (OR: 1.33 [1.12-1.57]), older age (80+ years) (OR: 4.12 [3.38-.03]), illiteracy (OR: 1.79 [1.27-2.53]), and currently not married (OR: 1.15 [1.00-1.32]) were associated with increased risk of dementia-associated disability. Compared with those with mental disability of other causes and those with other types of disabilities, older adults with dementia-asscoiated disability were more likely to have severe or extreme difficulty in daily activities and social functions. Countermeasures are warranted to obtain a more precise overview of dementia in China, and strategies on enhancing early identification, treatment, and rehabilitation should be developed for people with dementia. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Depression, functional disability and quality of life among Nigerian older adults: Prevalences and relationships.

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    Akosile, Christopher Olusanjo; Mgbeojedo, Ukamaka Gloria; Maruf, Fatai Adesina; Okoye, Emmanuel Chiebuka; Umeonwuka, Ifeanyi Chuka; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2018-01-01

    Ageing is associated with increased morbidity, depression and decline in function. These may consequently impair the quality of life (QoL) of older adults. This study was used to investigate the prevalence of functional disability, depression, and level of quality of life of older adults residing in Uyo metropolis and its environs, Nigeria. This cross sectional survey involved 206 (116 females and 90 males) older adults with mean age of 69.8±6.7. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-OLD, Functional status Questionnaire (FSQ) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used to measure quality of life, functional disability and depression respectively. Data was analysed using frequency counts and percentages and Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient, at 0.05 alpha level. 45.5% of participants had depression, and at least 30% had functional disability in at least one domain, but their quality of life was fairly good (>60.0%) across all domains. Significant correlation existed between depression scores and individual quality of life and functional disability domains and between overall QoL and each functional disability domain (pquality of life of the older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in disability in older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis: A complex relationship with physical activity.

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    Tak, E C P M; van Meurs, J B; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; Hofman, A; Hopman-Rock, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to report on factors associated with changes in disability after 5 years, with a focus on physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis (GROA). Assessment of GROA (hand, knee, hip) and disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) in the Rotterdam Study (cohort RS-1, N = 7,983; with GROA, n = 821). A good outcome at follow-up was defined as improved or mild disability, and a poor outcome as worsened or severe disability. Factors potentially associated with outcome were demographics, joint complaints, other chronic health problems or limitations (body mass index, number of chronic conditions, cognition), and level of different types of PA. Some of these assessments were repeated in between 1997 and 1999 (RS-3), and between 2002 and 2004 (RS-4). A total of 309 older adults with GROA and valid measures on RS-3 and RS-4 showed mild to moderate disability, with minor increases over 5 years (follow-up N = 287 RS-3 to RS-4). PA levels decreased with increasing disability, especially in sport and walking. PA was univariately associated with a better outcome at follow-up but when adjusted for other factors (higher age, having knee pain and stiffness, and having more than two other chronic conditions) was associated with negative changes in general and lower limb disability, although not with upper limb disability. This was the first study to report that community-dwelling older adults with GROA show moderate levels of disability, and that reduced levels of disability are associated with higher levels of PA, but when adjusted for other confounders this association is lost. Further research is needed to study the complex relationships between PA and other determinants of disability. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Disability intervention model for older adults with arthritis: an integration of theory of symptom management and disablement process model.

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    Shin, So Young

    2014-12-01

    To evolve a management plan for rheumatoid arthritis, it is necessary to understand the patient's symptom experience and disablement process. This paper aims to introduce and critique two models as a conceptual foundation from which to construct a new model for arthritis care. A Disability Intervention Model for Older Adults with Arthritis includes three interrelated concepts of symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and symptom outcomes that correspond to the Theory of Symptom Management. These main concepts influence or are influenced by contextual factors that are situated within the domains of person, environment, and health/illness. It accepts the bidirectional, complex, dynamic interactions among all components within the model representing the comprehensive aspects of the disablement process and its interventions in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis. In spite of some limitations such as confusion or complexity within the model, the Disability Intervention Model for Older Adults with Arthritis has strengths in that it encompasses the majority of the concepts of the two models, attempts to compensate for the limitations of the two models, and aims to understand the impact of rheumatoid arthritis on a patient's physical, cognitive, and emotional health status, socioeconomic status, and well-being. Therefore, it can be utilized as a guiding theoretical framework for arthritis care and research to improve the functional status of older adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effects of a community disability prevention program for frail older adults at 48-month follow up.

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    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutumimoto, Kota; Yoshida, Daisuke; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-12-01

    The present prospective study was carried out to determine whether participation in community-based intervention studies exerted a positive impact on disability prevention in older adults with physical frailty. A total of 514 community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥65 years) with physical frailty who had undergone baseline assessment and participated in community-based intervention studies (participants) or did not (non-participants) were included in the present study. Non-participants were selected through propensity score matching, to balance potential covariates at baseline. Disability incidence was followed up at 48 months as a main outcome. Demographic data (age, sex and medical history), global cognitive function, grip strength, walking speed, and blood test results including serum albumin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor at baseline were included as covariates. Disability incidence rates differed significantly between participants (11.3%) and non-participants (19.8%) of community-based intervention studies during the 48-month follow-up period (P = 0.007). Participation in community-based intervention studies (hazard ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.88) was significantly associated with the incidence of disability in older adults with physical frailty. Participation in community-based intervention studies could reduce the incidence of disability in older adults with physical frailty. Thus, strategies designed to increase the number of participants in community-based intervention programs should be considered in community-based approaches for the prevention of disability in older adults with physical frailty. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2347-2353. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Poor sleep quality is independently associated with physical disability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2015-03-15

    We aimed to evaluate the association between sleep quality and physical disability in community-dwelling older adults. There were 213 community-dwelling adults (76 men and 137 women) aged 65 years and above participated into this investigation. The Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were utilized to evaluate physical disability and subjective sleep quality, respectively. Global functional capacity was measured by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Mini Mental State Examination and the Chinese Geriatric Depression Screening Scale were used to evaluate cognitive function and depression. Univariate analysis revealed a correlation between physical disability and poor sleep quality, older age, 2 or more comorbidities, depression, functional capacity, and poor cognitive function. However, in the multivariate analyses, depression failed to show significant association with physical disability. In contrast, an independent association was observed between poor sleep quality and physical disability (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.02-4.05). In community-dwelling older adults, subjective poor sleep was significantly associated with physical disability, even after controlling for the effects of other established risk factors. © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  1. Exploring Functional Disability in Older Adults with Low Vision

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    Travis, Linda A.; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Horowitz, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on a study that explored the prevalence and predictors of functional disability that are due to visual problems as opposed to functional disability that is due to other health problems. It also discusses the implications for psychosocial and rehabilitative interventions that target different types of disability. (Contains 5…

  2. Feasibility and reliability of physical fitness tests in older adults with intellectual disability : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Background Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery

  3. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  4. Effects of own and spousal disability on loneliness among older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korporaal, M.; Broese Van Groenou, M.I.; van Tilburg, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the effects of own and spousal disability on social and emotional loneliness among married adults aged 65 and older. Method: Data from 710 men and 379 women of a Dutch community sample were analyzed with linear regression analyses. Results: For men, only their wives'

  5. Feasibility and outcomes of the Berg Balance Scale in older adults with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    High incidence of falls and increased risk of fall-related injuries are seen in individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). The Berg Balance Scale (BBS) is a reliable instrument for balance assessment in the population of (older) adults with ID. The aims of this study were to assess the balance

  6. Epidemiology of Epilepsy in Older Adults with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland: Associations and Service Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Mary; O'Dwyer, Marie; Burke, Eilish; McGlinchey, Eimear; McCallion, Philip

    2014-01-01

    There are limited studies on the prevalence of epilepsy and co-morbid conditions in older adults with an ID. To begin to address this prevalence of epilepsy was estimated for participants in the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Associations with demographic variables and co morbid health conditions were…

  7. Changes in disability in older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis: A complex relationship with physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.; Meurs, J.B. van; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.; Hofman, A.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to report on factors associated with changes in disability after 5 years, with a focus on physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling older adults with generalized radiographic osteoarthritis (GROA). METHODS: Assessment of GROA (hand, knee, hip) and

  8. Family and Other Unpaid Caregivers and Older Adults with and without Dementia and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffin, Catherine; Van Ness, Peter H; Wolff, Jennifer L; Fried, Terri

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the number of caregivers providing assistance to community-dwelling older persons with and without dementia and with or without substantial disability; to describe the characteristics of caregivers and care recipients in these groups; to characterize the health-related tasks that caregivers provide; and to estimate associations between the numbers of tasks and caregiver burden. Nationally representative surveys of caregivers and older adults in the United States. 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. Community-dwelling older adults and their family caregivers, who were selected on the basis of having assisted with mobility, self-care, household activities, transportation, or medical tasks. Caregiver burden (emotional, physical, financial difficulties) and restrictions on social participation. Although much larger proportions of older adults with dementia and disability (98.4%, n = 1.0 million) and dementia but not disability (95.5%, n = 1.3 million) received caregiving assistance, the largest absolute number of individuals receiving assistance were older adults without dementia or disability (4.0 million). Within each caregiver group, caregivers provided assistance with at least one task across domains of activity of daily living and instrumental activity of daily living-related assistance (>98%), health systems logistics (>70%), and health management (>50%). There was a significant linear association between number of tasks provided and risk of burden in virtually all caregiver groups and domains of assistance. Caregivers of care recipients without dementia or disability accounted for the largest absolute number of helpers. These caregivers, similar to caregivers of care recipients with dementia or disability, delivered a broad spectrum of health-related tasks and experienced caregiver burden and restrictions on social participation. Findings support the need for interventions that address the needs of caregivers

  9. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago da Silva Alexandre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80. After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84, demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events

  10. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Erlangsen, Annette; Lapierre, Sylvie; Lindner, Reinhard; Draper, Brian; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wong, Christine; Wu, Jing; Duberstein, Paul; Wærn, Margda

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. Method: Articles published through November 2014 were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities were included in the review. Results: Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including malignant diseases, neurological disorders, pain, COPD, liver disease, male genital disorders, and arthritis/arthrosis. Six qualitative studies from three continents contextualized these findings, providing insights into the subjective experiences of suicidal individuals. Implications for interventions and future research are discussed. Conclusion: Functional disability, as well as a number of specific physical illnesses, was shown to be associated with suicidal behaviour in older adults. We need to learn more about what at-risk, physically ill patients want, and need, to inform prevention efforts for older adults. PMID:26381843

  11. Functional disability and suicidal behavior in middle-aged and older adults: A systematic critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Julie; Fiske, Amy

    2018-02-01

    Middle-aged and older adults have elevated rates of suicide around the globe, but there is a paucity of knowledge about risk factors for suicide in these age groups. One possible risk factor may be functional disability, which is more common at later ages. The current systematic critical review examined findings regarding the associations between functional disability and suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide) in middle-aged and older adults (i.e. age 50 and older). Forty-five studies were found that examined these associations. The majority of studies supported a significant association between functional disability and suicidal ideation. In addition, findings to date strongly suggest that depression serves as a mediator of the association between functional disability and suicidal ideation, though most studies did not directly test for mediation. Firm conclusions regarding suicide attempts and death by suicide, as well as mediation, cannot be drawn due to a relative lack of research in these areas. The association between functional disability and suicidal behavior suggests an important area for prevention and intervention among middle-aged and older adults, but additional research is necessary to clarify the specifics of these associations and examine appropriate intervention strategies. Important future directions for research in this area include the direct comparison of associations of risk factors with different types of suicidal behavior, greater use of longitudinal data with multiple time points, and further examination of potential mediators and moderators of the association between functional disability and suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity, physical disability, and osteoarthritic pain in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HopmanRock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis

  13. Emergency Readiness for Older Adults and People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plan for pets and service animals. Millions of people have pets and service animals that they love dearly. Owners ... support of friends and neighbors to help with pet care if local shelters are ... Americans and people with disabilities engage in emergency planning so they ...

  14. Trajectories of Leisure Activity and Disability in Older Adults Over 11 Years in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hsiao-Wei; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Duan-Rung; Tu, Yu-Kang; Chen, Ya-Mei

    2018-06-01

    We aimed to identify leisure activity (LA) trajectories and examined the association among baseline characteristics, LA trajectories, and the later disability among older Taiwanese adults. Data were from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging Survey for the years 1996-2007 ( N = 3,186). LA trajectories were identified by using latent class growth curve modeling. Regression analyses were applied to predict the relationships among baseline characteristics, LA trajectories, and disability. Four LA trajectories-consistent high, consistent low, increasing, and decreasing-were identified. Lower depressive symptom was related to consistently active in LAs. Younger age and fewer comorbidities were related to develop an increasing LA trajectory. Participants in the consistent-high or increasing LA trajectories were more likely to be functionally independent, but those in the decreasing LA subgroup were more at risk of developing disability. The findings suggested that long-term changes in LA over time have benefits on physical health in older population.

  15. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability : Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID

  16. Feasibility of Eight Physical Fitness Tests in 1,050 Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Results of the Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Although physical fitness is relevant for well-being and health, knowledge on the feasibility of instruments to measure physical fitness in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) is lacking. As part of the study Healthy Ageing with Intellectual Disabilities with 1,050 older clients with ID in three Dutch care services, the feasibility of 8…

  17. Associations and impact factors between living arrangements and functional disability among older Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of living arrangements with functional disability among older persons and explore the mediation of impact factors on the relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis using data from Healthy Aging study in Zhejiang Province. PARTICIPANTS: Analyzed sample was drawn from a representative rural population of older persons in Wuyi County, Zhejiang Province, including 1542 participants aged 60 and over in the second wave of the study. MEASUREMENTS: Living arrangements, background, functional disability, self-rated health, number of diseases, along with contemporaneous circumstances including income, social support (physical assistance and emotional support. Instrument was Activities of Daily Living (ADL scale, including Basic Activities Daily Living (BADL and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL. RESULTS: Living arrangements were significantly associated with BADL, IADL and ADL disability. Married persons living with or without children were more advantaged on all three dimensions of functional disability. Unmarried older adults living with children only had the worst functional status, even after controlling for background, social support, income and health status variables (compared with the unmarried living alone, ß for BADL: -1.262, ß for IADL: -2.112, ß for ADL: -3.388; compared with the married living with children only, ß for BADL: -1.166, ß for IADL: -2.723, ß for ADL: -3.902. In addition, older adults without difficulty in receiving emotional support, in excellent health and with advanced age had significantly better BADL, IADL and ADL function. However, a statistically significant association between physical assistance and functional disability was not found. CONCLUSION: Functional disabilities vary by living arrangements with different patterns and other factors. Our results highlight the association of unmarried elders living with children only and functioning decline comparing with

  18. Central nervous system medication use in older adults with intellectual disability: Results from the successful ageing in intellectual disability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitty, Kate M; Evans, Elizabeth; Torr, Jennifer J; Iacono, Teresa; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Trollor, Julian N

    2016-04-01

    Information on the rates and predictors of polypharmacy of central nervous system medication in older people with intellectual disability is limited, despite the increased life expectancy of this group. This study examined central nervous system medication use in an older sample of people with intellectual disability. Data regarding demographics, psychiatric diagnoses and current medications were collected as part of a larger survey completed by carers of people with intellectual disability over the age of 40 years. Recruitment occurred predominantly via disability services across different urban and rural locations in New South Wales and Victoria. Medications were coded according to the Monthly Index of Medical Specialties central nervous system medication categories, including sedatives/hypnotics, anti-anxiety agents, antipsychotics, antidepressants, central nervous system stimulants, movement disorder medications and anticonvulsants. The Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults was used to assess behaviour. Data were available for 114 people with intellectual disability. In all, 62.3% of the sample was prescribed a central nervous system medication, with 47.4% taking more than one. Of those who were medicated, 46.5% had a neurological diagnosis (a seizure disorder or Parkinson's disease) and 45.1% had a psychiatric diagnosis (an affective or psychotic disorder). Linear regression revealed that polypharmacy was predicted by the presence of neurological and psychiatric diagnosis, higher Developmental Behaviour Checklist for Adults scores and male gender. This study is the first to focus on central nervous system medication in an older sample with intellectual disability. The findings are in line with the wider literature in younger people, showing a high degree of prescription and polypharmacy. Within the sample, there seems to be adequate rationale for central nervous system medication prescription. Although these data do not indicate non-adherence to

  19. Web Accessibility for Older Adults: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2015-10-01

    Access to the Internet is increasingly critical for health information retrieval, access to certain government benefits and services, connectivity to friends and family members, and an array of commercial and social services that directly affect health. Yet older adults, particularly those with disabilities, are at risk of being left behind in this growing age- and disability-based digital divide. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was designed to guarantee older adults and persons with disabilities equal access to employment, retail, and other places of public accommodation. Yet older Internet users sometimes face challenges when they try to access the Internet because of disabilities associated with age. Current legal interpretations of the ADA, however, do not consider the Internet to be an entity covered by law. In this article, we examine the current state of Internet accessibility protection in the United States through the lens of the ADA, sections 504 and 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, state laws and industry guidelines. We then compare U.S. rules to those of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) countries, notably in the European Union, Canada, Japan, Australia, and the Nordic countries. Our policy recommendations follow from our analyses of these laws and guidelines, and we conclude that the biggest challenge in bridging the age- and disability-based digital divide is the need to extend accessibility requirements to private, not just governmental, entities and organizations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Facilitators and barriers to physical activity as perceived by older adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain insight into facilitators and barriers to engaging into PA. Fourteen in-depth interviews and four focus groups were undertaken, with a total of 40 older adults with mild and moderate ID included in the analysis. NVivo software was used for analysing the transcribed verbatim interviews. In total, 30 codes for facilitators and barriers were identified. Themes concerning facilitators to PA were enjoyment, support from others, social contact and friendship, reward, familiarity, and routine of activities. Themes concerning barriers to PA were health and physiological factors, lack of self-confidence, lack of skills, lack of support, transportation problems, costs, and lack of appropriate PA options and materials. The results of the present study suggest that older adults with ID may benefit from specific PA programs, adapted to their individual needs and limitations. Results can be used for developing feasible health promotion programs for older adults with ID.

  1. Prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China: Findings from China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lina; Li, Zhenzhen; Tang, Zhe; Sun, Fei; Diao, Lijun; Li, Jian; He, Yao; Dong, Birong; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Disability affects older adults' quality of life. This study aimed to examine the socio-demographic characteristics of disability in older adults in China. Data was obtained from the China Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Study (CCGAS). The sample comprised 6864 people aged 60 years and above from seven provinces in China. A door-to-door survey was conducted by formally trained interviewers using a unified questionnaire. Disability was assessed with physical health assessment comprising activities of daily living (ADL), and independent activities of daily living (IADL). For the purpose of this study, we analyzed only disability and some socio-demographic dimensions. The rates were standardized based on China's Sixth National Census population distribution. The disability rate in older adults was 7.0%. The disability rate was significantly higher in women than men, significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas, and higher in northern China than southern China. Urban disability rates ranged from 5.7% to 1.2%. The differences were statistically significant, with Beijing having the highest and Shanghai the lowest disability rates. Disability increased with age. In China, the disability rate in older adults is 7.0%, and increases with age. The disability rate is significantly higher in women, rural area, and northern China. This is the first study to report the epidemiology of disability in older adults in China in recent years and indicates the need for further epidemiological data on disability in China to facilitate long-term care and care policy formulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional risk, nutritional status and incident disability in older adults. The FRADEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reig, M; Gómez-Arnedo, L; Alfonso-Silguero, S A; Juncos-Martínez, G; Romero, L; Abizanda, P

    2014-03-01

    To analyze if body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as measures of nutritional status, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) as a nutritional risk measure are associated with increased risk of incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) in a population based cohort of Spanish older adults. Concurrent cohort study. Albacete City, Spain. 678 subjects over age 70 from the FRADEA Study (Frailty and Dependence in Albacete). BMI, WC and MNA-SF were recorded at the basal visit of the FRADEA Study. Incident disability in BADL was defined as loss of the ability to perform bathing, grooming, dressing, toilet use, or feeding from basal to follow-up visit, using the Barthel index. The association between nutritional status and nutritional risk with incident BADL disability was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, basal function, comorbidity, cognitive decline, depression risk and frailty status. Each point less of MNA-SF (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.04-1.31) and MNA-SFanorexia almost reached the significance (OR 1.65, 95%CI 0.94-2.87). Nutritional risk measured with the MNA-SF is associated with incident disability in BADL in older adults, while nutritional status measured with BMI or WC is not.

  3. Gender differences in physical disability among older adults in underprivileged communities in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Mehio Sibai, Abla; Chaaya, Monique; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Yount, Kathryn M

    2011-03-01

    To examine the role of health conditions, socioeconomic, and socioenvironmental factors in explaining gender differences in physical disability among older adults. We compared 412 women and 328 men residing in underprivileged communities in Lebanon on their activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical tasks (PT). Binary logistic regression analyses adjusting for possible explanatory covariates were conducted sequentially. Women showed higher prevalence rates of ADL, IADL, and PT compared to men. Gender disparities in ADL disability were explained by chronic-disease risk factors and health conditions (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.94-2.25). The odds of disability in IADL and PT remained significantly higher for women compared to men after accounting for all available covariates. These results suggest underlying differences in functional status between women and men, yet, may have been influenced by the sensitivity of the measures to the social context and gendered environment surrounding daily activities.

  4. Depressive symptoms in older female carers of adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Y C; Pu, C-Y; Fu, L-Y; Kröger, T

    2010-12-01

    This survey study aims to examine the prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among primary older female family carers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In total, 350 female family carers aged 55 and older took part and completed the interview in their homes. The survey package contained standardised scales to assess carer self-reported depressive symptoms, social support, caregiving burden and disease and health, as well as adult and carer sociodemographic information. Multiple linear regressions were used to identify the factors associated with high depressive symptoms in carers. Between 64% and 72% of these carers were classified as having high depressive symptoms. The factors associated with carer self-reported depressive symptoms were carer physical health, social support and caregiving burden; overall, the carer self-reported physical health was a stronger factor associated with depressive symptoms than their physical disease status. The level of the adult with ID's behavioural functioning and the carer age, marital status, employment status, education level and the family income level were not significantly associated with carer depressive symptoms. The factors identified in this study as correlating with self-reported depressive symptoms suggest that researchers and mental health professionals should collaborate to help improve the physical health and social support networks of the most vulnerable older female family carers. This should reduce depressive symptoms directly among this high-risk group. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Food Access Patterns and Barriers among Midlife and Older Adults with Mobility Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined where midlife and older adults with a mobility disability accessed food outside the home in King County, Washington, USA, how they travelled to these food destinations, and facilitators and barriers to food access using qualitative interviews. Thirty-five adults aged ≥50 years with a mobility disability (defined as use of an assistive device for mobility were interviewed. Supplemental objective information was obtained from a Global Positioning System device worn by participants for 3 days. Participants primarily accessed food at grocery stores, restaurants, and coffee shops/cafés. The most common transportation modes were walking, obtaining a ride from friends, motorized chair/scooter, and public transit. Location and proximity of food destinations were factors affecting participants’ ability to access these destinations. Adequate space, ease of entry, available amenities such as restrooms, and helpful people were facilitators for participants to access food outside the home.

  6. Effectiveness of a life story work program on older adults with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai X

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Xue Bai,1,2 Daniel WH Ho,2 Karen Fung,3 Lily Tang,3 Moon He,3 Kim Wan Young,4 Florence Ho,2 Timothy Kwok2,5 1Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Shatin, Hong Kong; 3Hong Chi Association, Hong Kong; 4Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong; 5Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong Objective: This study examines the effectiveness of a life story work program (LSWp in older adults with mild-to-moderate levels of intellectual disability (ID. Methods: Using a quasiexperimental design, this study assigned 60 older adults who were between 50–90 years old with mild-to-moderate levels of ID to receive either the LSWp (intervention group, N=32 or usual activities (control group, N=28 during a period of 6 months. Evaluation was made based on the outcomes assessed by the Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire, the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and the Personal Well-being Index – ID. Results and conclusion: LSWp shows potential for improving the quality of life and preventing the loss of interest and pleasure in older adults with ID. It also shows promise in enhancing their socialization skills. Patients with better communication abilities seemed to benefit more from the LSWp. Keywords: life story work, life story book, intellectual disabilities, older adults, effectiveness

  7. Why and when social support predicts older adults' pain-related disability: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2017-10-01

    Pain-related social support has been shown to be directly associated with pain-related disability, depending on whether it promotes functional autonomy or dependence. However, previous studies mostly relied on cross-sectional methods, precluding conclusions on the temporal relationship between pain-related social support and disability. Also, research on the behavioral and psychological processes that account for such a relationship is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the following longitudinally: (1) direct effects of social support for functional autonomy/dependence on pain-related disability, (2) mediating role of physical functioning, pain-related self-efficacy, and fear, and (3) whether pain duration and pain intensity moderate such mediating processes. A total of 168 older adults (Mage = 78.3; SDage = 8.7) participated in a 3-month prospective design, with 3 moments of measurement, with a 6-week lag between them. Participants completed the Formal Social Support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the Brief Pain Inventory, the 36-SF Health Survey, behavioral tasks from the Senior Fitness Test, the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia. Moderated mediation analyses showed that formal social support for functional dependence (T1) predicted an increase in pain-related disability (T3), that was mediated by self-reported physical functioning (T2) and by pain-related self-efficacy (T2) at short to moderate pain duration and at low to moderate pain intensity, but not at higher levels. Findings emphasized that social support for functional dependence is a risk factor for pain-related disability and uncovered the "why" and "when" of this relationship. Implications for the design of social support interventions aiming at promoting older adults' healthy aging despite chronic pain are drawn.

  8. Disability associated with obesity, dynapenia and dynapenic-obesity in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Ding, Xiang; Luo, Li; Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Birong

    2014-02-01

    Whether the combination of obesity and low muscle strength (dynapenic-obesity) would cause greater impairment of the activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) than obesity alone and low muscle strength alone (dynapenia) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal the possible independent and additive effects of dynapenia and obesity on ADL/IADL disability in an older Chinese population. A cross-sectional study, including 616 community-dwelling older adults, was conducted in China from 2010 to 2012. Based on the World Health Organization Asian Criteria of Obesity and handgrip strength tertiles, 4 independent groups were identified as follows: nondynapenia/nonobesity, dynapenia alone, obesity alone, and dynapenic-obesity. The Katz Index of Independence in ADL was used to assess ADL disability, whereas 6 IADL items of the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) multidimensional functional assessment questionnaire were used to assess IADL disability. The prevalence of ADL and IADL disability was 21.1% and 28.9% in the dynapenic-obesity group, 15.5% and 22.6% in the dynapenia alone group, 13.1% and 19.6% in the obesity alone group, and 11.9% and 12.9% in the nondynapenia/nonobesity group, respectively. After adjusting for the covariates, in comparison with the dynapenic-obesity group, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for ADL disability were 0.36 (0.13-0.73) in the nondynapenia/nonobesity group, 0.51 (0.20-0.78) in the dynapenia-alone group, and 0.40 (0.11-0.61) in the obesity-alone group. The corresponding data for IADL disability were 0.55 (0.20-0.93), 0.82 (0.39-0.98), and 0.61 (0.30-0.91), respectively. Dynapenia, obesity, and dynapenic-obesity were associated with an increased risk of ADL/IADL disability. Dynapenic-obesity was associated with a greater risk of ADL/IADL disability in comparison with dynapenia or obesity alone. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc

  9. Multi-morbidity, disability and adaptation strategies among community-dwelling adults aged 75 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon K; Vogtle, Laura K

    2016-10-01

    The impact of multi-morbidity and disability on the use of adaptation strategies in older adults has not been well researched. This study investigated categories of adaptation strategies that community-dwelling older adults use to complete their daily activities, identified factors that are associated with the use of behavioral adaptations, and examined the relationship among multi-morbidity, disability and adaptation strategies in this population. A mixed methods research design was used. 105 community-dwelling older adults with ages ranging from 75 to 94 years completed a questionnaire and semi-structured interview on types of chronic illnesses (multi-morbidity), amount of difficulty in completing daily activities (degree of disability), and types of behavioral efforts made to complete daily activities that are challenging (adaptation strategies). The model of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) was used to categorize these strategies. The findings revealed that older adults use a wide range of adaptations with compensation and selection the most (40.4%) and least (16.5%) frequently reported respectively. Degree of disability was uniquely associated with the frequency of using SOC strategies while controlling for other factors. Furthermore, degree of disability was a mediator for multi-morbidity in predicting frequency of using SOC strategies. The findings support that older adults using behavioral adaptations to cope with functional decline is prevalent. Knowing the types of adaptation that older adults employed and the indirect relationship between multi-morbidity and frequency of using SOC strategies, with degree of disability as the mediator will be helpful in planning interventions and prevention programs for educating older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Frailty and long term mortality, disability and hospitalisation in Spanish older adults. The FRADEA Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Reig, Marta; Flores Ruano, Teresa; Fernández Sánchez, Miguel; Noguerón García, Alicia; Romero Rizos, Luis; Abizanda Soler, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse whether frailty is related to long-term mortality, incident disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL), and hospitalisation. A concurrent cohort study conducted on 993 participants over age 70 from the FRADEA Study. Frailty was determined with Fried frailty phenotype. Data was collected on mortality, hospitalisation and incident disability in BADL (bathing, grooming, dressing, toileting, eating or transferring) during the follow-up period. The risk of adverse events was determined by logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for age, sex, Barthel index, comorbidity and institutionalization. Mean follow-up was 952 days (SD 408), during which 182 participants (18.4%) died. Frail participants had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 4.5, 95%CI: 1.8-11.1), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.3-5.9) and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 3.0, 95%CI: 1.5-6.1). Pre-frail subjects had an increased adjusted risk of death (HR 2.9, 95%CI: 1.2-6.5), incident disability in BADL (OR 2.1, 95%CI: 1.2-3.6), and the combined event mortality or incident disability (OR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.3-3.6). There was a positive association between frailty and hospitalisation, which almost reached statistical significance (OR 1.7, 95%CI: 1.0-3.0). Frailty is long-term associated with mortality and incident disability in BADL in a Spanish cohort of older adults. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies in older adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli eCarmeli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in the number of individuals living with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDD along with their increased longevity present challenges to those concerned about health and well-being of this unique population. While much is known about health promotion and disease prevention in the general geriatric population, far less is known about those in older adults with IDD. Effective and efficient health promotion and disease prevention strategies need to be developed and implemented for improving the health and quality of life of older adults living with IDD. This is considered to be challenging given the continued shrinkage in the overall health care and welfare system services due to the cut in the governmental budget in some of the western countries. The ideal health promotion and disease prevention strategies for older adults with IDD should be tailored to the individuals’ health risks, address primary and secondary disease prevention and prevent avoidable impairments that cause premature institutionalization. Domains of intervention should include cognitive, mental and physical health, accommodations, workplace considerations, assistive technology, recreational activities and nutrition.

  12. Impact of fear of falling and fall history on disability incidence among older adults: Prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Keitaro; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-04-01

    Fear of falling (FOF) is a major health problem for older adults, present not just in fallers, but also nonfallers. This study examined the impact of FOF and fall history on disability incidence among community-dwelling older adults from a prospective cohort study. A total of 5104 older adults living in community settings participated in baseline assessment and were followed up for about 4 years (median 52 mo, range 49-55 mo). At baseline, participants were assessed the presence of FOF and their fall history, and divided into 4 groups: Fall (-) FOF (-), Fall (+) FOF (-), Fall (-) FOF (+), and Fall (+) FOF (+). Disability incidence was defined as national long-term care insurance certification for personal support or care. During the follow-up period, 429 participants (9.9%) were newly certified as having a disability and needing personal support for long-term care insurance. Fall (-) FOF (+) group and Fall (+) FOF (+) group showed a significantly higher risk of disability incidence than Fall (-) FOF (-) group even after adjusting for covariates (Fall (-) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.62, Fall (+) FOF (+): hazard ratio 1.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.98). Fear of falling could be a simple and useful predictor of disability incidence in community-dwelling older adults. Identifying and decreasing fall risk factors may prevent fall-related injuries, but excessive FOF may be associated with increased risk of disability incidence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Does functional disability mediate the pain-depression relationship in older adults with osteoarthritis? A longitudinal study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Man, Wing Young Nicola; Fu, Hua

    2015-03-01

    Older adults with osteoarthritis have been found to be impaired in physical functioning and report higher levels of depression. This study examined the relationships between pain, functional disability, and depression to test the activity restriction model in a cohort of 176 older adults in China. This model states that disability is a mediator for the relationship between pain and depression. Other investigators have found that pain and disability were two independent correlates of depression. In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, the authors found that disability is a mediator, using commonly accepted methods (indirect effect 44%, Sobel Z = 4.07, P mediation effect was not seen when the outcome was residualized with the baseline value. When the baseline level of depression is residualized, the effect size of the relationship is reduced, requiring larger sample size to test its effect. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Community Weight Loss to Combat Obesity and Disability in At-Risk Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Ambrosius, Walter T; Burdette, Jonathan H; Walkup, Michael P; Marsh, Anthony P

    2017-10-12

    Among older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or the metabolic syndrome, reduced mobility and loss of leg strength are important risk factors for morbidity, disability, and mortality. It is unclear whether community-based approaches to weight loss may be an effective solution to this public health challenge. An 18-month three-site, randomized controlled trial conducted by YMCA staff, with blinded assessors, enrolled 249 older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome with randomization to three interventions: weight loss alone (WL), weight loss + aerobic training (WL + AT), and weight loss + resistance training (WT + RT). The dual primary outcomes were 400-m walk time in seconds and knee extensor strength in Newton meters. All groups lost weight from baseline: average baseline adjusted change of -6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.5 to -4.7) for WL only, -8.6% (95% CI: -10.0 to -7.2) for WL + AT, and -9.7% (95% CI: -11.1 to -8.4) for WL + RT. Combined, the two physical activity + WL training groups had greater improvement in walk time than WL alone (mean difference 16.9 seconds [95% CI: 9.7 to 24.0], p < .0001). Baseline adjusted change in knee extensor strength was no greater with WL + RT than WL + AT (mean difference -3.6 Nm [95% CI: -7.5 to 0.3], p = .07). At risk, older, overweight and obese adults can achieve clinically significant reductions in body weight with community-based weight loss programs. The change in percent weight loss and improvements in mobility are significantly enhanced when either RT or AT is combined with dietary WL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Disability in older adults with acute low back pain: the study Back Complaints in the Elderly - (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Alessandra Regina Silva Araujo; Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Pereira, Leani Souza Maximo; Godinho, Larissa Birro; Assis, Marcella Guimarães

    The increase in the older adult and oldest old population in Brazil is growing. This phenomenon may be accompanied by an increase in musculoskeletal symptoms such as low back pain. This condition is usually associated with disability. To verify the association between pain intensity and disability in older adults with acute low back pain and assess whether these variables differ depending on the age group and marital status. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 532 older adults with acute low back pain episodes. Pain intensity was assessed through the Numeric Pain Scale and disability through the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument, which shows two dimensions: "frequency" and "limitation" in performing activities. The association between pain and disability was analyzed. For the interaction effect between age groups and marital status, we found that the oldest old living with a partner performed activities of the personal domain less often compared to the oldest old living alone. The oldest old group living with a partner had a lower frequency of performing activities, but did not report feeling limited. The association of pain with disability was minimal (rholow back pain was influenced by the interaction between age groups and marital status and is not associated with pain intensity. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of two types of Actiwatch with polysomnography in older adults with intellectual disability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Ellen; Evenhuis, Heleen M; Echteld, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    The Actiwatch is increasingly being used to investigate sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate which sensitivity setting of the Actiwatch is most suitable to detect sleep disturbance in older adults with intellectual disability (ID). Two Actiwatch types were compared to polysomnography (PSG) in 10 older adults with mild ID, using a 1-min epoch-to-epoch comparison. Outcome measures were sleep detection percentage, wake detection percentage, and overall accuracy of both Actiwatches, and several sleep parameters. The high sensitivity setting of the Actiwatch appeared most suitable to detect sleep disturbance in older adults with ID (wake detection percentage = 54.6%, sleep detection percentage = 89.7%). Sleep parameters calculated using the high sensitivity setting corresponded well to PSG outcomes. Outcomes were similar for both Actiwatches. We recommend using the high sensitivity setting of the Actiwatch for clinical evaluation of sleep, and for epidemiological research in older adults with ID.

  17. The impact of physical performance and cognitive status on subsequent ADL disability in low-functioning older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of physical performance and cognitive status to subsequent levels of ADL disability in low-functioning non-institutionalized older adults. Methods. A prospective cohort study included 416 women and 141 men 57 years of

  18. Physical Activity Attenuates Total and Cardiovascular Mortality Associated With Physical Disability: A National Cohort of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Higueras-Fresnillo, Sara; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2018-01-16

    Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to protect against disability onset but, once the disability is present, it is unclear if PA might attenuate its harmful health consequences. Thus, we examined if mortality risk associated with physical disability can be offset by PA among older adults. We used data from a cohort of 3,752 individuals representative of the noninstitutionalized population aged 60 years and older in Spain. In 2000-2001, participants self-reported both PA levels (inactive, occasionally, monthly, weekly) and five physical disabilities (agility, mobility, global daily activities, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-care). Individuals were prospectively followed through 2014 to assess incident deaths. The mean follow-up was 10.8 years, with a total of 1,727 deaths, 638 of them due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All disability types were associated with higher total and CVD mortality. Being physically active (ie, doing any PA) was associated with a statistically significant 26%-37% and 35%-50% lower risk of total and CVD death, respectively, across types of disability. As compared with those being physically active and without disability, those who were inactive and had a disability showed the highest mortality risk from total (hazard ratios from 1.52 to 1.90 across disabilities, all p disability. In older adults, PA could attenuate the increased risk of mortality associated with physical disability. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Social and health determinants of gender differences in disability amongst older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been an unprecedented increase in population ageing resulting in the increase in prevalence of various health conditions, including disability and associated risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability amongst older South Africans. Little is known about disability amongst older South Africans because most previous health research has focused on younger individuals and infectious diseases. We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 subjects aged 50 years or older in South Africa. Multivariable regression analysis was performed in order to assess the association of social factors, health variables and functional disability. Overall, 37.2%of the respondents had moderate or severe and/or very severe functional disability, this being higher amongst women. The highest disability was found for the mobility, cognition and participation domains. In all domains, except for the self-care domain, women had a higher disability prevalence. Multivariable analysis amongst men revealed that older age, having some or primary education, being from Indian or Asian race, having chronic conditions, physical inactivity and a lower quality of life were associated with functional disability. Amongst women, older age, as well as having chronic conditions and a lower quality of life, were associated with functional disability. This study has implications for health-sector strategic plans aimed at preventing disabilities, ensuring access to curative and rehabilitative care. This study forms an evidence base upon which future policies and health care management systems can be based.

  20. Trends in disability of instrumental activities of daily living among older Chinese adults, 1997-2006: population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Möller, Jette; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-08-28

    Data on trends for disability in instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) are sparse in older Chinese adults. To assess trends in prevalence and incidence of IADL disability among older Chinese adults and to explore contributing factors. Population based study. 15 provinces and municipalities in China. Participants (age ≥60) were from four waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey, conducted in 1997 (n=1533), 2000 (n=1581), 2004 (n=2028) and 2006 (n=2256), and from two cohorts constructed within the national survey: cohort 1997-2004 (n=712) and cohort 2000-2006 (n=823). IADL disability was defined as inability to perform one or more of the following: shopping, cooking, using transportation, financing and telephoning. Data were analysed with logistic regression and generalised estimating equation models. The prevalence of IADL disability significantly decreased from 1997 to 2006 in the total sample and in all of the subgroups by age, sex, living region and IADL items (all p trend 0.10). The recovery rate from IADL disability significantly increased over time in those aged 60-69 years (p=0.03). Living in a rural area or access to local clinics for healthcare was less disabling over time (p trend <0.02). The prevalence of IADL disability decreased among older Chinese adults during 1997-2006, whereas the incidence remained stable. The declining prevalence of IADL disability might be partly due to the decreased duration of IADL disability, and to improvements in living conditions and healthcare facilities over time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Gender differences in life expectancy with and without disability among older adults in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez-Guevara, Pilar; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge on disability's impact among older women and men in Ecuador is limited. This paper provides gender-specific estimates of disability prevalence, life expectancy with and without disability, and the factors associated with gender differences in disability at older age in Ecuador (2009-2010). Data from the Health, Well-Being, and Aging Survey (SABE) Ecuador 2009 was used. Participants were 4480 men and women aged 60 and over. Life expectancy with and without disability was calculated using the Sullivan method. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore gender differences in disability prevalence. Two disability measures, indicating limitations in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), were used. 60-year-old women in Ecuador can expect to live 16.3 years without ADL limitations compared to 16.9 years for men. Life expectancy without IADL limitations was 12.5 years for women and 15.5 years for men. At age 60, women's length of life with ADL and IADL disability was higher (7.9 years for women vs. 4.9 years for men with ADL, and 11.7 years for women vs. 6.3 years for men with IADL). After controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, chronic conditions and lifestyle factors, gender differences in ADL disability were not statistically significant. However, older women were 58% more likely (OR=1.58, 95% CI 1.27, 1.95) to report having IADL limitations than men, even after including control variables. Interventions should tackle chronic disease, physical inactivity, and socioeconomic differences to reduce women's vulnerability to disability in older age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Differences in Brain Structure and Function in Older Adults with Self-Reported Disabling and Non-Disabling Chronic Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Neilly; Haut, Marc W.; Aizenstein, Howard; Morrow, Lisa; Perera, Subashan; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Weiner, Debra K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The primary aim of this pilot study was to identify structural and functional brain differences in older adults with self-reported disabling chronic low back pain (CLBP) compared with those who reported non-disabling CLBP. Design Cross-sectional. Participants Sixteen cognitively intact older adults, eight with disabling CLBP and eight with non-disabling. Exclusions were psychiatric or neurological disorders, substance abuse, opioid use, or diabetes mellitus. Methods Participants underwent: structural and functional brain MRI; neuropsychological assessment using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Trail Making Tests A and B; and physical performance assessment using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Results In the disabled group there was significantly lower white matter (WM) integrity (P < 0.05) of the splenium of the corpus callosum. This group also demonstrated activation of the right medial prefrontal cortex at rest whereas the non-disabled demonstrated activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex. Combined groups analysis revealed a strong positive correlation (rs = 0.80, P < 0.0002) between WM integrity of the left centrum semiovale with gait-speed. Secondary analysis revealed a strong negative correlation between total months of CLBP and WM integrity of the SCC (rs = −0.59, P < 0.02). Conclusions Brain structure and function is different in older adults with disabling CLBP compared to those with non-disabling CLBP. Deficits in brain morphology combining groups are associated with pain duration and poor physical function. Our findings suggest brain structure and function may play a key role in chronic-pain-related-disability and may be important treatment targets. PMID:20609128

  3. The structure of walking activity in people after stroke compared with older adults without disability: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Margaret A; Rudolph, Katherine S; Reisman, Darcy S

    2012-09-01

    People with stroke have reduced walking activity. It is not known whether this deficit is due to a reduction in all aspects of walking activity or only in specific areas. Understanding specific walking activity deficits is necessary for the development of interventions that maximize improvements in activity after stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine walking activity in people poststroke compared with older adults without disability. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Fifty-four participants poststroke and 18 older adults without disability wore a step activity monitor for 3 days. The descriptors of walking activity calculated included steps per day (SPD), bouts per day (BPD), steps per bout (SPB), total time walking per day (TTW), percentage of time walking per day (PTW), and frequency of short, medium, and long walking bouts. Individuals classified as household and limited community ambulators (n=29) did not differ on any measure and were grouped (HHA-LCA group) for comparison with unlimited community ambulators (UCA group) (n=22) and with older adults without disability (n=14). The SPD, TTW, PTW, and BPD measurements were greatest in older adults and lowest in the HHA-LCA group. Seventy-two percent to 74% of all walking bouts were short, and this finding did not differ across groups. Walking in all categories (short, medium, and long) was lowest in the HHA-LCA group, greater in the UCA group, and greatest in older adults without disability. Three days of walking activity were captured. The specific descriptors of walking activity presented provide insight into walking deficits after stroke that cannot be ascertained by looking at steps per day alone. The deficits that were revealed could be addressed through appropriate exercise prescription, underscoring the need to analyze the structure of walking activity.

  4. Adaptation to disability among middle-aged and older adults: The role of assimilative and accommodative coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the links between coping, disability, and mental health among adults who are confronted with age-related vision loss. Drawing on the model of assimilative and accommodative coping (e.g., Brandtstädter, 1999), hierarchical regressions were designed to examine the effects of coping and disability on mental health. Participants were 55 middle-aged and 52 older adults who had been recruited from a community-based rehabilitation agency. Findings demonstrate a critical role of accommodative coping for adaptation, with beneficial effects on mental health that were more pronounced in the case of high disability for younger participants. Finally, findings suggest that dealing with disability may pose more of a mental health risk in middle than in late adulthood. PMID:14722337

  5. Health and participation problems in older adults with long-term disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilberink, Sander R; van der Slot, Wilma M A; Klem, Martijn

    2017-04-01

    More attention and understanding of the health and participation problems of adults with early and later onset disabilities in the Netherlands is needed. To explore health/participation problems and unmet needs in adults aged ≥40 years with long-term disabilities and their relationship with the time of onset. Participants were recruited in the Netherlands through newsletters and social media to participate in a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed background characteristics, (change in) health/participation problems, and unmet needs. Spearman's rho was used to examine the relationships with time of onset. Of the 163 survey respondents, 42% acquired their disability before age 25 years and reported fatigue (77%), walking problems (66%), and pain (59%). In 21% of the respondents with early-onset disability fatigue, pain and depressive feelings co-occurred. Early-onset disability correlated with joint deformities, pain and anxiety. Participation problems included loss of income and fewer social activities. Early-onset correlated with the need for more information about diagnosis and prognosis. People aged over 40 years with long-term disability have significant and increasing health and participation problems. Adults with early-onset disability are more likely to have health or participation problems than adults with late-onset disability. Early identification is needed for preventive care and access to specialized services that focus on improving and maintaining physical symptoms, energy management, and participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

  7. A systematic review of physical illness, functional disability, and suicidal behaviour among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fässberg, Madeleine Mellqvist; Cheung, Gary; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2016-01-01

    were included in the review. RESULTS: Sixty-five articles (across 61 independent samples) met inclusion criteria. Results from 59 quantitative studies conducted in four continents suggest that suicidal behaviour is associated with functional disability and numerous specific conditions including......OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of studies that examined associations between physical illness/functional disability and suicidal behaviour (including ideation, nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviour) among individuals aged 65 and older. METHOD: Articles published through November 2014...... were identified through electronic searches using the ERIC, Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Scopus databases. Search terms used were suicid* or death wishes or deliberate self-harm. Studies about suicidal behaviour in individuals aged 65 and older with physical illness/functional disabilities...

  8. Predictors of Persistent Disability and Back Pain in Older Adults with a New Episode of Care for Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Sean D; Sherman, Karen J; Heagerty, Patrick J; Mock, Charles N; Dettori, Nathan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Avins, Andrew L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

     To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults.  Prospective cohort study.  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry.  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain.  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics. We abstracted imaging findings from 348 radiology reports. The primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and back pain intensity. We defined persistent disability as RMDQ of 4/24 or higher at both six and 12 months and persistent back pain as pain 3/10 or higher at both six and 12 months.  There were 2,498 of 4,143 (60.3%) participants with persistent disability, and 2,099 of 4,144 (50.7%) had persistent back pain. Adjusted analyses showed the following characteristics most strongly predictive of persistent disability and persistent back pain: sex, race, worse baseline clinical characteristics of back pain, leg pain, back-related disability and duration of symptoms, smoking, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, a history of falls, greater number of comorbidities, knee osteoarthritis, wide-spread pain syndromes, and an index diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Within the imaging data subset, central spinal stenosis was not associated with disability or pain.  We found that many predictors in older adults were similar to those for younger populations. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. A structured physical activity and fitness programme for older adults with intellectual disabilities : Results of a cluster-randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schijndel-Speet, M.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, R.; van Montfort, K. C. A. G. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    BackgroundThe physical activity level of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is extremely low, and their fitness levels are far beneath accepted norms for older people with normal intelligence and comparable with frail older people. A physical activity programme, including an education

  10. Effects of Functional Disability and Depressive Symptoms on Mortality in Older Mexican-American Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutambudzi, Miriam; Chen, Nai-Wei; Markides, Kyriakos S; Al Snih, Soham

    2016-11-01

    To examine the effect of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability on mortality in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus. Longitudinal cohort study. Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (HEPESE) survey conducted in the southwestern United States (Texas, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, California). Community-dwelling Mexican Americans with self-reported diabetes mellitus participating in the HEPESE survey (N = 624). Functional disability was assessed using a modified version of the Katz activity of daily living scale. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Mortality was determined by examining death certificates and reports from relatives. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the hazard of mortality as a function of co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability. Over a 9.2-year follow-up, 391 participants died. Co-occurring high depressive symptoms and functional disability increased the risk of mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.11-4.34). Risk was greater in men (HR = 8.11, 95% CI = 4.34-16.31) than women (HR = 2.21, 95% CI = 1.42-3.43). Co-occurring depressive symptoms and functional disability in older Mexican-American adults with diabetes mellitus increases mortality risk, especially in men. These findings have important implications for research, practice, and public health interventions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Diabetes, hyperglycemia, and the burden of functional disability among older adults in a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Job G; Appel, Lawrence J; Gross, Alden L; Schrack, Jennifer A; Parrinello, Christina M; Kalyani, Rita R; Windham, Beverly Gwen; Pankow, James S; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for continued surveillance of diabetes-related functional disability. In the present study, we examined associations between diabetes, hyperglycemia, and the burden of functional disability in a community-based population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of 5035 participants who attended Visit 5 (2011-13) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Functional disability was dichotomously defined by any self-reported difficulty performing 12 tasks essential to independent living grouped into four functional domains. Associations of diagnosed diabetes (via self-report) and undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes (via HbA1c) with functional disability were evaluated using Poisson regression. Participants had a mean age of 75 years, 42 % were male, 22 % were Black, and 31 % had diagnosed diabetes. Those with diagnosed diabetes had a significantly greater burden of functional disability than those without diabetes, even after adjustment for demographics, health behaviors, and comorbidities: prevalence ratios (95 % confidence intervals) were 1.24 (1.15, 1.34) for lower extremity mobility, 1.14 (1.07, 1.21) for general physical activities, 1.33 (1.16, 1.52) for instrumental activities of daily living (ADL), and 1.46 (1.24, 1.73) for ADL (all P  0.05). Among older adults, the burden of functional disability associated with diabetes was not entirely explained by known risk factors, including comorbidities. Hyperglycemia below the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes was not associated with disability. Research into effective strategies for the prevention of functional disability among older adults with diabetes is needed. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Probit vs. semi-nonparametric estimation: examining the role of disability on institutional entry for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andy

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to showcase an advanced methodological approach to model disability and institutional entry. Both of these are important areas to investigate given the on-going aging of the United States population. By 2020, approximately 15% of the population will be 65 years and older. Many of these older adults will experience disability and require formal care. A probit analysis was employed to determine which disabilities were associated with admission into an institution (i.e. long-term care). Since this framework imposes strong distributional assumptions, misspecification leads to inconsistent estimators. To overcome such a short-coming, this analysis extended the probit framework by employing an advanced semi-nonparamertic maximum likelihood estimation utilizing Hermite polynomial expansions. Specification tests show semi-nonparametric estimation is preferred over probit. In terms of the estimates, semi-nonparametric ratios equal 42 for cognitive difficulty, 64 for independent living, and 111 for self-care disability while probit yields much smaller estimates of 19, 30, and 44, respectively. Public health professionals can use these results to better understand why certain interventions have not shown promise. Equally important, healthcare workers can use this research to evaluate which type of treatment plans may delay institutionalization and improve the quality of life for older adults. Implications for rehabilitation With on-going global aging, understanding the association between disability and institutional entry is important in devising successful rehabilitation interventions. Semi-nonparametric is preferred to probit and shows ambulatory and cognitive impairments present high risk for institutional entry (long-term care). Informal caregiving and home-based care require further examination as forms of rehabilitation/therapy for certain types of disabilities.

  13. Discrimination in Healthcare Settings is Associated with Disability in Older Adults: Health and Retirement Study, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephanie E; Thrasher, Angela D; Miao, Yinghui; Boscardin, W John; Smith, Alexander K

    2015-10-01

    As our society ages, improving medical care for an older population will be crucial. Discrimination in healthcare may contribute to substandard experiences with the healthcare system, increasing the burden of poor health in older adults. Few studies have focused on the presence of healthcare discrimination and its effects on older adults. We aimed to examine the relationship between healthcare discrimination and new or worsened disability. This was a longitudinal analysis of data from the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study administered in 2008 with follow-up through 2012. Six thousand and seventeen adults over the age of 50 years (mean age 67 years, 56.3 % female, 83.1 % white) were included in this study. Healthcare discrimination assessed by a 2008 report of receiving poorer service or treatment than other people by doctors or hospitals (never, less than a year=infrequent; more than once a year=frequent). Outcome was self-report of new or worsened disability by 2012 (difficulty or dependence in any of six activities of daily living). We used a Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, gender, net worth, education, depression, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, and healthcare utilization in the past 2 years. In all, 12.6 % experienced discrimination infrequently and 5.9 % frequently. Almost one-third of participants (29 %) reporting frequent healthcare discrimination developed new or worsened disability over 4 years, compared to 16.8 % of those who infrequently and 14.7 % of those who never experienced healthcare discrimination (p discrimination, frequent healthcare discrimination was associated with new or worsened disability over 4 years (aHR = 1.63, 95 % CI 1.16-2.27). One out of five adults over the age of 50 years experiences discrimination in healthcare settings. One in 17 experience frequent healthcare discrimination, and this is associated with new or worsened

  14. Cancer in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Navigating Cancer Care > For Older Adults For Older Adults A full-text transcript is available. More than ... Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Aging and Cancer Cancer Care Decisions for ...

  15. Minimizing Air Pollution Exposure: A Practical Policy to Protect Vulnerable Older Adults from Death and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Nick; Levine, Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution causes an estimated 200,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Older adults are at greater risk of mortality caused by air pollution. Here we quantify the number of older adult facilities in Los Angeles County that are exposed to high levels of traffic derived air pollution, and propose policy solutions to reduce pollution exposure to this vulnerable subgroup. Distances between 20,362 intersections and 858 elder care facilities were estimated, and roads or highways within 500 of facilities were used to estimate traffic volume exposure. Of the 858 facilities, 54 were located near at least one major roadway, defined as a traffic volume over 100,000 cars/day. These 54 facilities house approximately 6,000 older adults. Following standards established for schools, we recommend legislation mandating the placement of new elder care facilities a minimum of 500 feet from major roadways in order to reduce unnecessary mortality risk from pollution exposure.

  16. Association between muscle power impairment and WHODAS 2.0 in older adults with physical disability in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Liao, Hua-Fang; Yen, Chia-Fan; Hwang, Ai-Wen; Chi, Wen-Chou; Escorpizo, Reuben; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2015-01-01

    To explore the association between muscle power impairment and each World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule second edition (WHODAS 2.0) domain score among subjects with physical disability. Subjects (≥ 60 years) with physical disability related to neurological diseases, including 730 subjects with brain disease (BD) and 126 subjects with non-BD, were enrolled from a data bank of persons with disabilities from 1 July 2011 to 29 February 2012. Standardized WHODAS 2.0 scores ranging from 0 (least difficulty) to 100 (greatest difficulty) points were calculated for each domain. More than 50% of subjects with physical disability had the greatest difficulty in household activities and mobility. Muscle power impairment (adjusted odds ratios range among domains, 2.75-376.42, p < 0.001), age (1.38-4.81, p < 0.05), and speech impairment (1.94-5.80, p < 0.05) were associated with BD subjects experiencing the greatest difficulty in most WHODAS 2.0 domains. But a few associated factors were identified for the non-BD group in the study. Although the patterns of difficulty in most daily activities were similar between the BD and non-BD groups, factors associated with the difficulties differed between those two groups. Muscle power impairment, age and speech impairment were important factors associated with difficulties in subjects with BD-related physical disability. Older adults with physical disability often experience difficulties in household activities and mobility. Muscle power impairment is associated with difficulties in daily life in subjects with physical disability related to brain disease. Those subjects with brain disease who had older age, a greater degree of muscle power impairment, and the presence of speech impairment were at higher risk of experiencing difficulties in most daily activities.

  17. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled; Jeune, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    The population of Palestine comprises almost 200 000 Palestinians aged 60 or older. The purpose of the study was to estimate disability-free life expectancy for Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip and to evaluate changes from 2006 to 2010. The study combined mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14.1 years) and 1.8 years for 60-year-old women (from 12.6 years to 14.4 years). This increase was seen in the Gaza Strip as well as in the West Bank. While the modest contribution of the mortality effect did not differ between gender and regions, the strong contributions from the disability effects varied, being greatest for women in the Gaza Strip. The significant increase in disability-free life expectancy for both genders is remarkable and, to our knowledge, not seen in other low-income countries. This change may be due to decreasing incidence of disability and greater recovery from disability as a result of better prevention, care and rehabilitation of chronic diseases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Social and health determinants of gender differences in disability amongst older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been an unprecedented increase in population ageing resulting in the increase in prevalence of various health conditions, including disability and associated risk factors. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability amongst older South Africans. Little is known about disability amongst older South Africans because most previous health research has focused on younger individuals and infectious diseases. We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3840 subjects aged 50 years or older in South Africa. Multivariable regression analysis was performed in order to assess the association of social factors, health variables and functional disability. Overall, 37.2% of the respondents had moderate or severe and/or very severe functional disability, this being higher amongst women. The highest disability was found for the mobility, cognition and participation domains. In all domains, except for the self-care domain, women had a higher disability prevalence. Multivariable analysis amongst men revealed that older age, having some or primary education, being from Indian or Asian race, having chronic conditions, physical inactivity and a lower quality of life were associated with functional disability. Amongst women, older age, as well as having chronic conditions and a lower quality of life, were associated with functional disability. This study has implications for health-sector strategic plans aimed at preventing disabilities, ensuring access to curative and rehabilitative care. This study forms an evidence base upon which future policies and health care management systems can be based. Daar was ’n ongekende toename in bevolkingsveroudering, wat ’n toename in die voorkoms van verskeie gesondheidstoestande tot gevolg gehad het, insluitende gestremdheid en gepaardgaande faktore. Die studie was daarop gemik om die voorkoms en voorspelbaarheid van die

  19. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  20. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  1. Socio-demographic patterns of disability among older adult populations of low-income and middle-income countries: results from World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Kostanjsek, Nenad; Kowal, Paul; Officer, Alana; Chatterji, Somnath

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to quantify disability prevalence among older adults of low- and middle-income countries, and measure socio-demographic distribution of disability. World Health Survey data included 53,447 adults aged 50 or older from 43 low- and middle-income countries. Disability was a binary classification, based on a composite score derived from self-reported functional difficulties. Socio-demographic variables included sex, age, marital status, area of residence, education level, and household economic status. A multivariate Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to assess associations between disability and socio-demographic variables. Overall, 33.3 % (95 % CI 32.2-34.4 %) of older adults reported disability. Disability was 1.5 times more common in females, and was positively associated with increasing age. Divorced/separated/widowed respondents reported higher disability rates in all but one study country, and education and wealth levels were inversely associated with disability rates. Urban residence tended to be advantageous over rural. Country-level datasets showed disparate patterns. Effective approaches aimed at disability prevention and improved disability management are warranted, including the inclusion of equity considerations in monitoring and evaluation activities.

  2. Relationship Between Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Disability in Older Adults: The Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between disability and the American Heart Association metric of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) in older adults from the 2009-10 Chilean National Health Survey. Data from 460 older adults were analyzed. All subjects were interviewed using the standardized World Health Survey, which includes 16 health-related questions and assesses the domains of mobility, self-care, pain and discomfort, cognition, interpersonal activities, vision, sleep and energy, and affect. A person who responds with a difficulty rating of severe, extreme, or unable to do in at least one of these eight functioning domains is considered to have a disability. Ideal CVH was defined as meeting the ideal levels of four behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet adherence) and three factors (total cholesterol, fasting glucose, blood pressure). Logistic regression analysis suggested that ideal physical activity reduces the odds of disability (odds ratio (OR) = 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36-0.85). Moreover, participants with intermediate (3-4 metrics) (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.97) and ideal (5-7 metrics) (OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.24-0.97) CVH profiles had lower odds of disability independent of history of vascular events and arthritis disease than those with a poor profile (0-2 metrics). In conclusion, despite the cross-sectional design, this study suggests the importance of promoting ideal CVH because of their relationship with disability. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Disability transitions and health expectancies among adults 45 years and older in Malawi: a cohort-based model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collin F Payne

    Full Text Available Falling fertility and increasing life expectancy contribute to a growing elderly population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; by 2060, persons aged 45 y and older are projected to be 25% of SSA's population, up from 10% in 2010. Aging in SSA is associated with unique challenges because of poverty and inadequate social supports. However, despite its importance for understanding the consequences of population aging, the evidence about the prevalence of disabilities and functional limitations due to poor physical health among older adults in SSA continues to be very limited.Participants came from 2006, 2008, and 2010 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Survey of Families and Health, a study of the rural population in Malawi. We investigate how poor physical health results in functional limitations that limit the day-to-day activities of individuals in domains relevant to this subsistence-agriculture context. These disabilities were parameterized based on questions from the SF-12 questionnaire about limitations in daily living activities. We estimated age-specific patterns of functional limitations and the transitions over time between different disability states using a discrete-time hazard model. The estimated transition rates were then used to calculate the first (to our knowledge microdata-based health expectancies calculated for SSA. The risks of experiencing functional limitations due to poor physical health are high in this population, and the onset of disabilities happens early in life. Our analyses show that 45-y-old women can expect to spend 58% (95% CI, 55%-64% of their remaining 28 y of life (95% CI, 25.7-33.5 with functional limitations; 45-y-old men can expect to live 41% (95% CI, 35%-46% of their remaining 25.4 y (95% CI, 23.3-28.8 with such limitations. Disabilities related to functional limitations are shown to have a substantial negative effect on individuals' labor activities, and are negatively related to subjective well

  4. Disability transitions and health expectancies among adults 45 years and older in Malawi: a cohort-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Mkandawire, James; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Falling fertility and increasing life expectancy contribute to a growing elderly population in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); by 2060, persons aged 45 y and older are projected to be 25% of SSA's population, up from 10% in 2010. Aging in SSA is associated with unique challenges because of poverty and inadequate social supports. However, despite its importance for understanding the consequences of population aging, the evidence about the prevalence of disabilities and functional limitations due to poor physical health among older adults in SSA continues to be very limited. Participants came from 2006, 2008, and 2010 waves of the Malawi Longitudinal Survey of Families and Health, a study of the rural population in Malawi. We investigate how poor physical health results in functional limitations that limit the day-to-day activities of individuals in domains relevant to this subsistence-agriculture context. These disabilities were parameterized based on questions from the SF-12 questionnaire about limitations in daily living activities. We estimated age-specific patterns of functional limitations and the transitions over time between different disability states using a discrete-time hazard model. The estimated transition rates were then used to calculate the first (to our knowledge) microdata-based health expectancies calculated for SSA. The risks of experiencing functional limitations due to poor physical health are high in this population, and the onset of disabilities happens early in life. Our analyses show that 45-y-old women can expect to spend 58% (95% CI, 55%-64%) of their remaining 28 y of life (95% CI, 25.7-33.5) with functional limitations; 45-y-old men can expect to live 41% (95% CI, 35%-46%) of their remaining 25.4 y (95% CI, 23.3-28.8) with such limitations. Disabilities related to functional limitations are shown to have a substantial negative effect on individuals' labor activities, and are negatively related to subjective well-being. Individuals in this

  5. Prevalence of and factors associated with frailty and disability in older adults from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, R B; Minicuci, N; Yawson, A E; Theou, O; Mensah, G P; Naidoo, N; Wu, F; Guo, Y; Zheng, Y; Jiang, Y; Maximova, T; Kalula, S; Arokiasamy, P; Salinas-Rodríguez, A; Manrique-Espinoza, B; Snodgrass, J J; Sterner, K N; Eick, G; Liebert, M A; Schrock, J; Afshar, S; Thiele, E; Vollmer, S; Harttgen, K; Strulik, H; Byles, J E; Rockwood, K; Mitnitski, A; Chatterji, S; Kowal, P

    2016-09-01

    The severe burden imposed by frailty and disability in old age is a major challenge for healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries alike. The current study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence of frailty and disability in older adult populations and to examine their relationship with socioeconomic factors in six countries. Focusing on adults aged 50+ years, a frailty index was constructed as the proportion of deficits in 40 variables, and disability was assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), as part of the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. This study included a total of 34,123 respondents. China had the lowest percentages of older adults with frailty (13.1%) and with disability (69.6%), whereas India had the highest percentages (55.5% and 93.3%, respectively). Both frailty and disability increased with age for all countries, and were more frequent in women, although the sex gap varied across countries. Lower levels of both frailty and disability were observed at higher levels of education and wealth. Both education and income were protective factors for frailty and disability in China, India and Russia, whereas only income was protective in Mexico, and only education in South Africa. Age-related frailty and disability are increasing concerns for older adult populations in low- and middle-income countries. The results indicate that lower levels of frailty and disability can be achieved for older people, and the study highlights the need for targeted preventive approaches and support programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. International classification of function, disability and health framework for fall risk stratification in community dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majumi M. Noohu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls is an important cause for mortality and morbidity in older adults. The fall risk assessment is an integral component of fall prevention in older adults. The international classification of function, disability and health (ICF can be an ideal comprehensive model for fall risk assessment. There is lack of information relating ICF and fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults. In this study we tried to assess the fall risk using different domains of ICF using various clinical tools. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through convenient sampling method from geriatric clinic (OPD of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. The study was single session cross-section design. The body mass index (BMI, grip strength, depression score (Geriatric depression scale:short form; GDS-S and co morbidities were used to assess body function and structure domain, timed up and go (TUG, Berg balance scale (BBS and elderly fall screening test (EFST scores were used for activity domain, selfreported cause of fall, medications and uses of assistive device for environmental factors. Then the association of body function and structure, activity and environmental factors were determined with falls. There was an association of fall in analysis in subjects with no fall and one or more falls for, BMI, grip strength (kg, GDS-S score, no. of co morbidities, chronic pain, TUG, BBS, TUG (s, BBS, EFST, slip/trip, walking cane, hypoglycemic and antihypertensives medications (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio.The diabetes, and hyper tension showed association for adjusted odds ratio only. In subjects with one fall and more than one fall, TUG, BBS, EFST, GDS-S score, NSAIDS and antidepressants use showed a significant association with fall (unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio. The ICF may be used in routine for fall risk assessment in community dwelling older adults.

  7. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Mini-Mental State Examination score trajectories and incident disabling dementia among community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Amano, Hidenori; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Yokota, Isao; Seino, Satoshi; Nofuji, Yu; Nishi, Mariko; Yokoyama, Yuri; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

    2017-11-01

    The present prospective study used repeated measures analysis to identify potential Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score trajectories and determine whether MMSE trajectory was associated with incident disabling dementia among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. A total of 1724 non-demented adults (mean age 71.4 years [SD 5.7]; 56.7% women) aged 65-90 years participated in annual geriatric health assessments during the period from June 2002 through July 2014. The total number of observations was 6755, and the average number of follow-up assessments was 3.9. A review of municipal databases in the Japanese public long-term care insurance system showed that 205 (11.9%) participants developed disabling dementia through December 2014. We identified three distinct MMSE score trajectory patterns (high, middle and low) in adults aged 65-90 years. After adjusting for important confounders, participants with middle (42.8%) and low (5.1%) MMSE trajectories had hazard ratios of 2.46 (95% confidence interval 1.64-3.68) and 10.73 (95% confidence interval 4.91-23.45), respectively, for incident disabling dementia, as compared with those in the high (52.1%) trajectory group. Approximately half of the participants were classified as having a high MMSE trajectory, whereas 43% and 5% had middle and low MMSE trajectories, respectively, in this population. Individuals with middle and low MMSE trajectories had a higher risk for incident disabling dementia, which suggests that a high-risk approach to dementia prevention should target people with mild and more rapid cognitive decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1928-1935. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  9. Using a body-fixed sensor to identify subclinical gait difficulties in older adults with IADL disability: maximizing the output of the timed up and go.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Weiss

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The identification and documentation of subclinical gait impairments in older adults may facilitate the appropriate use of interventions for preventing or delaying mobility disability. We tested whether measures derived from a single body-fixed sensor worn during traditional Timed Up and Go (TUG testing could identify subclinical gait impairments in community dwelling older adults without mobility disability. METHODS: We used data from 432 older adults without dementia (mean age 83.30 ± 7.04 yrs, 76.62% female participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The traditional TUG was conducted while subjects wore a body-fixed sensor. We derived measures of overall TUG performance and different subtasks including transitions (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, walking, and turning. Multivariate analysis was used to compare persons with and without mobility disability and to compare individuals with and without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living disability (IADL-disability, all of whom did not have mobility disability. RESULTS: As expected, individuals with mobility disability performed worse on all TUG subtasks (p<0.03, compared to those who had no mobility disability. Individuals without mobility disability but with IADL disability had difficulties with turns, had lower yaw amplitude (p<0.004 during turns, were slower (p<0.001, and had less consistent gait (p<0.02. CONCLUSIONS: A single body-worn sensor can be employed in the community-setting to complement conventional gait testing. It provides a wide range of quantitative gait measures that appear to help to identify subclinical gait impairments in older adults.

  10. The combination of dynapenia and abdominal obesity as a risk factor for worse trajectories of IADL disability among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Scholes, Shaun; Ferreira Santos, Jair Licio; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Cesar

    2017-10-02

    The concept of dynapenic obesity has been gaining great attention recently. However, there is little epidemiological evidence demonstrating that dynapenic abdominal obese individuals have worse trajectories of disability than those with dynapenia and abdominal obesity alone. Our aim was to investigate whether dynapenia combined with abdominal obesity can result in worse trajectories of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among English and Brazilian older adults over eight and ten years of follow-up, respectively. We used longitudinal data from 3374 participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and 1040 participants from the Brazilian Health, Well-being and Aging Study (SABE) who were free from disability as assessed by IADL at baseline. IADL disability was defined herein as a difficulty to perform the following: preparing meals, managing money, using transportation, shopping, using the telephone, house cleaning, washing clothes, and taking medications according to the Lawton IADL modified scale. The study population in each country was categorized into non-dynapenic/non-abdominal obese (reference group), abdominal obese, dynapenic and dynapenic abdominal obese according to their handgrip strength (102 cm for men and >88 cm for women). We used generalized linear mixed models with IADL as the outcome. The estimated change over time in IADL disability was significantly higher for participants with dynapenic abdominal obesity compared to those with neither condition in both cohorts (ELSA: +0.023, 95% CI = 0.012-0.034, p < 0.001; SABE: +0.065, 95% CI = 0.038-0.091, p < 0.001). Abdominal obesity was also associated with changes over time in IADL disability (ELSA: +0.009, 95% CI = 0.002-0.015, p < 0.05; SABE: +0.021, 95% CI = 0.002-0.041, p < 0.05), which was not observed for dynapenia. Abdominal obesity is an important risk factor for IADL decline but participants with dynapenic abdominal obesity had the highest rates

  11. Predictors of Secondary Role Strains Among Spousal Caregivers of Older Adults With Functional Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; DePasquale, Nicole

    2018-01-08

    Aging spouses commonly care for a partner with functional disability, but little is known about how spousal caregiving may impact different life domains. This study evaluated how caregiving characteristics are associated with secondary role strains among spousal caregivers. This cross-sectional study examined 367 spousal caregivers and their partners from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. Hierarchical regressions were estimated to determine how caregiver background factors (sociodemographics, health conditions) along with primary objective (care activities, care recipient health conditions, and dementia status) and subjective (emotional caregiving difficulties, role overload) stressors are linked to care-related valued activity restriction, negative caregiving relationship quality, and care-related family disagreements. Gender differences were considered. After accounting for all predictors, older caregivers and caregivers providing more help with activities of daily living and health system interactions (e.g., scheduling appointments) were more likely to report activity restriction, whereas caregivers with more emotional difficulties reported higher negative caregiving relationship quality. Role overload was positively associated with all three secondary strains. For husbands only, caring for a partner with more chronic conditions was linked to higher negative caregiving relationship quality and caring for a partner with dementia was associated with a greater likelihood of family disagreements. Secondary role strains may develop through similar and unique pathways for caregiving wives and husbands. Further research is needed to identify those who could benefit from support in managing their care responsibilities alongside other life areas. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Tiredness in daily activities: a subjective measure for the identification of frailty among non-disabled community-living older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the responses to questions about tiredness in daily activities is an early subjective sign of frailty indicating older community-living adults at increased risk for disability and mortality. Tiredness in daily activities as measured by the Mob......-T Scale, maximal power in sustained work, and comorbid diseases were assessed together with sociodemographic variables in a sample of 705 non-disabled, 70-year old men and women surveyed in 1984. Vital status of members was determined prospectively over the next 15 years. Onset of disability was measured...

  13. Functioning and disability analysis by using WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 in older adults Taiwanese patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Wei; Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Escorpizo, Reuben; Chi, Wen-Chou; Yen, Chia-Feng; Liao, Hua-Fang; Chang, Feng-Hang; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Jia-Wei; Liou, Tsan-Hon

    2016-08-01

    To analyse the disability status of elderly Taiwanese dementia patients by using the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). We enrolled 12 126 disabled elderly (>65 years) patients with dementia during July 2012-January 2014 from the Taiwan Data Bank of Persons with Disability. Trained interviewers evaluated the standardised scores in the six WHODAS 2.0 domains. Student's t test was used for comparing WHODAS 2.0 scores of male and female dementia patients with different age groups. The study population comprised 12 126 patients; 7612 were women and 4514 were men. The WHODAS 2.0 scores showed that the dementia patients had global activity limitation and participation restriction in all domains. Dementia-induced disability was prominent in male patients in all of the domains of the WHODAS 2.0. The domains of life activities, getting along with people and cognition were more strongly affected than the other domains. However, women experienced more rapid functional decline than men did as they aged. The data analysed in this large-scale, population-based study revealed crucial information on dementia-induced disability in elderly patients on the basis of the WHODAS 2.0 framework. Implications for rehabilitation Dementia patients have global functional disability in all domains of WHODAS 2.0 and multidisciplinary team is needed for rehabilitation programme intervention for these patients. When considering the rehabilitation resource and strategy, the domains of cognition, activities of daily living and life activities should be focussed. When dementia patients aged 65-75 years old, male patients got more restriction of function than female and more medical resource allocation for disabled male patients is recommended. With ageing, female dementia patients exhibited more rapid functional decline than male patients did and more budget about rehabilitation for maintain functional and dementia progression is crucial for female patients.

  14. Does Disparity in the Way Disabled Older Adults Are Treated Imply Ageism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L.; Priester, Reinhard; Neumann, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Although the nearly one in seven Americans who have disabilities share many characteristics, the attitudes toward and the programs, care models, expenditures, and goals for people with disabilities differ substantially across age groups in ways that suggest ageism. Expenditures per recipient are substantially higher for younger individuals with…

  15. Assessment of Disability among the Elderly in Xiamen of China: A Representative Sample Survey of 14,292 Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    Full Text Available The unprecedented number of elderly individuals in China presents a serious public health challenge. Limited data are available on the prevalence of disability or factors resulting in disability among the elderly in China.We aimed to assess the prevalence of disability and related risk factors among the elderly of Xiamen, China.A cross-sectional study was performed on individuals who were ≥60 years of age. The subjects were recruited by multi-stage sampling; a total of 14,292 valid questionnaires were received. Study measurements included activities of daily living (ADL, demographics, and health status. The ADL was assessed by the Katz Index Scale to evaluate disability. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with disabilities.Among the valid participants, 4.27% had at least one disability. Bathing was the most frequently reported disability and feeding was the least frequently reported disability. Disabilities were significantly associated with female gender, older age, unmarried status, living with family, urban residence, illiteracy, poor economic status, self-rated bad health, chronic illnesses, lower life satisfaction, bad mood, and feelings of loneliness.Functional disability among the elderly requires more public attention. Culturally appropriate policies and programs are also needed to address the care for the disabled elderly.

  16. Personalized citizen assistance for social participation (APIC): A promising intervention for increasing mobility, accomplishment of social activities and frequency of leisure activities in older adults having disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Lefebvre, Hélène; Levert, Marie-Josée; Lacasse-Bédard, Joanie; Desrosiers, Johanne; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Tourigny, André; Couturier, Yves; Carbonneau, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Social participation, a determinant of health in older adults, requires innovative interventions. The personalised citizen assistance for social participation (APIC) involves weekly three-hour personalised stimulation sessions targeting significant social and leisure activities difficult to accomplish. Recently adapted for older adults, the APIC's impact on this population is unknown. This study explored the impact of APIC on older adults with disabilities. A mixed-method design including a pre-experimental component was used with 16 participants (11 women) aged 66-91 (79.4±8.7) with disabilities, living at home. They completed functional autonomy, social participation, leisure and quality of life questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. APIC increased older adults' functional autonomy (p=0.02), accomplishment (pleisure practice (pleisure activities, and difficulties in their social environment diminished (p=0.03). Their attitude toward leisure (p=0.04) as well as their health (p<0.01) and psychological (p=0.03) quality of life improved. Older adults thought APIC helped them resume, maintain, explore and experiment with significant social activities. It also increased their psychological and physical well-being, feeling of control, connectedness, self-esteem and motivation to accomplish activities. Finally, APIC can compensate for an unavailable and crumbling social network. APIC is a promising intervention that leads to new opportunities for older adults to increase community integration and enhance the social component of their lives. It can also optimise how the needs of older adults are met, including utilisation of personal and environmental resources. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective effects of social networks on disability among older adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Bravo, Miguel-Ángel; Puga-González, Dolores; Martín-Baranera, Monserrat

    2012-01-01

    The loss of autonomy at advanced ages is not only associated with ageing, but also with the characteristics of the physical and social environment. Recent investigations have shown that social networks, social engagement and participation act like predictors of disability among the elderly. The aim of this study is to determine whether social networks are related to the development and progression of disability in the early years of old age. The source of data is the first wave of the survey "Processes of Vulnerability among Spanish Elderly", carried out in 2005 to a sample of 1244 individuals. The population object of study is the cohort aged 70-74 years in metropolitan areas (Madrid and Barcelona) and not institutionalized. Disability is measured by the development of basic activities of daily life (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily life (IADL). The structural aspects of the social relationships are measured through the diversity of social networks and participation. We used the social network index (SNI). For each point over the SNI, the risk of developing any type of disability decreased by 49% (HR=0.51, 95%CI=0.31-0.82). The SNI was a decisive factor in all forecasting models constructed with some hazard ratios (HR) that ranged from 0.29 (95%CI=0.14-0.59) in the first model to 0.43 (95%CI 0.20-0.90) in the full model. The results of the present study showed a strong association between an active social life, emotional support provided by friends and confidents and disability. These findings suggest a protective effect of social networks on disability. Also, these results indicate that some family and emotional ties have a significant effect on both the prevalence and the incidence of disability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The joint association of depression and cognitive function with severe disability among community-dwelling older adults in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Koyanagi, Ai; Lara, Elvira; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Leonardi, Matilde; Koskinen, Seppo; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Lobo, Antonio; Haro, Josep Maria

    2016-04-01

    To explore the joint association of depression and cognitive function with severe disability in nationally-representative samples of community-dwelling adults aged 50 years and older from Finland, Poland and Spain. Cross-sectional. Community-based. Population-based sample of 7987 non-institutionalized adults aged 50 and older. The outcome was severe disability, defined as ≥ 90th percentile of the 12-item version of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). Past 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder was assessed with the depression module of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). A global cognitive function score was obtained through neuropsychological tests. Product terms between depression and cognition were introduced in multivariable logistic regression models to test for interaction. Lower cognitive function and depression were both significantly associated with severe disability in all countries. A significant interaction was only found in Finland where the ORs (95% CIs) of depression for severe disability at the 25th (worse), 50th, and 75th (better) percentiles of cognitive function were 7.26 (4.28-12.32), 11.1 (6.7-18.38), and 17.56 (9.29-33.2), respectively. People with depression and cognitive decline are likely to benefit from the usual evidence-based treatments to reduce the burden of disability. However, in Finland, those with better cognitive function may benefit from more aggressive depression treatment. Future research is warranted to assess whether our results may be replicated.

  19. Sleep and Sleep-wake Rhythm in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van de Wouw-Van Dijk (Ellen)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEveryone who has experienced poor sleep knows how it affects daytime functioning and wellbeing. A good night’s rest and a stable sleep-wake rhythm are therefore very important. The sleep-wake rhythm is regulated by several brain structures. People with an intellectual disability (ID) all

  20. Increasing disability-free life expectancy among older adults in Palestine from 2006 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Duraidi, Mohammed; Qalalwa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    into contributions from changes in mortality and disability. RESULTS: Life expectancy at age 60 increased from 17.1 years in 2006 to 17.3 years in 2010 for men and from 18.7 years to 19.0 years for women. Disability-free life expectancy increased significantly, by 1.3 years for 60-year-old men (from 12.8 years to 14...... mortality data and prevalence of activity limitation derived from the Palestinian Family Health Surveys carried out in 2006 and 2010. Based on questions about the ability to perform five basic daily activities, disability-free life expectancy was estimated. Changes between 2006 and 2010 were decomposed.......1 years) and 1.8 years for 60-year-old women (from 12.6 years to 14.4 years). This increase was seen in the Gaza Strip as well as in the West Bank. While the modest contribution of the mortality effect did not differ between gender and regions, the strong contributions from the disability effects varied...

  1. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, Anna; Ahlström, Gerd; Höglund, Peter

    2017-11-23

    Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID) have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936). We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006-2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM). People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general population. To ensure that this is medically appropriate and not due to

  2. Prevalence and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension among older adults with intellectual disability in comparison with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Axmon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are risk factors for cardiovascular disease, which is the most common cause of death in the world. People with intellectual disability (ID have been reported to have high rates of both these disorders. The aim of this study was to describe and compare prevalence ratios of diabetes mellitus and hypertension between older adults with ID and their age peers in the general population, and to describe and compare treatment patterns in these two groups. Methods This is a Swedish register-based study, in which we established a cohort of people aged 55+ years and who had received support for those with ID in 2012 (n = 7936. We also established a same-sized referent cohort from the general population matched by sex and year of birth. Information on diagnoses of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and prescription of drugs for these disorders, were collected from national registers for the period 2006–2012. The two cohorts were compared using generalized linear models (GLM. Results People with ID were 20% more likely than the general population to have a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, and 26% more likely to have prescription of drugs for diabetes mellitus. People in the general population were 81% more likely to have a diagnosis of hypertension, and 9% more likely to have a prescription of drugs for hypertension. Among those with diabetes, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of insulin combination drugs and sulfonylureas, but lower occurrence of prescription of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP 4-inhibitors and exenatide/liraglutide. Among those with hypertension, ID was associated with higher occurrence of prescription of diuretics, but lower occurrence of prescription of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin II antagonists. Conclusions Treatment regimens among people with ID tended to include older types of medication compared with what was prescribed in the general

  3. Physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of pain intensity, pain disability, and the number of pain locations in depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Denise J C; Naarding, Paul; Collard, Rose M; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Late-life depression and pain more often co-occur than can be explained by chance. Determinants of pain in late-life depression are unknown, even though knowledge on possible determinants of pain in depression is important for clinical practice. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were 1) to describe pain characteristics of depressed older adults and a nondepressed comparison group, and 2) to explore physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants of acute and chronic pain intensity, disability, and multisite pain in depressed older adults. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons cohort, consisting of 378 depressed persons, diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria, and 132 nondepressed persons aged 60 years and older, were used in a cross-sectional design. Pain characteristics were measured by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the contribution of physical, lifestyle, psychological, and social determinants to outcomes pain intensity, disability, and the number of pain locations. Depressed older adults more often reported chronic pain and experienced their pain as more intense and disabling compared to nondepressed older adults. Adjusted for demographic, physical, and lifestyle characteristics, multinomial logistic regression analyses showed increased odds ratios (OR) for depression in acute pain (OR 3.010; P=0.005) and chronic pain (OR 4.544, Presearch could focus on the temporal relationship between anxiety, late-life depression, and pain. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Aging in the Americas: Disability-free Life Expectancy Among Adults Aged 65 and Older in the United States, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F

    2018-01-11

    To estimate and compare disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and current age patterns of disability onset and recovery from disability between the United States and countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Disability is measured using the activities of daily living scale. Data come from longitudinal surveys of older adult populations in Costa Rica, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Age patterns of transitions in and out of disability are modeled with a discrete-time logistic hazard model, and a microsimulation approach is used to estimate DFLE. Overall life expectancy for women aged 65 is 20.11 years in Costa Rica, 19.2 years in Mexico, 20.4 years in Puerto Rico, and 20.5 years in the United States. For men, these figures are 19.0 years in Costa Rica, 18.4 years in Mexico, 18.1 years in Puerto Rico, and 18.1 years in the United States. Proportion of remaining life spent free of disability for women at age 65 is comparable between Mexico, Puerto Rico, and the United States, with Costa Rica trailing slightly. Male estimates of DFLE are similar across the four populations. Though the older adult population of Latin America and the Caribbean lived many years exposed to poor epidemiological and public health conditions, their functional health in later life is comparable with the older adult population of the United States. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Aging in a cultural context: cross-national differences in disability and the moderating role of personal control among older adults in the United States and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Smith, Jacqui

    2011-07-01

    We investigate cross-national differences in late-life health outcomes and focus on an intriguing difference in beliefs about personal control found between older adult populations in the U.K. and United States. We examine the moderating role of control beliefs in the relationship between physical function and self-reported difficulty with daily activities. Using national data from the United States (Health and Retirement Study) and England (English Longitudinal Study on Ageing), we examine the prevalence in disability across the two countries and show how it varies according to the sense of control. Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between objective measures of physical function (gait speed) and disability and the modifying effects of control. Older Americans have a higher sense of personal control than the British, which operates as a psychological resource to reduce disability among older Americans. However, the benefits of control are attenuated as physical impairments become more severe. These results emphasize the importance of carefully considering cross-national differences in the disablement process as a result of cultural variation in underlying psychosocial resources. This paper highlights the role of culture in shaping health across adults aging in different sociopolitical contexts.

  6. Participation needs of older adults having disabilities and receiving home care: met needs mainly concern daily activities, while unmet needs mostly involve social activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Pier-Luc; Larivière, Nadine; Desrosiers, Johanne; Voyer, Philippe; Champoux, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Hélène; Carrier, Annie; Levasseur, Mélanie

    2015-08-01

    Participation is a key determinant of successful aging and enables older adults to stay in their homes and be integrated into the community. Assessing participation needs involves identifying restrictions in the accomplishment of daily and social activities. Although meeting participation needs involves older adults, their caregivers and healthcare providers, little is known about their respective viewpoints. This study thus explored the participation needs of older adults having disabilities as perceived by the older adults themselves, their caregivers and healthcare providers. A qualitative multiple case study consisted of conducting 33 semi-structured interviews in eleven triads, each composed of an older adult, his/her caregiver and a healthcare provider recruited in a Health and Social Services Centre (HSSC) in Québec, Canada. Interview transcripts and reviews of clinical records were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics based on thematic saliency analysis methods. Aged 66 to 88 years, five older adults had physical disabilities, five had mild cognitive impairment and one had psychological problems, leading to moderate to severe functional decline. Caregivers and healthcare providers were mainly women, respectively retired spouses and various professionals with four to 32 years of clinical experience. Participation needs reported by each triad included all domains of participation. Needs related to daily activities, such as personal care, nutrition, and housing, were generally met. Regarding social activities, few needs were met by various resources in the community and were generally limited to personal responsibilities, including making decisions and managing budgets, and some community life activities, such as going shopping. Unmet needs were mainly related to social activities, involving leisure, other community life activities and interpersonal relationships, and some daily activities, including fitness and mobility. This study

  7. Concurrent and convergent validity of the mobility- and multidimensional-hierarchical disability categorization models with physical performance in community older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Hsia; Yeh, Chih-Jun; Chen, Tou-Rong; Wang, Ching-Yi

    2014-01-01

    A valid, time-efficient and easy-to-use instrument is important for busy clinical settings, large scale surveys, or community screening use. The purpose of this study was to validate the mobility hierarchical disability categorization model (an abbreviated model) by investigating its concurrent validity with the multidimensional hierarchical disability categorization model (a comprehensive model) and triangulating both models with physical performance measures in older adults. 604 community-dwelling older adults of at least 60 years in age volunteered to participate. Self-reported function on mobility, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) domains were recorded and then the disability status determined based on both the multidimensional hierarchical categorization model and the mobility hierarchical categorization model. The physical performance measures, consisting of grip strength and usual and fastest gait speeds (UGS, FGS), were collected on the same day. Both categorization models showed high correlation (γs = 0.92, p categorization models. The results of multiple regression analysis indicated that both models individually explain similar amount of variance on all physical performances, with adjustments for age, sex, and number of comorbidities. Our results found that the mobility hierarchical disability categorization model is a valid and time efficient tool for large survey or screening use.

  8. Late-career unemployment and all-cause mortality, functional disability and depression among the older adults in Taiwan: A 12-year population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Min; Liao, Wen-Chun; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hsin-En; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether late-career unemployment is associated with increased all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression among older adults in Taiwan. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was conducted from 1996 to 2007. The complete data from 716 men and 327 women aged 50-64 years were retrieved. Participants were categorized as normally employed or unemployed depending on their employment status in 1996. The cumulative number of unemployment after age 50 was also calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the association between late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment on all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression in 2007. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 56.3 years [interquartile range (IQR)=7.0]. A total of 871 participants were in the normally employed group, and 172 participants were in the unemployed group. After adjustment of gender, age, level of education, income, self-rated health and major comorbidities, late-career unemployment was associated with increased all-cause mortality [Odds ratio (OR)=2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-4.47] and functional disability [OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.54-3.55]. The cumulative number of late-career unemployment was also associated with increased all-cause mortality [OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.35-2.70] and functional disability [OR=2.35; 95% CI=1.55-3.55]. Late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment are associated with increased all-cause mortality and functional disability. Older adults should be encouraged to maintain normal employment during the later stage of their career before retirement. Employers should routinely examine the fitness for work of older employees to prevent future unemployment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  10. Effect of statin use on mobility disability and its prevention in at-risk older adults: the LIFE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications. Although their cardiovascular benefits and myalgia risks are well documented, their effects on older adults initiating an exercise training program are less understood. METHODS: 1,635 s...

  11. A structured physical activity and fitness programme for older adults with intellectual disabilities: results of a cluster-randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schijndel-Speet, M; Evenhuis, H M; van Wijck, R; van Montfort, K C A G M; Echteld, M A

    2017-01-01

    The physical activity level of older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) is extremely low, and their fitness levels are far beneath accepted norms for older people with normal intelligence and comparable with frail older people. A physical activity programme, including an education programme, was developed for older adults with ID using behaviour change techniques. The programme aimed at improving or maintaining adequate levels of physical activity (primary outcome measure) and motor fitness, cardio respiratory fitness, morphologic and metabolic fitness, activities of daily living, cognitive functioning and depressive symptoms (secondary outcome measures). The programme's efficacy was evaluated in a cluster-randomised clinical trial among people aged 43 years and over with mild-moderate levels of ID. Five day-activity centres were randomised to the participation group. In these centres, 81 older adults participated in groups of 8 to 10 in the programme, three times a week during 8 months. The programme was executed by physical activity instructors and staff of day-activity centres. Five other day-activity centres were randomised to the control group; 70 older adults in these centres received care as usual. The generalised linear model with mixed effects was used to test the programme's effectiveness. Significant effects were found on physical activity, muscle strength, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol level and cognitive functioning, in favour of the programme's participants. No significant improvements were found on balance, serum glucose, weight, waist circumference, walking speed, mobility, depression or instrumental activities of daily living. The physical activity and fitness programme has established small but significant effects in this sample, but generalising the findings to other settings is difficult due to significant participant dropout. Implementation of evidence-based physical activity programmes among older adults

  12. Diabetes in South African older adults: prevalence and impact on quality of life and functional disability - as assessed using SAGE Wave 1 data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfalli, Mahmoud; Kassanjee, Reshma; Kalula, Sebastiana; Kowal, Paul; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Levitt, Naomi S

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with severe late complications. It is known to impact the quality of life and cause disability, which may affect an individual's capacity to manage and maintain longer-term health and well-being. To examine the prevalence of self-report diabetes, and association between diabetes and each of health-related quality of life and disability amongst South Africa's older adults. To study both the direct relationship between diabetes and these two measures, as well as moderation effects, i.e. whether associations between other factors and these measures of well-being differed between individuals with diabetes and those without. Secondary analyses of data on participants aged 50 years and older from the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in South Africa Wave 1 (2007-2008) were conducted. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes was assessed. Multivariable regressions describe the relationships between each of quality of life (WHOQoL) and disability (WHODAS), and diabetes, while controlling for selected socio-demographic characteristics, health risk behaviours and co-morbid conditions. In the regression models, we also investigated whether diabetes moderates the relationships between these additional factors and WHOQoL/WHODAS. Self-reported diabetes prevalence was 9.2% (95% CI: 7.8,10.9) and increased with age. Having diabetes was associated with poorer WHOQoL scores (additive effect: -4.2; 95% CI: -9.2,0.9; p-value disability (multiplicative effect: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5,2.9; p-value disability were both related to not being in a relationship, lower education, less wealth, lower physical activity and a larger number of chronic conditions. Diabetes is associated with lower quality of life and greater disability amongst older South Africans. Attention needs to be given to enhancing the capacity of health systems to meet the changing needs of ageing populations with diabetes in SA as well as facilitating social support networks in communities.

  13. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Mugisha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1 to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2 to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods: Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS. We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results: In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6. Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0 and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0 were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion: Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the

  14. Socioeconomic differences in the benefits of structured physical activity compared with health education on the prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, David; Chen, Haiying; Bonell, Chris; Glynn, Nancy W; Fielding, Roger A; Manini, Todd; King, Abby C; Pahor, Marco; Mihalko, Shannon L; Gill, Thomas M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence is lacking on whether health-benefiting community-based interventions differ in their effectiveness according to socioeconomic characteristics. We evaluated whether the benefit of a structured physical activity intervention on reducing mobility disability in older adults differs by education or income. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study was a multicentre, randomised trial that compared a structured physical activity programme with a health education programme on the incidence of mobility disability among at-risk community-living older adults (aged 70-89 years; average follow-up of 2.6 years). Education (≤ high school (0-12 years), college (13-17 years) or postgraduate) and annual household income were self-reported (education (0.72, 0.51 to 1.03; N=411) compared with lower education (high school or less (0.93, 0.70 to 1.24; N=536). However, the education group×intervention interaction term was not statistically significant (p=0.54). Findings were in the same direction yet less pronounced when household income was used as the socioeconomic indicator. In the largest and longest running trial of physical activity amongst at-risk older adults, intervention effect sizes were largest among those with higher education or income, yet tests of statistical interactions were non-significant, likely due to inadequate power. NCT01072500. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Depression Affects the Scores of All Facets of the WHOQOL-BREF and May Mediate the Effects of Physical Disability among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Chang

    Full Text Available Geriatric depression is associated with the overall quality of life (QOL. However, how depressive symptoms affect the different domains and facets of QOL in older adults, and whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical disability and QOL in older adults are unclear.A total of 490 ambulatory community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or above were interviewed using the brief version of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF, the Modified Barthel Index (MBI, the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. Sequential models for multiple linear regressions were analysed to determine if the MBI, GDS-15 and MMSE scores predict the WHOQOL-BREF scores. The potential mediation effects of depression (as determined by the GDS-15 on the relationship between MBI and WHOQOL-BREF were also analysed.The GDS-15 score was predictive of the scores of the four domains and all 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF. The significant predictive effects of the MBI score on 15 of the 26 facets of the WHOQOL-BREF were reduced to three after the adjustment for the GDS-15 score. Depression (as assessed by the GDS-15 is a mediator of the relationship between MBI and the physical, psychological and environmental domains of the WHOQOL-BREF.Depression (assessed by the GDS-15 may affect the scores of every domain and all facets of the WHOQOL-BREF in the elderly. Furthermore, it may mediate the relationship between the MBI and on QOL scores. We recommend taking depressive symptoms into consideration when measuring community-dwelling older adults' QOL and providing active ageing programs.

  16. Dance for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  17. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  18. Vaccines for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worz, Chad; Martin, Caren McHenry; Travis, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    Several vaccine-preventable diseases-influenza, pneumonia, herpes zoster, and pertussis-threaten the health of older adults in the United States. Both the costs associated with treating these diseases and the potential to increase morbidity and mortality are high for this patient population. Pharmacists and other health care professionals play a significant role in ensuring the elderly patient receives the recommended vaccines at the recommended intervals.

  19. A bi-level intervention to improve oral hygiene of older and disabled adults in low-income housing: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisine, S; Schensul, J J; Goldblatt, R; Radda, K; Foster-Bey, C; Acosta-Glynn, C; Miron-Carcamo, L; Ioannidou, E

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the results of a bi-level intervention, using a cognitive-behavioral theoretical approach, to improve the oral hygiene of older adults and the disabled in community-based low income senior housing. The bi-level pilot intervention consisted of an on-site tailored adapted motivational interviewing (AMI) session and two oral health fairs, supported by a resident campaign committee, to change community norms. All materials were available in English and Spanish. Participants completed a survey consisting of 12 domains that provided the basis for tailoring the AMI and shaping the campaigns. The domains were activities of daily living (ADLs), access to oral health information, oral hygiene status, dental knowledge, hygiene behaviors, importance of oral hygiene, self-efficacy/locus of control, diet, intentions, self-management worries/fears, perceived risk and dry mouth. Each participant received clinical assessments consisting of full-mouth plaque score (PS) and gingival index (GI) before the intervention and at three months. Twenty-seven residents with at least one tooth completed all phases of the study. The mean number of domains requiring attention was 4.5 (SD 1.6) with a range of one to seven. Mean baseline PS was 83% (SD 16%) which improved significantly to 58% (SD 31%); mean baseline GI was 1.15 (SD 0.61) and improved significantly to 0.49 (SD 0.46). This pilot study supports the feasibility and acceptability of a tailored oral hygiene intervention among older and disabled adults living in low income senior housing. Although a small sample, the study demonstrated significant improvements in both plaque and gingival scores three months after the bi-level intervention.

  20. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Ismael; Olié, Emilie; Courtet, Philippe; Calati, Raffaella

    2018-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over) is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. PMID:29719381

  1. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  2. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  3. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  4. Prevalence, risk factors and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low- and middle-incomecountries: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart Williams, Jennifer; Kowal, Paul; Hestekin, Heather; O'Driscoll, Tristan; Peltzer, Karl; Yawson, Alfred; Biritwum, Richard; Maximova, Tamara; Salinas Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique Espinoza, Betty; Wu, Fan; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Chatterji, Somnath

    2015-06-23

    In 2010 falls were responsible for approximately 80 % of disability stemming from unintentional injuries excluding traffic accidents in adults 50 years and over. Falls are becoming a major public health problem in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where populations are ageing rapidly. Nationally representative standardized data collected from adults aged 50 years and over participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa are analysed. The aims are to identify the prevalence of, and risk factors for, past-year fall-related injury and to assess associations between fall-related injury and disability. Regression methods are used to identify risk factors and association between fall-related injury and disability. Disability was measured using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule Version 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0). The prevalence of past-year fall-related injuries ranged from 6.6 % in India to 1.0 % in South Africa and was 4.0 % across the pooled countries. The proportion of all past-year injuries that were fall-related ranged from 73.3 % in the Russian Federation to 44.4 % in Ghana. Across the six countries this was 65.7 %. In the multivariable logistic regression, the odds of past-year fall-related injury were significantly higher for: women (OR: 1.27; 95 % CI: 0.99,1.62); respondents who lived in rural areas (OR: 1.36; 95 % CI: 1.06,1.75); those with depression (OR: 1.43; 95 % CI: 1.01,2.02); respondents who reported severe or extreme problems sleeping (OR: 1.54; 95 % CI: 1.15,2.08); and those who reported two or more (compared with no) chronic conditions (OR: 2.15; 95 % CI: 1.45,3.19). Poor cognition was also a significant risk factor for fall-related injury. The association between fall-related injury and the WHODAS measure of disability was highly significant (Prisk factors for falls in older adults in this group of LMICs. Clinicians and

  5. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p dependence was associated with higher pain-related disability; this effect was also partially accounted for by self-reported physical functioning (B = .889, p dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain.

  6. Avoiding Institutional Outcomes for Older Adults Living with Disability: The Use of Community-Based Aged Care Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Caroline; White, Amy; Chapman, Libby

    2011-01-01

    Background: Most people with a disability want to remain living in their own home as they age. Without additional support, people with a disability may not be able to avoid moving into residential aged care, attending day programs, or becoming isolated from participation in the wider community. This study examined whether participants perceived…

  7. Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

  8. Suicide in older adults: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conejero I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ismael Conejero,1,2 Emilie Olié,1–3 Philippe Courtet,1–3 Raffaella Calati1–3 1Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM, University of Montpellier, Neuropsychiatry: Epidemiological and Clinical Research, Montpellier, France; 2Department of Emergency Psychiatry and Post-Acute Care, Lapeyronie Hospital, Center Hospitalier Universitairere (CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France; 3FondaMental Foundation, Créteil, France Abstract: Suicidal behavior in older adults (65 years old and over is a major public health issue in many countries. Suicide rates increase during the life course and are as high as 48.7/100,000 among older white men in the USA. Specific health conditions and stress factors increase the complexity of the explanatory model for suicide in older adults. A PubMed literature search was performed to identify most recent and representative studies on suicide risk factors in older adults. The aim of our narrative review was to provide a critical evaluation of recent findings concerning specific risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among older people: psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, social exclusion, bereavement, cognitive impairment, decision making and cognitive inhibition, physical illnesses, and physical and psychological pain. We also aimed to approach the problem of euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in older adults. Our main findings emphasize the need to integrate specific stress factors, such as feelings of social disconnectedness, neurocognitive impairment or decision making, as well as chronic physical illnesses and disability in suicide models and in suicide prevention programs in older adults. Furthermore, the chronic care model should be adapted for the treatment of older people with long-term conditions in order to improve the treatment of depressive disorders and the prevention of suicidal thoughts and acts. Keywords: suicide, attempted suicide, older adults, risk

  9. Sexuality in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Sapetti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Just as the body and its functions undergo changes with age, in the same way sexuality shares this aging process. However, remember a golden rule that we are sexual since we are born until we die; only possibilities are modified with the passage of the years. This article intends to show the changes that occur in the sexual response of the elderly. If sexual life during youth was pleasant and satisfactory this will condition sexuality in the socalled third age and the elderly seek to maintain it, this is not the case for those who had a dysfunctional past. This article briefly describes the andropause and the SIM, vicissitudes, changes and differences in sexual response and chances to maintain eroticism in the older adult

  10. Disparity in disability between native-born non-Hispanic white and foreign-born Asian older adults in the United States: effects of educational attainment and age at immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2011-04-01

    It is widely known that educational attainment has considerable influence on the prevalence of disability among native-born non-Hispanic older adults in the US. However, few studies have examined whether educational attainment has a similar effect on disability among foreign-born Asian older adults. If it does not have a similar effect on these adults, why not, and is its effect influenced by the age at which they immigrated to the US? This study addresses these questions by using the 2006 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample (ACS PUMS). Logistic regression analyses reveal that education has differential effects on the two racial groups. Education protects foreign-born Asians less than native-born non-Hispanic whites. In addition, Asian adults who immigrated earlier are less likely to experience disability. Interestingly, the interaction between age at immigration and educational attainment for foreign-born Asian older adults indicates that less educated Asians are more likely to benefit from early immigration. Heterogeneity within the Asian group is also examined. The findings suggest that educational attainment has differential effects not only on the two racial groups but also on the foreign-born Asian group depending on age at immigration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Social marketing strategies for reaching older people with disabilities: findings from a survey of centers for independent living participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moone, Rajean Paul; Lightfoot, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Centers for independent living (CILs) provide critical supports, services, and advocacy for assisting people with disabilities in living independently. As there is a rapidly increasing population of older people with disabilities, many CILs are now considering how to actively engage older adults in their organizations. This study utilized a survey of older people with disabilities to help identify social marketing techniques that community organizations like CILs can use to effectively reach older people with disabilities. Utilizing the components of the social marketing mix in designing outreach efforts, including a critical examination of product, place, price, participants, and partnering, CILs and other community agencies can better reach older adults with disabilities.

  12. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  13. Effective communication with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Louise

    2017-06-07

    Communication is an essential aspect of life, yet it can be taken for granted. Its centrality to being in the world and in professional practice often becomes evident when nurses and older adults encounter communication difficulties. The factors that can affect nurses' communication with older adults relate to the older adult, the nurse, sociocultural considerations and the environment, and the interactions between these factors. In adopting a person-centred approach to communicating with older adults, it is necessary to get to know the person as an individual and ensure communication meets their needs and abilities. Effective communication is essential in nursing practice and requires professional competence and engagement. This article can be used by nurses to support effective communication with older adults across the continuum of care.

  14. The mediating role of disability and social support in the association between low vision and depressive symptoms in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, Gertrudis I. J. M.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Ambergen, Ton; Zijlstra, G. A. Rixt

    Vision loss is highly prevalent in old age and has a substantial impact on different aspects of quality of life including depressive symptoms. Our objective was to examine the mediating role of disability and social support in the association between low vision and depressive symptoms. Differences

  15. Effects of Problem-Solving Therapy and Clinical Case Management on Disability in Low-Income Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areán, Patricia A; Raue, Patrick J; McCulloch, Charles; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Seirup, Joanna K; Banerjee, Samprit; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Dwyer, Eleanor; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-12-01

    To test the following hypotheses: (1) Clinical case management integrated with problem-solving therapy (CM-PST) is more effective than clinical case management alone (CM) in improving functional outcomes in disabled, impoverished patients and (2) improvement in depression, self-efficacy, and problem-solving skills mediates improvement of disability. Using a randomized controlled trial with a parallel design, 271 individuals were screened and 171 were randomized to 12 weekly sessions of either CM or CM-PST at 1:1 ratio. Raters were blind to patients' assignments. Participants were at least age 60 years with major depression, had at least one disability, were eligible for home-based meals services, and had income no more than 30% of their counties' median. The WHO Disability Assessment Scale was used. Both interventions resulted in improved functioning by 12 weeks (t = 4.28, df = 554, p = 0.001), which was maintained until 24 weeks. Contrary to hypothesis, CM was noninferior to CM-PST (one-sided p = 0.0003, t = -3.5, df = 558). Change in disability was not affected by baseline depression severity, cognitive function, or number of unmet social service needs. Improvements in self efficacy (t = -2.45, df = 672, p = 0.021), problem-solving skill (t = -2.44, df = 546, p = 0.015), and depression symptoms (t = 2.25, df = 672, p = .025) by week 9 predicted improvement in function across groups by week 12. CM is noninferior to CM-PST for late-life depression in low-income populations. The effect of these interventions occur early, with benefits in functional status maintained as long as 24 weeks after treatment initiation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00540865). Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Social determinants of sex differences in disability among older adults: a multi-country decomposition analysis using the World Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinpoor Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Women represent a growing proportion of older people and experience increasing disability in their longer lives. Using a universally agreed definition of disability based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, this paper examines how, apart from age, social and economic factors contribute to disability differences between older men and women. Methods World Health Survey data were analyzed from 57 countries drawn from all income groups defined by the World Bank. The final sample comprises 63638 respondents aged 50 and older (28568 males and 35070 females. Item Response Theory was applied to derive a measure of disability which ensured cross country comparability. Individuals with scores at or above a threshold score were those who experienced significant difficulty in their everyday lives, irrespective of the underlying etiology. The population was then divided into “disabled” vs. “not disabled”. We firstly computed disability prevalence for males and females by socio-demographic factors, secondly used multiple logistic regression to estimate the adjusted effects of each social determinant on disability for males and females, and thirdly used a variant of the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition technique to partition the measured inequality in disability between males and females into the “explained” part that arises because of differences between males and females in terms of age and social and economic characteristics, and an “unexplained” part attributed to the differential effects of these characteristics. Results Prevalence of disability among women compared with men aged 50+ years was 40.1% vs. 23.8%. Lower levels of education and economic status are associated with disability in women and men. Approximately 45% of the sex inequality in disability can be attributed to differences in the distribution of socio-demographic factors. Approximately 55% of the inequality results

  17. Effect of a multifactorial fall-and-fracture risk assessment and management program on gait and balance performances and disability in hospitalized older adults: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, A; Hars, M; Herrmann, F; Rizzoli, R; Ferrari, S

    2013-03-01

    This controlled intervention study in hospitalized oldest old adults showed that a multifactorial fall-and-fracture risk assessment and management program, applied in a dedicated geriatric hospital unit, was effective in improving fall-related physical and functional performances and the level of independence in activities of daily living in high-risk patients. Hospitalization affords a major opportunity for interdisciplinary cooperation to manage fall-and-fracture risk factors in older adults. This study aimed at assessing the effects on physical performances and the level of independence in activities of daily living (ADL) of a multifactorial fall-and-fracture risk assessment and management program applied in a geriatric hospital setting. A controlled intervention study was conducted among 122 geriatric inpatients (mean ± SD age, 84 ± 7 years) admitted with a fall-related diagnosis. Among them, 92 were admitted to a dedicated unit and enrolled into a multifactorial intervention program, including intensive targeted exercise. Thirty patients who received standard usual care in a general geriatric unit formed the control group. Primary outcomes included gait and balance performances and the level of independence in ADL measured 12 ± 6 days apart. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, incidence of in-hospital falls, hospital readmission, and mortality rates. Compared to the usual care group, the intervention group had significant improvements in Timed Up and Go (adjusted mean difference [AMD] = -3.7s; 95 % CI = -6.8 to -0.7; P = 0.017), Tinetti (AMD = -1.4; 95 % CI = -2.1 to -0.8; P fall-and-fracture risk-based intervention program, applied in a dedicated geriatric hospital unit, was effective and more beneficial than usual care in improving physical parameters related to the risk of fall and disability among high-risk oldest old patients.

  18. Delirium: Issues for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bone. Common fractures are those of the hip, wrist, or a bone in the back (vertebra). ... leading cause for dehydration among older adults is water pills (diuretics). In addition to not feeling thirsty, ...

  19. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  20. Hip Fractures among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Important ...

  1. Heat Stress in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Extreme Heat Older Adults (Aged 65+) Infants and Children Chronic Medical Conditions Low Income Athletes Outdoor Workers Pets Hot Weather Tips Warning Signs and Symptoms FAQs Social Media How to Stay Cool Missouri Cooling Centers Extreme ...

  2. Dietary Intake among U.S. Adults with Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ruopeng; Chiu, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Physical, mental, and financial barriers among individuals with disability may limit their access to fruit and vegetable. In this study, we examined the relationship between disability status and vegetable, fruit, and fruit juice intake among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older using a large nationally representative sample. Methods:…

  3. Pain management in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Bridget; Sean Morrison, R

    2013-11-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults but is underrecognized and undertreated. The approach to pain assessment and management in older adults requires an understanding of the physiology of aging, validated assessment tools, and common pain presentations among older adults. To identify the overall principles of pain management in older adults with a specific focus on common painful conditions and approaches to pharmacologic treatment. We searched PubMed for common pain presentations in older adults with heart failure, end-stage renal disease, dementia, frailty, and cancer. We also reviewed guidelines for pain management. Our review encompassed 2 guidelines, 10 original studies, and 22 review articles published from 2000 to the present. This review does not discuss nonpharmacologic treatments of pain. Clinical guidelines support the use of opioids in persistent nonmalignant pain. Opioids should be used in patients with moderate or severe pain or pain not otherwise controlled but with careful attention to potential toxic effects and half-life. In addition, clinical practice guidelines recommend use of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with extreme caution and for defined, limited periods. An understanding of the basics of pain pathophysiology, assessment, pharmacologic management, and a familiarity with common pain presentations will allow clinicians to effectively manage pain for older adults. © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Causes of Mortality in Older People with Intellectual Disability: Results from the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Schoufour, Josje D.; van der Maarl, Hanne J. K.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Festen, Dederieke A.

    2018-01-01

    We aim to provide insight into the cause-specific mortality of older adults with intellectual disability (ID), with and without Down syndrome (DS), and compare this to the general population. Immediate and primary cause of death were collected through medical files of 1,050 older adults with ID, 5 years after the start of the Healthy Ageing and…

  5. Factors underlying tiredness in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Rantanen, Taina; Schroll, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The purpose of the present study was to examine for factors related to tiredness, cross-sectionally at the age of 75 years, and factors related to subsequent onset of tiredness, from age 75 to 80 in a non-disabled community-living population. METHODS: The study is part...... modifiable factors, which may be fully treated or at least alleviated, thus increasing the well-being of the individual, as well as potentially slowing the progression of disability....... analyses showed that onset of tiredness was significantly or marginally significantly influenced by use of more than three drugs, muscle impairment, pain and cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that tiredness in non-disabled older adults is a result of multiple potentially...

  6. Impact of Dementia-Derived Nonpharmacological Intervention Procedures on Cognition and Behavior in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Luc P.; Mantesso, Ulrico; De Bastiani, Elisa; Weger, Elisabeth; Marangoni, Annachiara C.; Gomiero, Tiziano

    2012-01-01

    Dementia appears at a higher rate among some adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and this potentially poses a greater risk of nursing home admission. Yet, to date, there is no evidence on the efficacy of general dementia-derived environment-, personnel-, and patient-oriented intervention strategies in delaying onset of dementia or in…

  7. Older People with Learning Disabilities:Workforce issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, S; Manthorpe, J

    2005-01-01

    The life expectancy of people with learning disabilities has increased substantially. Services for older people with learning disabilities are provided by various sectors and practitioners (generic health and social care, or specialist learning disability or old age). The literature suggests that practitioners do not feel well-equipped to support people with learning disabilities as they grow older, and older people's services do not always have the opportunity to share experiences and skills...

  8. Overview of persistent pain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    With the shifting age demographics of the U.S. population, more psychologists will be asked to provide clinical services to older adults. Given the high prevalence of persistent pain in aging, in many cases this will mean providing empirically supported interventions for pain and the interference it creates. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the scope and impact of persistent pain in older people and to discuss mechanisms by which persistent geriatric pain can lead to suffering and disability. We consider the unique context of pain in older adulthood and review differences between older and younger people in terms of pain perception, the social network, beliefs about pain, pain-related coping, and adherence to pain medication. Finally, we discuss special issues affecting pain management in older adults, including dementia, polypharmacy, and barriers to accessing adequate pain care. This review also highlights a need for greater provider training in pain management to meet the needs of a changing U.S. population. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Carvalheira, Ana; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2017-01-01

    with their bodies than men, particularly in sexual contexts, older women appear to be less vulnerable to body-related dissatisfaction than younger women. Despite the age-specific dynamics of sexual satisfaction and sexual well-being, which parallel age-related decrease in the frequency of sexual activity, research...... findings from different countries show that substantial proportions of aging men and women are satisfied with their sex life. There is some limited evidence that this proportion may be increasing across cohorts. Gender differences in factors that influence sexual satisfaction among older adults appear...... marginal. Conclusion: Older age can affect sexual satisfaction on individual, interpersonal, and culture-related levels. Future research in older adults' sexuality should focus on sexual well-being in women who are without partners, sexual satisfaction among aging lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender...

  10. Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, Amy K.; Keene Woods, Nikki; Smothers, Kyle; Rogers, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this review was to assess published literature relating to health literacy and older adults. Method: The current review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses. Results: Eight articles met inclusion criteria. All studies were conducted in urban settings in the United States. Study sample size ranged from 33 to 3,000 participants. Two studies evaluated health-related outcomes and reported significant associations between low health literacy and poorer health outcomes. Two other studies investigated the impact of health literacy on medication management, reporting mixed findings. Discussion: The findings of this review highlight the importance of working to improve health care strategies for older adults with low health literacy and highlight the need for a standardized and validated clinical health literacy screening tool for older adults. PMID:28138488

  11. Prevalence of Disability and Disability Type Among Adults--United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Carroll, Dianna D; Zhang, Qing C; Stevens, Alissa C; Griffin-Blake, Shannon; Armour, Brian S; Campbell, Vincent A

    2015-07-31

    Understanding the prevalence of disability is important for public health programs to be able to address the needs of persons with disabilities. Beginning in 2013, to measure disability prevalence by functional type, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), added five questions to identify disability in vision, cognition, mobility, self-care, and independent living. CDC analyzed data from the 2013 BRFSS to assess overall prevalence of any disability, as well as specific types of disability among noninstitutionalized U.S. adults. Across all states, disabilities in mobility and cognition were the most frequently reported types. State-level prevalence of each disability type ranged from 2.7% to 8.1% (vision); 6.9% to 16.8% (cognition); 8.5% to 20.7% (mobility); 1.9% to 6.2% (self-care) and 4.2% to 10.8% (independent living). A higher prevalence of any disability was generally seen among adults living in states in the South and among women (24.4%) compared with men (19.8%). Prevalences of any disability and disability in mobility were higher among older age groups. These are the first data on functional disability types available in a state-based health survey. This information can help public health programs identify the prevalence of and demographic characteristics associated with different disability types among U.S. adults and better target appropriate interventions to reduce health disparities.

  12. Wound Healing in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Lisa J; Fulton, Ana Tuya

    2016-02-01

    Impaired wound healing in the elderly represents a major clinical problem that is growing as our population ages. Wound healing is affected by age and by co-morbid conditions, particularly diabetes and obesity. This is particularly important in Rhode Island as the state has a very high percentage of vulnerable older adults. A multi- disciplinary approach that incorporates the skills of a comprehensive wound center with specialized nursing, geriatric medicine and palliative care will facilitate rapid wound healing, reduce costs and improve outcomes for our older adults that suffer from 'problem wounds'.

  13. Depression, disability and functional status among community-dwelling older adults in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between depression and functional status among a community-dwelling older population of 65 years and older in South Africa. Data from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study were used, this being the first longitudinal panel survey of a nationally representative sample of households. The study focused on the data for resident adults 65 years and older (n = 1,429). Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Functional status, pertaining to both difficulty and dependence in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical functioning and mobility (PFM), were assessed using 11 items. Functional challenges were generally higher in the older age group. There was a significant association between depression and functional dependence in ADL (adjusted OR = 2.57 [CI: 1.03-6.41]), IADL (adjusted OR = 2.76 [CI: 1.89-4.04]), and PFM (adjusted OR = 1.66 [CI: 1.18-2.33]), but the relationship between depression and functional status, particularly PFM, appeared weaker in older age. The relationship between depression symptoms and function is complex. Functional characteristics between older and younger old populations are diverse, and caution is indicated against overgeneralizing the challenges related to depression and function among this target population. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community

  15. Role of autonomic nervous activity, as measured by heart rate variability, on the effect of mortality in disabled older adults with low blood pressure in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Koji; Ogawa, Sumito; Yamada, Shizuru; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Akishita, Masahiro

    2018-04-11

    Previous studies have shown the relationship between low blood pressure and high mortality in frail, disabled older adults in long-term care. However, the mechanism of this relationship is still unclear. We hypothesized that autonomic nervous activity decline is involved in the relationship between low blood pressure and high mortality. The present prospective cohort study recruited 61 participants aged ≥75 years. The data from 24-h Holter monitoring and blood pressure recorded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were collected. Measured data were divided into three categories: 24-h, daytime and night-time. From power spectral density in the electrocardiogram, low frequency, high frequency and low frequency/high frequency ratio were calculated. The primary end-point was death. High blood pressure was connected to both high daytime low frequency and high frequency (partial correlation coefficients: 0.42, P blood pressure group had higher mortality than the high blood pressure group, and disabled older adults in long-term care and those with elevated daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure had less risk of mortality compared with those without (systolic: hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.96, P = 0.003; diastolic: hazard ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.00, P = 0.049). The average blood pressures in the high blood pressure groups were approximately 140/80 mmHg and were connected to low mortality. Attenuated autonomic nervous activity might lead to low blood pressure in the daytime and high mortality in disabled older adults in long-term care. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Sexuality in Older Adults (65+)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Graham, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    INFO. Results: The review showed that although common biological changes may adversely affect sexual function in old age, sexual experience seems to also be affected by psychological and interpersonal factors. Conclusions: Greater life expectancy and better medical care will result in older individuals......Objectives: The aim of the current article was to provide an overview of literature on sexual function and sexual difficulties in older adults. Method: The authors conducted a narrative review of papers published in English between January 2005 and July 2015 based on an extensive search in Psyc...... with chronic diseases living longer. The need for help to cope with changes in sexual health is likely to increase in older adults, as sexuality may be negatively affected through several pathways....

  17. Thermal comfort and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the increasing number of older adults wishes to age-in-place. Appropriate and comfortable housing is of great importance to facilitate this desire. One of the aspects of concern is thermal comfort. This is normally assessed using the model of Fanger, however, one might ask if this

  18. Health Literacy in Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-20

    In this podcast, Dr. Lynda Anderson, former Director of CDC’s Healthy Aging Program, discusses the importance of improving health literacy among older adults.  Created: 9/20/2011 by Office of the Associate Director for Communication (OADC), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/20/2011.

  19. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  20. Oral Health and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults maintaing good oral health habits. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/27/2008.

  1. The Importance of Hearing: A Review of the Literature on Hearing Loss for Older People with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Sarah; McShea, Lynzee; Brennan, Siobhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hearing loss has a significant impact on living well and on communication in all adults, with the numbers affected increasing with age, and adults with learning disabilities being at particular risk. Methods: A review of the literature on hearing loss in older adults with learning disabilities was completed. Results: A significant…

  2. Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Physiological Parameters Database for Older Adults is available for download and contains physiological parameters values for healthy older human adults (age 60...

  3. Sexuality in the Older Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Sexuality is an important part of a person's life continuing into older age. Physiologic changes that occur with aging can affect sexual function and may be exacerbated by comorbid disease. To diagnose sexual dysfunction, providers must obtain a thorough history and physical examination, including psychosocial factors. The causes of sexual dysfunction along with patient preferences within the patient's social system serve as the foundation for developing person-centered strategies to address these concerns. To improve care of older adults with sexual concerns, providers should initiate discussions with, listen to, and work with patients to create a comprehensive management plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changing Medical Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Gilbert, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Given the growth in the number of older adults and the ageist attitudes many in the health care profession hold, interventions aimed at improving health professionals' attitudes toward older adults are imperative. Vital Visionaries is an intergenerational art program designed to improve medical students' attitudes toward older adults. Participants…

  5. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  6. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Methods Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1st of September 2013 and 31st of March 2014. Results Mean age of respondents was 66.42± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants’ medical ailments (65%), partners’ failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. Conclusion There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient. PMID:26977224

  7. Osteoporotic fractures in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Colón-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Saag, Kenneth G.

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are emerging as a major public health problem in the aging population. Fractures result in increased morbidity, mortality and health expenditures. This article reviews current evidence for the management of common issues following osteoporotic fractures in older adults including: (1) thromboembolism prevention; (2) delirium prevention; (3) pain management; (4) rehabilitation; (5) assessing the cause of fracture; and (6) prevention of subsequent fractures. Areas for prac...

  8. Sexuality in Nigerian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatayo, Adeoti Adekunle; Kubwa, Ojo Osaze; Adekunle, Ajayi Ebenezer

    2015-01-01

    Oftentimes the older adults are assumed to be asexual as few studies explore into the sexuality of this age group worldwide and even in Nigeria. It is an important aspect of quality of life which is often neglected by people in this age group, attending physicians and the society as a whole. The study was aimed at determining the perception of older adults about sexuality, identify the factors that could militate against sexuality and fill any void in information in this regard. Descriptive study conducted in one hundred older adults. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to consenting participants between 1(st) of September 2013 and 31(st) of March 2014. Mean age of respondents was 66.42 ± 5.77 years. Seventy-eight percent of the male respondents considered engaging in sexual activity as safe compared to 45.8% of the female respondents. More of the women (33.3%) regarded sexuality in the older adults as a taboo when compared to the men (5.4%). However, the men were more favourably disposed to discussing sexual problems than the women with their spouses (42% vs 20%) and Physicians (23.2% vs 0.0%). Major factors responsible for sexual inactivity were participants' medical ailments (65%), partners' failing health (15%) as well as anxiety about sexual performance (25%) in the men and dyspareunia (25%) in women. There is an urgent need to correct the misconception about sexuality in this age group especially among the women and for the physicians to explore the sexual history of every patient.

  9. Caregiving and Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Affected by Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Ken; Jokinen, Nancy S.; Strydom, Andre

    2010-01-01

    Authors conducted a systematic review of the available Dutch, English, and German language literature for the period 1997-2008 on the current knowledge on social-psychological and pharmacological caregiving with respect to older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) affected by dementia. Authors note that caregiving occurs on a personal level…

  10. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP....... Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. RESULTS: A total of 14......,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain...

  11. Participation in leisure activities and tourism among older people with and without disabilities in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Geigle, Paula Richley

    2017-11-01

    Health conditions associated with aging might be related to disability and lead to decreased independence. Physical activity assists in maintaining independence throughout life as well as improves quality of life. Individuals with disabilities demonstrate overall less activity than sedentary persons without disabilities. Efforts to reduce age-related functional autonomy decline and to increase physical activity may require separate approaches for older adults with and without disabilities. The aim of the study was to compare physical activity and participation in leisure activities and tourism among older people with and without disabilities in Poland. A cross-sectional, multicenter study (PolSenior) randomly recruited participants aged 65 years and over, in a stratified, proportional draw performed in three stages from all 16 Polish provinces. 3743 people, 2653 (70.9%) without disabilities, and 1090 (29.1%) with disabilities responded providing general sociodemographic characteristics and various health behaviors including subjective physical activity level, leisure time activities, tourism and activity limitations. Older males without disability reported more physical activity than women with disability, while no differences were observed for females with and without disability. Polish older people with and without disability were more involved in gardening and staying in a garden allotment or a holiday home rather than participating in organized forms of sport, physical activity, and tourism. Health conditions arose as the most frequently indicated barrier toward participation in sport physical activity and tourism. In conclusion, strategies and programs to increase physical activity among older Polish people, with and without disability, should focus on preserving health and physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  13. How older people with learning disabilities perceive ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    2010-07-01

    This article discusses the author's use of reflexivity in trying to gain a better understanding of ageing in older people with learning disabilities. In the general population ageing is viewed in rather negative terms and as a significant life transition. However, for some older people with learning disabilities this transition may go unnoticed because of their past negative life experiences and lack of opportunities. Reflexivity has the potential to provide nurses with greater understanding of the personal perspectives of older people with learning disabilities.

  14. Attitudes of neurology specialists toward older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferoğlu, Meral; Yıldız, Demet; Pekel, Nilüfer Büyükkoyuncu; Güneş, Aygül; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Tufan, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    Attitude of healthcare providers toward older people is very important in the aging world. Neurologists contact older adults very frequently. We aimed to investigate the attitudes of neurologists toward older adults. We recorded participants age; sex; duration of clinical practice in neurology; existence of older adult relatives; and history of geriatrics education, nursing home visits, older adult patient density in their clinical practice, and participation in voluntary public activities. UCLA Geriatrics Attitude Scale was used to evaluate participants' attitudes. A total of 100 neurologists participated in this study. Seventy-seven percent had positive, 3 % had neutral, and 20 % had negative attitudes. Twenty-seven percent of the participants had history of geriatrics education, and these participants tended to have a higher rate of positive attitudes. Neurologists with positive attitudes tended to be older than those with negative attitudes. Participants with history of living with older adult relatives had lower rates of positive attitudes. The most common diagnoses of the patients the participants encountered were stroke and dementia. Independent factors associated with positive attitudes were history of geriatrics education and older age. History of living with older relatives tended to have a negative effect. Most of the negative items of the attitude scale were associated with the natural course and behavior of the common diseases in neurology practice. Generalization of geriatrics education may translate into a better understanding and improved care for older patients. Development of instruments and implementation of qualitative studies to assess attitudes of neurologists toward older adults are needed.

  15. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  16. Skeletal muscle cutpoints associated with elevated physical disability risk in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Baumgartner, Richard N; Ross, Robert; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2004-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine skeletal muscle cutpoints for identifying elevated physical disability risk in older adults. Subjects included 4,449 older (> or = 60 years) participants from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1988-1994. Physical disability was assessed by questionnaire, and bioimpedance was used to estimate skeletal muscle, which was normalized for height. Receiver operating characteristics were used to develop the skeletal muscle cutpoints associated with a high likelihood of physical disability. Odds for physical disability were compared in subjects whose measures fell above and below these cutpoints. Skeletal muscle cutpoints of 5.76-6.75 and values in men were 8.51-10.75 and skeletal muscle values, women with moderate- and high-risk skeletal muscle values had odds for physical disability of 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 2.04) and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.91, 5.73), respectively. The corresponding odds in men were 3.65 (95% CI: 1.92, 6.94) and 4.71 (95% CI: 2.28, 9.74). This study presents skeletal muscle cutpoints for physical disability risk in older adults. Future applications of these cutpoints include the comparison of morbidity risk in older persons with normal muscle mass and those with sarcopenia, the determination and comparison of sarcopenia prevalences, and the estimation of health-care costs attributable to sarcopenia.

  17. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  18. Exploring Life Satisfaction Among Older Adults in Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Enguerran; Duboz, Priscilla; Montepare, Joann M; Gueye, Lamine

    2015-12-01

    Studies on correlates of subjective well-being of older adults are virtually non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, understanding and improving the well-being of older adults should be a focal point of research and policy directed at this fast growing population. The aim of this study was to assess the links between socio-demographic factors, economic conditions, health, social relations, and the life satisfaction of older adults in Dakar. To this end, a survey was conducted on a sample of 500 dwellers of the Senegalese capital, aged 50 to 100, using the quota method for greater representativeness. Results revealed that with advancing age older adults expressed greater life satisfaction, and that older women were more satisfied than older men. As well, economic conditions were a main predictor of life satisfaction, along with good social relations. In contrast to findings with Western populations, neither self-rated health nor physical disabilities were associated with aging adults' life satisfaction. Findings suggest a number of avenues for future research.

  19. Stumbling over obstacles in older adults compared to young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway

  20. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  1. Online Attention Training for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention– coordination, allocation, and selective focus...

  2. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  3. Changing Students' Stereotypes of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…

  4. Older Adults Have Difficulty in Decoding Sarcasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…

  5. Do older adults with chronic low back pain differ from younger adults in regards to baseline characteristics and prognosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manogharan, S; Kongsted, A; Ferreira, M L; Hancock, M J

    2017-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP) in older adults is poorly understood because the vast majority of the LBP research has focused on the working aged population. The aim of this study was to compare older adults consulting with chronic LBP to middle aged and young adults consulting with chronic LBP, in terms of their baseline characteristics, and pain and disability outcomes over 1 year. Data were systematically collected as part of routine care in a secondary care spine clinic. At initial presentation patients answered a self-report questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Patients older than 65 were classified as older adults and compared to middle aged (45-65 years old) and younger adults (17-44 years old) for 10 baseline characteristics. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 6 and 12 month follow-ups and compared between age groups. A total of 14,479 participants were included in the study. Of these 3087 (21%) patients were older adults, 6071 (42%) were middle aged and 5321 (37%) were young adults. At presentation older adults were statistically different to the middle aged and younger adults for most characteristics measured (e.g. less intense back pain, more leg pain and more depression); however, the differences were small. The change in pain and disability over 12 months did not differ between age groups. This study found small baseline differences in older people with chronic LBP compared to middle aged and younger adults. There were no associations between age groups and the clinical course. Small baseline differences exist in older people with chronic low back pain compared to middle aged and younger adults referred to secondary care for chronic low back pain. Older adults present with slightly less intense low back pain but slightly more intense leg pain. Changes in pain intensity and disability over a 12 month period were similar across all age groups. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  6. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Guillermo R.; Travier, Noémie; Guerra-Balic, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05). No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST. PMID:28880236

  7. Sedentary and Physical Activity Patterns in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo R. Oviedo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the patterns of sedentary time (ST and physical activity (PA levels throughout the week among adults and older adults with Intellectual Disability (ID. We analyzed ST and PA patterns of adults and older adults with ID. Forty-two adults and 42 older adults with mild to severe ID participated in this study. Height and weight were obtained to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI. Body fat and fat-free mass percentages were also obtained. Patterns of PA levels and ST were assessed with GT3X Actigraph accelerometers. Adults performed higher amounts of total PA and moderate to vigorous PA than older adults during the week, on weekdays and in center time (all p > 0.05. No differences between males and females were found for either PA levels or ST. Only 10.7% of the participants met the global recommendations on PA for health. The participants of the current study showed low PA levels and a high prevalence of ST. Interestingly, when comparing age and/or sex groups, no differences were observed for ST. Our findings provide novel and valuable information to be considered in future interventions aiming to increase PA levels and reduce ST.

  8. Perceptions of exercise screening among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, Liza; Petrella, Andrea F M; Blunt, Wendy; Petrella, Robert J

    2018-06-01

    Prephysical activity screening is important for older adults' participating in physical activity. Unfortunately, many older adults face barriers to exercise participation and thus, may not complete proper physical activity screening. The purpose of this project was to conduct a thematic analysis of perceptions and experiences of community-dwelling older adults regarding prephysical activity screening (i.e., Get Active Questionnaire (GAQ) and a standardized exercise stress test). A convenience sample of adults (male n = 58, female n = 54) aged 75 ± 7 years living in the City of London, Ontario, Canada, was used. Participants completed a treadmill stress test and the GAQ at a research laboratory for community-based referrals. One week later, participants completed the GAQ again and were asked questions by a research assistant about their perceptions of the screening process. Thematic analysis of the responses was conducted. The results indicated that older adults view physical activity screening as acceptable, but not always necessary. Also, the experiences expressed by this sample of older adults indicated that physical activity screening can contribute to continued confidence (through reassurance) and can contribute to increased motivation (through yearly fitness results) in exercise participation. In conclusion, older adults may perceive screening as supportive in exercise adoption, if screening is simple, convenient, and supports older adults' motivation and confidence to exercise.

  9. Social Connections for Older People with Intellectual Disability in Ireland: Results from Wave One of IDS-TILDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, Darren; McCallion, Philip; Cleary, Eimear; McCarron, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: The literature on influences of community versus congregated settings raises questions about how social inclusion can be optimised for people with intellectual disability. This study examines social contacts for older people with intellectual disability in Ireland, examining differences in social connection for adults with intellectual…

  10. Short term treatment versus long term management of neck and back disability in older adults utilizing spinal manipulative therapy and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vihstadt, Corrie; Maiers, Michele; Westrom, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    ENDPOINT: 36 weeks post-randomization. DATA COLLECTION: Self-report questionnaires administered at 2 baseline visits and 4, 12, 24, 36, 52, and 78 weeks post-randomization. Primary outcomes include back and neck disability, measured by the Oswestry Disability Index and Neck Disability Index. Secondary...... outcomes include pain, general health status, improvement, self-efficacy, kinesiophobia, satisfaction, and medication use. Functional outcome assessment occurs at baseline and week 37 for hand grip strength, short physical performance battery, and accelerometry. Individual qualitative interviews...

  11. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  12. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Clark, David J; Higgins, Torrance J; Cooke, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AGING ADULTS WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES: PERSPECTIVES ON EMERGING SERVICE CONCERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. JANICKI

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available With improved general health status many adults with intellectual disabilities (ID are living to old age, much like other adults. The World Health Organization has recognized the needs of this older population and identified the challenges they pose for governmental ministries and non-governmental organizations charged with planning, advocacy, financing, and delivery of specialty lifecare services and rehabilitation programs. These challenges include a range of issues normally confronting older adults, such as pensioning and financial security, changes in lifestyles associated with retirement and adaptations to living arrangements and housing, modifications in daily activities and community inclusion, changing physical and sensory abilities, and greater demands for support for aging families and other carers. As older adults with ID may also be affected by latelife or age-related conditions and begin to experience secondary impairments, these challenges may be more pronounced when encountered by NGOs located in countries with developing market economies. In these instances, the onus on promoting healthy aging will fall upon national entities which are responsible for targeting people with disabilities from infancy and childhood, and providing lifelong supports for adolescents, adults, and families. Ideally, if such efforts are undertaken early, they will lead to actions that can be undertaken to promote better health as people with ID age and ensure that the latter part of their lives are experienced as ‘quality of life years.’

  14. Cross-Country Differences in the Additive Effects of Socioeconomics, Health Behaviors and Medical Comorbidities on Disability among Older Adults with Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    Patients with heart disease experience limited activities of daily living (ADL). This is a cross-country comparison of the additive effects of Socioeconomics, health behaviors, and the number of medical comorbidities on disability among patients with heart disease. The current study used a cross-sectional design. Data came from the Research on Early Life and Aging Trends and Effects (RELATE). The current analysis utilized data on elderly individuals (age ≥60 y) from 13 countries. The outcome was any ADL limitation (i.e. bathing, dressing, using toilet, transferring, lifting heavy things, shopping, and eating meals). Socioeconomics (i.e. age, gender, education, and income), health behaviors (i.e. exercise, smoking, and drinking), and number of chronic medical conditions (i.e. hypertension, respiratory, arthritis, stroke, and diabetes) were entered into country-specific logistic regressions, considering at least one limitation in ADL as the main outcome. Number of comorbid medical conditions and age were positively associated with disability in 85% of the countries. Physical activity and drinking were linked to disability in 54%and 31% of countries, respectively. Higher education and income were associated with lower disability in 31% and 23% of the countries, respectively. Female gender was associated with higher disability only in 15% of the countries. Smoking was not associated with disability, while the effects of socioeconomics, drinking, exercise, and medical comorbidities were controlled. Determinants of disability depend on the country; accordingly, locally designed health promotion interventions may be superior to the universal interventions for patients with heart disease. Medical comorbidities, however, should be universally diagnosed and treated.

  15. Framing effects in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghan; Goldstein, David; Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T

    2005-07-01

    A growing literature on decision making in older adults suggests that they are more likely to use heuristic processing than are younger adults. We assessed this tendency in the context of a framing effect, a decision-making phenomenon whereby the language used to describe options greatly influences the decision maker's choice. We compared decision making under a standard ("heuristic") condition and also under a "justification" condition known to reduce reliance on heuristics. In the standard condition, older adults were more susceptible than younger adults to framing but the two groups did not differ when participants were asked to provide a justification. Thus, although older adults may spontaneously rely more on heuristic processing than younger adults, they can be induced to take a more systematic approach to decision making.

  16. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  17. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out some of our online STEADI resources for older adults. These resources include: Stay Independent brochure What You Can Do to Prevent Falls brochure Check for Safety brochure Postural Hypotension brochure Chair Rise Exercise Related Pages Costs ...

  18. Advances in Psychotherapy for Depressed Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Patrick J; McGovern, Amanda R; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Sirey, Jo Anne

    2017-09-01

    We review recent advances in psychotherapies for depressed older adults, in particular those developed for special populations characterized by chronic medical illness, acute medical illness, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk factors. We review adaptations for psychotherapy to overcome barriers to its accessibility in non-specialty settings such as primary care, homebound or hard-to-reach older adults, and social service settings. Recent evidence supports the effectiveness of psychotherapies that target late-life depression in the context of specific comorbid conditions including COPD, heart failure, Parkinson's disease, stroke and other acute conditions, cognitive impairment, and suicide risk. Growing evidence supports the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of psychotherapy modified for a variety of health care and social service settings. Research supports the benefits of selecting the type of psychotherapy based on a comprehensive assessment of the older adult's psychiatric, medical, functional, and cognitive status, and tailoring psychotherapy to the settings in which older depressed adults are most likely to present.

  19. Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates 4 Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults Share Tweet ... you are experiencing could be due to medications. 4. Review Medications with Your Health Care Provider Ideally, ...

  20. Population Health Management for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Musich, Shirley; MacLeod, Stephanie; Alsgaard, Kathleen; Hawkins, Kevin; Yeh, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The older adult population is expanding, living longer, with multiple chronic conditions. Understanding and managing their needs over time is an integral part of defining successful aging. Population health is used to describe the measurement and health outcomes of a population. Objectives: To define population health as applied to older adults, summarize lessons learned from current research, and identify potential interventions designed to promote successful aging and improved health for this population. Method: Online search engines were utilized to identify research on population health and health interventions for older adults. Results: Population health management (PHM) is one strategy to promote the health and well-being of target populations. Interventions promoting health across a continuum tend to be disease, risk, or health behavior specific rather than encompassing a global concept of health. Conclusion: Many existing interventions for older adults are simply research based with limited generalizability; as such, further work in this area is warranted. PMID:28680938

  1. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  2. Crying and Depression Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Janice L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Self-reports of frequency of crying episodes are described for two nonclinical samples of younger and older adult men and women. Comparison of samples revealed no evidence for either a decreased or increased frequency of crying among the older sample. Crying episodes function as an adaptive coping response to and should not be automatically…

  3. Personality and Lung Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Stephan, Yannick; Luchetti, Martina; Gonzalez-Rothi, Ricardo; Sutin, Angelina R

    2017-10-01

    Lung disease is a leading cause of disability and death among older adults. We examine whether personality traits are associated with lung function and shortness of breath (dyspnea) in a national cohort with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Participants (N = 12,670) from the Health and Retirement Study were tested for peak expiratory flow (PEF) and completed measures of personality, health behaviors, and a medical history. High neuroticism and low extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were associated with lower PEF, and higher likelihood of COPD and dyspnea. Conscientiousness had the strongest and most consistent associations, including lower risk of PEF less than 80% of the predicted value (OR = 0.67; 0.62-0.73) and dyspnea (OR = 0.52; 0.47-0.57). Although attenuated, the associations remained significant when accounting for smoking, physical activity, and chronic diseases including cardiovascular and psychiatric disorders. The associations between personality and PEF or dyspnea were similar among those with or without COPD, suggesting that psychological links to lung function are not disease dependent. In longitudinal analyses, high neuroticism (β = -0.019) and low conscientiousness (β = 0.027) predicted steeper declines in PEF. A vulnerable personality profile is common among individuals with limited lung function and COPD, predicts shortness of breath and worsening lung function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Anxiety in older adults often goes undiagnosed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koychev, Ivan; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorder in the elderly is twice as common as dementia and four to six times more common than major depression. Anxiety is associated with poorer quality of life, significant distress and contributes to the onset of disability. Mortality risks are also increased, through physical causes, especially cardiovascular disease, and suicide. Diagnosing anxiety disorders in older adults remains a challenge because of the significant overlap in symptoms between physical disorders (shortness of breath; abdominal and chest pain; palpitations) and depression (disturbed sleep; poor attention, concentration and memory; restlessness). Good history taking is crucial in elucidating whether the complaint is of new onset or a recurrence of a previous disorder. The presence of comorbid depression should be clarified. If present, its temporal relationship with the anxiety symptoms will indicate whether there is an independent anxiety disorder. A medication review is warranted, as a number of drugs may be causative (calcium channel blockers, alpha- and beta-blockers, digoxin, L-thyroxine, bronchodilators, steroids, theophylline, antihistamines) or may cause anxiety in withdrawal (e.g. benzodiazepines). Substance and alcohol abuse should be excluded, as withdrawal from either may cause anxiety. A new or exacerbated physical illness may be related to anxiety. Medical investigations will help clarify the extent to which a particular somatic symptom is the result of anxiety.

  5. Optimizing Sleep in Older Adults: Treating Insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep...

  6. Singapore Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) Study: Prevalence of Frailty and Associated Factors in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Reshma A; Chen, Matthew Zhixuan; Tan, Linda Wei Lin; Lim, Moses YiDong; Ho, Han Kwee; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-08-01

    In the context of a rapidly ageing population, Singapore is anticipating a rise in multimorbidity, disability, and dependency, which are driven by physical frailty. Healthy Older People Everyday (HOPE) is an epidemiologic population-based study on community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older in Singapore. To investigate the prevalence of frail and prefrail states and their association with polypharmacy, multimorbidity, cognitive and functional status, and perceived health status among community-dwelling older adults in Singapore. Participants for HOPE were older adults aged 65 years and older recruited from a cohort study on the northwest region of Singapore. Analysis was performed on data collected from a combination of interviewer-administered questionnaires (including FRAIL scale, EQ-5D, Mini Mental State Examination, Barthel index, and Lawton IADL scale), clinical assessments, and physical measurements (including hand grip strength and Timed-Up-and-Go [TUG] test). A total of 1051 older adults (mean age 71.2 years) completed the study. More than half (57.2%) were female. The prevalence of frailty and prefrailty was 6.2% and 37%, respectively. Frailty was associated with older age, female gender, Indian (instead of Chinese) ethnicity, multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment, weaker hand grip strength, longer TUG times, and poor perceived health status. Those with underlying cognitive impairment and frailty were at greater risk of adverse health outcome. Frailty is a complex health state with multiple domains and dimensions. In our study in a multiethnic Asian population, we identified nonmodifiable factors and modifiable risk factors (multimorbidity, polypharmacy, cognitive and functional impairment) that were associated with frailty. Interventions will have to be multipronged and will require a collaborated effort in order to effect change and improve the health span in rapidly ageing populations. Copyright © 2017 AMDA

  7. Pulmonary hypertension in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, John R; Trow, Terence K; Lerz, Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a frequently encountered problem in older patients. True idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension can also be seen and requires careful exclusion in older patients. Institution of therapies must be tempered with an appreciation of individual comorbidities and functional limitations that may affect patients' ability to comply and benefit from the complex treatments available for pulmonary arterial hypertension. This article reviews the existing data on the various forms of pulmonary hypertension presenting in older patients and on appropriate therapy in this challenging population.

  8. Older adult education in Lithuanian ageing society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemaitaityte I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of the demographic ageing of the population and educational opportunities for older adults in Lithuania. Ageing population is a natural outcome of demographic evolution of society. However, a growing number of older people in Lithuania as well as in other European countries requires continuous revision of societal resources in social security, economics, education, health care areas and their adjustment to the new demands. Though current discussion in Lithuania highlights the inclusion of older adults into active social life through educational activities, the studies in diverse areas show that a small number of older people take part in lifelong learning. For this reason and in the attempt to make older people feel satisfaction with life it is necessary to encourage their activity, to promote their social roles, to give them opportunities to take up voluntary tasks, educational and cultural functions and study new subjects.

  9. Coping and health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2008-02-01

    Although coping has been shown to influence physical health in younger populations, whether coping affects health in older adults appears to depend upon how coping and health are conceptualized. This article reviews recent literature on coping and health in older adults in three areas. First, we discuss coping's distinct relevance to health in older adults. Second, we describe ways in which coping may differ between older and younger populations. Third, we detail recent and notable findings of coping's specific effects on biomedical health and health in general. The recent literature suggests that coping may be a developmental and multifaceted process. Positive coping strategies may have positive and even protective effects on health, whereas negative strategies may have negative effects.

  10. Mathematics and Metacognition in Adolescents and Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2009-01-01

    A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n = 101) and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n = 130) solved…

  11. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F. de Winter (Channa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Chapter 1 General introduction There is an increasing group of older people with intellectual disability in The Netherlands, reaching almost the same life expectancy as the general population. Age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and dementia

  12. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  13. The secrets of highly active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thea; Tong, Catherine; Ashe, Maureen C; McKay, Heather; Sims-Gould, Joanie

    2013-12-01

    Although physical activity is a recognized component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age (Manini & Pahor, 2009; Schutzer & Graves, 2004). In this article we examine the key factors that facilitate physical activity in highly active community-dwelling older adults. Using a strengths based approach, we examined the factors that facilitated physical activity in our sample of highly active older adults. Twenty-seven older adults participated in face-to face interviews. We extracted a sub-sample of 10 highly active older adults to be included in the analyses. Based on a framework analysis of our transcripts we identified three factors that facilitate physical activity in our sample, these include: 1) resourcefulness: engagement in self-help strategies such as self-efficacy, self-control and adaptability; 2) social connections: the presence of relationships (friend, neighborhood, institutions) and social activities that support or facilitate high levels of physical activity; and 3) the role of the built and natural environments: features of places and spaces that support and facilitate high levels of physical activity. Findings provide insight into, and factors that facilitate older adults' physical activity. We discuss implications for programs (e.g., accessible community centers, with appropriate programming throughout the lifecourse) and policies geared towards the promotion of physical activity (e.g., the development of spaces that facilitate both physical and social activities). © 2013.

  14. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Assistive technology for communication of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrozo Campos Antunes, Thaiany; Souza Bulle de Oliveira, Acary; Hudec, Robert; Brusque Crocetta, Tania; Ferreira de Lima Antão, Jennifer Yohanna; de Almeida Barbosa, Renata Thais; Guarnieri, Regiani; Massetti, Thais; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2018-02-16

    Describe the use of assistive technology to enhance communication opportunities for older adults. A systematic review was conducted in two databases, PubMed and Web of Science, by using two different searches in each. The search was limited to original articles, in English language, including people aged 60 years and older that used any type of assistive technology for communication. The articles found in the initial search were filtered by title, abstracts and the remaining articles were fully read. Eighteen studies were included in this review after the reading of full-texts. Most of the studies included apparently healthy participants with communication limitations due to aging related changes and the others included people with some pathology that prevent them from normal communication. Four categories of assistive technology were identified: assistive technology for people with speech problems; robot or videoconferencing systems; Information and Communication Technologies and, other types of assistive technology for communication, such as hearing aids and scrapbooks. Assistive technology for communication of older adults is not only used by people with disabilities that prevent them from usual communication. They are mostly for older adults without a pathological communication problem.

  16. Hypothyroidism: challenges when treating older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Tamera

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism frequently affects older adults' general sense of health, their cognitive abilities, and quality of life. Management decisions regarding when to start treatment and at what dosage to begin medication are influenced by both laboratory values and patient symptoms. Although specific guidelines regarding management of hypothyroidism in older adults do not exist, general recommendations include initiating hormone replacement with levothyroxine (Levoxyl(®), Synthroid(®), and others) at 12.5 mcg to 25 mcg and titrating the dose slowly based on response at 6-week intervals. Multiple medications and certain foods can interact with levothyroxine; therefore, the best dosage time is when a person is fasting or 4 hours postprandial. Using a consistent brand-name drug for hormone replacement with levothyroxine is important due to variations in the active ingredient in generic formulations. Providers need to be aware of the prevalence of hypothyroidism and management issues when caring for older adults. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Cohabitation among older adults: a national portrait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L; Lee, Gary R; Bulanda, Jennifer Roebuck

    2006-03-01

    Older adults are increasingly likely to experience cohabitation, or living together unmarried in an intimate, heterosexual union. In order to begin building a conceptual framework, we provide a descriptive portrait of older adult cohabitors, emphasizing how they compare to older remarrieds and unpartnereds. We used data from both Census 2000 and the 1998 Health and Retirement Study ( HRS; Health and Retirement Study, 1998) to estimate the size and composition of the cohabiting population aged 51 and older. Also, using HRS data, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models to identify the correlates associated with cohabitation and remarriage (vs being unpartnered) among women and men who were previously married. More than 1 million older adults, composing 4% of the unmarried population, currently cohabit. About 90% of these individuals were previously married. We identify significant differences among cohabitors, remarrieds, and unpartnereds across several dimensions, including sociodemographic characteristics, economic resources, physical health, and social relationships. Cohabitors appear to be more disadvantaged than remarrieds, and this is especially evident for women. Older cohabitors differ from individuals of other marital statuses, and therefore future work on marital status should explicitly incorporate cohabitation.

  18. Using informatics to capture older adults' wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J; Reeder, Blaine; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how informatics applications can support the assessment and visualization of older adults' wellness. A theoretical framework is presented that informs the design of a technology enhanced screening platform for wellness. We highlight an ongoing pilot demonstration in an assisted living facility where a community room has been converted into a living laboratory for the use of diverse technologies (including a telehealth component to capture vital signs and customized questionnaires, a gait analysis component and cognitive assessment software) to assess the multiple aspects of wellness of older adults. A demonstration project was introduced in an independent retirement community to validate our theoretical framework of informatics and wellness assessment for older adults. Subjects are being recruited to attend a community room and engage in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and gait variables as well as psychometrics pertaining to social and spiritual components of wellness for a period of eight weeks. Data are integrated from various sources into one study database and different visualization approaches are pursued to efficiently display potential correlations between different parameters and capture overall trends of wellness. Preliminary findings indicate that older adults are willing to participate in technology-enhanced interventions and embrace different information technology applications given appropriate and customized training and hardware and software features that address potential functional limitations and inexperience with computers. Informatics can advance health care for older adults and support a holistic assessment of older adults' wellness. The described framework can support decision making, link formal and informal caregiving networks and identify early trends and patterns that if addressed could reduce adverse health events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland

  19. Neuropsychological Mechanisms for Falls in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eLiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in – and the prevalence of – falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life.

  20. Exercise in the healthy older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karani, R; McLaughlin, M A; Cassel, C K

    2001-01-01

    Habitual exercise provides numerous health benefits to the older adult. While dynamic aerobic activities increase stamina and lung capacity, isometric or resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance. Long-term benefits of continued exercise include a decreased risk of death from heart disease, enhanced balance and mobility, a decreased risk of diabetes, and an improvement in depressive symptoms. While the hazards of exercise relate predominantly to extremes of intensity and duration, all older adults should consult with a physician before beginning a new activity program. A prescription for exercise should include both aerobic and resistance training components, and frequent follow-up to improve adherence is highly recommended. (c)2001 CVRR, Inc.

  1. Effective communication and counseling with older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J A

    2000-01-01

    Age-sensitive communication skills must be developed to achieve greater effectiveness in assisting older adults. These skills should be guided by research findings on the development changes related to normal aging. A listening-responding technique is presented outlining six principles that can be applied in a wide variety of situations. These principles are governed by the intention to preserve self-esteem and to clarify the needs of elderly clients. By using this approach with the older adult, the practitioner will achieve an effective communication process that generates accurate information, supports self-determination, and achieves a therapeutic process.

  2. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  4. Independent older adults perspectives on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabra, K K; Compton, S M; Keenan, L P

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore oral health experiences from the perspective of older adults' living in community dwellings. The two objectives of this study were to identify facilitators and barriers to oral health care, and to determine how utilization of oral health services compares to utilization of other healthcare services. An interpretive descriptive methodology was employed with a purposive sample of 12 adults, aged 70 years or older. The inclusion criterion was English-speaking seniors residing in community dwellings. Community dwellings were defined as any housing outside of long-term care or other supportive living facilities. Semi-structured interviews were 30-80 min, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers participated in the comparative analysis process to develop codes, generate categories, interpret patterns and construct themes. Three central themes surfacing from the data were as follows: life course influences on oral health, transparency in delivery of oral health services and interrelationships between oral health and overall health. Older adults in this study emphasized the value of establishing collaborative and trusting relationships between oral health practitioners and older adults. Oral health practitioners should be clear and transparent when communicating information about oral health costs and be cognizant of different circumstances from childhood to older adulthood that inhibit or promote routine utilization of oral health services. Including oral health services as part of interdisciplinary care teams could help promote understandings of the reciprocal relationship between oral health and general health and improve oral health status for older adults. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Optimizing Tailored Health Promotion for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Varwijk, Anne Esther; Koopmans, Marg; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Smits, Carolien H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores older adults’ perspectives on healthy living, and their interactions with professionals regarding healthy living. This perspective is necessary for health professionals when they engage in tailored health promotion in their daily work routines. Method: In a qualitative study, 18 semi-structured interviews were carried out with older adults (aged 55-98) living in the Netherlands. The framework analysis method was used to analyze the transcripts. Results: Three themes emerged from the data—(a) healthy living: daily routines and staying active, (b) enacting healthy living: accepting and adapting, (c) interaction with health professionals with regard to healthy living: autonomy and reciprocity. Discussion: Older adults experience healthy living in a holistic way in which they prefer to live active and independent lives. Health professionals should focus on building an equal relationship of trust and focus on positive health outcomes, such as autonomy and self-sufficiency when communicating about healthy living. PMID:28138485

  6. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  7. Preventing Older Adult Falls and TBI

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-05

    This podcast provides tips on how older adults can prevent falls and related injuries, such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI).  Created: 3/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/7/2008.

  8. Filipino older adults' beliefs about exercise activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceria-Ulep, Clementina D; Serafica, Reimund C; Tse, Alice

    2011-01-01

    This study explored how the older traditional Filipino adults 65 years old and above living in Honolulu, Hawaii, describe their beliefs regarding exercise activity. The location of this research setting is unique because a blending of traditional Filipino culture exists within an acculturated social setting. The Filipino older adults who have relocated to this U.S. location may have also stayed close to their own cultural traditions. A perception of exercise activity was generated through the lens of 47 participants using qualitative methodology. While focusing on the older adults' beliefs about exercise activity, it became evident that exercise may have been seen as a proxy measure of physical activity. The study revealed four main domains: balancing barriers against benefits; engaging capabilities; intervening factors; and defining exercise. The data suggest that the four themes are juxtaposed among each other, with overarching social obligations to the kin group governing the older adults' engagement in what constitutes structured exercise by Western definition. Further investigation is needed to conceptualize what types of physical activities traditional Filipino elders perceive as exercise, and whether these activities fall into the Western definition of exercise. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalina Aparecida Partezani Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Results: Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Conclusion: Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context.

  10. Online Attention Training for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Alexandra; Kueider, Alexandra; Spira, Adam; Adams, Gregory; Rager, Robert; Rebok, George

    Evidence suggests that cognitive training interventions can improve older adults' cognitive performance. Successful training programs are adaptable and train multiple cognitive domains to target individual strengths and weaknesses. Computerized training programs are useful because they allow older adults to easily access training. This pilot study used an online attention training program, ATTENTION WORKOUT™, to enhance three aspects of attention- coordination , allocation , and selective focus -in community-dwelling older adults randomized to either an abbreviated (n=13) or an extended (n=17) practice training program over a 6-week period. Participants in the extended practice group significantly improved on selective focus reading distraction tasks with unrelated words (U=39.5; Z=-2.34; p =.02) and blanks (U=26.5; Z=-3.05; p =.002) as well as a matching attributes task (U=49.5; Z=-2.33; p =.02). The extended practice group significantly improved on three tasks of coordinating attention - radio-tuning (U=30; Z=-2.73; p =.01), circuit-breaker resetting (U=46; Z=-2.24; p =.03), and the combination of the two tasks (U=15; Z=-3.51; p attention training programs, like ATTENTION WORKOUT, can improve attention-related skills in community-dwelling older adults.

  11. Emergency Preparedness Concerns for Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-01-26

    This podcast discusses the special concerns many older adults face during a disaster. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 1/26/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP) and Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response (COTPER).   Date Released: 1/26/2009.

  12. Meeting the health needs of older people with learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Robert

    The increasing population of older people with learning disabilities may lead to higher demand for contact with registered nurses. To date, little research has been undertaken regarding the role of registered nurses in meeting the health and care needs of this client group. In this article, the author reports on the second stage of a three-stage research study that used six case studies to explore this issue. Implications for nursing were identified in areas such as health needs, record keeping, medication, advocacy, social aspects, ageing in place, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding, spirituality and end-of-life care. The author concludes that registered nurses will need to continue to remain up to date to meet the complex needs of older individuals with learning disabilities.

  13. Psychosocial Treatment Options for Major Depressive Disorder in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renn, Brenna N; Areán, Patricia A

    2017-03-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a public health concern with deleterious effects on overall health, cognition, quality of life, and mortality. Although LLD is relatively common, it is not a normal part of aging and is often under-recognized in older adults. However, psychotherapy is an effective treatment for LLD that aligns with many patients' preferences and can improve health and functioning. This review synthesized the current literature on evidence-based psychotherapies for the treatment of depression in older adults. Findings suggest that active, skills-based psychotherapies (cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT] and problem-solving therapy [PST]) may be more effective for LLD than non-directive, supportive counseling. PST may be particularly relevant for offsetting skill deficit associated with LLD, such as in instances of cognitive impairment (especially executive dysfunction) and disability. Emerging treatments also consider contextual factors to improve treatment delivery, such as personalized care, access, and poverty. Tele-mental health represents one such exciting new way of improving access and uptake of treatment by older adults. Although these strategies hold promise, further investigation via randomized controlled trials and comparative effectiveness are necessary to advance our treatment of LLD. Priority should be given to recruiting and training the geriatric mental health workforce to deliver evidence-based psychosocial interventions for LLD.

  14. Sociality and intergenerational transfer of older adults' nostalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Robertson, Sara

    2018-05-03

    Interest in nostalgia has blossomed, yet its nature in older adulthood and potential for intergenerational transfer to younger adults has remained neglected. In Experiment 1, we focused on the content of older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) recollections and asked whether older adults' nostalgia could be transferred to younger adults. We showed that nostalgia expressed in older adults' narratives was positively associated with nostalgia reported by young-adult readers. In Experiment 2, undergraduates read a nostalgic or ordinary narrative written by an older adult. Then they rated their own nostalgia as well as their perceived social connectedness, self-continuity, and meaning in life. Exposure to older adults' nostalgic (vs. ordinary) narratives promoted concurrent nostalgia among young adults, along with associated psychological benefits (social connectedness, self-continuity, meaning). The findings illustrate the potential for intergenerational transfer of nostalgia through written narratives, and attest to the universality of nostalgic themes across younger and older adults.

  15. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert

    2002-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is related to functional impairment and physical disability in older persons. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Fourteen thousand eight hundred eighteen adult NHANES III participants aged 18 and older. The presence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and functional impairment and disability were examined in 4,504 adults aged 60 and older. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimpedance analysis measurements and expressed as skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/body mass x 100). Subjects were considered to have a normal SMI if their SMI was greater than -one standard deviation above the sex-specific mean for young adults (aged 18-39). Class I sarcopenia was considered present in subjects whose SMI was within -one to -two standard deviations of young adult values, and class II sarcopenia was present in subjects whose SMI was below -two standard deviations of young adult values. The prevalence of class I and class II sarcopenia increased from the third to sixth decades but remained relatively constant thereafter. The prevalence of class I (59% vs 45%) and class II (10% vs 7%) sarcopenia was greater in the older (> or = 60 years) women than in the older men (P normal SMI, respectively. Some of the associations between class II sarcopenia and functional impairment remained significant after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, health behaviors, and comorbidity. Reduced relative skeletal muscle mass in older Americans is a common occurrence that is significantly and independently associated with functional impairment and disability, particularly in older women. These observations provide strong support for the prevailing view that sarcopenia may be an important and potentially reversible cause of

  16. Dementia literacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, it is predicted that there will also be a rise in the number of people with dementia. Although there is no definitive cure, early detection and access to treatment and services remains the cornerstone of management. Misinformation and poor knowledge about dementia may lead to delayed diagnosis. A study of dementia literacy was undertaken to explore current knowledge in a metropolitan city in Australia. A vignette describing an older person with symptoms of cognitive impairment was posted out to volunteers at the local hospital. The majority of participants surveyed correctly identified that the person in the vignette was suffering from symptoms of dementia or cognitive impairment. However, there was more variation with regard to types of treatment available and appropriate help-seeking behavior. Although people are able to identify symptoms of dementia when they are presented in a scenario, the reality is often not as clear. More education to improve knowledge with regard to this increasingly common disorder is required so that appropriate interventions can be made available. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Low Blood Sodium in Older Adults: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sodium in older adults: A concern? Why is low blood sodium a health concern for older adults? ... treated? Answers from Paul Y. Takahashi, M.D. Low blood sodium (hyponatremia) occurs when you have an ...

  19. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  20. What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Older Adults Need to Know about Retail Clinics Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of Older Adults Retail clinics are medical clinics based in pharmacies, ...

  1. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Promotion Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults skip to content ODPHP Health Communication Healthy People ... and Patient e-Health Resources Health Literacy and Older Adults Who is this guide for? Why are health ...

  2. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  3. Contemporary Assessment of Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Amil M.; Claggett, Brian; Kitzman, Dalane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although age-Associated changes in left ventricular diastolic function are well recognized, limited data exist characterizing measures of diastolic function in older adults, including both reference ranges reflecting the older adult population and prognostically relevant values...

  4. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options.

  5. The Mental Health of Older LGBT Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarns, Brandon C; Abrams, Janet M; Meeks, Thomas W; Sewell, Daniel D

    2016-06-01

    There are approximately one million older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults in the USA. Their mental health issues result from interactions between genetic factors and stress associated with membership in a sexual minority group. Although advancements in acceptance and equal treatment of LGBT individuals have been occurring, sexual minority status remains associated with risks to physical and mental well-being. Older LGBT adults are more likely to have experienced mistreatment and discrimination due to living a majority of their lives prior to recent advancements in acceptance and equal treatment. All LGBT adults experience one common developmental challenge: deciding if, when, and how to reveal to others their gender identity and/or sexual orientation. LGBT individuals have higher rates of anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders and also are at increased risk for certain medical conditions like obesity, breast cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Improved education and training of clinicians, coupled with clinical research efforts, holds the promise of improved overall health and life quality for older LGBT adults.

  6. Managing Status Epilepticus in the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legriel, Stephane; Brophy, Gretchen M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to describe particularities in epidemiology, outcome, and management modalities in the older adult population with status epilepticus. There is a higher incidence of status epilepticus in the older adult population, and it commonly has a nonconvulsive presentation. Diagnosis in this population may be difficult and requires an unrestricted use of EEG. Short and long term associated-mortality are high, and age over 60 years is an independent factor associated with poor outcome. Stroke (acute or remote symptomatic), miscellaneous metabolic causes, dementia, infections hypoxemia, and brain injury are among the main causes of status epilepticus occurrence in this age category. The use of anticonvulsive agents can be problematic as well. Thus, it is important to take into account the specific aspects related to the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes in older critically-ill adults. Beyond these precautions, the management may be identical to that of the younger adult, including prompt initiation of symptomatic and anticonvulsant therapies, and a broad and thorough etiological investigation. Such management strategies may improve the vital and functional prognosis of these patients, while maintaining a high overall quality of care. PMID:27187485

  7. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  8. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  9. Leisure, functional disability and depression among older Chinese living in residential care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zheng; Chong, Alice M L; Ng, Ting Kin; Liu, Susu

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has rarely examined the intervening and buffering effects of leisure on the relationship between age-related stress and health among institutionalized elders, especially in the Chinese context. This study thus examines the extent to which participation in leisure activities mediates and moderates the impact of functional disability on depression among older adults living in residential care homes in China. A total of 1429 participants (858 men) aged over 60 living in residential care homes, of which 46.1% experienced depression using a cut-off score ≥ 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, were selected from a national survey across China by using the probability proportional to size sampling method. The findings showed that depression was positively predicted by functional disability and negatively predicted by participation in leisure activities. The results of the mediation analysis showed that participation in leisure activities partially mediated the relationship between functional disability and depression. Functional disability predicted depression both directly and indirectly through its negative influence on participation in leisure activities. Participation in leisure activities also significantly buffered the relationship between functional disability and depression such that the impact of functional disability was weaker for those who participated in leisure activities more frequently. These results provide support for the mediating and moderating roles of leisure in the stress-health relationship among institutionalized elders. To enhance residents' psychological health, residential care homes are recommended to organize more leisure activities.

  10. Older Adults with and without Depressive Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilani Feliciano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment represents a common mental health problem in community-dwelling and institutionalized older adults, and the prevalence increases with age. Multidisciplinary teams are often asked to assess cognitive and functional impairment in this population. The Cognitive Assessment of Minnesota was created by occupational therapists for this purpose and is frequently used, but has not been extensively validated. This study examined the performance of the CAM and compared it to the MMSE with 113 outpatient clinic patients over the age of 60. Subgroups were established based on scores on a depression inventory to determine if the presence of depressed mood altered the relationship between the measures. Both measures demonstrated good internal consistency. The overall correlation between the two measures was high, statistically significant and remained high regardless of depression status. We offer recommendations about the utility of each measure in screening cognitive functioning for older adults.

  11. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  12. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  13. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Mendonça Alvarenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.

  14. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Method: Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Result...

  15. FUNCTIONAL PROFILE OF ACTIVE OLDER ADULTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN, ACCORDING TO THE ICF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersom Ricardo Fréz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF considers multiples aspects of functionality. It is believed that this tool can help to classify the functionality of older adults with low back pain (LBP . Objectives: To describe the functionality of active older adults with LBP according to the ICF. Methods: A transversal study was conducted using the brief ICF core set for low back pain, to establish functional profiles of 40 older adults. The ICF categories were considered valid when ≥20% of participants showed some disability. Results: Thirty-two of the 35 categories of the brief ICF core set could be considered representative of the sample. Conclusion: The brief ICF core set for LBP results demonstrated that this classification system is representative for describing the functional profile of the sample.

  16. Everyday memory errors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossher, Lynn; Flegal, Kristin E; Lustig, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors older adults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy older adults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983 , Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 341), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in the last 24 hours, the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ; West, Thorn, & Bagwell, 2003 , Psychology and Aging, 18, 111), and other neuropsychological and cognitive tasks. EMQ and MSEQ scores were unrelated and made separate contributions to variance on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975 , Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189), suggesting separate constructs. Tip-of-the-tongue errors were the most commonly reported, and the EMQ Faces/Places and New Things subscales were most strongly related to MMSE. These findings may help training programs target memory errors commonly experienced by older adults, and suggest which types of memory errors could indicate cognitive declines of clinical concern.

  17. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  18. Motivational interviewing for older adults in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purath, Janet; Keck, Annmarie; Fitzgerald, Cynthia E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic disease is now the leading cause of death and disability in United States. Many chronic illnesses experienced by older adults can be prevented or managed through behavior change, making patient counseling an essential component of disease prevention and management. Motivational Interviewing (MI), a type of conversational method, has been effective in eliciting health behavior changes in people in a variety of settings and may also be a useful tool to help older adults change. This review of the literature analyzes current research and describes potential biases of MI interventions that have been conducted in primary care settings with older adults. MI shows promise as a technique to elicit health behavior change among older adults. However, further study with this population is needed to evaluate efficacy of MI interventions in primary care settings. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of chair exercises for older adults following hip fracture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for older adults following hip fracture. Claire M ... women temporarily disabled as a result of a fracture and ... recovering from hip fracture surgery are not very promising. ... investigation was to examine the influence of exercise on ..... from estimated energy expenditure relative to the reported ..... physical activity: A review. Jor.

  20. Older, wiser, and happier? Comparing older adults' and college students' self-defining memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jefferson; Rexhaj, Blerim; Baddeley, Jenna

    2007-11-01

    The present study compared self-defining memories in adults 50 years of age and older to the self-defining memories of college students. Findings are largely congruent with previous memory and ageing research, but shed additional light on how personal memories are employed to achieve a sense of identity and continuity in older adults. Older adults' self-defining memories, compared to those of younger adults, were more positive in emotional tone, more summarised and less detailed, and more likely to contain integrative meaning. The implications of these findings for assessing normative personal memory in older adults are discussed along with more general observations about narrative identity in older adulthood.

  1. Visual function affects prosocial behaviors in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Dac A; Smith, Merideth D; Leys, Monique J; Jain, Priyanka; Odom, J Vernon

    2016-02-01

    Eye-related pathological conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration commonly lead to decreased peripheral/central field, decreased visual acuity, and increased functional disability. We sought to answer if relationships exist between measures of visual function and reported prosocial behaviors in an older adult population with eye-related diagnoses. The sample consisted of adults, aged ≥ 60 years old, at an academic hospital's eye institute. Vision ranged from normal to severe impairment. Medical charts determined the visual acuities, ocular disease, duration of disease (DD), and visual fields (VF). Measures of giving help were via validated questionnaires on giving formal support (GFS) and giving informal support; measures of help received were perceived support (PS) and informal support received (ISR). ISR had subscales: tangible support (ISR-T), emotional support (ISR-E), and composite (ISR-C). Visual acuities of the better and worse seeing eyes were converted to LogMAR values. VF information converted to a 4-point rating scale of binocular field loss severity. DD was in years. Among 96 participants (mean age 73.28; range 60-94), stepwise regression indicated a relationship of visual variables to GFS (p T (p prosocial behavior in older adults.

  2. Optimal management of ADHD in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torgersen T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Terje Torgersen,1,2 Bjorn Gjervan,2,3 Michael B Lensing,4 Kirsten Rasmussen5,6 1Department of Østmarka, St Olav’s Hospital, 2Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 3Department of Psychiatry, Helse Nord-Trondelag Hospital Trust, Kirkegata, Levanger, 4NevSom, Norwegian Center of Expertise for Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Hypersomnias, Women and Children’s Division, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, 5St Olav’s Hospital, Broset Center for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Trondheim, 6Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway Background: The manifestation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among older adults has become an interesting topic of interest due to an increasing number of adults aged 50 years and older (≥50 years seeking assessment for ADHD. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on ADHD in older adults, and until recently only a few case reports existed.Method: A systematic search was conducted in the databases Medline/PubMed and PsycINFO in order to identify studies regarding ADHD in adults ≥50 years.Results: ADHD persists into older ages in many patients, but the prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for the diagnosis at age ≥50 years is still unknown. It is reason to believe that the prevalence is falling gradually with age, and that the ADHD symptom level is significantly lower in the age group 70–80 years than the group 50–60 years. There is a lack of controlled studies of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years, but this review suggests that many patients aged ≥50 years experience beneficial effects of pharmacological treatment. The problem with side effects and somatic complications may rise to a level that makes pharmacotherapy for ADHD difficult after the age of 65 years. Physical assessment prior to initiation of ADHD medication in adults ≥50 years should

  3. Comparison of anxiety as reported by older people with intellectual disabilities and by older people with normal intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Evenhuis, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Older people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may experience more and different symptoms of anxiety than older people with normal intelligence. Study questions: (1) Is the reported severity of anxiety in this group similar to that in the general older population; (2) Are specific

  4. Disability Among Middle-Aged and Older Persons With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johs, Nikolas A; Wu, Kunling; Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Koletar, Susan L; Kalayjian, Robert C; Ellis, Ronald J; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J; Erlandson, Kristine M

    2017-07-01

    Older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults may experience higher rates of frailty and disability than the general population. Improved understanding of the prevalence, risk factors, and types of impairment can better inform providers and the healthcare system. HIV-infected participants within the AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5322 HAILO study self-reported disability by the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Questionnaire. Frailty was measured by 4-m walk time, grip strength, self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low activity. Logistic regression models identified characteristics associated with any IADL impairment. Agreement between IADL impairment and frailty was assessed using the weighted kappa statistic. Of 1015 participants, the median age was 51 years, 15% were aged ≥60 years, 19% were female, 29% black, and 20% Hispanic. At least 1 IADL impairment was reported in 18% of participants, most commonly with housekeeping (48%) and transportation (36%) and least commonly with medication management (5%). In multivariable models, greater disability was significantly associated with neurocognitive impairment, lower education, Medicare/Medicaid insurance (vs private/other coverage), smoking, and low physical activity. Although a greater proportion of frail participants had IADL impairment (52%) compared to non-frail (11%) persons, agreement was poor (weighted kappa disability occurs frequently among middle-aged and older HIV-infected adults on effective antiretroviral therapy. Potentially modifiable risk factors (smoking, physical activity) provide targets for interventions to maintain independent living. Systematic recognition of persons at greater risk for disability can facilitate connection to resources that may help preserve independence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Love, Thomas E.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by applying a Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoother, revealed an inflection point at age 45 for risk of severe asthma. The probability of severe asthma increased with each year of life until 45 years and thereafter increased at a much slower rate. Asthma duration also increased the probability of severe asthma but had less effect than aging. After adjustment for most comorbidities of aging and for asthma duration using logistic regression, asthmatics older than 45 maintained the greater probability of severe asthma [OR: 2.73 (95 CI: 1.96; 3.81)]. After 45, the age-related risk of severe asthma continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Overall, the impact of age and asthma duration on risk for asthma severity in men and women is greatest over times of 18-45 years of age; age has a greater effect than asthma duration on risk of severe asthma. PMID:26200463

  6. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  7. Ethical Concerns in Usability Testing Involving Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe Hansen

    Based on experience from the research project “User Manuals for Older Adults”, this paper discusses whether there are special ethical concerns with older adults as test persons in a usability test involving the think-aloud method. In this context, older adults are defined as individuals with normal...

  8. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementing reverse mentoring to address social isolation among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breck, Bethany M; Dennis, Cory B; Leedahl, Skye N

    2018-07-01

    Reverse mentoring is a means to address the social work Grand Challenge of social isolation. Among older adults, reverse mentoring can improve social connection by increasing the digital competence of older adults so they can use technology for social benefit, and by facilitating intergenerational connections with young adult mentors. In this paper, reverse mentoring is examined within an intergenerational program that serves older adults and utilizes the native technological knowledge and skills of young adults who mentor older adult participants. Qualitative data were collected through young adult mentor logs of each session, and through open-ended questions on the post-surveys collected from older adults and young adult mentors. Qualitative analysis revealed three themes related to social connection: (1) an increased sense of self-efficacy for older adults as they build confidence in technological use, and for young adults as they develop leadership skills through mentoring, (2) the breaking down of age-related stereotypes, and (3) intergenerational engagement and connection. The findings demonstrate that reverse mentoring can be used in various settings to decrease the social isolation of older adults by developing intergenerational connections and increasing older adult usage of technology.

  10. Questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Tobias; Richter, Julia; Lenz, Melanie; Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kolankowska, Izabela; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2011-01-01

    Gerontological research aims at understanding factors that are crucial for mediating "successful aging". This term denotes the absence of significant disease and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive function, and preservation of social and productive activities. Preservation of an active lifestyle is considered an effective means through which everyday competence can be attained. In this context, it is crucial to obtain ratings of modern day older adults' everyday competence by means of appropriate assessments. Here, we introduce the Everyday Competence Questionnaire (ECQ), designed to assess healthy older adults' everyday competence. The ECQ includes 17 items, covering housekeeping, leisure activities, sports, daily routines, manual skills, subjective well-being, and general linguistic usage. The ECQ was administered to a population of 158 healthy subjects aged 60-91 years, who were divided into groups on the basis of their physical activity. These groups were community-dwelling subjects, those living independently and having a sedentary lifestyle, those living independently but characterized by a general lifestyle without any noteworthy physical activity, and those living independently and exercising regularly. Age, gender, and education levels were balanced between the groups. Using the ECQ, we could identify and distinguish different everyday competence levels between the groups tested: Subjects characterized by an active lifestyle outperformed all other groups. Subjects characterized by a general lifestyle showed higher everyday competence than those with a sedentary lifestyle or subjects who needed care. Furthermore, the ECQ data showed a significant positive correlation between individual physical activity and everyday competence. The ECQ is a novel tool for the questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence among healthy subjects. By including leisure activities, it considers the changed living conditions of modern

  11. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  12. Falls and patient safety for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronovitch, Sharon A

    2006-10-01

    The risk of falling increases with age. Falls in the elderly have been found to raise mortality and morbidity rates and are a leading cause of premature admission to long-term care facilities. Attention to known intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predispose to falling is important in community dwelling and institutionalized older adults. New government guidelines for long-term care facilities have helped focus attention on the safety aspect of fall risk and information about the physical and psychological impact of falling is increasing. Implementation of fall prevention protocols, including the use of fall risk assessment tools, may help reduce the incidence of falls and resultant complications.

  13. Suicidality among adults with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Raina, Poonam; Burge, Philip

    2012-11-01

    The objective of the current study is to arrive at a better understanding of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) who threaten or attempt suicide. From a sample of 751 adults with ID who experienced a crisis, demographic and clinical profiles of 39 adults who threatened to commit suicide were compared to 28 adults who attempted suicide. These individuals were then compared to 337 adults who behaved aggressively toward others. Individuals who attempted suicide appeared similar to those who voiced suicide with the exception that suicide attempters were younger and more likely to visit the emergency department. Females, higher functioning individuals, and persons with a history of self-harm had higher odds of attempting or threatening suicide Research findings based on informant reported data, so diagnoses and delivery of services in hospital cannot be validated. Suicidality does occur in adults with ID, and can result in emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Recognition of variables associated with suicidality among those with ID by clinicians may allow for enhanced assessment, treatment services and ultimately more positive mental health outcomes for this group. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Quality of Health Care Received by Older Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... Older adults suffer from a multitude of conditions and are especially susceptible to the effects of poor care, yet we know relatively little about the quality of health care older people receive...

  15. Motivation to Learn among Older Adults in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…

  16. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  17. Cognitive remediation therapy for older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of research on cognitive interventions for older adults the review which suggests the following: (1 Cognition remediation therapy is indicated for healthy elderly, and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, early dementia, brain disease and injury, and severe mental illness (SMI. (2 Studies on healthy elderly demonstrate that with cognitive training (CT, cognitive stimulation (CS, and/or cognitive rehabilitation (CR age-related cognitive decline can be reversed, at least partially if not fully, even in advanced age, with improved social functioning and quality of life. Better results are obtained if cognitive remediation therapy (CRT is combined with vocational/psychosocial rehabilitation. Generalization of training to activities of daily living (ADL and to secondary outcome measures such as quality of life and self-esteem are issues that need to be addressed in older adults. (3 Research in MCI has indicated that CRT, especially memory training, has some role. Future studies should place focus on the assessment of dose-response relationship, training generalization, and ecologically relevant approaches. (4 Findings of earlier work in early-stage dementia were frustrating, more recent work, especially randomized controlled trials of high quality, has provided a ray of rope with respect to effectiveness of CT and CR. Further well-designed studies are required to provide more definitive evidence. (5 Significant therapeutic effects of CR have been observed on cognitive function and ADL in the elderly patients with stroke. Routine screening for stroke patients and those with brain injury for cognitive impairment is recommended. (6 Available research provides evidence that cognitive remediation benefits people with SMI, and when combined with psychiatric rehabilitation this benefit generalizes to functioning. Elderly with SMI need special focus. Further needs to be carried out on older people with SMI.

  18. Hyposalivation and xerostomia in dentate older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard; Wiener, Michael; Plassman, Brenda; Kao, Elizabeth; McNeil, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Older adults are susceptible to reduced saliva production related to certain medications, radiation and chronic conditions. Many of these people have many physical and oral health problems and limited access to dental care. The use of effective screening tools for xerostomia and hyposalivation would be helpful in identifying those at risk. The authors conducted a study to investigate the association between three measures of oral dryness: hyposalivation (low unstimulated salivary flow), self-reported xerostomia and clinically assessed dry mouth. Methods The authors included a convenience sample of 252 nondemented and dentate West Virginia participants 70 years and older who were part of a larger study on oral health and cognition among older adults. Participants completed a self-reported xerostomia index, provided an unstimulated salivary sample and underwent an oral assessment for the study. Results Twenty-eight (11.1 percent) had hyposalivation, eight of whom reported having xerostomia (sensitivity = 28.6 percent). Of the 43 participants who reported having xerostomia, only eight had hyposalivation (positive predictive value = 18.6 percent). Hyposalivation and self-reported xerostomia were not significantly related. Clinically assessed dry mouth correlated modestly, but significantly, with hyposalivation and self-reported xerostomia. Conclusions Obtaining routine unstimulated salivary flow rates in addition to self-reported information and oral evaluations may increase early detection of oral dryness, which would assist in implementing early interventions to improve patients’ quality of life. Clinical Implications Visually inspecting oral tissues for dryness and asking a patient if his or her mouth is dry are insufficient measures for clinicians to use to determine if the patient has hyposalivation. The authors recommend that clinicians determine the patients’ unstimulated salivary flow rate. PMID:20194383

  19. Social, Economic, and Health Disparities Among LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlet, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    LGBT older adults are a heterogeneous population with collective and unique strengths and challenges. Health, personal, and economic disparities exist in this group when compared to the general population of older adults, yet subgroups such as transgender and bisexual older adults and individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for disparities and poorer health outcomes. As this population grows, further research is needed on factors that contribute to promoting health equity, while decreasing discrimination and improving competent service delivery.

  20. Modifying Older Adults' Daily Sedentary Behaviour Using an Asset-based Solution: Views from Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Calum F; Sandlund, Marlene; Skelton, Dawn A; Tulle, Emmanuelle; Chastin, Sebastien Fm

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing public health focus on the promotion of successful and active ageing. Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour (SB) in older adults are feasible and are improved by tailoring to individuals' context and circumstances. SB is ubiquitous; therefore part of the tailoring process is to ensure individuals' daily sedentary routine can be modified. The aim of this study was to understand the views of older adults and identify important considerations when creating a solution to modify daily sedentary patterns. This was a qualitative research study. Fifteen older adult volunteers (mean age = 78 years) participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to identify solutions to modify daily sedentary routine. Two researchers conducted the focus groups whilst a third took detailed fieldnotes on a flipchart to member check the findings. Data were recorded and analysed thematically. Participants wanted a solution with a range of options which could be tailored to individual needs and circumstances. The strategy suggested was to use the activities of daily routine and reasons why individuals already naturally interrupting their SB, collectively framed as assets. These assets were categorised into 5 sub-themes: physical assets (eg. standing up to reduce stiffness); psychological assets (eg. standing up to reduce feelings of guilt); interpersonal assets (eg. standing up to answer the phone); knowledge assets (eg. standing up due to knowing the benefits of breaking SB) and activities of daily living assets (eg. standing up to get a drink). This study provides important considerations from older adults' perspectives to modify their daily sedentary patterns. The assets identified by participants could be used to co-create a tailored intervention with older adults to reduce SB, which may increase effectiveness and adherence.

  1. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Snow and Rain Modify Neighbourhood Walkability for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philippa; Hirsch, Jana A; Melendez, Robert; Winters, Meghan; Sims Gould, Joanie; Ashe, Maureen; Furst, Sarah; McKay, Heather

    2017-06-01

    The literature has documented a positive relationship between walkable built environments and outdoor mobility in older adults. Yet, surprisingly absent is any consideration of how weather conditions modify the impact of neighbourhood walkability. Using archived weather data linked to survey data collected from a sample of older adults in Vancouver, Canada, we found that car-dependent neighbourhoods (featuring longer block lengths, fewer intersections, and greater distance to amenities) became inaccessible in snow. Even older adults who lived in very walkable neighbourhoods walked to 25 per cent fewer destinations in snow. It is crucial to consider the impact of weather in the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and older adult mobility.

  3. Can technology adoption for older adults be co-created?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yuan; Valk, Carlijn; Steenbakkers, Jim

    2017-01-01

    -creation ideation process can contribute to the technology adoption of older adults conducted in an EU project with multi-stakeholder teams with the aim of promoting physical activities of older adult citizens. This ideation process is adapted from Method A. By analyzing the co-creation ideation process from three......Technology can be very valuable to support older adults to remain healthy and active in their daily living. How to design technological product and service systems that will be adopted by older adults however still remains a challenge. This paper reports on an empirical study on how a co...

  4. Hypnosis for pain management in the older adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Norma G

    2005-09-01

    Pain is a physical, emotional and psychologic phenomenon that is often ignored in older adults causing depression and poor quality of life. Older adults report the use of complementary and alternative medicine in some form with 80% of these users reporting improvement in their health conditions. Although physical pain in the older adult is usually managed with pharmacologic interventions, methods that may reduce the use of prescription drugs may decrease adverse effects that can compromise the physiologic state of the older adult. Hypnosis has continued to gain acceptance within mainstream medicine as an appropriate treatment and can be integrated safely with conventional medicine as an effective treatment for a variety of conditions in the older adult. It is an intervention that can be used for relaxation and pain control, especially when conventional pharmacologic regimens have failed. The purpose of this article is to review the concepts related to pain in older adults; the use of complementary and alternative medicine in the older adult; hypnosis and the older adult (i.e., background, definition, benefits, research, mechanism of action, hypnotizability, and the process); and the implications of using hypnosis for pain management in the older adult.

  5. Effects of dance on depression, physical function, and disability in underserved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Graor, Christine Heifner

    2014-07-01

    This study documented the feasibility and immediate effects of a dance intervention two times per week for 12 weeks on depression, physical function, and disability in older, underserved adults. The one-group, pretest-posttest study had a convenience sample of 40 participants recruited from a federally subsidized apartment complex located in an economically depressed, inner-city neighborhood. Depression, physical function, and disability were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Average age was 63 years (SD = 7.9), 92% were female, and 75% were African American. At baseline, participants reported increased depression (M = 20.0, SD = 12.4), decreased physical function (M = 56.6, SD = 10.9), and increased disability limitations (M = 65.7, SD = 14.9). At posttest, paired t tests showed that the dance intervention significantly decreased depression, t = 6.11, p dance intervention may be an effective adjunct therapy to improve depression, disability, and physical function in underserved adults.

  6. Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

    2014-09-01

    Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.

  7. Dental Care among Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-01-01

    Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…

  8. Stressful Social Interactions Experienced by Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability are vulnerable to stressful social interactions. We determined frequency and severity of various stressful social interactions, identified the social partners in these interactions, and examined the specific interpersonal skill difficulties of 114 adults with mild intellectual disability. Participants'…

  9. ESL Instruction and Adults with Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Robin; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest reviews what is known about adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) learners and learning disabilities, suggests ways to identify and assess ESL adults who may have learning disabilities, and offers practical methods for both instruction and teacher training. Topics covered in some detail include identifying and diagnosing learning…

  10. Effectiveness of Speech Therapy in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terband, Hayo; Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C.; Reffeltrath, Maaike; Maassen, Ben A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the effect of speech therapy in a heterogeneous group of adults with intellectual disability. Method: Thirty-six adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities (IQs 40-70; age 18-40 years) with reported poor speech intelligibility received tailored training in articulation and listening skills delivered…

  11. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  12. The role of chiropractic care in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Paul E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults.

  13. Patterns of Quality Of Life among Older Urban Dwellers with Mobility Disability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobility disability affects the quality of life for the older urban population. The objectives of this research paper were to determine the burden of mobility disability and explore influential factors affecting the quality of life of urban community aged 50 and above with mobility disability. Total of 481 participants who were randomly selected from two urban health centres have been interviewed using structured questionnaire in December 2014. The prevalence of mobility disability was 23.1%. All domains quality of life of older urbanites with mobility disability were significantly affected as compared with those without. These factors need to be emphasized in future planning for elderly.

  14. Factors related to gait and balance deficits in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Momani M

    2016-08-01

    disability, stroke, heart disease, arthritis, joint diseases, diabetes, and hypertension recorded higher risks of falls as measured by TAB test compared to those with low and moderate TAB scores. Also, impairment in cognitive abilities and psychiatric disorders was shown to be associated with gait and balance problems, with a higher risk of falls in 47.5% and 46.1% of the residents, respectively.Conclusion: This study revealed a significant impact of upper limb disability, stroke, heart disease, arthritis, joint diseases, diabetes, and hypertension as well as psychiatric disorders and cognitive disabilities on gait and balance deficits among home-resident older adults. Keywords: risk factors, gait and balance deficits, upper limb disability, arthritis

  15. Multiple Sclerosis in Older Adults: The Clinical Profile and Impact of Interferon Beta Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Shirani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We examined (1 patient characteristics and disease-modifying drug (DMD exposure in late-onset (LOMS, ≥50 years at symptom onset versus adult-onset (AOMS, 18–<50 years MS and (2 the association between interferon-beta (IFNβ and disability progression in older relapsing-onset MS adults (≥50 years. Methods. This retrospective study (1980–2004, British Columbia, Canada included 358 LOMS and 5627 AOMS patients. IFNβ-treated relapsing-onset MS patients aged ≥50 (regardless of onset age, 90 were compared with 171 contemporary and 106 historical controls. Times to EDSS 6 from onset and from IFNβ eligibility were examined using survival analyses. Results. LOMS patients (6% were more likely to be male, with motor onset and a primary-progressive course, and exhibit faster progression and were less likely to take DMDs. Nonetheless, 57% were relapsing-onset, of which 31% were prescribed DMDs, most commonly IFNβ. Among older relapsing-onset MS adults, no significant association between IFNβ exposure and disability progression was found when either the contemporary (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.18–1.22 or historical controls (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.20–1.42 were considered. Conclusion. LOMS differed clinically from AOMS. One-third of older relapsing-onset MS patients were prescribed a DMD. IFNβ exposure was not significantly associated with reduced disability in older MS patients.

  16. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Noor Ani; Mohamad Kasim, Noraida; Mahmud, Nur Azna; Mohd Yusof, Yusniza; Othman, Salimah; Chan, Ying Ying; Abd Razak, Mohamad Aznuddin; Yusof, Muslimah; Omar, Maisarah; Abdul Aziz, Fazly Azry; Jamaluddin, Rasidah; Ibrahim Wong, Norazizah; Aris, Tahir

    2017-09-29

    Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least "some difficulty" scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53). Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  17. Prevalence and determinants of disability among adults in Malaysia: results from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ani Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable national data on disability which is internationally comparable is needed in Malaysia. This study aims to examine the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia and its determinants, particularly the socioeconomic factors and comorbidities. Methods This study was based on the disability module, which is part of the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015. This survey was implemented using a multi-stage stratified sampling design. A locally validated Washington Group questionnaire was used to collect data on disability. Results Based on the definition of having at least one domain scored "a lot of difficulty or unable to do at all" or at least “some difficulty” scored in two domains, the prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia was 11.8% (95% CI: 11.15, 12.53. Logistic regression analysis performed showed that population at risk of having disability in Malaysia were those of older people, ethnic minority, low level of education, single, obese, physically inactive and having mental health problems. Among older people, disability was significantly higher among those with no formal education, having mental health problems and physically inactive. Conclusions The prevalence of disability among adults in Malaysia is comparable to WHO estimates and most developing countries. Planning for healthcare services should consider at-risk population, particularly older people and those from disadvantaged background to ensure equity healthcare.

  18. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H. M.; Kooijman, A. C.; Evenhuis, H.

    This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with observant-based

  19. Does visual impairment lead to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenhuis, H.M.; Sjoukes, L.; Koot, H.M.; Kooijman, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the question to what extent visual impairment leads to additional disability in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). Method: In a multi-centre cross-sectional study of 269 adults with mild to profound ID, social and behavioural functioning was assessed with

  20. How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding. PMID:21240821

  1. Interference from previous distraction disrupts older adults' memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, Renée K; Campbell, Karen L; Hasher, Lynn

    2013-07-01

    Previously relevant information can disrupt the ability of older adults to remember new information. Here, the researchers examined whether prior irrelevant information, or distraction, can also interfere with older adults' memory for new information. Younger and older adults first completed a 1-back task on pictures that were superimposed with distracting words. After a delay, participants learned picture-word paired associates and memory was tested using picture-cued recall. In 1 condition (high interference), some pairs included pictures from the 1-back task now paired with new words. In a low-interference condition, the transfer list used all new items. Older adults had substantially lower cued-recall performance in the high- compared with the low-interference condition. In contrast, younger adults' performance did not vary across conditions. These findings suggest that even never-relevant information from the past can disrupt older adults' memory for new associations.

  2. How retellings shape younger and older adults' memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2014-04-01

    The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story's content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults.

  3. Both Younger and Older Adults Have Difficulty Updating Emotional Memories

    OpenAIRE

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. \\ud Method. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture–object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture–location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictur...

  4. Assessing shyness in Chinese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee

    2005-09-01

    The Shyness Scale (SS) is a brief instrument for assessing shyness as a personality trait. The psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the SS were investigated in a random sample of 192 Macau Chinese older adults. The Chinese version of the SS possesses high internal consistency and exhibited satisfactory short-term test-retest reliability. The Chinese version of the SS exhibited acceptable convergent validity with other negative measures of psychological well-being including negative emotional states (assessed by the Negative Affect Scale), loneliness (assessed by the UCLA Loneliness Scale), and state anxiety and trait anxiety (assessed by STAI). The divergent validity of the Chinese version of the SS was demonstrated by the negative but significant association between the SS and self esteem (assessed by Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory).

  5. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  6. Driving patterns in older adults with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Landingham, Suzanne W; Hochberg, Chad; Massof, Robert W; Chan, Emilie; Friedman, David S; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2013-02-21

    The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p = 0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p = 0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.1-14.7; p = 0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4-2.9; p driving limitations (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 1.3-16.8; p = 0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR = 1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI = 1.1-2.4; p = 0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p > 0.1 for both). Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety.

  7. Anxiety disorders and falls among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K L; Williams, L J; Brennan-Olsen, S L; Morse, A G; Kotowicz, M A; Nicholson, G C; Pasco, J A

    2016-11-15

    Falls are common among older adults and can lead to serious injuries, including fractures. We aimed to determine associations between anxiety disorders and falls in older adults. Participants were 487 men and 376 women aged ≥60 years enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Australia. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Non-patient edition (SCID-I/NP), lifetime history of anxiety disorders was determined. Falls were determined by self-report. In men, a falls-risk score (Elderly Falls Screening Test (EFST)) was also calculated. Among fallers, 24 of 299 (8.0%) had a lifetime history of anxiety disorder compared to 36 of 634 (5.7%) non-fallers (p=0.014). Examination of the association between anxiety and falls suggested differential relationships for men and women. In men, following adjustment for psychotropic medications, mobility and blood pressure, lifetime anxiety disorder was associated with falling (OR 2.96; 95%CI 1.07-8.21) and with EFST score (OR 3.46; 95%CI 1.13-10.6). In women, an association between lifetime anxiety disorder and falls was explained by psychotropic medication use, poor mobility and socioeconomic status. Sub-group analyses involving types of anxiety and anxiety disorders over the past 12-months were not performed due to power limitations. Although anxiety disorders were independently associated with a 3-fold increase in likelihood of reported falls and high falls risk among men, an independent association was not detected among women. These results may aid in prevention of falls through specific interventions aimed at reducing anxiety, particularly in men. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Home care to Older adult with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villagra, J; Castro, C; Meneses, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Home care of the elderly with cancer. After the development of a program of oncology home care and over a period of five years, we believe that the evaluation allows us to have our proposal and challenges in the continuity of the program. This evidence is based in our old advanced Uruguayan population, and consequently increase this cancer population, we should define which pointed toward our objective, in order to get the best quality life. After one year with a project based on general rules, the evidence threw an evaluation, that we should review the model of care with which we were working. We continue to Auto-care model Dorothea Orem. The main objective became q uality of life : Take care as the primary Older Adult; Specific care their cancer to become symptomatic secondary complications to the evolution of tumor biology; Secondary prevention of cause therapeutic effect; Family integration, without changing the pace of life that the elderly had before being with cancer. Nursing challenge: Maintain autonomy achieved in these 5 years. Deepen the social equilibrium that we are committed daily between patient and family.Do not miss the professionalism achieved today.Proposal for nursing: Consider a wide field of nursing and for this achievement is need knowledge of 2nd level of community work, knowledge Clinical knowledge in Oncology Nursing, autonomy in decision making. For older adults with cancer: No out of its middle. Maintain priority habits and customs. Do not let it lose their self-esteem with their own values. Caution changes must take care to better manage the evolution of their illness. Conclusion: Oncology nursing is a specialty. Without this formation will be ever more away the development of these programs in our environment, or fall in applying for only economic convenience, losing professionalism. Our population is increasing

  9. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  10. Geriatric dermatology: optimising care in frail older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubeek, S.F.K.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare providers are expected to be increasingly confronted with the growing population of older adults. In the Netherlands, the frailest and most dependent older adults live in nursing homes. Skin problems are common in this patient population and they can result in a high level of morbidity,

  11. Past experiences and older adults' attitudes: a lifecourse perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, A.; van Tilburg, T.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we apply a lifecourse perspective to an examination of older adults' attitudes about gender roles and moral issues. The study goes beyond previous research in that it examines the relationships between older adults' attitudes and: (a) experiences in the parental home, (b) people's own

  12. 1976 Survey of Collegiate Programs for Older Adults. Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Carol

    Questionnaires were mailed to the directors of continuing education or special programs at 816 colleges and universities in the United States that were believed to offer programs for older adults. 84 percent of the 286 responding institutions reported programs for older adults; 1 percent had them in the planning stages; 3 percent had…

  13. Gender Differences in Performance of Script Analysis by Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…

  14. The Nature of Subjective Cognitive Complaints of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S.; Kemps, Eva B.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated the nature of subjective cognitive complaints of older adults in relation to a broad array of individual cognitive functions known to decline with age. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to examine: (1) whether older adults experience problems with these cognitive functions (problems with cognition); (2) the…

  15. Can technology adoption for older adults be co-created?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Valk, C.A.L.; Steenbakkers, J.J.H.; Bekker, M.M.; Visser, T.; Proctor, G.M.; Toshniwal, O.; Langberg, H.

    2017-01-01

    Technology can be very valuable to support older adults to remain healthy and active in their daily living. How to design technological product and service systems that will be adopted by older adults however still remains a challenge. This paper reports on an empirical study on how a co-creation

  16. Circumvention of suddenly appearing obstacles in young and older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly

  17. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  18. Older Adults: What Every Paediatric Nurse Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Beth Ellen; Tesh, Anita Starr; Cowen, Kay; Hancock, Debbie; Moore, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Older adults have always been important parts of children's lives, playing a variety of roles including grandparent, caregiver, friend, and neighbour. Grandparents also play a variety of roles in families. Often a child's first encounter with serious illness or death involves a grandparent or other older adult. Grandparents are also increasingly…

  19. Videogames to Promote Physical Activity in Older Adults with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A

    2012-10-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia.

  20. Sleep Quality among Older Adults in Mehriz, Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rezaeipandari

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Regarding the significant relation of sleep quality and some chronic conditions, the importance of educatingthe older adults who suffer from chronic conditions and also their families in this area is displayed. As with planning suitable interventions, we may not only increase the sleep quality among older adults but also treat or reduce the risk of chronic conditions among them.

  1. Older Adults' Motivation to Learn in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Yin

    2011-01-01

    A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…

  2. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  3. Personality disorders in older adults : Emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S.P.J.; van Dijk, S.D.M.; Videler, A.C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  4. Personality disorders in older adults : emerging research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, S. P. J.; van Dijk, S. D. M.; Videler, A. C.; Rossi, G.; Dierckx, E.; Bouckaert, F.; Oude Voshaar, R. C.

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two

  5. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  6. Coping with loneliness: what do older adults suggest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, E.; van Tilburg, T.; Fokkema, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A limited amount of information is available on how older adults cope with loneliness. Two ways of coping are distinguished here, i.e., active coping by improving relationships and regulative coping by lowering expectations about relationships. We explore how often older adults suggest

  7. The Meaning of Older Adults' Peer Teaching: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ilseon

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated older adults' peer teaching experiences at a Lifelong Learning Institute through interviews with eight teachers and observations of their classes. Thematic analysis revealed themes of peer-to-peer teaching, volunteer teaching, and explorative teaching. Discussion of the themes examines the meaning of older adults' peer…

  8. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  9. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment

  10. Family Caregiver Factors Associated with Unmet Needs for Care of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Scott R; Schulz, Richard

    2017-03-01

    To examine caregiver factors associated with unmet needs for care of older adults. Population-based surveys of caregivers and older adult care recipients in the United States in 2011. 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving. Family caregivers (n = 1,996) of community-dwelling older adults with disabilities (n = 1,366). Disabled care recipient reports of unmet needs for care in the past month with activities of daily living (ADLs; e.g., wet or soiled clothing), mobility (e.g., have to stay inside), or instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs; e.g., medication errors). Caregiver reported sociodemographic characteristics, caregiving intensity and tasks performed, health, and psychosocial effects. Of the care recipients, 44.3% reported at least one unmet need for care in the past month (38.2% ADL related, 14.6% IADL related). Younger caregivers, caregiving sons, caregivers not living with care recipients, and having supplemental paid caregivers were associated with more unmet needs. Caregivers with recipients reporting two or more unmet needs were more likely to spend more than 100 hours per month caregiving, help with skin care and wounds, report caregiving as emotionally and physically difficult, and report restricted participation in valued activities (all P family caregivers. Caregivers experiencing high levels of burden, stress, and negative physical and psychosocial impacts may provide substandard or poor care to older adults, which may be a risk factor for neglect. Clinicians caring for disabled older adults should assess their unmet needs and the capacity of caregivers to address them. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, J.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...

  12. INTERVENTIONS FOR INCREASING BALANCE & CONFIDENCE IN OLDER ADULTS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Foram Dhebar

    2014-01-01

    Elderly is defined as being 65 years of age or older. Geriatrics or geriatric medicine is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people. The number of persons above the age of 60 years is fast growing, especially in India. Falls are the leading cause of traumatic brain injury, fractures & the leading cause of emergency department visits by older adults. Low balance confidence is a major health problem among older adults restricting their participation in daily life. Objective of t...

  13. An examination of electronic health information privacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the quickest growing demographic group and are key consumers of health services. As the United States health system transitions to electronic health records, it is important to understand older adult perceptions of privacy and security. We performed a secondary analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey (2012, Cycle 1), to examine differences in perceptions of electronic health information privacy between older adults and the general population. We found differences in the level of importance placed on access to electronic health information (older adults placed greater emphasis on provider as opposed to personal access) and tendency to withhold information out of concerns for privacy and security (older adults were less likely to withhold information). We provide recommendations to alleviate some of these privacy concerns. This may facilitate greater use of electronic health communication between patient and provider, while promoting shared decision making.

  14. Non-native Speech Learning in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvalson, Erin M; Nowicki, Casandra; Zong, Audrey; Wong, Patrick C M

    2017-01-01

    Though there is an extensive literature investigating the ability of younger adults to learn non-native phonology, including investigations into individual differences in younger adults' lexical tone learning, very little is known about older adults' ability to learn non-native phonology, including lexical tone. There are several reasons to suspect that older adults would use different learning mechanisms when learning lexical tone than younger adults, including poorer perception of dynamic pitch, greater reliance on working memory capacity in second language learning, and poorer category learning in older adulthood. The present study examined the relationships among older adults' baseline sensitivity for pitch patterns, working memory capacity, and declarative memory capacity with their ability to learn to associate tone with lexical meaning. In older adults, baseline pitch pattern sensitivity was not associated with generalization performance. Rather, older adults' learning performance was best predicted by declarative memory capacity. These data suggest that training paradigms will need to be modified to optimize older adults' non-native speech sound learning success.

  15. Association of dietary patterns and weight change in rural older adults 75 years and older

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the relationship between weight change and dietary patterns (DP) in older adults, especially in those of advanced age (_75 years). We examined the association of DP with obesity and five-year weight change in community-dwelling older adults (n=270; mean±SD age: 78.6±3.9 years)....

  16. Part-time work among older workers with disabilities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, R

    2009-05-01

    To analyse the use of part-time work among older workers with disabilities compared with their non-disabled counterparts within a European context. Cross-sectional. Data were drawn from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. The key advantage of this dataset is that it provides a harmonized cross-national dimension, and contains information for European individuals aged 50 years or over on a wide range of health indicators, disability, socio-economic situation, social relations, etc. Older people with disabilities (aged 50-64 years) are more likely to have a part-time job compared with their non-disabled counterparts. Although there is an important employment gap between the two groups, many older workers with disabilities use part-time work to achieve a better balance between their health status and working life. The econometric analysis corroborated that being disabled has a positive effect on the probability of working on a part-time basis, although this effect varies by country. Policy makers must encourage part-time employment as a means of increasing employment opportunities for older workers with disabilities, and support gradual retirement opportunities with flexible and reduced working hours. It is crucial to change attitudes towards older people with disabilities in order to increase their labour participation and reduce their levels of poverty and marginalization.

  17. Older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmoth, Krystal; Tarrant, Mark; Abraham, Charles; Lang, Iain A

    2016-07-01

    Many older people perceive ageing negatively, describing it in terms of poor or declining health and functioning. These perceptions may be related to older adults' health. The aim of this review was to synthesise existing research on the relationship between older adults' perceptions of ageing and their health and functioning. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases (ASSIA, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and PsycINFO). Citations within identified reports were also searched. Observational studies were included if they included perceptions of ageing and health-related measures involving participants aged 60 years and older. Study selection, data extraction and quality appraisal were conducted using predefined criteria. Twenty-eight reports met the criteria for inclusion. Older adults' perceptions of ageing were assessed with a variety of measures. Perceptions were related to health and functioning across seven health domains: memory and cognitive performance, physical and physiological performance, medical conditions and outcomes, disability, care-seeking, self-rated health, quality of life and death. How ageing is perceived by older adults is related to their health and functioning in multiple domains. However, higher quality and longitudinal studies are needed to further investigate this relationship.

  18. Falls' problematization and risk factors identification through older adults' narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsch, Patricia; Myskiw, Mauro; Myskiw, Jociane de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Falling is an important event for older adults as they might cause physical and psychological impairment, institutionalization and increased mortality risk. Adherence in falls prevention programs depends on older adults' perceptions in relation to falling. The current study aims to investigate the fall problematization and older adults' perception about the risk factors for falls. This is an exploratory qualitative research, conducted through content analysis approach. The sample consisted of older adults aged 60 years and older who participate in community groups in Porto Alegre (Brazil), and professors from two local universities. Final sample consisted of 22 participants, mean age was 70.2 ± 7.1. Coding and interpretation of data resulted in two thematic categories, named: falls' problematization and the perception of the risk factors for falling. The first category highlights that many older adults do not realize falling as a potential problem, which suggests that current preventive measures may not be reaching the target population. The second category shows that older adults' perceptions in relation to the risk factors exist, but often they are not avoided, because older adults consider their ability to "take care" as the main method of prevention, and due to the multifactorial nature of falls, this cannot be considered an efficient solution.

  19. Older Adults in Public Open Spaces: Age and Gender Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Rinat Ben; Ayalon, Liat

    2018-01-18

    There is a substantial body of literature on the importance of the environment in the lives of older adults. Nonetheless, to date, there has been limited research on everyday activities of urban older adults in public open spaces. The present study examined the activities of older adults in public open spaces in Israel with a specific focus on age and gender as potential variables of relevance. Using still photography, we systematically photographed four sessions in two different public outdoor settings attended by older Israelis. Still photographs were converted to narrative descriptions, and then coded, quantified, and compared using descriptive statistics. The majority (311, 97%) of older adults arrived alone to the public setting. Of these, 44% formed a social group of two or more people, whereas the remaining older adults stayed alone. When social interactions occurred, they were primarily gender homogenous (69%); women were more likely to integrate in spontaneous social conversations and men were more likely to participate in common games. Our findings call attention to the important role played by the outdoor environment as a venue for social activities among older adults. The findings further stress the high levels of aloneness experienced by older adults, which do not seem to be alleviated by the mere attendance of public spaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Domestic violence and mental health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Lucy; Hester, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    Domestic violence affects every age group and is present throughout the life span, but, while the mental health impact of domestic violence is clearly established in working age adults, less is known about the nature and impact of domestic violence among older adults. This review, therefore, aimed to synthesize findings on the prevalence, nature, and impact of domestic violence among older adults, and its identification and management. Electronic searches were conducted of Medline, PsycINFO, Cinahl, and Embase to identify studies reporting on the mental health and domestic violence in older adults. Findings suggested that, although prevalence figures are variable, the likely lifetime prevalence for women over the age of 65 is between 20-30%. Physical abuse is suggested to decrease with age, but rates of emotional abuse appear to be stable over the lifespan. Among older adults, domestic violence is strongly associated with physical and mental health problems, and the scarce research comparing the impact of domestic violence across the age cohorts suggests that the physical health of older victims may be more severely affected than younger victims. In contrast, there is evidence that older victims may experience less psychological distress in response to domestic violence than younger victims. Internationally, evidence on the management of domestic violence in older adults is sparse. Findings suggest, however, that identification of domestic violence is poor among older adults, and there are very limited options for onwards referral and support.

  1. Associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Christine A; Insel, Kathleen C; Ritter, Leslie S

    2012-10-01

    Stroke remains a major cause of mortality and disability among older adults. Although early treatment after stroke is known to reduce both mortality and disability, the first step in seeking early treatment is dependent on the rapid recognition of the signs of stroke. Recall of the signs of stroke may be dependent on factors that exist before the stroke itself. Although it is known that both working memory and health literacy decline with advancing age, these factors have not been thoroughly examined with respect to recall of the signs of stroke. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate associations between working memory, health literacy, and recall of the signs of stroke among older adults. Community dwelling older adults (≥65 years of age) were recruited from two senior centers. Fifty-six participants meeting inclusion criteria provided demographic and health information and were asked to read a public service brochure listing the five warning signs of stroke. Working memory was then assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 3rd Edition Working Memory Index. Health literacy was assessed by the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Participants' recall of the five warning signs of stroke was evaluated. The mean age was 80.4 years. The mean number of the signs of stroke recalled was 2.9 ± 1.33. Working memory and health literacy were positively correlated with recall of the signs of stroke (r = .38, p recall. There was no statistically significant interaction between working memory and health literacy. Findings from this study indicate that working memory and health literacy were associated with successful recall of the warning signs of stroke in older adults. Further studies are needed to determine if programs that include cognitive and literacy assessments could identify older adults who need additional support to learn and recall the signs of stroke.

  2. A comparative study of negative life events and depressive symptoms among healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Gao, Tingting; Gao, Jinglei; Kong, Yixi; Hu, Yueyang; Wang, Ruimei; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to study internal relations and functionary mechanism between social support, coping style, negative life events and depressive symptoms and compare these relations in healthy older adults and older adults with chronic disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. In total, 1,264 older adults with chronic disease and 749 healthy older adults participated in this investigation which consist of socio-demographic characters, negative life events, social support, coping style and depressive symptoms. The path and direction of variable function in healthy older adults were inconsistent with older adults with chronic disease. Older adults with chronic disease had more severe depressive symptoms and negative life events, and lower social support and positive coping style. Negative life events, subjective support, positive coping style and negative coping style were significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Objective support may weaken the influence of negative life events on depressive symptoms in chronic disease group. Utilization of support and positive coping style worsen the effect of negative life events on depressive symptoms in healthy older adults. This study implied that to improve their mental health, attention should be paid to the role of biological, psychological and social stress factors and its inherent law of interaction.

  3. Both younger and older adults have difficulty updating emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Sakaki, Michiko; Huffman, Derek; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine whether emotion impairs associative memory for previously seen items in older adults, as previously observed in younger adults. Thirty-two younger adults and 32 older adults participated. The experiment consisted of 2 parts. In Part 1, participants learned picture-object associations for negative and neutral pictures. In Part 2, they learned picture-location associations for negative and neutral pictures; half of these pictures were seen in Part 1 whereas the other half were new. The dependent measure was how many locations of negative versus neutral items in the new versus old categories participants remembered in Part 2. Both groups had more difficulty learning the locations of old negative pictures than of new negative pictures. However, this pattern was not observed for neutral items. Despite the fact that older adults showed overall decline in associative memory, the impairing effect of emotion on updating associative memory was similar between younger and older adults.

  4. Executive function processes predict mobility outcomes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Chung, David; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Olson, Erin A; Mullen, Sean P; Voss, Michelle; Erickson, Kirk I; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2014-02-01

    To examine the relationship between performance on executive function measures and subsequent mobility outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Champaign-Urbana, Illinois. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179; mean age 66.4). A 12-month exercise trial with two arms: an aerobic exercise group and a stretching and strengthening group. Established cognitive tests of executive function (flanker task, task switching, and a dual-task paradigm) and the Wisconsin card sort test. Mobility was assessed using the timed 8-foot up and go test and times to climb up and down a flight of stairs. Participants completed the cognitive tests at baseline and the mobility measures at baseline and after 12 months of the intervention. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine whether baseline executive function predicted postintervention functional performance after controlling for age, sex, education, cardiorespiratory fitness, and baseline mobility levels. Selective baseline executive function measurements, particularly performance on the flanker task (β = 0.15-0.17) and the Wisconsin card sort test (β = 0.11-0.16) consistently predicted mobility outcomes at 12 months. The estimates were in the expected direction, such that better baseline performance on the executive function measures predicted better performance on the timed mobility tests independent of intervention. Executive functions of inhibitory control, mental set shifting, and attentional flexibility were predictive of functional mobility. Given the literature associating mobility limitations with disability, morbidity, and mortality, these results are important for understanding the antecedents to poor mobility function that well-designed interventions to improve cognitive performance can attenuate. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Examining Fall Recurrence Risk of Homebound Hispanic Older Adults Receiving Home Care Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Guillermina R; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2017-03-01

    Unintentional falls and injuries is a major problem among older adults and the fourth cause of death in the United States. A previous fall event doubles the risk of recurrence and lessens the person's quality of life. Hispanic older adults have higher rates of disability and lower independent functioning due to poor medical health and risk for fall recurrence. Most fall studies focus on fall risk with few studies on fall recurrence in older adults receiving home health care services unrelated to fall incident. A descriptive pilot study of 30 homebound Hispanic older adults receiving home care services who reported a fall within 3 months was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to evaluate risk of fall recurrence. A heightened risk for fall recurrence was identified with high number of chronic illnesses, high intake of medications, vision problems, and prevalence of urinary incontinence. Findings highlight significant number of intrinsic factors for fall risk recurrence and injuries in a Hispanic older adults population that is homebound and receiving home care services. A multidisciplinary evaluation and culturally appropriate interventions to lessen the risk of fall recurrence are recommended.

  6. Depression and Suicidal Ideation During Two Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Rosenberg, Paul B; McGovern, Amanda; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Zaydens, Hana; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in dementia and contributes to poor outcomes for patients and their families. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in older adults with major depression and dementia, and psychosocial interventions are under-investigated. To examine the course, predictors and moderators of depression and suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI) in 39 older adults with major depression and dementia. Thirty-nine older adults with major depression, mild or moderate dementia, and disability participated in a randomized controlled trial that compared the efficacy of PATH versus ST-CI. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia Total Score and Suicide Item. PATH participants had significantly greater reduction in depression than ST-CI participants over 12 weeks of treatment. PATH participants with high social support had the greatest reduction in depression. Both treatments had comparable reduction in suicidal ideation. PATH is more effective in reducing depression in older adults with major depression and dementia compared to ST-CI. These results are clinically significant as antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population. Home-delivered psychosocial treatments may reduce suicidal ideation in this population.

  7. Improving the Neighborhood Environment for Urban Older Adults: Social Context and Self-Rated Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Arlesia; Rooks, Ronica; Kruger, Daniel

    2015-12-22

    By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. Over 80% of older adults live in urban areas. This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) among urban older adults. We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a deindustrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH) was analyzed using regression and GIS models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH (p = 0.01). Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities (p = 0.005) and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism (p older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important for well-being among seniors. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood which are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  8. Neighborhood Environment and Self-Rated Health Among Urban Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlesia Mathis PhD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines associations between neighborhood environment and self-rated health (SRH among urban older adults. Method: We selected 217 individuals aged 65+ living in a de-industrialized Midwestern city who answered questions on the 2009 Speak to Your Health survey. The relationship between neighborhood environment and SRH was analyzed using regression models. Neighborhood variables included social support and participation, perceived racism, and crime. Additional models included actual crime indices to compare differences between perceived and actual crime. Results: Seniors who have poor SRH are 21% more likely to report fear of crime than seniors with excellent SRH ( p = .01. Additional analyses revealed Black seniors are 7% less likely to participate in social activities ( p = .005 and 4% more likely to report experiencing racism ( p < .001. Discussion: More than 80% of older adults live in urban areas. By 2030, older adults will account for 20% of the U.S. population. Given the increasing numbers of older adults living in urban neighborhoods, studies such as this one are important. Mitigating environmental influences in the neighborhood that are associated with poor SRH may allow urban older adults to maintain health and reduce disability.

  9. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  10. Young adults on disability benefits in 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbrunner Bernitz, Brita; Grees, Nadja; Jakobsson Randers, Marie; Gerner, Ulla; Bergendorff, Sisko

    2013-11-01

    This article, based on a study by the Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate, describes the development of young adults receiving disability benefits due to reduced working capability, and the disability benefit systems in seven European countries; Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. This comparative study mainly uses Sweden as a benchmark. Apart from a documentary and legal data collection and analysis, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the responsible ministries and authorities in the studied countries. In addition, national and European data was collected. There is an increasing trend of young adults, aged 19-29, on disability benefits in all studied countries. The most common diagnosis group among young adults on disability benefits is mental and behavioural disorders, ranging from 58% in the UK to 80% in Denmark. The comparison of the different disability benefit systems shows that there are relatively large national differences in terms of rules and regulations, the handling of disability benefit cases, and offered rehabilitation activities and other measures to support young adults on disability benefits to strengthen their working capability, and hence enable them to approach the labour market in the future. However, it is clear that these countries face similar challenges, and therefore there could be a lot to learn from European exchange of experiences and expertise in this area. This article identifies a number of measures of special interest to study and discusses further with regard to the further development of the Swedish system for disability benefits for young adults.

  11. Trunk repositioning errors are increased in balance-impaired older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Allon; Hernandez, Manuel Enrique; Alexander, Neil B

    2005-10-01

    Controlling the flexing trunk is critical in recovering from a loss of balance and avoiding a fall. To investigate the relationship between trunk control and balance in older adults, we measured trunk repositioning accuracy in young and balance-impaired and unimpaired older adults. Young adults (N = 8, mean age 24.3 years) and two groups of community-dwelling older adults defined by unipedal stance time (UST)-a balance-unimpaired group (UST > 30 seconds, N = 7, mean age 73.9 years) and a balance-impaired group (UST tested in standing trunk control ability by reproducing a approximately 30 degrees trunk flexion angle under three visual-surface conditions: eyes opened and closed on the floor, and eyes opened on foam. Errors in reproducing the angle were defined as trunk repositioning errors (TREs). Clinical measures related to balance, trunk extensor strength, and self-reported disability were obtained. TREs were significantly greater in the balance-impaired group than in the other groups, even when controlling for trunk extensor strength and body mass. In older adults, there were significant correlations between TREs and three clinical measures of balance and fall risk, UST and maximum step length (-0.65 to -0.75), and Timed Up & Go score (0.55), and between TREs and age (0.63-0.76). In each group TREs were similar under the three visual-surface conditions. Test-retest reliability for TREs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients > or =0.74). Older balance-impaired adults have larger TREs, and thus poorer trunk control, than do balance-unimpaired older individuals. TREs are reliable and valid measures of underlying balance impairment in older adults, and may eventually prove to be useful in predicting the ability to recover from losses of balance and to avoid falls.

  12. Feasibility of mobile mental wellness training for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similä, Heidi; Immonen, Milla; Toska-Tervola, Jaana; Enwald, Heidi; Keränen, Niina; Kangas, Maarit; Jämsä, Timo; Korpelainen, Raija

    2018-03-09

    Mobile technology has been increasingly adopted in promotion of mental health among older people. This study assessed the feasibility of a mobile mental wellness training application for individual use and for group work from the perspectives of older adults and social care professionals. The older individuals recruited for the study were participants in a Circle of Friends group and family caregivers' peer support group offered by the communal senior services. The qualitative and quantitative results of interviews, questionnaires, observation, and application usage were reported. Seven older adults started using the application independently at home in parallel with the group activity. This study revealed new information regarding the barriers to the older adults' full adoption of such mobile technologies. The results indicated that there may be potential in the incorporation of mobile technologies in promotion of mental health of older people at group settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ETHICS OF SMART HOUSE WELFARE TECHNOLOGY FOR OLDER ADULTS: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Veralia Gabriela; Taylor, Ingrid; Bing-Jonsson, Pia Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    The University College of Southeast Norway has an on-going project to develop a smart house welfare system to allow older adults and people with disabilities to remain in their homes for as long as they wish in safe, dignified, living conditions. This article reviews reported ethical challenges to implementing smart houses for older adults. A systematic literature review identified twenty-four articles in English, French, Spanish, and Norwegian, which were analyzed and synthesized using Hofmann's question list to investigate the reported ethical challenges. Smart houses offer a promising way to improve access to home care for older adults and people with disabilities. However, important ethical challenges arise when implementing smart houses, including cost-effectiveness, privacy, autonomy, informed consent, dignity, safety, and trust. The identified ethical challenges are important to consider when developing smart house systems. Due to the limitations of smart house technology, designers and users should be mindful that smart houses can achieve a safer and more dignified life-style but cannot solve all the challenges related to ageing, disabilities, and disease. At some point, smart houses can no longer help persons as they develop needs that smart houses cannot meet.

  14. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-07-24

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date.CONCLUSIONS: Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  15. Perspectives on wellness self-monitoring tools for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    2013-11-01

    Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults' personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians' tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Older adult participants' found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes toward wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders' use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults' wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental Care Utilization among North Carolina Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bell, Ronny A.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Reynolds, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This analysis delineates the predisposing, need, and enabling factors that are significantly associated with regular and recent dental care in a multi-ethnic sample of rural older adults. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Almost no edentulous rural older adults received dental care. Slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of dentate rural older adults received regular dental care and slightly more than one-third (36.7%) received recent dental care. Predisposing (education) and enabling (regular place for dental care) factors associated with receiving regular and recent dental care among dentate participants point to greater resources being the driving force in receiving dental care. Contrary to expectations of the Behavioral Model of Health Services, those with the least need (e.g., better self-rated oral health) received regular dental care; this has been referred to as the Paradox of Dental Need. Conclusions Regular and recent dental care are infrequent among rural older adults. Those not receiving dental care are those who most need care. Community access to dental care and the ability of older adults to pay for dental care must be addressed by public health policy to improve the health and quality of life of older adults in rural communities. PMID:22536828

  17. Health, family strains, dependency, and life satisfaction of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokkanathan, Srinivasan; Mohanty, Jayashree

    2017-07-01

    Using stress process theory and structural equation modelling, this study investigated the complex relationship between health status, family strain, dependency, and the life satisfaction of rural older adults with reported functional impairments in India. Data were extracted from a large-scale study of 903 randomly selected adults aged 61 years and older from 30 rural clusters of India. The sample for this study was confined to 653 older adults who reported functional impairments. Structural equation modelling showed that poor health status indirectly lowered the life satisfaction of older adults through family strains. Moreover, poor health status also indirectly influenced life satisfaction through dependency and family strain (poor health→dependency→family strains→life satisfaction). The findings indicate that for professionals who deal with the health of older adults, exploring relationship strains and dependency is vital to the assessment and intervention of subjective wellbeing. Inter-sectoral coordination and communication between healthcare and social service agencies might facilitate effective management of health problems among older adults. Moreover, taking family strains and dependency into account when caring for older adults with health problems is critical to help improve their quality of life and maintain their wellbeing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pilot testing a digital pet avatar for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nai-Ching; Sparks, Olivia; Lin, Shih-Yin; Lazar, Amanda; Thompson, Hilaire J; Demiris, George

    Social isolation in older adults is a major public health concern. An embodied conversational agent (ECA) has the potential to enhance older adults' social interaction. However, little is known about older adults' experience with an ECA. In this paper, we conducted a pilot study to examine the perceived acceptance and utility of a tablet-based conversational agent in the form of an avatar (termed "digital pet") for older adults. We performed secondary analysis of data collected from a study that employed the use of a digital pet in ten older adults' homes for three months. Most of the participants enjoyed the companionship, entertainment, reminders, and instant assistance from the digital pet. However, participants identified limited conversational ability and technical issues as system challenges. Privacy, dependence, and cost were major concerns. Future applications should maximize the agent's conversational ability and the system's overall usability. Our results can inform future designs of conversational agents for older adults, which need to include older adults as system co-designers to maximize usability and acceptance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of smart home sensor visualizations for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Chung, Jane; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2014-01-01

    Smart home sensor systems provide a valuable opportunity to continuously and unobtrusively monitor older adult wellness. However, the density of sensor data can be challenging to visualize, especially for an older adult consumer with distinct user needs. We describe the design of sensor visualizations informed by interviews with older adults. The goal of the visualizations is to present sensor activity data to an older adult consumer audience that supports both longitudinal detection of trends and on-demand display of activity details for any chosen day. The design process is grounded through participatory design with older adult interviews during a six-month pilot sensor study. Through a secondary analysis of interviews, we identified the visualization needs of older adults. We incorporated these needs with cognitive perceptual visualization guidelines and the emotional design principles of Norman to develop sensor visualizations. We present a design of sensor visualization that integrate both temporal and spatial components of information. The visualization supports longitudinal detection of trends while allowing the viewer to view activity within a specific date. Appropriately designed visualizations for older adults not only provide insight into health and wellness, but also are a valuable resource to promote engagement within care.

  20. Depression and Mobility Among Older Adults in Mexico: ENSANUT 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazzo-Palencia, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Depression among older people can be associated with limitations in physical mobility. The ENSANUT 2012 data set was used. A secondary data analysis was conducted on a total sample of 6,525 Mexicans 60 years and older. Findings indicate that depressive symptoms among older people derive from their limitations in mobility rather than from their age. In Mexico, the prevalence of major depressive disorders is higher among older adults than among the rest of the adults. Hence, as the prevalence of this problem grows, the need for appropriate mental health attention will increase in Mexico. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  2. Disability prevalence among healthy weight, overweight, and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Campbell, Vincent A; Wethington, Holly R

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes in people with and without disabilities. However, little is known about disability prevalence among people who are obese. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and type of disability among adults who are obese. Pooled data from the 2003-2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were analyzed to obtain national prevalence estimates of disability, disability type and obesity. The disability prevalence was stratified by body mass index (BMI): healthy weight (BMI 18.5-reported a disability. In contrast, 26.7% of those with a healthy weight and 28.5% of those who were overweight reported a disability. The most common disabilities among respondents with obesity were movement difficulty (32.5%) and work limitation (16.6%). This research contributes to the literature on obesity by including disability as a demographic in assessing the burden of obesity. Because of the high prevalence of disability among those who are obese, public health programs should consider the needs of those with disabilities when designing obesity prevention and treatment programs. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  3. New horizons in multimorbidity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnall, Alison J; Sayer, Avan A; Clegg, Andrew; Rockwood, Kenneth; Parker, Stuart; Hindle, John V

    2017-11-01

    The concept of multimorbidity has attracted growing interest over recent years, and more latterly with the publication of specific guidelines on multimorbidity by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Increasingly it is recognised that this is of particular relevance to practitioners caring for older adults, where multimorbidity may be more complex due to the overlap of physical and mental health disorders, frailty and polypharmacy. The overlap of frailty and multimorbidity in particular is likely to be due to the widespread health deficit accumulation, leading in some cases to functional impairment. The NICE guidelines identify 'target groups' who may benefit from a tailored approach to care that takes their multimorbidity into account, and make a number of research recommendations. Management includes a proactive individualised assessment and care plan, which improves quality of life by reducing treatment burden, adverse events, and unplanned or uncoordinated care. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Chronic pain self-management for older adults: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN11899548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cain Kevin C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is a common and frequently disabling problem in older adults. Clinical guidelines emphasize the need to use multimodal therapies to manage persistent pain in this population. Pain self-management training is a multimodal therapy that has been found to be effective in young to middle-aged adult samples. This training includes education about pain as well as instruction and practice in several management techniques, including relaxation, physical exercise, modification of negative thoughts, and goal setting. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of this therapy in older adult samples. Methods/Design This is a randomized, controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a pain self-management training group intervention, as compared with an education-only control condition. Participants are recruited from retirement communities in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and must be 65 years or older and experience persistent, noncancer pain that limits their activities. The primary outcome is physical disability, as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory, and pain-related interference with activities (Brief Pain Inventory. Randomization occurs by facility to minimize cross-contamination between groups. The target sample size is 273 enrolled, which assuming a 20% attrition rate at 12 months, will provide us with 84% power to detect a moderate effect size of .50 for the primary outcome. Discussion Few studies have investigated the effects of multimodal pain self-management training among older adults. This randomized controlled trial is designed to assess the efficacy of a pain self-management program that incorporates physical and psychosocial pain coping skills among adults in the mid-old to old-old range.

  5. Adult sibling experience, roles, relationships and future concerns - a review of the literature in learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davys, Deborah; Mitchell, Duncan; Haigh, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature related to adult siblings of learning-disabled people. Siblings of learning-disabled people are often looked upon as next of kin when older parents die; however, there is little research regarding sibling views and wishes. A literature review of published peer-reviewed empirical research was undertaken. Electronic databases and citation tracking were used to collate data using key terms such as adult siblings and learning disability. Relevant articles were analysed, compared and contrasted. Six key themes emerged suggesting a varied impact of learning disability upon sibling lives in areas that include life choices, relationships, identity and future plans. Some siblings report a positive impact upon life, others state their lives are comparable with other adults who do not have a learning-disabled sibling and others still report a negative impact. Sibling roles and relationships are varied. Evidence suggests that sibling roles, relationships and experience are affected by life stage. Parents often have a primary care role for the disabled person, whilst siblings perform a more distant role; however, sibling involvement often rises when parents are no longer able to provide previous levels of support. Many factors appear to affect the sibling experience and uptake of roles including gender, life stage and circumstances, level of disability, health status and relationships between family members. Siblings are concerned about the future, particularly when parents are no longer able to provide support, and many appear to have expectations of future responsibilities regarding their disabled sibling. As siblings of people who have a learning disability are often expected by society to provide support, it is important that health and social care practitioners are aware of issues that may impact on this relationship. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia, falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of diabetes, only a few are specifically designed for the elderly with diabetes. In this review, we present specific conditions of elderly diabetes which should be taken into account in the management of diabetes in older adults. We also present advantages and disadvantages of various glucose-lowering agents that should be considered when choosing a proper regimen for older adults with diabetes.

  7. Differences in Risk Aversion between Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Steven M; Duffy, John

    2012-01-15

    Research on decision-making strategies among younger and older adults suggests that older adults may be more risk averse than younger people in the case of potential losses. These results mostly come from experimental studies involving gambling paradigms. Since these paradigms involve substantial demands on memory and learning, differences in risk aversion or other features of decision-making attributed to age may in fact reflect age-related declines in cognitive abilities. In the current study, older and younger adults completed a simpler, paired lottery choice task used in the experimental economics literature to elicit risk aversion. A similar approach was used to elicit participants' discount rates. The older adult group was more risk averse than younger adults (p Risk aversion and implied discount rates were weakly correlated. It may be valuable to investigate developmental changes in neural correlates of decision-making across the lifespan.

  8. Perspectives of Young Adults with Disabilities on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…

  9. Stressors, Coping Resources, and Depressive Symptoms among Rural American Indian Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults.

  10. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

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    Jason L Rucker

    Full Text Available Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT. Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI.Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group.Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  11. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Jason L; McDowd, Joan M; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M; Sabus, Carla H; Britton-Carpenter, Amanda J; Utech, Nora B; Kluding, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART) and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT). Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI). Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group. Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  12. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work

  13. Improving associative memory in older adults with unitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Fernandes, Myra; Hockley, William E

    2015-01-01

    We examined if unitization inherent preexperimentally could reduce the associative deficit in older adults. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults studied compound word (CW; e.g., store keeper) and noncompound word (NCW; e.g., needle birth) pairs. We found a reduction in the age-related associative deficit such that older but not younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW relative to NCW pairs on a yes-no associative recognition test. These results suggest that CW compared to NCW word pairs provide schematic support that older adults can use to improve their memory. In Experiment 2, reducing study time in younger adults decreased associative recognition performance, but did not produce a discrimination advantage for CW pairs. In Experiment 3, both older and younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW pairs on a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test, which encourages greater use of familiarity. These results suggest that test format influenced young adults' use of familiarity during associative recognition of unitized pairs, and that older adults rely more on familiarity than recollection for associative recognition. Unitization of preexperimental associations, as in CW pairs, can alleviate age-related associative deficits.

  14. Aging and the Socioeconomic Life of Older Adults in India

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    Sanjeev Bakshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to approach aging in India from three perspectives, namely, the well-being of an aging individual, the aging household, and the aging population. The aspects, namely, work, financial dependence, integration, empowerment, and elder abuse are studied and their relation to age, gender, and marital status is investigated. The data sets pertaining to the National Sample Surveys for the reference periods 1986-1987, 1995-1996, and 2004 are primarily utilized for the purpose. The data sets from Building Knowledge Base on Population Ageing in India Survey, 2011, are also utilized for information on elder abuse. The results show that the older males are more likely to participate in household activities when compared with the older females. The married older adults are also more likely to participate in household activities when compared with their widowed counterparts. In a similar way, gender and marital status are found to be associated with empowerment of older adults. The working older adults, those who possess property and/or assets are more likely to be financially independent. Furthermore, the older females and the financially dependent older adults are more likely to face abuses of different kinds. Households are classified into three different types. Type I households have no older adults, Type II households have older adults and other younger members, and Type III households have older adults only. Results show that Type III households are found to be relatively more deprived and report higher average monthly expenditure when compared with other types of households.

  15. The Relationship Between Disability and Variables of Depression, Cognitive Status, and Morale Among Older People

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    Mohammad Reza Shahbazi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Disability in older people had a significant relationship with their depression, cognitive status, and morale. Thus, the degree of their disability can be lowered by prevention and early treatment of depression, promotion of memory, delaying cognitive disorders, as well as providing morale enhancement programs, creating a positive attitude toward old age, and increasing life satisfaction in older people. 

  16. Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Ailiana; Schröders, Julia; Vaezghasemi, Masoud; Ng, Nawi

    2016-09-01

    It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies. This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007-2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions. The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men. There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. The Disabled Young Adult: Ready to Leave Home?

    OpenAIRE

    Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal

    1986-01-01

    The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.

  18. Emergency Department and Older Adult Motor Vehicle Collisions

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    Lotfipour, Shahram

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported there were 33 million licensed drivers 65 years and older in the U.S. This represents a 23 percent increase from 1999, number that is predicted to double by 2030. Although, motor vehicle collisions (MVC-related to emergency department (ED visits for older adults are lower per capita than for younger adults, the older-adults MVCs require more resources, such as additional diagnostic imaging and increased odds of admission. Addressing the specific needs of older-adults could lead to better outcomes yet not enough research currently exists. It is important to continue training emergency physicians to treat the increasing older-patient population, but its also imperative we increase our injury prevention and screening methodology. We review research findings from the article: Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions: A Five-year national study, with commentary on current recommendation and policies for the growing older-adult driving population. [West J Emerg Med.2013;14(6:582–584.

  19. Multimorbidity and Polypharmacy Are Independently Associated with Mortality in Older People with Intellectual Disabilities: A 5-Year Follow-Up from the HA-ID Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoufour, Josje D.; Oppewal, Alyt; van der Maarl, Hanne J. K.; Hermans, Heidi; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Festen, Dederieke A.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the association between multimorbidity, polypharmacy, and mortality in 1,050 older adults (50+) with intellectual disability (ID). Multimorbidity (presence of = 4 chronic health conditions) and polypharmacy (presence = 5 chronic medication prescriptions) were collected at baseline. Multimorbidity included a wide range of disorders,…

  20. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

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    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  1. Questionnaire-based evaluation of everyday competence in older adults

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    Tobias Kalisch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobias Kalisch1, Julia Richter3, Melanie Lenz1, Jan-Christoph Kattenstroth2, Izabela Kolankowska2, Martin Tegenthoff1, Hubert R Dinse21Department of Neurology, BG-Kliniken Bergmannsheil, 2Neural Plasticity Lab, Institute for Neuroinformatics, Department of Theoretical Biology, 3Faculty of Psychology, Department of Methods, Diagnostics and Evaluation, Ruhr-University Bochum, GermanyBackground: Gerontological research aims at understanding factors that are crucial for mediating “successful aging”. This term denotes the absence of significant disease and disabilities, maintenance of high levels of physical and cognitive function, and preservation of social and productive activities. Preservation of an active lifestyle is considered an effective means through which everyday competence can be attained. In this context, it is crucial to obtain ratings of modern day older adults’ everyday competence by means of appropriate assessments. Here, we introduce the Everyday Competence Questionnaire (ECQ, designed to assess healthy older adults' everyday competence.Methods: The ECQ includes 17 items, covering housekeeping, leisure activities, sports, daily routines, manual skills, subjective well-being, and general linguistic usage. The ECQ was administered to a population of 158 healthy subjects aged 60–91 years, who were divided into groups on the basis of their physical activity. These groups were community-dwelling subjects, those living independently and having a sedentary lifestyle, those living independently but characterized by a general lifestyle without any noteworthy physical activity, and those living independently and exercising regularly. Age, gender, and education levels were balanced between the groups.Results: Using the ECQ, we could identify and distinguish different everyday competence levels between the groups tested: Subjects characterized by an active lifestyle outperformed all other groups. Subjects characterized by a general

  2. Everyday Life of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Inclusionary and Exclusionary Processes among Young Adults of Parents with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Mikaela

    2013-01-01

    Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…

  3. Retreat and Resilience: Life Experiences of Older Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Barbara W.; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kulik, Noel; Rooney, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    Older women with intellectual disabilities remain the least studied and understood members of the disability population, and yet they often live well into late adulthood. In this exploratory study we used extensive interviews to examine the demographics, economic and personal safety nets, health, social roles, and well-being of 29 Irish and…

  4. Barriers to treatment for older adults seeking psychological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthrich, Viviana M; Frei, Jacqueline

    2015-07-01

    Older adults with mental health disorders underutilize mental health services more than other adults. While there are well known general barriers to help seeking across the population, specific barriers for older adults include difficulties with transportation, beliefs that it is normal to be anxious and depressed in old age, and beliefs by referrers that psychological therapy is less likely to be effective. This study examined barriers related to identifying the need for help, seeking help and participating in therapy in a clinical population of older adults. Sixty older adults (aged 60-79 years) with comorbid anxiety and unipolar mood disorders completed barriers to treatment questionnaires before and after psychological group treatment, as well as measures of cognitive ability, anxiety, depression, and quality of life at baseline. The greatest barriers to help seeking related to difficulties identifying the need for help, with 50% of the sample reporting their belief that their symptoms were normal as a major barrier. Other major barriers identified were related to: self-reliance, cost of treatment, and fear of medication replicating previous findings. The main barriers reported for difficulties in continuing therapy included not finding therapy helpful, cost of treatment, and thinking that the therapist did not understand their issues. The main barriers identified related to issues with identifying the need to seek help. More attention is needed to educate older adults and professionals about the need for, and effectiveness of, psychological therapies for older adults with anxiety and depression to reduce this barrier to help seeking.

  5. Gun Access and Safety Practices among Older Adults

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    Hillary D. Lum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Given high rates of gun ownership among older adults, geriatric providers can assess firearm safety practices using a “5 Ls” approach: Locked; Loaded; Little children; feeling Low; and Learned owner. This study describes gun access and the “5 Ls” among US older adults. Methods. Data on the “5 Ls” from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2, a national telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed. Weighted variables were used to generate national estimates regarding prevalence of gun ownership and associated gun safety among older adults (≥55 years. Results. Of 2939 older adults, 39% (95% CI 37%–42% reported ≥1 gun stored at home. Among those with guns at home, 21% (95% CI 18–24% stored guns loaded and unlocked; 9.2% (95% CI 6.6–12% had ≥1 child in household; 5.1% (95% CI 3.5–6.8% reported past-year suicidal ideation and 3.6% (95% CI 2.1–5.2% reported history of a suicide attempt; and 55% (95% CI 51–59% stated that ≥1 adult had attended firearm safety workshop. Conclusion. Some older adults may be at elevated risk of firearm injury because of storage practices, suicidal thoughts, or limited safety training. Future work should assess effective approaches to reduce the risk of gun-related injuries among older adults.

  6. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  7. Nutrient intake and dietary changes during a 2-year multi-domain lifestyle intervention among older adults: secondary analysis of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtisalo, Jenni; Ngandu, Tiia; Valve, Päivi; Antikainen, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Strandberg, Timo; Soininen, Hilkka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Kivipelto, Miia; Lindström, Jaana

    2017-08-01

    Advancing age increases the risk for diseases and health concerns like cognitive decline, constituting a major public health challenge. Lifestyle, especially healthy diet, affects many risk factors related to chronic diseases, and thus lifestyle interventions among older adults may be beneficial in promoting successful ageing. We completed a randomised 2-year multi-domain lifestyle intervention trial aiming at prevention of cognitive decline among 631 participants in the intervention and 629 in the control group, aged 60-77 years at baseline. Dietary counselling was one of the intervention domains together with strength exercise, cognitive training and management of CVD risk factors. The aim of this paper was to describe success of the intervention - that is, how an intervention based on national dietary recommendations affected dietary habits as a part of multi-intervention. Composite dietary intervention adherence score comprising nine distinct goals (range 0-9 points from none to achieving all goals) was 5·0 at baseline, and increased in the intervention group after the 1st (Pchange compared with the control group was significant at both years (P<0·001 and P=0·018). Intake of several vitamins and minerals decreased in the control group but remained unchanged or increased in the intervention group during the 2 years. Well-targeted dietary counselling may prevent age-related decline in diet quality and help in preventing cognitive decline.

  8. Feasibility study of an attention training application for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L; Mogle, Jacqueline; Colancecco, Elise; Dick, Robert; Hannan, John; Lin, Feng Vankee

    2015-09-01

    Technology-based attention training has demonstrated promise in its potential to improve cognitive functioning in older people. Developing mobile applications, with older users specifically in mind, may support future dissemination of these interventions and integration into daily life. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an Attention Training Application (ATA) for community-dwelling older adults using mobile technology. A descriptive, mixed-methods design was used to capture older adults' feedback on the usability and acceptability of the ATA. A convenience sample of older adults (n = 9) from two independent living facilities participated in a 2-hour training and practice session with the ATA. Participants were given personally tailored instructions for using the mobile device and the ATA specifically. Following a practice session, participants provided ratings on multiple components of the ATA and completed an audio-recorded, semi-structured interview to provide detailed descriptions of their experience and perceptions. An iterative process of content analysis was used to characterise the open-ended responses. Participants rated the ATA favourably overall on several 0-10 scales including likeability [8.5 (1.6)], interest [8.8 (2.3)] and satisfaction [8.2 (1.9)]. The qualitative analyses revealed several issues relevant to the feasibility of the ATA among older people including the importance of the technological background of the user, limiting negative feedback, challenges with the touch screen interface, personal preferences for challenge, extending the practice period and the difficulty of the dual-task condition. The use of the ATA is feasible in the older adult population. Future development should specifically consider personal characteristics as well as preferences to maximise usability and acceptability among older people. Older adults enjoyed the ATA. This opens doors to user-friendly technological interventions that may be

  9. Polypharmacy among older adults in Tehran

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    B. Ahmadi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple drug use is frequently considered to be hazardous for the elderly because of their greater vulnerability to the complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of polypharmacy in Tehran and to assess the relative demographic characteristics of patients. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 400 persons aging 55 years and older were interviewed in order to determine the presence of polypharmacy (daily intake of three or more drugs. The cases were randomly selected and asked to answer a questionnaire through interview at home. The questionnaire contained questions about all taking drugs, pattern of using each drug and also patients' personal, social and medical history. Chi-square and fisher exact tests and determination of odds ratios were used in order to data analysis. Results: Medium number of drugs used was 3.4 ± 1.9 in studied cases and %39.6 of cases were exposed to polypharmacy. The prevalence of physician prescribed drug usage was observed to be increased by increasing number of total used drugs in each case (P<0.002. The most commonly used drugs were A.S.A, Atenolol and propranolol and these drugs were prescribed by physician in over than %90 of cases. There was a positive correlations between polypharmacy with referring to multiple physicians (OR=1.96, CI 95%, 1.28-2.98 (P<0.002 and adverse drug reactions (OR=2.44, CI 95%, 1.47-4.05 (P<0.001. Polypharmacy was more prevalent in the age group of 65-75 years (P<0.04 and lower levels of education (P<0.004 and less prevalent in the group with moderate income (P<0.001. Conclusion: Polypharmacy is common among adults aging 55 years and more in Tehran and is affected by age, education level and economic status.

  10. Urban-rural differences in the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes among older adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xufan; Dupre, Matthew E; Qiu, Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhao, Yuan; Gu, Danan

    2017-07-19

    Studies have shown that inadequate access to healthcare is associated with lower levels of health and well-being in older adults. Studies have also shown significant urban-rural differences in access to healthcare in developing countries such as China. However, there is limited evidence of whether the association between access to healthcare and health outcomes differs by urban-rural residence at older ages in China. Four waves of data (2005, 2008/2009, 2011/2012, and 2014) from the largest national longitudinal survey of adults aged 65 and older in mainland China (n = 26,604) were used for analysis. The association between inadequate access to healthcare (y/n) and multiple health outcomes were examined-including instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) disability, ADL disability, cognitive impairment, and all-cause mortality. A series of multivariate models were used to obtain robust estimates and to account for various covariates associated with access to healthcare and/or health outcomes. All models were stratified by urban-rural residence. Inadequate access to healthcare was significantly higher among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas (9.1% vs. 5.4%; p China. The associations between access to healthcare and health outcomes were generally stronger among older adults in rural areas than in urban areas. Our findings underscore the importance of providing adequate access to healthcare for older adults-particularly for those living in rural areas in developing countries such as China.

  11. Occupational Therapy Use by Older Adults With Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 27,131 older adults diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2007 found that survivors who used occupational therapy after diagnosis also had the highest levels of comorbidities.

  12. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  13. In Defense of Offering Educational Programs for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Chandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Older adults participate in education to fulfil coping, expressive, contributive, influence, and transcendence needs. Learning can promote sustained mental functioning and increase self-efficacy and social support. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  14. When touch matters: an affective tactile intervention for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Fairfield, Beth; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to test the hypothesis that positive tactile experiences can lead to an improvement in cognitive, emotional skills and perceived quality of life in a group of healthy community-dwelling older adults. During a 10-week period, older adults completed a series of activities that required manipulating either a piece of velvet, a piece of canvas or velcro. Only older adults who worked with velvet showed an increase in cognitive and emotional skills, and the perceived quality of life. Our study is one of the first to show that positive tactile experiences might have a beneficial effect on the psychological well-being of healthy community-dwelling older adults across different domains. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Familism and Health Care Provision to Hispanic Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Brittany; Foli, Karen J; Edwards, Nancy E; Abrahamson, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Hispanic older adult population's rapid growth calls for an awareness of values that can affect the rendering and receipt of care. Familism, or familismo, a traditional Hispanic value, places importance of family over the self and can potentially affect health care perceptions and practices for Hispanic older adults. The current article discusses familism, which is upheld by some Hispanic older adults, and the potential for underuse of health care services. The traditional feminine role, marianismo, and masculine role, machismo, are considered, as well as implications for how decision making may be made by family members rather than the patient. Clinical implications for the provision of health care to Hispanic older adults are provided, along with the importance of considering acculturation and ethnic heterogeneity. Health care management strategies that reflect recognition and respect of familism, yet emphasize optimization of adherence and self-care, are described. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Relationship between perceived sleep and polysomnography in older adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra dos Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that the older adult population have a good perception of their sleep. The questionnaires aimed at this population should be used as an alternative to polysomnography.

  17. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well.

  18. Hydrate for health: listening to older adults' need for information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Major depressive and anxiety disorders in visually impaired older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, H.P.A.; Comijs, H.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; van Nispen, R.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE. We assessed the prevalence of subthreshold depression and anxiety, and major depressive, dysthymic, and anxiety disorders (panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, and general anxiety disorder) in visually impaired older adults and compared these estimates with those of normally sighted

  20. The physical and mental health of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults: the role of key health indicators and risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Emlet, Charles A; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Erosheva, Elena A; Goldsen, Jayn; Hoy-Ellis, Charles P

    2013-08-01

    Based on resilience theory, this paper investigates the influence of key health indicators and risk and protective factors on health outcomes (including general health, disability, and depression) among lesbian, gay male, and bisexual (LGB) older adults. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with LGB older adults, aged 50 and older (N = 2,439). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the contributions of key health indicators (access to health care and health behaviors), risk factors (lifetime victimization, internalized stigma, and sexual identity concealment), and protective factors (social support and social network size) to health outcomes, when controlling for background characteristics. The findings revealed that lifetime victimization, financial barriers to health care, obesity, and limited physical activity independently and significantly accounted for poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults. Internalized stigma was also a significant predictor of disability and depression. Social support and social network size served as protective factors, decreasing the odds of poor general health, disability, and depression. Some distinct differences by gender and sexual orientation were also observed. High levels of poor general health, disability, and depression among LGB older adults are of major concern. These findings highlight the important role of key risk and protective factors, which significantly influences health outcomes among LGB older adults. Tailored interventions must be developed to address the distinct health issues facing this historically disadvantaged population.

  1. Building a prototype using Human-Centered design to engage older adults in healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Maskara, Sanjeev; Chiang, I-Jen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic diseases and disabilities are higher in older adults, which is one of the key factors of rising health care costs. Health care stakeholders wish older adults to take more control of their health to delay the onset of age-related disabilities and chronic diseases. Engaging older adults in their health care decision making would cut down health care costs and prepare a health care system to be more sustainable. We used the Human-Centered Design approach to propose a prototype that more effectively engages older adults in their health care decision-making. Four participants from four different countries - Taiwan, USA, Austria, and Germany; and two facilitators from the USA participated in this study. The participants interviewed a total of four subjects in their respective countries. This study used the Human-Centered Design approach, which embraced three main phases - observation, identification, and ideation. Each phase involved brainstorming, voting, and consensus among participants. This study derived 14 insights, 20 categories, 4 themes, a conceptual framework, some potential solutions, and a prototype. This study showed that older adults could be engaged in their health care decision-making by offering them health care products and services that were user-friendly and technology enabled. A 'gradual change management plan' could assist older adults to adopt technologies more effectively. The health care products and services should be centered on the needs of older adults. Moreover, the possibilities of older adults maintaining control over their own health may rely on proper timing, a personal approach, right products, and services.

  2. Destinations matter: The association between where older adults live and their travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Anna M; Winters, Meghan; Moniruzzaman, Md; Ashe, Maureen C; Gould, Joanie Sims; McKay, Heather

    2015-03-01

    The positive effect of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases and age-related disabilities, such as mobility-disability, are widely accepted. Mobility is broadly defined as the ability of individuals to move themselves within community environments. These two concepts -physical activity and mobility - are closely linked and together contribute to older adults living healthy, independent lives. Neighborhood destinations may encourage mobility, as older adults typically leave their homes to travel to specific destinations. Thus, neighborhoods with a high prevalence of destinations may provide older adults an attractive opportunity to walk, instead of drive, and thereby obtain incidental physical activity. We know surprisingly little about the specific types of destinations older adults deem relevant and even less about destinations that support the mobility of older adults with low income. Accessible neighborhood destinations may be especially important to older adults with low income as they are more likely to walk as a primary travel mode. Conversely, this population may also be at increased risk of functional impairments that negatively affect their ability to walk. As a means to fill this information gap we aimed to better understand the mobility habits of older adults with low income. Thus, our specific objectives were to: (1) describe the types of destinations older adults with low income most commonly travel to in one week; and (2) determine the association between the prevalence of neighborhood destinations and the number of transportation walking trips these individuals make (average per day). We conducted a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults with low income residing within Metro Vancouver, Canada. We assessed participant travel behavior (frequency, purpose, mode, destination) using seven-day travel diaries and measured the prevalence of neighborhood destinations using the Street Smart Walk Score. We

  3. An evidence-based Physical Activity and Fitness Programme for Ageing Adults with Intellectual Disabilities : Development, implementation and health effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Schijndel-Speet (Marieke)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this study, extremely low physical activity and fitness levels among older adults with intellectual disabilities were demonstrated. Although the importance of physical activity for health has been recognised in the field of people with ID, only few welldesigned studies with a

  4. Designing a Tablet Touch-Screen Interface for Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Grönvall, Erik

    Sustaining daily, unsupervised healthcare activities in a private home setting can challenge, among others, older adults. In this paper, we discuss experiences from designing a tablet mobile application, MediFrame, to support older adults’ medication management at home. In relation to Medi...

  5. Symptom distress in older adults following cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleave, Janet H; Egleston, Brian L; Ercolano, Elizabeth; McCorkle, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Symptom distress remains a significant health problem among older adults with cancer following surgery. Understanding factors influencing older adults' symptom distress may lead to early identification and interventions, decreasing morbidity and improving outcomes. We conducted this study to identify factors associated with symptom distress following surgery among 326 community-residing patients 65 years or older with a diagnosis of thoracic, digestive, gynecologic, and genitourinary cancers. This secondary analysis used combined subsets of data from 5 nurse-directed intervention clinical trials targeting patients after surgery at academic cancer centers in northwest and northeastern United States. Symptom distress was assessed by the Symptom Distress Scale at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. A multivariable analysis, using generalized estimating equations, showed that symptom distress was significantly less at 3 and 6 months (3 months: P psychological, treatment, and function covariates. Thoracic cancer, comorbidities, worse mental health, and decreased function were, on average, associated with increased symptom distress (all P cancer, comorbidities, mental health, and function may influence older adults' symptom distress following cancer surgery. Older adults generally experience decreasing symptom distress after thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic cancer surgery. Symptom management over time for those with thoracic cancer, comorbidities, those with worse mental health, those with decreased function, and those 75 years or older may prevent morbidity and improve outcomes of older adults following surgery.

  6. Perspectives on Wellness Self-Monitoring Tools for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jina; Le, Thai; Reeder, Blaine; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Demiris, George

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our purpose was to understand different stakeholder perceptions about the use of self-monitoring tools, specifically in the area of older adults’ personal wellness. In conjunction with the advent of personal health records, tracking personal health using self-monitoring technologies shows promising patient support opportunities. While clinicians’ tools for monitoring of older adults have been explored, we know little about how older adults may self-monitor their wellness and health and how their health care providers would perceive such use. Methods We conducted three focus groups with health care providers (n=10) and four focus groups with community-dwelling older adults (n=31). Results Older adult participants’ found the concept of self-monitoring unfamiliar and this influenced a narrowed interest in the use of wellness self-monitoring tools. On the other hand, health care provider participants showed open attitudes towards wellness monitoring tools for older adults and brainstormed about various stakeholders’ use cases. The two participant groups showed diverging perceptions in terms of: perceived uses, stakeholder interests, information ownership and control, and sharing of wellness monitoring tools. Conclusions Our paper provides implications and solutions for how older adults’ wellness self-monitoring tools can enhance patient-health care provider interaction, patient education, and improvement in overall wellness. PMID:24041452

  7. Healthcare-Associated Meningitis or Ventriculitis in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihawan, Chanunya; Habib, Onaizah; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2017-12-01

    Healthcare-associated meningitis or ventriculitis (HCAMV) is a serious and life-threatening complication of invasive neurosurgical procedures or penetrating head trauma. Older adults are at higher risk of adverse outcomes in community-acquired meningitis but studies of HCAMV are lacking. Therefore, we perform the study to define the differences in clinical outcomes between older and younger adults with HCAMV. Retrospective study. A large tertiary care hospital in Houston, Texas, from July 2003 to November 2014. Adults with a diagnosis of HCAMV (N = 160) aged ≥65 (n = 35), aged 18-64 (n = 125). Demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatments, and outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scale). Older adults had more comorbidities and CSF abnormalities [pleocytosis, high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein, low CSF glucose) and were more likely to have altered mental status than younger adults (P older (97%) and younger (86%) adults (P = .13). On logistic regression analysis, abnormal neurological examination (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 7.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.15-23.63, P = .001) and mechanical ventilation (aOR = 11.03, 95% CI = 1.35-90.51, P = .02) were associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Older adults with HCAMV have more comorbidities and CSF abnormalities and are more likely to have altered mental status than younger adults but have similar high rates of adverse clinical outcomes. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Reward-Enhanced Memory in Younger and Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Spaniol; Cécile Schain; Holly J. Bowen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how the anticipation of remote monetary reward modulates intentional episodic memory formation in younger and older adults. On the basis of prior findings of preserved reward–cognition interactions in aging, we predicted that reward anticipation would be associated with enhanced memory in both younger and older adults. On the basis of previous demonstrations of a time-dependent effect of reward anticipation on memory, we expected the memory enhancement to increase ...

  9. Depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; García-Peña, Carmen; González-Forteza, Catalina; Jiménez-Tapia, Alberto; Gallo, Joseph J; Wagner, Fernando A

    2014-06-01

    Determine the structure of depressive symptoms among adolescents and older adults through the person-centered approach of latent class analysis (LCA). The study is based on data from two independent samples collected in Mexico City (2,444 adolescents and 2,223 older adults) which included the revised version of the CES-D. The presence or absence of depressed mood (dysphoria), diminished pleasure (anhedonia), drastic change in weight, sleep problems, thinking and concentration difficulties, excessive or inappropriate guilt, fatigue, psychomotor agitation/retardation, and suicide ideation were used in LCA to determine the structure of depressive symptoms for adolescents and older adults. Adolescents reported higher excessive or inappropriate guilt compared to older adults, while older adults had higher proportions of anhedonia, sleep problems, fatigue, and psychomotor agitation/retardation. Similar proportions were found in other symptoms. The LCA analysis showed the best fit with four latent classes (LC): LC 1, "symptoms suggestive of major depressive episode (MDE)" with prevalence of 5.9 % (n = 144) and 10.3 % (n = 230) among adolescents and older adults, respectively; LC 2, "probable MDE symptoms" 18.2 % (n = 446) and 23.0 % (n = 512); LC 3, "possible MDE" 27.7 % (n = 676) and 21.8 % (n = 485); LC 4, "without significant depressive symptoms" 48.2 % (n = 1,178) and 44.8 % (n = 996). The differences in item thresholds between the two groups (adolescents vs. older adults) were statistically significant (Wald test = 255.684, df = 1, p depressive symptoms between adolescents and older adults that merit acknowledgment, further study, and consideration of their potential clinical and public health implications.

  10. FEAR OF FALLING AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING OLDER ADULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Dingová; Eva Králová

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe experience with falls, fear of falling, perceptions of the consequences of falls and how the fear of falling affects daily life in community-dwelling older adults. Design: The study used a qualitative design to describe the lived experiences of community-dwelling older adults with the fear of falling. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted individually with six participants who reported the fear of falling. Results: Five main areas emerged...

  11. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  12. Falls in institutionalized older adults: risks, consequences and antecedents

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo Neto, Antonio Herculano de; Patrício, Anna Cláudia Freire de Araújo; Ferreira, Milenna Azevedo Minhaqui; Rodrigues, Brenda Feitosa Lopes; Santos, Thayná Dias dos; Rodrigues, Thays Domingos de Brito; Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the occurrence of falls in institutionalized elderly addressing the risks, consequences and antecedents. Method: Cross-sectional study carried out with 45 older adults in Long-Term Care Facilities for the Older adult in João Pessoa, Brazil, in June and July 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and the Berg Balance Scale were applied, classifying as risk of fall scores lower than 45. Descriptive statistics and tests were conducted: independent t-test, Anova ...

  13. Psychotherapeutic treatment levels of personality disorders in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Videler, Arjan; Cornelis, Christina; Rossi, G.; van Royen, R.J.J.; Rosowsky, E.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of personality disorders (PDs) in older adults is a highly underexplored topic. In this article clinical applicability of the findings from a recent Delphi study regarding treatment aspects of PDs in older adults is explored. This concerns the relevance of three psychotherapeutic treatment levels for PDs in later life: (a) personality-changing treatment, (b) adaptation-enhancing treatment, and (c) supportive-structuring treatment. By means of three cases concerning the three levels,...

  14. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting health-related problems in community-living older adults aged 75 years and older without dementia: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoorenberg, Sophie L W; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Middel, Berrie; Uittenbroek, Ronald J; Kremer, Hubertus P H; Wynia, Klaske

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a valid Geriatric ICF Core Set reflecting relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. A Delphi study was performed in order to reach consensus (≥70% agreement) on second-level categories from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The Delphi panel comprised 41 older adults, medical and non-medical experts. Content validity of the set was tested in a cross-sectional study including 267 older adults identified as frail or having complex care needs. Consensus was reached for 30 ICF categories in the Delphi study (fourteen Body functions, ten Activities and Participation and six Environmental Factors categories). Content validity of the set was high: the prevalence of all the problems was >10%, except for d530 Toileting. The most frequently reported problems were b710 Mobility of joint functions (70%), b152 Emotional functions (65%) and b455 Exercise tolerance functions (62%). No categories had missing values. The final Geriatric ICF Core Set is a comprehensive and valid set of 29 ICF categories, reflecting the most relevant health-related problems among community-living older adults without dementia. This Core Set may contribute to optimal care provision and support of the older population. Implications for Rehabilitation The Geriatric ICF Core Set may provide a practical tool for gaining an understanding of the relevant health-related problems of community-living older adults without dementia. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be used in primary care practice as an assessment tool in order to tailor care and support to the needs of older adults. The Geriatric ICF Core Set may be suitable for use in multidisciplinary teams in integrated care settings, since it is based on a broad range of problems in functioning. Professionals should pay special attention to health problems related to mobility and emotional functioning since these are the most

  16. Toward social system theory: implications for older people with developmental disabilities and service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, P A

    1990-01-01

    The literature refers to older people with developmental disabilities as the "new service population." How and why this population emerged as a special category is discussed conceptually with reference to social systems theory. A brief review of social systems theory and some basic systemic tenets are presented. Systemic tenets are employed in examining the historical development of social gerontology and present trends in the service-delivery system. I show that the systemic variable of the economic model of human development has significantly impacted on the making of older people with developmental disabilities a dependent population. In the conclusion the systems perspective is explored in relation to recognizing the liminal, in-between parts between components. It is argued that such a perception minimizes the dichotomy between older people with developmental disabilities and the non-disabled population, paving the way for a genuine encounter.

  17. Older Californians and the Mental Health Services Act: Is an Older Adult System of Care Supported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzman, Kathryn G; Dupuy, Danielle; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Palimaru, Alina; del Pino, Homero E; Frank, Janet C

    2018-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings from the first study to evaluate how California's public mental health delivery system has served older adults (60 years of age and over) since the passage of the Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004. Study findings indicate that there are unmet needs among older adults with mental illness in the public mental health delivery system. There are deficits in the involvement of older adults in the required MHSA planning processes and in outreach and service delivery, workforce development, and outcomes measurement and reporting. There is also evidence of promising programs and strategies that counties have advanced to address these deficits. Recommendations for improving mental health services for older adults include designating a distinct administrative and leadership structure for older adult services in each county; enhancing older adult outreach and documentation of unmet need; promoting standardized geriatric training of providers; instituting standardized data-reporting requirements; and increasing service integration efforts, especially between medical, behavioral health, aging, and substance use disorder services.

  18. Trends in substance use admissions among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Cook, Ratna; Mallik, Eshita; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar

    2017-08-22

    Substance abuse is a growing, but mostly silent, epidemic among older adults. We sought to analyze the trends in admissions for substance abuse treatment among older adults (aged 55 and older). Treatment Episode Data Set - Admissions (TEDS-A) for period between 2000 and 2012 was used. The trends in admission for primary substances, demographic attributes, characteristics of substance abused and type of admission were analyzed. While total number of substance abuse treatment admissions between 2000 and 2012 changed slightly, proportion attributable to older adults increased from 3.4% to 7.0%. Substantial changes in the demographic, substance use pattern, and treatment characteristics for the older adult admissions were noted. Majority of the admissions were for alcohol as the primary substance. However there was a decreasing trend in this proportion (77% to 64%). The proportion of admissions for following primary substances showed increase: cocaine/crack, marijuana/hashish, heroin, non-prescription methadone, and other opiates and synthetics. Also, admissions for older adults increased between 2000 and 2012 for African Americans (21% to 28%), females (20% to 24%), high school graduates (63% to 75%), homeless (15% to 19%), unemployed (77% to 84%), and those with psychiatric problems (17% to 32%).The proportion of admissions with prior history of substance abuse treatment increased from 39% to 46% and there was an increase in the admissions where more than one problem substance was reported. Ambulatory setting continued to be the most frequent treatment setting, and individual (including self-referral) was the most common referral source. The use of medication assisted therapy remained low over the years (7% - 9%). The changing demographic and substance use pattern of older adults implies that a wide array of psychological, social, and physiological needs will arise. Integrated, multidisciplinary and tailored policies for prevention and treatment are necessary to

  19. Improving Work Participation of Young Adults with Physical Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the

  20. A Descriptive Investigation of Dysphagia in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Darren D.; Jolliffe, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dysphagia has rarely been investigated in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) despite being a serious condition affecting health and quality of life. Method: This study collected information about 101 adults with ID, living in community settings, referred for an assessment of their eating and drinking. Ninety-nine people were…

  1. Depression in Adults with Intellectual Disability: Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Psychiatric evaluation of adults with intellectual disability (ID) remains complex because of limitations in verbal abilities, atypical clinical presentation and challenging behaviour. This study examines the clinical presentation of adults with depression compared with bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and non-psychiatric control…

  2. Greek Young Adults with Specific Learning Disabilities Seeking Learning Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…

  3. Suicide in older adults: a comparison with middle-aged adults using the Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yu Wen; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Globally, suicide rates increase with age, being highest in older adults. This study analyzed differences in suicides in older adults (65 years and over) compared to middle-aged adults (35-64 years) in Queensland, Australia, during the years 2000-2012. The Queensland Suicide Register was utilized for the analysis. Annual suicide rates were calculated by gender and age group, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were examined. In Queensland, the average annual rate of suicides for older adults was 15.27 per 100,000 persons compared to 18.77 in middle-aged adults in 2000-2012. There were no significant changes in time trends for older adults in 2002-2012. Suicide methods differed between gender and age groups. Older adults who died by suicide were more likely to be male, widowed, living alone or in a nursing home, and out of the work force. The prevalence of untreated psychiatric conditions, diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and consultations with a mental health professional three months prior to death was lower in older adults than middle-aged adults. Somatic illness, bereavement, and attention to suicide in the media were more common among older adults than middle-age adults. Older females were particularly more likely to pay attention to suicide in the media. Our findings show older adults who died by suicide were more likely to experience somatic illnesses, bereavement, and pay attention to suicide in the media compared to middle aged. Preventing suicide in older adults would therefore require holistic and comprehensive approaches.

  4. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  5. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  7. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of three conditions were performed: 1) constant 12 cm optic flow amplitude (24 cm peak-to-peak), 2) constant 4 cm amplitude (8 cm p-t-p), and 3) a transition in amplitude from 4 to 12 cm. The average power of head sway velocity (Pvel) was calculated for consecutive 5 s intervals during the trial to examine the changes in sway within and between trials. A mixed factor repeated measures ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of subject Group, Trial, and Interval on the Pvel. Pvel was greater in older adults in all conditions (p Pvel of the older adults decreased significantly between all 3 trials, but decreased only between trial 1 and 2 in young adults. While the responses of the young adults to the transition in optic flow from 4 to 12 cm did not significantly change, older adults had an increase in Pvel following the transition, ranging from 6.5 dB for the first trial to 3.4 dB for the third trial. These results show that older adults can habituate to repeated visual perturbation exposures; however, this habituation requires a greater number of exposures than young adults. This suggests aging impacts the ability to quickly modify the relative weighting of the sensory feedback for postural stabilization. PMID:18329878

  8. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  9. Organizational support and volunteering benefits for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling was used to define the latent variables and to test direct and indirect relationships among organizational support, socioemotional benefits, and self-reported health. Organizational support (measured by choice of volunteer activity, training, and ongoing support) had significant direct associations with 2 latent factors of socioemotional benefits, that is, perceived contribution and personal benefits. Perceived contribution was significantly related to mental health. Additionally, older volunteers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) committed more hours and perceived more personal benefits than higher SES peers. These findings suggest that volunteer programs can provide various organizational supports to older volunteers, especially to low-SES volunteers, in order to promote the socioemotional and health benefits of volunteering to older adults. Psychological well-being of older adults can be improved through engagement in meaningful volunteer activities and contribution to others.

  10. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Catherine R; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2013-11-01

    Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] ( Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Coping experience of health concerns and physical disability for older Chinese people: A qualitative, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, He; Turale, Sue

    2017-12-01

    In this qualitative, descriptive study, we explored the perspectives of older, community-dwelling Chinese people regarding their experiences of coping with a physical disability and their health concerns. Twenty participants were interviewed in-depth, and data were analyzed using content analysis. Five themes with 13 subthemes emerged that described older people's experiences of coping with health concerns and disability: (i) ignoring health concerns; (ii) managing self; (iii) seeking medical help; (iv) living with physical disability; and (v) relying on limited resources. Most participants did not have sufficient access to health services due to physical disability and financial deficits, so they tended to ignore their health conditions or tackle them independently before seeking medical help. At the same time, they were impacted on by social and cultural factors. Policies are required that offer more resources to community-dwelling people with disabilities in China. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients: comparing adults and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Seixas Bello Moreira, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category Methods: Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Bo...

  13. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanjani F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faika Zanjani,1,2 Aasha I Hoogland,1 Brian G Downer11Department of Gerontology, 2Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USABackground: The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults' knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists' willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults.Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults.Results: Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention.Conclusion: In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions

  14. Delphi Study to Determine Rehabilitation Research Priorities for Older Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Radomski, Mary Vining; Alfano, Catherine M; Finkelstein, Marsha; Sleight, Alix G; Marshall, Timothy F; McKenna, Raymond; Fu, Jack B

    2017-05-01

    To solicit expert opinions and develop consensus around the research that is needed to improve cancer rehabilitation for older adults. Delphi methods provided a structured process to elicit and prioritize research questions from national experts. National, Web-based survey. Members (N=32) of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine completed at least 1 of 3 investigator-developed surveys. Not applicable. In the first survey, participants identified up to 5 research questions that needed to be answered to improve cancer rehabilitation for older adults. In 2 subsequent surveys, participants viewed the compilation of questions, rated the importance of each question, and identified the 5 most important questions. This generated priority scores for each question. Consensus scores were created to describe the degree of agreement around the priority of each question. Highest priority research concerns the epidemiology and measurement of function and disability in older adult cancer survivors; the effects of cancer rehabilitation interventions on falls, disability, participation, survival, costs, quality of care, and health care utilization; and testing models of care that facilitate referrals from oncology to rehabilitation providers as part of coordinated, multicomponent care. A multipronged approach is needed to fill these gaps, including targeted funding opportunities developed with an advisory panel of cancer rehabilitation experts, development of a research network to facilitate novel collaborations and grant proposals, and coordinated efforts of clinical groups to advocate for funding, practice change, and policy change. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2015-10-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  16. [Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: a nationwide survery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-rousan, Tala M; Rubenstein, Linda M; Wallace, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    We sought to determine natural disaster preparedness levels among older US adults and assess factors that may adversely affect health and safety during such incidents. We sampled adults aged 50 years or older (n = 1 304) from the 2010 interview survey of the Health and Retirement Study. The survey gathered data on general demographic characteristics, disability status or functional limitations, and preparedness-related factors and behaviors. We calculated a general disaster preparedness score by using individual indicators to assess overall preparedness. Participant (n = 1 304) mean age was 70 years (SD = 9.3). Only 34.3% reported participating in an educational program or reading materials about disaster preparation. Nearly 15% reported using electrically powered medical devices that might be at risk in a power outage. The preparedness score indicated that increasing age, physical disability, and lower educational attainment and income were independently and significantly associated with worse overall preparedness. Despite both greater vulnerability to disasters and continuous growth in the number of older US adults, many of the substantial problems discovered are remediable and require attention in the clinical, public health, and emergency management sectors of society.

  17. Assessing and Meeting the Needs of LGBT Older Adults via the Older Americans Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael; Tax, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    SAGE and its partners have been focused on bridging the chasm between the greater need that LGBT older adults have for care, services, and supports, and the lower rate at which they access them, compared with their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. The chasm is caused by discrimination, social isolation, disproportionate poverty and health disparities, and a lack of access to culturally competent providers. SAGE has used federal administrative and legislative advocacy to encourage the Aging Network to bridge this chasm by assessing and meeting the needs of LGBT older adults that can be addressed via the programs created under the Older Americans Act.

  18. Effect of an AIDS education program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, M A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an age-specific AIDS education program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, perceived susceptibility to AIDS, and perceived severity of AIDS in older adults. The health belief model served as a framework. The age-specific AIDS education program was developed based on a knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors survey of 458 older adults at senior citizen centers. The program included case study presentations of actual older people with AIDS along with an emphasis on myths identified in the initial survey. There was a significant increase in total knowledge about AIDS (p < .001), perceived susceptibility (p < .01), and perceived severity (p < .001) after the educational program. Based on the results of this study, nurses are in an excellent position to provide primary and secondary AIDS prevention strategies for all age groups, including the older adult population.

  19. Diabetes Self-Care and the Older Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A.; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues which impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients’ self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  20. Do older adults perceive postural constraints for reach estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Alberto; Gabbard, Carl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Recent evidence indicates that older persons have difficulty mentally representing intended movements. Furthermore, in an estimation of reach paradigm using motor imagery, a form of mental representation, older persons significantly overestimated their ability compared with young adults. The authors tested the notion that older adults may also have difficulty perceiving the postural constraints associated with reach estimation. The authors compared young (Mage = 22 years) and older (Mage = 67) adults on reach estimation while seated and in a more postural demanding standing and leaning forward position. The expectation was a significant postural effect with the standing condition, as evidenced by reduced overestimation. Whereas there was no difference between groups in the seated condition (both overestimated), older adults underestimated whereas the younger group once again overestimated in the standing condition. From one perspective, these results show that older adults do perceive postural constraints in light of their own physical capabilities. That is, that group perceived greater postural demands with the standing posture and elected to program a more conservative strategy, resulting in underestimation.

  1. Acquired Inhibitors: A Special Case of Bleeding in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Stefanacci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This literature review is intended to familiarize physicians and healthcare providers of older adults with the potential causes of acute bleeding in older adults and to review diagnostic approaches that can produce prompt identification of acute bleeding and facilitate timely treatment. Adverse events from anticoagulant treatment and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID and aspirin use and abuse are among the most common causes of bleeding in older adults. Diagnoses infrequently considered—mild congenital hemophilia, acquired hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and platelet dysfunction—can contribute to acute bleeding in older adults. The approach to management of bleeding varies. Management of acute bleeding in older adults can be challenging because these patients often have chronic comorbidity and have been prescribed long-term concomitant medications that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Prompt recognition of acquired hemophilia, referral to an expert hematologist, and timely initiation of treatment could improve outcome in older patients who experience bleeding episodes resulting from this condition.

  2. Understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and understand health information and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Nam

    2017-10-16

    Twenty-five years after the Americans with Disabilities Act, there has still been a lack of advancement of accessibility in healthcare for people with visual impairments, particularly older adults with low vision. This study aims to advance understanding of how older adults with low vision obtain, process, and use health information and services, and to seek opportunities of information technology to support them. A convenience sample of 10 older adults with low vision participated in semi-structured phone interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for analysis. Participants shared various concerns in accessing, understanding, and using health information, care services, and multimedia technologies. Two main themes and nine subthemes emerged from the analysis. Due to the concerns, older adults with low vision tended to fail to obtain the full range of all health information and services to meet their specific needs. Those with low vision still rely on residual vision such that multimedia-based information which can be useful, but it should still be designed to ensure its accessibility, usability, and understandability.

  3. Mathematics and metacognition in adolescents and adults with learning disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Desoete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A majority of studies on learning disabilities have focused on elementary grades. Although problems with learning disabilities are life-affecting only a few studies focus on deficits in adults. In this study adults with isolated mathematical disabilities (n=101 and adults with combined mathematical and reading disabilities (n=130 solved tests on procedural calculation and number knowledge, numerical facility and visuospatial skills. Metacognitive skilfulness was assessed through calibration measures, a questionnaire, stimulated recall, and thematic analyses after a qualitative interactive interview with a flexible agenda to discover the interviewee’s own framework of meanings and to avoid imposing the researcher’s structures and assumptions. In our dataset the isolated group (MD did worse than the comorbid group (M+RD on mental representation, dealing with contextual information and number knowledge. However the comorbid group did worse on the number sense tasks. No significant differences were found between the MD and M+RD adults for fact retrieval, procedural calculation and visuo spatial tasks. In addition adults with MD overestimated their mathematics results, whereas individuals with M+RD underestimated their results in the calibration task. Moreover, adults with M+RD thought that they were worse on the evaluation of the own results, the evaluation of the own capacities and on monitoring when things went wrong compared with adults in the M+RD group. Thematic analyses revealed that many adults had problems with planning and keeping track of steps and that supporting surroundings were important protective factors towards the chances of success. Consequences for the assessment of metacognition in adults and for the support of adults with mathematical disabilities are discussed.

  4. Choosing between staying at home or moving: A systematic review of factors influencing housing decisions among frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Noémie; Dubé, Roxanne; Després, Carole; Freitas, Adriana; Légaré, France

    2018-01-01

    Most older adults wish to stay at home during their late life years, but physical disabilities and cognitive impairment may force them to face a housing decision. However, they lack relevant information to make informed value-based housing decisions. Consequently, we sought to identify the sets of factors influencing the housing decision-making of older adults. We performed a systematic literature search for studies evaluating any factors influencing the housing decisions among older adults over 65 years old without cognitive disabilities. Primary research from any study design reported after 1990 in a peer-reviewed journal, a book chapter or an evaluated doctoral thesis and written in English, French or Spanish were eligible. We extracted the main study characteristics, the participant characteristics and any factors reported as associated with the housing decision. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis from the perspective of the meaning and experience of home. The search resulted in 660 titles (after duplicate removal) from which 86 studies were kept for analysis. One study out of five reported exclusively on frail older adults (n = 17) and two on adults over 75 years old. Overall, a total of 88 factors were identified, of which 71 seem to have an influence on the housing decision-making of older adults, although the influence of 19 of them remains uncertain due to discrepancies between research methodologies. No conclusion was made regarding 12 additional factors due to lack of evidence. A wealth of factors were found to influence housing decisions among older adults. However, very few of them have been studied extensively. Our results highlight the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork to study the influence of a broader range of factors as a whole. These results will help older adults make the best possible housing decision based on their unique situation and values.

  5. Choosing between staying at home or moving: A systematic review of factors influencing housing decisions among frail older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Noémie; Dubé, Roxanne; Després, Carole; Freitas, Adriana

    2018-01-01

    Background Most older adults wish to stay at home during their late life years, but physical disabilities and cognitive impairment may force them to face a housing decision. However, they lack relevant information to make informed value-based housing decisions. Consequently, we sought to identify the sets of factors influencing the housing decision-making of older adults. Methods We performed a systematic literature search for studies evaluating any factors influencing the housing decisions among older adults over 65 years old without cognitive disabilities. Primary research from any study design reported after 1990 in a peer-reviewed journal, a book chapter or an evaluated doctoral thesis and written in English, French or Spanish were eligible. We extracted the main study characteristics, the participant characteristics and any factors reported as associated with the housing decision. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis from the perspective of the meaning and experience of home. Results The search resulted in 660 titles (after duplicate removal) from which 86 studies were kept for analysis. One study out of five reported exclusively on frail older adults (n = 17) and two on adults over 75 years old. Overall, a total of 88 factors were identified, of which 71 seem to have an influence on the housing decision-making of older adults, although the influence of 19 of them remains uncertain due to discrepancies between research methodologies. No conclusion was made regarding 12 additional factors due to lack of evidence. Conclusion A wealth of factors were found to influence housing decisions among older adults. However, very few of them have been studied extensively. Our results highlight the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork to study the influence of a broader range of factors as a whole. These results will help older adults make the best possible housing decision based on their unique situation and values. PMID:29293511

  6. Commentary: the forgotten older adult with serious mental illness: the final challenge in achieving the promise of Olmstead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Older adults with serious mental illness disproportionately reside in nursing homes despite the U.S. Supreme Court Olmstead decision supporting the rights of persons with disabilities to benefit from integrated services in the community. This commentary addresses the neglected policy debate on implementing Olmstead for this rapidly growing, older population with special needs. First, the author describes research findings on older adults with serious mental illness living in nursing homes who might more appropriately reside and receive services in the community. Second, the author summarizes the evidence base for effective psychosocial rehabilitation interventions and services facilitating independent living in community settings for this subgroup. Finally, he concludes with seven policy recommendations aimed at advancing the promise of the Olmstead decision with respect to older adults with serious mental illness.

  7. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  8. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  9. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  10. Semantic Priming During Sentence Processing by Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Deborah M.; Yee, Penny L.

    1984-01-01

    Compares the semantic processing skills of younger adults (mean age 25) and older adults (mean age 68). After reading a sentence, subjects performed a task in which responses did not depend on retention. Results provided no evidence for age-related changes, including those associated with access to implied information. (Author/RH)

  11. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Overweight and Obesity in Older People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health problems associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, which is not sufficiently studied in people with intellectual disability yet. The present study was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study. The aim of this study was to establish (1) the prevalence of overweight,…

  13. Older adults' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation toward physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie; Baltzell, Amy; Zaichkowsky, Len

    2008-01-01

    To examine how motives discriminate 3 physical activity levels of inactive, active, and sustained maintainers. Six hundred forty-five adults (M age = 63.8) completed stage-of-change and Exercise Motivations Inventory (EMI-2) scales. Exploratory factor analysis established psychometric properties of the EMI-2 suitable for older adults. Six factors emerged in the EMI-2: health and fitness, social/emotional benefits, weight management, stress management, enjoyment, and appearance. Enjoyment contributed most to differentiating activity levels. Moderators of age and gender were delineated. Intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation distinguish older adults' activity levels.

  14. Postural adaptations to repeated optic flow stimulation in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    O’Connor, Kathryn W.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the processes of adaptation (changes in within-trial postural responses) and habituation (reductions in between-trial postural responses) to visual cues in older and young adults. Of particular interest were responses to sudden increases in optic flow magnitude. The postural sway of 25 healthy young adults and 24 healthy older adults was measured while subjects viewed anterior-posterior 0.4 Hz sinusoidal optic flow for 45 s. Three trials for each of ...

  15. Asthma Morbidity, Comorbidities, and Modifiable Factors Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Chen, Jessica; Mirabelli, Maria C

    Asthma morbidity is increased among older adults, especially older adult women. Interventions to improve asthma control in this population are not well described. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (including modifiable factors) associated with asthma-related hospitalizations and emergency department or urgent care center visits (ED/UCV) among older adults. A secondary objective was to investigate sex differences in variables relevant to asthma control. Data were obtained from 14,076 older adults ≥65 years with active asthma participating in the 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Asthma Call-back Survey (a random-digit dialed survey) in 40 US states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, representative of >2.6 million persons. Weighted, adjusted logistic regression was conducted. One or more asthma-related hospitalizations in the past year were reported by 5.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 5.0% to 6.4%) of participants; 10.6% (95% CI = 9.7% to 11.5%) reported ≥1 asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with older adults without asthma-related hospitalizations, adjusted odds were higher among those with ≥1 asthma-related hospitalization for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), coronary artery disease, depression, cockroaches or mold in the home, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. All these factors, except for cockroaches, were associated with asthma-related ED/UCV. Compared with males, adjusted odds were higher among females for COPD, depression, obesity, and cost barriers to asthma-related health care or medication. Among older adults, asthma-related hospitalizations and ED/UCV were associated with clinical comorbidities, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Interventions addressing modifiable factors could reduce asthma morbidity among older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Reducing misinformation effects in older adults with cognitive interview mnemonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Robyn E; Humphries, Joyce E; Milne, Rebecca; Memon, Amina; Houlder, Lucy; Lyons, Amy; Bull, Ray

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of a prior Modified Cognitive Interview on young and older adults' recall of a short film of a staged crime and subsequent reporting of misinformation. Participants viewed the film followed the next day by misinformation presented in a postevent summary. They were then interviewed with either a Modified Cognitive Interview or a control interview followed by a recognition memory test. A Modified Cognitive Interview elicited more correct details and improved overall accuracy compared to a control interview in both age groups, although the young adults recollected three times more correct information in a Modified Cognitive Interview than the older adults. In both age groups, correct recollections of person and action details were higher in a Modified Cognitive Interview than a control interview. Importantly, older adults who were interviewed with a Modified Cognitive Interview were not susceptible to misinformation effects. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Relational integration, inhibition, and analogical reasoning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskontas, Indre V; Morrison, Robert G; Holyoak, Keith J; Hummel, John E; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2004-12-01

    The difficulty of reasoning tasks depends on their relational complexity, which increases with the number of relations that must be considered simultaneously to make an inference, and on the number of irrelevant items that must be inhibited. The authors examined the ability of younger and older adults to integrate multiple relations and inhibit irrelevant stimuli. Young adults performed well at all but the highest level of relational complexity, whereas older adults performed poorly even at a medium level of relational complexity, especially when irrelevant information was presented. Simulations based on a neurocomputational model of analogical reasoning, Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies (LISA), suggest that the observed decline in reasoning performance may be explained by a decline in attention and inhibitory functions in older adults. copyright (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Handgrip force steadiness in young and older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    ) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...... force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...

  19. Physical Activity and Adults with Disabilities PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the May 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Adults with disabilities who get no aerobic physical activity are 50 percent more likely to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer. Learn what you can do to help.  Created: 5/6/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/6/2014.

  20. Vital Signs-Physical Activity and Adults with Disabilities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-05-06

    This podcast is based on the May 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Adults with disabilities who get no aerobic physical activity are 50 percent more likely to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer. Learn what you can do to help.  Created: 5/6/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/6/2014.

  1. Malnutrition in older adults - urgent need for action: a plea for improving the nutritional situation of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    During the past decades, malnutrition has attracted increasing scientific attention and is by now regarded as a true geriatric syndrome characterized by multifactorial causality, identified by symptoms and accompanied by frailty, disability and poor outcome. This viewpoint summarizes our present knowledge and the usual current handling of malnutrition in older people and highlights the urgent need for action in this field. Age-related changes in the complex system of appetite regulation, resulting in the so-called anorexia of aging, predispose older adults to a decrease in food intake which may lead to malnutrition, if additional risk factors like health or social problems occur. Consequently, malnutrition is widespread in the older population, notably in those who are institutionalized. Despite the fact that effective interventions are available, prevention and treatment of malnutrition do not currently receive appropriate attention. As an important first step towards better awareness, screening for malnutrition should become a mandatory integral part of the comprehensive geriatric assessment. Furthermore, practical local guidelines should be implemented in all geriatric hospital wards and nursing homes in order to improve nutritional care in the daily routine. Important to note is that reasonable nutritional management is not possible without qualified staff in adequate numbers allowing appropriate individual nutritional care. Regarding future research, studies at the cellular, metabolic and clinical levels and the linking of information from different research approaches are required to better understand the transition from good nutritional health and independence of old people to malnutrition, functional impairment and poor health. In parallel to well-designed observational and intervention studies, standardized documentation of nutritional information in daily routine would enable the uniform collection of data for research as well as for political decisions

  2. Creating grander families: older adults adopting younger kin and nonkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterlong, James; Ryan, Scott

    2008-08-01

    There is a dearth of research on older adoptive parents caring for minor children, despite a growing number of such adoptions finalized each year. This study offers a large-scale investigation of adoptive families headed by older parents. We describe these families and explore how preadoptive kinship between the adoptive parent and the child impacts adoption outcomes. We analyze data from kin (n = 98) and nonkin (n = 310) adoptive families headed by adults aged 60 years and older. We find that older kin adoptive families are smaller, report lower income, and include adoptive mothers with less formal education. Children in these families had less severe needs for special care at the time of placement. Although kin and nonkin older parents offer similar assessments of their parent-child relationships, kin adopters indicate a greater willingness to adopt the same child again and yet report less positive current family functioning. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that preadoptive kinship predicts more negative parental assessment of the adoption's impact on the family and less positive family functioning net of other parent, family, and child characteristics. Externalizing behavior by the child (e.g., delinquency or aggression) is the strongest predictor of deleterious outcomes for both groups. Kin adoption by older adults creates new families under strain but does not reduce parental commitment to the child. We conclude that older adults serve as effective adoptive parents but would benefit from preadoption and postadoption services to assist them in preparing for and positively addressing the challenging behaviors exhibited by adopted children.

  3. Buffer or amplifier? Longitudinal effects of social support for functional autonomy/dependence on older adults' chronic pain experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet; Beyers, Wim

    2017-12-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate (a) the moderating role of formal social support for functional autonomy versus dependence on the relationship between pain intensity and pain-related disability among older adults with chronic pain and (b) the mediating role of pain-related self-efficacy and pain-related fear in this moderation. One hundred and seventy older adults (Mage = 78.0; SD = 8.7) with chronic musculoskeletal pain participated in a 3-month prospective study, with 3 measurement moments. Participants filled out the Formal Social Support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the Portuguese versions of the Brief Pain Inventory, the Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Using structural equation modeling, it was found that perceived promotion of autonomy, at Time 1, moderated the relationship between pain intensity (T1) and pain-related disability (T2); this moderation was fully mediated by pain-related self-efficacy (T2). Perceived promotion of dependence was not a significant moderator. These findings highlight the importance of social support for functional autonomy in buffering the impact of pain intensity on older adults' pain-related disability. Also, they clarify the role of pain-related self-efficacy in this effect. Implications for the development of intervention programs, with formal caregivers, to reduce the impact of chronic pain on older adults' healthy ageing process, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A concept analysis of dignity for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacelon, Cynthia S; Connelly, Thomas W; Brown, Rana; Proulx, Kathy; Vo, Thuy

    2004-10-01

    Human dignity is an essential value of professional nursing education as well as a component of the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics. Nurses are exhorted to treat patients with dignity, and older adults want to be treated with dignity and die with dignity. Although dignity, particularly the dignity of older adults, is often discussed in the health care literature, its meaning is not always clear. The aim of this paper is to describe a concept analysis to develop a definition of dignity in older adults. Data were collected using a literature review and five focus groups composed of older adults. The literature provided data about professionals' ideas of dignity and the focus groups provided qualitative data about the nature of dignity in older people. The literature review and focus groups were carried out concurrently, followed by synthesis of the findings. Dignity is an inherent characteristic of being human, it can be subjectively felt as an attribute of the self, and is made manifest through behaviour that demonstrates respect for self and others. Dignity must be learned, and an individual's dignity is affected by the treatment received from others. A behavioural definition of dignity was constructed and this could provide the theoretical basis for nurses to develop interventions that foster dignity for older people.

  5. Older Adults Do Not Notice Their Names: A New Twist to a Classic Attention Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…

  6. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  7. Validity of the International Fitness Scale "IFIS" in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; García-Rubio, Javier; Gusi, Narcís; Olivares, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    To validate the "International Fitness Scale" (IFIS) in older adults. Firstly, cognitive interviews were performed to ensure that the questionnaire was comprehensive for older Chilean adults. After that, a transversal study of 401 institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults from Maule region in Chile was conducted. A battery of validated fitness tests for this population was used in order to compare the responses obtained in the IFIS with the objectively measured fitness performance (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip, 30-s chair stand, timed up-and-go and 6-min walking). Indicated that IFIS presented a high compliance in the comprehension of the items which defined it, and it was able of categorizing older adults according to their measured physical fitness levels. The analysis of covariance ANCOVA adjusted by sex and age showed a concordance between IFIS and the score in physical fitness tests. Based on the results of this study, IFIS questionnaire is a good alternative to assess physical fitness in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing control of postural stability in community-living older adults using performance-based limits of stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jbabdi, Myriam; Boissy, Patrice; Hamel, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Balance disability measurements routinely used to identify fall risks in frail populations have limited value in the early detection of postural stability deficits in community-living older adults. The objectives of the study were to 1) measure performance-based limits of stability (LOS......-session performance variability during multiple trials using the performance-based LOS paradigm. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy community-living older adults (10 men, 14 women) aged between 62 to 85 (mean age +/- sd, 71.5 +/- 6 yrs) participated in the study. Subjects' performance-based LOS were established by asking...

  9. OLDER ADULTS: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...

  10. Self-Management Group Exercise Extends Healthy Life Expectancy in Frail Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Minoru; Arai, Hidenori

    2017-05-15

    Preventing frailty and its adverse health outcomes is crucial in countries with a large elderly population, such as Japan. Since the long-term care insurance (LTCI) system was launched, the number of certified older adults with LTCI service requirement has continued to increase. This is a serious problem, because the LTCI service requirement certification is equivalent to disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a self-management group intervention on new LTCI service requirement certifications in community-dwelling older adults in Japan. We analyzed the cohort data from a prospective study. In this study, we recruited community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and older who were independent in a city in Kyoto prefecture in 2012. The subjects in the participation group (n = 1620) attended 60-min group training sessions once or twice every two weeks from December 2012 to December 2016. The exercise sessions consisted of mild-intensity aerobic exercise, mild strength training, flexibility and balance exercises, and cool-down activities. These exercise classes were facilitated by well-trained volunteer staff. The outcome measure was the number of new LTCI requirement certifications during a four-year follow-up period. During the four-year follow-up period, 247 subjects (15.2%) in the participation group and 334 (20.6%) in the control group were newly certified for LTCI service requirements. The hazard ratio for new LTCI service requirements in the participation group compared with the control group was 0.73 (95% CI = 0.62-0.86) in the four-year follow-up period. These results indicate the usefulness of self-management group exercise to reduce the incidence of disability in older adults. Thus, increasing self-management group activities in each community should be encouraged.

  11. Dietary intake and nutritional status in cancer patients; comparing adults and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valiente da Silva, Henyse; Fonseca de Andrade, Camila; Bello Moreira, Annie Seixas

    2014-04-01

    Evaluate the nutrient intake and nutritional status of food in cancer patients admitted to a university hospital, with comparison of adult and older adult age category. Cross-sectional study. This study involved cancer patients admitted to a hospital in 2010. Dietary habits were collected using a Brazilian food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided in two groups: adults or older adults and in 4-cancer category: hematologic, lung, gastrointestinal and others. Body Mass Index evaluated nutritional status. A total of 86 patients with a mean age of 56.5 years, with 55% males and 42% older adults were evaluated. The older adult category had a higher frequency of being underweight (24.4% vs 16.3%, p cancer, nor with nutritional status. The food intake, macro and micronutrients ingestion is insufficient among cancer individuals. Food intake of older adults was inferior, when compared to the adult category. There was a high prevalence of BMI excess in the adult group and a worst nutritional status in the older adult category. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring waist circumference in disabled adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, Aly; Ligthart, K A M; Kramer, J; Hoeve, S; van der Schans, Cees; Haisma, Hinke

    2010-01-01

    To date, it is unknown whether waist circumference can be measured validly and reliably when a subject is in a supine position. This issue is relevant when international standards for healthy participants are applied to persons with severe intellectual, sensory, and motor disabilities. Thus, the

  13. Stair negotiation time in community-dwelling older adults: normative values and association with functional decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Wang, Cuiling; Verghese, Joe

    2011-12-01

    To establish reference values for stair ascent and descent times in community-dwelling, ambulatory older adults, and to examine their predictive validity for functional decline. Longitudinal cohort study. Mean follow-up time was 1.8 years (maximum, 3.2y; total, 857.9 person-years). Community sample. Adults 70 years and older (N=513; mean age, 80.8 ± 5.1y) without disability or dementia. Not applicable. Time to ascend and descend 3 steps measured at baseline. A 14-point disability scale assessed functional status at baseline and at follow-up interviews every 2 to 3 months. Functional decline was defined as an increase in the disability score by 1 point during the follow-up period. The mean±SD stair ascent and descent times for 3 steps were 2.78 ± 1.49 and 2.83 ± 1.61 seconds, respectively. The proportion of self-reported and objective difficulty was higher with longer stair ascent and descent times (PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity during hospitalization: Activities and preferences of adults versus older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesters, Jorit; Conijn, D; Vermeulen, H M; Vliet Vlieland, Tpm

    2018-04-16

    Inactivity during hospitalization leads to a functional decline and an increased risk of complications. To date, studies focused on older adults. This study aims to compare the physical activities performed by older adult and adult hospitalized patients. Patients hospitalized for >3 days at a university hospital completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activities (% of days on which an activity was performed divided by the length of stay) and physical activity needs during hospitalization. Crude and adjusted comparisons of older adult (>60 years) and adult (≤60 years) patients were performed using parametric testing and regression analyses. Of 524 patients, 336 (64%) completed the questionnaire, including 166 (49%) older adult patients. On average, the patients were physically active on 35% or less of the days during their hospitalization. Linear regression analysis showed no significant associations between being an older adult and performing physical activities after adjusting for gender, length of stay, surgical intervention, and meeting physical activity recommendations prior to hospitalization. Most patients were well informed regarding physical activity during hospitalization; however, the older adult patients reported a need for information regarding physical activities after hospitalization more frequently (odds ratios, 2.47) after adjusting for educational level, gender, and physical therapy during hospitalization. Both older adult and adult patients are physically inactive during hospitalization, and older adult patients express a greater need for additional information regarding physical activity after hospitalization than adult patients. Therefore, personalized strategies that inform and motivate patients to resume physical activities during hospitalization are needed regardless of age.

  16. Appetizing muffins designed for nutritional needs of older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Höglund, Evelina; Albinsson, Berit; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Wendin, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Due to good living conditions, the population of older adults is growing. Increased age increases prevalence of diseases and thereby also the risk of disease related malnutrition (DRM) increases. Appetizing and nutritious food products are needed to counteract DRM. One possible way to enable increased nutritional intake for older people with poor appetite is to offer energy/protein rich snacks between meals. In Sweden, afternoon coffee is an appreciated part of the day. It has a...

  17. The demography of disability and the effects of immigrant history: older Asians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jan E; Prakash, Archana; Burr, Jeffrey A

    2007-05-01

    Using data from the 2000 U.S. census, we compare the older Asian population with U.S.-born, non-Hispanic whites with respect to three indicators of disability. Insofar as any Asian "advantage" in health vis-a-vis whites exists among the population aged 65 and over, our evidence suggests that it occurs primarily among the U.S.-born segments of this population. We also investigate how differences in disability levels among Asian immigrant groups are influenced by country of birth and by the combined effects of duration of residence in the United States and life cycle stage at entry. These results highlight the diversity of the older Asian population with respect to the ways in which immigration and origin history are linked to disability outcomes. We conclude that in later life, immigrant status confers few disability advantages among the Asian population in the United States.

  18. Experience Corps: A dual trial to promote the health of older adults and children's academic success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Linda P.; Carlson, Michelle C.; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa; Xue, Qian-Li; Frick, Kevin; Tan, Erwin; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Barron, Jeremy; Frangakis, Constantine; Piferi, Rachel; Martinez, Iveris; Gruenewald, Tara; Martin, Barbara K.; Berry-Vaughn, Laprisha; Stewart, John; Dickersin, Kay; Willging, Paul R.; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background As the population ages, older adults are seeking meaningful, and impactful, post-retirement roles. As a society, improving the health of people throughout longer lives is a major public health goal. This paper presents the design and rationale for an effectiveness trial of Experience Corps™, an intervention created to address both these needs. This trial evaluates (1) whether senior volunteer roles within Experience Corps™ beneficially impact children's academic achievement and classroom behavior in public elementary schools and (2) impact on the health of volunteers. Methods Dual evaluations of (1) an intention-to-treat trial randomizing eligible adults 60 and older to volunteer service in Experience Corps™, or to a control arm of usual volunteering opportunities, and (2) a comparison of eligible public elementary schools receiving Experience Corps™ to matched, eligible control schools in a 1:1 control:intervention school ratio. Outcomes For older adults, the primary outcome is decreased disability in mobility and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Secondary outcomes are decreased frailty, falls, and memory loss; slowed loss of strength, balance, walking speed, cortical plasticity, and executive function; objective performance of IADLs; and increased social and psychological engagement. For children, primary outcomes are improved reading achievement and classroom behavior in Kindergarten through the 3rd grade; secondary outcomes are improvements in school climate, teacher morale and retention, and teacher perceptions of older adults. Summary This trial incorporates principles and practices of community-based participatory research and evaluates the dual benefit of a single intervention, versus usual opportunities, for two generations: older adults and children. PMID:23680986

  19. Potential for intensive volunteering to promote the health of older adults in fair health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Jeremy S; Tan, Erwin J; Yu, Qilu; Song, Meilin; McGill, Sylvia; Fried, Linda P

    2009-07-01

    Volunteer service opportunities for older adults may soon be expanded. Although volunteering is thought to provide health benefits for healthier older adults, it is not known whether older adults in less than very good health are suitable candidates for high-intensity volunteering and can derive health benefits. This manuscript presents a prospective analysis of 174 older adult volunteers serving in Experience Corps Baltimore, a high-intensity senior volunteer program in Baltimore, Maryland. Volunteers served > or =15 h per week, for a full school year, in elementary schools helping children with reading and other skills between 1999 and 2002. Volunteers were assessed with standardized questionnaires and performance-based testing including grip strength, walking speed, chair stand speed, and stair-climbing speed prior to school volunteering and at the end of the school year. Results were stratified by health status. Among 174 volunteers, 55% initially reported "good" and 12% "fair" or "poor" health status. At baseline, those in fair health reported higher frequencies of disease and disability than volunteers in excellent or very good health. After volunteering, a majority of volunteers in every baseline health status category described increased strength and energy. Those in fair health were significantly more likely to display improved stair-climbing speed than those in good or excellent/very good health (100.0% vs. 53.4% vs. 37.5%, p = 0.05), and many showed clinically significant increases in walking speed of >0.5 m/s. Satisfaction and retention rates were high for all health status groups. Clinicians should consider whether their patients in fair or good health, as well as those in better health, might benefit from high-intensity volunteer programs. Productive activity such as volunteering may be an effective community-based approach to health promotion for older adults.

  20. Smart homes and home health monitoring technologies for older adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Stroulia, Eleni; Nikolaidis, Ioanis; Miguel-Cruz, Antonio; Rios Rincon, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    Around the world, populations are aging and there is a growing concern about ways that older adults can maintain their health and well-being while living in their homes. The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review to determine: (1) the levels of technology readiness among older adults and, (2) evidence for smart homes and home-based health-monitoring technologies that support aging in place for older adults who have complex needs. We identified and analyzed 48 of 1863 relevant papers. Our analyses found that: (1) technology-readiness level for smart homes and home health monitoring technologies is low; (2) the highest level of evidence is 1b (i.e., one randomized controlled trial with a PEDro score ≥6); smart homes and home health monitoring technologies are used to monitor activities of daily living, cognitive decline and mental health, and heart conditions in older adults with complex needs; (3) there is no evidence that smart homes and home health monitoring technologies help address disability prediction and health-related quality of life, or fall prevention; and (4) there is conflicting evidence that smart homes and home health monitoring technologies help address chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The level of technology readiness for smart homes and home health monitoring technologies is still low. The highest level of evidence found was in a study that supported home health technologies for use in monitoring activities of daily living, cognitive decline, mental health, and heart conditions in older adults with complex needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita M. Hogan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs, and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods: Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results: 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score. Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY levels. Conclusion: EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:511–517.

  2. Hearing aid user guides: suitability for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caposecco, Andrea; Hickson, Louise; Meyer, Carly

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the content, design, and readability of printed hearing aid user guides to determine their suitability for older adults, who are the main users of hearing aids. Hearing aid user guides were assessed using four readability formulae and a standardized tool to assess content and design (SAM - Suitability Assessment of Materials). A sample of 36 hearing aid user guides (four user guides from nine different hearing aid manufacturers) were analysed. Sixty nine percent of user guides were rated 'not suitable' and 31% were rated 'adequate' for their suitability. Many scored poorly for scope, vocabulary, aspects of layout and typography, and learning stimulation and motivation. The mean reading grade level for all user guides was grade 9.6 which is too high for older adults. The content, design, and readability of hearing aid user guides are not optimal for older adults and thus may serve as a barrier to successful hearing aid outcomes for this population.

  3. Gender differences in performance of script analysis by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmes, E; Bush, J D; Pike, D L; Drake, D G

    2006-12-01

    Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical scripts. Results were not significant but a tendency was present, with genders making fewer impossible errors on the gender-typical script. Such an interaction was also noted in Study 2, which contrasted 50 older with 50 younger adults on three scripts, including a script with neutral familiarity. The pattern of significant interactions for errors suggested the need to use scripts that are based upon tasks that are equally familiar to both genders.

  4. Daily Living Functioning, Social Engagement and Wellness of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zainab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe present study aim to investigate the contributing role of daily living functioning and social engagement in enhancing wellness and various dimensions of wellness in older adults.MethodA correlational research was designed. Socio-demographic data was collected. Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Perceived Wellness Survey were administered on a sample of 112 participants, including 56 men and 56 women.ResultsA correlation analysis found positive correlations between daily living functioning, social engagement and wellness of older adults. The results of regression analysis concluded that both the daily living functioning and social engagement predicted wellness and domains of wellness as well.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that older adults who are self-reliant lead a more satisfied life in old age and demonstrate to be more adjusted to the effects of aging.

  5. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2018-04-01

    To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch older people (>65 years) diagnosed in this study with ADHD participated in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed according to techniques of thematic approach. Seven themes emerged from the analyses. Four themes correspond to ADHD symptoms: "being active," "being impulsive," "attention problems," and "mental restlessness." In addition, the themes "low self-esteem," "overstepping boundaries," and "feeling misunderstood" emerged. The impact of ADHD symptoms seems to have declined with age. ADHD has a negative impact on late life, and older adults with the disorder may benefit from treatment. Moreover, this study's findings call for early detection and treatment of ADHD in children and adults.

  6. Altered characteristics of balance control in obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Itshak; Oddsson, Lars I E

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most significant epidemiological trends of the last decades. Recently it was found that obese individuals show postural instability. Balance control mechanisms in obese older adults were less studied. Therefore we aimed to investigate the effect of obesity on balance control mechanisms in older adults. Parameters from Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis (SDA) and measures from summary statistics of foot centre-of-pressure (COP) displacements along the anterior-posterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions in eyes open and eyes closed conditions were used to characterize postural control in 22 obese (30-postural control process in obese older adults. A greater sway displacement before closed-loop feedback mechanisms are called into play was seen in the ML direction that may lead to a higher risk of instability and fall events. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

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    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  8. An integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie

    2010-12-01

    Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  10. Non-Digital Game Playing by Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, W Ben; Sixsmith, Andrew; Kaufman, David

    2017-09-01

    Research on video games' effect on cognition and behaviour has been extensive, yet little research has explored non-digital forms of game playing, especially among older adults. As part of a larger survey on game playing, 886 respondents (≥ age 55) filled out questionnaires about non-digital game play. The study aims were to determine perceived benefits of non-digital game play and to determine socio-demographic factors that might predict perceived benefits. Survey results indicate that non-digital game playing is social in nature and common (73% of respondents) among older adults. Older adults play for fun, but also to help maintain their cognition. Regression analyses indicated various socio-demographic factors - age, education, gender, and race - were independently associated with perceived benefits from game playing. The results thus emphasize the importance of non-digital game playing in this population and suggest that efforts to facilitate game playing may improve social interactions and quality of life.

  11. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Wehrens, R.; Oldenhof, L.; Bal, R.; Francke, A.L.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide improvement program

  13. Perspectives of nursing professionals and older adults differ on aspects of care for older people after a nationwide improvement program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M. (Lisanne Marlieke); R.L.E. Wehrens (Rik); L.E. Oldenhof (Lieke); R.A. Bal (Roland); Francke, A.L. (Anneke)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide

  14. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel, Jody A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC in the United States (U.S..Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS. Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years and younger (18-64 years MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults.Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.3 visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0-18.8 visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46-9.36. Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86, have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77-3.14, or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42-2.23 as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8-19.2 of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8-7.5 of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71-4.43, and admission to the ICU if

  15. Living arrangements and suicidal ideation among the Korean older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibum; Lee, Yun-Suk; Lee, Jinkook

    2016-12-01

    This study examines how living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for older adults in South Korea, which has the highest suicide rate among OECD countries, and a particularly high suicide rate for older persons. Analyzing a sample of 5795 women and 3758 men aged 65 and older from a nationwide representative cross-sectional data-set, we examined how many older adults think about suicide over a one-year period, why they think about suicide, and whether living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation. About 1 out of 12 respondents in our sample reported suicidal ideation. While women and men did not differ in the prevalence of suicidal ideation, women attributed their suicidal feelings to health problems, while men attributed theirs to economic difficulties. Logistic regression results indicated that living arrangements are associated with suicidal ideation for men but not women. Older men living with a spouse were less likely to have suicidal ideation than older men with other living arrangements (i.e., living alone, living with children without spouse, living with spouse, and others). Our results highlight the importance of living arrangements to older men's suicidal ideation. We discuss gender differences in the implications of living arrangements to suicidal ideation within the context of Confucian culture.

  16. Treatment decisions for older adults with advanced chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosansky, Steven J; Schell, Jane; Shega, Joseph; Scherer, Jennifer; Jacobs, Laurie; Couchoud, Cecile; Crews, Deidra; McNabney, Matthew

    2017-06-19

    Dialysis initiation rates among older adults, aged 75 years or greater, are increasing at a faster rate than for younger age groups. Older adults with advanced CKD (eGFR start dialysis, initiate treatment "early", at an estimated glomerulofiltration rate (eGFR) >10 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and many initiate dialysis in hospital, often in association with an episode of acute renal failure. In the US older adults start dialysis at a mean e GFR of 12.6 ml/min/1.73 m 2 and 20.6% die within six months of dialysis initiation. In both the acute in hospital and outpatient settings, many older adults appear to be initiating dialysis for non-specific, non-life threatening symptoms and clinical contexts. Observational data suggests that dialysis does not provide a survival benefit for older adults with poor mobility and high levels of comorbidity. To optimize the care of this population, early and repeat shared decision making conversations by health care providers, patients, and their families should consider the risks, burdens, and benefits of dialysis versus conservative management, as well as the patient specific symptoms and clinical situations that could justify dialysis initiation. The potential advantages and disadvantages of dialysis therapy should be considered in conjunction with each patient's unique goals and priorities.In conclusion, when considering the morbidity and quality of life impact associated with dialysis, many older adults may prefer to delay dialysis until there is a definitive indication or may opt for conservative management without dialysis. This approach can incorporate all CKD treatments other than dialysis, provide psychosocial and spiritual support and active symptom management and may also incorporate a palliative care approach with less medical monitoring of lab parameters and more focus on the use of drug therapies directed to relief of a patient's symptoms.

  17. Hospitalization and aesthetic health in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Hilary; Donnellan, Claire; O'Neill, Desmond

    2015-02-01

    To assess the impact of hospitalization on arts engagement among older people; and to assess perceptions of whether hospitals are aesthetically deprived environments. A Survey of Aesthetic and Cultural Health was developed to explore the role of aesthetics before, during and after hospital. Study participants were n = 150 hospital in-patients aged >65. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Attendance at arts events was an important part of life for this sample and a large drop off was noted in continuation of these activities in the year post-hospital stay. Physical health issues were the main causes but also loss of confidence and transport issues. Film, dance, and music were the most popular arts for this sample prior to hospital stay. Noise pollution caused by other patients, lack of control over TV/radio, and access to receptive arts in hospital (reading and listening to music) were important issues for patients in hospital. This study identifies a trend for decreasing exposure to arts beginning with a hospital stay and concludes that older people may need encouragement to resume engagement in arts following a hospital stay. There is relatively limited evidence regarding the nature of, and potential benefit from, aesthetics in healthcare and limited studies with rigorous methodology, and further research is needed to understand the aesthetic preferences of older people in hospital. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15%). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42%), while few women shared this opinion (20%). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts.

  19. Physiological and psychological effects of gardening activity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ahmad; Qibing, Chen; Tao, Jiang

    2018-04-06

    Gardening has long been one of most enjoyable pastimes among older adults. Whether gardening activities contribute to the well-being of older adults is a major question. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the psychophysiological relaxing effects of gardening activities on older adults living in modern institutional care. The study participants were 40 older women aged 79.5 ± 8.09 years (mean ± SD). A cross-over study design was used to investigate the physiological and psychological responses to environments with and without plants. Physiological evaluation was carried out using blood pressure and electroencephalography, and psychological evaluation was carried out using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Semantic Differential method. Blood pressure was significantly lower, and changes in brainwaves were observed. Psychological responses showed that participants were more "comfortable and relaxed" after the plant task than after the control task. In addition, total anxiety levels were significantly lower after carrying out the plant task than after the control task. Our research suggests that gardening activities might enhance physiological and psychological relaxation in older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Staffs' documentation of participation for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talman, Lena; Gustafsson, Christine; Stier, Jonas; Wilder, Jenny

    2017-06-21

    This study investigated what areas of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health were documented in implementation plans for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities with focus on participation. A document analysis of 17 implementation plans was performed and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as an analytic tool. One hundred and sixty-three different codes were identified, especially in the components Activities and participation and Environmental factors. Participation was most frequently coded in the chapters Community, social and civic life and Self-care. Overall, the results showed that focus in the implementation plans concerned Self-care and Community, social and civic life. The other life areas in Activities and participation were seldom, or not at all, documented. A deeper focus on participation in the implementation plans and all life areas in the component Activities and participation is needed. It is important that the documentation clearly shows what the adult wants, wishes, and likes in everyday life. It is also important to ensure that the job description for staff contains both life areas and individual preferences so that staff have the possibility to work to fulfill social and individual participation for the target group. Implications for rehabilitation There is a need for functioning working models to increase participation significantly for adults with profound intellectual disability or profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. For these adults, participation is achieved through the assistance of others and support and services carried out must be documented in an implementation plan. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health can be used to support staff and ensure that information about the most important factors in an individual's functioning in their environment is not omitted in